10-Q 1 nsp-20220630.htm 10-Q nsp-20220630
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C.  20549

FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
Quarterly Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the quarterly period endedJune 30, 2022
or
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from  _______________ to _______________
Commission File No. 1-13998
nsp-20220630_g1.jpg
Insperity, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 76-0479645
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization) (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
19001 Crescent Springs Drive
Kingwood,Texas77339
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code):  (281) 358-8986
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTicker symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.01 par value per shareNSPNew York Stock Exchange

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “non-accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerEmerging growth company
Smaller reporting company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.




Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes   No

As of July 26, 2022, 38,025,831 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, were outstanding.








TABLE OF CONTENTS


FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
The statements contained herein that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. You can identify such forward-looking statements by the words “anticipates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “projects,” “believes,” “estimates,” “likely,” “possibly,” “probably,” “could,” “goal,” “opportunity,” “objective,” “target,” “assume,” “outlook,” “guidance,” “predicts,” “appears,” “indicator” and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties. In the normal course of business, in an effort to help keep our stockholders and the public informed about our operations, from time to time, we may issue such forward-looking statements, either orally or in writing. Generally, these statements relate to business plans or strategies; projected or anticipated benefits or other consequences of such plans or strategies; or projections involving anticipated revenues, earnings, average number of worksite employees (“WSEEs”), benefits and workers’ compensation costs, or other operating results. We base the forward-looking statements on our current expectations, estimates and projections. We caution you that these statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions that we cannot predict. In addition, we have based many of these forward-looking statements on assumptions about future events that may prove to be inaccurate. Therefore, the actual results of the future events described in such forward-looking statements could differ materially from those stated in such forward-looking statements. Among the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially are:
adverse economic conditions;
impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, or other future pandemics, including the scope, severity and duration of the pandemic; government responses; regulatory developments; and the related disruptions and economic impact to our business and the small and medium-sized businesses that we serve;
labor shortages and increasing competition for highly skilled workers;
impact of inflation;
vulnerability to regional economic factors because of our geographic market concentration;
failure to comply with covenants under our credit facility;
our liability for WSEE payroll, payroll taxes and benefits costs, or other liabilities associated with actions of our client companies or WSEEs;
increases in health insurance costs and workers’ compensation rates and underlying claims trends, health care reform, financial solvency of workers’ compensation carriers, other insurers or financial institutions, state unemployment tax rates, liabilities for employee and client actions or payroll-related claims;
an adverse determination regarding our status as the employer of our WSEEs for tax and benefit purposes and an inability to offer alternative benefit plans following such a determination;
cancellation of client contracts on short notice, or the inability to renew client contracts or attract new clients;
the ability to secure competitive replacement contracts for health insurance and workers’ compensation insurance at expiration of current contracts;
regulatory and tax developments and possible adverse application of various federal, state and local regulations;
failure to manage growth of our operations and the effectiveness of our sales and marketing efforts;
the impact of the competitive environment and other developments in the human resources services industry, including the professional employer organization (or PEO) industry, on our growth and/or profitability;
an adverse final judgment or settlement of claims against Insperity;
disruptions of our information technology systems or failure to enhance our service and technology offerings to address new regulations or client expectations;
our liability or damage to our reputation relating to disclosure of sensitive or private information as a result of data theft, cyberattacks or security vulnerabilities;
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
4

FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
failure of third-party providers, data centers or cloud service providers; and
our ability to integrate or realize expected returns on our acquisitions.
These factors are discussed in further detail in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in Part I and “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, and elsewhere in this report. Any of these factors, or a combination of such factors, could materially affect the results of our operations and whether forward-looking statements we make ultimately prove to be accurate.
Any forward-looking statements are made only as of the date hereof and, unless otherwise required by applicable securities laws, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
5

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
PART I
Item 1. Financial Statements
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands)June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$510,869 $575,812 
Restricted cash53,329 46,929 
Marketable securities30,781 31,791 
Accounts receivable, net685,857 513,306 
Prepaid insurance52,939 11,285 
Other current assets71,186 53,312 
Income taxes receivable5,684 12,413 
Total current assets1,410,645 1,244,848 
Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation199,322 210,723 
Right-of-use (“ROU”) leased assets59,149 62,830 
Prepaid health insurance9,000 9,000 
Deposits – health insurance7,900 7,900 
Deposits – workers’ compensation166,077 185,027 
Goodwill and other intangible assets, net12,707 12,707 
Deferred income taxes, net 4,892 
Other assets28,106 15,158 
Total assets$1,892,906 $1,753,085 
Liabilities and stockholders' equity
Accounts payable$6,034 $6,412 
Payroll taxes and other payroll deductions payable303,645 467,892 
Accrued worksite employee payroll cost662,762 409,653 
Accrued health insurance costs62,643 50,001 
Accrued workers’ compensation costs58,142 50,534 
Accrued corporate payroll and commissions69,775 74,778 
Other accrued liabilities83,599 69,303 
Total current liabilities1,246,600 1,128,573 
Accrued workers’ compensation cost, net of current173,686 192,694 
Long-term debt369,400 369,400 
Operating lease liabilities, net of current58,916 64,192 
Deferred income taxes, net9,172  
Total noncurrent liabilities611,174 626,286 
Commitments and contingencies
Common stock555 555 
Additional paid-in capital125,622 109,179 
Treasury stock, at cost(709,810)(665,089)
Retained earnings618,765 553,581 
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)35,132 (1,774)
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$1,892,906 $1,753,085 
See accompanying notes.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
6

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
(in thousands, except per share amounts)2022202120222021
Revenues(1)
$1,432,107 $1,185,371 $3,009,944 $2,472,206 
Payroll taxes, benefits and workers’ compensation costs
1,192,239 985,817 2,484,302 2,021,207 
Gross profit239,868 199,554 525,642 450,999 
Salaries, wages and payroll taxes106,522 94,362 213,961 197,437 
Stock-based compensation15,631 13,781 25,477 25,603 
Commissions10,743 8,251 21,053 15,970 
Advertising12,427 8,975 21,022 14,297 
General and administrative expenses36,095 29,211 77,100 60,847 
Depreciation and amortization10,100 9,751 20,284 17,798 
Total operating expenses191,518 164,331 378,897 331,952 
Operating income48,350 35,223 146,745 119,047 
Other income (expense):  
Interest income945 1,436 1,093 1,979 
Interest expense(2,691)(1,975)(4,616)(3,574)
Income before income tax expense46,604 34,684 143,222 117,452 
Income tax expense13,005 9,530 39,739 30,376 
Net income$33,599 $25,154 $103,483 $87,076 
Less distributed and undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities
(1)(37)(31)(193)
Net income allocated to common shares$33,598 $25,117 $103,452 $86,883 
Net income per share of common stock
Basic$0.88 $0.65 $2.70 $2.26 
Diluted$0.87 $0.65 $2.68 $2.24 
 ____________________________________
(1)Revenues are comprised of gross billings less WSEE payroll costs as follows:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
(in thousands)2022202120222021
Gross billings$9,224,643 $7,637,851 $19,582,548 $15,688,273 
Less: WSEE payroll cost7,792,536 6,452,480 16,572,604 13,216,067 
Revenues$1,432,107 $1,185,371 $3,009,944 $2,472,206 
See accompanying notes.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
7

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
Six Months Ended June 30,
(in thousands)20222021
Cash flows from operating activities
Net income$103,483 $87,076 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization20,284 17,798 
Stock-based compensation25,477 25,603 
Deferred income taxes14,064 9,161 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(172,551)(203,559)
Prepaid insurance(41,654)(6,979)
Other current assets(17,874)(7,609)
Other assets and ROU assets(4,324)5,407 
Accounts payable(378)(2,140)
Payroll taxes and other payroll deductions payable(164,247)(114,985)
Accrued worksite employee payroll costs253,109 195,045 
Accrued health insurance costs12,642 (3,621)
Accrued workers’ compensation costs(11,400)(877)
Accrued corporate payroll, commissions and other accrued liabilities(575)13,697 
Income taxes payable/receivable6,729 (7,022)
Total adjustments(80,698)(80,081)
Net cash provided by operating activities22,785 6,995 
Cash flows from investing activities  
Marketable securities:  
Purchases(17,268)(30,862)
Proceeds from maturities17,665 30,340 
Property and equipment:
Purchases(9,043)(20,708)
Net cash used in investing activities(8,646)(21,230)
Cash flows from financing activities
Purchase of treasury stock(56,805)(38,536)
Dividends paid(37,097)(32,828)
Other2,270 4,027 
Net cash used in financing activities(91,632)(67,337)
Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(77,493)(81,572)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash beginning of period807,768 786,699 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash end of period$730,275 $705,127 
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
8

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Continued)
Six Months Ended June 30,
(in thousands)20222021
Supplemental schedule of cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash
Cash and cash equivalents$575,812 $554,846 
Restricted cash46,929 45,522 
Deposits – workers’ compensation185,027 186,331 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash beginning of period$807,768 $786,699 
Cash and cash equivalents$510,869 $455,387 
Restricted cash53,329 46,128 
Deposits – workers’ compensation166,077 203,612 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash end of period$730,275 $705,127 
Supplemental operating lease cash flow information:
ROU assets obtained in exchange for lease obligations$2,678 $15,047 
See accompanying notes.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
9

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2022 and 2021

Common Stock IssuedAdditional Paid-In CapitalTreasury StockRetained Earnings and AOCITotal
(in thousands)SharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202155,489 $555 $109,179 $(665,089)$553,581 $(1,774)
Purchase of treasury stock, at cost—   (56,805) (56,805)
Issuance of equity-based incentive awards and dividend equivalents—  (9,248)10,399 (1,151) 
Stock-based compensation expense—  24,527 950  25,477 
Other—  1,164 735  1,899 
Dividends paid—    (37,097)(37,097)
Unrealized loss on marketable securities, net of tax—    (51)(51)
Net income—    103,483 103,483 
Balance at June 30, 202255,489 $555 $125,622 $(709,810)$618,765 $35,132 
Balance at December 31, 202055,489 $555 $95,528 $(626,984)$575,033 $44,132 
Purchase of treasury stock, at cost—   (38,536) (38,536)
Issuance of equity-based incentive awards and dividend equivalents—  (25,085)26,421 (1,336) 
Stock-based compensation expense—  23,439 2,164  25,603 
Exercise of stock options—  (329)569  240 
Other—  843 739  1,582 
Dividends paid—    (32,828)(32,828)
Unrealized loss on marketable securities, net of tax—    (7)(7)
Net income—    87,076 87,076 
Balance at June 30, 202155,489 $555 $94,396 $(635,627)$627,938 $87,262 
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
10

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (Continued)
For the Three Months Ended June 30, 2022 and 2021
Common Stock IssuedAdditional Paid-In CapitalTreasury StockRetained Earnings and AOCITotal
(in thousands)SharesAmount
Balance at March 31, 202255,489 $555 $110,053 $(681,625)$604,978 $33,961 
Purchase of treasury stock, at cost—   (29,364) (29,364)
Issuance of equity based incentive awards and dividend equivalents—  (34)34   
Stock-based compensation expense—  14,952 679  15,631 
Other—  651 466  1,117 
Dividends paid—    (19,853)(19,853)
Unrealized gain on marketable securities, net of tax—    41 41 
Net income—    33,599 33,599 
Balance at June 30, 202255,489 $555 $125,622 $(709,810)$618,765 $35,132 
Balance at March 31, 202155,489 $555 $81,329 $(628,391)$620,151 $73,644 
Purchase of treasury stock, at cost—   (8,850) (8,850)
Stock-based compensation expense—  12,588 1,193  13,781 
Other—  479 421  900 
Dividends paid—    (17,367)(17,367)
Net income—    25,154 25,154 
Balance at June 30, 202155,489 $555 $94,396 $(635,627)$627,938 $87,262 
See accompanying notes.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
11

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)

1.Basis of Presentation
Insperity, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Insperity,” “we,” “our,” and “us”), provides an array of human resources (“HR”) and business solutions designed to help improve business performance. Our most comprehensive HR services offerings are provided through our professional employer organization (“PEO”) services, known as Workforce Optimization® and Workforce SynchronizationTM solutions (together, our “PEO HR Outsourcing solutions”), which we provide by entering into a co-employment relationship with our clients. Our PEO HR Outsourcing solutions encompass a broad range of HR functions, including payroll and employment administration, employee benefits, workers’ compensation, government compliance, performance management, and training and development services, along with our cloud-based human capital management solution, the Insperity PremierTM platform.
In addition to our PEO HR Outsourcing solutions, we offer a comprehensive traditional payroll and human capital management solution, known as our Workforce AccelerationTM solution. We also offer a number of other business performance solutions, including Organizational Planning, Recruiting Services, Employment Screening, Retirement Services, and Insurance Services. These other products or services are offered separately or with our other solutions.
The Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of Insperity, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
The accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements should be read in conjunction with our audited Consolidated Financial Statements at and for the year ended December 31, 2021. Our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet at December 31, 2021 has been derived from the audited financial statements at that date, but does not include all of the information or footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. Our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet at June 30, 2022 and our Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three and six month periods ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the six month periods ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 and our Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for the three and six month periods ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, have been prepared by us without audit. In the opinion of management, all adjustments necessary to present fairly the consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows have been made, and all such adjustments are of a normal recurring nature. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the 2022 presentation.
The results of operations for the interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the operating results for a full year or of future operations.

2.Accounting Policies
Health Insurance Costs
We provide group health insurance coverage to our WSEEs in our PEO HR Outsourcing solutions through a national network of carriers, including UnitedHealthcare (“United”), UnitedHealthcare of California, Kaiser Permanente, Blue Shield of California, HMSA BlueCross BlueShield of Hawaii, and Tufts, all of which provide fully insured policies or service contracts.
The policy with United provides approximately 87% of our participants’ health insurance coverage. While the policy with United is a fully-insured plan, as a result of certain contractual terms, we have accounted for this plan since its inception using a partially self-funded insurance accounting model. Effective January 1, 2020, under the amended agreement with United, we no longer have financial responsibilities for a participant’s annual claim costs that exceed $1 million. Accordingly, we record the costs of the United plan, including an estimate of the incurred claims, taxes and administrative fees (collectively the “Plan Costs”), as benefits expense, which is a component of direct costs, in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. The estimated incurred claims are based upon: (1) the level of claims processed during the quarter; (2) estimated completion rates based upon recent claim development patterns under the plan; and (3) the number of participants in the plan, including both active and COBRA enrollees. Each reporting
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
12

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
period, changes in the estimated ultimate costs resulting from claim trends, plan design and migration, participant demographics, and other factors are incorporated into the benefits costs, which requires a significant level of judgment.
Additionally, since the plan’s inception, under the terms of the contract, United establishes cash funding rates 90 days in advance of the beginning of a reporting quarter. If the Plan Costs for a reporting quarter are greater than the premiums paid and owed to United, a deficit in the plan would be incurred and a liability for the excess costs would be accrued in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. On the other hand, if the Plan Costs for the reporting quarter are less than the premiums paid and owed to United, a surplus in the plan would be incurred and we would record an asset for the excess premiums in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The terms of the arrangement require us to maintain an accumulated cash surplus in the plan of $9.0 million, which is reported as long-term prepaid insurance. In addition, United requires a deposit equal to approximately one day of claims funding activity, which was $6.5 million at June 30, 2022, and is included in deposits - health insurance as a long-term asset on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of June 30, 2022, Plan Costs were less than the net premiums paid and owed to United by $41.8 million. As this amount is in excess of the agreed-upon $9.0 million surplus maintenance level, the $32.8 million difference is included in prepaid insurance, a current asset, in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The premiums, including the additional quarterly premiums, owed to United at June 30, 2022 were $55.9 million, which is included in accrued health insurance costs, a current liability in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Our benefits costs incurred in the first six months of 2022 included an increase of $10.2 million for changes in estimated run-off related to prior periods. Our benefits costs incurred in the first six months of 2021 included an increase of $5.7 million for changes in estimated run-off related to prior periods.
Workers’ Compensation Costs
Our workers’ compensation coverage for our WSEEs in our PEO HR Outsourcing solutions is provided through an arrangement with the Chubb Group of Insurance Companies or its predecessors (the “Chubb Program”). The Chubb Program is fully insured in that Chubb has the responsibility to pay all claims incurred under the policy regardless of whether we satisfy our responsibilities. Under the Chubb Program for claims incurred on or before September 30, 2019, we have financial responsibility to Chubb for the first $1 million layer of claims per occurrence and, for claims over $1 million, up to a maximum aggregate amount of $6 million per policy year for claims that exceed $1 million. Chubb bears the financial responsibility for all claims in excess of these levels. Effective for claims incurred on or after October 1, 2019, we have financial responsibility to Chubb for the first $1.5 million layer of claims per occurrence and, for claims over $1.5 million, up to a maximum aggregate amount of $6 million per policy year for claims that exceed $1.5 million.
Because we bear the financial responsibility for claims up to the levels noted above, such claims, which are the primary component of our workers’ compensation costs, are recorded in the period incurred. Workers’ compensation insurance includes ongoing health care and indemnity coverage whereby claims are paid over numerous years following the date of injury. Accordingly, the accrual of related incurred costs in each reporting period includes estimates, which take into account the ongoing development of claims and therefore requires a significant level of judgment.
We utilize a third-party actuary to estimate our loss development rate, which is primarily based upon the nature of WSEEs’ job responsibilities, the location of WSEEs, the historical frequency and severity of workers’ compensation claims, and an estimate of future cost trends. Each reporting period, changes in the actuarial assumptions resulting from changes in actual claims experience and other trends are incorporated into our workers’ compensation claims cost estimates. During the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, we reduced accrued workers’ compensation costs by $26.8 million and $23.0 million, respectively, for changes in estimated losses related to prior reporting periods. Workers’ compensation cost estimates are discounted to present value at a rate based upon the U.S. Treasury rates that correspond with the weighted average estimated claim payout period (the average discount rate utilized in the 2022 period was 2.0% and in the 2021 period was 0.5%) and are accreted over the estimated claim payment period and included as a component of direct costs in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
13

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
The following table provides the activity and balances related to incurred but not paid workers’ compensation claims:
Six Months Ended June 30,
(in thousands)20222021
Beginning balance, January 1,$239,623 $240,761 
Accrued claims18,780 20,559 
Present value discount, net of accretion(3,501)407 
Paid claims(27,899)(22,904)
Ending balance$227,003 $238,823 
Current portion of accrued claims$53,317 $46,120 
Long-term portion of accrued claims173,686 192,703 
Total accrued claims$227,003 $238,823 
The current portion of accrued workers’ compensation costs on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at June 30, 2022 includes $4.8 million of workers’ compensation administrative fees.
As of June 30, 2022 and 2021, the undiscounted accrued workers’ compensation costs were $243.9 million and $254.8 million, respectively.
At the beginning of each policy period, the workers’ compensation insurance carrier establishes monthly funding requirements comprised of premium costs and funds to be set aside for payment of future claims (“claim funds”). The level of claim funds is primarily based upon anticipated WSEE payroll levels and expected workers’ compensation loss rates, as determined by the insurance carrier. Monies funded into the program for incurred claims expected to be paid within one year are recorded as restricted cash, a short-term asset, while the remainder of claim funds are included in deposits – workers’ compensation, a long-term asset in our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. During the first six months of 2022, we received $30.2 million for the return of excess claim funds related to the workers’ compensation program, which resulted in a decrease to deposits - workers’ compensation. At June 30, 2022, we had restricted cash of $53.3 million and deposits – workers’ compensation of $166.1 million.
Our estimate of incurred claim costs expected to be paid within one year is included in short-term liabilities, while our estimate of incurred claim costs expected to be paid beyond one year is included in long-term liabilities on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Revenue and Direct Cost Recognition
We enter into contracts with our customers for human resources services based on a stated rate and price in the contract. Our contracts generally establish pricing for a period of 12 months, and are generally cancellable at any time by either party with 30-days’ notice. Our performance obligations are satisfied as services are rendered each month. The term between invoicing and when our performance obligations are satisfied is not significant. Payment terms are typically due concurrently with the invoicing of our PEO services. We do not have significant financing components or significant payment terms.
Our revenue is generally recognized ratably over the payroll period as WSEEs perform their service at the client worksite. Customers are invoiced concurrently with each periodic payroll of its WSEEs. Revenues that have been recognized but unbilled of $674.4 million and $490.5 million at June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively, are included in accounts receivable, net on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Pursuant to the “practical expedients” provided under Accounting Standards Update No 2014-09, we expense sales commissions when incurred because the terms of our contracts generally are cancellable by either party with a 30-day notice. These costs are recorded in commissions in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
14

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
Our revenue for our PEO HR Outsourcing solutions by geographic region and for our other products and services offerings are as follows:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
(in thousands)20222021% Change20222021% Change
Northeast$388,680 $329,016 18.1 %$838,602 $702,645 19.3 %
Southeast192,782 150,810 27.8 %394,985 307,070 28.6 %
Central252,039 206,084 22.3 %523,350 431,784 21.2 %
Southwest279,936 238,368 17.4 %588,774 495,348 18.9 %
West304,380 247,184 23.1 %635,152 508,538 24.9 %
1,417,817 1,171,462 21.0 %2,980,863 2,445,385 21.9 %
Other revenue14,290 13,909 2.7 %29,081 26,821 8.4 %
Total revenue$1,432,107 $1,185,371 20.8 %$3,009,944 $2,472,206 21.8 %


3.Cash, Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities
The following table summarizes our cash and investments in cash equivalents and marketable securities held by investment managers and overnight investments:
June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
(in thousands)Cash & Cash EquivalentsMarketable SecuritiesTotalCash & Cash EquivalentsMarketable SecuritiesTotal
Overnight holdings$443,760 $ $443,760 $490,154 $ $490,154 
Investment holdings44,929 30,781 75,710 88,951 31,791 120,742 
Cash in demand accounts37,004  37,004 47,331  47,331 
Outstanding checks(14,824) (14,824)(50,624) (50,624)
Total$510,869 $30,781 $541,650 $575,812 $31,791 $607,603 
Our cash and overnight holdings fluctuate based on the timing of clients’ payroll processing cycles. Our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities at June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021 included $258.2 million and $424.8 million, respectively, of funds associated with federal and state income tax withholdings, employment taxes, and other payroll deductions, as well as $116.6 million and $20.1 million, respectively, in client prepayments.

4.Fair Value Measurements
We account for our financial assets in accordance with Accounting Standard Codification 820, Fair Value Measurement. This standard defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. The fair value measurement disclosures are grouped into three levels based on valuation factors:
Level 1 - quoted prices in active markets using identical assets
Level 2 - significant other observable inputs, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities, quoted prices in markets that are not active, or other observable inputs
Level 3 - significant unobservable inputs
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
15

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
Fair Value of Instruments Measured and Recognized at Fair Value
The following table summarizes the levels of fair value measurements of our financial assets:
June 30, 2022December 31, 2021
(in thousands)TotalLevel 1Level 2TotalLevel 1Level 2
Money market funds$488,689 $488,689 $ $579,105 $579,105 $ 
U.S. Treasury bills8,032 8,032  5,782 5,782  
Municipal bonds22,749  22,749 26,009  26,009 
Total$519,470 $496,721 $22,749 $610,896 $584,887 $26,009 

The municipal bond securities valued as Level 2 are primarily pre-refunded municipal bonds that are secured by escrow funds containing U.S. government securities. Our valuation techniques used to measure fair value for these securities during the period consisted primarily of third-party pricing services that utilized actual market data such as trades of comparable bond issues, broker/dealer quotations for the same or similar investments in active markets and other observable inputs.
The following is a summary of our available-for-sale marketable securities:
(in thousands)Amortized CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesEstimated Fair Value
June 30, 2022
U.S. Treasury bills$8,056 $ $(24)$8,032 
Municipal bonds22,783 2 (36)22,749 
December 31, 2021
U.S. Treasury bills$5,783 $ $(1)$5,782 
Municipal bonds26,017  (8)26,009 
As of June 30, 2022, the contractual maturities of the marketable securities in our portfolio were less than one year.
Fair Value of Other Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, deposits and accounts payable approximate their fair values due to the short-term maturities of these instruments.
As of June 30, 2022, the carrying value of borrowings under our revolving credit facility approximates fair value and was classified as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy. Please read Note 5, “Long-Term Debt,” for additional information.

5.Long-Term Debt
We have a revolving credit facility (the “Facility”), which we amended in June 2022 to, among other things, increase our borrowing capacity from $500 million to $650 million. The Facility may be further increased to $700 million based on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the agreement relating to the Facility (as amended, the “Credit Agreement”). The Facility is available for working capital and general corporate purposes, including acquisitions, stock repurchases and issuances of letters of credit. Our obligations under the Facility are secured by 65% of the stock of our captive insurance subsidiary and are guaranteed by all of our domestic subsidiaries other than certain excluded subsidiaries. At June 30, 2022, our outstanding balance on the Facility was $369.4 million, and we had an outstanding $1.0 million letter of credit issued under the Facility, resulting in an available borrowing capacity of $279.6 million.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
16

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
The Facility matures on June 30, 2027. Borrowings under the Facility bear interest at an annual rate equal to, at our option, an alternate base rate for alternate base rate loans or Adjusted Term SOFR for term SOFR loans, in either case plus an applicable margin. Adjusted Term SOFR is a forward-looking term rate based on the secured overnight financing rate plus a spread adjustment, which ranges from 0.10% to 0.25% depending on the interest period and type of loan. Depending on our leverage ratio, the applicable margin varies (1) in the case of term SOFR loans, from 1.50% to 2.25% and (2) in the case of alternate base rate loans, from 0.00% to 0.50%. The alternate base rate is the highest of (1) the prime rate most recently published in The Wall Street Journal, (2) the federal funds rate plus 0.50% and (3) the Adjusted Term SOFR rate plus 2.00%. We also pay an unused commitment fee on the average daily unused portion of the Facility at a rate of 0.25% per year. The average interest rate for the six month period ended June 30, 2022 was 2.2%. Interest expense and unused commitment fees are recorded in other income (expense).
The Facility contains both affirmative and negative covenants that we believe are customary for arrangements of this nature. Covenants include, but are not limited to, limitations on our ability to incur additional indebtedness, sell material assets, retire, redeem or otherwise reacquire our capital stock, acquire the capital stock or assets of another business, make investments and pay dividends. In addition, the Credit Agreement requires us to comply with financial covenants limiting our total funded debt, minimum interest coverage ratio, and maximum leverage ratio. We were in compliance with all financial covenants under the Credit Agreement at June 30, 2022.

6.Stockholders' Equity
During the first six months of 2022, we repurchased or withheld an aggregate of 615,694 shares of our common stock, as described below.
Repurchase Program
Our Board of Directors (the “Board”) has authorized a program to repurchase shares of our outstanding common stock (“Repurchase Program”). The purchases may be made from time to time in the open market or directly from stockholders at prevailing market prices based on market conditions and other factors. During the six months ended June 30, 2022, 517,083 shares were repurchased under the Repurchase Program. As of June 30, 2022, we were authorized to repurchase an additional 1,186,545 shares under the Repurchase Program.
Withheld Shares
During the six months ended June 30, 2022, we withheld 98,611 shares to satisfy tax withholding obligations for the vesting of long-term incentive and restricted stock awards.
Dividends
The Board declared quarterly dividends as follows:
(amounts per share)20222021
First quarter$0.45 $0.40 
Second quarter0.52 0.45 
During the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, we paid dividends totaling $37.1 million and $32.8 million, respectively.

Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
17

NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
7.Net Income Per Share
We utilize the two-class method to compute net income per share. The two-class method allocates a portion of net income to participating securities, which includes unvested awards of share-based payments with non-forfeitable rights to receive dividends. Net income allocated to unvested share-based payments is excluded from net income allocated to common shares. Any undistributed losses resulting from dividends exceeding net income are not allocated to participating securities. Basic net income per share is computed by dividing net income allocated to common shares by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income per share is computed by dividing net income allocated to common shares by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period, plus the dilutive effect of time-vested and performance-based restricted stock units (“RSUs”).
The following table summarizes the net income allocated to common shares and the basic and diluted shares used in the net income per share computations:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
(in thousands)2022202120222021
Net income$33,599 $25,154 $103,483 $87,076 
Less distributed and undistributed earnings allocated to participating securities
(1)(37)(31)(193)
Net income allocated to common shares
$33,598 $25,117 $103,452 $86,883 
Weighted average common shares outstanding38,229 38,591 38,259 38,410 
Incremental shares from assumed time-vested and performance-based RSU awards359 232 382 427 
Adjusted weighted average common shares outstanding38,588 38,823 38,641 38,837 
Potentially dilutive securities not included in weighted average share calculation due to anti-dilutive effect  13  

8.Commitments and Contingencies
Litigation
We are a defendant in various lawsuits and claims arising in the normal course of business. Management believes it has valid defenses in these cases and is defending them vigorously. While the results of litigation cannot be predicted with certainty, management believes the final outcome of such litigation will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
18

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
You should read the following discussion in conjunction with our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, as well as our Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Executive Summary
Overview
Insperity, Inc. (“Insperity,” “we,” “our,” and “us”) provides an array of human resources (“HR”) and business solutions designed to help improve business performance. Our most comprehensive HR services offerings are provided through our professional employer organization (“PEO”) services, known as Workforce Optimization® and Workforce SynchronizationTM solutions (together, our “PEO HR Outsourcing solutions”), which we provide by entering into a co-employment relationship with our clients. Our PEO HR Outsourcing solutions encompass a broad range of HR functions, including payroll and employment administration, employee benefits, workers’ compensation, government compliance, performance management, and training and development services, along with our cloud-based human capital management solution, the Insperity PremierTM platform.
COVID-19 Pandemic
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including actions taken by businesses and governments, have resulted in significant changes in U.S. economic activity and to the workplace in general. While uncertainties continue regarding the pandemic, including its duration, future variants, and its longer-term impacts, we believe that we are positioned to continue to adjust our business plans and workforce practices as conditions change. In response to the pandemic’s impact on the workplace, we implemented flexible remote working arrangements for our employees. To serve our clients, we have instituted a number of service offerings and developed COVID-19 resources to assist clients with obtaining government provided tax credits, tax deferrals, loans and loan forgiveness and to provide guidance to assist clients with addressing the challenges faced by employers as a result of the pandemic. These service offerings and guidance to assist clients with the impacts of the pandemic include additional benefits support; remote workforce transition; monitoring and educating on regulatory changes, including vaccine mandates; return to the workplace; and workplace safety.
In the second quarter of 2022 (“Q2 2022”), the average number of WSEEs paid per month increased 19.4% year-over-year as the Q2 2022 increase in WSEEs paid at existing clients combined with WSEEs paid from new sales and client retention all exceeded the second quarter of 2021 (“Q2 2021”) levels. We expect the average number of paid WSEEs per month to increase between 17% and 18% in the third quarter of 2022 as compared to the third quarter of 2021, which, if achieved, would equate to the average number of paid WSEEs per month growing 3.7% to 4.6% sequentially from the second quarter of 2022.
We experienced a 0.6% decrease in the year-over-year benefits costs per covered employee during Q2 2022 as compared to Q2 2021. During Q2 2021, we experienced a 23.9% increase in the year-over-year benefits costs per covered employee as compared to Q2 2020. During 2022 and possibly beyond 2022, benefits costs are expected to continue to be affected by the dynamics of the pandemic, including the impact on healthcare utilization and incremental COVID-19 testing, vaccination and treatment costs. This may result in a higher level of healthcare claims costs than our historical claim cost trends. While we have experienced a reduced frequency in workers’ compensation claims during the COVID-19 pandemic, the COVID-19 pandemic has not had a material impact on our workers’ compensation cost estimate; however, the ultimate impact of COVID-19 on our workers’ compensation program remains uncertain.
The extent to which our future results are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic will depend on various factors and consequences beyond our control, such as the scope, duration and magnitude of the pandemic, impacts of changes in or variants of the COVID-19 virus, actions by businesses and governments in response to the pandemic, including programs designed to assist small and medium-sized businesses with the economic impact of the pandemic; and the speed and effectiveness of responses to combat the virus, including the development, availability and acceptance of therapeutics and vaccines. See Item 1A. “Risk Factors” included in Part I of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
19

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
2022 Highlights
Second Quarter 2022 Compared to Second Quarter 2021
Average number of WSEEs paid per month increased 19.4%
Net income and diluted earnings per share (“diluted EPS”) increased 33.6% and 33.8% to $33.6 million and $0.87, respectively
Adjusted EPS increased 27.5% to $1.16
Adjusted EBITDA increased 24.6% to $75.0 million
First Six Months 2022 Compared to First Six Months 2021
Average number of WSEEs paid per month increased 19.5%
Net income and diluted EPS increased 18.8% and 19.6% to $103.5 million and $2.68, respectively
Adjusted EPS increased 15.8% to $3.15
Adjusted EBITDA increased 17.7% to $193.6 million
Please read “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a reconciliation of adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EPS to their most directly comparable financial measures calculated and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”).
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
20

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Key Financial and Statistical Data
(in thousands, except per share, WSEE and statistical data)
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
20222021% Change20222021% Change
Financial data:
Revenues
$1,432,107 $1,185,371 20.8 %$3,009,944 $2,472,206 21.8 %
Gross profit239,868 199,554 20.2 %525,642 450,999 16.6 %
Operating expenses191,518 164,331 16.5 %378,897 331,952 14.1 %
Operating income48,350 35,223 37.3 %146,745 119,047 23.3 %
Other expense(1,746)(539)223.9 %(3,523)(1,595)120.9 %
Net income33,599 25,154 33.6 %103,483 87,076 18.8 %
Diluted EPS
0.87 0.65 33.8 %2.68 2.24 19.6 %
Non-GAAP financial measures(1):
Adjusted net income$44,885 $35,292 27.2 %$121,891 $106,058 14.9 %
Adjusted EBITDA75,026 60,191 24.6 %193,599 164,427 17.7 %
Adjusted EPS
1.16 0.91 27.5 %3.15 2.72 15.8 %
Average WSEEs paid290,507 243,270 19.4 %284,583 238,220 19.5 %
Statistical data (per WSEE per month):
Revenues(2)
$1,643 $1,624 1.2 %$1,763 $1,730 1.9 %
Gross profit275 273 0.7 %308 316 (2.5)%
Operating expenses
220 225 (2.2)%222 232 (4.3)%
Operating income
55 48 14.6 %86 83 3.6 %
Net income39 34 14.7 %61 61 — 
 ____________________________________
(1)Please read “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a reconciliation of the non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable financial measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.
(2)Revenues per WSEE per month are comprised of gross billings per WSEE per month less WSEE payroll costs per WSEE per month as follows:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
(per WSEE per month)2022202120222021
Gross billings$10,585 $10,466 $11,469 $10,976 
Less: WSEE payroll cost8,942 8,842 9,706 9,246 
Revenues$1,643 $1,624 $1,763 $1,730 

Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
21

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Results of Operations
Key Operating Metrics
We monitor certain key metrics to measure our performance, including:
WSEEs
Adjusted EBITDA
Adjusted EPS
Our growth in the number of WSEEs paid is affected by three primary sources: new client sales, client retention and the net change in WSEEs paid at existing clients through new hires and layoffs.

During Q2 2022, WSEEs paid increased 19.4% compared to Q2 2021. The number of WSEEs paid from new client sales and the net gain (loss) in our client base improved compared to Q2 2021, while client retention remained consistent with Q2 2021.

During the first six months of 2022 (“YTD 2022”), WSEEs paid increased 19.5% compared to the first six months of 2021 (“YTD 2021”). The number of WSEEs paid from new client sales, the net gain (loss) in our client base and client retention all improved compared to YTD 2021.

Average WSEEs Paid and
Year-over-Year Growth Percentage
nsp-20220630_g2.jpg
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
22

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Adjusted EBITDA and
Year-over-Year Growth Percentage
(in thousands)
nsp-20220630_g3.jpg

Adjusted EPS and
Year-over-Year Growth Percentage
(amounts per share)
nsp-20220630_g4.jpg
Revenues
Our PEO HR Outsourcing solutions revenues are primarily derived from our gross billings, which are based on (1) the payroll cost of our WSEEs and (2) a monthly markup component.
Our revenues are primarily dependent on the number of clients enrolled, the resulting number of WSEEs paid each period and the number of WSEEs enrolled in our benefit plans. Because our monthly markup is computed in part as a percentage of payroll cost, certain revenues are also affected by the payroll cost of WSEEs, which may fluctuate based on the composition of the WSEE base, inflationary effects on wage levels and differences in the local economies of our markets.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
23

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Revenue and
Year-over-Year Growth Percentage
(in thousands)
nsp-20220630_g5.jpg
Second Quarter 2022 Compared to Second Quarter 2021
Our revenues for Q2 2022 were $1.4 billion, an increase of 20.8%, primarily due to the following:
Average WSEEs paid increased 19.4%.
Revenues per WSEE per month increased 1.2%, or $19.
First Six Months 2022 Compared to First Six Months 2021
Our revenues for YTD 2022 were $3.0 billion, an increase of 21.8%, primarily due to the following:
Average WSEEs paid increased 19.5%.
Revenues per WSEE per month increased 1.9%, or $33.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
24

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
We provide our PEO HR Outsourcing solutions to small and medium-sized businesses throughout the United States. Our PEO HR Outsourcing solutions revenue distribution by region follows:
PEO HR Outsourcing Solutions Revenue by Region
(in thousands)
nsp-20220630_g6.jpg nsp-20220630_g7.jpg
________________________________________________________
(1)The Southwest region includes Texas.

The percentage of total PEO HR Outsourcing solutions revenue in our significant markets includes the following:
Significant Markets
nsp-20220630_g8.jpg   nsp-20220630_g9.jpg
We believe the middle market sector, which we generally define as those companies with employees ranging from approximately 150 to 5,000 WSEEs, has historically been under-served by the PEO industry. Currently, we have a dedicated sales management, service personnel, and consulting staff who concentrate solely on the middle market sector. Our average number of WSEEs per month in our middle market sector increased 23.2% during Q2 2022 compared to Q2 2021, representing approximately 24.3% and 23.6% of our total average paid WSEEs during Q2 2022 and Q2 2021, respectively.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
25

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Gross Profit
In determining the pricing of the markup component of our gross billings, we take into consideration our estimates of the costs directly associated with our WSEEs, including payroll taxes, benefits and workers’ compensation costs, plus an acceptable gross profit margin. As a result, our operating results are significantly impacted by our ability to accurately estimate, control and manage our direct costs relative to the revenues derived from the markup component of our gross billings.
Our gross profit per WSEE is primarily determined by our ability to accurately estimate and control direct costs and our ability to incorporate changes in these costs into the gross billings charged to PEO HR Outsourcing solutions clients, which are subject to pricing arrangements that are typically renewed annually. We use gross profit per WSEE per month as our principal measurement of relative performance at the gross profit level.
Gross Profit and
Year-over-Year Growth Percentage
(in thousands)
nsp-20220630_g10.jpg

Gross Profit per WSEE per Month and
Year-over-Year Growth Percentage
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Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
26

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Second Quarter 2022 Compared to Second Quarter 2021
Gross profit for Q2 2022 increased 20.2% to $239.9 million compared to $199.6 million in Q2 2021. Gross profit per WSEE per month for Q2 2022 increased $2 to $275 compared to $273 in Q2 2021 due primarily to higher average pricing, offset in part by higher direct costs, as discussed below.
Our pricing objectives attempt to achieve a level of revenue per WSEE that matches or exceeds changes in primary direct costs and operating expenses. Our revenues per WSEE per month increased $19 due to higher average pricing.
The net decrease in direct costs between Q2 2022 and Q2 2021 attributable to the changes in cost estimates for benefits and workers’ compensation totaled $24.5 million as discussed below. The $17 per WSEE per month increase in direct costs is due primarily to the direct cost components changes as follows:
Benefits costs
The cost of group health insurance and related employee benefits decreased $26 per WSEE per month and decreased 0.6% on a cost per covered employee basis due primarily to lower utilization and lower COVID-19 related costs in Q2 2022 as compared to Q2 2021.
The percentage of WSEEs covered under our health insurance plans was 65.4% in Q2 2022 compared to 67.3% in Q2 2021.
Reported results include changes in estimated claims run-off related to prior periods, which was a reduction in costs of $7.2 million, or $8 per WSEE per month, in Q2 2022 compared to an increase in costs of $15.3 million, or $21 per WSEE per month, in Q2 2021.
Please read Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Accounting Policies – Health Insurance Costs,” for a discussion of our accounting for health insurance costs.
Workers’ compensation costs
Our continued discipline around our client selection, workplace safety and claims management has allowed for claims within our policy periods to be closed out at amounts below our original cost estimates.
Workers’ compensation costs decreased 11.7%, or $6 per WSEE per month, in Q2 2022 compared to Q2 2021 on a 25.9% increase in non-bonus payroll costs.
As a percentage of non-bonus payroll cost, workers’ compensation costs were 0.21% in Q2 2022 and 0.30% Q2 2021.
We recorded a reduction in workers’ compensation costs of $12.8 million, or 0.18% of non-bonus payroll costs, in Q2 2022 compared to a reduction of $10.8 million, or 0.19% of non-bonus payroll costs, in Q2 2021, primarily as a result of closing out claims at lower than expected costs.
Please read Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Accounting Policies – Workers’ Compensation Costs,” for a discussion of our accounting for workers’ compensation costs.
Payroll tax costs
Payroll taxes increased 30.5% on a 20.8% increase in payroll costs, or $51 per WSEE per month, due to the non-recurrence of an $11.2 million reduction in Q2 2021 related to final 2021 state unemployment taxes and the Q2 2021 collection of $11.3 million in federal payroll tax refunds related to prior years.
Payroll taxes as a percentage of payroll costs increased to 6.7% in Q2 2022 compared to 6.2% Q2 2021.
First Six Months 2022 Compared to First Six Months 2021
Gross profit for YTD 2022 increased 16.6% to $525.6 million compared to $451.0 million in YTD 2021. Gross profit per WSEE per month for YTD 2022 decreased $8 to $308 compared to $316 in YTD 2021 due primarily to higher direct costs, offset in part by higher average pricing, as discussed below.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
27

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Our pricing objectives attempt to achieve a level of revenue per WSEE that matches or exceeds changes in primary direct costs and operating expenses. Our revenues per WSEE per month increased $33 due to higher average pricing.
The net increase in direct costs between YTD 2022 and YTD 2021 attributable to the changes in cost estimates for benefits and workers’ compensation totaled $0.7 million as discussed below. The $41 per WSEE per month increase in direct costs is due primarily to the direct cost components changes as follows:
Benefits costs
The cost of group health insurance and related employee benefits increased $4 per WSEE per month and increased 3.1% on a cost per covered employee basis.
The percentage of WSEEs covered under our health insurance plans was 65.9% in YTD 2022 compared to 67.6% in YTD 2021.
Reported results include changes in estimated claims run-off related to prior periods which was an increase in costs of $10.2 million, or $6 per WSEE per month, in YTD 2022 compared to an increase in costs of $5.7 million, or $4 per WSEE per month, in YTD 2021.
Please read Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Accounting Policies – Health Insurance Costs,” for a discussion of our accounting for health insurance costs.
Workers’ compensation costs
Our continued discipline around our client selection, workplace safety and claims management contributed to the decrease in our cost per WSEE and, as a result, has allowed for claims within our policy periods to be closed out at amounts below our original cost estimates.
Workers’ compensation costs decreased 8.0%, or $5 per WSEE per month, in YTD 2022 compared to YTD 2021.
As a percentage of non-bonus payroll cost, workers’ compensation costs in YTD 2022 were 0.21% compared to 0.28% in YTD 2021.
We recorded a reduction in workers’ compensation costs of $26.8 million, or 0.19% of non-bonus payroll costs, in YTD 2022 compared to a reduction of $23.0 million, or 0.21% of non-bonus payroll costs, in YTD 2021, primarily as a result of closing out claims at lower than expected costs.
Please read Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, “Accounting Policies – Workers’ Compensation Costs,” for a discussion of our accounting for workers’ compensation costs.
Payroll tax costs
Payroll taxes increased 27.6% on a 25.4% increase in payroll costs, or $44 per WSEE per month, due to the non-recurrence of the YTD 2021 collection of $16.8 million in federal payroll tax refunds related to prior years.
Payroll taxes as a percentage of payroll costs increased to 7.1% in YTD 2022 compared to 7.0% in YTD 2021.
Operating Expenses
Salaries, wages and payroll taxes — Salaries, wages and payroll taxes (“Salaries”) are primarily a function of the number of corporate employees, their associated average pay and any additional incentive compensation.
Stock-based compensation — Our stock-based compensation relates to the recognition of non-cash compensation expense over the requisite service period of time-vested and performance-based awards.
Commissions — Commissions expense consists primarily of amounts paid to sales managers and other sales personnel, including business performance advisors (“BPAs”), as well as, channel referral fees. Commissions are based on new accounts sold and a percentage of revenue generated by such personnel.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
28

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Advertising — Advertising expense primarily consists of media advertising and other business promotions in our current and anticipated sales markets.
General and administrative expenses — Our general and administrative expenses primarily include:
rent expenses related to our service centers and sales offices
outside professional service fees related to legal, consulting and accounting services
administrative costs, such as postage, printing and supplies
employee travel and training expenses
technology and facility costs, including repairs, maintenance and software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) licensing costs
Depreciation and amortization — Depreciation and amortization expense is primarily a function of our capital investments in corporate facilities, service centers, sales offices, software development and technology infrastructure.
Second Quarter 2022 Compared to Second Quarter 2021
The following table presents certain information related to our operating expenses:
Three Months Ended June 30,
per WSEE
(in thousands, except per WSEE)20222021% Change20222021% Change
Salaries$106,522 $94,362 12.9 %$123 $129 (4.7)%
Stock-based compensation15,631 13,781 13.4 %18 19 (5.3)%
Commissions10,743 8,251 30.2 %12 11 9.1 %
Advertising12,427 8,975 38.5 %14 12 16.7 %
General and administrative36,095 29,211 23.6 %41 41 — 
Depreciation and amortization10,100 9,751 3.6 %12 13 (7.7)%
Total operating expenses$191,518 $164,331 16.5 %$220 $225 (2.2)%
Operating expenses for Q2 2022 increased 16.5% to $191.5 million compared to $164.3 million in Q2 2021. Operating expenses per WSEE per month for Q2 2022 decreased 2.2% to $220 compared to $225 in Q2 2021.
Salaries of corporate and sales staff for Q2 2022 increased 12.9% to $106.5 million, but decreased $6 on a per WSEE per month basis, compared to Q2 2021 on the 19.4% increase in WSEEs paid per month. This increase was primarily due to a 5.2% increase in corporate headcount in Q2 2022 compared to Q2 2021, as well as higher incentive compensation accruals in Q2 2022 and increases due to staff compensation adjustments in response to current labor market dynamics and our recruiting and retention goals.
Stock-based compensation expense for Q2 2022 increased 13.4% to $15.6 million, but decreased $1 on a per WSEE per month basis, compared to Q2 2021. The increase was primarily due to awards issued under our restricted stock program.
Commissions expense for Q2 2022 increased 30.2% to $10.7 million, or $1 per WSEE per month, compared to Q2 2021. The increase was primarily due to commissions associated with our PEO HR Outsourcing solutions, including a new incentive program for our BPAs and sales managers.
Advertising expense for Q2 2022 increased 38.5% to $12.4 million, or $2 per WSEE per month, compared to Q2 2021. The increase was primarily due to increases in radio, print and digital advertising and sponsorship costs.
Insperity | 2022 Second Quarter Form 10-Q
29

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
General and administrative expenses for Q2 2022 increased 23.6% to $36.1 million, but remained flat on a per WSEE per month basis, compared to Q2 2021. The increase was primarily due to increased travel and event costs.
Depreciation and amortization expense for Q2 2022 increased 3.6% to $10.1 million, but decreased $1 on a per WSEE per month basis, compared to Q2 2021. The increase was primarily due to capital expenditures related to software development costs.
First Six Months 2022 Compared to First Six Months 2021
Six Months Ended June 30,
per WSEE
(in thousands, except per WSEE)20222021% Change20222021% Change
Salaries$213,961 $197,437 8.4 %$126 $138 (8.7)%
Stock-based compensation25,477 25,603 (0.5)%15 18 (16.7)%
Commissions21,053 15,970 31.8 %12