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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

   QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Quarterly Period Ended: March 31, 2024

   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

Commission File Number: 001-38302

NRX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

    

82-2844431

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

1201 Orange Street, Suite 600

Wilmington, DE 19801

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

(484) 254-6134

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class:

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered:

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

NRXP

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Warrants to purchase Common Stock

NRXPW

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No 

As of May 14, 2024, the registrant had 10,700,609 shares of Common Stock outstanding.

 

Page

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2024 (Unaudited) and December 31, 2023

3

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023

4

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders' Deficit for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023

5

Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023

6

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

7

ITEM 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

30

ITEM 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

44

ITEM 4.

Controls and Procedures

44

 

 

 

ITEM 1.

Legal Proceedings

45

ITEM 1A.

Risk Factors

45

ITEM 2.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

45

ITEM 3.

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

45

ITEM 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

45

ITEM 5.

Other Information

45

ITEM 6.

Exhibits

45

SIGNATURES

47

2

PART I FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1. Financial Statements

NRX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

    

March 31,

December 31,

2024

2023

(Unaudited)

ASSETS

 

  

 

  

Current assets:

 

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

$

1,319

$

4,595

Prepaid expense and other current assets

 

2,028

 

2,289

Total current assets

 

3,347

 

6,884

Other assets

 

441

 

431

Total assets

$

3,788

$

7,315

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT

 

  

 

  

Current liabilities:

 

  

 

  

Accounts payable

$

6,265

$

4,632

Accrued and other current liabilities

 

5,296

 

4,714

Accrued clinical site costs

 

491

 

524

Convertible note payable and accrued interest

6,779

9,161

Warrant liabilities

26

17

Total liabilities

$

18,857

$

19,048

Commitments and Contingencies (Note 8)

Stockholders’ deficit:

 

  

 

  

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 50,000,000 shares authorized;

$

$

Series A convertible preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 12,000,000 shares authorized; 0 and 3,000,000 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively

3

Common stock, $0.001 par value, 500,000,000 shares authorized; 9,772,672 and 8,391,940 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively

 

10

 

8

Additional paid-in capital

 

244,599

 

241,406

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

(3)

 

(3)

Accumulated deficit

 

(259,675)

 

(253,147)

Total stockholders’ deficit

 

(15,069)

 

(11,733)

Total liabilities and stockholders' deficit

$

3,788

$

7,315

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

3

NRX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(Unaudited)

 

 

Three months ended March 31,

    

    

2024

    

2023

Operating expense:

 

  

 

  

Research and development

$

1,748

$

3,650

General and administrative

 

4,250

 

5,785

Total operating expenses

 

5,998

 

9,435

Loss from operations

 

(5,998)

 

(9,435)

Other (income) expense:

 

 

`

Interest income

 

(27)

 

(156)

Interest expense

 

230

 

Change in fair value of convertible note payable

318

1,772

Change in fair value of warrant liabilities

 

9

 

(12)

Total other expense

 

530

 

1,604

Net loss

$

(6,528)

$

(11,039)

Comprehensive (income) loss:

Change in fair value of convertible note attributed to credit risk

(106)

Other comprehensive income

(106)

Comprehensive loss

$

(6,528)

$

(10,933)

Net loss per share:

Basic and diluted

$

(0.74)

$

(1.66)

Weighted average common shares outstanding:

Basic and diluted

8,852,286

6,647,391

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

4

NRX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ (DEFICIT) EQUITY

(in thousands, except share data)

(Unaudited)

Additional

Accumulated Other

Total

Preferred Stock

Series A Preferred Stock

Common Stock

Paid-in-

Accumulated

Comprehensive

Stockholders’

Shares

Amount

Shares

Amount

Shares

Amount

Capital

Deficit

Loss

Deficit

Balance December 31, 2023

$

3,000,000

$

3

8,391,940

$

8

$

241,406

$

(253,147)

$

(3)

$

(11,733)

Stock-based compensation

242

242

Conversion of Series A preferred stock into common stock

(3,000,000)

(3)

300,000

3

At-the-market "ATM" offering, net of offering costs $48

34,584

179

179

Common stock and warrants issued, net of issuance costs $481

575,000

1

1,343

1,344

Common stock and warrants issued in private placement (270,000 common stock shares to be issued)

270,000

1,027

1,027

Warrants issued pursuant to the Alvogen Agreement amendment (see Note 6)

Vesting of restricted stock awards

57,500

Shares issued as repayment of principal and interest for convertible note

143,648

1

399

400

Net loss

(6,528)

(6,528)

Balance - March 31, 2024

$

$

9,772,672

$

10

$

244,599

$

(259,675)

$

(3)

$

(15,069)

Additional

Accumulated Other

Total

Preferred Stock

Series A Preferred Stock

Common Stock

Paid-in-

Accumulated

Comprehensive

Stockholders’

    

Shares

Amount

Shares

Amount

    

Shares

    

Amount

Capital

    

Deficit

Income

Equity (Deficit)

Balance - December 31, 2022

$

$

6,644,299

$

7

$

230,399

$

(222,997)

$

$

7,409

Common stock and warrants issued, net of issuance costs $351

386,667

2,545

2,545

Change in fair value of convertible note attributed to credit risk

106

106

Stock-based compensation

 

695

695

Net loss

 

(11,039)

(11,039)

Balance - March 31, 2023

$

$

7,030,966

$

7

$

233,639

$

(234,036)

$

106

$

(284)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

5

NRX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(in thousands)

(Unaudited)

Three months ended March 31,

    

2024

    

2023

CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:

 

  

 

  

Net loss

$

(6,528)

$

(11,039)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

 

Depreciation expense

 

1

 

1

Stock-based compensation

 

242

 

695

Change in fair value of warrant liabilities

9

(12)

Change in fair value of convertible promissory note

318

1,772

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

Prepaid expense and other assets

 

250

 

491

Accounts payable

 

2,091

 

1,698

Accrued expense and other liabilities

 

(54)

 

305

Net cash used in operating activities

(3,671)

(6,089)

CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES

Purchase of computer equipment

(4)

Net cash used in investing activities

(4)

CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES

 

Repayment of convertible note

(2,155)

Proceeds from issuance of common stock and warrants, net of issuance costs

1,523

Proceeds from issuance of common stock and warrants issued in private placement, net of issuance costs

1,027

2,545

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

395

2,545

Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents

 

(3,276)

(3,548)

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

 

4,595

20,054

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

$

1,319

$

16,506

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:

 

  

Cash paid for interest

$

374

$

Cash paid for taxes

$

$

Non-cash investing and financing activities

 

  

Issuance of common stock as principal and interest repayment for convertible notes

$

400

$

Issuance of common stock warrants as offering costs

$

84

$

Conversion of Series A preferred stock into common stock

$

3

$

Warrants issued pursuant to the Alvogen Agreement amendment

$

1,336

$

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

6

NRX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

March 31, 2024

(Unaudited)

1. Organization

The Business

NRx Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq: NRXP) (“NRX” or the “Company”) is a clinical-stage bio-pharmaceutical company which develops and will distribute, through its wholly-owned operating subsidiaries, NeuroRx, Inc., (“NeuroRx”) and HOPE Therapeutics, Inc. (“HOPE”, and collectively with NRX and NeuroRx, the “Company”, “we”, “us”, or “our”), novel therapeutics for the treatment of central nervous system disorders including suicidal depression, chronic pain, and post-traumatic stress disorder (“PTSD”) and now Schizophrenia. All of our drug development activities are focused on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (“NMDA”)  receptor in the brain and nervous system, a neurochemical pathway that has been disclosed in detail in our annual filings. NeuroRx is organized as a traditional research and development (“R&D”) company, whereas HOPE is organized as a specialty pharmaceutical company intended to distribute ketamine and other therapeutic options to clinics that serve patients with suicidal depression and PTSD.

Operations

The Company’s drug development activities have expanded from its original focus on development of NRX-101, a fixed dose combination of D-cycloserine (DCS) and lurasidone for the treatment of suicidal bipolar depression to encompass the development of NRX-101 for the treatment of Chronic Pain and PTSD and the development of intravenous ketamine (NRX-100/HTX-100) for the treatment of suicidal depression. The Company has just signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Fondation FundaMental in Paris to co-develop an NMDA-targeted disease modifying treatment for schizophrenia. These additional indications have been added as the Company has gained access to clinical trials data funded by governmental entities in France and potentially in the United States which has the potential to afford the Company potential safety and efficacy data on key indications at low cost to shareholders.

2. Going Concern

As of March 31, 2024, the Company had $1.3 million in cash and cash equivalents, excluding our access to working capital of $5.1 million from the Alvogen milestone advance, as well as approximately $2.0 million gross proceeds received in April as discussed in Note 14. Additionally, we reduced our corporate indebtedness to Streeterville LLC by $2.2 million by using our cash on hand. With the completion of enrollment in its clinical trial of NRX-101 for bipolar depression, the Company anticipates a reduction in its monthly cash expenditure. Since inception, the Company has experienced net losses and negative cash flows from operations each fiscal year and has a working capital deficit at March 31, 2024. The Company has no revenues and expects to continue to incur operating losses for the foreseeable future and may never become profitable. The Company’s ability to support its ongoing capital needs is dependent on its ability to continue to raise equity and/or debt financing, which may not be available on favorable terms, or at all, in order to continue operations.

The Company’s ongoing clinical activities continue to generate losses and net cash outflows from operations. The Company plans to pursue additional equity or debt financing or refinancing opportunities in 2024 to fund ongoing clinical activities, to meet obligations under its current debt arrangements and for the general corporate purposes of the Company. Such arrangements may take the form of loans, equity offerings, strategic agreements, licensing agreements, joint ventures or other agreements. The sale of equity could result in additional dilution to the Company’s existing shareholders. The Company cannot make any assurances that additional financing will be available to it and, if available, on acceptable terms, or that it will be able to refinance its existing debt obligations which could negatively impact the Company’s business and operations and could also lead to a reduction in the Company’s operations. The Company will continue to carefully monitor the impact of its continuing operations on the Company’s working capital needs and debt repayment obligations. As such, the Company has concluded that substantial doubt exists about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for a period of at least twelve months from the date of issuance of these condensed consolidated financial statements. The Company may raise substantial additional funds, and if it does so, it may do so through one or more of the following:

7

issuance of additional debt or equity and/or the completion of a licensing or other commercial transaction for one of the Company’s product candidates.

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities in the ordinary course of business. The condensed consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded asset amounts or the amounts and classification of liabilities that may be necessary if the Company is unable to continue as a going concern.

3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

On April 1, 2024, the Company effected a reverse stock split (the “Reverse Stock Split”) of the Company’s common stock, $0.001 par value (“Common Stock”), at a ratio of 1-for-10. All historical share amounts, with the exception of the Company’s Series A Preferred Stock, disclosed in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q have been retroactively adjusted to reflect the Reverse Stock Split. No fractional shares were issued as a result of the Reverse Stock Split, as fractional shares of Common Stock were rounded up to the nearest whole share. See Note 9. Equity for additional information.

Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation

The accompanying unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”) as determined by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for interim financial information. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, the unaudited interim condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair presentation of the consolidated balance sheet, statements of operations and cash flows for the interim periods presented. The results of operations for any interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the entire fiscal year or any other interim period.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in its consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. The most significant estimates in the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements relate to the fair value of the convertible note payable, fair value of stock options and warrants, and the utilization of deferred tax assets. These estimates and assumptions are based on current facts, historical experience and various other factors believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the recording of expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ materially and adversely from these estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and actual results, the Company’s future results of operations will be affected.

Certain Risks and Uncertainties

The Company’s activities are subject to significant risks and uncertainties including the risk of failure to secure additional funding to properly execute the Company’s business plan. The Company is subject to risks that are common to companies in the pharmaceutical industry, including, but not limited to, development by the Company or its competitors of new technological innovations, dependence on key personnel, reliance on third party manufacturers, protection of proprietary technology, and compliance with regulatory requirements.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

FASB ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements (“ASC 820”), provides guidance on the development and disclosure of fair value measurements. Under this accounting guidance, fair value is defined as an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the

8

measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or a liability.

The accounting guidance classifies fair value measurements in one of the following three categories for disclosure purposes:

Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

Level 2: Inputs other than Level 1 prices for similar assets or liabilities that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace.

Level 3: Unobservable inputs which are supported by little or no market activity and values determined using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies, or similar techniques, as well as instruments for which the determination of fair value requires significant judgment or estimation. (Refer to Note 11)

Concentration of Credit Risk and Off-Balance Sheet Risk

Financial instruments that potentially expose the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents. Cash equivalents are occasionally invested in certificates of deposit. The Company maintains each of its cash balances with high-quality and accredited financial institutions and accordingly, such funds are not exposed to unusual credit risk beyond the normal credit risk associated with commercial banking relationships. Deposits in financial institutions may, from time to time, exceed federally insured limits. As of March 31, 2024 the Company’s cash and cash equivalents balance within money market accounts was in excess of the U.S. federally insured limits by $0.8 million. The Company has not experienced any losses on its deposits of cash. The Company maintains a portion of its cash and cash equivalent balances in the form of a money market account with a financial institution that management believes to be creditworthy.  

Cash and Cash Equivalents 

The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less at the time of initial purchase to be cash equivalents, including balances held in the Company’s money market accounts. The Company maintains its cash and cash equivalents with financial institutions, in which balances from time to time may exceed the U.S. federally insured limits. The objectives of the Company’s cash management policy are to safeguard and preserve funds to maintain liquidity sufficient to meet the Company’s cash flow requirements, and to attain a market rate of return.

Revenue Recognition 

 

The Company accounts for revenue under FASB ASC Topic 606, Revenue for Contract with Customers (“ASC 606”) or other accounting standards for revenue not derived from customers. Arrangements may include licenses to intellectual property, research services and participation on joint research committees. The Company evaluates the promised goods or services to determine which promises, or group of promises, represent performance obligations. In contemplation of whether a promised good or service meets the criteria required of a performance obligation, the Company considers the stage of research, the underlying intellectual property, the capabilities and expertise of the customer relative to the underlying intellectual property, and whether the promised goods or services are integral to or dependent on other promises in the contract. When accounting for an arrangement that contains multiple performance obligations, the Company must develop judgmental assumptions, which may include market conditions, timelines and probabilities of regulatory success to determine the stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation identified in the contract.

The Company enters into contractual arrangements that may include licenses to intellectual property and research and development services. When such contractual arrangements are determined to be accounted for in accordance with ASC 606, the Company evaluates the promised good or services to determine which promises, or group of promises, represent performance obligations. When accounting for an arrangement that contains multiple performance obligations, the Company must develop judgmental assumptions, which may include market conditions, timelines and probabilities of regulatory success to determine the stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation identified in the contract.

The License Agreement (the “License Agreement”) with Alvogen Pharma US, Inc., Alvogen, Inc. and Lotus Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (collectively, “Alvogen”) (as further discussed in Note 6 below) is accounted for in accordance with ASC 606. In

9

accordance with ASC 606, the Company recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services, in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. To determine revenue recognition for arrangements that the Company determines are within the scope of ASC 606, it performs the following five steps:

i. identify the contract(s) with a customer;

ii. identify the performance obligations in the contract;

iii. determine the transaction price;

iv. allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations within the contract; and

v. recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.

The Company only applies the five-step model to contracts when it determines that it is probable it will collect the consideration it is entitled to in exchange for the goods or services it transfers to the customer.

At contract inception, once the contract is determined to be within the scope of ASC 606, the Company assesses the goods or services promised within the contract to determine whether each promised good or service is a performance obligation. The promised goods or services in the Company’s arrangements typically consist of a license to intellectual property and research services. The Company may provide options to additional items in such arrangements, which are accounted for as separate contracts when the customer elects to exercise such options, unless the option provides a material right to the customer. Performance obligations are promises in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer that (i) the customer can benefit from on its own or together with other readily available resources, and (ii) is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. Goods or services that are not individually distinct performance obligations are combined with other promised goods or services until such combined group of promises meet the requirements of a performance obligation.

The Company determines transaction price based on the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive for transferring the promised goods or services in the contract. Consideration may be fixed, variable, or a combination of both. At contract inception for arrangements that include variable consideration, the Company estimates the probability and extent of consideration it expects to receive under the contract utilizing either the most likely amount method or expected amount method, whichever best estimates the amount expected to be received. The Company then considers any constraints on the variable consideration and includes in the transaction price variable consideration to the extent it is deemed probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved.

The Company then allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation based on the relative standalone selling price and recognizes as revenue the amount of the transaction price that is allocated to the respective performance obligation when (or as) control is transferred to the customer and the performance obligation is satisfied. For performance obligations which consist of licenses and other promises, the Company utilizes judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress. The Company evaluates the measure of progress each reporting period and, if necessary, adjusts the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.

The Company records amounts as accounts receivable when the right to consideration is deemed unconditional. When consideration is received, or such consideration is unconditionally due, from a customer prior to transferring goods or services to the customer under the terms of a contract, a contract liability is recorded as deferred revenue.

The Company’s revenue arrangements include the following:

Milestone Payments: At the inception of an agreement that includes milestone payments, the Company evaluates each milestone to determine when and how much of the milestone to include in the transaction price. The Company first estimates the amount of the milestone payment that the Company could receive using either the expected value or the most likely amount approach. The Company primarily uses the most likely amount approach as that approach is generally most predictive for milestone payments with a binary outcome. Then, the Company considers whether any portion of that estimated amount is subject to the variable consideration constraint (that is, whether it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue would not occur upon resolution of the uncertainty.) The Company updates the estimate of variable

10

consideration included in the transaction price at each reporting date which includes updating the assessment of the likely amount of consideration and the application of the constraint to reflect current facts and circumstances.

Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on a level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, the Company will recognize revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).

Research Services: The Company is incurring research costs in association with the License Agreement. After the First Milestone Payment (as defined in Note 6 below), the Company will be reimbursed for certain costs incurred related to reasonable and documented out-of-pocket costs for clinical and non-clinical development activities. The Company will recognize revenue for the reimbursed costs when the First Milestone Payment contingencies have been achieved and the Company has an enforceable claim to the reimbursed costs.

See Note 6, “Alvogen Licensing Agreement”, for further information on the application of ASC 606 to the License Agreement.

Research and Development Costs

The Company’s research and development expenses consist primarily of costs associated with the Company’s clinical trials, salaries, payroll taxes, employee benefits, and stock-based compensation charges for those individuals involved in ongoing research and development efforts. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. Advance payments for goods and services that will be used in future research and development activities are expensed when the activity has been performed or when the goods have been received.

Non-cancellable Contracts

The Company may record certain obligations as liabilities related to non-cancellable contracts. If appropriate the offsetting costs may be recorded as a deferred cost asset.

Note Payable

As permitted under FASB ASC Topic 825, Financial Instruments (“ASC 825”), the Company elected to account for its promissory note, which meets the required criteria, at fair value at inception. Subsequent changes in fair value are recorded as a component of non-operating loss in the consolidated statements of operations. The portion of total changes in fair value of the note attributable to changes in instrument-specific credit risk are determined through specific measurement of periodic changes in the discount rate assumption exclusive of base market changes and are presented as a component of comprehensive income in the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. As a result of electing the fair value option, direct costs and fees related to the promissory notes are expensed as incurred.

The Company estimates the fair value of the note payable using a Monte Carlo simulation model, which uses as inputs the fair value of its Common Stock and estimates for the equity volatility and volume volatility of its Common Stock, the time to expiration (i.e. expected term) of the note, the risk-free interest rate for a period that approximates the time to expiration, and probability of default. Therefore, the Company estimate its expected future equity and volume volatility based on the historical volatility of both its Common Stock price and Common Stock trading volume utilizing a lookback period consistent with the time to expiration. The time to expiration is based on the contractual maturity date, giving consideration to the mandatory and potential accelerated redemptions beginning six months from the issuance date. The risk-free interest rate is determined based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of measurement for time periods approximately equal to the time to expiration. Probability of default is estimated using Bloomberg’s Default Risk function which uses its financial information to calculate a default risk specific to the Company. Interest expense is included within the fair value of the note payable. Management believes those assumptions are reasonable but if these assumptions change, it could materially affect the fair value.

11

Stock-Based Compensation

The Company expenses stock-based compensation to employees and non-employees over the requisite service period based on the estimated grant-date fair value of the awards. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur. Stock-based awards with graded-vesting schedules are recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting portion of the award. The Company estimates the fair value of stock option grants using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, and the assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent management’s best estimates and involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment. The Company estimates the fair value of restricted stock award grants using the closing trading price of the Company’s Common Stock on the date of issuance. All stock-based compensation costs are recorded in general and administrative or research and development costs in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss based upon the underlying individual’s role at the Company.

Warrants

The Company accounts for warrants as either equity-classified or liability-classified instruments based on an assessment of the warrant’s specific terms and applicable authoritative guidance in FASB ASC Topic 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (“ASC 480”) and FASB ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”). The assessment considers whether the warrants are freestanding financial instruments pursuant to ASC 480, meet the definition of a liability pursuant to ASC 480, and whether the warrants meet all of the requirements for equity classification under ASC 815, including whether the warrants are indexed to the Company’s own Common Stock and whether the warrant holders could potentially require “net cash settlement” in a circumstance outside of the Company’s control, among other conditions for equity classification. This assessment, which requires the use of professional judgment, is conducted at the time of warrant issuance and as of each subsequent quarterly period end date while the warrants are outstanding.

For issued or modified warrants that meet all of the criteria for equity classification, the warrants are required to be recorded as a component of additional paid-in capital at the time of issuance. For issued or modified warrants that do not meet all the criteria for equity classification, the warrants are required to be liability classified and recorded at their initial fair value on the date of issuance and remeasured at fair value and each balance sheet date thereafter. Changes in the estimated fair value of the warrants are recognized as a non-cash gain or loss on the statements of operations. The fair value of the Private Placement Warrants (as defined below) was estimated using a Black Scholes valuation approach and the fair value of the Substitute Warrants (as defined below) was estimated using a modified Black Scholes valuation approach which applies a probability factor based on the probabilities of achieving earnout cash milestone and/or earnout shares milestone at each reporting period (see Notes 9 and 11).

Modification of Warrants

A change in any of the terms or conditions of warrants is accounted for as a modification. The accounting for incremental fair value of warrants is based on the specific facts and circumstances related to the modification which may result in a reduction of additional paid-in capital, recognition of costs for services rendered, or recognized as a deemed dividend.

Preferred Stock

In accordance with ASC 480, the Company’s Series A Preferred Stock was classified as permanent equity as it was not mandatorily redeemable upon an event that is considered outside of the Company’s control. Further, in accordance with ASC 815-40, Derivatives and Hedging – Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, the Series A Preferred Stock did not meet any of the criteria that would preclude equity classification. The Company concluded that the Series A Preferred Stock was more akin to an equity-type instrument than a debt-type instrument, therefore the conversion features associated with the convertible preferred stock were deemed to be clearly and closely related to the host instrument and were not bifurcated as a derivative under ASC 815.

Income Taxes

Income taxes are recorded in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes (“ASC 740”), which provides for deferred taxes using an asset and liability approach. The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the

12

expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Valuation allowances are provided, if based upon the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions in accordance with the provisions of ASC 740. When uncertain tax positions exist, the Company recognizes the tax benefit of tax positions to the extent that the benefit would more likely than not be realized assuming examination by the taxing authority. The determination as to whether the tax benefit will more likely than not be realized is based upon the technical merits of the tax position as well as consideration of the available facts and circumstances. The Company recognizes any interest and penalties accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits as income tax expense.

Loss Per Share

The Company applies the two-class method when computing net income or loss per share attributable to common stockholders as the Company has issued securities that meet the definition of participating securities (See Note 9). In determining net income or loss attributable to common stockholders, the two-class method requires income or loss allocable to participating securities for the period to be allocated between common and participating securities based on their respective rights to share in the earnings as if all of the income or loss allocable for the period had been distributed. In periods of net loss, there is no allocation required under the two-class method as the participating securities do not have an obligation to fund the losses of the Company.

Basic loss per share of Common Stock is computed by dividing net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of Common Stock outstanding for the period. Diluted loss per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if stock options, restricted stock awards and warrants were to vest and be exercised. Diluted earnings per share excludes, when applicable, the potential impact of stock options, Common Stock warrant shares, convertible notes, and other dilutive instruments because their effect would be anti-dilutive in the periods in which the Company incurs a net loss.

The following outstanding shares of Common Stock equivalents were excluded from the computation of the diluted net loss per share attributable to Common Stock for the periods in which a net loss is presented because their effect would have been anti-dilutive.

Three months ended March 31,

    

2024

    

2023

Stock options

 

175,437

 

254,885

Restricted stock awards

66,666

100,000

Common stock warrants

 

4,034,337

 

3,321,499

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB or other standard setting bodies and are adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. For the three months ended March 31, 2024, there were no new accounting pronouncements or updates to recently issued accounting pronouncements that management believes materially affect the Company’s present or future results of operations, overall financial condition, liquidity or disclosures.

13

4. Prepaid Expense and Other Current Assets

Prepaid expense and other current assets consisted of the following at the dates indicated (in thousands):

    

March 31, 2024

December 31, 2023

(Unaudited)

Prepaid expense and other current assets:

 

 

  

Prepaid clinical development costs

$

823

$

871

Prepaid insurance

638

1,078

Other prepaid expense

433

334

Other current assets

128

Other current receivables

 

6

 

6

Total prepaid expense and other current assets

$

2,028

$

2,289

5. Accrued and Other Current Liabilities

Accrued and other current liabilities consisted of the following at the dates indicated (in thousands):

    

March 31, 2024

December 31, 2023

(Unaudited)

Accrued and other current liabilities:

Professional services

$

2,766

$

2,686

Accrued research and development expense

 

992

 

1,112

Accrued employee costs

959

835

Other accrued expense

579

81

Total accrued and other current liabilities

$

5,296

$

4,714

6. Alvogen Licensing Agreement 

 

On June 2, 2023, the Company entered into the License Agreement with Alvogen. The Company and Alvogen are referred to below individually as a “Party” and collectively as the “Parties.”

 

License Grant  

 

Under the License Agreement, the Company granted Alvogen an exclusive (even as to the Company and its affiliates) worldwide, transferable and sublicensable license under certain intellectual property (including patents, know-how and trademarks) owned or controlled by the Company to develop (with certain limitations), manufacture, and commercialize the Company’s candidate therapeutic product, NRX-101, for the treatment of bipolar depression with suicidality. The term of the license is, on a country-by-country basis, 20 years from the first commercial sale of NRX-101 in such country, extendable by Alvogen for a two-year period upon its request made prior to the expiration of such 20-year period. During the term of the License Agreement, the Parties agree (on behalf of themselves and their affiliates) not to research, develop, seek or obtain any regulatory approval for the manufacturing, marketing, sale, or other commercialization of any product containing a fixed dose combination of D-cycloserine and lurasidone in the treatment of bipolar depression with suicidality, nor to authorize or assist (including by investing in or otherwise providing funding to) any third party to do so.

During the term, the Company is permitted to develop additional products containing D-cycloserine in combination with one or more other active antidepressant or antipsychotic ingredients for use outside of the field of treatment of bipolar depression with suicidality, such as in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or chronic pain in depression, in which case, if the Company wishes to license rights to develop or commercialize such additional products or indications, Alvogen has a right of first negotiation to obtain such a license.

 

Term and Termination 

 

14

The License Agreement will remain in force until the earlier to occur of (i) 20 years following the first commercial sale of NRX-101 on a country-by-country basis (which may be extended for a two-year period at Alvogen’s request), and (ii) the date that the agreement is terminated under its early termination provisions. Early termination grounds include, subject to applicable cure periods, a material breach of agreement by the other Party, the bankruptcy or insolvency of the other Party, or a party’s reasonable belief that there is an unacceptable risk for harm in humans based upon preclinical safety data or the observation of serious adverse effects in humans.

In addition, Alvogen has the right to early termination if (i) the phase 2 study relating to NRX-101 is not completed and/or a successful read out from the study does not occur by March 31, 2024, or (ii) there is no completion of a Type B meeting with the Federal Drug Administration (“FDA”) by March 31, 2024. Alvogen may also terminate upon sixty (60) days’ prior written notice to the Company at any time after the First Milestone Payment (as defined below) has been made. The Company also has the right to terminate the License Agreement if the current phase 2 study successfully concludes prior to March 31, 2024 and the Type B meeting with the FDA is completed by March 31, 2024 and Alvogen does not notify the Company within 60 days that it wishes to proceed with the development of NRX-101 or has not paid the First Milestone Payment. To-date, the Parties have not elected to their early termination rights.

Upon expiration or termination of the License Agreement, the intellectual property rights licensed to Alvogen under the License Agreement will revert to the Company, and all other rights and obligations of each of the parties will immediately cease, except for outstanding amounts owed as of the time of such expiration or termination. Upon termination, Alvogen will grant to the Company an exclusive irrevocable, perpetual, worldwide, royalty-bearing, sublicensable, transferrable license under the NDA rights to develop, manufacture, have manufactured, or commercialize the product in the field of bipolar depression with suicidality. Such reversion license would be granted by Alvogen to the Company in exchange for an equitable royalty payable by the Company to Alvogen that would be negotiated and agreed in good faith by the parties within 30 business days of such matter being presented to them.

 

Milestone Payments 

 

In exchange for the license grant and the participation of the Company in the development, regulatory and commercial activities described below, Alvogen was obligated to pay the Company an initial $9 million cash payment upon the later of a positive data read-out from the Company’s ongoing Phase 2b/3 clinical trial and completion of the Type B meeting with the FDA (the “First Milestone Payment”). In February 2024, the parties executed an amendment accelerating payment of $5 million related to the First Milestone Payment, with the remaining $4 million due upon the original agreement’s terms. As compensation for advancing the milestone, Alvogen and Lotus will receive warrants to purchase up to 419,598 shares of the Company's Common Stock, at a strike price of $4.00 with a three year term (See Note 9). The grant date fair value of the warrants was approximately $1.3 million, which the Company accounts for as consideration paid to a customer. The second portion of the first milestone will be $4 million and, as before, be triggered by a positive response to the Company's planned end of phase 2 meeting with FDA. A second milestone payment of $5 million (the “Approval Payment”) is due upon Alvogen’s receipt of a copy of the FDA’s notice of NDA Approval for Product with the label indication for the treatment of bipolar depression with sub-acute or acute suicidality. Additional bonus milestone payments of increasing amounts up to $315 million will be payable upon the achievement of net sales targets measured over the trailing four quarters. Alvogen also will pay royalties (as described below) to the Company based on the net sales of NRX-101, with a reduction in royalties on a country-by-country basis upon expiration or termination of the Company’s patent protection on the NRX-101 composition.

If the first milestone is not achieved by September 3, 2024, the Company will be obligated to repay any amount received against the $5 million advance of the First Milestone Payment to Alvogen. As there is significant uncertainty relative to approval of any drug candidate in development, the Company concluded that it is not probable that a significant reversal of revenue will not occur if the Company were to include the First Milestone Payment, or any advances thereof, in the transaction price prior to receiving FDA approval. Accordingly, the transaction price is fully constrained and advances from Alvogen are recorded as a refund liability until such time as the refund right expires. Further, the Company will account for the warrants issued to Alvogen and Lotus consistent with the accounting for unfunded stock subscription agreements until such time as the uncertainty around the First Milestone is resolved. As of March 31, 2024, the refund liability was $0.5 million, which is included as a component of other current liabilities on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheets.

 

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Royalties 

 

Subject to certain adjustments for sublicensing and other deductions, commencing on the first commercial sale of NRX-101, Alvogen has agreed to pay to the Company tiered royalties calculated on the basis of a percentage, ranging from the low to mid-teens, of annual net sales of NRX-101 measured over the trailing four quarters. In addition, if Alvogen sublicenses NRX-101 in any country other than the U.S. (in which the royalty rates described above will apply), Alvogen will pay the Company a percentage of any and all consideration received by Alvogen or its affiliates from sublicensing any of the rights granted.

 

Development and Regulatory Activities 

 

Prior to payment of the First Milestone Payment by Alvogen to the Company, each Party has agreed to perform, at its own cost, certain development activities using diligent efforts and in accordance with applicable then-current good manufacturing and other applicable practices, laws and regulations, with the goal of supporting the preparation and filing of an NDA and obtaining regulatory approval for NRX-101. Until the payment of the First Milestone Payment, the Company has the sole right to control and responsibility for all regulatory matters relating to NRX-101, at its sole cost and expense, and the Company shall own all regulatory materials and own all worldwide regulatory approvals for NRX-101.

After the payment of the First Milestone Payment, Alvogen has the sole right and responsibility, at its cost and expense, for all regulatory matters relating to NRX-101, and Alvogen will own all regulatory materials and all regulatory approvals for the product in the licensed territory (and the Company will assign all of its rights in any regulatory materials to Alvogen). Each party has committed to reasonably cooperate with the other in carrying out the development and regulatory activities outlined in the development plan. In addition, Alvogen has agreed to fund the next registrational study of NRX-101 in the field of treatment of bipolar depression with suicidality.

Upon NDA approval of the product in the U.S., Alvogen has agreed to use diligent efforts to commercialize NRX-101 in the U.S., and, for 24 months following such approval, in other countries in the territory upon regulatory approval in each such country. If Alvogen does not commercialize NRX-101 in a country outside of the U.S. in the foregoing 24-month period, then the license may revert back to the Company with respect to such country and the Company would pay Alvogen tiered royalties in the low to mid-teens based on net sales of NRX-101 in such country. The Parties will also enter into a pharmacovigilance agreement to ensure compliance with safety reporting requirements of all applicable regulatory agencies globally with respect to the commercialization of NRX-101.

 

Commercial Activities 

 

Under the License Agreement, the Company is responsible for and will control the manufacturing of the NRX-101 commercial product and for qualification and regulatory-related activities necessary for the manufacture of the product. The Parties intend to enter into a clinical supply agreement (and a related quality agreement) on reasonable and customary terms, in which the Company will supply Alvogen raw materials and/or finished product without any markup to the future supply price from the Company’s current contract manufacturer. Similarly, prior to initiation of the first Phase 3 study for the commercial product, the Parties will enter into a commercial supply agreement (and a related quality agreement) on reasonable and customary terms, in which the Company will supply Alvogen raw materials and/or finished product without any markup to the future supply price from NRx’s current contract manufacturer. At any time after NDA approval, Alvogen may elect to manufacture, fill and package the product itself or through a third-party supplier subject to the prior approval of the Company. In such case, the parties may also work together to establish a written manufacturing technology transfer plan to transfer manufacturing technology from the Company or the Company’s contract manufacturer to Alvogen or Alvogen’s designated third party supplier. The Company has agreed, as a part of its manufacturing commitments, to make available its qualified technical personnel to consult with Alvogen to complete transfer of the manufacturing technology if required under the License Agreement.

Following NDA approval, Alvogen will control and be responsible for advertising, marketing, promotion and marketing, pricing, and terms of sale for the product, all at Alvogen’s sole expense. Alvogen has committed to not shift, allocate, price or discount sales of the product for the purpose of reducing or disadvantaging the net sales of the product in order to reduce the payments owed by Alvogen to the Company under the License Agreement.

16

As of March 31, 2024, the Company has not achieved any milestones nor recognized any revenue associated with the License Agreement.

7. Debt

Convertible Note

On November 4, 2022, the company issued an 9% redeemable promissory note (as amended, the “Note”) to Streeterville Capital, LLC, a Utah limited liability company (“Streeterville”), for an aggregate principal amount of $11.0 million. The Note matures 18 months from the date of issuance subject to certain acceleration provisions. The Note carries an original issue discount of $1.0 million which was deducted from the principal balance of the Note. The net proceeds from the issuance of the Note was $10.0 million after transaction costs including the original issue discount, legal and other fees are included.

The initial terms of the Note included the following provisions, certain of which have subsequently been modified as described below. The Company has the option to prepay the Note during the term by paying an amount equal to 110% of the principal, interest, and fees owed as of the prepayment date. The noteholder has the right to redeem up to $1.0 million of the outstanding balance of the Note per month starting six months after the issuance date (the “Maximum Monthly Redemption Amount”). Payments may be made by the Company at their option in: (i) in cash with a 10% premium (the “Redemption Premium”) for the amount redeemed, (ii) by paying the redemption amount in the form of shares of Common Stock with the number of redemption shares being equal to the portion of the applicable redemption amount divided by the Redemption Conversion Price (as defined below), or (iii) a combination of cash and shares of Common Stock. The “Redemption Conversion Price” on any given redemption date equals 85% multiplied by the average of the two lowest daily volume weighted average prices per share of the Common Stock during the ten trading days immediately preceding the date that the noteholder delivers notice electing to redeem a portion of the Note. Beginning May 1, 2023, in the event (a) the daily dollar trading volume of the Common Stock of the Company on any given trading day is at least fifty percent (50%) greater than the lower of (i) the median daily dollar trading volume over the previous ten (10) trading days or (ii) the daily dollar trading volume on the trading day immediately preceding the date of measurement or (b) if the closing trade price on any given trading day is at least thirty percent (30%) greater than the Nasdaq Minimum Price, then the lender will be entitled to redeem over the following ten (10) trading days an amount of indebtedness then outstanding under the Note equal to twice the monthly redemption amount of $1.0 million solely by payment by stock, if permitted under the agreement, subject to the Maximum Percentage (as defined in the Note) and other ownership limitations.

The Note contains certain Trigger Events (as defined in the Note) that generally, if uncured within five trading days, may result in an event of default in accordance with the terms of the Notes (such event, an “Event of Default”). Upon an Event of a Default, the Lender may consider the Note immediately due and payable. Upon an Event of Default, the interest rate may also be increased to the lesser of 18% per annum or the maximum rate permitted under applicable law. On April 24, 2024, the Company received written notice from counsel for Streeterville Capital that an alleged Event of Default occurred with respect to the Note. Refer to Note 14 for more information regarding the alleged Event of Default.

Due to these embedded features within the Note, the Company elected to account for the Note at fair value at inception. Subsequent changes in fair value are recorded as a component of other income (loss) in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.  

Convertible Note Amendments

On March 30, 2023, the Company entered into an Amendment to the Note (the “First Amendment”), pursuant to which the Maximum Percentage was set at 9.99% of the number of shares of Common Stock outstanding on a given date.

On July 7, 2023, the Company entered into Amendment #2 to the Note with Streeterville (the “Second Amendment”). Pursuant to the Second Amendment, the Company agreed to amend the redemption provisions of the Note to provide that the Company would pay to Streeterville an amount in cash equal to $1.8 million on or before July 10, 2023, which amount was paid on July 10, 2023. In addition, the Company agreed that, beginning on or before July 31, 2023, and on or before the last day of each month until December 31, 2023 (the Company would pay Streeterville an amount equal to $0.4 million in cash), less any amount satisfied by the delivery of Redemption Conversion Shares (as defined below). Notwithstanding the foregoing, Streeterville may also submit a request for redemption of up to an aggregate of $1.0 million per month in

17

accordance with the terms of the note amendment. However, the portion of each payment that is not satisfied by the delivery of Redemption Conversion Shares is the maximum amount of cash the Company will be required to pay in accordance with the Second Amendment during the period from July 31, 2023 and on or before the last day of each month until December 31, 2023. The redemption of the Maximum Monthly Redemption Amount in excess of the Minimum Amount may be satisfied by the delivery of additional Redemption Conversion Shares.

On February 9, 2024, the Company entered into Amendment #3 to the Note (the “Third Amendment”), with Streeterville. In accordance with the Third Amendment, the Company and Streeterville agreed to amend the redemption provisions of the Note to provide that the Company would pay to Streeterville an amount in cash equal to $1.1 million on February 12, 2024, which the amount was paid on February 12, 2024. In addition, beginning on or before February 29, 2024, and on or before the last day of each month until July 31, 2024, the Company shall pay Streeterville an amount equal to $0.4 million in cash, less any amount satisfied by the delivery of Redemption Conversion Shares. During the first three months of this amended payment period, Streeterville may not request to redeem amounts greater than $0.4 million per month.

 

After April 30, 2024, and for the remainder of the payment period through July 31, 2024, Streeterville may redeem any Redemption Amount (as defined in the Note), including an amount in excess of the Minimum Payment, subject to the Maximum Monthly Redemption Amount. During the period through July 31, 2024, the Company is permitted to pay the Redemption Amounts by delivery of the Redemption Conversion Shares (as defined below) without regard to the existence of any Equity Conditions Failure, to the extent Streeterville submits redemption notices during such month pursuant to the terms of the Note, and only for the Redemption Amounts covered by such notices. Moreover, the Redemption Premium  will continue to apply to the Redemption Amounts. To the extent there is an outstanding balance under the Note after July 31, 2024, the Company will be required to pay such outstanding balance in full in cash by August 31, 2024.

During the Minimum Payment Period (defined in the Note, as amended), the Company is permitted to pay the Redemption Amounts in the form of shares of Common Stock of the Company (the “Redemption Conversion Shares”) calculated on the basis of the Redemption Conversion Price (as defined in the Note) without regard to the existence of an Equity Conditions Failure. Moreover, the Redemption Premium (as defined in the Note) will continue to apply to the Redemption Amounts.

Both the Second Amendment and the Third Amendment (considered cumulatively with the Second Amendment) were deemed to be debt modifications in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 470, Debt, which will be accounted for prospectively. The modification does not result in recognition of a gain or loss in the consolidated statement of operations but does impact interest expense recognized in future periods.

Convertible Note Fair Value Measurements

The Company estimates the fair value of the convertible note payable using a Monte Carlo simulation model, which uses as inputs the fair value of its Common Stock and estimates for the equity volatility and volume volatility of its Common Stock, the time to expiration of the convertible note, the risk-free interest rate for a period that approximates the time to expiration, and probability of default. Therefore, the Company estimates its expected future volatility based on the actual volatility of its Common Stock and historical volatility of its Common Stock utilizing a lookback period consistent with the time to expiration. The time to expiration is based on the contractual maturity date, giving consideration to the mandatory and potential accelerated redemptions beginning six months from the issuance date. The risk-free interest rate is determined by reference to the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of measurement for time periods approximately equal to the time to expiration. Probability of default is estimated using Bloomberg's Default Risk function which uses its financial information to calculate a default risk specific to the Company.

The discount to the principal amount is included in the carrying value of the Note. During 2022, the Company recorded a debt discount of approximately $1.0 million upon issuance of the Note for the original issue discount of $1.0 million. As a result of electing the fair value option, any direct costs and fees related to the Note were expensed as incurred. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company recorded a loss from the change in fair value of the Note of $0.3 million and $1.7 million, respectively, which was recognized in other (income) expense on the Consolidated Statement of Operations as a result of the Company’s election of the fair value option.

During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company made cash payments for coupon interest on the Note of approximately $0.1 million,  and $0.2 million of redemption premiums, and issued shares of Common Stock as coupon interest repayment of $0.1 million. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company made cash principal

18

repayments on the Note of approximately $2.2 million and issued shares of Common Stock as principal repayment of $0.3 million.

During the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company made no payments on the Note.

As of March 31, 2024, and December 31, 2023, the Note carried a remaining principal balance of $5.4 million and $8.3 million, respectively. Refer to Note 11 for the reconciliation of the fair values for the periods presented and Note 14 Subsequent Events.

8. Commitments and Contingencies

Sarah Herzog Memorial Hospital License Agreement

The Company is required to make certain payments in order to maintain the license agreement with the Sarah Herzog Memorial Hospital Ezrat Nashim (“SHMH”), including:

Milestone Payments

End of Phase I Clinical Trials of Licensed Product

    

$

100,000

End of Phase II Clinical Trials of Licensed Product

$

250,000

End of Phase III Clinical Trials of Licensed Product

$

250,000

First Commercial Sale of Licensed Product in U.S.

$

500,000

First Commercial Sale of Licensed Product in Europe

$

500,000

Annual Revenues Reach $100,000,000

$

750,000

The milestone payments due above may be reduced by 25% in certain circumstances, and by the application of certain sub-license fees. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, no payments were made.

Royalties

A royalty in an amount equal to: (a) 1% of revenues from the sale of any product incorporating a Licensed Product when at least one Licensed Patent remains in force, if such product is not covered by a Valid Claim (as defined below) in the country or region in which the sale occurs, or (b) 2.5% of revenues from the sale of any Licensed Product that is covered by at least one Valid Claim in the country or region in which such product is manufactured or sold. A “Valid Claim” means any issued claim in the Licensed Patents that remains in force and that has not been finally invalidated or held to be unenforceable. The royalty rates above may be doubled if we commence a legal challenge to the validity, enforceability or scope of any of the Licensed Patents during the term of the SHMH License Agreement and do not prevail in such proceeding.

Royalties shall also apply to any revenues generated by sub-licensees from sale of Licensed Products subject to a cap of 8.5% of the payments received by us from sub-licensees in connection with such sales.

Annual Maintenance Fee

A fixed amount of $100,000 was paid on April 16, 2021 and, thereafter, a fixed amount of $150,000 is due on the anniversary of such date during the term of the SHMH License Agreement.

Exclusive License Agreement

The Company has entered into a License Agreement with Apkarian Technologies to in-license US Patent 8,653,120 that claims the use of D-cycloserine for the treatment of chronic pain in exchange for a commitment to pay milestones and royalties as development milestones are reached in the field of chronic pain. The patent is supported by extensive nonclinical data and early clinical data that suggest the potential for NMDA antagonist drugs, such as NRX-101 to decrease both chronic pain and neuropathic pain while potentially decreasing craving for opioids. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company has recorded $0 and $0.2 million, respectively, worth of expenses relating to the licensure of the patent

19

recorded in Research and development expenses on the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

Operating Lease

The Company leases office space on a month-to-month basis. The rent expense for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was less than $0.1 million and $0.1 million, respectively.

Relief Therapeutics Collaboration Agreement

On September 18, 2020, the Company entered into a collaboration agreement (the “Collaboration Agreement”) with Relief Therapeutics for the clinical development and, if approved, the sale of Aviptadil. The Collaboration Agreement provides for funding by Relief Therapeutics of certain clinical trials, formulation and manufacturing of Aviptadil, as well as establishing specified sales territories for each party and share of the profits in those territories for “Product” as defined in the Collaboration Agreement. On October 6, 2021, Relief Therapeutics filed a lawsuit against the Company and its former CEO claiming that the Company failed to honor its obligations under the Collaboration Agreement, which was followed by a counter claim from the Company for breach and repudiation of the Collaboration Agreement by Relief Therapeutics.  

On November 12, 2022, the Company entered into a Settlement Agreement and Asset Purchase Agreement (“APA”) with Relief Therapeutics Holding AG and Relief Therapeutics International (the “Relief Parties”) to settle the outstanding lawsuit with respect to the Collaboration Agreement.  

Under the APA, the Company transferred to the Relief Parties all of the Company’s interest in ZYESAMI (or the “Product” as such term is defined in the Collaboration Agreement), including intellectual property, FDA applications, clinical trial data, drug and API inventory and certain contractual rights. The Company has agreed to refrain from developing any product for any indication that uses or otherwise exploits the Product without the Relief Parties’ consent.

The Relief Parties have agreed to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop, market, and commercialize the Product, and have sole discretion to select the indications for which they will seek to develop the Product. Although the Company intends to monitor the progress of the Relief Parties under the APA and enforce the Company’s rights thereunder, there can be no assurances that the Relief Parties will be successful at commercializing the Product.

Upon commercial launch of the Product by the Relief Parties or any of their affiliates, licensees or sublicensees (or upon authorization of use for any indication of the Product other than COVID-19), the Company is entitled to receive milestone payments in stages up to an aggregate amount of $13.0 million. The Relief Parties have also agreed to pay royalties to the Company on aggregate net sales of all Products, subject to a cap on royalty payments of $30.0 million in the aggregate. No royalties have been received under this agreement as of March 31, 2024. In addition, Relief is obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to continue the Company’s existing Right to Try Program until December 2024.

Mutual indemnity provisions in the APA will protect each party from any breaches of the settlement arrangements by the other party, provided, that the Company’s indemnity obligations will not start until the Relief Parties have begun making royalty or milestone payments to the Company, subject to certain exceptions. With respect to the Company, there is an indemnity threshold such that the Company will not be liable for any indemnity claims until such claims are in excess of $0.5 million (and then only for the amount above $0.5 million). The Company’s indemnity obligation is capped at $2.0 million with respect to breaches of representations and warranties and $3.0 million with respects to breaches of covenants or other agreements. Additionally, subject to certain exceptions, the Company’s indemnity obligations cannot exceed the amount that the Relief Parties actually pay to the Company for milestone and royalty payments. The parties closed the APA in December 2022 at which time all claims and counterclaims between the Company and the Relief Parties were dismissed with prejudice.

Legal Proceedings

From time to time the Company is involved in litigation, claims, and other proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business. Litigation and other disputes are inherently unpredictable and subject to substantial uncertainties and unfavorable resolutions could occur.

20

Other Legal Actions:

The Company is currently involved in and may from time to time become involved in various legal actions incidental to our business. As of the date of this report, the Company is not involved in any legal proceedings that it believes could have a material adverse effect on its financial position or results of operations. However, the outcome of any current or future legal proceeding is inherently difficult to predict and any dispute resolved unfavorably could have a material adverse effect on The Company’s business, financial position, and operating results.

9. Equity

Common Stock Reverse Stock Split

On March 21, 2024, the Board approved a reverse stock split ratio of 1 for 10. On March 28, 2024, the Company filed an amendment to its certificate of incorporation in the State of Delaware (the “Amendment”), which provides that, effective as of 4:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time on April 1, 2024 (the “Effective Time”), every ten shares of its issued and outstanding Common Stock will automatically be combined into one issued and outstanding share of Common Stock, without any change in the par value per share.

At the Effective Time of April 1, 2024, every 10 issued and outstanding shares of the Company’s Common Stock were converted automatically into one share of the Company’s Common Stock, without any change in the par value per share. The Reverse Stock Split reduced the number of shares of Common Stock issued and outstanding from approximately 95.7 million to approximately 9.6 million.

No fractional shares were issued in connection with the Reverse Stock Split. Shareholders who otherwise would have been entitled to receive a fractional share instead became entitled to receive one whole share of Common Stock in lieu of such fractional share. All share and per share amounts in the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements and footnotes have been retrospectively adjusted for the reverse split.

Preferred Stock

Pursuant to the terms of the Company’s Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the Company has 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock with a par value of $0.001, of which 12,000,000 were designated Series A convertible preferred stock. In August 2023, the Company sold and issued 3.0 million shares of Series A convertible preferred stock for an aggregate cash purchase price of $1.2 million. During March 2024 holders of the Company’s Series A convertible preferred stock elected to convert 3,000,000 shares of Series A convertible preferred stock into 300,000 shares of Common Stock. As of March 31, 2024, no shares of Series A convertible preferred stock remained issued or outstanding.

Common Stock

Pursuant to the terms of the Company’s Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, the Company has authorized 500,000,000 shares of Common Stock with a par value of $0.001.

On January 2, 2024, the Company issued 143,648 shares of Common Stock as payment for the $0.4 million minimum payment to Streeterville related to principal and interest payments on the Streeterville Note.

From February 20, 2024 to March 11, 2024, the Company announced that it entered into multiple purchase agreements (the “ATM Purchase Agreements”) subject to standard closing conditions where accredited investors purchased 34,584 shares of unregistered Common Stock at a range of  $4.643 – $7.10 per share. The final ATM Purchase Agreement closed on March 11, 2024. The aggregate net cash proceeds to the Company from the ATM Purchases Agreements were approximately $0.2 million.

On February 29, 2024, the Company entered into a securities purchase agreement with an investor providing for the issuance and sale of 270,000 shares of Common Stock and warrants to purchase up to 270,000 shares of Common Stock (the “February Warrants”) at a price of $3.80 per share of Common Stock and accompanying warrant, which represents a 26.7% premium to the offering price in February 2024 Public Offering. The Common Stock and the February Warrants were

21

offered pursuant to a private placement (the “February 2024 Private Placement”) under Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). The aggregate net cash proceeds to the Company from the February 2024 Private Placement were approximately $1.0 million. As of March 31, 2024, the shares of Common Stock had not been issued.

On February 27, 2024, the Company entered into an underwriting agreement (the “February Underwriting Agreement”) with EF Hutton LLC (the “Representative”), as the representative of the several underwriters named therein (the “February Underwriters”), relating to an underwritten public offering (the “February 2024 Public Offering”) of 500,000 shares (the “February Shares”) of the Company’s Common Stock. The public offering price for each share of Common Stock was $3.00 and the February Underwriters purchased the shares of Common Stock pursuant to the February Underwriting Agreement at a price for each share of Common Stock of $2.76. Pursuant to the February Underwriting Agreement, the Company also granted the Representative a 45-day option to purchase up to an additional 75,000 shares (the “February Option Shares”) of the Common Stock on the same terms as the February Shares sold in the February 2024 Public Offering (the “February Over-Allotment Option”). On February 28, 2024, the February 2024 Public Offering closed (the “February Closing Date”). The aggregate net cash proceeds to the Company from the February 2024 Offering proceeds were approximately $1.3 million after offering costs of approximately $0.4 million. On March 5, 2024, the February Underwriters of the previously announced underwritten public offering of the Company exercised their option in accordance with the February Underwriting Agreement, dated February 27, 2024, by and between the Company and EF Hutton LLC, as representative of the several underwriters named therein, to purchase up to an additional 75,000 shares of the Company’s Common Stock, at a public offering price of $3.00 per share (the “February Overallotment Exercise”). The February Overallotment Exercise closed on March 6, 2024. The aggregate net cash proceeds to the Company from the February Overallotment Exercise were approximately $0.2 million. The Company accrued additional offering costs of approximately $0.2 million. The warrants issued to EF Hutton represent participating securities for the purposes of calculating earnings per share as they are entitled to participate in dividends or distributions, to the extent declared by the Company, on a pro rata basis as if they had been exercised immediately before such a dividend or distribution.

Common Stock Warrants

Substitute Warrants

In connection with the Merger in 2021, each warrant to purchase shares of Common Stock of NeuroRx that was outstanding and unexercised immediately prior to the effective time (whether vested or unvested) was assumed by BRPA and converted into a warrant, based on the Exchange Ratio (of 0.316), that will continue to be governed by substantially the same terms and conditions, including vesting, as were applicable to the former warrant (the “Substitute Warrants”). There were 3,792,970 warrants outstanding and unexercised at the effective time. As these Substitute Warrants meet the definition of a derivative as contemplated in FASB ASC Topic 815, based on provisions in the warrant agreement related to the Earnout Shares Milestone and the Earnout Cash Milestone and the contingent right to receive additional shares for these provisions, the Substitute Warrants were recorded as derivative liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet and measured at fair value at inception (on the date of the Merger) and at each reporting date in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 820, with changes in fair value recognized in the statements of operations in the period of change. 

The Company recognized a loss (gain) on the change in fair value of the Substitute Warrants for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 of less than $0.1 million and less than $0.1 million, respectively. Refer to Note 11 for further discussion of fair value measurement of the warrant liabilities.

Assumed Public Warrants

Prior to the Merger, the Company had 3,450,000 Public Warrants outstanding (the “Public Warrants”) to purchase up to 345,000 shares of Common Stock. Each Public Warrant entitles the holder to purchase one-tenth share of Common Stock at an exercise price of $115 per share. The Public Warrants became exercisable at the effective time of the Merger and expire five years after the effective time on or earlier upon their redemption or liquidation of the Company.

During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 no Public Warrants were exercised. The outstanding balance of these warrants remains in equity. At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, there were 3,448,856 Public Warrants outstanding to purchase up to 344,886 shares of Common Stock.

22

Assumed Private Placement Warrants

Prior to the Merger, the Company had outstanding 136,250 Private Placement Warrants (the “Private Placement Warrants”) to purchase up to 13,625 shares of Common Stock. The Private Placement Warrants are not indexed to the Company’s common shares in the manner contemplated by FASB ASC Topic 815-40-15 because the holder of the instrument is not an input into the pricing of a fixed-for-fixed option on equity shares. The Company classifies the Private Placement Warrants as derivative liabilities in its condensed consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. The Company measures the fair value of the Private Placement Warrants at the end of each reporting period and recognizes changes in the fair value from the prior period in the Company’s statements of operations for the current period.

The Company recognized a loss (gain) on the change in fair value of the Private Placement Warrants for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 of less than $0.1 million, respectively. Refer to Note 11 for discussion of the fair value measurement of the Company’s warrant liabilities.

Investor Warrants

As discussed above, on February 28, 2024, in conjunction with the sale of 270,000 shares of the Company’s Common Stock, the Company issued February Warrants to purchase up to 270,000 shares of Common Stock which were classified in stockholder’s equity. The February Warrants have an exercise price of $3.80 per share, are initially exercisable beginning six months following the date of issuance, and will expire 5 years from the date of issuance. The measurement of fair value was determined utilizing a Black-Scholes model considering all relevant assumptions current at the date of issuance (i.e., share price of $3.59, exercise price of $3.80, term of 5 years, volatility of 178.10%, risk-free rate of 4.26%, and expected dividend rate of 0%). The allocated fair value of the warrants on the grant date was $0.5 million and is recorded as a charge to additional paid-in capital.

On February 28, 2024, the Company issued to the Representative the Underwriter’s Warrant to purchase up to 25,000 shares of Common Stock (the “February Underwriter Warrant Shares”). The Underwriter’s Warrant is exercisable six months following the date of the Underwriting Agreement and terminates on the five-year anniversary of the date of the Underwriting Agreement. The measurement of fair value was determined utilizing a Black-Scholes model considering all relevant assumptions current at the date of issuance (i.e., share price of $3.05, exercise price of $3.30, term of 5 years, volatility of 178.10%, risk-free rate of 4.26%, and expected dividend rate of 0%). The allocated fair value of the warrants on the grant date was $0.1 million and is recorded within additional paid-in capital.

On March 5, 2024 the Company issued Underwriter’s Warrant to purchase up to 3,750 shares of Common Stock in relation to the exercise of the February Over-Allotment Option. The measurement of fair value was determined utilizing a Black-Scholes model considering all relevant assumptions current at the date of issuance (i.e., share price of $3.05, exercise price of $3.30, term of 5 years, volatility of 178.10%, risk-free rate of 4.12%, and expected dividend rate of 0%). The allocated fair value of the warrants on the grant date was less than $0.1 million and is recorded as a charge to additional paid-in capital.

Alvogen Warrants

In conjunction with the amended Alvogen licensing agreement discussed in Note 6, on February 7, 2024 the Company issued warrants to purchase up to 419,598 shares of Common Stock. The warrants have an exercise price of $4.00 per share, are exercisable immediately following the date of issuance, will expire 3 years from the date of issuance, and may also be exercised on a cashless basis if there is no effective registration statement available for the resale of the shares of Common Stock underlying the warrants. The warrants are subject to a beneficial ownership limitation of 4.99% post-exercise, with the exception that the beneficial ownership limitation may be waived up to a maximum of 9.99% at the election of the holder, with not less than 61 days prior notice. The measurement of fair value was determined utilizing a Black-Scholes model considering all relevant assumptions current at the date of issuance (i.e., share price of $4.10, exercise price of $4.00, term of 3 years, volatility of 138.0%, risk-free rate of 4.2%, and expected dividend rate of 0.0%). The fair value of the warrants on the grant date was $1.3 million and is recorded within additional paid-in capital.

23

    

Weighted

    

    

Average

Weighted

Aggregate

Total

Remaining

Average

Intrinsic Value

Warrant Shares

Term

Exercise Price

(in thousands)

Outstanding as of December 31, 2023

3,321,499

3.91

$

23.01

$

180

Issued

718,348

Expired

(5,510)

Outstanding as of March 31, 2024

4,034,337

3.68

$

19.61

$

807

10. Stock-Based Compensation

2016 Omnibus Incentive Plan

Prior to the Merger, NeuroRx maintained its 2016 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the “2016 Plan”), under which NeuroRx granted incentive stock options, restricted stock awards, other stock-based awards, or other cash-based awards to employees, directors, and non-employee consultants. The maximum aggregate shares of Common Stock that were subject to awards and issuable under the 2016 Plan was 347,200.

In connection with the Merger, each option of NeuroRx that was outstanding and unexercised immediately prior to the Effective Time (whether vested or unvested) was assumed by BRPA and converted into an option to acquire an adjusted number of shares of Common Stock at an adjusted exercise price per share, based on the Exchange Ratio (of 0.316:1).

Upon the closing of the Merger, the outstanding and unexercised NeuroRx stock options became options to purchase an aggregate 289,542 shares of the Company’s Common Stock at an average exercise price of $51.00 per share.

2021 Omnibus Incentive Plan

As of March 31, 2024, 955,281 shares of Common Stock are authorized for issuance pursuant to awards under the Company’s 2021 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the “2021 Plan”). As of January 1, 2023, 66,443 shares were added to the 2021 Plan under an evergreen feature that automatically increases the reserve with additional shares of Common Stock for future issuance under the Incentive Plan each calendar year, beginning January 1, 2022 and ending on and including January 1, 2031, equal to the lesser of (A) 1% of the shares of Common Stock outstanding on the final day of the immediately preceding calendar year or (B) a smaller number of shares determined by the Board. On December 28, 2023 the first amendment to the 2021 Omnibus Plan was executed which increased the maximum number of Shares (i) available for issuance under the Plan, by an additional 200,000 Shares, and (ii) that may be delivered pursuant to the exercise of Incentive Stock Options granted under the Plan to be equal to 100% of the Share Pool. As of March 31, 2024, an aggregate 602,365 shares have been awarded net of forfeitures, and 352,916 shares remain available for issuance under the 2021 Plan. The 2021 Plan permits the granting of incentive stock options, restricted stock awards, other stock-based awards or other cash-based awards to employees, directors, and non-employee consultants.

Option Awards

The fair value of each employee and non-employee stock option grant is estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The Company is a public company and has limited company-specific historical and implied volatility information. Therefore, it estimates its expected stock volatility based on the limited company-specific historical volatility and implied volatility. The expected term of the Company’s stock options for employees has been determined utilizing the “simplified” method for awards. The risk-free interest rate is determined by reference to the U.S. Treasury yield curve. Expected dividend yield is zero based on the fact that the Company has never paid cash dividends and does not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Additionally, certain options granted contain terms that require all unvested options to immediately vest a) upon the approval of an NDA by the FDA for NRX-101, or b) immediately preceding a change in control of the Company, whichever occurs first.

The Company issued no stock options during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.

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The following table summarizes the Company’s employee and non-employee stock option activity under the 2021 Plan for the following periods:

Number of shares

Weighted average
exercise price

Weighted average remaining contractual life (in years)

Aggregate intrinsic value (in thousands)

Outstanding as of December 31, 2023

264,983

$ 18.30

7.7

$ 75

Expired/Forfeited

(89,546)

Outstanding as of March 31, 2024

175,437

$ 18.60

8.4

$ 40

Options vested and exercisable as of March 31, 2024

105,215

$ 27.61

7.6

$ 1

Stock-based compensation expense related to stock options was less than $0.1 million and $0.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.

At March 31, 2024, the total unrecognized compensation related to unvested employee and non-employee stock option awards granted, was $0.3 million, which the Company expects to recognize over a weighted-average period of approximately 1.1 years.

Restricted Stock Awards

The following table presents the Company’s Restricted Stock Activity:

Awards

Weighted Average Grant Date Fair Value

Balance as of December 31, 2023 (unvested)

124,166

$ 5.20

Vested

(57,500)

4.64

Balance as of March 31, 2024 (unvested)

66,666

$ 5.66

On July 12, 2022, the Board granted an award of 100,000 restricted shares of the Company (“RSAs”) as an inducement to the newly appointed CEO, pursuant to a separate Restricted Stock Award Agreement. The RSAs will vest in approximately equal installments over three (3) years from the grant date, subject to continued service through the applicable vesting date.

On December 28, 2023, the Company was authorized to grant 57,500 RSAs to a consultant for services provided. The RSAs vested after six months from September 4, 2023, the date the services began. The shares were valued on the grant date based on the quoted price of $4.60 or approximately $0.3 million which will be amortized over the vesting term.

Stock-based compensation expense related to RSAs was $0.2 million and less than $0.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.

As of March 31, 2024, total unrecognized compensation expense related to RSAs was approximately $0.2 million, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of approximately 1.3 years.

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The following table summarizes the Company’s recognition of stock-based compensation for the following periods (in thousands):

Three months ended March 31,

    

2024

    

2023

(Unaudited)

Stock-based compensation expense

 

  

 

  

General and administrative

$

211

$

591

Research and development

 

31

 

104

Total stock-based compensation expense

$

242

$

695

11. Fair Value Measurements

Fair value measurements discussed herein are based upon certain market assumptions and pertinent information available to management as of and during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. The carrying amount of accounts payable approximated fair value as they are short term in nature. The fair value of stock options and warrants issued for services are estimated based on the Black-Scholes model. The fair value of the Note was estimated utilizing a Monte Carlo simulation.

Fair Value on a Recurring Basis

The Company follows the guidance in ASC 820 for its financial assets and liabilities that are re-measured and reported at fair value at each reporting period, and non-financial assets and liabilities that are re-measured and reported at fair value at least annually. The estimated fair value of the money market account represents a Level 1 measurement. The estimated fair value of the warrant liabilities and convertible note payable represent Level 3 measurements. The following table presents information about the Company’s assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, and indicates the fair value hierarchy of the valuation inputs the Company utilized to determine such fair value (in thousands):

Description

    

Level

    

March 31, 2024

December 31, 2023

Assets:

(Unaudited)

Money Market Account

1

$

566

$

3,874

Liabilities:

Warrant liabilities (Note 9)

3

$