Company Quick10K Filing
NETSCOUT Systems
Price23.72 EPS-0
Shares76 P/E-58
MCap1,814 P/FCF14
Net Debt204 EBIT6
TEV2,018 TEV/EBIT324
TTM 2019-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios
10-K 2020-03-31 Filed 2020-05-20
10-Q 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-02-06
10-Q 2019-09-30 Filed 2019-10-31
10-Q 2019-06-30 Filed 2019-08-08
10-K 2019-03-31 Filed 2019-05-28
10-Q 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-02-07
10-Q 2018-09-30 Filed 2018-11-08
10-Q 2018-06-30 Filed 2018-08-02
10-K 2018-03-31 Filed 2018-05-22
10-Q 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-02-01
10-Q 2017-09-30 Filed 2017-11-06
10-Q 2017-06-30 Filed 2017-08-03
10-K 2017-03-31 Filed 2017-05-24
10-Q 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-02-02
10-Q 2016-09-30 Filed 2016-11-01
10-Q 2016-06-30 Filed 2016-08-02
10-K 2016-03-31 Filed 2016-05-31
10-Q 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-02-02
10-Q 2015-09-30 Filed 2015-11-05
10-Q 2015-06-30 Filed 2015-08-06
10-K 2015-03-31 Filed 2015-05-20
10-Q 2014-12-31 Filed 2015-01-27
10-Q 2014-09-30 Filed 2014-10-28
10-Q 2014-06-30 Filed 2014-07-29
10-K 2014-03-31 Filed 2014-05-20
10-Q 2013-12-31 Filed 2014-01-28
10-Q 2013-09-30 Filed 2013-10-29
10-Q 2013-06-30 Filed 2013-08-02
10-K 2013-03-31 Filed 2013-05-24
10-Q 2012-12-31 Filed 2013-02-01
10-Q 2012-09-30 Filed 2012-11-02
10-Q 2012-06-30 Filed 2012-08-03
10-K 2012-03-31 Filed 2012-05-25
10-Q 2011-12-31 Filed 2012-02-03
10-Q 2011-09-30 Filed 2011-11-04
10-Q 2011-06-30 Filed 2011-08-05
10-K 2011-03-31 Filed 2011-05-27
10-Q 2010-12-31 Filed 2011-02-04
10-Q 2010-09-30 Filed 2010-11-09
10-Q 2010-06-30 Filed 2010-08-06
10-K 2010-03-31 Filed 2010-05-28
10-Q 2009-12-31 Filed 2010-02-05
8-K 2020-05-07
8-K 2020-05-05
8-K 2020-04-16
8-K 2020-01-30
8-K 2019-10-31
8-K 2019-09-12
8-K 2019-08-01
8-K 2019-05-02
8-K 2019-04-09
8-K 2019-02-12
8-K 2019-01-30
8-K 2018-11-01
8-K 2018-09-12
8-K 2018-07-26
8-K 2018-05-03
8-K 2018-04-23
8-K 2018-02-01
8-K 2018-01-30
8-K 2018-01-16
8-K 2018-01-10

NTCT 10K Annual Report

Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10 - K Summary
Note 1 - Nature of Business
Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3 - Revenue Recognition
Note 4 - Cash, Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities
Note 5 - Fair Value Measurements
Note 6 - Inventories
Note 7 - Fixed Assets
Note 8 - Acquisitions & Divestitures
Note 9 - Goodwill & Intangible Assets
Note 10 - Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities
Note 11 - Restructuring Charges
Note 12 - Long - Term Debt
Note 13 - Net Income (Loss) per Share
Note 14 - Treasury Stock
Note 15 - Stock Plans
Note 16 - Pension Benefit Plans
Note 17 - Income Taxes
Note 18 - Leases
Note 19 - Commitments and Contingencies
Note 20 - Segment and Geographic Information
Note 21 - Quarterly Results of Operations - Unaudited
EX-4.4 ntct-ex442020331.htm
EX-21 ntct-ex212020331.htm
EX-23 ntct-ex232020331.htm
EX-31.1 ntct-ex3112020331.htm
EX-31.2 ntct-ex3122020331.htm
EX-32.1 ntct-ex3212020331.htm
EX-32.2 ntct-ex3222020331.htm

NETSCOUT Systems Earnings 2020-03-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
3.73.02.21.50.70.02012201420172020
Assets, Equity
0.40.30.20.10.0-0.12012201420172020
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
0.10.0-0.0-0.1-0.1-0.22012201420172020
Ops, Inv, Fin

ntct-20200331
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number 000-26251
NETSCOUT SYSTEMS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware04-2837575
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
310 Littleton Road, Westford, MA 01886
(978) 614-4000
 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered:
Common Stock, $0.001 par value per shareNTCTNasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  x No ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
         Large accelerated filer  x      Accelerated filer    ¨    
         Non-accelerated filer   ¨       Smaller reporting company 
              Emerging growth company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). YES      NO  x
The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of September 30, 2019 (based on the last reported sale price on the Nasdaq Global Select Market as of such date) was approximately $1,654,986,360. As of May 11, 2020, there were 72,220,906 shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for the fiscal year 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be made available on the Company's website at ir.netscout.com and at the SEC's website at www.sec.gov, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Except as expressly incorporated by reference, the proxy statement is not deemed to be part of this report.



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NETSCOUT SYSTEMS, INC.
FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED MARCH 31, 2020
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART I
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
Item 16.

Unless the context suggests otherwise, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (Annual Report) to "NetScout," the "Company," "we," "us," and "our" refer to NetScout Systems, Inc. and, where appropriate, our consolidated subsidiaries.

NetScout, the NetScout logo, Adaptive Service Intelligence and other trademarks or service marks of NetScout appearing in this Annual Report are the property of NetScout Systems, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries and/or affiliates in the United States and/or other countries. Any third-party trade names, trademarks and service marks appearing in this Annual Report are the property of their respective holders.




Table of Contents
Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report contains forward-looking statements under Section 21E of the Exchange Act (as defined below) and other federal securities laws. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance and are identified by terminology such as "may," "will," "could," "should," "expects," "plans," "intends," "seeks," "anticipates," "believes," "estimates," "potential" or "continue," or the negative of such terms or other comparable terminology. These statements are only predictions. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Actual events or results may differ materially. Factors that may cause such differences include, but are not limited to, the factors discussed under the heading "Risk Factors" and in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). These factors may cause our actual results to differ materially from any forward-looking statement. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make.
Except as required by law, we do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to these forward-looking statements after completion of the filing of this Annual Report to reflect later events or circumstances or the occurrence of unanticipated events.

PART I
        
Item 1. Business
Overview
We are an industry leader with over 35 years of experience in providing service assurance and security solutions that are used by customers worldwide to assure their digital business services against disruption. Service providers and enterprises, including local, state and federal government agencies, rely on our solutions to achieve the visibility necessary to optimize network performance, ensure the delivery of high-quality, mission-critical applications and services, gain timely insight into the end user experience and protect the network from attack. With our offerings, customers can quickly, efficiently and effectively identify and resolve issues that result in downtime, interruptions to services, poor service quality or compromised security, thereby driving compelling returns on their investments in their network and broader technology initiatives. Some of the more significant technology trends and catalyst for our business include the evolution of customers digital transformation initiatives, the rapidly evolving security threat landscape, business intelligence and analytics advancements, and the 5G evolution in both the service provider and enterprise verticals.
Our operating results are influenced by a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the mix and quantity of products and services sold, pricing, costs of materials used in our products, growth in employee-related costs, including commissions, and the expansion of our operations. Factors that affect our ability to maximize our operating results include, but are not limited to, our ability to introduce and enhance existing products, the marketplace acceptance of those new or enhanced products, continued expansion into international markets, development of strategic partnerships, competition, successful acquisition integration efforts, and our ability to achieve expense reductions and make improvements in a highly competitive industry.
Markets
        Our service assurance solutions are used by enterprises (including government agencies) and service providers to optimize network performance, quickly identify and resolve issues impacting application and service quality and gain insight into the end user experience. Our security solutions are used by enterprises and service providers to identify and mitigate advanced, volumetric and application-specific distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, as well as assist enterprise security teams in rapidly finding and isolating advanced network threats.
Enterprise Market
        Within the enterprise market, NetScout's nGeniusONE and ISNG offerings enable IT organizations to support a growing range of performance management and security use cases including:
Network Performance Management - Our nGeniusONE analytics and our ISNG real-time information platform provide the necessary insight to optimize network performance, restore service and understand the quality of the users’ experience. By integrating certain acquired product lines and product features from the former Fluke Networks Enterprise business with our core offerings, our customers can benefit from a consistent view across their traditional wired network infrastructures, remote offices and wireless networks (WiFi).
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Application Performance Management: Data Center Transformation and Cloud Computing - We enable information technology (IT) organizations, from their development operations to their infrastructure teams, to manage the delivery of services across virtual and physical environments, providing a comprehensive, unified real-time view into network, application, server, and user communities' performance. We proactively detect emerging issues with the ability to help analyze both physical and virtual service delivery environments within the data center which enables organizations to optimize datacenter infrastructure investments, protect against service degradations, and simplify the operation of complex, multi-tier application environments in consolidated, state-of-the-art data centers. Our solutions are often used by enterprises to support private cloud computing environments that are aimed at enabling greater, more cost-effective accessibility to applications without compromising the reliability and security of those applications and the network. Our solutions portfolio also includes a range of new virtual appliances that can help enterprise customers extend their monitoring of applications deeper into their traditional data centers, confidently migrate applications into public cloud environments and gain a comprehensive, cohesive view into the resulting hybrid cloud environment.
Unified Communications (UC) - We deliver deep application-level unified visibility into voice, data and video services side-by-side in order to understand the interrelationships of all UC services that traverse the network infrastructure and assess quality and performance of the delivery of these services. As a result, our real-time, actionable intelligence helps customers to deliver a high-quality UC experience as users make calls, video conference and engage in instant messaging. We also help desktop, network, telecom, and application teams manage UC through a common platform across complex, geographically dispersed, and multi-vendor environments.
Software-as-a-Service and Infrastructure Performance Management - We also provide enterprise customers with active agent-based offerings that can help them determine availability and performance levels for software-as-a-service (SaaS) applications, and gauge the health of servers, routers and switches as well as wireless and virtual infrastructures. As a result, customers can continuously monitor the performance of key business services and the infrastructure used to deliver them, regardless of how applications are deployed or where the user is located. Deployed independently or as part of our broader service assurance solution, these products also play an important role in helping enterprises deliver a superior user experience, achieve outstanding service quality and drive better returns on their application and infrastructure investments.
Application and Desktop Virtualization - We provide clear and actionable insights that help customers fully realize the operational benefits associated with Application and Desktop Virtualization, and reduce the time it takes to identify and resolve service problems. We offer visibility across all virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) tiers including remote access, client, virtualization, web, front-end application, and related database systems, and help customers gain actionable metrics from monitoring and analyzing the consumption and performance of VDI services.
Cybersecurity: DDoS Protection and Cyber Threat Analytics - Computer networks continue to be targeted for cyberattacks that are aimed at disrupting, damaging or otherwise destroying an enterprise’s ability to conduct its business or gaining unauthorized access to corporate applications and stealing valuable information. We provide a range of network security solutions under the NetScout Arbor brand that enable enterprises to protect their networks from high-volume and application-specific DDoS attacks, which are aimed at either overwhelming the network with traffic or over-exercising specific functions or features of a website with the intention to disable those functions or features. We are also developing new security solutions for enterprises that provide greater deep-dive forensic capabilities as well as analytics that can provide visibility into anomalous behavior on the network that may be indicative of an advanced threat. These new security analytics will enable existing enterprise customers to leverage their historical investments in NetScout’s service assurance solutions by using the Adaptive Service Intelligence (ASI) data already being generated to support service assurance and security use cases.
Government Markets
        Considered as part of our enterprise vertical, we have built a strong position with federal, state and local government agencies, both in the United States and abroad. Similar to our enterprise customers, government agencies are focused on streamlining and transforming IT into more efficient and more easily managed environments. To accomplish this, agencies are turning to IT solutions that will help simplify managing and assuring their IT environments as well as reduce costs. However, governmental markets differ from enterprise markets primarily due to their purchasing cycles being influenced by potential changes in government administrators, budgetary priorities and allocated funding for key projects.
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Telecommunication Service Provider Markets
        Today’s service providers are focused on delivering a compelling set of services and ensuring a high-quality user experience, while also striving to minimize operational complexity, control costs and improve automation. This, coupled with the challenge of internet protocol (IP) transformation activities and complex technologies such as Long-Term Evolution (LTE), Network Functions Virtualization (NFV), Internet Protocol Television (IP-TV), wireless network (WiFi) and cloud services drives the need for a more automated and unified approach to managing service delivery and the subscriber experience. Our service provider solutions support an expanding range of use cases including:
Service Assurance for Mobile, Fixed Line and Cable Operators - The fundamental transformation of the mobile network to all-IP enables mobile operators to build highly-scalable service delivery environments to offer new services to meet the growing subscriber demand for data, voice and video-centric services and to consolidate and simplify network operations. Mobile operators use our offerings to gain real-time, detailed IP packet-level insight and core-to-access visibility, which enables them to ensure services offered over the network meet certain pre-defined quality levels for an optimal subscriber experience. NetScout’s service assurance solutions help service providers effectively manage capacity, assess overall network quality, take proactive steps to modify the network before issues impact subscribers, and quickly identify and troubleshoot network problems. In addition to improving the overall return on their network infrastructure investments, mobile operators using our solutions also benefit from improved network quality and unique customer insights - both of which contribute to subscriber acquisition, retention and monetization. The growing demand for high-bandwidth triple-play services, broadband connectivity, content anywhere, IP-TV, on-demand video traffic, new extended WiFi initiatives and carrier Ethernet services presents fixed line and cable multi-system operators with significant revenue opportunities. IP has become the de facto convergence mechanism for access, distribution and core networks, enabling new service offerings and simplifying network operations while reducing total cost of operations. For example, cable operators use our solutions to monitor and manage their local area WiFi connectivity services, ensure the high-quality delivery of video to consumers outside of their homes as well as provide broadband and telephony services targeting small- and medium-sized businesses.
Business Intelligence for Service Providers - Service providers strive to understand how the performance of their networks impact customer experience, subscriber behavior and related usage trends. By combining network traffic data with other information, including support requests, subscriber calling plans, demographic data and other details, service providers can make more timely decisions about their offerings and sales and marketing initiatives to acquire, retain and further monetize their subscribers. NetScout’s analytics deliver timely insights into a service provider’s subscribers, services, networks, and applications, as well as easy export capabilities so that this information can be integrated into their data lakes and third-party analytic platforms.
DDoS Protection - Over the past decade, Internet Service Providers (ISPs), including leading telecommunications providers, cable multi service operators and cloud providers, have seen significant increases in the sophistication, scale and frequency of high-volume and application-specific DDoS attacks on their networks. DDoS attacks are aimed at disrupting the online services of an ISP’s business customer by overwhelming the network with traffic or by over-exercising specific functions or features of a website with the intention to disable those functions or features. NetScout Arbor DDoS solutions are used by a wide range of ISPs around the world to help protect their networks against DDoS attacks, and to resell certain DDoS offerings to their enterprise customers.
Products Overview
        Since our founding in 1984, we have been an industry innovator in using IP-based network traffic to help organizations manage and optimize the delivery of services and applications over their networks, improve the end-user experience and protect networks from unwanted security threats. Using our patented ASI technology, our solutions instantaneously convert network traffic data, often referred to as wire data, into high-value metadata, or "smart data". Our offerings can help customers quickly identify and troubleshoot network and application performance issues, defend their networks from DDoS attacks, and rapidly find and isolate advanced network threats. Our solutions are typically deployed by customers as integrated hardware and software, as software only that is then integrated into commercial off-the-shelf hardware or in a virtualized form factor. Our solutions help our customers meet the increasing demands and ever-changing technology landscape of IP networks, service and applications. In recent years, to further elevate our value proposition and address the near- and long-term needs of customers and prospects, we have delivered major product upgrades across our product lines by integrating key functionality from acquired product lines, increasing the deployment flexibility of our solutions, and adding new features and capabilities that enable us to address a broader range of use cases. Our primary products can be categorized as follows:

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Service Assurance Solutions for Network and Application Performance, and Business Intelligence Analytics
nGeniusONE Management Software and Analytic Modules - Our nGeniusONE management software is used to support our enterprise, service provider and government customers enabling them to predict, preempt, and resolve network and service delivery problems while facilitating the optimization and capacity planning of their network infrastructures. Additionally, we market a range of specialized platforms and analytic modules that can enable our customers to analyze and troubleshoot traffic in radio access network and WiFi networks, as well as gain timely insight into high-value services, applications and systems, and better understand the subscriber’s experience on the network. nGeniusPULSE is an active testing tool that enables enterprises to identify infrastructure performance issues and determine application availability, reliability and performance. We also market our nGenius Business Analytics solution, which enables service providers to quickly and efficiently analyze their network traffic to gain greater and more timely insights into their subscribers, services, networks, and applications, as well as easily export our smart data into their data lakes and into third-party analytic platforms.
Visibility Products (Probes, Packet Flow Systems and Taps) - Our ISNG platform provides real-time collection and analysis of information-rich, high-volume packet-flow data from across the network that is displayed through the nGeniusONE Service Assurance Solution. The ISNG is an advanced passive network probe that can be deployed as a traditional appliance with integrated hardware and software, as software-only for use in commercial-off-the-shelf hardware or in virtualized form factors. The virtualized form factor version of our intelligent data source, which is marketed as vSTREAM, can be deployed to support NFV environments as well as to cost-effectively monitor application performance in traditional data center, private cloud and public cloud environments. We also provide comprehensive packet flow systems (also called network packet brokers or network visibility fabric switches), that deliver targeted network traffic access to a range of monitoring and security tools and systems, including the nGeniusONE Service Assurance platform. Additionally, we market a suite of test access points (TAPs) that enable full, non-disruptive access to network traffic with multiple link type and speed options.
Cybersecurity Solutions
DDoS Protection – We provide security solutions that enable service providers and enterprises around the world to protect their networks against DDoS attacks under the Arbor brand. Dozens of service provider customers around the world also resell Arbor's solutions as a managed DDoS service to their enterprise customers. Our portfolio of DDoS solutions offers complete deployment flexibility spanning on-premise offerings and cloud-based capabilities to meet a broad array of customer needs, as well as specialized analytics and comprehensive threat intelligence information. Our DDoS offerings for service providers include Arbor Sightline for DDoS visibility and threat detection product, Arbor Threat Mitigation System for removing DDoS attack traffic from the network without disruption to key network services and Arbor Insight for advanced analytical and forensic information. Our DDoS offerings for enterprises include Arbor Edge Defense, a perimeter-based appliance for identifying and blocking incoming DDoS attacks and outbound malicious communications, and Arbor Cloud, a global, cloud-based traffic scrubbing service that quickly removes DDoS attack traffic. We plan to further enhance and expand these capabilities in ways that will enable greater adoption of our solutions by service provider and enterprise customers.
Advanced Threat Detection – We are actively expanding our enterprise security offerings to better leverage the investment that our enterprise customers have made in our traditional service assurance solutions. By collecting network traffic via our probes, we can expand our value proposition by providing specialized analytics for both service assurance and security. We have introduced and will continue to advance solutions such as new packet forensic capabilities designed specifically for security operations teams as well as new anomalous behavior analytics that security teams can use to identify and investigate potential advanced network threats.

Integration with Third-Party Solutions
To have greater operational impact on assuring performance of applications and service delivery, we have integrated our technology with third-party management consoles and business service management systems. This integration allows organizations to receive alarms on impending performance problems and to link into the nGenius Service Assurance solution in order to perform detailed problem analysis and troubleshooting. The third-party solution providers that we have integrated our solutions with include Cisco Systems, Cisco Sourcefire, Citrix Systems, Dell Technologies, Hewlett-Packard Company, IBM Tivoli and VMWare. In addition, we have embedded NetScout Arbor DDoS mitigation capabilities on a blade within Cisco's market-leading ASR9000 router and will continue to evaluate partnership opportunities to integrate its DDoS capabilities within other network equipment platforms.
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Growth Strategy
The following are key elements in our growth strategy for fiscal year 2021:
Drive Innovation - In order to support our customers' near-term and longer-term requirements, we plan to continue innovating by enhancing and expanding our product portfolio. In particular, we continue to invest in research and development, and leverage the strong technical and domain expertise across our organization. Our engineering teams are focused on advancing technical innovation across our broad product portfolio. By capitalizing on our extensive experience with global enterprise, service provider and government organizations with IP-based networks, we remain well positioned to cross-leverage our technology development across all major platforms and relevant technologies to address the evolving demands of current and prospective customers.
Deliver Pervasive Visibility - By making our visibility products available in multiple form factors, including software that can be deployed with commercial off-the-shelf servers and as virtual appliances, we believe that it is easier and more affordable for customers to deploy our technology more broadly across their hybrid network and IT infrastructures. By offering more cost-effective instrumentation options, we are well positioned to help customers gain greater visibility into more places across their end-to-end network environments and address an even broader range of service assurance and security use cases.
Extension into Adjacent Markets - By enhancing and expanding our product portfolio and driving product integration via internal development and acquisitions, we have expanded our reach into complementary adjacent markets such as application performance management, infrastructure performance management and cybersecurity. We believe that this element of our strategy is integral to gaining access to larger budgets, increasing spending from existing customers, attracting new customers, and increasing our total addressable market. In particular, we are broadening our security solutions beyond the DDoS market with plans for new enterprise security offerings that can help our customers extract more value from the network traffic that we are already collecting to support service assurance use cases.
Fortify and Expand Existing Customer Relationships - We have an expansive, global customer base of service providers and enterprises that have purchased our products in support of major technology and network initiatives that they have implemented over the past decade. As a result, we believe we are well positioned to expand the scope of many of these relationships as we identify new opportunities to support new network and broader technology projects.
Expand our Customer Base - The investments we have made over the past several years to expand our product portfolio and support greater deployment flexibility also positions us to win new customers in established geographic markets where we can leverage our global direct sales organization and an extensive network of value-added resellers and systems integrators.
Increase Market Relevance and Awareness - We plan to continue to implement marketing campaigns aimed at generating high-quality sales opportunities with both current and prospective enterprise and service provider customers, promoting thought leadership and building the NetScout brand.
Extend our Technology Partner Alliance Ecosystem - We plan to continue to develop and fortify alliances with complementary solutions providers that can help us support a larger, more global and more diverse customer base. We also plan to continue to enhance our technology value, product capabilities and customer relevance through the continued integration of our products into technology partner products.
Pursue Strategic Acquisitions - We have completed many acquisitions since our inception that have helped broaden our capabilities, enhance our products and technologies, enable us to expand into adjacent markets and better position us to meet the needs of a larger base of customers and prospects.
Improve Cost Structure and Drive Efficiencies - We plan to balance our investments in key technology, product development, sales and marketing, and other initiatives that will enable us to drive long-term profitable growth with an ongoing focus on controlling costs and driving efficiencies.
Support Services
Customer satisfaction is a key driver of our success. Our support programs offer customers various levels of high-quality support services to assist in the deployment and use of our solutions. We have support personnel strategically deployed across the globe to deliver 24/7 support to our premium customers. Certain support services, such as on-site support activities, are provided by qualified third-party support partners. In addition, many of our certified resellers provide Partner Enabled Support to our end users. This is especially prevalent in international locations where time zones and language, among other factors, make it more efficient for end users to have the reseller provide initial support functions. Our support also includes updates to
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our software and firmware at no additional charge, if and when such updates are developed and made generally available to our commercial customer base. If ordered, support commences upon expiration of the standard warranty for software. For software, which also includes firmware, the standard warranty commences upon shipment and expires 60 to 90 days thereafter. With regard to hardware, the standard warranty commences upon shipment and expires 60 days to 12 months thereafter. We believe our warranties are consistent with commonly accepted industry standards. We expect to continue to provide support services for the acquired platforms under existing agreements and plan to explore opportunities to further simplify and standardize our support obligations over the coming years.
Manufacturing
Our manufacturing operations consist primarily of final product assembly, configuration and testing. We purchase components and subassemblies from suppliers and construct our hardware products in accordance with NetScout standard specifications. We inspect, test and use process controls to ensure the quality and reliability of our products. We maintain an ISO 9001 quality systems registration, a certification showing that our corporate procedures and manufacturing facilities comply with standards for quality assurance and process control. We also maintain an ISO 9001:2000 quality systems registration, a certification showing that our corporate procedures comply with standards for continuous improvement and customer satisfaction.
We generally use standard parts and components for our products, which can be sourced from various suppliers. We have generally been able to obtain adequate supplies of components in a timely manner from current suppliers. While certain components, such as computer network interface cards, are currently purchased from a single supplier, we have identified alternate suppliers that we believe can be qualified relatively quickly to fulfill our needs should an issue arise with the existing supplier. Our reliance on single source suppliers is further described in Item 1A "Risk Factors."
We manufacture our products based upon near-term demand estimates resulting from sales forecasts and historical fulfillment information. However, since these forecasts have a high degree of variability because of factors that include time of year, overall economic conditions and sales employee incentives, we believe it is prudent to maintain inventory levels in advance of receipt of firm orders to ensure that we have sufficient stock to satisfy incoming orders. Our inventory management system has thus far enabled us to minimize the effects of the disruption caused by the global COVID-19 pandemic from a supply chain perspective. The potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business is further described in Item 1A "Risk Factors."
Sales and Marketing
Sales
We sell our products, support and services through a direct sales force and an indirect reseller and distribution channel.
Our direct sales force generally uses a "high-touch" sales model that consists of face-to-face meetings with customers to understand and identify their unique business challenges and requirements. In the current global pandemic environment, our sales teams have been successful in engaging customers virtually to understand their requirements and effectively design solutions. Our sales teams translate our customers' requirements into tailored business solutions that allow the customer to maximize the performance of its infrastructure and service delivery environment. Due to the complexity of the systems and the capital expenditures involved, our sales cycles typically take between three and twelve months. We build strategic relationships with our customers by continually enhancing our solution to help them address their evolving service delivery management challenges. In addition to providing a comprehensive solution to meet these needs, we continually provide software enhancements to our customers as part of their maintenance contracts with us. These enhancements are designed to provide additional and ongoing value to our existing customers to promote loyalty and the expansion of their deployment of our products. Existing customer growth is also driven by the expansion and changes in their networks as they add new infrastructure elements, new users, new locations, new applications and experience increasing service traffic volumes. In fiscal year 2020, we took steps to drive more effective cross-selling of our service assurance and security solutions into our installed customer base by consolidating the previously separate security and service assurance salesforces and by realigning existing sales resources accordingly.
We also maintain an indirect reseller and distribution channel. Sales to customers outside the United States are primarily export sales through channel partners. Our channel partners assist us by improving our reach to customers, extending our presence in new markets, and marketing and selling our products to a broad array of organizations globally. We sell through a range of channel partners including value-added resellers, value-added distributors, resellers, and system integrators, to our enterprise, service provider and government customers. Historically and currently, we have used indirect distribution channels principally as intermediaries on contractual terms for customers with whom we do not have a contract. Our sales force meets with end user customers to present our products and solutions, conduct demonstrations, provide evaluation equipment, recommend detailed product solutions, develop product deployment designs and timelines, and assist in establishing financial
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and other justifications for the proposed solution. During this selling process, a channel partner, who has contracts with both the end customer and us, may be brought in to facilitate the transaction and to provide fulfillment services. In the case of international channel partners, those services usually also include currency translation and support. In the U.S., fulfillment services are usually limited to invoicing and cash collection. Under this approach, we have limited dependence upon channel partners for the major elements of the selling process. In many cases, there are multiple channel partners with the required contractual relationships, so dependence on any single channel partner is not significant.
During the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, no direct customers or indirect channel partners accounted for more than 10% of our total revenue.
Marketing
Our marketing organization drives our market research, strategy, product positioning and messaging, and produces and manages a variety of programs such as customer forums, trade shows, industry events, advertising, public and analyst relations, social media, direct mail, seminars and webinars, sales promotions and other online marketing programs. These programs are focused on promoting the sale and acceptance of our solutions to further build the NetScout brand as well as the ASI, nGenius, Arbor and other applicable product brand names in the marketplace.
Key elements of our marketing strategy focus on thought leadership, market positioning, market education, go to market strategies, reputation management, demand generation, and the acceleration of our strategic selling relationships with local and global resellers, systems integrators, and our technology alliance partners. During fiscal year 2020, we continued to invest in the promotion of the NetScout brand as well as the nGenius and Arbor brands as core solution-level brands in their respective markets. We expect to continue these initiatives during fiscal year 2021.
Research and Development
Our continued success depends significantly on our ability to anticipate and create solutions that will meet emerging customer requirements. We work closely with our largest enterprise and service provider customers to better understand and address their near-term and longer-term requirements. By better understanding the key, time-sensitive needs of our global customer base, we believe our development programs will continue to result in enhanced products that are able to meet the increasing challenges of an increasingly complex and dynamic global network environment.
We have invested significant financial resources and personnel into the development of our products and technology. Our continued investment in research and development is crucial to our business and our continued success in the market. We have assembled a team of highly skilled engineers with expertise in various technologies associated with our business and the technologies being deployed by our customers. We plan to continue to enhance and expand our product offerings and capabilities in the near future while integrating key capabilities from acquired product lines as appropriate. As a result, we plan to continue to invest and dedicate significant resources to our research and development activities for both our enterprise and service provider customers.
We predominantly develop our products internally, with some limited third-party contracting. We have also acquired developed technology through business acquisitions. To promote industry standards and manifest technology leadership, we participate in and support the activities and recommendations of industry standards bodies, and we also engage in close and regular dialogue with our key customers and alliance partners. These activities provide early insight into the direction of network and application performance requirements for current and emerging technologies.
Seasonality
We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, quarterly variations in our order bookings as a result of a number of factors, including the length of the sales cycle, complexity of customer environments, new product introductions and their market acceptance and seasonal factors affected by customer projects and typical IT buying cycles. Due to these factors, we historically have experienced stronger bookings during our fiscal third and fourth quarters than in our fiscal first and second quarters.
Customers
We sell our products to enterprises, service providers and local, state and federal governmental agencies with large-and medium-sized high-speed IP computer networks. Our enterprise customers cover a wide variety of industries, such as financial services, technology, manufacturing, healthcare, utilities, education, transportation and retail as well as government and associated agencies. Our telecommunications service provider customer group includes mobile operators, wireline operators, cable operators, internet service providers, and cloud providers.
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Backlog
We produce our products on the basis of our forecast of near-term demand and maintain inventory in advance of receipt of firm orders from customers. We configure our products to customer specifications and generally deliver products shortly after receipt of the purchase order. Service engagements are also included in certain orders. Customers generally may reschedule or cancel orders with little or no penalty. We believe that our backlog at any particular time is not meaningful because it is not necessarily indicative of future sales levels. Our combined product backlog at March 31, 2020 was $29.4 million compared to $19.8 million at March 31, 2019. A majority of the backlog relates to customization and integration projects and radio frequency propagation modeling. In some cases, we have begun these projects but have not yet hit billable milestones. A majority of revenue for these projects is expected to be recognized into revenue throughout fiscal year 2021.
Competition
We compete with many companies in the markets we serve. The service assurance market, including the network and application performance management markets, is highly competitive, rapidly evolving, and fragmented with overlapping technologies and a wide range of competitors, both large and small, who may deliver certain elements of our solution. Consequently, there are a number of companies who have greater name recognition and substantially greater financial, management, marketing, service, support, technical, distribution and other resources than we do. Additionally, certain competitors, either due to their size and resources or due to their technological strengths, may be able to respond more effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards and customer requirements.
Principal competitive factors in our service assurance market include scalability; ability to address a large number of applications, locations and users; product performance; the ability to easily deploy into existing network environments; the ability to offer virtualized solutions; and the ability to administer and manage the solution.
While we face multiple competitors within the service assurance industry, we believe that we compete favorably on the basis of the following factors:
we provide a comprehensive service delivery management solution that is capable of addressing the needs of both enterprise and service provider customers and can be scaled to meet the challenges of today's dynamic service delivery environments;
we believe that our solutions provide superior data and compete favorably on a broad range of metrics including the ability to recognize and track a large number of applications;
we believe our solutions possess the scalability to support high and increasing levels of data and network traffic;
our solutions look at both data and control plane traffic across an entire network; and
our ASI technology is optimized to provide real-time information about service performance and real-time alerts to emerging service problems whereas traditional solutions are inherently latent, supporting only forensic-trouble shooting after an issue has occurred.
In the enterprise market, our competitors include companies who provide network performance management, application performance management, infrastructure performance management and other related solutions such as Avaya, CA Technologies (a Broadcom Inc. business), Cisco Systems, Dynatrace, Data Dog, ExtraHop, InfoVista, Keysight, SevOne, Viavi, Gigamon, ThousandEyes, New Relic, Riverbed Technology, Splunk and SolarWinds. In addition, we both compete with and partner with large enterprise management vendors, such as HP and IBM, who offer performance management solutions. We also compete with smaller, privately held competitors who often focus on specific vertical markets.
In the service provider market, we compete with traditional probe vendors, network equipment manufacturers, big data and analytics vendors, and virtualization vendors. These vendors include Anritsu, Cisco, Empirix, Ericsson, Dell Technologies, EXFO (which acquired Astellia in March 2018), Huawei, IBM, Niksun, Polystar (an Elisa Oyj business), Radcom, SevOne, Splunk, Nokia and Viavi. We face additional competitive threats from startups and new entrants that seek to offer innovative solutions in an industry characterized by rapid technological change.
In the cybersecurity market, we face a range of competitors, including those that may have greater name recognition and substantially greater financial, management, marketing, service, support, technical, distribution and other resources than we do. We believe that the scalability of our solutions, flexible deployment, and price-performance of our cybersecurity solutions positions us well to compete against both larger network equipment and security companies and smaller niche security solutions vendors.
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In the DDoS solutions market, we compete under the NetScout Arbor brand with a broad range of vendors including Radware, Akamai, F5 Networks, A10 Networks, Fortinet, Fastly, Cloudflare and Corero Network Security. In the market for specialized threat analysis, packet forensics and protection solutions used to identify advanced network threats, we compete with a range of vendors including Darktrace, Vectra Networks, FireEye, Cisco, Palo Alto Networks, RSA (a Dell Technologies business) and other specialist providers.
Our ability to sustain a competitive advantage depends on our ability to deliver continued technology innovation and adapt to meet the evolving needs of our customers. Competitive factors in our industry are further described in Item 1A "Risk Factors."
Intellectual Property Rights
We rely on patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws and contract rights to establish and maintain our rights in our technology and products. While our intellectual property rights are an important element in our success, our business as a whole does not depend on any one particular patent, trademark, copyright, trade secret, license, or other intellectual property right.
We use contracts, statutory laws, domestic and foreign intellectual property registration processes, and international intellectual property treaties to police and protect our intellectual property portfolio and rights from infringement. From a contractual perspective, we use license agreements and non-disclosure agreements to control the use of our intellectual property and protect our trade secrets from unauthorized use and disclosure. In addition to license agreements, we rely on U.S. and international copyright law to protect against unauthorized copying of software programs in the U.S. and abroad. We have obtained U.S. and foreign trademark registrations to preserve and protect certain trademarks and trade names. We have also filed and obtained U.S. patents and international counterparts to protect certain unique NetScout inventions from being unlawfully exploited by other parties. However, there is no assurance that pending or future patent applications will be granted, that we will be able to obtain patents covering all of our products, or that we will be able to license, if needed, patents from other companies on favorable terms or at all. Our proprietary rights are subject to other risks and uncertainties described under Item 1A "Risk Factors."
Employees
At March 31, 2020, we had a total of 2,502 employees.
Corporate Information
Our corporate headquarters are located at 310 Littleton Road, Westford, Massachusetts, and our telephone number is (978) 614-4000. We were incorporated in Delaware in 1984.
Our internet address is http://www.NetScout.com. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Exchange Act, are made available free of charge on or through our website at ir.netscout.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. None of the information posted on our website is incorporated by reference into this Report.
We webcast our earnings calls and certain events we participate in or host with members of the investment community. They are made available on our investor relations website at ir.netscout.com//investors/events-and-presentations/events-calendar/default.aspx. Additionally, we provide notifications of news or announcements regarding our financial performance, including SEC filings, investor events, press and earnings releases, as part of our investor relations website. The contents of these sections of our investor relations website are not intended to be incorporated by reference into this report or in any other report or document we file with the SEC.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.
In addition to the other information in this report, the following factors should be considered carefully in evaluating NetScout and our business.
Our operating results and financial condition have varied in the past and may vary significantly in the future depending on a number of factors. Except for the historical information in this report, the matters contained in this report include forward-looking statements that involve risk and uncertainties. The following factors are among many that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in or implied by forward-looking statements made in this report. These statements involve the risks and uncertainties identified below as well as additional risks and uncertainties that are not yet identified or that we currently think are immaterial but may also impact our business operations. Such factors are among many that may have a material adverse impact upon our business, results of operations and financial condition.
You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, together with the information included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and other documents we file with the SEC. The risks and uncertainties described below are those that we have identified as material but are not the only risks and uncertainties facing us. Our business is also subject to general risks and uncertainties that affect many other companies. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial also may impair our business, including our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.
Because of the following factors, as well as other variables affecting our results of operations, past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods.
Our business and operations, and the operations of our customers, may be adversely affected by epidemics and pandemics, such as the COVID-19 outbreak, which the World Health Organization has declared a "pandemic." COVID-19 and future epidemics and pandemics risk disrupting and adversely affecting our business operations and financial results, as well as the markets and communities in which we and customers, suppliers and other business partners operate.
We face risks related to epidemics, pandemics and other outbreaks of communicable diseases that adversely affect global commercial activity, economies, financial markets, and companies. The recent outbreak of COVID-19 was declared a "pandemic" by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. An epidemic or pandemic or other outbreak of communicable diseases, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, poses the risk that we or our customers, suppliers, and other business partners may be disrupted or prevented from conducting normal business activities for certain periods of time, the durations of which are uncertain, and may otherwise experience significant impairments of business activities.
The President of the United States has declared the COVID-19 pandemic a national emergency. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many state, local, and foreign governments have put in place, and others in the future may put in place, quarantines, executive orders, shelter-in-place orders, and similar government orders and restrictions to reduce the rate of infection and control the spread of the disease. Such orders or restrictions, or the perception that such orders or restrictions could occur, have resulted in business closures, work stoppages, slowdowns and delays, work-from-home policies, travel restrictions and cancellation of events, among other effects that could negatively impact productivity and disrupt our operations and those of our suppliers, customers, and business partners.
To protect our employees, contractors, customers, suppliers, and our local communities, and limit the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations, we have directed NetScout employees at our locations globally to work remotely, with limited exceptions for site-essential personnel (with protective measures and protocols in place), and we may take further actions that alter our operations as may be required by federal, state, or local authorities, or by foreign governments in countries in which we operate, or which we determine are in the best interests of our employees, suppliers, customers, business partners, and stockholders. We expect that work from home requirements and other restrictions on our employees, suppliers, customers, and business partners will change over time, whether becoming more or less restrictive, as the pandemic and global responses progress.
There is a great deal of uncertainty as to when our employees will be able to return to work on-site. Similar to other companies we have begun planning for our employees to return to work on-site in phases in accordance with federal, state and local government guidelines, as well as in accordance with foreign governmental guidelines in the countries in which we operate. Furthermore, any process we implement to enable our employees to return to work on-site will be in accordance with
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prevailing health and science guidance, and in a manner that seeks to protect our employees, contractors, customers, suppliers and our local communities.
As part of our existing business continuity planning, we had established infrastructure and protocols to enable our employees to work from home, but we have never before required our employees to work remotely for such an extended period of time. While we believe that our employees are able to and can continue to effectively work remotely, it is possible that the disruptions to our business operations resulting from quarantines, self-isolations, or other movement and restrictions on the ability of our employees to perform their jobs could affect our ability to develop and design our products and services in a timely manner or meet required milestones or customer commitments, and that this could have an adverse effect on our revenue and operating results. In addition, although we have been able to adequately staff our facilities with site-critical personnel with specific health and safety protocols, to satisfy our manufacturing obligations to our customers, it is possible that we or others may determine that it is necessary to direct that employees engaged in manufacturing refrain from working on-site for an indeterminate period of time, and that this could have an adverse effect on our revenue and operating results.
Furthermore, global travel has been sharply curtailed, and in some cases prohibited. Our sales personnel often meet with customers or prospective customers in person to provide greater personalized service. While our employees and customers have adjusted to virtual meetings, the inability of our sales personnel to meet with customers or prospective customers at a customer facility could have an adverse effect on our revenue and operating results.
In addition, we rely on third-party suppliers and manufacturers in China and elsewhere. The COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in the extended shutdown of certain businesses throughout the world, which may result in disruptions or delays to our supply chain. These may include disruptions from temporary closure of third-party supplier and manufacturer facilities, interruptions in product supply or restrictions on the export or shipment of our products, as well as the import of products into countries in which we operate. Although we have attempted to minimize the effects of these disruptions, it is possible that these attempts will be insufficient, and that these disruptions will likely have an adverse effect on our revenues and operating results.
The impact of the COVID-19 outbreak has been widespread and has adversely affected the global economy. While the potential impact and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global economy and our business in particular may be difficult to assess or predict, the pandemic has resulted in, and may continue to result in, significant disruption of global financial markets, reducing our ability to access capital, which could in the future negatively affect our liquidity. In addition, a recession or market correction resulting from the spread of COVID-19 could decrease technology spending, adversely affecting demand for our products and services, and thus negatively affecting our revenues and operating results.
The global COVID-19 pandemic continues to rapidly evolve, and we will continue to monitor the COVID-19 situation closely and respond appropriately. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts our results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including new information that may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19 and the length of, and effectiveness of, measures taken to contain it or treat its impact, as well as actions taken by governmental authorities to address the economic impact of the outbreak.
To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this "Risk Factors" section, such as those relating to our quarterly revenue and operating results, the estimates made for our critical accounting policies, and the operation of internal controls over such estimates, as well as on our liquidity and on our ability to satisfy our indebtedness obligations, including the compliance with the covenants that apply to our indebtedness.
Our quarterly revenue and operating results may fluctuate.
Our quarterly revenue and operating results are difficult to predict and may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter as a result of a variety of factors associated with our industry, many of which may be outside of our control, including the following:
the rate of growth of, and changes in technology trends in, our market and other industries in which we currently operate or may operate in the future;
technology spending by current and potential customers, and the timing and size of orders from customers, especially in light of our lengthy sales cycle;
reduced demand for our products and uneven demand for service delivery and network and application performance management solutions and network security solutions;
the timing and market acceptance of new products or product enhancements by us or our competitors;
the timing of hiring sales personnel and the speed at which such personnel become fully productive;
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our ability to develop and manufacture new products and technologies in a timely manner, the competitive position of our products, and the continued acceptance of our products by our customers and in the industries that we serve;
changes in the number and size of our competitors, including the effects of new entrants and the effects of well-resourced competitors' increasing their investments in our markets, and changes in the prices and capabilities of competitors' products;
customer ability to implement our products;
cancellation, deferral, or limitation of orders by customers;
changes in foreign currency exchange rates;
attrition of key employees and competition with other companies for employees with specific talents and experience;
the number, severity, and timing of cyber-related threat outbreaks (e.g., malware, attacks, ransomware, worms and viruses);
the quality and level of our execution of our business strategy and operating plan, and the effectiveness of our sales and marketing programs;
changes in accounting rules;
costs related to acquisitions; and
our ability to manage expenses.
Most of our expenses, such as employee compensation, benefits and rent, are relatively fixed in the short term. Moreover, our expense levels are based, in part, on our expectations regarding future revenue levels. As a result, if revenue for a particular quarter is significantly below our expectations, we may not be able to reduce operating expenses proportionately for that quarter, and, therefore, this revenue shortfall would have a disproportionately negative impact on our operating results for that quarter.
It may be necessary in the future to undertake cost reduction initiatives to improve profitability, which could lead to a deterioration of our competitive position. Any difficulties that we encounter as we reduce our costs could negatively impact our results of operations and cash flows.
Our actual operating results may differ significantly from our guidance.
We release guidance regarding our future performance on our quarterly earnings conference calls, quarterly earnings releases, and otherwise. Such guidance, which includes forward-looking statements, reflects our management’s estimates as of the date of release and is based on projections prepared by our management. We may also decide not to release, or to defer, issuing guidance, where such guidance might not be appropriate or when we do not have sufficient visibility or clarity to issue such guidance. In those situations, we expect to communicate our reasons for not releasing or deferring release of guidance.
Projections are based upon a number of assumptions and estimates that, while presented with numerical specificity, are inherently subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control and are based upon specific assumptions with respect to future business decisions, some of which will change. The principal reason that we release guidance is to provide a basis for our management to discuss our business outlook with analysts and investors. We are not responsible for any projections or reports published by any such analysts or investors.
Guidance is necessarily speculative in nature, and it can be expected that some or all of the assumptions underlying the guidance furnished by us will not materialize or will vary significantly from actual results. Accordingly, our guidance is only an estimate of what management believes is realizable as of the date of release. Actual results may vary from our guidance and the variations may be material. In light of the foregoing, investors are urged not to rely upon our guidance in making an investment decision regarding our common stock.
Any failure to successfully implement our operating strategy or the occurrence of any of the events or circumstances set forth in this "Risk Factors" section in this report could result in the actual operating results being different from our guidance, and the differences may be adverse and material.
Our indebtedness may limit our operations and our use of our cash flow, and any failure to comply with the covenants that apply to our indebtedness could adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition.
On January 16, 2018, we amended and expanded our existing credit facility (Amended Credit Agreement) with a syndicate of lenders. The Amended Credit Agreement provides for a five-year $1.0 billion senior secured revolving credit facility, including a letter of credit sub-facility of up to $75.0 million. We have used the new credit facility for working capital purposes and to finance the repurchase of common stock under our previously announced accelerated stock repurchase plan. The commitments under the Amended Credit Agreement will expire on January 16, 2023, and any outstanding loans will be due on that date. As of the date of this report, we had approximately $450 million in outstanding indebtedness under the
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Amended Credit Agreement. Our debt level can have negative consequences, including exposing us to future interest rate risk. We may incur significantly more debt in the future, and there can be no assurance that our cost of funding will not substantially increase. Our current revolving credit facility also imposes certain restrictions on us; for a more detailed description please refer to "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." Upon an event of default, for example, the administrative agent, with the consent of, or at the request of, the holders of more than 50% in principal amount of the loans and commitments may terminate the commitments and accelerate the maturity of the loans and enforce certain other remedies under the Amended Credit Agreement and other loan documents, which would adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition. If we take on additional indebtedness, the risks described above could increase.
Interest on the outstanding balances under the Amended Credit Agreement is calculated based on the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR). On July 27, 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), which regulates LIBOR, announced that it will no longer require banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. That announcement indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. The Amended Credit Agreement provides for the administrative agent under the agreement to determine if (i) adequate and reasonable means do not exist for ascertaining the LIBOR rate or (ii) the FCA or governmental authority having jurisdiction over the administrative agent has made a public statement identifying a specific date after which the LIBOR rate shall no longer be used for determining interest rates for loans, and the administrative agent determines that both of these factors are unlikely to be temporary, then we and the administrative agent would agree to transition to an alternate base rate borrowing or amend the credit agreement to establish an alternate interest rate to LIBOR that includes consideration of the then-prevailing market convention for determining interest rates for syndicated loans in the United States at that time.
We are not able to predict whether LIBOR will actually cease to be available after 2021 or whether there will be another market benchmark in its place. Our Amended Credit Agreement defines an alternative rate to LIBOR which we have the option to select, the Alternate Base Rate which is equal to the greatest of (1) JPMorgan's prime rate, or (2) 0.50% in excess of the New York Federal Reserve Bank (NYFRB) rate. Any uncertainty regarding the continued use and reliability of LIBOR as a benchmark interest rate could adversely affect the performance of LIBOR relative to its historic values. If the methods of calculating LIBOR change from current methods for any reason, or if LIBOR ceases to perform as it has historically, or if we select an alternative benchmark rate our interest expense associated with our outstanding indebtedness or any future indebtedness we incur may increase.
Any failure to meet our debt obligations could damage our business.
Our ability to meet our obligations under the Amended Credit Agreement will depend on market conditions and our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. If we are unable to remain profitable, or if we use more cash than we generate in the future, our level of indebtedness at such time could adversely affect our operations by increasing our vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic and industry conditions and by limiting or prohibiting our ability to obtain financing for additional capital expenditures, acquisitions and general corporate and other purposes. In addition, if we are unable to make payments as required under the Amended Credit Agreement, we would be in default under the terms of the loans, which could seriously harm our business. If we incur significantly more debt, this could intensify the risks described above.
We may fail to secure necessary additional financing.

Our future success may depend in part on our ability to obtain additional financing to support our continued growth and operations and any downgrades in our credit rating could affect our ability to obtain additional financing in the future or may affect the terms of any such financing. If our existing sources of liquidity are insufficient to satisfy our operating requirements, we may need to seek to raise capital by one or more of the following:
issuing additional common stock or other equity instruments;
acquiring additional bank debt;
issuing debt securities; or
obtaining lease financings.
However, we may not be able to obtain additional capital when we want or need it, or capital may not be available on satisfactory terms. Furthermore, any additional capital may have terms and conditions that adversely affect our business, such as new financial or operating covenants, or that may result in dilution to our stockholders.
We expect that existing cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, cash provided from operations and our bank credit facilities will be sufficient to meet ongoing cash requirements. However, our failure to generate sufficient cash as our debt
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becomes due or to renew credit lines prior to their expiration could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Our effective tax rate may fluctuate, which could increase our income tax expense and reduce our net income.
Our effective tax rate or the taxes we owe could be adversely affected by several factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:
changes in the relative proportions of revenues and income before taxes in the various jurisdictions in which we operate that have differing statutory tax rates;
changing tax laws, regulations, and interpretations in multiple jurisdictions in which we operate as well as the requirements of certain tax rulings;
changes in the research and development tax credit laws;
earnings being lower than anticipated in jurisdictions where we have lower statutory rates and being higher than anticipated in jurisdictions where we have higher statutory rates;
the valuation of generated and acquired deferred tax assets and the related valuation allowance on these assets;
transfer pricing adjustments;
the tax effects of purchase accounting for acquisitions and restructuring charges that may cause fluctuations between reporting periods; and
tax assessments or any related tax interest or penalties that could significantly affect our income tax expense for the period in which the settlements take place.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and in numerous foreign jurisdictions. From time to time, we may receive notices that a tax authority in a particular jurisdiction believes that we owe a greater amount of tax than we have reported to such authority.
While we regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes from such examinations and the adequacy of our provision for income taxes, there can be no assurance that such provision is sufficient and that a determination by a tax authority will not have an adverse effect on our results of operations. An adverse change in our effective tax rate could have a material and adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and the price of our common stock could decline if our financial results are materially affected by an adverse change in our effective tax rate.
We may be impacted by changes in taxation, trade and other regulatory requirements.
We are subject to income tax in local, national and international jurisdictions. In addition, our products are subject to import and excise duties and/or sales or value-added taxes (VAT) in many jurisdictions. We are also subject to the examination of our tax returns and other tax matters by the Internal Revenue Service and other tax authorities and governmental bodies. We regularly assess the likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for taxes. Additionally, changes in or the improper application of import and excise duties and or sales taxes or VAT may negatively impact our operating results. There can be no assurance as to the outcome of these examinations. Fluctuations in tax rates and duties, changes in tax legislation or regulation or adverse outcomes of these examinations could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
There is increased uncertainty with respect to tax policy and trade relations between the U.S. and other countries. Major developments in tax policy or trade relations, such as the imposition of unilateral tariffs on imported products, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our estimates and judgments related to critical accounting policies could be inaccurate.
We consider accounting policies related to revenue recognition, marketable securities, valuation of goodwill, intangible assets and other acquisition and divestiture accounting items, and share-based compensation to be critical in fully understanding and evaluating our financial results. Management makes judgments and creates estimates when applying these policies. These estimates and judgments affect, among other things, the reported amounts of our assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, the amounts of charges accrued by us, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances and at the time they are made. If our estimates or the assumptions underlying them are not correct, actual results may differ materially from our estimates and we may need to, among other things, accrue additional charges or impair assets that could adversely impact our business. As a result, our operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely impacted in future periods.
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Our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting may not be effective.
Our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting may not prevent all material errors and intentional misrepresentations. Any system of internal control can only provide reasonable assurance that all control objectives are met. Some of the potential risks involved could include, but are not limited to, management judgments, simple errors or mistakes, misinterpretation and willful misconduct regarding controls. Under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we are required to evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Compliance with this provision requires management's attention and expense. Management's assessment of our internal control over financial reporting may or may not identify weaknesses that need to be addressed in our internal control system. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information which could have an adverse effect on the market price of our stock or impact our borrowing ability. In addition, changes in operating conditions and changes in compliance with policies and procedures currently in place may result in inadequate disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting in the future.
Foreign currency exchange rates may adversely affect our financial statements.
An increasing portion of our revenue is derived from international operations. Our consolidated financial results are reported in U.S. dollars. Most of the revenue and expenses of our foreign subsidiaries are denominated in local currencies. Given that cash is typically received over an extended period of time for many of our license agreements and given that a material and increasing portion of our revenue is generated outside of the United States, fluctuations in foreign exchange rates (including the Euro) against the U.S. dollar could result in substantial changes in reported revenues and operating results due to the foreign exchange impact upon translation of these transactions into U.S. dollars.
In the normal course of business, we employ various hedging strategies to partially mitigate these risks, including the use of derivative instruments. These strategies may not be effective in fully protecting us against the effects of fluctuations from movements in foreign exchange rates, including the increased volatility in foreign exchange rates following the COVID-19 outbreak and future global pandemics and other events. Fluctuations of the foreign exchange rates could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Additionally, sales and purchases in currencies other than the U.S. dollar expose us to fluctuations in foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar and may adversely affect our financial statements. Increased strength of the U.S. dollar increases the effective price of our products sold in U.S. dollars into other countries, which may require us to lower our prices or adversely affect sales to the extent we do not increase local currency prices. Decreased strength of the U.S. dollar could adversely affect the cost of materials, products and services we purchase overseas. Sales and expenses of our non-U.S. businesses are also translated into U.S. dollars for reporting purposes and the strengthening or weakening of the U.S. dollar could result in unfavorable translation effects. In addition, we may invoice customers in a currency other than the functional currency of our business, and movements in the invoiced currency relative to the functional currency could also result in unfavorable translation effects. We also face exchange rate risk from our investments in subsidiaries owned and operated in foreign countries.
If our products contain errors or quality issues, such issues may be costly to correct, revenue may be delayed, we could be sued, and our reputation could be harmed.
Our products are inherently complex and, despite testing by our customers and us, errors or quality issues may be found in our products after commencement of commercial shipments, especially when products are first introduced or when new versions are released. These errors may result from components supplied by third parties incorporated into our products, which makes us dependent upon the cooperation and expertise of such third parties for the diagnosis and correction of such errors. If errors are discovered, we may not be able to correct them in a timely manner or at all. In addition, we may need to make significant expenditures to eliminate errors and failures. Errors and failures in our products could result in loss of or delay in market acceptance of our products and could damage our reputation. Regardless of the source of these defects or errors, we may need to divert the attention of our engineering personnel from our product development efforts to address the detection and correction of these errors and defects. If one or more of our products fail, a customer may assert warranty and other contractual claims for substantial damages against us. Our contracts with customers contain provisions relating to warranty disclaimers and liability limitations, which may not be upheld. Defending a lawsuit, regardless of its merit, is costly and may divert management's attention and harm the market's perception of us and our products. In addition, if our business liability insurance coverage proves inadequate or future coverage is unavailable on acceptable terms or at all, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely impacted.
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The occurrence or discovery of these types of errors or failures could have a material and adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition. Any such errors, defects, or security vulnerabilities could also adversely affect the market's perception of our products and business.
If we fail to introduce new products and solutions or enhance our existing products and solutions to keep up with rapid technological change, demand for our products and solutions may decline.
The market for application and network performance management, service assurance, cybersecurity solutions, and business intelligence is highly competitive and characterized by rapid changes in technology, evolving industry standards, changes in customer requirements, increasing competition, and frequent product introductions and enhancements. Our success is dependent upon our ability to meet our customers' needs, which are driven by changes in technologies, new application technologies, new security risks and the emergence of new industry standards. In addition, new technologies may shorten the life cycle for our products and solutions or could render our existing or planned products and services less competitive or obsolete. We must address demand from our customers for advancements in our products and services applications in order to support our customers' growing needs and requirements. In order to meet this challenge and remain competitive in the market, we must introduce new enhancements and additional form factors to our existing product lines and service offerings. If we are unable to develop, introduce and communicate new network and application performance management and service assurance products, network security products, business intelligence products, and solutions or enhancements to existing products in a timely and successful manner, this inability could have a material and adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.
As our success depends in part on our ability to develop product enhancements and new products and solutions that keep pace with continuing changes in technology, cyber risk and customer preferences, we must devote significant resources to research and development, development and introduction of new products and enhancements on a timely basis, and obtaining market acceptance for our existing products and new products. We have introduced and intend to continue to introduce new products and solutions, including increased migration to "software as a service" and software-deployed products. If the introduction of these products and solutions is significantly delayed or if we are unsuccessful in bringing these products and solutions to market, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely impacted. We are developing and are already deploying a number of new products as well as enhancements to our existing products and offerings, including software only solutions and products available in multiple form factors.
We must invest in research and development in order to remain competitive in our industry. However, there can be no assurances that continued investment and increased research and development expenses will ultimately result in our maintaining or increasing our market share, which could result in a decline in our operating results. The process of developing new solutions is complex and uncertain; we must commit significant resources to developing new services or features without knowing whether our investments will result in services or features the market will accept. If our research and development expenses increase without a corresponding increase in our revenues, it could have a material adverse effect on our operating results. Also, we may not be able to successfully complete the development and market introduction of new products or product enhancements in a timely manner. If we fail to develop and deploy new products and product enhancements on a timely basis, or if we fail to gain market acceptance of our new products, our revenues will likely decline, and we may lose market share to our competitors.
The move to software focused products requires higher unit sales.
To address customer requirements for future technology changes such as "edge computing" and to reduce the environmental impacts of our products, we have increased and are continuing to increase our software offerings. While software products have a higher overall sales margin than that of bundled hardware and software products, the per unit revenue for software-only sales is lower than for sales that include software/hardware bundles. Therefore, in order to increase overall revenue, we will need to sell more units of software-only products to meet or exceed the revenues generated by software/hardware bundled products.
We face significant competition from other technology companies.
The service assurance, application performance management, network security and business intelligence markets are highly competitive, rapidly evolving, and fragmented markets that have overlapping technologies and competitors, both large and small, and we expect competition on offerings and pricing to increase. We believe customers make service management system, network security and business intelligence purchasing decisions based primarily upon the following factors:
product and service performance, functionality and price;
timeliness of new product and service introductions;
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network capacity;
ease of installation, integration, and use;
customer service and technical support;
name and reputation of vendor;
quality and value of the product and services; and
alliances with industry partners.
We compete with a growing number of providers of service assurance, application performance management solutions, network security offerings and portable network traffic analyzers and probes, as well as with providers of business intelligence services. In addition, leading network equipment, network security and service assurance and application technology vendors offer their own management solutions, including products which they license from other competitors. Some of our current and potential competitors have greater name recognition and substantially greater financial, management, marketing, service, support, technical, distribution and other resources than we do. In addition, some of our customers develop their own in-house solutions to meet their technological needs. Further, in recent years some of our competitors have been acquired by larger companies that are seeking to enter or expand in the markets in which we operate. We expect this trend to continue as companies attempt to strengthen or maintain their market positions in an evolving industry. Therefore, given their larger size and greater resources, our competitors may be able to respond more effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards and customer requirements.
As a result of the competitive factors highlighted in this section and in other risk factors, we may not be able to compete effectively with our current or future competitors. If we are unable to anticipate or react to these competitive challenges or if existing or new competitors gain market share in any of our markets, our competitive position could weaken and we could experience a decline in our sales that could adversely affect our business and operating results. This competition could result in increased pricing pressure, reduced profit margins, increased sales and marketing expenses, and failure to increase, or the loss of market share, any of which would likely have a material and adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.
Increased customer demands on our technical support services may adversely affect our relationships with our customers and our financial results.
We offer technical support services with many of our products. We may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for support services. We also may be unable to modify the format of our support services to compete with changes in support services provided by competitors. Our customers depend on our support organization to resolve issues relating to our products deployed on their networks. A high level of support is critical for continued relationships with our customers. If we or our channel partners do not effectively assist our customers in deploying our products, succeed in helping our customers quickly resolve post-deployment issues, and provide effective ongoing support, it would adversely affect our ability to sell our products to existing customers and would harm our reputation with existing and potential customers. Any failure to maintain high quality support and services would harm our operating results and reputation. Further, if customers demand these services, and we cannot adequately meet their demand, or if we cannot realize revenues in connection with our provision of services related to product support, it could have a material and adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Failure to manage growth properly and to implement enhanced automated systems could adversely impact our business.
The growth in size and complexity of our business and our customer base has been and will continue to be a challenge to our management and operations. Additional growth will place significant demands on our management, infrastructure, and other resources. To manage further growth effectively, we must hire, integrate, and retain highly skilled personnel qualified to manage our expanded operations. We will also need to continue to improve our financial and management controls, reporting systems, and procedures. If we are unable to manage our growth effectively, our costs, the quality of our products, the effectiveness of our sales organization, attraction and retention of key personnel, our business, our operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely impacted. To manage our growth effectively, we may need to implement new or enhanced automated infrastructure technology and systems.
Any disruptions or ineffectiveness relating to our systems implementations and enhancements could adversely affect our ability to process customer orders, ship products, provide services and support to our customers, bill and track our customers, fulfill contractual obligations, and otherwise run our business.
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As a result of the diversification of our business, personnel growth, acquisitions and international expansion in recent years, most of our employees are now based outside of our headquarters. If we are unable to appropriately increase management depth and enhance succession planning, we may not be able to achieve our financial or operational goals. It is also important to our continued success that we hire qualified employees, properly train them and manage out poorly performing personnel, all while maintaining our corporate culture and spirit of innovation. If we are not successful at these efforts, our growth and operations could be adversely affected.
As our business evolves, we must also expand and adapt our information technology (IT) and operational infrastructure. Our business relies on our data systems, billing systems and other operational and financial reporting and control systems. All of these systems have become increasingly complex due to the diversification and complexity of our business, acquisitions of new businesses with different systems. To manage our technical support infrastructure effectively and improve our sales efficiency, we will need to continue to upgrade and improve our data systems, billing systems, ordering processes, customer relationship management systems, and other operational and financial systems, procedures and controls. These upgrades and improvements may be difficult and costly, and they may require employees to dedicate a significant amount of time to implement. If we are unable to adapt our systems and organization in a timely, efficient and cost-effective manner to accommodate changing circumstances, our business may be adversely affected. If the third parties we rely on for hosted data solutions for our internal network and information systems are subject to a security breach or otherwise suffer disruptions that impact the services we utilize, the integrity and availability of our internal information could be compromised causing the loss of confidential or proprietary information, damage to our reputation and economic loss.
We may not successfully complete acquisitions or integrate acquisitions we do make, which could impair our ability to compete and could harm our operating results.
We may need to acquire complementary businesses, products or technologies to remain competitive or expand our business. We actively investigate and evaluate potential acquisitions of complementary businesses, products and technologies in the ordinary course of business. We may compete for acquisition opportunities with entities having significantly greater resources than we have. As a result, we may not succeed in acquiring some or all businesses, products or technologies that we seek to acquire. Our inability to effectively consummate acquisitions on favorable terms could significantly impact our ability to compete effectively in our targeted markets and could negatively affect our results of operations.
Acquisitions that we do complete could adversely impact our business. The potential adverse consequences from acquisitions include:
the potentially dilutive issuance of common stock or other equity instruments;
the incurrence of debt and amortization expenses related to acquired intangible assets;
the potentially costly and disruptive impact of assuming unfavorable pre-existing contractual relationships of acquired companies that we would not have otherwise entered into and potentially exiting or modifying such relationships;
the potential litigation or other claims in connection with, or inheritance of claims or litigation risk as a result of, an acquisition including claims from terminated employees, customers, third parties or enforcement actions by various regulators;
the incurrence of significant costs and expenses to complete the acquisition and integrate the acquired business; and
the potentially negative impact of poor performance of an acquisition on our earnings per share.
Acquisition transactions also involve numerous business risks. These risks from acquisitions include:
difficulties in assimilating the acquired operations, technologies, personnel and products;
difficulties in managing geographically dispersed operations;
difficulties in assimilating diverse financial reporting and management information systems as well as differing ordering processes and customer relationship management systems;
difficulties in maintaining uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies;
the diversion of management's attention from other business concerns;
use of cash to pay for acquisitions that may limit other potential uses of our cash, including stock repurchases and repayment of outstanding indebtedness;
substantial accounting charges for restructuring and related expenses, write-off of in-process research and development, impairment of goodwill, amortization or impairment of intangible assets and share-based compensation expense;
the potential disruption of our business;
the potential loss of key employees, customers, distributors or suppliers;
the inability to generate sufficient revenue to offset acquisition or investment costs; and
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the potential for delays in customer purchases due to uncertainty and the inability to maintain relationships with customers of the acquired businesses.
If we are not able to successfully manage these issues, the anticipated benefits and efficiencies of the acquisitions may not be realized fully or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected, and our ability to compete, our revenue and gross margins and our results of operations may be adversely affected.
Our ability to quickly and successfully recover from a disaster, public health crisis (including a global pandemic such as COVID-19), or other business continuity event could affect our ability to deliver our products and cause reputational harm to our business.
The occurrence of a natural disaster, public health crisis (including a global pandemic such as COVID-19) or an act of terrorism, or a decision or need to close any of our facilities without adequate notice or time for making alternative arrangements could result in interruptions in the delivery of our products and services. Our central business functions, including administration, human resources, finance services, legal, development, manufacturing and customer support depend on the proper functioning of our computer, telecommunication and other technology systems and operations, some of which are operated or hosted by third parties.
A disruption or failure of these systems or operations because of a disaster, public health crisis (including a global pandemic such as COVID-19) or other business continuity event could cause data to be lost or otherwise delay our ability to complete sales and provide the highest level of service to our customers. In addition, we could have difficulty producing accurate financial statements on a timely basis, which could have an impact on our ability to make timely disclosures and could adversely affect the trading value of our stock. Although we endeavor to ensure there is redundancy in these systems and that they are regularly backed-up, there are no assurances that data recovery in the event of a disaster would be effective or occur in an efficient manner. Our operations are dependent upon our ability to protect our technology infrastructure against damage from business continuity events that could have a significant disruptive effect on our operations. We could experience material adverse interruptions to our operations or delivery of services to our clients in a disaster recovery scenario.
Vulnerabilities and critical security defects, prioritization decisions regarding remedying vulnerabilities or security defects, failure of third party providers to remedy vulnerabilities or security defects, or customers not deploying security releases or deciding not to upgrade products, services or solutions could result in claims of liability against us, damage our reputation or otherwise harm our business.
The products and services we sell to customers, and our cloud-based solutions, may contain vulnerabilities or critical security defects which have not been remedied and cannot be disclosed without compromising security. We may also make prioritization decisions in determining which vulnerabilities or security defects to fix, and the timing of these fixes, which could result in an exploit that compromises security.
Customers also need to test security releases before they can be deployed which can delay implementation. In addition, we rely on third-party providers of software and cloud-based services and we cannot control the rate at which they remedy vulnerabilities. Customers may also not deploy a security release, or decide not to upgrade to the latest versions of our products, services or cloud-based solutions containing the release, leaving them vulnerable.
An actual, alleged, or perceived security breach, cyberattack or incident against us could interrupt our operations, create a perception that our products and services are vulnerable, and damage our brand and reputation, which could reduce revenue, increase expenses, and expose us to legal claims or regulatory actions.
Our IT networks, software and systems, and those of our service providers and partners, may be vulnerable to a wide variety of security breaches, cyberattacks and other incidents, including but not limited to traditional computer “hackers,” malicious code (such as viruses, ransomware and worms), data theft, phishing attempts and other social engineering schemes, employee mistake, theft or misuse, denial of service attacks, and nation-state and nation-state-supported actors engaged in attacks and intrusions. Although we have controls and security measures in place to prevent cyberattacks, experienced computer hackers are increasingly organized and sophisticated. Malicious attack efforts operate on a large-scale and sometimes offer targeted attacks as a paid for service. In addition, the techniques they use to access or sabotage networks change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target. As a provider of security solutions, we may be a more attractive target for such attacks. Other individuals or entities, including employees or vendors, may also intentionally or unintentionally provide unauthorized access to our IT environments or to our customers' IT environments.
If we, our service providers, or our partners were to experience a security breach, cyberattack or other incident, our service availability, IT systems and networks could be impacted, we or our customers may experience system disruptions or
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slowdowns, security vulnerabilities of our products could be exploited, the information stored on our networks or those of our third-party service providers or partners could be accessed, publicly disclosed, altered, lost, or stolen, all of which could subject us to liability and cause us financial harm. Any actual, alleged or perceived security breach or incident affecting us, our service providers, our partners or our industry as a whole could result in damage to our reputation, negative publicity, loss of partners, customers and sales, increased costs to remedy any problems and otherwise respond to any incident, regulatory investigations and enforcement actions, costly litigation, and other liability. In addition, we could incur substantial costs and liabilities, including but not limited to, expenses attributable to investigating, remediating and rectifying a security breach, cyberattack or other incident (including the cost of repairing any damage to our or our customers' systems), liability for stolen assets or information, lost revenue and income resulting from any system or product downtime, increased costs for cybersecurity protection, and costs to comply with any notification obligations resulting from any security incidents. Such outcomes could damage our reputation, cause customers and possibly investors to lose confidence in us, and adversely affect our business or operating results.
Additionally, efforts by hackers or others could cause interruptions, delays or cessation of our product licensing, or modification of our software, which could cause us to lose existing or potential customers. If these efforts are successful and a third party obtains unauthorized access to our or our customers' IT environments, our business operations, and those of our customers could be adversely affected, losses or theft of data could occur, our reputation and future sales could be harmed, governmental regulatory action or private or governmental litigation could be commenced against us and our business, and our financial condition, operating results and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
Our reliance on sole source suppliers could adversely impact our business.
Specific components that are necessary for the hardware assembly of our instruments are obtained from separate sole source suppliers or a limited group of suppliers. These components include our network interface cards and proprietary hardware. Our reliance on sole or limited suppliers involves several risks, including a lack of control over the manufacturing process and inventory management and potential inability to obtain an adequate supply of required components and the inability to exercise control over pricing, quality and timely delivery of components. For most of our products, we do not have the internal manufacturing capabilities to meet our customers' demands. It is our practice to mitigate these risks by partnering with key suppliers, including distributors, to establish a variety of supply continuity practices. These practices may include, among other approaches, establishing buffer supply requiring suppliers to maintain adequate stocks of materials, bonding agreements with distributors, and use-based and kanban programs to set supply thresholds. We also enter into escrow arrangements for certain technologies. Where possible, we use widely-available off the shelf hardware and work with large suppliers with multiple factories and other risk management practices. However, failure of supply or failure to execute effectively on any of these programs, including as a result of a public health crisis (included a global pandemic such as COVID-19) could result in our inability to obtain adequate deliveries or the occurrence of any other circumstance that would require us to seek alternative sources of supply for these components would impact our ability to ship our products on a timely basis. Moreover, if we are unable to continue to acquire from these suppliers on acceptable terms, or should any of these suppliers cease to supply us with components for any reason, we may not be able to identify and integrate an alternative source of supply in a timely fashion or at the same costs. Any transition to one or more alternate manufacturers would likely result in delays, operational problems and increased costs, and may limit our ability to deliver our products to our customers on time for such transition period. These risks could damage relationships with our current and prospective customers, cause shortfalls in expected revenue, and could materially and adversely impact our business, operating results and financial condition.
If we violate the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or applicable anti-bribery laws in other countries, or if we fail to comply with U.S. export controls and government contracting laws, our business could be harmed.
We earn a significant portion of our total revenues from international sales. As a result, we must comply with complex foreign and U.S. laws and regulations, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and other local laws prohibiting corrupt payments to government officials and others, as well as anti-competition regulations.
The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), which continues to see increased enforcement in recent years, generally prohibits U.S. companies and their intermediaries from making corrupt payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business or otherwise obtaining favorable treatment and requires companies to maintain appropriate record-keeping and internal accounting practices to accurately reflect the transactions of the company. Under the FCPA, U.S. companies may be held liable for actions taken by agents or local partners or representatives. In addition, regulators may seek to hold us liable for successor liability FCPA violations committed by companies which we acquire. We are also subject to the U.K. Bribery Act and may be subject to certain anti-corruption laws of other countries in which we do business.
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In addition to anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, we are also subject to the export and re-export control laws of the U.S., including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations (EAR) and the office of Foreign Asset Control (OFAC), as well as to U.S. government contracting laws, rules and regulations, and may be subject to government contracting laws of other countries in which we do business. If we or our distributors, resellers, agents, or other intermediaries fail to comply with the FCPA, the EAR, OFAC or U.S. government contracting laws, or the anti-corruption, export or governmental contracting laws of other countries, governmental authorities in the U.S. or other countries could seek to impose civil and/or criminal penalties, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial conditions and cash flows.
Violations of these laws and regulations could result in fines and penalties, criminal sanctions, restrictions on our business conduct and on our ability to offer our products and services in one or more countries. Such violations could also adversely affect our reputation with existing and prospective customers, which could negatively impact our operating results and growth prospects.
The failure to recruit and retain qualified personnel and plan for and manage the succession of key executives could hinder our ability to successfully manage our business, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and operating results.
We operate in businesses where there is intense competition for experienced personnel in all of our global markets and have, in some instances, experienced attrition of our employees to direct and indirect competitors. We depend on our ability to identify, recruit, hire, train, develop and retain qualified and effective professionals and to attract and retain talent needed to execute our business strategy. Our future success depends in large part upon our ability to attract, train, motivate and retain highly skilled employees, particularly executives, sales and marketing personnel, software engineers, and technical support personnel. The complexity of our products, processing functionality, software systems and services require highly trained professionals. While we presently have a sophisticated, dedicated and experienced team of employees who have a deep understanding of our business lines, the labor market for these individuals has historically been very competitive due to the limited number of people available with the necessary technical skills and understanding. If we are unable to attract and retain the highly skilled technical personnel that are integral to our sales, marketing, product development and technical support teams, the rate at which we can generate sales and develop new products or product enhancements may be limited. This inability could have a material and adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.
In addition, we must maintain and periodically increase the size of our sales force in order to increase our direct sales and support our indirect sales channels. Because our products are very technical, sales-people require a comparatively long period of time to become productive, typically three to twelve months. This lag in productivity, as well as the challenge of attracting qualified candidates, may make it difficult to meet our sales force growth targets. Further, we may not generate sufficient sales to offset the increased expense resulting from growing our sales force. If we are unable to maintain and periodically expand our sales capability, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely impacted.
Loss of key personnel could adversely impact our business. Our future success depends to a significant degree on the skills, experience and efforts of Anil Singhal, our President, Chief Executive Officer, and co-founder, and our other key executive officers and senior managers to work effectively as a team. Effective succession planning is also important for our long-term success. Failure to ensure effective transfers of knowledge and smooth transitions involving key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution. The loss of one or more of our key personnel could have a material and adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition. We must, therefore, plan for and manage the succession of key executives due to retirement, illness or competitive offers elsewhere.
We assumed certain non-U.S. pension benefit obligations associated with the business acquired in the Comms Transaction. Future funding obligations related to these liabilities could restrict cash available for our operations, capital expenditures or other requirements, or require us to borrow additional funds.
As part of the Comms Transaction, we assumed certain unfunded non-U.S. pension obligations related to non-U.S. employees of the Communications Business. While we intend to comply with any future funding obligations for our non-U.S. pension benefit plans through the use of cash from operations, there can be no assurance that we will generate enough cash to do so and also meet our other required or intended cash uses. Our inability to fund these obligations through cash from operations could require us to seek funding from other sources, including through additional borrowings, which could materially increase our outstanding debt or debt service requirements.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to manage and leverage our distribution channels. Disruptions to, or our failure to effectively develop and manage, these partners and the processes and procedures that support them could adversely affect our ability to generate revenues from the sale of our products and services. Managing these distribution
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channels and relationships requires experienced personnel, and lack of sufficient expertise could lead to a decrease in sales of our products and services, which could cause our operating results to suffer.
Our future success may require us to increase the number and depth of our indirect sales efforts through our distributors and channel partners and to leverage those relationships to expand these our distribution channels and to develop new indirect distribution channels to increase revenue. Our channel partners have no obligation to purchase any products from us. Some of our distribution and channel partners also distribute and sell competitive products and services and the reduction in sales by these partners could materially reduce our revenues. In addition, they could internally develop products that compete with our solutions or partner with our competitors and bundle or resell competitors' solutions, possibly at lower prices. The potential inability to develop relationships with new partners in new markets, expand and manage our existing partner relationships, the unwillingness of our partners to market and sell our products effectively or the loss of existing partnerships could have a material and adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition. Our international operations, including our operations in the United Kingdom, mainland Europe, India, Asia-Pacific and other regions, are generally also subject to the risk of longer sales cycles through our international distribution channels. Sales to customers outside the United States accounted for 39%, 39%, and 41% of our total revenue for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
The need to develop such relationships can be particularly acute in areas outside of the U.S. Recruiting and retaining qualified channel partners and training them in the use of our technology and services and ensuring that they comply with our legal and ethical expectations requires significant time and resources.
Our failure to maintain and increase the number and quality of relationships with channel partners, and any inability to successfully execute on the partnerships we initiate, could significantly impede our revenue growth prospects in the short and long term.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to manage our international research and development operations and related partnerships. Our international research and development efforts may achieve delayed or lower than expected benefits and involve competitive and other risks.
We must continue to enhance our existing products and introduce new products in order to keep up with rapid technological change. Our international research and development teams play a critical role in these efforts. We must attract, train, motivate and retain our international research and development team members. To maintain this international employee research and development talent, we believe we must provide our international engineers with compelling and strategically significant work, coupled with technical and architectural ownership of their respective development projects. We must develop the leaders of these international teams, while ensuring their frequent inclusion and participation in corporate strategic and operational planning. We are likely to recognize the costs associated with these investments earlier than some of the anticipated benefits, and the return on these investments may be lower, or may develop more slowly, than we expect. These development efforts also involve risks, including, knowledge transfer issues related to our technology and resulting exposure to misappropriation of intellectual property or information that is proprietary to us, heightened exposure to economic, security and political conditions abroad, and exchange rate and tax compliance issues. The risks related to our research and development efforts abroad could increase our expenses, impair our development efforts, harm our competitive position and damage our reputation. If we do not achieve the benefits anticipated from these investments, or if the achievement of these benefits is delayed, our operating results may be adversely affected.
Necessary licenses for third-party technology may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
We currently and will in the future license technology from third parties that we use to produce or embed in our products. While we have generally been able to license required third-party technology to date, third-party licenses required in the future may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Third parties who hold exclusive rights to technology that we seek to license may include our competitors. If we are unable to obtain any necessary third-party licenses, we would be required to redesign our product or obtain substitute technology, which may not perform as well, be of lower quality or be more costly. The loss of these licenses or the inability to maintain any of them on commercially acceptable terms could delay development of future products or the enhancement of existing products. We may also choose to pay a premium price for such a license in certain circumstances where continuity of the licensed product would outweigh the premium cost of the license. The unavailability of these licenses or the necessity of agreeing to commercially unreasonable terms for such licenses could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
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Our success depends on our ability to protect our intellectual property rights.
Our business is heavily dependent on our intellectual property. We rely upon a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws and registrations and non-disclosure and other contractual and license arrangements to protect our intellectual property rights. The reverse engineering, unauthorized copying, or other misappropriation of our intellectual property could enable third parties to benefit from our technology without compensating us. Furthermore, the laws of some foreign jurisdictions do not offer the same protections for our proprietary rights as the laws of the United States, and we may be subject to unauthorized use of our products in those countries. Legal proceedings to enforce our intellectual property rights could be burdensome and expensive and could involve a high degree of uncertainty. In addition, legal proceedings may divert management's attention from growing our business. There can be no assurance that the steps we have taken to protect our intellectual property rights will be adequate to deter misappropriation of proprietary information, or that we will be able to detect unauthorized use by third parties and take appropriate steps to enforce our intellectual property rights. The unauthorized copying or use of our products or proprietary information could result in reduced sales of our products and eventually harm our operating results.
Others may claim that we infringe on their intellectual property rights.
From time to time we have been and may continue to be subject to claims by others that our products infringe on their intellectual property rights, patents, copyrights or trademarks. In some cases, we may have agreed to indemnify our customers and partners if our products or technology infringe or misappropriate specified third party intellectual property rights; therefore, we could become involved in litigation or claims brought against our customers or partners if our products or technology are the subject of such allegations. These claims, whether or not valid, could require us to spend significant sums in litigation, pay damages or royalties, delay product shipments, reengineer our products, rename our products and rebuild name recognition or acquire licenses to such third-party intellectual property. We may not be able to secure any required licenses on commercially reasonable terms or secure them at all. Any of these claims or resulting events could have a material and adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition.
Uncertainties of regulation of the Internet and data traveling over the Internet could have a material and adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
We could be materially adversely affected by increased regulation of the Internet and Internet commerce in any country where we operate, as well as access to or commerce conducted on the Internet. Further, governments may further regulate or restrict the sales, licensing, distribution, and export or import of certain technologies to certain countries. The adoption of additional regulation of the Internet and Internet commerce could decrease demand for our products, and, at the same time, increase the cost of selling our products, which could have a material and adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The rapid evolution and increasing enforcement of privacy and security laws and regulations and standards around the world could require significant company resources, limit certain functionalities of our products, and harm our business.
We are subject to federal, state, local, and international laws, regulations, directives, and standards relating to the collection, use, retention, disclosure, security, transfer, and other processing of personally identifiable information. The regulatory framework for privacy and security issues worldwide is rapidly evolving, and as a result, implementation standards and enforcement practices are likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. We publicly post documentation regarding our practices concerning the processing, use, and disclosure of data. Any failure, or allegations of failure, by us, our suppliers, or other parties with whom we do business to comply with this documentation or with other federal, state, local or foreign laws, regulations, directives, and standards could result in investigations and/or proceedings against us by governmental entities or others. In many jurisdictions, enforcement actions and consequences for noncompliance are rising. In the United States, these include enforcement actions in response to rules and regulations promulgated under the authority of federal agencies, state attorneys general, states' legislation, and consumer protection agencies. In addition, privacy advocates and industry groups have regularly proposed, and may propose in the future, self-regulatory standards with which we must legally comply or that contractually apply to us. If we fail to follow these security standards, even if no customer information is compromised, we may incur significant fines or experience a significant increase in costs.
Internationally, virtually every jurisdiction in which we operate has established its own data security and privacy legal framework with which we or our customers must comply. For example, the European Union (EU) has adopted the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) which went into effect on May 25, 2018, and introduced numerous privacy-related obligations for companies operating in the EU, including greater control for data subjects, increased data portability for EU consumers, data
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breach notification requirements, and increased fines. In particular, under the GDPR, fines of up to 20 million euros or up to 4% of the annual global revenue of the noncompliant company, whichever is greater, could be imposed for violations of certain of the GDPR’s requirements. The GDPR requirements apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information between us and our subsidiaries, including employee information.
The international data protection landscape is rapidly evolving, resulting in possible significant operational costs for internal compliance and risk to our business. For example, we rely upon the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield framework and EU Standard Contractual Clauses in our data export agreements as legal bases for transferring personal data outside of the European Economic Arena (EEA). Both of these frameworks are subject to ongoing review by governmental bodies and legal challenges which may result in a ruling that the industry-standard measures we, and other companies, have taken are no longer sufficient. As a result, in the future we may need to take additional measures to ensure compliance with respect to our transfers of personal data outside of the EEA.
In addition to the GDPR, the European Commission is considering additional regulations that could affect us and our customers and other companies by requiring additional regulation of communication services, which may increase our compliance burden and affect product offerings.
Complying with international data protection laws may cause us to incur additional operational costs or require us to change our business practices. Despite our efforts, we may not be successful in achieving compliance either due to internal or external factors such as lack of vendor cooperation. Any actual or perceived non-compliance could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities, customers, data subjects, or others.
Domestic laws in this area are also complex and developing rapidly. In recent years, there have been a number of well-publicized data breaches involving the improper dissemination of personal information of individuals. Many states have adopted legislation that regulates how businesses operate online, including measures relating to privacy, data security and data breaches. For example, California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), which took effect on January 1, 2020, and provides its residents expanded rights to access and to delete their personal information, opt out rights to certain personal information sharing, and detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. The CCPA and its regulations may increase our compliance costs and potential liability.
Because the interpretation and application of privacy and data protection laws are uncertain, it is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing data management practices or the features of our products and platform capabilities. If so, we could be required to change our business activities and practices or modify our products and platform capabilities, which could have an adverse effect on our business. Any inability by us to adequately address privacy and security concerns, even if unfounded, or comply with applicable privacy and data security laws, regulations, and policies or our contracts governing our processing of personal information, could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, inhibit sales, and adversely affect our business. Furthermore, the costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, the laws, regulations, and policies that are applicable to the businesses of our customers or to our marketing and promotion of our products to interested individuals may have an adverse effect on our business.
We or our suppliers may be impacted by new regulations related to climate change or other environmental issues.
We or our suppliers may become subject to new laws enacted with regards to climate change or other environmental issues. In the event that new laws are enacted or current laws are modified in countries in which we or our suppliers operate, we could face increased costs in order to comply with these laws. These costs may be incurred across various levels of our supply chain in order to comply with new environmental regulations, as well as by us in connection with our manufacturing of products, including costs related to incorporation of substitute materials and other product re-design costs, as well as costs associated with product recalls. In addition, we may be unable to service existing products if certain materials are no longer compliant with new regulations, which could cause us to incur increased costs in order to satisfy service obligations to customers. Additionally, our flow of product may be impacted which could delay the recognition of revenue and have a materially adverse effect on our business.
The current economic and geopolitical environment may impact some specific industries into which we sell and may lead our customers to delay or forgo technology investments and could have other impacts, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Many of our customers are concentrated in certain industries, including financial services, public sector, healthcare, and the service provider market. Certain industries may be more acutely affected by economic, geopolitical and other factors, including public heath crises (including global pandemics such as COVID-19), and changes in U.S. trade policy with China and
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other countries, than other sectors. Our public sector customers are affected by federal, state and local budget decisions. To the extent that one or more of the sectors in which our customer base operates is adversely impacted, whether as a result of general conditions affecting all sectors or as a result of conditions affecting only those particular sectors, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely impacted. If companies in our target markets reduce capital expenditures, we may experience a reduction in sales, longer sales cycles, slower adoption of new technologies as well as downward pressure on the price of our products. There can be no assurance that any decrease in sales resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak will be offset by increased sales in subsequent periods. Although the magnitude of the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on our business and operations remains uncertain, the continued spread of COVID-19 or the occurrence of other epidemics and the imposition of related public health measures and travel and business restrictions could adversely impact our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
International economic, political, legal, compliance and business factors could negatively affect our financial statements and growth.
We expect to continue to develop our sales and presence outside the U.S.. Our international business (and particularly our business in high-growth markets) is subject to risks that are customarily encountered in non-U.S. operations, any of which could negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In particular, after significant negotiation between the United Kingdom and the EU, the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU, commonly referred to as Brexit, took effect on January 31, 2020. There is now a transition period while the United Kingdom and EU negotiate additional arrangements, including their future trading terms. The United Kingdom has stated that it wants the transition period to expire, and the future trading terms to be agreed, by December 31, 2020. The withdrawal could, among other outcomes, disrupt the free movement of goods, services, and people between the United Kingdom and the EU, undermine bilateral cooperation in key policy areas, significantly disrupt trade between the United Kingdom and the EU, and lead to a period of considerable uncertainty in relation to global financial and banking markets. In addition, the withdrawal could lead to legal uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the United Kingdom determines which EU laws to replace or replicate. If the United Kingdom and the EU are unable to negotiate acceptable future trading terms or if other EU member states pursue withdrawal, barrier-free access between the United Kingdom and other EU member states or among the EEA overall could be diminished or eliminated. Given the lack of comparable precedent, it is unclear what financial, trade, and legal implications the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU will have and how such withdrawal may affect us.
The success of our business depends, in part, on the continued growth in the market for and the continued commercial demand for service delivery, service assurance and network security solutions focused on the performance monitoring and management of applications and networks.
We derive nearly all of our revenue from the sale of products and services that are designed to allow our customers to assure the delivery of services through management of the performance and network security of applications across IP networks. We have actively expanded our operations in the past through acquisitions and organic growth and may continue to expand them in the future in order to gain share in the evolving market in which we operate. Therefore, we must be able to predict the appropriate features and prices for future products to address the market, the optimal distribution strategy and the future changes to the competitive environment. In order for us to be successful, our potential customers must recognize the value of more sophisticated application management and network security solutions, decide to invest in the management of their networked applications and, in particular, adopt our management solutions. Any failure of this market to continue to be viable would materially and adversely impact our business, operating results and financial condition. Additionally, businesses may choose to outsource the operations and management of their networks to managed service providers. Our business may depend on our ability to continue to develop relationships with these service providers and successfully market our products to them.
Changes in industry structure and market conditions could lead to charges related to discontinuances of certain of our products or businesses and asset impairments.
In response to changes in industry and market conditions, we may be required to strategically reallocate managerial, operational, financial and other resources. Any such efforts may result in charges related to consolidation of excess facilities or claims from third parties who were resellers or users of discontinued products.
Our growth could suffer if the markets into which we sell our products and services experience cyclicality.
Our growth will depend in part on the growth of the markets which we serve. We serve certain industries that have historically been cyclical and have experienced periodic downturns that have had a material adverse impact on demand for the
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products, software and services that we offer. Any of these factors could adversely affect the business, financial condition and results of operations of the company in any given period.
Uncertain conditions in the global economy and constraints in the global credit market may adversely affect our revenue and results of operations.
Disruptions in the global economy and constraints in the global credit market may cause some of our customers to reduce, delay, or cancel spending on capital and technology projects, resulting in reduced spending with us. While some industry sectors such as government and telecommunications may be less susceptible to the effects of an economic slowdown, our enterprise customers may be adversely affected, especially in financial services and consumer industries. Continued volatility in, or disruption of financial markets could limit customers' ability to obtain adequate financing to maintain operations and result in a decrease in sales volume that could have a negative impact on our results of operations. Further, competitors may respond to economic conditions by lowering their prices, which could put pressure on our pricing. We could also experience lower than anticipated order levels, cancellations of orders in backlog, defaults on outstanding accounts receivable and extended payment or delivery terms. Economic weakness, customer financial difficulties and constrained spending on IT initiatives have resulted, and may in the future result, in challenging and delayed sales cycles and could negatively impact our ability to forecast future periods. In addition, some of the markets we serve are emerging and the purchase of our products involves material changes to established purchasing patterns and policies. The purchase of our products is often discretionary and may involve a significant commitment of capital and other resources.
Our stock price has been subject to fluctuations, and will likely continue to be subject to fluctuations, which may be volatile and due to factors beyond our control.
The market price of our common stock is subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. In addition to the factors discussed in this "Risk Factors" section and elsewhere in this report, factors that could cause fluctuations in the market price of our common stock include the following:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;
the financial projections we may provide to the public, any changes in these projections, or our failure to meet these projections;
failure of securities analysts to initiate or maintain coverage of our company, changes in financial estimates and publication of other news by any securities analysts who follow our company, or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;
ratings changes by any securities analysts who follow our company;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant technical innovations, acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments;
changes in operating performance and stock market valuations of other technology companies generally, or those in our industry in particular;
price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time, including as a result of trends in the economy as a whole;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidelines, interpretations, or principles;
actual or anticipated developments in our business or our competitors’ businesses or the competitive landscape generally;
developments or disputes concerning our intellectual property or our products and platform capabilities, or third-party proprietary rights;
cybersecurity attacks or incidents;
announced or completed acquisitions of businesses or technologies by us or our competitors;
new laws or regulations or new interpretations of existing laws, or regulations applicable to our business;
changes in our board of directors or management;
announced or completed equity or debt transactions involving our securities;
sales of shares of our common stock by us, our officers, directors, or other stockholders;
lawsuits filed or threatened against us; and
other events or factors, including those resulting from public health crises (including global pandemics such as COVID-19, war, incidents of terrorism, or responses to these events).
In addition, the market for technology stocks and the stock markets in general have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. Stock prices of many technology companies have fluctuated in a manner unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. In the past, stockholders have instituted securities class action litigation
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following periods of market volatility. If we were to become involved in securities litigation, it could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business, and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows. A decline in the value of our common stock, including as a result of one or more factors set forth above, may result in substantial losses for our stockholders.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
Our headquarters are located in Westford, MA, in approximately 175,000 square feet of space under a lease expiring in September 2030. In addition, we lease office and/or manufacturing space in Allen, Texas; San Jose, California; Ann Arbor, Michigan; Berkeley, California; and Bangalore, India.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we are subject to legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of business. In the opinion of management, the amount of ultimate expense with respect to any current legal proceedings and claims, if determined adversely, will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
As previously disclosed, in March 2016, Packet Intelligence LLC (Packet Intelligence or Plaintiff) filed a Complaint against us and two subsidiary entities in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas asserting infringement of five United States patents. Plaintiff’s Complaint alleged that legacy Tektronix GeoProbe products, including the G10 and GeoBlade products, infringed these patents. We filed an Answer denying Plaintiff’s allegations and asserting that Plaintiff’s patents were, among other things, invalid, not infringed, and unenforceable due to inequitable conduct. In October 2017, a jury trial was held to address the parties’ claims and counterclaims regarding infringement of three patents by the G10 and GeoBlade products, invalidity of these patents, and damages. On October 13, 2017, the jury rendered a verdict finding in favor of the Plaintiff and that Plaintiff was entitled to $3,500,000 for pre-suit damages and $2,250,000 for post-suit damages. The jury indicated that the awarded damages amounts were intended to reflect a running royalty. In September 2018, the Court entered judgment and "enhanced" the jury verdict in the amount of $2.8 million as a result of a jury finding. The judgment also awards pre- and post-judgment interest, and a running royalty on the G10 and GeoBlade products until the expiration of the patents at issue, the last date being June 2022. The Court denied the Plaintiff's motion for fees. Following additional motions for judgment as a matter of law, the court entered final judgment. On June 12, 2019, we filed our Notice of Appeal of the judgment and all other adverse findings. We have concluded that the risk of loss from this matter is currently neither remote nor probable, and therefore, under GAAP definitions, the risk of loss is termed "reasonably possible". Therefore, accounting rules require us to provide an estimate for the range of potential liability. We currently estimate that the estimated range of liability is between $0 and the aggregate amount awarded by the jury and the Court's award of enhanced damages, plus potential additional pre- and post-judgment interest amounts and costs and any royalties owed on post-trial sales of the accused G10 and GeoBlade products.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
None.
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Price Range of Common Stock
Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, under the symbol NTCT.
Stockholders
At May 11, 2020, we had 96 stockholders of record. We believe that the number of beneficial holders of our common stock exceeds 14,000.
Stock Performance Graph
This performance graph shall not be deemed "filed" for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing of NetScout under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
The Stock Performance Graph set forth below compares the yearly change in the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock during the five-year period from March 31, 2015 through March 31, 2020 with the cumulative total return of the Nasdaq Composite Index and the Nasdaq Computer & Data Processing Index. The comparison assumes $100 was invested on March 31, 2015 in our common stock or in the Nasdaq Composite Index and the Nasdaq Computer & Data Processing Index and assumes reinvestment of dividends, if any.
The stock price performance shown on the graph below is not necessarily indicative of future price performance. Information used in the graph was obtained from Zacks Investment Research, Inc.
COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
Assumes Initial Investment of $100

ntct-20200331_g1.jpg
3/31/20153/31/20163/31/20173/31/20183/31/20193/31/2020
NetScout Systems, Inc.$100.00  $52.38  $86.55  $60.09  $64.01  $53.98  
Nasdaq Composite – Total Returns$100.00  $100.55  $123.56  $149.21  $165.07  $166.22  
Nasdaq Computer and Data Processing$100.00  $128.31  $158.29  $211.57  $248.63  $273.16  
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Dividend Policy
In fiscal years 2020 and 2019, we did not declare any cash dividends and do not anticipate declaring cash dividends in the foreseeable future. In addition, the terms of our credit facility limit our ability to pay cash dividends on our capital stock. It is our intention to retain all future earnings for reinvestment to fund our expansion and growth, to pay down our debt, and to fund our stock buyback program further described under Item 7 "Liquidity and Capital Resources." Any future cash dividend declaration will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon, among other things, our future earnings, general financial conditions, capital requirements, existing bank covenants and general business conditions.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer
The following table provides information about purchases we made during the quarter ended March 31, 2020 of equity securities that are registered by us pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act:
Total Number
of Shares
Purchased (1)
Average Price
Paid per Share
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
Maximum Number of Shares That May
Yet be Purchased
Under the
Program
1/1/2020 - 1/31/2020—  $—  —  9,194,997  
2/1/2020 - 2/29/2020915,114  28.33  906,100  8,288,897  
3/1/2020 - 3/31/20201,046,161  23.26  1,045,466  7,243,431  
Total1,961,275  $25.63  1,951,566  7,243,431  
 
(1)We purchased an aggregate of 9,709 shares transferred to us from employees in satisfaction of tax withholding obligations associated with the vesting of restricted stock units during the period. Such purchases reflected in the table do not reduce the maximum number of shares that may be purchased under our previously announced stock repurchase program (our previously disclosed 25 million share repurchase program).

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data
SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
The selected consolidated financial data set forth below should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto and "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" included under Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The consolidated statement of operations data for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 and the consolidated balance sheet data at March 31, 2020 and 2019 are derived from audited consolidated financial statements included under Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The consolidated statement of operations data for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2017 and 2016 and the consolidated balance sheet data at March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 have been derived from audited consolidated financial statements of NetScout that do not appear in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Certain amounts for the twelve months ended March 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported results of operations. The historical results are not necessarily indicative of the operating results to be expected in the future.
 Year Ended March 31,
 20202019 (1)201820172016 (2)
 (In thousands, except per share data)
Statement of Operations Data:
Revenue:
Product$438,341  $467,289  $520,418  $715,404  $625,537  
Service453,479  442,629  466,369  446,708  329,882  
Total revenue891,820  909,918  986,787  1,162,112  955,419  
Cost of revenue:
Product122,832  140,938  158,628  233,275  235,996  
Service119,360  113,189  113,277  112,864  92,453  
Total cost of revenue242,192  254,127  271,905  346,139  328,449  
Gross profit649,628  655,791  714,882  815,973  626,970  
Operating expenses:
Research and development188,294  203,588  215,076  232,701  208,630  
Sales and marketing276,523  291,870  312,536  328,628  293,335  
General and administrative99,994  93,572  109,479  118,438  117,714  
Amortization of acquired intangible assets64,505  74,305  76,640  70,141  32,373  
Restructuring charges2,674  18,693  5,209  4,001  468  
Impairment of intangible assets—  35,871  —  —  —  
Loss on divestiture of business—  9,472  —  —  —  
Total operating expenses631,990  727,371  718,940  753,909  652,520  
Income (loss) from operations17,638  (71,580) (4,058) 62,064  (25,550) 
Interest and other expense, net(15,714) (21,332) (14,601) (9,879) (6,889) 
Income (loss) before income tax expense (benefit)1,924  (92,912) (18,659) 52,185  (32,439) 
Income tax expense (benefit)4,678  (19,588) (98,471) 18,894  (4,070) 
Net income (loss)$(2,754) $(73,324) $79,812  $33,291  $(28,369) 
Basic net income (loss) per share$(0.04) $(0.93) $0.91  $0.36  $(0.35) 
Diluted net income (loss) per share$(0.04) $(0.93) $0.90  $0.36  $(0.35) 
Weighted average common shares outstanding used in computing:
Net income (loss) per share—basic75,162  78,617  87,425  92,226  81,927  
Net income (loss) per share—diluted75,162  78,617  88,261  92,920  81,927  
 
(1)The fiscal year 2019 amounts and all following years have been impacted by the April 1, 2018 adoption of the new revenue standard.
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(2)During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, NetScout completed the Comms Transaction. The total equity consideration was approximately $2.3 billion based on issuing approximately 62.5 million new shares of NetScout common stock.


 March 31,
 2020 (1)2019201820172016 (2)
 (In thousands)
Balance Sheet Data:
Cash, cash equivalents and short- and long-term marketable securities$389,071  $486,988  $447,762  $464,705  $352,075  
Working capital$260,746  $421,286  $339,108  $394,279  $283,422  
Total assets$3,120,503  $3,269,994  $3,368,608  $3,601,513  $3,592,843  
Debt$450,000  $550,000  $600,000  $300,000  $300,000  
Total stockholders’ equity$1,937,919  $2,065,433  $2,068,782  $2,436,250  $2,443,382  
 
(1)Upon adoption of ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), at the beginning of the first quarter of fiscal 2020, NetScout began including right-of-use assets in total assets, as the guidance requires an entity to recognize lease liabilities and a right-of-use assets on the balance sheet.
(2)During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016, NetScout completed the Comms Transaction. The total equity consideration was approximately $2.3 billion based on issuing approximately 62.5 million new shares of NetScout common stock.
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following information should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial information and the notes thereto included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In addition to historical information, the following discussion and other parts of this Annual Report contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Actual events or results may differ materially due to competitive factors and other factors discussed in Item 1A. "Risk Factors" and elsewhere in this Annual Report. These factors may cause our actual results to differ materially from any forward-looking statement. See the section titled "Cautionary Statement Concerning Forward-Looking Statements" that appears at the beginning of this Annual Report.

Overview
We are an industry leader in providing service assurance and security solutions that are used by customers worldwide to assure their digital business services against disruption. Service providers and enterprises, including local, state and federal government agencies, rely on our solutions to achieve the visibility necessary to optimize network performance, ensure the delivery of high-quality, mission-critical applications and services, gain timely insight into the end user experience and protect the network from attack. With our offerings, customers can quickly, efficiently and effectively identify and resolve issues that result in downtime, interruptions to services, poor service quality or compromised security, thereby driving compelling returns on their investments in their network and broader technology initiatives. Some of the more significant technology trends and catalyst for our business include the evolution of customers digital transformation initiatives, the rapidly evolving security threat landscape, business intelligence and analytics advancements, and the 5G evolution in both the service provider and enterprise verticals.
Our operating results are influenced by a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the mix and quantity of products and services sold, pricing, costs of materials used in our products, growth in employee-related costs, including commissions, and the expansion of our operations. Factors that affect our ability to maximize our operating results include, but are not limited to, our ability to introduce and enhance existing products, the marketplace acceptance of those new or enhanced products, continued expansion into international markets, development of strategic partnerships, competition, successful acquisition integration efforts, and our ability to achieve expense reductions and make improvements in a highly competitive industry.
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COVID-19 Impact
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the novel strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) a global pandemic and recommended containment and mitigation measures worldwide. The pandemic and these containment and mitigation measures have led to adverse impacts on the U.S. and global economies. Due to the critical nature of our products and services, we are considered critical under State and Federal guidelines. We remain focused on protecting the health and well-being of our employees and have implemented work from home policies for a vast majority of our employees where possible.
We are closely monitoring the impact of the outbreak of COVID-19 on all aspects of our business, including how it has impacted and will continue to impact our customers, employees, supply chain, and distribution network. While COVID-19 did not have a material adverse effect on our reported results for the fourth quarter of our fiscal year 2020, the pandemic did impact the timing of some transactions. There is a great deal of uncertainty in the global economy, and we are unable to predict the ultimate impact that it may have on our business, future results of operations, financial position or cash flows. The extent to which our operations may be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic will depend largely on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the outbreak and actions by government authorities to contain the outbreak or treat its impact. Furthermore, the impacts of a potential worsening of global economic conditions and the continued disruptions to and volatility in the financial markets remain unknown.
Although there is uncertainty related to the anticipated impact of the recent COVID-19 outbreak on our future results, we believe that our products offer customers a unique solution set that can assist them in dealing with unexpected network, security and capacity challenges during and after the pandemic. Despite high customer interest in our products, the timing of the receipt of orders is challenging to predict. We believe our current cash reserves leave us well-positioned to manage our business through this crisis as it continues to unfold. Based on our analysis, we believe our existing balances of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities and our currently anticipated operating cash flows will be sufficient to meet our cash needs arising in the ordinary course of business for the next twelve months. We are taking actions to reduce costs and increase productivity throughout our company. This includes limiting discretionary spending and reducing hiring activities. We have temporarily halted our stock repurchase program, although the repurchase authorization remains effective. In addition, based on covenant levels at March 31, 2020, we have an incremental $285 million available to us under our $1.0 billion revolving credit facility.
The extent of the impact of the global COVID-19 outbreak on our operational and financial performance will depend on certain developments, including the duration and spread of the outbreak, its impact on our customers and suppliers and the range of governmental and community reactions to the pandemic, which are uncertain and cannot be fully predicted at this time. We will continue to proactively respond to the situation and may take further actions that alter our business operations as may be required by governmental authorities, or that we determine are in the best interests of our stakeholders.
Results Overview
Total revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020 as compared to total revenue for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019 was primarily impacted by an $18.1 million decrease in revenue as a result of the divestiture of the HNT tools business in September 2018, as well as a decrease in product revenue from both network performance management and DDOS offerings. These decreases were offset by an increase in service revenue from new maintenance contracts and renewals from a growing support base.
Our gross profit percentage increased by approximately one percentage point during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020 as compared with the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019.
Net loss for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020 was $2.8 million, as compared with net loss for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019 of $73.3 million, resulting in a decrease in net loss of $70.5 million. The decrease in net loss was primarily due to a $35.9 million impairment charge of certain intangible assets related to the HNT tools business recorded in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019, a $17.6 million decrease in amortization of intangible assets, a $16.0 million decrease in restructuring charges, an $11.8 million decrease in employee-related expenses, and a $9.5 million loss on the divestiture of the HNT tools business recorded in the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019. These decreases were partially offset by a $24.3 million increase in income tax expense.
At March 31, 2020, we had cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities (current and non-current) of $389.1 million. This represents a decrease of $97.9 million compared to the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019. This decrease was primarily due to $175.0 million used to repurchase shares of our common stock, $100.0 million used to repay long-term debt, $19.9 million used for capital expenditures, $11.9 million used for tax withholdings in connection with the vesting of restricted stock units, and $11.3 million used for the acquisitions of Gigavation Incorporated (Gigavation) and Eastwind Networks, Inc. (Eastwind). These decreases were partially offset by $225.0 million in cash provided by operations during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020.
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Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We supplement the United States generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) financial measures we report in quarterly and annual earnings announcements, investor presentations and other investor communications by reporting the following non-GAAP measures: non-GAAP total revenue, non-GAAP product revenue, non-GAAP service revenue, non-GAAP gross profit, non-GAAP income from operations, non-GAAP operating margin, non-GAAP earnings before interest and other expense, income taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) from operations, non-GAAP net income, and non-GAAP net income per share (diluted). Non-GAAP revenue (total, product and service) eliminates the GAAP effects of acquisitions by adding back revenue related to deferred revenue revaluation, as well as revenue impacted by the amortization of acquired intangible assets. Non-GAAP gross profit includes the aforementioned revenue adjustments and also removes expenses related to the amortization of acquired intangible assets, share-based compensation, certain expenses relating to acquisitions including depreciation costs, compensation for post-combination services and business development and integration costs and adds back transitional service agreement income. Non-GAAP income from operations includes the aforementioned adjustments and also removes restructuring charges, intangible asset impairment charges, loss on divestiture and costs related to new accounting standard implementation. Non-GAAP EBITDA from operations includes the aforementioned items related to non-GAAP income from operations and also removes non-acquisition-related depreciation expense. Non-GAAP net income includes the foregoing adjustments related to non-GAAP income from operations, net of related income tax effects in addition to the provisional one-time impacts of the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) while removing transitional service agreement income and changes in contingent consideration. Non-GAAP diluted net income per share also excludes these expenses as well as the related impact of all these adjustments on the provision for income taxes.
These non-GAAP measures are not in accordance with GAAP, should not be considered an alternative for measures prepared in accordance with GAAP (revenue, gross profit, operating profit, net income (loss) and diluted net income (loss) per share), and may have limitations in that they do not reflect all our results of operations as determined in accordance with GAAP. These non-GAAP measures should only be used to evaluate our results of operations in conjunction with the corresponding GAAP measures. The presentation of non-GAAP information is not meant to be considered superior to, in isolation from, or as a substitute for results prepared in accordance with GAAP.
Management believes these non-GAAP financial measures enhance the reader's overall understanding of our current financial performance and our prospects for the future by providing a higher degree of transparency for certain financial measures and providing a level of disclosure that helps investors understand how we plan and measure our business. We believe that providing these non-GAAP measures affords investors a view of our operating results that may be more easily compared with our peer companies and also enables investors to consider our operating results on both a GAAP and non-GAAP basis during and following the integration period of our acquisitions. Presenting the GAAP measures on their own may not be indicative of our core operating results. Furthermore, management believes that the presentation of non-GAAP measures when shown in conjunction with the corresponding GAAP measures provide useful information to management and investors regarding present and future business trends relating to our financial condition and results of operations.

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The following table reconciles revenue, gross profit, income (loss) from operations, net income (loss) and net income (loss) per share on a GAAP and non-GAAP basis for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018:

 Fiscal Year Ended March 31,
(Dollars in Thousands, Except per Share Data)
 202020192018
GAAP revenue$891,820  $909,918  $986,787  
Product deferred revenue fair value adjustment—  391  3,064  
       Service deferred revenue fair value adjustment192  1,199  9,409  
       Amortization of acquired intangible assets—  —   
Non-GAAP revenue$892,012  $911,508  $999,269  
GAAP gross profit$649,628  $655,791  $714,882  
Product deferred revenue fair value adjustment—  391  3,064  
Service deferred revenue fair value adjustment192  1,199  9,409  
Share-based compensation expense 6,843  7,422  5,983  
Amortization of acquired intangible assets24,974  31,238  37,332  
Business development and integration expense—  —  244  
Acquisition related depreciation expense31  75  145  
Transitional service agreement income—   —  
Non-GAAP gross profit$681,668  $696,118  $771,059  
GAAP income (loss) from operations$17,638  $(71,580) $(4,058) 
Product deferred revenue fair value adjustment—  391  3,064  
Service deferred revenue fair value adjustment192  1,199  9,409  
Share-based compensation expense 50,861  56,328  47,317  
Amortization of acquired intangible assets89,479  105,543  113,972  
Business development and integration expense373  874  2,689  
New standard implementation expense 914  2,630  
Compensation for post-combination services578  789  1,108  
Restructuring charges2,674  18,693  5,209  
Impairment of intangible assets—  35,871  —  
Acquisition related depreciation expense312  905  2,057  
Loss on divestiture—  9,472  —  
Transitional service agreement income1,212