10-K 1 oak-20231231.htm 10-K oak-20231231
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2
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM
10-K
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934.
For the transition period from                      to                     .
Commission File Number 001-35500
Brookfield Oaktree Holdings, LLC
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware26-0174894
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
333 South Grand Avenue, 28th Floor
Los Angeles, CA 90071
Telephone: (213) 830-6300
(Address, zip code, and telephone number, including
area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
6.625% Series A preferred unitsOAK-PANew York Stock Exchange
6.550% Series B preferred unitsOAK-PBNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes       No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter periods that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes       No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
 
Large Accelerated Filer
Accelerated Filer
Non-accelerated Filer
Smaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes      No  
As of March 19, 2024, there were 109,198,991 Class A units and 50,930,598 Class B units of the registrant outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
None




TABLE OF CONTENTS
 Page
PART I. 
PART II.
PART III.
PART IV.


2


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
In March 2024, we changed our name from Oaktree Capital Group, LLC to Brookfield Oaktree Holdings, LLC (“BOH”). We will not distinguish between our prior and current name and will refer to our current name throughout this annual report.
This annual report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), and Section 21E of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), which reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, our future results of operations and financial performance. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by words such as anticipate, approximately, believe, continue, could, estimate, expect, intend, may, outlook, plan, potential, predict, seek, should, will and would or the negative version of these words or other comparable or similar words. These statements identify prospective information. Important factors could cause actual results to differ, possibly materially, from those indicated in these statements. Forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account all information currently available to us. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties and assumptions relating to our operations, financial results, financial condition, business prospects, growth strategy and liquidity.
In addition to factors identified elsewhere in this annual report, the following factors, among others, could cause actual results to differ materially from forward-looking statements and information or historical performance: the ability of BOH to retain and hire key service providers; the continued availability of capital and financing; the business, economic and political conditions in the markets in which BOH operates; changes in BOH’s anticipated revenue and income, which are inherently volatile; changes in the value of BOH’s investments; the pace of Oaktree’s raising of new funds; changes in assets under management; the timing and receipt of, and impact of taxes on, carried interest; distributions from and liquidation of Oaktree’s existing funds; the amount and timing of distributions on BOH’s preferred units; changes in BOH’s operating or other expenses; the degree to which BOH encounters competition; and general political, economic and market conditions.
Any forward-looking statements and information speak only as of the date of this annual report or as of the date they were made, and except as required by law, BOH does not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements and information. For a more detailed discussion of these factors, also see the information under the captions “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this annual report, and in each case any material updates to these factors contained in any of BOH’s future filings.
As for the forward-looking statements and information that relate to future financial results and other projections, actual results will be different due to the inherent uncertainties of estimates, forecasts and projections and may be better or worse than projected and such differences could be material. Given these uncertainties, you should not place any reliance on these forward-looking statements and information.
This annual report and its contents do not constitute and should not be construed as (a) a recommendation to buy, (b) an offer to buy or solicitation of an offer to buy, (c) an offer to sell or (d) advice in relation to, any securities of BOH or securities of any Oaktree investment fund.
Risk Factor Summary
We are providing the following summary of the risk factors contained in this annual report to enhance the readability and accessibility of our risk factor disclosures. We encourage you to carefully review the full risk factors contained in this annual report in their entirety for additional information regarding the material factors that make an investment in our preferred units speculative or risky. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:
Oaktree may alter the terms under which it or we do business when Oaktree or we deem it appropriate;
Our business could be materially harmed by conditions in the global financial markets and economies;
Inflation has adversely affected and may continue to adversely affect our business, results of operations
and financial condition of our funds and their portfolio companies;

3


If Oaktree were unable to raise capital from investors, it would adversely affect our financial condition;
We depend on OCM and certain of its affiliates to advise the funds in which we invest and support our operations;
Our revenues are volatile due to the nature and structure of our business;
Conflicts of interest or inter-fund governance matters could cause reputational harm to us;
The investment management business is intensely competitive, and poor performance of Oaktree funds could adversely affect Oaktree’s ability to raise capital for future funds;
We may not be able to maintain our current incentive fee structure as a result of industry pressure from clients to reduce fees, which could have an adverse effect on our profit margins and results of operations;
Our funds often pursue investment opportunities that involve business, regulatory, legal or other complexities;
Technological developments in artificial intelligence could disrupt the markets in which we operate and subject us to increased competition, legal and regulatory risks and compliance costs;
Extensive regulation and/or legal and regulatory changes, as well as regulatory compliance failures and negative publicity surrounding the financial industry in general, could adversely affect us;
The replacement of LIBOR may adversely affect our credit arrangements and our collateralized loan obligation transactions;
SEC rules barring so-called “bad actors” from relying on Rule 506 of Regulation D in private placements could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;
Oaktree’s failure to comply with, or changes to, “pay to play” regulations could adversely affect our reputation;
Oaktree’s failure to maintain the security of its information and technology networks or a cybersecurity breach or other incident could have a material adverse effect on us;
Interruption of Oaktree’s information technology, communications systems or data services could disrupt our business, result in losses and/or limit our growth;
We are subject to substantial litigation risks and may face significant liabilities and damage to our professional reputation as a result;
Oaktree employee misconduct could harm our reputation;
The United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union could adversely affect us;
The historical returns attributable to our funds should not be considered indicative of future results;
Certain of our funds make investments in distressed businesses that involve significant risks and potential liabilities;
Certain of our funds may be subject to risks arising from potential control group liability;
Poor investment performance during periods of adverse market conditions may result in relatively high levels of investor redemptions, which can adversely impact the affected funds;
Valuation methodologies for certain assets in our funds can be subject to significant subjectivity, and the values of assets established pursuant to the methodologies may never be realized;
Our funds make investments in companies that are based outside the United States, which exposes us to additional risks;

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We have made and expect to continue to make significant investments in our current and future funds, and we may lose money on some or all of our investments;
Our funds often invest in companies that are highly leveraged, a fact that may increase the risk of loss;
The use of leverage by our funds could have a material adverse effect on us;
Changes in the debt financing markets and higher interest rates may negatively impact our funds and their portfolio companies;
Our funds are subject to risks in using agents and third-party service providers;
The market price of our preferred units could be adversely affected by various factors;
If we, including any service organizations that we use, fail to maintain effective internal controls over our financial reporting in the future, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be adversely affected;
Distributions on the preferred units are discretionary and non-cumulative;
We have an indirect economic interest in only a portion of the earnings and cash flows of the Oaktree Operating Group, which may negatively impact our ability to pay distributions on our preferred units;
If we or any of Oaktree’s private funds were deemed an investment company under the Investment Company Act, applicable restrictions could make it impractical for us to continue our business or such funds;
Our operating agreement contains provisions that substantially limit remedies available to our preferred unitholders for actions that might otherwise result in liability for our officers and/or directors;
Our ability to make distributions to holders of any series of preferred units may be limited;
If the amount of distributions on the preferred units is greater than our gross ordinary income, then the amount that a holder of preferred units would receive upon liquidation may be less than the preferred unit liquidation value;
Holders of preferred units who are U.S. taxpayers should anticipate the need to file annually a request for an extension of the due date of their income tax return, and may be required to file amended income tax returns;
An investment in preferred units will give rise to UBTI to certain tax-exempt holders;
Non-U.S. holders face unique U.S. tax issues from owning preferred units that may result in adverse tax consequences to them;
Holders of preferred units may be subject to state and local taxes and return filing requirements as a result of investing in our preferred units;
Amounts distributed in respect of the preferred units could be treated as “guaranteed payments” for U.S. federal income tax purposes; and
Holders of preferred units who do not hold the units through the record date for a distribution may be allocated gross ordinary income even though no distribution is received.

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MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA
This annual report includes market and industry data and forecasts that are derived from independent reports, publicly available information, various industry publications, other published industry sources and our internal data, estimates and forecasts. Independent reports, industry publications and other published industry sources generally indicate that the information contained therein was obtained from sources believed to be reliable. We have not commissioned, nor are we affiliated with, any of the sources cited herein.
Our internal data, estimates and forecasts are based upon information obtained from investors in Oaktree funds, partners, trade and business organizations, and other contacts in the markets in which we operate and our management’s understanding of industry conditions.
In this annual report, unless the context otherwise requires:
“Oaktree” refers to (i) Brookfield Oaktree Holdings, LLC and, where applicable, its subsidiaries and affiliates prior to October 1, 2019 and (ii) the Oaktree Operating Group and, where applicable, their respective subsidiaries and affiliates after September 30, 2019.
“BOH,” “Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” or “our company” refers to Brookfield Oaktree Holdings, LLC and, where applicable, its subsidiaries and affiliates, including, as the context requires, affiliated Oaktree Operating Group members after September 30, 2019. The reference to “our funds” refers to investment funds, other entities or accounts managed by Oaktree for which we, directly or indirectly, act as general partner or otherwise controlled by us.
“OCM” refers to Oaktree Capital Management, L.P. and, where applicable, its subsidiaries and affiliates. OCM is one of the Oaktree Operating Group entities but not one of our subsidiaries. OCM acts as the U.S. registered investment adviser to most of the Oaktree funds.
“Oaktree Operating Group,” or “Operating Group,” refers collectively to the entities that either (i) act as or control the general partners and investment advisers of the Oaktree funds or (ii) hold interests in other entities or investments generating income for Oaktree.
“OCGH” refers to Oaktree Capital Group Holdings, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership, which holds an interest in the Oaktree Operating Group and all of our Class B units.
“OCGH unitholders” refers collectively to Oaktree’s senior executives, current and former Oaktree employees and their respective transferees who hold interests in the Oaktree Operating Group through OCGH.
“OEP” refers to Oaktree Equity Plan, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership, which holds an interest in the Oaktree Operating Group.
“assets under management,” or “AUM,” generally refers to the sum of (i) the assets Oaktree manages and equals the NAV (as defined below) of the assets Oaktree manages, (ii) the leverage on which management fees are charged, (iii) the undrawn capital that Oaktree is entitled to call from investors in the funds pursuant to their capital commitments, (iv) investment proceeds held in trust for use in investment activities, (v) Oaktree’s pro rata portion of AUM managed by DoubleLine Capital LP and its affiliates (“DoubleLine”), in which Oaktree holds a minority ownership interest and (vi) 100% of the AUM managed by 17 Capital LLP and its affiliates, in which Oaktree acquired a majority ownership interest in 2022. For Oaktree’s collateralized loan obligation vehicles, AUM represents the aggregate par value of collateral assets and principal cash; for Oaktree’s BDCs, gross assets (including assets acquired with leverage), net of cash; for Oaktree’s special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”), the proceeds of any initial public offering held in trust for use in a business combination; and for DoubleLine funds, NAV. Oaktree’s AUM amounts include AUM for which Oaktree charges no management fees. Oaktree’s definition of AUM is not based on any definition contained in our operating agreement or the agreements governing the funds that Oaktree manages. Oaktree’s calculation of AUM and the AUM-related metric described below may not be directly comparable to the AUM metrics of other investment managers.
“incentive-creating assets under management,” or “incentive-creating AUM,” refers to the AUM that may eventually produce incentive income, as more fully described in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Operating Metrics.”
“Class A units” refer to the common units of BOH designated as Class A units.
“CLOs” refer to collateralized loan obligation vehicles.

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“common units” or “common unitholders” refer to the Class A common units of BOH or Class A common unitholders, respectively, unless otherwise specified.
“consolidated funds” refers to the funds and CLOs that we are required to consolidate as of the applicable reporting date.
“funds” refers to investment funds and, where applicable, CLOs and separate accounts that are managed by Oaktree or its subsidiaries.
“net asset value,” or “NAV,” refers to the value of all the assets of a fund (including cash and accrued interest and dividends) less all liabilities of the fund (including accrued expenses and any reserves established by us, in our discretion, for contingent liabilities) without reduction for accrued incentives (fund level) because they are reflected in the partners’ capital of the fund.  
“preferred units” or “preferred unitholders” refer to the Series A and Series B preferred units of BOH or Series A and Series B preferred unitholders, respectively, unless otherwise specified.

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Part I.
Item 1. Business
Overview
Oaktree is a leading global alternative investment management firm with expertise in investing in credit, real assets, private equity, and listed equities. Oaktree’s mission is to deliver superior investment results with risk under control and to conduct its business with the highest integrity. Oaktree emphasizes an opportunistic, value-oriented and risk-controlled approach to its investments. Over the last three decades, Oaktree has developed a large and growing client base through its ability to identify and capitalize on opportunities for attractive investment returns in less efficient markets.
Oaktree was formed in 1995 by a group of individuals who had been investing together since the mid-1980s. Oaktree’s founders were pioneers in the management of high yield bonds, convertible securities and distressed debt. From those roots Oaktree has developed a diversified mix of specialized credit- and equity-oriented strategies. Oaktree operates according to a unifying investment philosophy, which consists of six tenets-risk control, consistency, market inefficiency, specialization, bottom-up analysis and disavowal of market timing-and is complemented by a set of core business principles that articulate our commitment to excellence in investing, commonality of interests with clients, a collaborative and cooperative culture, a disciplined, opportunistic approach to the expansion of products, and responsible actions with our stakeholders and society at large.
The Company’s current ownership and operational structure were the result of certain mergers with affiliates of Brookfield Corporation (formerly known as Brookfield Asset Management, Inc.) (“Brookfield”) completed on September 30, 2019 (the “Mergers”) and subsequent restructurings completed on October 1, 2019 in connection with the Mergers (the “2019 Restructuring”) and on November 30, 2022 in connection with an internal Oaktree reorganization to facilitate the separation of Brookfield’s capital business and asset management business (the “2022 Restructuring”). See Part I, Item I included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on March 2, 2020 for more information regarding the Mergers and the 2019 Restructuring. See Item 1.01 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on December 6, 2022 and Part I, Item I included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 filed with the SEC on March 21, 2023 for more information about the 2022 Restructuring. During the second quarter of 2024, subject to obtaining certain regulatory approvals, another internal Oaktree reorganization is expected to be effected whereby, among other things, the General Partner of Oaktree Capital I, L.P. (“Oaktree Capital I”) will be changed from Brookfield OCM Holdings II, LLC (formerly known as OCM Holdings I, LLC) to Oaktree Capital I GP, LLC, a newly formed subsidiary of Oaktree Capital Holdings, LLC (“OCH”) (formerly known as Atlas OCM Holdings, LLC), but Brookfield OCM Holdings II, LLC will remain a limited partner of Oaktree Capital I and retain its economic interest therein (the “2024 Restructuring”). See Item 8.01 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 5, 2024 for more information about the 2024 Restructuring.
Structure and Operation of Our Business
The Oaktree business is conducted through a group of six operating entities collectively referred to as the “Oaktree Operating Group.” The Oaktree Operating Group consists of: (i) Oaktree Capital I, which acts as or controls the general partner of certain Oaktree funds and which holds a majority of Oaktree’s investments in its funds, (ii) Oaktree Capital II, L.P. (“Oaktree Capital II”), a series limited partnership which acts as or controls the general partner of certain Oaktree funds and which includes Oaktree’s investments in certain funds and other businesses, including Oaktree’s investment in DoubleLine Capital, L.P., (iii) OCM, (iv) Oaktree Capital Management (Cayman), L.P. (“OCM Cayman”), which represents Oaktree’s non-U.S. fee business, (v) Oaktree Investment Holdings, L.P. (“Oaktree Investment Holdings”), which holds certain corporate investments in other entities and (vi) Oaktree AIF Investments, L.P. (“Oaktree AIF”), which primarily holds interests in certain Oaktree fund investments for regulatory and structuring purposes.
From the date of the 2019 Restructuring until the date of the 2022 Restructuring, the Company’s operations were conducted through indirect economic interests in only two of these six Oaktree Operating Group entities, specifically Oaktree Capital I and OCM Cayman. As a result of the 2022 Restructuring, however, the Company (i) distributed all of its interests in the economic shares of Oaktree Holdings, Ltd., the parent entity of OCM Cayman, to its sole Class A unitholder and (ii) transferred all of its interests in the voting shares of Oaktree Holdings, Ltd. to OCH which is a non-subsidiary affiliate of the Company. Accordingly, subsequent to the 2022 Restructuring, the Company’s operations are now conducted through an indirect economic interest in only one of the Oaktree Operating Group entities, specifically Oaktree Capital I, and because the Company no longer controls or has an economic interest in OCM Cayman, OCM Cayman was deconsolidated as of the effective date of the 2022

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Restructuring. Additionally, the Company concluded that it is no longer the primary beneficiary for CLOs as their direct ownership interests are held by OCM Cayman.
The Company’s business is comprised of one segment, our investment management business, which consists of the investment management services that Oaktree provides to its clients, of which we are a component.
OCM, an affiliate of the Company, has since the 2019 Restructuring provided certain administrative and other services relating to the operations of the Company’s business. These services are provided pursuant to a Services Agreement between the Company and OCM (as amended from time to time, the “Services Agreement”).

Prior to the 2022 Restructuring, the Company’s employees directly provided investment management and administrative support for its non-U.S. fee-based operations, while providing investment management, marketing and administrative services to OCM. The Company received fees from OCM for providing these services. Subsequent to the 2022 Restructuring, the Company no longer receives such fee-based income from OCM but continues to pay fees to OCM under the Services Agreement for services it provides to the Company.

Subsequent to the 2022 Restructuring, the Company’s revenue continues to include the incentive income generated by certain funds that OCM manages for which the Company acts as general partner and the investment income earned from the investments the Company makes in Oaktree funds, third-party funds and other companies. Investment income generally reflects the investment return on a mark-to-market basis and the Company’s equity participation on the amounts that it invests in Oaktree and third-party funds.
Structure of Funds
Closed-end Funds
Oaktree’s closed-end funds are typically structured as limited partnerships that have a 10- or 11-year term and have a specified period during which clients can subscribe for limited partnership interests in the fund. Once a client is admitted as a limited partner, that client is required to contribute capital when called by us as the general partner, and generally cannot withdraw its investment. These closed-end funds have an investment period that generally ranges from three to five years, during which Oaktree is permitted to call the committed capital of those funds to make investments. As closed-end funds liquidate their investments, Oaktree typically distributes the proceeds to the clients, although during the investment period Oaktree has the ability to retain or recall such proceeds to make additional investments. Once a fund has committed to invest approximately 80% of its capital, Oaktree typically raises a new fund in the same strategy, generally ensuring that it always has capital to invest in new opportunities. Oaktree may also provide discretionary management services for clients within its closed-end fund strategies through a separate account or through a limited partnership or limited liability company managed by Oaktree with the client as the sole limited partner or sole non-managing member (a “fund-of-one”).
Oaktree’s closed-end funds also include special purpose acquisition companies managed by Oaktree and CLOs for which it serves as collateral manager. CLOs are structured finance vehicles in which Oaktree makes an investment and for which it is entitled to earn management fees. Investors in CLOs are generally unable to redeem their interests until the CLO liquidates, is called or otherwise terminates. Subsequent to the 2022 Restructuring, the Company no longer consolidates the CLOs as their direct ownership interests are held by OCM Cayman.
Open-end Funds
Oaktree’s commingled open-end funds are typically structured as limited partnerships that are designed to admit clients as new limited partners (or accept additional capital from existing limited partners) on an ongoing basis during the fund’s life. Clients in commingled open-end funds typically contribute all of their committed capital upon being admitted to the fund. These funds do not have an investment period and do not distribute proceeds of realized investments to clients. Oaktree is permitted to commit the fund’s capital (including realized proceeds) to new investments at any time during the fund’s life. Clients in commingled open-end funds generally have the right to withdraw their capital from the fund on a monthly basis (with prior written notice of up to 90 days).
Oaktree also provides discretionary management services for clients through separate accounts within the open-end fund strategies. Clients establish accounts with Oaktree by depositing funds or securities into accounts maintained by qualified independent custodians and granting Oaktree discretionary authority to invest such funds pursuant to their investment needs and objectives, as stated in an investment management agreement. Separate account clients generally may terminate Oaktree’s services at any time by providing us with prior notice of 30 days or less.

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Evergreen Funds
Oaktree’s evergreen funds invest in marketable securities, private debt and equity, and in certain cases on a long or short basis. As with open-end funds, commingled evergreen funds are designed to accept new capital on an ongoing basis and generally do not distribute proceeds of realized investments to clients. Oaktree also provides discretionary management services for clients through separate accounts or funds-of-one within its evergreen fund strategies. Clients in evergreen funds are generally subject to a lock-up, which restricts their ability to withdraw their entire capital for a certain period of time after their initial subscription. Evergreen funds include business development companies (“BDCs”).
Incentive Income
We have the potential to earn incentive income from most of the closed-end funds managed by Oaktree in our capacity as the general partner of those funds. Substantially all of such funds follow the European-style waterfall, by which we receive incentive income only after the fund first distributes all contributed capital plus an annual preferred return, typically 8%. Once this occurs, we generally receive as incentive income 80% of all distributions otherwise attributable to our investors, and those investors receive the remaining 20% until we have received, as incentive income, 20% of all such distributions in excess of the contributed capital from the inception of the fund. Thereafter, all such future distributions attributable to our investors are distributed 80% to those investors and 20% to us as incentive income. As a result, we generally receive incentive income, if any, in the latter part of a fund’s life, although earlier in a fund’s term we may receive tax-related distributions, which we recognize as incentive income, to cover our allocable share of income taxes until we are otherwise entitled to payment of incentive income.
We may also earn incentive income from certain evergreen funds on an annual basis, up to 20% of the year’s profits, subject to either a high-water mark or hurdle rate. The high-water mark refers to the highest historical NAV attributable to a limited partner’s account when either incentive income has been earned or the capital was contributed.
As a result of the 2022 Restructuring, we are generally only entitled to earn one-third of the incentive income attributable to Oaktree Capital I in respect of our closed-end funds established in 2022 or later and in respect of incentive income from our evergreen funds earned subsequent to January 1, 2023.
Investment Income
We earn investment income from our corporate investments in funds and companies, with Oaktree-managed funds constituting the majority of our corporate investments. Our investments in Oaktree-managed funds generally fall into one of four categories: general partner interests in commingled funds or funds-of-one, investments in CLOs, seed capital for new investment strategies prior to third-party capital raising, and corporate cash management. In the case of general partner interests in our closed-end or evergreen funds, we typically invest the greater of 2.5% of committed capital or $20 million in each fund, not to exceed $100 million per fund. For CLOs, we generally invest up to 10% of the CLO’s total par value. We may also invest in certain third-party managed funds or companies for strategic or financial purposes. Subsequent to the 2022 Restructuring, we no longer hold investments in Oaktree’s CLOs as their direct ownership interests are held by OCM Cayman.
Investment Approach
As part of Oaktree’s business, we adhere to Oaktree’s goal of excellence in investing. This means achieving attractive investment returns without commensurate risk, an imbalance which can only be achieved in markets that are not “efficient.” Although Oaktree strives for superior returns, its first priority is that its actions produce consistency, protection of capital and outperformance in bad times. At its core, Oaktree is a contrarian, value-oriented investor focused on buying securities and companies at prices below their intrinsic value and selling or exiting those investments when they become fairly or fully valued. Oaktree believes it can do this best by investing in markets where specialization and superior analysis can offer an investing edge.
In Oaktree’s investing activities, it adheres to the following fundamental tenets:
Focus on Risk-Adjusted Returns.    Oaktree’s primary goal is not simply to achieve superior investment performance, but to do so with less-than-commensurate risk. Oaktree believes that the best long-term records are built more through the avoidance of losses in bad times than the achievement of superior relative returns in good times. Thus, rather than merely searching for prospective profits, Oaktree places the highest priority on preventing losses. It is Oaktree’s overriding belief that, especially in the opportunistic markets in which it works, “if we avoid the losers, the winners will take care of themselves.”

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Emphasis on Consistency. Oaktree believes that a superior record is best built on a high batting average, rather than a mix of brilliant successes and dismal failures. Oscillating between top-quartile results in good years and bottom-quartile results in bad years is not acceptable.
The Importance of Market Inefficiency. Oaktree feels skill and hard work can lead to a “knowledge advantage,” and thus to potentially superior investment results, but not in the most efficient markets where larger numbers of participants have roughly equal access to information. Therefore, Oaktree only invests in less efficient markets in which dispassionate application of skill and effort should pay off for Oaktree clients.
Focus on Fundamental Analysis.    Oaktree believes consistently excellent performance can only be achieved through superior knowledge of companies and their securities, not from macro-forecasting. Therefore, Oaktree employs a bottom-up approach to investing, based on proprietary, company-specific research. Oaktree’s investment professionals have developed a deep and thorough understanding of a wide number of companies and industries, providing Oaktree with a significant institutional knowledge base. Oaktree uses overall portfolio structuring as a defensive tool to help it avoid dangerous concentration, rather than as an aggressive weapon expected to enable it to hold more of the things that do best.
Disavowal of Market Timing. Oaktree does not believe in the predictive ability required to correctly time markets. However, concern about the market climate may cause Oaktree to tilt toward more defensive investments, increase selectivity or act more deliberately. In open-end and evergreen funds Oaktree keeps portfolios fully invested whenever attractively priced assets can be bought.
Specialization.    Oaktree offers a broad array of specialized investment strategies. It believes this offers the surest path to the results Oaktree, and its clients, seek. Clients interested in a single investment strategy can limit themselves to the risk exposure of that particular strategy, while clients interested in more than one investment strategy can combine investments in Oaktree funds to achieve their desired mix. Oaktree also provides clients both commingled and customized solutions with one-stop access to the breadth of its credit platform through its Multi-Strategy Credit strategy, which invests in a number of Oaktree liquid and illiquid credit strategies. Oaktree’s focus on specific strategies has allowed it to build investment teams with extensive experience and expertise. At the same time, Oaktree teams access and leverage each other’s expertise, affording Oaktree both the benefits of specialization and the strengths of a larger organization.
Asset Classes and Investment Strategies
Oaktree manages investments in a number of strategies across four asset classes: Credit, Private Equity, Real Assets and Listed Equities. The diversity of Oaktree’s investment strategies allows it to meet a wide range of investor needs suited for different market environments globally and, for certain strategies, targeted regions, while providing Oaktree with a long-term diversified revenue base.
Oaktree adds new products when it identifies a market with potential for attractive returns that it believes can be exploited in a risk-controlled fashion, and where it has access to the investment talent capable of producing the results it seeks. Because of the high priority Oaktree places on assuring that these requirements are met, it prefers that new products represent “step-outs” from its current investment strategies into highly related fields that are managed by people with whom it has had extensive first-hand experience or for whom it can validate qualifications. When adding new products, Oaktree considers it far more important to avoid mistakes than to capture every opportunity.
Oaktree’s asset classes are described below. We act as general partner or adviser for, and make investments in, funds that are within all four assets classes although we may not have an interest in a specific strategy group within each Oaktree asset class.
Credit
Oaktree’s credit strategies invest in both liquid and illiquid instruments, sourced directly from borrowers and via public markets. Oaktree focuses primarily on rated and non-rated debt of sub-investment grade issuers in developed and emerging markets, and it invests in an array of high yield bonds, convertible securities, leveraged loans, structured credit instruments, distressed debt and private debt. While varied in investment objective and risk-return profile, each of Oaktree’s credit strategies is grounded in its unifying investment philosophy, placing primary emphasis on risk control and consistency.

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Within the credit asset class, Oaktree’s strategies are: Opportunistic Credit, High Yield Bonds, Senior Loans, Private Credit, Multi-Strategy Credit, Emerging Markets Debt, Convertible Securities, Structured Credit and Investment Grade Solutions.
Private Equity
Oaktree’s private equity strategies focus on a broad range of regions and market sectors, and they combine traditional private equity and special situation opportunities. Using a flexible and opportunistic approach, Oaktree invests in companies it believes to be undervalued. Oaktree seeks to enhance value through key strategic and tactical initiatives, including rightsizing capital structures, streamlining operations, improving core businesses, and creating new platforms for growth. Oaktree teams leverage deep sector knowledge and extensive proprietary networks to gain superior access to deal flow, and they reflect Oaktree’s emphasis on risk control and downside protection.
Within the private equity asset class, Oaktree’s strategies are: Corporate Private Equity and Special Situations.
Real Assets
Oaktree’s real assets platform capitalizes on Oaktree’s global footprint, multi-disciplinary capabilities, extensive network of industry experts, and key relationships with operating partners. Oaktree adheres to its investment philosophy, emphasizing the purchase of assets – or liens on assets – where it believes the relationship between risk and return is asymmetrical and where it believes relationships and a knowledge advantage can make a significant positive impact on its ability to successfully source, purchase, manage and exit investments.
Within the real assets asset class, Oaktree’s strategies are: Real Estate and Infrastructure.
Listed Equities
Oaktree’s listed equities strategies seek to invest in undervalued stocks in specific regions. By coupling fundamental analysis with in-depth country and industry knowledge, Oaktree looks to uncover stocks trading at a discount to their intrinsic value. Oaktree believes our superior knowledge allows us to identify attractive investment opportunities while limiting downside risk.
Within the listed equities asset class, Oaktree’s strategies are: Emerging Market Equities and Value Equities.

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Investment Performance
Oaktree’s investment professionals have generated impressive investment performance through multiple market cycles. Oaktree’s long term investment performance track record of positive gross and net IRRs reflects, among many factors, Oaktree’s practice of sizing funds in proportion to our view of the supply of potential attractive investment opportunities. Information regarding Oaktree’s most significant and longest-managed closed-end funds is shown below, as of or for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Since Inception through December 31, 2023
IRR Since Inception (1)
($ in millions)Strategy Inception
Assets Under Management (2)
GrossNet
Gross Multiple of
Drawn Capital (3)
Credit:
Opportunistic Credit1988$44,67021.8%15.8%1.7x
Private Credit
Global Private Debt (4)
20125,441nmnm
1.1x
U.S. Private Debt
20022,77813.0%8.7%
1.4x
European Private Debt20132,76313.7%9.3%1.3x
Emerging Markets Debt20121,30910.4%6.9%1.3x
Private Equity:
Corporate Private Equity
European Principal19995,14311.3%7.1%1.7x
Power Opportunities19953,83135.0%27.2%2.4x
Special Situations19947,34912.8%9.0%1.6x
Real Assets:
Real Estate Opportunities19948,65615.0%11.1%1.6x
Real Estate Debt20104,53410.1%6.2%1.2x
Real Estate Income20165778.5%7.0%1.5x
Infrastructure20142,21726.9%22.3%1.7x
Subtotal89,268
Other (5)
20,910
Total$110,178
(1) The internal rate of return (“IRR”) is the annualized implied discount rate calculated from a series of cash flows. It is the return that equates the present value of all capital invested in an investment to the present value of all returns of capital, or the discount rate that will provide a net present value of all cash flows equal to zero. Fund-level IRRs are calculated based upon the actual timing of cash contributions/distributions to investors and the residual value of such investor's capital accounts at the end of the applicable period being measured. Gross IRRs reflect returns before allocation of management fees, expenses and any incentive allocation to the fund's general partner. To the extent material, gross returns include certain transaction, advisory, directors or other ancillary fees ("fee income") paid directly to us in connection with the funds' activities (Oaktree credits all such fee income back to the respective fund(s) so that the funds' investors share pro rata in the fee income's economic benefit). Net IRRs reflect returns to non-affiliated investors after allocation of management fees, expenses and any incentive allocation to the fund's GP. The strategy inception and performance track record includes funds managed at Trust Company of the West by the portfolio managers and other senior investment professionals that joined Oaktree at its inception in 1995.
(2) Assets Under Management as of December 31, 2023. All figures are based on the conversion of amounts or cash flows from EUR to USD using the foreign exchange spot rate of 1.10 as of December 31, 2023.
(3) Gross multiple of drawn capital is calculated as drawn capital plus gross income and, if applicable, fee income before fees and expenses divided by drawn capital.
(4) This includes our Life Sciences funds and Direct Lending funds. Includes individual accounts across various strategies with different investment mandates. As such, a combined performance measure is not considered meaningful (“nm”).
(5) This includes our closed-end Senior Loan funds, CLOs,17Capital funds and certain separate accounts and co-investments.

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Performance of Oaktree’s open-end funds is in part measured in relation to applicable benchmark returns. Oaktree’s emphasis on risk control and credit selection has generally led to outperformance in challenging markets and over full market cycles. Information regarding Oaktree’s open-end funds, together with relevant benchmark data, is set forth below as of or for the periods ended December 31, 2023.
Since Inception through December 31, 2023
Annualized Rates of Return (1)
($ in millions)Strategy InceptionAssets Under ManagementGrossNetRelevant Benchmark
Credit:
High Yield Bonds
U.S. High Yield Bonds1986$13,6778.4%7.9%7.6%
Global High Yield Bonds20101,1586.0%5.5%5.6%
Multi-Asset Credit
Global Credit (2)
201710,0404.8%4.1%4.6%
Investment Grade Solutions
Absolute Return Income (3)
Various3,859 nm  nm  nm
Convertible Securities
High Income Convertibles198992610.2%9.4%7.4%
Global ex-U.S. Convertibles19943977.2%6.7%4.8%
Senior Loans
U.S. Senior Loans20084345.7%5.2%5.1%
European Senior Loans20093246.1%5.6%6.4%
Structured Credit
Structured Credit (3)
Various1,766 nm  nm  nm
Listed Equities:
Emerging Markets Equities
Emerging Markets Equities20116,6633.0%2.2%1.5%
Subtotal39,244
Other(4)
$245
Total$39,489
(1) Returns represent time-weighted rates of return, including reinvestment of income, net of commissions and transaction costs. The returns for Relevant Benchmarks are presented on a gross basis. The strategy inception and performance track record includes funds managed at Trust Company of the West by the portfolio managers and others senior investment professionals that joined Oaktree at its inception in 1995.
(2)    The performance measures reflect Global Credit Cayman Fund as the representative account for the Global Credit strategy.
(3)    Includes individual accounts across various strategies with different investment mandates. As such, a combined performance measure is not considered meaningful (“nm”).
(4)    Includes certain European High Yield Bonds and U.S. Convertible accounts.

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Information regarding Oaktree’s most significant Evergreen funds is shown below, as of or for the year ended December 31, 2023.
Since Inception through December 31, 2023
Annualized Rates of Return (1)
($ in millions)Strategy InceptionAssets Under ManagementGrossNet
Credit:
Private Credit
Global Private Debt (2)
2012$12,0998.9%6.7%
Emerging Markets Debt
Emerging Markets Debt (3)
20151,4097.5%5.3%
Opportunistic Credit
Value Opportunities20071,2779.9%6.3%
Real Assets:
Real Estate
Real Estate Income (4)
20182,34014.2%11.6%
Real Estate Debt(5)
202260814.4%11.7%
Infrastructure
Infrastructure Investing20221,434(5.6)%(5.4)%
Listed Equities:
Value/Other Equities
Value Equities (6)
201250017.2%12.3%
Subtotal19,667
Other (7)
934
Total$20,601
(1) Returns represent time-weighted rates of return.
(2) AUM includes institutional evergreen accounts, certain sub-advised assets of Brookfield Reinsurance, Oaktree’s publicly-traded BDC and Oaktree’s non-traded BDCs. The rates of return reflect the performance of a composite of certain evergreen accounts and exclude Oaktree’s BDCs.
(3) AUM includes the Emerging Markets Debt Total Return and Emerging Markets Opportunities strategies. The rates of return reflect the performance of a composite of accounts for the Emerging Markets Debt Total Return strategy, including a single account with a December 2014 inception date.
(4) AUM includes the sub-advised equity assets of the Brookfield REIT. The rates of return reflect the performance of a single account and exclude the sub-advised equity assets of the Brookfield REIT.
(5) AUM includes institutional evergreen accounts, the sub-advised debt assets of the Brookfield REIT and a separately managed account.
(6) AUM includes performance of a proprietary fund with an initial capital commitment of $25 million since its inception in May 2012.
(7) Includes certain Real Estate and Multi-Strategy Credit accounts.



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Assets Under Management

Assets under management increased $19.6 billion, or 11.6%, to $189.2 billion as of December 31, 2023 from $169.6 billion as of December 31, 2022, primarily driven by $15.5 billion of closed-end fund capital commitments, $8.3 billion of market value appreciation and foreign currency translation, and $4.7 billion of net inflows into open-end and evergreen funds, partially offset by $8.0 billion of distributions from closed-end funds and $1.4 billion due to change in lifecycle of closed-end funds. The $15.5 billion of capital commitments to closed-end funds over the last twelve months included $7.2 billion for Oaktree Opportunities Fund XII, $1.6 billion for CLOs, $1.6 billion for Oaktree Special Situations Fund III, $1.3 billion for 17Capital Preferred Fund 6, $1.1 billion for Oaktree Real Estate Opportunities Fund IX, $0.7 billion for Direct Lending, $0.5 billion for Oaktree Lending Partners, $0.5 billion for Oaktree Real Estate Debt Fund IV, and $0.4 billion for Life Sciences Lending.
As of December 31,
2023
2022
(in millions)
Assets Under Management:
Closed-end funds$110,178 $100,289 
Open-end funds39,489 35,769 
Evergreen funds20,601 15,123 
DoubleLine (1)
18,903 18,447 
Total$189,171 $169,628 
(1)    DoubleLine AUM reflects our pro-rata portion (based on our 20% ownership stake) of DoubleLine’s total AUM.
The following table details the change in Oaktree’s AUM during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.
Year ended December 31,
2023
2022
(in millions)
Beginning balance$169,628 $165,682 
Closed-end funds:
Capital commitments/other (1)
15,548 7,866 
Acquisition (17Capital)— 6,347 
Distributions for a realization event/other (2)
(8,033)(6,027)
Change in uncalled capital commitments for funds entering or in liquidation (3)
(1,394)(423)
Change in market value, foreign-currency translation, and transfers, net (4)
4,076 4,596 
Open-end funds:
Contributions4,276 6,896 
Redemptions(4,400)(6,601)
Change in market value, and foreign-currency translation, and transfers, net (4)
3,842 (4,018)
Evergreen funds:
Contributions or new capital commitments (5)
6,429 4,494 
Redemptions or distributions (6)
(1,590)(1,120)
Change in market value, and foreign-currency translation, and transfers, net (4)
337 322 
Change in applicable leverage(5)— 
DoubleLine:
Net change in DoubleLine457 (8,388)
Ending balance$189,171 $169,628 
(1) These amounts include capital commitments, as well as the aggregate par value of collateral assets and principal cash related to new CLO formations.
(2) These amounts include distributions for a realization event, tax-related distributions, reductions in the par value of collateral assets and principal cash resulting from the repayment of debt as return of principal by CLOs, and recallable distributions at the end of the investment period.
(3) The change in uncalled capital commitments generally reflects declines attributable to funds entering their liquidation periods, as well as capital contributions to funds in their liquidation periods for deferred purchase obligations or other reasons.
(4) The change in market value reflects the change in NAV of our funds, less management fees and other fund expenses, as well as changes in the aggregate par value of collateral assets and principal cash held by CLOs and other levered funds.
(5) These amounts include contributions and capital commitments, and for Oaktree’s publicly-traded BDCs, issuances of equity or debt capital.
(6) These amounts include redemptions and distributions, and for Oaktree’s publicly-traded BDCs, dividends, repurchases of equity capital or repayment of debt.

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Marketing and Client Relations
Client relationships are fundamental to Oaktree’s business and by extension, to our business. Oaktree believes its success is a byproduct of the success of Oaktree fund investors and thus always strive to achieve superior returns with risk under control, to charge fair and transparent management fees, and to conduct itself with the highest levels of professionalism and integrity.
Oaktree has developed a loyal following among many of the world’s most significant institutional investors, and believes that their loyalty, as well as the loyalty of Oaktree’s other investors, results from Oaktree’s superior investment record, its reputation for integrity, and the fairness and transparency of its fee structures.
We benefit from Oaktree’s extensive in-house global Marketing and Client Relations groups, which are dedicated to relationship management, sales and client service in the Americas, Asia/Pacific, Europe and the Middle East. This relationship management, sales and client service team is augmented by product specialists and dedicated support staff across the areas of due diligence services, product management and marketing programming. 
Human Capital
Oaktree is a values-driven firm that seeks to demonstrate integrity in all that it does. Oaktree strives to maintain a work environment that fosters integrity, professionalism, excellence, candor and collegiality among its employees. Because Oaktree’s people are its most important asset, Oaktree is committed to cultivating an environment that is inclusive and honors diversity of thought. Providing training and career development opportunities and emphasizing strong support for Oaktree’s local communities through philanthropic initiatives are essential to Oaktree’s culture.
Oaktree considers its labor relations to be good. As of December 31, 2023, we had no employees. OCM had 911 employees and OCM Cayman had 272 employees.
Competition
Oaktree and, by extension, we compete with many other firms in every aspect of our business, including raising funds, seeking investments and hiring and retaining professionals. Many of Oaktree’s competitors are substantially larger than Oaktree and have considerably greater financial, technical and marketing resources. Certain of these competitors periodically raise significant amounts of capital in investment strategies that are similar to Oaktree’s investment strategies. Some of these competitors also may have a lower cost of capital and access to funding sources that are not available to Oaktree, which may create further competitive disadvantages for us with respect to investment opportunities. In addition, some of these competitors may have higher risk tolerances or make different risk assessments than Oaktree does, allowing them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish broader networks of business relationships. In short, Oaktree and we operate in a highly competitive business and many of our competitors may be better positioned than we are to take advantage of opportunities in the marketplace. For additional information regarding the competitive risks that Oaktree and we face, please see “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—The investment management business is intensely competitive.”
Organizational Structure
Brookfield Oaktree Holdings, LLC is a Delaware limited liability company that was formed on April 13, 2007 under the name of Oaktree Capital Group, LLC. The Company’s issued and outstanding member interests are divided into certain classes and series of units. The Company’s outstanding units are held by (i) an affiliate of Brookfield as the sole holder of the Company’s Class A common units, (ii) preferred unitholders as the holders of Series A and Series B preferred units listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”), which represent only the right to receive certain distributions from the Company and such other rights as are specified in the relevant preferred unit designations, and (iii) OCGH as the sole holder of the Company’s Class B common units, which units do not represent an economic interest in the Company. OCGH is owned by the OCGH unitholders. Subject to the operating agreement of the Company, to the extent the approval of any matter requires the vote of the Company’s unitholders, the Class A units are entitled to one vote per unit and the Class B units are entitled to ten votes per unit, voting together as a single class.

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As explained above, Oaktree’s operations are conducted through a group of operating entities collectively referred to as the “Oaktree Operating Group.” Subsequent to the 2022 Restructuring, we have an indirect economic interest in only one of the six Oaktree Operating Group members. Please see “Business—Structure and Operation of our Business” above for more details, including regarding the contemplated 2024 Restructuring. OCGH has a direct economic interest in all of the Oaktree Operating Group members. The interests in the Oaktree Operating Group are referred to as the “Oaktree Operating Group units.” An Oaktree Operating Group unit is not a separate legal interest but represents one limited partnership interest in each of the Oaktree Operating Group entities.
The diagram below depicts our organizational structure in simplified form as of December 31, 2023, but gives effect to the entity name changes effected on March 15, 2024.2023 10-K structure chart (v2) (031424).gif
____________________
(1)Holds 100% of the Class B units, which represent 82.39% of the total combined voting power of our outstanding Class A and Class B units. The Class B units have no economic interest in us. The general partner of Oaktree Capital Group Holdings, L.P. is Oaktree Capital Group Holdings GP, LLC, which is controlled by senior executives of Oaktree.
(2)Brookfield Oaktree Holdings, LLC is the public registrant and the issuer of the Series A and Series B preferred units listed on the NYSE. It also indirectly holds the preferred mirror units issued by Oaktree Capital I, L.P.
(3)Three additional entities, which are not subsidiaries of ours and are not reflected in this diagram, own interests in Brookfield OCM Holdings II, LLC which entitle them to receive (i) two-thirds of carried interest distributions from new closed-end funds organized in or after 2022 and incentive income from evergreen funds earned subsequent to January 1, 2023 and (ii) income from designated investments and investments having certain tax characteristics.
(4)The percent economic interest in Oaktree Capital I, L.P. represents the aggregate number of Oaktree Capital I, L.P. units (other than mirror preferred units) held, directly or indirectly, as a percentage of the total number of Oaktree Capital I, L.P. units (other than mirror preferred units and Class P common units) outstanding. As of December 31, 2023, there were 160,114,755 Oaktree Capital I, L.P. units outstanding.
(5)OEP, which is not a subsidiary of ours and is not reflected in this diagram, owns a less than 1% interest in Oaktree Capital I, L.P.

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Regulatory Matters and Compliance
Oaktree’s business, as well as the financial services industry in general, is subject to extensive regulation in the United States and elsewhere. Our affiliated entities, Oaktree Capital Management (UK) LLP, Oaktree Capital Management (Europe) LLP and Oaktree Capital Management (International) Limited, are authorized and regulated by the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) as an investment manager in the United Kingdom. The U.K. Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (FSMA) and rules promulgated thereunder govern all aspects of the U.K. investment business, including sales, research and trading practices, the provision of investment advice, the use and safekeeping of client funds and securities, regulatory capital, recordkeeping, margin practices and procedures, the approval standards for individuals, anti-money laundering, periodic reporting, and settlement procedures. Similarly, we have a number of other affiliated entities outside the United States that are regulated by the applicable regulators in their respective jurisdictions.
Our affiliated entity OCM, which provides certain services to us, is registered as an investment adviser with the SEC. Registered investment advisers are subject to the requirements and regulations of the U.S. Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended (the “Advisers Act”). These requirements relate to, among other things, fiduciary duties to clients, maintaining an effective compliance program, solicitation agreements, conflicts of interest, recordkeeping and reporting, disclosure, limitations on agency cross and principal transactions between an adviser and advisory clients and general anti-fraud prohibitions. In addition, OCM is registered as a commodity pool operator and a commodity trading adviser with the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”). Registered commodity pool operators and commodity trading advisers are each subject to the requirements and regulations of the U.S. Commodity Exchange Act, as amended (the “Commodity Exchange Act”). These requirements relate to, among other things, maintaining an effective compliance program, recordkeeping and reporting, disclosure, business conduct, and general anti-fraud prohibitions. In addition, as a registered commodity pool operator and a commodity trading adviser with the CFTC, OCM is also required to be a member of the National Futures Association (the “NFA”), a self-regulatory organization for the U.S. derivatives industry. The NFA also promulgates and enforces rules governing the conduct of, and examines the activities of, its member firms.
One of OCM’s indirect subsidiaries, OCM Investments, LLC, is registered as a broker-dealer with the SEC and in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, and is a member of the U.S. Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”). As a broker-dealer, this entity is subject to regulation and oversight by the SEC and state securities regulators. In addition, FINRA, a self-regulatory organization that is subject to oversight by the SEC, promulgates and enforces rules governing the conduct of, and examines the activities of, its member firms. Due to the limited authority granted to OCM Investments, LLC in its capacity as a broker-dealer, it is not required to comply with certain regulations covering trade practices among broker-dealers and the use and safekeeping of customers’ funds and securities. As a registered broker-dealer and member of a self-regulatory organization, OCM Investments, LLC, however, is subject to the SEC’s uniform net capital rule. Rule 15c3-1 of the Exchange Act specifies the minimum level of net capital a broker-dealer must maintain and also requires that a significant part of a broker-dealer’s assets be kept in relatively liquid form. The SEC and FINRA impose rules that require notification when net capital falls below certain predefined criteria, limit the ratio of subordinated debt to equity in the regulatory capital composition of a broker-dealer and constrain the ability of a broker-dealer to expand its business under certain circumstances. Additionally, the SEC’s uniform net capital rule imposes certain requirements that may have the effect of prohibiting a broker-dealer from distributing or withdrawing capital and requiring prior notice to the SEC for certain withdrawals of capital.
Certain of our activities are subject to compliance with laws and regulations of U.S. federal, state and municipal governments, non-U.S. governments, their respective agencies and/or various self-regulatory organizations or exchanges relating to, among other things, antitrust laws, anti-money laundering laws, anti-bribery laws relating to foreign officials, and privacy laws with respect to client information, and some of our funds invest in businesses that operate in highly regulated industries. Any failure to comply with these rules and regulations could expose us to liability and/or reputational damage. Our business has operated for many years within a legal framework that requires our being able to monitor and comply with a broad range of legal and regulatory developments that affect our activities. However, additional legislation, changes in rules or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules, either in the United States or elsewhere, may directly affect our mode of operation and profitability. Please see “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business—Regulatory changes in the United States, regulatory compliance failures and the effects of negative publicity surrounding the financial industry in general could adversely affect our reputation, business and operations.”

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Financial and Other Information
Financial and other information for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 are discussed in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Operating Metrics” included elsewhere in this annual report.
Available Information
Oaktree’s website address is www.oaktreecapital.com (the “Oaktree website”). Information on this website is not a part of this annual report and is not incorporated by reference herein. BOH makes available free of charge on this website or provides a link on this website to our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after those reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. To access these filings, go to the “Unitholders—Investor Relations” section of the Oaktree website and then click on “SEC Filings.” In addition, these reports and the other documents we file with the SEC are available at a website maintained by the SEC at www.sec.gov.
Investors and others should note that BOH uses the Unitholders – Investor Relations section of the Oaktree website to announce material information to investors and the marketplace. While not all of the information that we post on the Oaktree website is of a material nature, some information could be deemed to be material. Accordingly, we encourage investors, the media, and others interested in BOH to review the information that is shared on the Oaktree website at the Unitholders – Investor Relations section of the Oaktree website, ir.oaktreecapital.com. Information contained on, or available through, the Oaktree website is not incorporated by reference into this document.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
We are subject to a number of material risks inherent in our business. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below and other information included in this annual report. If any of the events described below occur, our business and financial results could be seriously harmed. The trading price of our preferred units could decline as a result of any of these risks, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Relating to Our Business
Given Oaktree’s focus on achieving superior investment performance with less-than-commensurate risk, and the priority afforded to its clients’ interests, Oaktree may reduce AUM, restrain its growth, reduce fees or otherwise alter the terms under which Oaktree or we do business when Oaktree or we deem it appropriate—even in circumstances where others might deem such actions unnecessary. This approach could adversely affect our results of operations.
One of the means by which Oaktree seeks to achieve superior investment performance is by limiting the AUM in its strategies to an amount that it believes can be invested appropriately in accordance with Oaktree’s investment philosophy and current or anticipated economic and market conditions. In the past Oaktree has taken, and may continue to take, affirmative steps to limit the growth of AUM, including the AUM of the funds that produce revenues for us. These steps include:
from time to time, Oaktree has suspended marketing certain open-end funds, sometimes for long periods, and has declined to participate in searches aggregating billions of dollars;
from time to time, Oaktree has returned capital from certain closed-end funds prior to the end of such funds’ respective investment periods or declined to call all of the capital committed to certain closed-end funds during those funds’ respective investment periods;
Oaktree intentionally sized certain closed-ended funds to be smaller than their predecessors even though additional capital could have been raised; and
since Oaktree’s founding it has turned away substantial amounts of capital offered to Oaktree for management.
From time to time, Oaktree has, and may continue to, afford certain investors in our funds or separate account clients more favorable economic terms than other investors in the same fund or separate account clients within the same or similar investment strategy, including with respect to management fees and performance-based fees. The availability of such terms is generally based on the aggregate size of commitments of such investor or client to one or more funds or accounts managed by Oaktree.

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Oaktree’s practice of putting clients’ interests first and forsaking short-term advantage by, for example, reducing assets under management or management fee or carried interest rates may reduce the profits we could otherwise realize in the short term and adversely affect our business and financial condition. Our unitholders should understand that in instances in which Oaktree clients’ interests diverge from the short-term interests of our unitholders, Oaktree intends to act in the interests of its clients. However, it is Oaktree’s fundamental belief that prioritizing its clients’ interests will maximize the long-term value of our business, which, in turn, will benefit our unitholders.
Our business is materially affected by conditions in the global financial markets and economies, and any disruption or deterioration in these conditions could materially reduce our revenues, earnings and cash flow and adversely affect our overall performance, ability to raise or deploy capital, financial prospects and condition and liquidity position.
Our business and the businesses in which our funds invest are materially affected by conditions in the global financial markets and economic conditions throughout the world that are outside our control, such as interest rates, the availability and cost of credit, inflation rates, general economic uncertainty, political uncertainty, changes in laws (including laws relating to taxation), trade barriers, commodity prices, currency exchange rates and controls, volatility in financial markets, the impacts of public health issues, such as pandemics and epidemics, and national and international political circumstances (including wars such as the Russia-Ukraine and Israel-Hamas conflicts, terrorist acts and security operations). These and other uncertain conditions in the global financial markets and economy have resulted in, and may continue to result in, adverse consequences for many of our funds, including restricting such funds’ investment activities and impeding such funds’ ability to effectively achieve their investment objectives. Sanctions imposed by the U.S. and other countries in connection with hostilities between Russia and Ukraine have caused additional financial market volatility and affected the global economy. In addition, concerns over increasing inflation, as well as interest rate volatility and fluctuations in oil and gas prices resulting from global production and demand levels, as well as geopolitical tension, have exacerbated market volatility. Both domestic and international markets experienced significant inflationary pressures in 2023 and inflation rates in the U.S. as well as in other countries may continue at elevated levels for the near term. Steps taken by the Federal Reserve and central banks in various other countries to increase interest rates in response have contributed to significant volatility in debt and equity markets. In addition, U.S. debt ceiling and budget deficit concerns have increased the possibility of additional credit-rating downgrades and economic slowdowns or a recession in the U.S. Moreover, our operations, investment opportunities, access to capital and ability to enforce the obligations of counterparties may be adversely affected by disruptions to the banking system and financial market volatility resulting from bank failures, market concerns related to liquidity, solvency or capitalization of banks or other financial institutions and related topics of speculation or uncertainty, such as the availability and terms of government assistance to financial institutions under financial pressure. Rising interest rates have in some cases exacerbated concerns about the financial condition of particular financial institutions and may do so in the future. There can be no assurance that future economic conditions in the U.S. or elsewhere around the world will be favorable to our business.
The economic environment in the past has resulted in, and may in the future result in, decreases in the market value of certain publicly-traded securities held by some of our funds. Illiquidity in certain portions of the financial markets could adversely affect the pace of realization of our funds’ investments or otherwise restrict the ability of our funds to realize value from their investments, thereby adversely affecting our ability to generate incentive or investment income. There can be no assurance that conditions in the global financial markets will not deteriorate and/or adversely affect our investments and overall performance. These market and economic conditions are not in our control and are often difficult, if not impossible, to predict, manage, mitigate, hedge or foresee.

Our profitability may also be adversely affected by our fixed costs, such as service fees paid to OCM under the Services Agreement and interest payments on our debt, and the possibility that we would be unable to scale back other costs and otherwise redeploy our resources within a time frame sufficient to match changes in market and economic conditions to take advantage of the opportunities that may be presented by these changes. As a result, we may not be able to adjust our resources to take advantage of new investment opportunities that may be created as a result of specific dislocations in the market.
Inflation has adversely affected and may continue to adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition of our funds and their portfolio companies.
Certain of our funds and their portfolio companies are in industries that have been impacted by inflation. Recent inflationary pressures have increased the costs of labor, energy and raw materials and have adversely affected consumer spending, economic growth and our funds’ portfolio companies’ operations. Should inflation, which recently has decreased, begin to increase again, our funds’ portfolio companies profit margins may be pressured, particularly if such companies lack pricing power against a backdrop of economic slowdown or contraction. For example, high rates of inflation and significant interest rate increases contributed to significant

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market volatility in 2022 and 2023, which disproportionately negatively impacted the value of future cash flows of technology and growth companies. These companies may be subject to continued depressed, or even further declines in, values in a challenging market environment. If such portfolio companies are unable to pass any increases in their costs of operations along to their customers, it could adversely affect their operating results. In addition, any projected future decreases in the operating results of our funds’ portfolio companies due to inflation could adversely impact the fair value of those investments. Any decreases in the fair value of our fund investments could result in future realized or unrealized losses.
Our business depends in large part on Oaktree’s ability to raise capital from investors. If Oaktree were unable to raise such capital, we would be unable to collect incentive fees or deploy such capital into investments, which would materially reduce our revenues and cash flow and adversely affect our financial condition.
Oaktree’s ability to raise capital from investors depends on a number of factors, including many that are outside its’ control. These include the general economic environment and the number of other investment funds being raised at the same time by our competitors that are focused on the same or similar investment strategies as our funds. Additionally, investors may reduce (or even eliminate) their investment allocations to alternative investments, including closed-ended private funds and hedge funds. During periods of high interest rates, investors may favor investments that are generally viewed as producing a risk-free return, such as treasury bonds, over investments in our funds. Poor performance of our funds could also make it more difficult for Oaktree to raise new capital. Investors in our funds may decline to invest in future funds Oaktree raises, and investors in open-end and evergreen funds may withdraw their investments in the funds (on specified withdrawal dates) as a result of poor performance. Our investors and potential investors continually assess our funds’ performance, both on a standalone basis and relative to market benchmarks and our competitors, and Oaktree’s ability to raise capital for existing and future funds and avoid excessive redemptions depends on our funds’ relative and absolute performance. To the extent economic and market conditions deteriorate, we may be unable to raise sufficient amounts of capital to support the investment activities of future funds.

In addition, certain institutional investors, including sovereign wealth funds and public pension funds, have demonstrated an increased preference for alternatives to the traditional investment fund structure, such as managed accounts, funds-of-one and co-investment vehicles. There can be no assurance that such alternatives will be as profitable for us as the traditional investment fund structure, or as to the impact such a trend could have on the cost of our operations or profitability. Moreover, certain institutional investors are demonstrating a preference to make direct investments in alternative assets without the assistance of private asset managers like Oaktree. Such institutional investors may become our competitors and could cease to be Oaktree clients. As some existing investors cease or significantly curtail making commitments to alternative investment funds, Oaktree may need to identify and attract new investors in order to maintain or increase the size of our investment funds. There are no assurances that Oaktree can find or secure capital commitments from new investors. If economic conditions were to deteriorate or if Oaktree is unable to find new investors, Oaktree might raise less than our desired amount for a given fund.

If Oaktree were unable to successfully raise capital, it could materially reduce our revenue, earnings and cash flow and adversely affect our financial prospects and condition.

We depend on OCM as the primary investment adviser to our funds to support our funds’ investment activities and a Services Agreement with OCM to support our operations; if the terms of the services provided by OCM were significantly altered or if the arrangements to provide such services were terminated, our ability to achieve our investment objective or operate as a public reporting company could be significantly harmed.

We depend on the diligence, skill, judgment, reputation and business contacts of key personnel of OCM provided to us through investment management agreements with our funds and a Services Agreement with us. Our future success will depend upon OCM’s ability to retain these key personnel and to recruit additional qualified personnel. These key personnel possess substantial experience and expertise in investing, are responsible for locating and executing our funds’ investments, have significant relationships with the institutions that are the source of many of our funds’ investment opportunities and in certain cases have strong relationships with our investors. Therefore, if these key personnel join competitors or form competing companies, it could result in the loss of significant investment opportunities and certain existing investors. OCM is not obligated to dedicate any specific personnel exclusively to us, nor are they or their personnel obligated to dedicate any specific portion of their time to the management of our business. Consequently, we may not receive the level of support and assistance that we otherwise might receive if our funds were managed directly by us. We are also subject to conflicts of interest arising out of our relationship with OCM, Brookfield and their respective affiliates. For example, Mr. Howard Marks, our Co-Chairman and one of our board members, is also the Co-Chairman of OCM and a board member of Brookfield. As

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mentioned above (under “Business—Overview”), Brookfield and its affiliates acquired a majority interest in Oaktree upon the completion of the Mergers. Accordingly, Mr. Marks owes duties to OCM and Brookfield, which duties may from time-to-time conflict with the interests of us and our preferred unitholders. Additionally, if our Services Agreement with OCM was significantly altered or terminated, it could result in the loss of significant key personnel of OCM that we depend on to operate as a public reporting company and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operation. Also, the services of our Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Nicholas H. Goodman, are made available by Brookfield. If Brookfield ceased to do so, we would have to identify another person to serve as our chief executive officer, which could be disruptive and/or have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operation.
As the appointed investment adviser to our funds, OCM provides our funds services to evaluate, negotiate, structure, execute, monitor and service the funds’ investments. Key personnel of OCM have departed in the past and current key personnel could depart at any time. The termination of the Services Agreement or the departure of key personnel or of a significant number of the investment professionals or partners of OCM could have a material adverse effect on our ability to maintain our operations or achieve our funds’ investment objective. OCM may need to hire, train, supervise and manage new professionals to service our business and may not be able to find qualified professionals in a timely manner or at all.
Our revenues are volatile due to the nature and structure of our business, and if we experience a substantial decline in our incentive and investment income, we may not be able to pay distributions on our preferred units.
Our revenues and cash flow are more volatile and limited following the 2019 Restructuring and the 2022 Restructuring. The incentive income we receive and the investment income we recognize on our corporate investments in our funds and companies, which individually and collectively account for a substantial portion of our income, is now more limited than it was prior to the 2019 Restructuring and the 2022 Restructuring, because subsequent to the 2022 Restructuring we receive incentive and investment income only from Oaktree Capital I. If we were to experience a significant reduction in incentive or investment income received from our funds, we may not be able to pay future distributions on our preferred units.
Our failure to deal appropriately with conflicts of interest or inter-fund governance matters could damage our reputation and adversely affect our business.
As we and Oaktree have expanded the number and scope of our strategies and distribution channels, including Oaktree’s advising registered mutual funds and business development companies, we and Oaktree increasingly confront potential conflicts of interest that we need to manage and resolve. In our view, conflicts of interest may describe two types of potential situations: (i) where the interests of the funds we or Oaktree manage (or the investors in such funds) may conflict with one another; and (ii) where our or Oaktree’s interests, as manager or adviser, may conflict with the interests of our or Oaktree’s funds or clients.

Examples of potential inter-fund conflicts include: (i) the allocation of investment opportunities in situations where the investment focus of one or more of our funds overlaps (including certain instances in which funds registered under the Investment Company Act may be precluded from participating in certain opportunities as a result of regulatory restrictions applicable to companies with multiple types of funds with overlapping investment focuses); (ii) opportunities to co-invest directly alongside a fund that are offered to certain fund investors rather than to other Oaktree funds or other fund investors; (iii) investments by different funds at different levels of the capital structure of the same issuer; (iv) receipt of material, non-public information regarding an issuer by one strategy where another strategy does not wish to be restricted in trading the securities of that issuer; and (v) investments by a fund into a portfolio company held or controlled by another fund. Over time Oaktree has developed general guidelines or a course of conduct to manage these potential inter-fund governance matters, including establishing an inter-fund governance work group and standing committee composed of senior officers from Oaktree’s non-investment groups, including Oaktree’s legal and compliance departments. Oaktree seeks to resolve such governance issues in good faith and with a view to the best interests of all of its clients, but there can be no assurance that Oaktree will make the correct judgment or that its judgment will not be questioned or challenged.

In addition to the potential for conflict among our funds, we and Oaktree face the potential for conflict between us and Oaktree, on the one hand, and our funds or Oaktree’s clients, on the other hand. These conflicts may include: (i) personal trading by Oaktree personnel in the securities of issuers held by one or more of our funds; (ii) the allocation of investment opportunities among funds with different incentive fee structures, or where Oaktree personnel have invested more heavily in one fund than another; (iii) the use of subscription lines by our funds, which, among other things, may cause fund investors to indirectly bear interest expense when such investors would prefer to contribute capital and avoid the interest expense; and (iv) the determination of what constitutes fund-related expenses and the allocation of such expenses between our funds and us or Oaktree. Through Oaktree, we

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maintain internal controls and various policies and procedures, including oversight, codes of ethics and conduct, compliance systems and communication tools, to identify, prevent, mitigate or resolve conflicts of interest that may arise. Notwithstanding these efforts, it is possible that perceived or actual conflicts could give rise to investor dissatisfaction or litigation or regulatory enforcement actions. Appropriately dealing with conflicts of interest is complex and difficult, and any mistake could potentially create liability or damage our reputation. Regulatory scrutiny of, or litigation in connection with, conflicts of interest could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, which in turn could materially adversely affect our business in a number of ways, such as causing investors to redeem their capital (to the degree they have that right), making it harder for Oaktree to raise new funds for us and discouraging others from doing business with us.
The investment management business is intensely competitive.
The investment management business is intensely competitive, with competition based on a variety of factors, including investment performance, the quality of client service, brand recognition and business reputation. Our investment management business competes for clients, personnel and investment opportunities with a large number of private equity funds, specialized investment funds, hedge funds, corporate buyers, traditional investment managers, commercial banks, investment banks, other investment managers and other financial institutions, and we expect that competition will increase. Numerous factors serve to increase our competitive risks, some of which are outside of our control:
a number of our competitors have more personnel and greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we do, and, in the case of some competitors, longer operating histories, more established relationships and/or greater experience;
some of our funds may not perform as well as competitors’ funds or other available investment products;
many of our competitors have raised, or are expected to raise, significant amounts of capital, and many of them have investment objectives similar to ours, which may create additional competition for investment opportunities and reduce the size and duration of pricing inefficiencies that we seek to exploit;
some of our competitors (including strategic competitors) may have a lower cost of capital and access to funding sources that are not available to us, which may create competitive disadvantages for us with respect to our funds, particularly our funds that directly use leverage or rely on debt financing of their portfolio companies to generate superior investment returns;
some of our competitors have higher risk tolerances, different risk assessments or lower return thresholds, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and to bid more aggressively than us for investments;
our competitors may be able to achieve synergistic cost savings in respect of an investment that we cannot, which may provide them with a competitive advantage in bidding for an investment;
there are relatively few barriers to entry impeding new investment funds, and the successful efforts of new entrants into our various lines of business, including major commercial and investment banks and other financial institutions, have resulted in increased competition;
some of our competitors may have better expertise or be regarded by investors as having better expertise in a specific asset class or geographic region than we do;
some investors may prefer to pursue investments directly instead of investing through one of our funds; and
other industry participants will from time to time seek to recruit our investment professionals and other employees away from us.
Oaktree may find it harder to raise funds for us, and we may lose investment opportunities in the future, if we do not match or improve on the fees, structures, products and terms offered by competitors to their fund clients. Alternatively, we may experience decreased profitability, rates of return and increased risk of loss if we match or improve on the prices, structures, products and terms offered by competitors. This competitive pressure could adversely affect our ability to make successful investments and limit Oaktree’s ability to raise future funds, either of which would adversely impact our business, revenues, results of operations and cash flow.
Additionally, technological innovation, including the use of artificial intelligence and data science, has the potential to disrupt the financial industry and change the way financial institutions, including asset managers, do business. Some of our competitors may be more successful than us in the development and implementation of new technologies, including services and platforms based on artificial intelligence, to address investor demand or

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improve operations. If we are unable to adequately advance our capabilities in these areas, or do so at a slower pace than others in our industry, we may be at a competitive disadvantage.
Poor performance of our funds would cause a decline in our revenues, net income and cash flow and could adversely affect Oaktree’s ability to raise capital for future funds.
When any of our funds performs poorly, either by incurring losses or underperforming benchmarks or Oaktree’s competitors, Oaktree’s investment record suffers. Poor investment performance by our funds also adversely affects our incentive income and, all else being equal, may lead to a decline in our AUM. In such circumstances, we may experience losses on our investments of our own capital. If a fund performs poorly, we will receive little or no incentive income with regard to the fund and little income or possibly losses from our own principal investment in the fund. Poor performance of Oaktree’s funds could also make it more difficult for Oaktree to raise new capital for us. Investors in Oaktree’s closed-end funds may decline to invest in future closed-end funds Oaktree raises, and investors in open-end and evergreen funds may withdraw their investments in the funds (on specified withdrawal dates) as a result of poor performance. Our investors and potential investors continually assess our funds’ performance, both on a standalone basis and relative to market benchmarks, our competitors, and other investment products, and Oaktree’s ability to raise capital for our existing and future funds and avoid excessive redemption levels depends on our funds’ performance.
We may not be able to maintain our current incentive fee structure as a result of industry pressure from clients to reduce fees, which could have an adverse effect on our profit margins and results of operations.
We may not be able to maintain our current incentive fee structure as a result of industry pressure from clients to reduce fees. Although our incentive fee rates may vary among and within asset classes, historically we have competed primarily on the basis of our performance and not on the level of our fees relative to those of our competitors. In recent years, however, there has been a general trend toward lower fees in the investment management industry, and we have in certain cases lowered the fees we charge in order to remain competitive. Additionally, we have afforded, and reserve the right in our sole discretion to continue to afford, certain clients more favorable economic terms, including with respect to incentive fee rates, in cases where such clients have committed capital to our funds or strategies that in the aggregate exceeds certain threshold amounts. In order to maintain our fee structure in a competitive environment, we must be able to continue to provide clients with investment returns and service that incentivize our investors to pay our current fee rates. We cannot provide any assurance that we will succeed in providing investment returns and service that will allow us to maintain our current fee structure. Fee reductions on existing or new business could have an adverse effect on our profit margins and results of operations. For more information about our fees please see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
We often pursue investment opportunities that involve business, regulatory, legal or other complexities.
We often pursue unusually complex investment opportunities involving substantial business, regulatory or legal complexity that would deter other investment managers. Our tolerance for complexity presents risks, as such transactions can be more difficult, expensive and time-consuming to finance and execute; it can be more difficult to manage or realize value from the assets acquired in such transactions; and such transactions sometimes entail a higher level of regulatory scrutiny or a greater risk of contingent liabilities. Any of these risks could harm the performance of our funds.
Technological developments in artificial intelligence could disrupt the markets in which we operate and subject us to increased competition, legal and regulatory risks and compliance costs.
Technological developments in artificial intelligence, including machine learning technology and generative artificial intelligence (collectively, “AI Technologies”) and their current and potential future applications, including in the private investment and financial sectors, as well as the legal and regulatory frameworks within which they operate, are rapidly evolving. The full extent of current or future risks related thereto is not possible to predict. AI Technologies could significantly disrupt the markets in which we operate and subject us to increased competition, legal and regulatory risks and compliance costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We intend to seek to avail ourselves of the potential benefits, insights and efficiencies that are available through the use of AI Technologies, which presents a number of potential risks that cannot be fully mitigated. Data in models that AI Technologies utilize are likely to contain a degree of inaccuracy and error, which could result in flawed algorithms. This could reduce the effectiveness of AI Technologies and adversely impact us and our operations to the extent we rely on the work product of such AI Technologies in such operations. There is also a risk that AI Technologies may be misused or misappropriated by our employees and/or third parties engaged by us. For example, a user may input confidential information, including material non-public information or personal identifiable information, into AI Technology applications, resulting in such information

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becoming part of a dataset that is accessible by third-party AI Technology applications and users, including our competitors. Such actions could subject us to legal and regulatory investigations and/or actions. Further, we may not be able to control how third-party AI Technologies that we choose to use are developed or maintained, or how data we input is used or disclosed, even where we have sought contractual protections with respect to these matters. The misuse or misappropriation of our data could have an adverse impact on our reputation and could subject us to legal and regulatory investigations and/or actions. In addition, we may communicate externally regarding AI Technology-related initiatives, including our development and use of AI Technologies, which subjects us to the risk of being accused of making inaccurate or misleading statements regarding our ability to avail ourselves of the potential benefits of AI Technology.
Regulations related to AI Technologies may also impose on us certain obligations and costs related to monitoring and compliance. For example, in April 2023, the Federal Trade Commission, U.S. Department of Justice, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, and U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission released a joint statement on artificial intelligence demonstrating interest in monitoring the development and use of automated systems and enforcement of their respective laws and regulations. In October 2023, the Presidential Administration signed an executive order that establishes new standards for AI safety and security. In addition to the U.S. regulatory framework, the EU is in the process of introducing a new regulation applicable to certain AI Technologies and the data used to train, test and deploy them, which if enacted, could impose significant requirements on both the providers and deployers of AI Technologies.
Extensive regulation in the United States and abroad affects our activities and creates the potential for significant liabilities and penalties that could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Potential regulatory action poses a significant risk to our reputation and our business. Oaktree’s business, and by extension our business, is subject to extensive regulation in the United States and in the other countries in which our investment activities occur, including periodic examinations, inquiries and investigations by governmental and self-regulatory organizations in the jurisdictions in which Oaktree operates around the world. Many of these regulators, including U.S. federal and state and foreign government agencies and self-regulatory organizations, are empowered to impose fines, suspensions of personnel or other sanctions, including censure, the issuance of cease-and-desist orders or the suspension or expulsion of applicable licenses and memberships. Even if an investigation did not result in a sanction, or the sanction imposed against us or our personnel were small in monetary amount, adverse publicity relating to the investigation could harm our or Oaktree’s reputation and cause us to lose existing investors or fail to gain new investors.
Each of the regulatory bodies with jurisdiction over Oaktree or us has regulatory powers dealing with many aspects of financial services, including the authority to grant, and in specific circumstances to cancel, permissions to carry on particular activities. A failure to comply with the applicable obligations imposed by the Advisers Act and the Investment Company Act, including recordkeeping, custody, advertising and operating requirements, disclosure obligations and prohibitions on fraudulent activities, could result in investigations, sanctions and reputational damage. Similarly, a failure to comply with the obligations imposed by the Commodity Exchange Act, including recordkeeping, reporting requirements, disclosure obligations and prohibitions on fraudulent activities, could also result in investigations, sanctions and reputational damage. Our funds are involved regularly in trading activities that implicate a broad number of U.S. securities law regimes, including laws governing trading on inside information, market manipulation and a broad number of technical trading requirements that implicate fundamental market regulation policies. Violation of these laws could result in severe restrictions on our activities and damage to our reputation.
Oaktree’s or our failure to comply with applicable laws or regulations could result in litigation, fines, censure, suspensions of personnel or other sanctions, including revocation of the registration of our relevant affiliated entities as an investment adviser, CPO, CTA or registered broker-dealer. The regulations to which our business is subject are designed primarily to protect investors in our funds and to ensure the integrity of the financial markets. They are not designed to protect our preferred unitholders. Even if a sanction imposed against Oaktree or us, one of Oaktree’s or our subsidiaries or Oaktree personnel by a regulator is for a small monetary amount, the adverse publicity related to the sanction could harm our reputation, which in turn could materially adversely affect our business in a number of ways, such as causing investors to redeem their capital (to the extent they have that right), making it harder for us to raise new funds and discouraging others from doing business with us.
Some of our funds from time to time invest in businesses that operate in highly-regulated industries, including businesses that are regulated by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission, the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, U.S. federal and state banking authorities and U.S. state gaming authorities, as well as equivalent foreign regulatory bodies. The regulatory regimes to which such businesses are subject may, among

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other things, condition our funds’ ability to invest in those businesses upon the satisfaction of applicable ownership restrictions or qualification requirements or, absent any applicable exemption, require us or our subsidiaries to comply with registration, reporting or other requirements. Moreover, our failure to obtain or maintain any regulatory approvals necessary for our funds to invest in such industries may disqualify our funds from participating in certain investments or require our funds to divest themselves of certain assets.
Regulatory changes in the United States, regulatory compliance failures and the effects of negative publicity surrounding the financial industry in general could adversely affect our reputation, business and operations.
The business in which we operate both in and outside the United States may be subject to new or additional regulations from time to time. We and Oaktree may be adversely affected as a result of new or revised legislation or regulations imposed by the SEC, the CFTC or other U.S. governmental regulatory authorities or self-regulatory organizations that supervise the financial markets and businesses such as ours. The financial services industry in recent years has been the subject of heightened scrutiny, which is expected to continue to increase, and the SEC has specifically focused on private equity and the private funds industry. In that connection, in recent years the SEC’s stated examination priorities and published observations from examinations have included, among other things, private equity firms’ collection of fees and allocation of expenses, their marketing and valuation practices, allocation of investment opportunities, investor side letter terms, consistency of firms’ practices with disclosures, handling of material non-public information and insider trading, disclosures of investment risk, conflicts of interest, adherence to notice, consent and other contractual requirements regarding limited partnership advisory committees and compliance policies and procedures with respect to conflicts of interest. The SEC’s stated examination priorities also include investment advisers’ and funds’ compliance with recently adopted rules, including those referenced herein. Statements by SEC staff in 2023 and the SEC’s enforcement and rulemaking activities reflected a focus on certain of these topics and on bolstering transparency in the private funds industry, including with respect to fees earned and expenses charged by advisers. In recent years, the SEC has proposed, and in some instances, adopted, a number of new rules and amendments to existing rules that impact our or Oaktree’s business and operations. Most significantly, in August 2023, the SEC adopted new rules and amendments to existing rules under the Advisers Act (collectively, the “Private Fund Adviser Rules”). The Private Fund Adviser Rules require registered investment advisers to distribute quarterly statements containing detailed information about, among other things, compensation, fees and expenses, investments, and performance; obtain an annual audit for private funds; and obtain a fairness or valuation opinion and make certain disclosures in connection with adviser-led secondary transactions. In addition, the rules restrict all investment advisers from engaging in certain practices unless they satisfy specified disclosure, and in some cases, consent requirements. The Private Fund Adviser Rules also prohibit providing preferential liquidity and information rights to investors unless certain conditions are met.
Although there is a pending legal challenge to the Private Fund Adviser Rules, whether such legal challenge will succeed is uncertain. While the full extent of the Private Funds Adviser Rules’ impact cannot yet be determined, the general anticipation is that they will increase regulatory and compliance costs, place burdens on our or Oaktree’s resources, including the time and attention of Oaktree’s personnel, and heighten the risk of regulatory action.
The Private Fund Adviser Rules are complemented by amended rules that require enhanced record retention and documentation. Furthermore, the SEC (in May 2023) and the SEC and CFTC jointly (in February 2024) adopted changes to Form PF, a confidential form relating to reporting by private fund advisers and intended to be used by the Financial Stability Oversight Counsel (“FSOC”) for systemic risk oversight purposes, that expand existing reporting obligations. Such increased obligations may increase our costs, including if we are required to spend more time, hire additional personnel, or buy new technology to comply effectively.
The SEC has also proposed several other rules that may impact our or Oaktree’s operations. For example, an October 2022 SEC proposal would, if adopted, impose substantial obligations on registered investment advisers to conduct initial due diligence and ongoing monitoring of a broad universe of service providers that we or Oaktree may use. If adopted, these new rules could significantly increase compliance burdens and associated regulatory costs and complexity for us and Oaktree and enhance the risk of regulatory action, which could adversely impact our reputation and our fundraising efforts, including as a result of regulatory sanctions. Moreover, in February 2023, the SEC proposed extensive amendments to the custody rule for SEC-registered investment advisers which would apply to all assets of an advisory client, including real estate and other assets that generally are not considered securities under the federal securities laws. If adopted, the amendments would require, among other things, that qualified custodians maintain possession of and control of assets of advisory clients and participate in or effectuate any changes of such assets’ beneficial ownership. There is a lack of clarity as to whether all assets held by advisory clients can be custodied in a manner that satisfies the proposed rule or whether existing qualified custodians will provide custodial services for such assets at a reasonable cost or at all. If adopted, these amendments could

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expose Oaktree’s registered investment advisers to additional regulatory liability, increase compliance costs and impose limitations on our investing activities.
We and Oaktree also may be adversely affected by changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules by these governmental authorities and self-regulatory organizations. For example, in recent years, senior officials at the SEC have shown a willingness to pursue violations that could be viewed as minor on the theory that publicly pursuing minor violations could reduce the prevalence of more significant violations.
It is difficult to determine the full extent of the impact on us or Oaktree of any new laws, regulations or initiatives that may be proposed or whether any of the proposals will become law. Any changes in the regulatory framework applicable to our or Oaktree’s business, including the changes described above, may impose additional costs on us, require the attention of Oaktree’s senior management or result in limitations on the manner in which we conduct our business. Moreover, as calls for additional regulation have increased, there may be a related increase in regulatory investigations of the trading and other investment activities of alternative asset management funds, including our funds. In addition, we may be adversely affected by changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules by these governmental authorities and self-regulatory organizations. Compliance with any new laws or regulations could make our overall compliance activities more difficult and expensive, affect the manner in which we conduct our business and adversely affect our profitability.
Changes in law and government regulations may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The current regulatory environment in the United States may be impacted by future legislative developments, such as amendments to key provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act. Any changes in the regulatory framework applicable to our business or the businesses of the portfolio companies of our funds may impose additional costs or result in limitations on the manner in which business is conducted, or may ultimately have an adverse impact on the competitiveness of certain nonbank financial service providers vis-à-vis traditional banking organizations.
The replacement of LIBOR with an alternative reference rate may adversely affect our credit arrangements and our collateralized loan obligation transactions.
LIBOR and certain other “benchmarks” have been the subject of recent national, international, and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. These reforms have resulted in plans to phase out and eventually replace LIBOR which may cause such benchmarks to perform differently than in the past or have other consequences which cannot be predicted.
The FCA, which regulates LIBOR, ceased publication of one-week and two-month USD LIBOR in 2023, and the Federal Reserve Board has advised banks to stop entering into new USD LIBOR-based contracts. One-week and two-month USD LIBOR can no longer be referenced in financial contracts, and the FCA has announced that it will only require the publishing of one-, three- and six- month LIBOR on a synthetic basis through the end of September 2024. As a result of the phasing out of this benchmark, interest rates on our floating rate obligations, loans, deposits, derivatives, and other financial instruments formerly tied to LIBOR rates, as well as the revenue and expenses associated with those financial instruments, may be adversely affected. It is unclear what methods of calculating a replacement benchmark will be established or adopted generally, and whether different industry bodies, such as the loan market and the derivatives market will adopt the same methodologies. To address the transition away from LIBOR, we have amended our credit agreements and related loan documentation to provide for an agreed upon methodology to calculate new benchmark rate spreads, but there are as yet no comparable forward-looking benchmarks for the various LIBOR tenors. Additionally, there will be significant work required to transition to using the new benchmark rates and implement necessary changes to our systems, processes and models. This may impact our existing transaction data, products, systems, operations, and valuation processes. The calculation of interest rates under the replacement benchmarks could also negatively impact our business and financial results. We are assessing the impact of the transition; however, we cannot reasonably estimate the impact of the transition at this time.
There is no guarantee that a transition from LIBOR to an alternative will not result in financial market disruptions, significant increases or volatility in risk-free benchmark rates, or borrowing costs to borrowers, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, result of operations, financial condition, and unit price.
Regulatory changes in jurisdictions outside the United States could adversely affect our business.
Certain of Oaktree’s subsidiaries operate outside the United States. A number of these subsidiaries are regulated by governmental authorities in foreign jurisdictions where they operate. In addition, Oaktree regularly

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relies on exemptions from various requirements of the regulations of certain foreign countries in conducting its asset management and fundraising activities.
Each of the regulatory bodies with jurisdiction over Oaktree has regulatory powers dealing with many aspects of our business generally and financial services specifically, including the authority to grant, and in specific circumstances to cancel, permissions to carry on particular activities. We are involved regularly in trading activities that implicate a broad number of foreign (as well as U.S.) securities law regimes, including laws governing trading on inside information and market manipulation and a broad number of technical trading requirements that implicate fundamental market regulation policies. Additionally, we must comply with foreign laws governing the sale of interests in our funds and laws that govern other business activities. Violation of these laws could result in severe penalties, restrictions or prohibitions on our activities and damage to our reputation, which in turn could materially adversely affect our business in a number of ways, such as causing investors to redeem their capital (to the degree they have that right), making it harder for us to raise new funds and discouraging others from doing business with us.
SEC rules barring so-called “bad actors” from relying on Rule 506 of Regulation D in private placements could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Rules 501 and 506 of Regulation D under the Securities Act prohibit issuers deemed to be “bad actors” from relying on the exemptions available under Rule 506 of Regulation D (“Rule 506”) in connection with private placements (the “disqualification rule”). Specifically, an issuer will be precluded from conducting offerings that rely on the exemption from registration under the Securities Act provided by Rule 506 (“Rule 506 offerings”) if a “covered person” of the issuer has been the subject of a “disqualifying event” (each as defined below). “Covered persons” include, among others, the issuer, affiliated issuers, any investment manager or solicitor of the issuer, any director, executive officer or other officer participating in the offering of the issuer, any general partner or managing member of the foregoing entities, any promoter of the issuer and any beneficial owner of 20% or more of the issuer’s outstanding voting equity securities, calculated on the basis of voting power. A “disqualifying event” includes, among other things, certain (1) criminal convictions and court injunctions and restraining orders issued in connection with the purchase or sale of a security or false filings with the SEC; (2) final orders from the CFTC, federal banking agencies and certain other regulators that bar a person from associating with a regulated entity or engaging in the business of securities, insurance or banking or that are based on certain fraudulent conduct; (3) SEC disciplinary orders relating to investment advisers, brokers, dealers and their associated persons; (4) SEC cease-and-desist orders relating to violations of certain anti-fraud provisions and registration requirements of the federal securities laws; (5) suspensions or expulsions from membership in a self-regulatory organization (“SRO”) or from association with an SRO member; and (6) U.S. Postal Service false representation orders.
If any Oaktree covered person is subject to a disqualifying event, one or more of our funds could lose the ability to raise capital in a Rule 506 offering for a significant period of time. Most of our funds rely on Rule 506 to raise capital from investors during their fundraising periods. If one or more of our funds were to lose the ability to rely on the Rule 506 exemption because an Oaktree covered person has been the subject of a disqualifying event, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Oaktree’s failure to comply with “pay to play” regulations implemented by the SEC and certain states, and changes to the “pay to play” regulatory regimes, could adversely affect our business.
In recent years, the SEC and several states have initiated investigations alleging that certain private equity firms and hedge funds or agents acting on their behalf have paid money to current or former government officials or their associates in exchange for improperly soliciting contracts with state pension funds. The SEC has also initiated a similar investigation into contracts awarded by sovereign wealth funds. Rule 206(4)-5 under the Advisers Act addresses “pay to play” practices by investment advisers involving campaign contributions and other payments to government officials able to exert influence on potential U.S. state and local government entity clients. Among other restrictions, the rule prohibits investment advisers from providing advisory services for compensation to a government entity for two years, subject to very limited exceptions, after the investment adviser, its senior executives or its personnel involved in soliciting investments from government entities make contributions to certain candidates and officials in a position to influence the hiring of an investment adviser by such government entity. The rule does not require any showing that a donation was made with intent to exert influence. Any donation that exceeds the limits set forth in Rule 206(4)-5 may lead to an investment adviser being required to forgo compensation from applicable government entities for two years; to the extent such fees have already been paid, the investment adviser may be required to forfeit the already-received compensation. Advisers are required to implement compliance policies designed, among other matters, to track contributions by certain of the adviser’s

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employees and engagements of third parties that solicit government entities and to keep certain records in order to enable the SEC to determine compliance with the rule. Additionally, California law requires placement agents (including in certain cases employees of investment managers) who solicit funds from California state retirement systems, such as the California Public Employees’ Retirement System and the California State Teachers’ Retirement System, to register as lobbyists, thereby becoming subject to increased reporting requirements and prohibited from receiving contingent compensation for soliciting investments from California state retirement systems. New York has adopted similar rules. In July 2018, OCM reached a settlement with the SEC related to its “pay to play” rules pursuant to which OCM paid a monetary settlement to the SEC and agreed not to violate the rule in the future. Any failure by OCM or another of our affiliated entities or their respective personnel involved in soliciting investment from government entities to comply with these rules could expose us to reputational damage since we are closely affiliated with OCM. Additionally, the SEC’s amended rules for investment adviser marketing that went into effect in 2022 impose more prescriptive requirements and will impact the marketing of our funds as well as placement agent arrangements globally. Compliance with the new rule may result in higher compliance and operational costs and less overall flexibility in our marketing.
Oaktree’s failure to maintain the security of its information and technology networks, including personal data and client information, intellectual property and proprietary business information could have a material adverse effect on us.
Security breaches and other disruptions of or incidents affecting Oaktree’s information and technology networks could result in compromising our or Oaktree’s information and intellectual property and expose us or Oaktree to significant liability, reputational harm, regulatory investigation and remediation costs, which could cause material harm to our business and financial results. In the ordinary course of our and Oaktree’s business, Oaktree collects, processes and stores sensitive data, including proprietary business information and intellectual property, and personal data of Oaktree employees and its clients, in Oaktree’s data centers and on Oaktree’s networks (including data stored on systems maintained by third parties). The secure processing, maintenance and transmission of this information are critical to our operations. In many cases, this information is provided or made available to third-party vendors who agree to protect it, which has in the past and may in the future become compromised through a cyber-attack or data breach, misappropriation, misuse, leakage, falsification or accidental release or loss of information by Oaktree or a third-party vendor. Although Oaktree and its third-party vendors take various measures and have made, and will continue to make, significant investments in an attempt to ensure the integrity of their respective systems and to safeguard against such failures or security breaches, there can be no assurance that these measures and investments will provide adequate protection. Despite security measures, Oaktree’s and its third-party vendor’s information technology and infrastructure are vulnerable to different types of attacks by third parties or breaches due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Certain of our funds invest in strategic assets having a national or regional profile or in infrastructure assets, the nature of which could expose them to a greater risk of being subject to a cyberattack or security breach. In addition, we, Oaktree, Oaktree’s employees and Oaktree’s third-party vendors have been and may continue to be the target of fraudulent emails or other targeted attempts to gain unauthorized access to proprietary or sensitive information, including personal data.
There has been an increase in the frequency and sophistication of the data security threats Oaktree faces, with attacks ranging from those common to businesses generally to those that are more advanced and persistent, which may target us or Oaktree because, as an investment management firm, Oaktree holds confidential and other price-sensitive information about the portfolio companies of our funds and their potential investments. As a result, through Oaktree we face a heightened risk of a security breach or disruption with respect to sensitive information resulting from an attack by computer hackers, foreign governments, cyber-terrorists or other bad actors. If successful, these types of attacks on Oaktree’s network or other systems could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations, due to, among other things, the loss, unauthorized access to or other misuse of personal, regulated, investor or proprietary data, interruptions or delays in our business and damage to our reputation. We are not currently aware of any current or past cyberattacks or other incidents that, individually or in the aggregate, have materially affected, or would reasonably be expected to materially affect, our business strategy operations or financial condition. There can be no assurance that the various procedures and controls Oaktree utilizes to mitigate these threats will be sufficient to prevent or detect disruptions to its systems. Because cyberattacks can originate from a wide variety of sources and the techniques used change frequently and are not recognized until launched, Oaktree may not learn about an attack until well after the attack occurs, and the full scope of a cyberattack may not be realized until an investigation has been performed. The costs related to data security threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified by other means. In addition, privacy and data security have become a top priority for regulators around the world and a cybersecurity incident impacting our business could result in regulatory scrutiny, investigations or actions.


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A significant actual or potential theft, loss, corruption, exposure, fraudulent use or misuse of client, employee or other personal data, regulated or proprietary business data, whether by third parties or as a result of Oaktree’s employee malfeasance or otherwise, non-compliance with our contractual or other legal obligations regarding such data or intellectual property or a violation of Oaktree’s privacy and security policies with respect to such data could result in significant remediation and other costs, fines, litigation or regulatory actions against Oaktree or us. Such an event could additionally disrupt our operations and the services we provide to clients, damage our reputation, result in a loss of a competitive advantage, impact our ability to provide timely and accurate financial data, and cause a loss of confidence in our services and financial reporting, which could adversely affect our business, revenues, competitive position and investor confidence.
Additionally, the General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”) became applicable in all European Union (“EU”) member states on May 25, 2018. This regulation added a broad array of requirements for handling personal data of individuals that are residents of the EU and the processing and transfer of that data from the EU and could impose a fine of up to 4% of global annual revenue or 20 million euros, whichever is higher, for violations. The GDPR has resulted in and will continue to result in significantly greater compliance burdens and costs for companies like Oaktree. Further, due to Brexit (discussed below), Oaktree is required to comply with the GDPR and also the UK equivalent. The relationship between the UK and the EU in relation to certain aspects of data protection law remains unclear, and any changes will lead to additional costs and increase our overall risk exposure.
In the U.S., the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999 (the “GLBA”) imposes privacy requirements on financial institutions, including obligations to protect and safeguard consumers' nonpublic personal information and records, and limits the ability to share and reuse such information. Under the GLBA, beginning in May 2024, the Federal Trade Commission will require financial institutions to report the unauthorized acquisition of unencrypted customer information involving at least five hundred customers, within thirty days of discovery. In December 2023, an SEC rule went into effect which requires us to report within four days on a Form 8-K any cybersecurity incident determined to be material. Material incidents requiring such disclosure include those involving a third party provider. At the state level, California was the first state to pass a comprehensive privacy law when it enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (the “CCPA”), which went into effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA imposes sweeping data protection obligations on many companies doing business in California and provides for substantial fines for non-compliance and, in some cases, a private right of action for consumers who are victims of data breaches involving their unencrypted personal information. Further, in November 2020, California voters passed the California Privacy Rights and Enforcement Act of 2020 (“CPRA”), which amends and further expands the CCPA with additional data privacy compliance requirements that may impact our business, and establishes a regulatory agency dedicated to enforcing those requirements. In March of 2021, Virginia enacted the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act, creating the second comprehensive U.S. state privacy law, which took effect on January 1, 2023 (the same day CPRA took effect). Colorado, Connecticut, and Utah also have consumer protection laws in place. Additional states have since also passed comprehensive state privacy laws with additional obligations and requirements on businesses, with many more states considering passing their own similar laws. In 2023, Delaware, Indiana, Iowa, Florida, Montana, Oregon, Tennessee and Texas adopted laws regulating the permitted use and security of certain personal information, and New Jersey became the first state in 2024 to adopt such a law. Further, the U.S. Congress is considering passing a comprehensive privacy law on the federal level. Many regulators, including the Federal Trade Commission, have indicated an intention to take more aggressive enforcement actions regarding data security and data matters, and related private litigation is increasing and resulting in progressively larger judgments and settlements.
It remains unclear how various provisions of these newer laws will be interpreted and enforced. These and other data privacy laws and regulations and their interpretations continue to develop and may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. The effects of the GDPR, CCPA, and other U.S. state, U.S. federal, and international data privacy laws and regulations are significant and may require Oaktree to modify its data processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and potential liability in an effort to comply with such laws and regulations.
Interruption of certain information technology, communications systems or data services could disrupt our business, result in losses and/or limit our growth.
We rely on Oaktree’s financial, accounting, communications and other information technology systems. If these systems do not operate properly, are disabled or are compromised, we could suffer financial loss, a disruption of our business, liability to our funds, regulatory intervention or reputational damage. Oaktree’s information technology and communications systems are vulnerable to damage or disruption from fire, power loss, telecommunications failure, system malfunctions, natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes and floods,

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acts of war or terrorism, employee errors or malfeasance, computer viruses, cyberattacks, or other events which are beyond our or Oaktree’s control.
We depend on Oaktree’s headquarters in Los Angeles, where a substantial portion of Oaktree’s personnel are located, for the continued operation of our business. An earthquake or other disaster or a disruption in the infrastructure that supports our business, including a disruption involving electronic communications or other services used by Oaktree or third parties with whom we conduct business, or directly affecting Oaktree’s headquarters, could have a material adverse impact on our ability to continue to operate our business without interruption. Insurance and other safeguards might only partially reimburse us for certain losses, if at all.
In addition, we rely on unaffiliated third party service providers for certain other aspects of our business, including software vendors for portfolio management and accounting software, outside financial institutions for back office processing and custody of securities and third party broker dealers for the execution of trades. An interruption or deterioration in the performance of these third parties or failures of their information systems and technology, over which we have no control, could cause system interruption, delays, loss, corruption or exposure of critical data or intellectual property and impair the quality of the funds’ operations, which could impact our reputation and hence adversely affect our business. These risks could increase as vendors increasingly offer cloud-based software services rather than software services that can be operated within our own data centers. Our portfolio companies also rely on data processing systems and the secure processing, storage and transmission of information, including payment and health information. A disruption or compromise of these systems could have a material adverse effect on the value of these businesses. Such an event may have adverse consequences on our investments or assets of the same type, or may require portfolio companies to increase preventative security measures or expand insurance coverage.
Any such interruption or deterioration in Oaktree’s or our operations could result in substantial recovery and remediation costs and liability to Oaktree’s or our clients, business partners and other third parties. While Oaktree has implemented disaster recovery plans, business continuity plans and backup systems to lessen the risk of any material adverse impact, such disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient to mitigate the harm and cannot account for all eventualities, and a catastrophic event that results in the destruction or disruption of any of our data, our critical business or information technology systems could severely affect our ability to conduct our business operations, and as a result, our future operating results could be materially adversely affected.
We are subject to substantial litigation risks and may face significant liabilities and damage to our professional reputation as a result.
Oaktree makes investment decisions on behalf of its clients that could result in substantial losses. This may subject us to the risk of legal liabilities or actions alleging negligence, breach of fiduciary duty, breach of contract or other causes of action. Heightened standards of care or additional fiduciary duties may apply in certain of our managed accounts or other advisory contracts. To the extent we enter into agreements with clients containing such terms or applicable law mandates a heightened standard of care or duties, we could, for example, be liable to certain clients for acts of simple negligence or breach of such duties.
Further, we may be subject to litigation arising from investor dissatisfaction with the performance of our funds or from third-party allegations that we improperly exercised control or influence over portfolio investments or that we are liable for actions or inactions taken by portfolio companies that such third parties argue we control. In addition, we and our affiliates that are the investment managers and general partners of our funds, our funds themselves and those individuals who are our affiliates’ or the funds’ officers and directors are each exposed to the risks of litigation specific to the funds’ investment activities and portfolio companies and, in cases where our funds own controlling interests in public companies, to the risk of shareholder litigation by the public companies’ other shareholders. Moreover, we are exposed to risks of litigation or investigation by investors and regulators relating to our having engaged, or our funds having engaged, in transactions that presented conflicts of interest that were not properly addressed. Please see also “—Extensive regulation in the United States and abroad affects our activities and creates the potential for significant liabilities and penalties that could adversely affect our business and results of operations.”
Substantial legal liability could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations or cause significant reputational harm to us, which could seriously harm our business. We depend, to a large extent, on Oaktree’s business relationships and reputation for integrity and high-caliber professional services to attract and retain investors. As a result, allegations of improper conduct asserted by private litigants or regulators, regardless of whether the ultimate outcome is favorable or unfavorable to Oaktree, as well as negative

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publicity and press speculation about Oaktree, its investment activities or the investment industry in general, whether or not valid, may harm Oaktree’s reputation, which may be more damaging to our business than to other types of businesses.
Oaktree employee misconduct, which is difficult to detect and deter, could subject us to significant regulatory sanctions and reputational harm. Fraud and other deceptive practices or other misconduct at the portfolio companies of our funds could similarly subject us to liability and reputational damage and also harm our performance.
There have been a number of highly publicized cases involving fraud or other misconduct by individuals in the financial services industry, and there is a risk that Oaktree employees could engage in misconduct that adversely affects our business. Oaktree is subject to a number of obligations and standards arising from its investment management business and the authority over the assets Oaktree manages. The violation of any of these obligations or standards by any of Oaktree’s employees or advisors could adversely affect Oaktree clients and us. Our business often requires that we deal with confidential matters of great significance to companies in which our funds may invest or to Oaktree clients. If Oaktree employees improperly use or disclose confidential information, we could be subject to regulatory sanctions and suffer serious harm to our reputation, financial position and current and future business relationships. It is not always possible to deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to prevent this activity may not be effective in all cases. If Oaktree employees engage in misconduct, or if they are accused of misconduct, our business and our reputation could be adversely affected.
In recent years, the U.S. Department of Justice and the SEC have devoted greater resources to enforcement of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”). In addition, the United Kingdom has significantly expanded the reach of its anti-bribery laws. While we have developed and implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance by us and our personnel with the FCPA, such policies and procedures may not be effective in all instances to prevent violations. Any determination that Oaktree personnel have violated the FCPA, UK anti-bribery laws or other applicable anti-corruption laws could subject Oaktree to, among other things, civil and criminal penalties, material fines, profit disgorgement, injunctions on future conduct, securities litigation and a general loss of investor confidence, any one of which could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition or results of operations.
In addition, we may also be adversely affected if there is misconduct by personnel of portfolio companies in which our funds invest. For example, financial fraud or other deceptive practices at such portfolio companies, or failures by personnel at such portfolio companies to comply with anti-bribery, trade sanctions or other legal and regulatory requirements could adversely affect our business and reputation. Such misconduct might undermine our due diligence efforts with respect to such companies and could negatively affect the valuation of our funds’ investments. In addition, we may face increased risk of such misconduct to the extent our funds’ investment in markets outside the United States, particularly emerging markets, increases.
The United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union, and the implementation of the trade and cooperation agreement between the United Kingdom and the European Union, could adversely affect us.
In 2016, the United Kingdom (the “U.K.”) held a referendum on whether to remain a member state of the EU in which a majority of voters approved an exit from the EU, commonly referred to as “Brexit.” The U.K. withdrew from the EU on January 31, 2020, but the U.K. remained in the EU’s customs union and single market for a transition period that expired on December 31, 2020. On December 24, 2020, the U.K. and the EU entered into a trade and cooperation agreement (the “Trade and Cooperation Agreement”), which was applied on a provisional basis from January 1, 2021 and has since been approved by the European Parliament and so now applies permanently. While the economic integration does not reach the level that existed during the time the UK was a member state of the EU, the Trade and Cooperation Agreement sets out preferential arrangements in areas such as trade in goods and in services, digital trade and intellectual property. Negotiations between the UK and the EU are expected to continue in relation to the relationship between the UK and the EU in certain other areas which are not covered by the Trade and Cooperation Agreement. The long term effects of Brexit will depend on the effects of the implementation and application of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement and any other relevant agreements between the U.K. and the EU.
The effects of Brexit remain uncertain and, as a result, we face risks associated with the potential uncertainty and disruptions that may follow Brexit and the implementation and application of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement, including with respect to volatility in exchange rates and interest rates and disruptions to the free movement of data, goods, services, people and capital between the U.K. and the EU. The uncertainty concerning the U.K.’s future legal, political and economic relationship with the EU could adversely affect political, regulatory,

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economic or market conditions in the EU, the U.K. and worldwide and could contribute to instability in global political institutions, regulatory agencies and financial markets. These developments, or the perception that any of them could occur, have had and may continue to have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets and could significantly reduce global market liquidity and limit the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets. In particular, it could also lead to a period of considerable uncertainty in relation to the U.K. financial and banking markets, as well as to the regulatory process in Europe. Asset valuations, currency exchange rates and credit ratings may also be subject to increased market volatility. Depending on the future relationship of the U.K. and the EU, the long-term effects of Brexit could be far-reaching. It could adversely affect the values of investments held by our funds, our ability to source new investments, and our ability to raise capital from investors in the U.K. and the EU. It has, and will in the future, also affect the ways in which Oaktree is able to operate in and from the U.K. and the EU. In addition, Brexit could lead to legal uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the U.K. determines which laws of the EU to replace or replicate.
It remains difficult to predict the overall impact of the U.K. withdrawal from the EU, the implementation and application of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement and what the economic, tax, fiscal, legal, regulatory and other implications will be for the asset management industry and the broader European and global financial markets generally and for our business and our funds and their investments specifically. However, any of these effects of Brexit, and others we cannot anticipate, could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial prospects and condition, and cash flow.
Risks Relating to Our Funds
Our results of operations are dependent on the performance of our funds. Poor fund performance will result in reduced revenues. Poor performance of our funds will also make it difficult for us to retain and attract investors to our funds, to retain and attract qualified professionals and to grow our business. The performance of each fund we manage is subject to some or all of the following risks.
The historical returns attributable to our funds should not be considered indicative of the future results of our funds or of our future results or of any returns expected on an investment in our preferred units.
The historical returns attributable to our funds should not be considered indicative of the future results of our funds. Poor performance of the funds we manage will cause a decline in our revenues and would therefore have a negative effect on our operating results.
Moreover, with respect to the historical returns of our funds:
we may create new funds in the future that reflect a different asset mix and different investment strategies, as well as a varied geographic and industry exposure as compared to our present funds, and any such new funds could have different returns from our existing or previous funds;
our funds’ returns have previously benefited from investment opportunities and general market conditions that may not repeat themselves, and there can be no assurance that our current or future funds will be able to avail themselves of profitable investment opportunities;
many of our funds’ historical investments were made over a long period of time and over the course of various market and macroeconomic cycles, and the circumstances under which our current or future funds may make future investments may differ significantly from those conditions prevailing in the past;
newly established funds may generate lower returns during the period in which they initially deploy their capital;
our funds may not be able to successfully identify, make and realize upon any particular investment or generate returns for their investors; and
any material increase or decrease in the size of our funds could result in materially different rates of returns.
The future internal rate of return for any current or future fund may vary considerably from the historical internal rate of return generated by any particular fund, or for our funds as a whole. In addition, future returns will be affected by the applicable risks described elsewhere in this annual report, including risks of the industries and businesses in which a particular fund invests. Moreover, we are generally only entitled to earn one-third of the incentive income attributable to Oaktree Capital I in respect of our closed-end funds established in 2022 or later and in respect of incentive income from our evergreen funds earned subsequent to January 1, 2023.

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Certain of our funds make investments in distressed businesses that involve significant risks and potential additional liabilities.
Certain of our funds invest in obligors and issuers with weak financial conditions, poor operating results, substantial financing needs, negative net worth or significant competitive issues and/or securities that are illiquid, distressed or have other high-risk features. These funds also invest in obligors and issuers that are involved in bankruptcy or reorganization proceedings. In these situations, it may be difficult to obtain full information as to the exact financial and operating conditions of these obligors and issuers. Furthermore, some of our funds’ distressed debt investments may not be widely traded or may have no recognized market. Depending on the specific fund’s investment profile, a fund’s exposure to the investments may be substantial in relation to the market for those investments, and the acquired assets are likely to be illiquid and difficult to transfer. As a result, it may take a number of years for the market value of the investments to ultimately reflect their intrinsic value as we perceive it.
A central strategy of our opportunistic credit funds, for example, is to anticipate the occurrence of certain corporate events, such as debt or equity offerings, restructurings, reorganizations, mergers, takeover offers and other transactions. If the relevant corporate event that we anticipate is delayed, changed or never completed, the market price and value of the applicable fund’s investment could decline sharply.
In addition, these investments could subject a fund to certain potential additional liabilities that may exceed the value of its original investment. Under certain circumstances, payments or distributions on certain investments may be reclaimed if any such payment or distribution is later determined to have been a fraudulent conveyance, a preferential payment or similar transaction under applicable bankruptcy and insolvency laws. In addition, under certain circumstances, a lender that has inappropriately exercised control of the management and policies of a debtor may have its claims subordinated or disallowed or may be found liable for damages suffered by parties as a result of such actions. In the case where the investment in securities of troubled companies is made in connection with an attempt to influence a restructuring proposal or plan of reorganization in bankruptcy, the fund may become involved in substantial litigation.
Certain of our funds may be subject to risks arising from potential control group liability.
Certain of our investment funds could potentially be liable under U.S. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 ("ERISA") for the pension obligations of one or more of our portfolio companies if the investment fund were determined to be a "trade or business" under ERISA and deemed part of the same "controlled group" as the portfolio company under ERISA’s controlled group rules. While a number of cases have held that managing investments is not a “trade or business” for tax purposes, at least one federal Circuit Court has determined that a private equity fund could be a “trade or business” for ERISA controlled group liability purposes based on a number of factors, including the fund’s level of involvement in the management of its portfolio companies and the nature of its management fee arrangements. Litigation related to the Circuit Court’s decision suggests that additional factors may be relevant, including the structure of the investment and the nature of the fund’s relationship with other affiliated investors and co-investors in the portfolio company.
If any of our funds were determined to be a trade or business for purposes of ERISA controlled group liability, it is possible that pension liabilities incurred by a portfolio company could result in liability being incurred by the fund, with a resulting need for additional capital contributions, the appropriation of such fund’s assets to satisfy such pension liabilities and/or the imposition of a lien by the PBGC on certain fund assets. Moreover, regardless of whether any of our funds were determined to be a trade or business for purposes of ERISA controlled group liability, a court might hold that one of our fund’s portfolio companies is jointly and severally liable for another portfolio company’s unfunded pension liabilities pursuant to the ERISA “controlled group” rules, depending upon the relevant investment structures and ownership interests as noted above.
Poor investment performance during periods of adverse market conditions may result in relatively high levels of investor redemptions, which can exacerbate the liquidity pressures on the affected funds, force the sale of assets at distressed prices or reduce the funds’ returns.
Poor investment performance during periods of adverse market conditions, together with investors’ increased need for liquidity given adverse conditions in the credit markets during such periods, can prompt relatively high levels of investor redemptions at times when many funds may not have sufficient liquidity to satisfy some or all of their investor redemption requests. During times when market conditions are deteriorating, many funds may face additional redemption requests and/or compulsory investor withdrawals or redemptions, which will exacerbate the liquidity pressures on the affected funds. If such funds cannot satisfy their current and future redemption requests, they may be forced to sell assets at distressed prices or cease operations. Various measures taken by funds to

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improve their liquidity profiles (such as the implementation of “gates” or the suspension of redemptions) that reduce the amounts that would otherwise be paid out in response to redemption requests may have the effect of incentivizing investors to “gross up” or increase the size of the future redemption requests they make, thereby exacerbating the cycle of redemptions.
Valuation methodologies for certain assets in our funds can be subject to significant subjectivity, and the values of assets established pursuant to the methodologies may never be realized.
Our funds make investments for which market quotations are not readily available, and thus the process by which we value such investments involves inherent uncertainties. We are required by GAAP to make good faith determinations as to the fair value of these investments on a quarterly basis in connection with the preparation of our funds’ financial statements.
There is no single method for determining fair value in good faith. The types of factors that may be considered when determining the fair value of an investment in a particular company include acquisition price of the investment, discounted cash flow valuations, historical and projected operational and financial results for the company, the strengths and weaknesses of the company relative to its comparable companies, industry trends, general economic and market conditions, information with respect to offers for the investment, the size of the investment (and any associated control) and other factors deemed relevant. Because valuations of investments for which market quotations are not readily available are inherently uncertain, may fluctuate over short periods of time and may be based on estimates, determinations of fair value may differ materially from the values that would have resulted if a ready market had existed. Even if market quotations are available for our investments, the quotations may not reflect the value that we would actually be able to realize because of various factors, including the possible illiquidity associated with a large ownership position, subsequent illiquidity in the market for a company’s securities, future market price volatility or the potential for a future loss in market value based on poor industry conditions or the market’s view of overall company and management performance.
Because there is significant uncertainty in the valuation of, or in the stability of the value of, illiquid investments, the fair values of such investments as reflected in a fund’s NAV do not necessarily reflect the prices that would actually be obtained by us on behalf of the fund when such investments are sold. Sales at values significantly lower than the values at which investments have previously been reflected in a fund’s NAV may result in losses for the applicable fund and the loss of incentive income that may have been accrued by the applicable fund.
Our funds make investments in companies that are based outside the United States, which exposes us to additional risks not typically associated with investing in companies that are based in the United States.
Many of our funds invest a portion of their assets in the equity, debt, loans or other securities of issuers located outside the United States, while certain of our funds invest substantially all of their assets in these types of securities. Investments in non-U.S. securities involve certain factors not typically associated with investing in U.S. securities, including risks relating to:
our funds’ abilities to exchange local currencies for U.S. dollars and other currency exchange matters, including fluctuations in currency exchange rates and costs associated with conversion of investment principal and income from one currency into another;
controls on, and changes in controls on, foreign investment and limitations on repatriation of invested capital;
less developed or less efficient financial markets than exist in the United States, which may lead to price volatility and relative illiquidity;
the absence of uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and disclosure requirements and less government supervision and regulation;
differences in legal and regulatory environments, particularly with respect to bankruptcy and reorganization, less developed corporate laws regarding fiduciary duties and the protection of investors and less reliable judicial systems to enforce contracts and applicable law;
less publicly available information in respect of companies in non-U.S. markets;
heightened exposure to corruption risk;
certain economic and political risks, including potential exchange control regulations and restrictions on our non-U.S. investments and repatriation of capital, potential political, economic or social instability, the

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possibility of nationalization or expropriation or confiscatory taxation and adverse economic and political developments; and
the possible imposition of non-U.S. taxes or withholding on income and gains recognized with respect to the securities.
There can be no assurance that adverse developments with respect to these risks will not adversely affect our funds that invest in securities of non-U.S. issuers.
We have made and expect to continue to make significant investments in our current and future funds, and we may lose money on some or all of our investments.
We have had a practice of making significant principal investments in Oaktree funds and expect to continue to make significant principal investments in our funds and may choose to increase the amount we invest at any time. Further, from time to time we make loans or otherwise extend credit or guarantees to our funds. Contributing capital, making other investments or extending credit to these funds is risky, and we may lose some or all of our investments. Any such loss could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our funds often invest in companies that are highly leveraged, a fact that may increase the risk of loss associated with the investments.
Our funds often invest in companies whose capital structures involve significant leverage. These investments are inherently more sensitive to declines in revenues and to increases in expenses and interest rates. The leveraged capital structures of these companies place significant burdens on their cash flows and increases the exposure of our funds to adverse economic factors such as downturns in the economy or deterioration in the condition of the portfolio company or its industry. Additionally, the securities acquired by our funds may be the most junior in what could be a complex capital structure and thus subject us to the greatest risk of loss in the event of insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or bankruptcy of one of these companies.
The use of leverage by our funds could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operation and cash flow.
Some of our funds use leverage (including through credit facilities, swaps and other derivatives) as part of their respective investment programs and may borrow a substantial amount of capital. The use of leverage poses a significant degree of risk and can enhance the magnitude of a significant loss in the value of the investment portfolio. To the extent that any fund leverages its capital structure, it is subject to the risks normally associated with debt financing, including the risk that its cash flows will be insufficient to meet principal and interest payments, which could significantly reduce or even eliminate the value of such fund’s investments. In addition, the interest expense and other costs incurred in connection with such leverage may not be recovered by the appreciation in the value of any associated securities or bank debt and will be lost – and the timing and magnitude of such losses may be accelerated or exacerbated – in the event of a decline in the market value of such securities or bank debt. In addition, such funds may be subject to margin calls or acceleration in the event of a decline in the value of the posted collateral. To meet liquidity needs as a result of margin calls or acceleration, we may elect to invest additional capital into or loan money to such funds. Any such investment or loan would be subject to the risk of loss. In addition, if we were to elect to enforce our rights against any fund with respect to a loan to such fund, we may damage our relationships with our investors and have difficulty raising additional capital. Any of the foregoing circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flow.
Changes in the debt financing markets and higher interest rates may negatively impact the ability of our funds and their portfolio companies to obtain attractive financing for their investments or refinance existing debt and may increase the cost of such financing if it is obtained, leading to lower-yielding investments and potentially decreasing our incentive income and investment income.
The markets for debt financing are subject to retrenchment, resulting in more restrictive covenants or other more onerous terms (including posting additional collateral) in order to obtain financing, and in some cases lenders may refuse to provide any financing that would have been readily obtained under different credit conditions. In addition, higher interest rates generally impact the investment management industry by making it harder to obtain financing for new investments, refinance existing investments or liquidate debt investments, which can lead to reduced investment returns and missed investment opportunities.

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If our funds are unable to obtain committed debt financing or can only obtain debt at an increased interest rate or on other less advantageous terms, such funds’ investment activities may be restricted and their profits may be lower than they would otherwise have achieved, either of which could lead to a decrease in the incentive and investment income earned by us. Similarly, the portfolio companies owned by our funds regularly utilize the corporate debt markets to obtain financing for their operations. To the extent that credit markets render such financing difficult or more expensive to obtain, the operating performance of those portfolio companies and therefore the investment returns on our funds may be negatively impacted. In addition, to the extent that the then-current markets make it difficult or impossible to refinance debt or extend maturities on outstanding debt, a portfolio company may be unable to repay such debt at maturity and may be forced to sell assets, undergo a recapitalization or seek bankruptcy protection. Any of the foregoing circumstances could impair the value of our funds’ investments in those portfolio companies and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flow.
Our funds are subject to risks in using prime brokers, custodians, counterparties, administrators, other agents and third-party service providers.
Many of our funds depend on the services of prime brokers, custodians, counterparties, administrators and other agents and third-party service providers to carry out certain securities and derivatives transactions and other business functions. The terms of these contracts are often customized and complex, and many of these arrangements occur in markets or relate to products that are subject to limited or no regulatory oversight. In particular, some of our funds utilize prime brokerage arrangements with a relatively limited number of counterparties, which has the effect of concentrating the transaction volume (and related counterparty default risk) of such funds with these counterparties.
Our funds are subject to the risk that the counterparty to one or more of these contracts defaults, either voluntarily or involuntarily, on its performance under the contract. Any such default may occur suddenly and without notice to us. Moreover, if a counterparty defaults, we may be unable to take action to cover our exposure, either because we lack contractual recourse or because market conditions make it difficult to take effective action. This inability could occur in times of market stress, which is when defaults are most likely to occur.
In addition, risk-management models that we may employ from time to time may not accurately anticipate the impact of market stress or counterparty financial condition, and as a result, we may not have taken sufficient action to reduce our risks effectively. Default risk may arise from events or circumstances that are difficult to detect, foresee or evaluate. In addition, concerns about, or a default by, one large participant could lead to significant liquidity problems for other participants, which may in turn expose us to significant losses.
In the event of a counterparty default, particularly a default by a major investment bank, one or more of our funds could incur material losses, and the resulting market impact of a major counterparty default could harm our business, results of operation and financial condition.
In the event of the insolvency of a prime broker, custodian, counterparty or any other party that is holding assets of our funds as collateral, our funds might not be able to recover equivalent assets in full as they will rank among the prime broker’s, custodian’s or counterparty’s unsecured creditors in relation to the assets held as collateral. In addition, our funds’ cash held with a prime broker, custodian or counterparty generally will not be segregated from the prime broker’s, custodian’s or counterparty’s own cash, and our funds may therefore rank as unsecured creditors in relation thereto.
Risks Relating to Our Preferred Units
The market price of our preferred units could be adversely affected by various factors.
The market price for the preferred units may fluctuate based on a number of factors, including:
variations in our quarterly operating results or distributions, which may be substantial;
the incurrence of additional indebtedness or additional issuances of other series or classes of preferred units;
whether we declare or fail to declare distributions on the preferred units from time to time and our ability to make distributions under the terms of our indebtedness;
the credit ratings of the preferred units;

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a lack of liquidity in the trading of our preferred units (including, if the preferred units are voluntarily or involuntarily delisted from the NYSE);
the prevailing interest rates or rates of return being paid by other companies similar to us and the market for similar securities; and
general market, political and economic conditions.
Our performance, market conditions and prevailing interest rates have fluctuated in the past and can be expected to fluctuate in the future. Fluctuations in these factors could have an adverse effect on the price and liquidity of the preferred units. In general, as market interest rates rise, securities with fixed interest rates or fixed distribution rates, such as the preferred units, decline in value. Consequently, if you purchase the preferred units and market interest rates increase, the market price of the preferred units may decline. We cannot predict the future level of market interest rates.
Our ability to pay quarterly distributions on the preferred units will be subject to, among other things, general business conditions, our financial results, restrictions under the terms of our existing and future indebtedness or senior units, and our liquidity needs. Any reduction or discontinuation of quarterly distributions could cause the market price of the preferred units to decline significantly. Accordingly, the preferred units may trade at a discount to their purchase price.
If we, including any service organizations that we use, fail to maintain effective internal controls over our financial reporting in the future, the accuracy and timing of our financial reporting may be adversely affected.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that as a public company we maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. We are required under Section 404 to provide an annual management assessment of the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. Following the 2019 Restructuring, we are no longer required to include in our annual reports an opinion from our independent registered public accounting firm addressing its assessment of such controls. To maintain and improve the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures, significant resources and management oversight are required. We have implemented and continue to implement additional procedures and processes for the purpose of addressing the standards and requirements applicable to public companies.
If it is determined that we are not in compliance with Section 404 in the future, we would be required to implement remedial procedures and re-evaluate our internal controls over financial reporting and our operations, financial reporting or financial results could be adversely affected. Matters impacting our internal controls may cause us to be unable to report our financial information on a timely basis and thereby subject us to adverse regulatory consequences, including sanctions by the SEC, or violations of applicable stock exchange listing rules. Moreover, if a material misstatement occurs, we may need to restate our financial results and there could be a negative reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of investor confidence in us and the reliability of our financial statements. This could materially adversely affect us and lead to a decline in the market price of our preferred units.
Preparing our consolidated financial statements involves a number of complex manual and automated processes, which are dependent on individual data input or review and require significant management judgment. One or more of these elements may result in errors that may not be detected and could result in a material misstatement of our consolidated financial statements.
Distributions on the preferred units are discretionary and non-cumulative.
Distributions on each of the Series A preferred units and Series B preferred units are discretionary and non-cumulative. Holders of each series of our preferred units will only receive distributions when, as and if declared by our board of directors. Consequently, if the board of directors does not authorize and declare a distribution for a distribution period, holders of each of our preferred units would not be entitled to receive any distribution for such distribution period, and such unpaid distribution will not be payable in such distribution period or in later distribution periods. We will have no obligation to pay distributions for a distribution period if our board of directors does not declare such distribution before the scheduled record date for such period, whether or not distributions are declared or paid for any subsequent distribution period with respect to our outstanding preferred units or any other preferred units we may issue in the future. This may result in holders of our preferred units not receiving the full amount of distributions that they expect to receive, or any distributions, and may make it more difficult to resell our preferred units, or to do so at a price that the holder finds attractive. Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, determine to suspend distributions on our outstanding preferred units, which may have a material adverse effect on

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the market price of those units. There can be no assurances that our operations will generate sufficient cash flows to enable us to pay distributions on our preferred units. Our financial and operating performance is subject to prevailing economic and industry conditions and to financial, business and other factors, some of which are beyond our control.
Risks Relating to Our Organization and Structure
We have an indirect economic interest in only a portion of the earnings and cash flows of the Oaktree Operating Group, which may negatively impact our ability to pay distributions on our preferred units.
Following the 2022 Restructuring, the only entity within the Oaktree Operating Group in which we have an indirect economic interest is Oaktree Capital I. Please see “Item 1. Business—Structure and Operation of our Business.” We have no material assets other than the ownership of the indirect economic interests in Oaktree Capital I.
Because we derive, and expect to continue to derive, a substantial portion of our revenue and cash flows from our indirect economic interests in Oaktree Capital I, our success depends on the performance of Oaktree Capital I irrespective of the performance of the Oaktree Operating Group as a whole. Additionally, subsequent to the 2022 Restructuring, we no longer earn management fees or subadvisory fees from our funds or our affiliates, and we are generally only entitled to earn one-third of the incentive income attributable to Oaktree Capital I in respect of our closed-end funds established in 2022 or later and in respect of incentive income from our evergreen funds earned subsequent to January 1, 2023.
We have subscribed for a limited partner interest in, and made a capital commitment of, $750 million to Oaktree Opportunities Fund XI, L.P., a parallel investment vehicle thereof or a feeder fund in respect of one of the foregoing (such limited partner interest, the “Opps XI Investment” and such fund entities collectively, “Opps XI”). In order to fund the Opps XI Investment, our sole Class A unitholder, or one of its affiliates, will contribute cash as a capital contribution (the “Opps XI Investment Cash”) as and to the extent required to satisfy our obligations to Opps XI. We will use the Opps XI Investment Cash solely to fund the Opps XI Investment and satisfy our obligations in respect of Opps XI. Distributions from the Opps XI Investment are intended for the benefit of the Class A unitholder, subject to applicable law. Our preferred unitholders should not rely on distributions received by us in respect of our Opps XI Investment for payment of distributions on or redemption of the preferred units. As of December 31, 2023, the Company has funded in the aggregate $637.5 million of the $750 million capital commitment.
In addition, we have subscribed for a limited partner interest in, and made a capital commitment of, $750 million to Oaktree Opportunities Fund XII, L.P., a parallel investment vehicle thereof or a feeder fund in respect of one of the foregoing (such limited partner interest, the “Opps XII Investment” and such fund entities collectively, “Opps XII”). In order to fund the Opps XII Investment, our sole Class A unitholder, or one of its affiliates, will contribute cash as a capital contribution (the “Opps XII Investment Cash”) as and to the extent required to satisfy our obligations to Opps XII. We will use the Opps XII Investment Cash solely to fund the Opps XII Investment and satisfy our obligations in respect of Opps XII. Distributions from the Opps XII Investment are intended for the benefit of the Class A unitholder, subject to applicable law. Our preferred unitholders should not rely on distributions received by us in respect of our Opps XII Investment for payment of distributions on or redemption of the preferred units. As of December 31, 2023, the Company has not funded any of its capital commitment.
There can be no assurances that the distributions we receive from Oaktree Capital I will generate sufficient cash flows to enable us to pay distributions on our preferred units.
If we or any of our private funds were deemed an investment company under the Investment Company Act, applicable restrictions could make it impractical for us to continue our business or such funds as contemplated and could have a material adverse effect on our business.
A person will generally be deemed to be an “investment company” for purposes of the Investment Company Act if:
it is or holds itself out as being engaged primarily, or proposes to engage primarily, in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities; or
absent an applicable exemption, it owns or proposes to acquire investment securities having a value exceeding 40% of the value of its total assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis.
We believe that we are engaged primarily in the business of providing asset management services and not primarily in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities. We also believe that the primary source of

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income from our business is properly characterized as income earned in exchange for the provision of services. We hold ourselves out as an asset management firm and do not propose to engage primarily in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities. Accordingly, we do not believe that we are an investment company under the Investment Company Act.
The Investment Company Act and the rules thereunder contain detailed parameters for the organization and operation of investment companies. Among other things, the Investment Company Act and the rules thereunder limit or prohibit transactions with affiliates, impose limitations on the issuance of debt and equity securities, generally prohibit the issuance of options and impose certain governance requirements. We intend to conduct our operations so that we will not be deemed to be an investment company under the Investment Company Act. While we do advise or sub-advise funds that are registered under the Investment Company Act, we operate our private funds so that they are not deemed to be investment companies that are required to be registered under the Investment Company Act. If anything were to happen that would cause us to be deemed to be an investment company under the Investment Company Act or that would require us to register our private funds under the Investment Company Act, requirements imposed by the Investment Company Act, including limitations on capital structure, ability to transact business with affiliates and ability to compensate senior employees, could make it impractical for us to continue our business or the private funds as currently conducted, impair the agreements and arrangements between and among OCGH, us, our private funds and our senior management, or any combination thereof, and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we may be required to limit the amount of investments that we make as a principal or otherwise conduct our business in a manner that does not subject us to the registration and other requirements of the Investment Company Act.
Our operating agreement contains provisions that substantially limit remedies available to our preferred unitholders for actions that might otherwise result in liability for our officers and/or directors.
While our operating agreement provides that our officers and directors have fiduciary duties equivalent to those applicable to officers and directors of a Delaware corporation under the Delaware General Corporation Law, the agreement also provides that our officers and directors are liable to us or our unitholders for an act or omission only if such act or omission constitutes a breach of the duties owed to us or our unitholders, as applicable, by any such officer or director and such breach is the result of willful malfeasance, gross negligence, the commission of a felony or a material violation of law, in each case, that has, or could reasonably be expected to have, a material adverse effect on us or fraud. Moreover, we have agreed to indemnify each of our directors and officers, to the fullest extent permitted by law, against all expenses and liabilities (including judgments, fines, penalties, interest, amounts paid in settlement with our approval and counsel fees and disbursements) arising from the performance of any of their obligations or duties in connection with their service to us, including in connection with any civil, criminal, administrative, investigative or other action, suit or proceeding to which any such person may be made party by reason of being or having been one of our directors or officers, except for any expenses or liabilities that have been finally judicially determined to have arisen primarily from acts or omissions that violated the standard set forth in the preceding sentence. Furthermore, our operating agreement provides that OCGH does not have any liability to us or our other unitholders for any act or omission and is indemnified in connection therewith.
Under our operating agreement, each of our directors and us is entitled, subject to certain consent rights, to take actions or make decisions in its “sole discretion” or “discretion” or that it deems “necessary or appropriate” or “necessary or advisable.” In those circumstances, each of our directors or us is entitled to consider only such interests and factors as it desires, including our own or our directors’ interests, and neither it nor our board of directors has any duty or obligation (fiduciary or otherwise) to give any consideration to any interest of or factors affecting us or any unitholders, and neither we nor our board of directors is subject to any different standards imposed by our operating agreement, the Act or under any other law, rule or regulation or in equity, except that we must act in good faith at all times. These modifications of fiduciary duties are expressly permitted by Delaware law. These modifications are detrimental to our unitholders because they restrict the remedies available to them for actions that without those limitations might constitute breaches of duty (including fiduciary duty).
Our ability to make distributions to holders of any series of preferred units may be limited by our holding company structure, applicable provisions of Delaware law, contractual restrictions and the terms of any senior securities we may issue in the future.
We are a limited liability holding company and have no material assets other than the indirect ownership of interests in Oaktree Capital I. We have no independent means of generating revenues. In connection with the issuance of our preferred units, we caused Oaktree Capital I to issue ”mirror” preferred units to a holding company in which we indirectly own an interest to correspond with each series of our preferred units. The terms of the mirror

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preferred units state that, subject to certain exceptions, no distributions may be declared or paid with respect to the common units of Oaktree Capital I until distributions have been declared and paid or declared and set aside with respect to each series of mirror preferred units and the series of our preferred units to which they correspond. Accordingly, our ability to receive distributions from Oaktree Capital I may be impaired to the extent we have not declared and paid or declared and set aside distributions on each series of mirror preferred units and each series of preferred units.
Under the Act, we may not make a distribution to a member if, after the distribution, all our liabilities, other than liabilities to members on account of their limited liability company interests and liabilities for which the recourse of creditors is limited to specific property of the limited liability company, would exceed the fair value of our assets. If we were to make such an impermissible distribution, any member who received a distribution and knew at the time of the distribution that the distribution was in violation of the Act would be liable to us for three years for the amount of the distribution. In addition, Oaktree Capital I’s cash flow may be insufficient to enable it to make required minimum tax distributions to holders of its units, in which case it may have to borrow funds or sell assets and thus our liquidity and financial condition could be materially adversely affected. Our operating agreement contains provisions authorizing the issuance of preferred units in us by our board of directors at any time without unitholder approval.
Risks Relating to United States Taxation
If the amount of distributions on the preferred units is greater than our gross ordinary income, then the amount that a holder of preferred units would receive upon liquidation may be less than the preferred unit liquidation value.
In general, to the extent of our gross ordinary income in any taxable year, we will specially allocate to the preferred units items of our gross ordinary income in an amount equal to the distributions paid in respect of the preferred units during the taxable year. Similar allocations will be made with respect to any equity securities we issue in the future that rank equally with the preferred units. Allocations of gross ordinary income will increase the capital account balances of the holders of the preferred units. Distributions will correspondingly reduce the capital account balances of the holders of the preferred units. So long as our gross ordinary income equals or exceeds the distributions paid to the holders of the preferred units, the capital account balances of the holders of the preferred units with respect to the preferred units will equal the aggregate preferred unit liquidation value at the end of each taxable year. If the distributions paid in respect of the preferred units in a taxable year exceed our gross ordinary income, items of our gross ordinary income will be allocated to the preferred units pro-rata based on the amount of distributions paid in respect of the preferred units in such taxable year. If the distributions paid in respect of the preferred units in a taxable year exceed the proportionate share of our gross ordinary income allocated in respect of the preferred units for such year, the capital account balances of the holders of the preferred units with respect to the preferred units will be reduced below the aggregate preferred unit liquidation value by the amount of such excess. In that event, we will allocate additional gross ordinary income, to the extent available in any taxable year, in subsequent years until such excess is eliminated. If we were to have insufficient gross ordinary income to eliminate such excess, holders of preferred units would be entitled, upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, to less than the aggregate preferred unit liquidation value. In addition, to the extent that we make additional allocations of gross ordinary income in a taxable year to eliminate such excess from prior years, the gross ordinary income allocated to holders of the preferred units in such taxable year would exceed the distributions paid to the preferred units during such taxable year. In such taxable year, holders of preferred units may recognize taxable income in respect of their investments in the preferred units in excess of our cash distributions, thus giving rise to an out-of-pocket tax liability for such holders. Future issuances of equity securities that rank equally with the preferred units could increase the likelihood that the capital account balances of holders of the preferred units decrease below the aggregate preferred unit liquidation value and holders of preferred units bear an out-of-pocket tax liability in future taxable years.
Holders of preferred units who are U.S. taxpayers should anticipate the need to file annually a request for an extension of the due date of their income tax return. In addition, it is possible that holders of preferred units may be required to file amended income tax returns.
Holders of preferred units are required to take into account items of gross ordinary income that are allocated to them for our taxable year ending within or with their taxable year. It may require a substantial period of time after the end of our fiscal year to obtain the requisite information from all lower-tier entities so that tax information (including IRS Schedules K-1) may be prepared by us. For this reason, holders of preferred units who are U.S. taxpayers should anticipate the need to file annually with the IRS (and certain states) a request for an extension

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past the applicable due date of their income tax return for the taxable year. Because holders of our preferred units will be required to report the items of gross income that are allocated to them, tax reporting for such holders will generally be more complicated than for shareholders of a corporation. In addition, it is possible that a holder of preferred units will be required to file amended income tax returns as a result of adjustments to items on the corresponding income tax returns of the Company. Any obligation for a holder of preferred units to file amended income tax returns for that or any other reason, including any costs incurred in the preparation or filing of such returns, is the responsibility of each holder of preferred units.
An investment in preferred units will give rise to UBTI to certain tax-exempt holders.
We will make investments through entities classified as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes in “debt-financed” property and, thus, an investment in preferred units will give rise to unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”) to tax-exempt holders of preferred units. Moreover, if the IRS successfully asserts that we are engaged in a trade or business, then additional amounts of income could be treated as UBTI. Tax-exempt holders of our preferred units are strongly urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the tax consequences of owning our preferred units. Because we are under no obligation to minimize UBTI, tax-exempt U.S. holders of preferred units should consult their own tax advisers regarding all aspects of UBTI.
Non-U.S. holders face unique U.S. tax issues from owning preferred units that may result in adverse tax consequences to them.
In light of our investment activities, we may be, or may become, engaged in a U.S. trade or business for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in which case some portion of our income would be treated as effectively connected income, or “ECI,” with respect to non-U.S. holders of our preferred units. Moreover, dividends paid by real estate investment trust, or “REIT,” investments that are attributable to gains from the sale of U.S. real property interests may be treated as ECI with respect to non-U.S. holders of our preferred units. In addition, certain income of non-U.S. holders from U.S. sources not connected to any U.S. trade or business conducted by us could be treated as ECI. We may earn ECI and/or income treated as ECI. To the extent our income is treated as ECI, each non-U.S. holder generally would be subject to withholding tax on distributions attributable to such income, would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return for such year reporting such income effectively connected with such trade or business and any other income treated as ECI, and would be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular U.S. tax rates on any such income (state and local income taxes and filings may also apply in that event). Non-U.S. holders that are corporations may also be subject to a 30% branch profits tax (potentially reduced under an applicable tax treaty) on their allocable share of such income. In addition, if we are treated as being engaged in a U.S. trade or business, a portion of any gain recognized by non-U.S. holders on the sale or exchange of preferred units may be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as ECI. Consequently, such non-U.S. holders could be subject to U.S. federal income tax and branch profits tax on the sale or exchange of preferred units. In certain circumstances, for transfers on or after January 1, 2022, the transferee of such preferred units (or a broker through which the transfer is effected) may be required to deduct and withhold a tax equal to 10% of the amount realized (or deemed realized) on the sale or exchange of such preferred units, or such other amount as is specified in the Treasury Regulations. Because this guidance is recent, it is unclear how this provision may impact transfers of preferred units in the future. In addition, certain income from U.S. sources that is not ECI allocable to non-U.S. holders may be subject to withholding taxes imposed at the highest effective applicable tax rate. Non-U.S. holders of our preferred units are strongly urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the tax consequences of owning our preferred units.
Holders of preferred units may be subject to state and local taxes and return filing requirements as a result of investing in our preferred units.
In addition to U.S. federal income taxes, holders of our preferred units may be subject to other taxes, including state and local taxes, unincorporated business taxes and estate, inheritance or intangible taxes that are imposed by the various jurisdictions in which we do business or own property now or in the future, even if the holders of our preferred units do not reside in any of those jurisdictions. Holders of our preferred units may also be required to file state and local income tax returns and pay state and local income taxes in some or all of these jurisdictions. Further, holders of our preferred units may be subject to penalties for failure to comply with those requirements. It is the responsibility of each unitholder to file all U.S. federal, state and local tax returns that may be required of such unitholder.

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Amounts distributed in respect of the preferred units could be treated as “guaranteed payments” for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
The treatment of interests in a partnership such as the preferred units and the payments received in respect of such interests is uncertain. The IRS may contend that payments on the preferred units represent “guaranteed payments,” which would generally be treated as ordinary income and may not have the same character when received by a holder as our gross ordinary income had when earned by us. If distributions on the preferred units are treated as “guaranteed payments,” a holder’s taxable income would be equal to the guaranteed payment accrued or received, regardless of the amount of our gross ordinary income. Our limited liability company agreement provides that we and all holders agree to treat payments made in respect of the preferred units as other than guaranteed payments. Potential holders of preferred units are encouraged to consult their own tax advisors regarding the treatment of payments on the preferred units as “guaranteed payments.”
Holders of preferred units who do not hold the units through the record date for a distribution may be allocated gross ordinary income even though no distribution is received.
While distributions (if any) with respect to preferred units will be made on a quarterly basis, under the allocation methodology we have adopted we will prorate the total amount of gross ordinary income allocated to preferred units for a taxable year among holders of the preferred units on a monthly basis. As a result, a holder of a preferred unit who does not hold the preferred unit through the record date for a distribution may be allocated gross ordinary income even though no distribution is received. Holders of preferred units will remain liable for any income taxes associated with allocations of gross ordinary income even if they do not receive a distribution with respect to their preferred units or if the amount of such allocations exceed the amount of distributions they receive with respect to their preferred units. Any such gross ordinary income allocation will increase the holder’s adjusted basis in its preferred units.

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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 1C. Cybersecurity
Oaktree maintains a cyber risk management program designed to identify, assess, manage, mitigate, and respond to cybersecurity threats. This program is integrated into Oaktree’s overall risk management processes and focuses on the corporate information technology environment.
The underlying controls of the cyber risk management program are designed to meet Oaktree’s business requirements, security risks and organization profile, and leverages many elements of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) Cybersecurity Framework (“CSF”) and the International Organization Standardization (“ISO”) 27001 Information Security Management System Requirements. The Internal Audit team conducts an annual internal audit of the Company’s cyber risk management program utilizing the services of a third-party provider. Additionally, Oaktree hires a third party provider to conduct an annual penetration test of Oaktree's systems. Oaktree has developed and implemented controls and processes to oversee and manage its engagements with third-party vendors. These procedures encompass pre-engagement due diligence efforts and the ongoing monitoring of the third-party vendors that are considered to be high-risk. Although these controls and processes are designed to mitigate risks associated with third-party engagements, they do not guarantee the elimination of all potential risks. The effectiveness of these controls and processes is dependent on a variety of factors, some of which are outside our control.
A third party Managed Security Service Provider (MSSP) manages Oaktree’s Security Operations Center to provide 24/7 monitoring of its global systems and to coordinate the investigation of alerts of potential security incidents. Alerts are then escalated to the Oaktree Cybersecurity team for investigation and remediation, if necessary. Cyber partners are a key part of Oaktree’s cybersecurity infrastructure. Oaktree partners with leading cybersecurity companies and organizations, leveraging third-party technology and expertise. Oaktree engages with these partners to monitor and maintain the performance and effectiveness of products and services that are deployed in Oaktree’s environment. A Managing Director in Oaktree’s information technology department heads Oaktree’s cybersecurity team. This individual reports to Oaktree’s Chief Information Officer. and is responsible for assessing and managing Oaktree’s cyber risk management program, informs senior management regarding the prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents and supervises such efforts. The cybersecurity team has decades of collective experience selecting, deploying and operating cybersecurity technologies, initiatives and processes and relies on threat intelligence as well as other information obtained from governmental, public and private sources, including external consultants engaged by Oaktree.
The head of Oaktree’s cybersecurity team has substantial information technology and cybersecurity experience, with a career spanning over 30 years in managing global IT operations in a wide range of areas, including, but not limited to, cybersecurity, IT governance, controls, compliance, data center operations, network engineering and cloud computing.
The audit committee of the board of directors oversees Oaktree’s cybersecurity program. The cybersecurity team briefs the audit committee on the effectiveness of Oaktree’s cyber risk management program. The Internal Audit team also shares the results of its annual cybersecurity audits with the audit committee.

Oaktree faces risks from cybersecurity threats that could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or reputation. Oaktree has experienced, and will continue to experience, cyber incidents in the normal course of its business. However, we are not currently aware of any current or past cyberattacks or other incidents that, individually or in the aggregate, have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, Oaktree’s business, business strategy, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows. See “Risk Factors – Risks Relating to Our Business – Oaktree’s failure to maintain the security of its information and technology networks, including personal data and client information, intellectual property and proprietary business information could have a material adverse effect on us.”










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Item 2. Properties
Properties
We do not directly own or lease any real property. Our principal executive offices are located in office space leased by OCM at 333 South Grand Avenue, 28th Floor, Los Angeles, California 90071. OCM also leases office space in New York City, Stamford, Dallas and Houston. OCM Cayman leases office space in London, Frankfurt, Luxembourg, Beijing, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Seoul, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo, Dubai, Mumbai and Stockholm. Certain affiliates of our managed funds lease office space in Amsterdam, Luxembourg and Dublin. We consider our facilities to be suitable and adequate for the management and operation of our business.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
For a discussion of legal proceedings, please see the section entitled Legal Actions in note 17 to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report, which section is incorporated herein by reference.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
None.

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PART II.
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Our Class A units are not listed on a securities exchange. The number of holders of record of our Class A units as of March 19, 2024 was one.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
The following table sets forth information concerning the awards that may be issued under the 2011 Plan as of December 31, 2023.
Plan Category
Number of Securities to be Issued Upon Exercise of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights (1)
Weighted-Average Exercise Price of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights
Number of Securities Remaining Available for Future Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans (excluding securities reflected in column (a)) (2)
(a)(b)(c)
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders19,782,993 — 4,217,434 
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders— — — 
Total (3)
19,782,993 — 4,217,434 
(1)    Reflects the aggregate number of OCGH units, Class A units, OEP units, phantom units and EVUs granted under the 2011 Plan as of December 31, 2023.
(2)    The 2011 Plan provides that the maximum number of Units that may be delivered pursuant to awards under the 2011 Plan is 22,300,000, as increased on January 1 of each year beginning in 2012 by a number of Units equal to the excess of (a) 15% of the number of outstanding Oaktree Operating Group units on December 31 of the immediately preceding year over (b) the number of Oaktree Operating Group units that have been issued or are issuable under the 2011 Plan as of such date, except that our board of directors may, in its discretion, increase the number of Units covered by the 2011 Plan by a lesser amount. The issuance of Units or the payment of cash upon the exercise of an award or in consideration of the cancellation or termination of an award will reduce the total number of Units available under the 2011 Plan, as applicable. Units underlying awards under the 2011 Plan that are forfeited, cancelled, expire unexercised or are settled in cash will be available again to be used as awards under the 2011 Plan. However, Units used to pay the required exercise price or tax obligations, or Units not issued in connection with the settlement of an award or that are used or withheld to satisfy tax obligations of a participant, will not be available again for other awards under the 2011 Plan.
(3)    As of December 31, 2023, 4,929,054 OCGH units have been granted under the 2007 Plan. However, such amounts are not reflected in this table because our board of directors has resolved that the administrator of the 2007 Plan will no longer grant awards under the 2007 Plan.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Purchases of Equity Securities in the Fourth Quarter of 2023
None.

Item 6. [Reserved]



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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements of Brookfield Oaktree Holdings, LLC and the related notes included within this annual report. For a discussion and analysis of historical periods ended before January 1, 2022, please refer to “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties and assumptions relating to our operations, financial results, financial condition, business prospects, growth strategy and liquidity. The factors listed under “Risk Factors” and “Forward-Looking Statements” in this annual report provide examples of risks, uncertainties and events that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the expectations described in any forward-looking statements.

Business Overview
Oaktree is a leading global alternative investment management firm with expertise in investing in credit, real assets, private equity, and listed equities. Oaktree’s mission is to deliver superior investment results with risk under control and to conduct its business with the highest integrity. Oaktree emphasizes an opportunistic, value-oriented and risk-controlled approach to its investments. Over more than three decades, Oaktree has developed a large and growing client base through its ability to identify and capitalize on opportunities for attractive investment returns in less efficient markets.
Oaktree was formed in 1995 by a group of individuals who had been investing together since the mid-1980s. Oaktree’s founders were pioneers in the management of high yield bonds, convertible securities and distressed debt. From those roots Oaktree has developed a diversified mix of specialized credit- and equity-oriented strategies. Oaktree operates according to a unifying investment philosophy, which consists of six tenets-risk control, consistency, market inefficiency, specialization, bottom-up analysis and disavowal of market timing-and is complemented by a set of core business principles that articulate our commitment to excellence in investing, commonality of interests with clients, a collaborative and cooperative culture, and a disciplined, opportunistic approach to the expansion of products.
The Company’s current ownership and operational structure were the results of the Mergers with Brookfield, the 2019 Restructuring and the 2022 Restructuring. See Part I, Item I included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on March 2, 2020 for more information regarding the Mergers and the 2019 Restructuring. See Item 1.01 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on December 6, 2022 and Part I, Item I included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 filed with the SEC on March 21, 2023 for more information about the 2022 Restructuring. During the second quarter of 2024, the 2024 Restructuring is expected to be effected. See Item 8.01 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 5, 2024 for more information about the 2024 Restructuring.
OCM provides certain administrative and other services relating to the operations of the Company’s business pursuant to the Services Agreement between the Company and OCM.
Business Environment and Developments
As a global investment manager, Oaktree is affected by a wide range of factors, including the condition of the global economy and financial markets; the relative attractiveness of Oaktree’s investment strategies and investors’ demand for them; and regulatory or other governmental policies or actions. Global economic conditions can significantly impact the values of Oaktree’s and its funds’ investments and the ability to make new investments or sell existing investments for these funds. Historically, however, Oaktree’s diversified nature, of both its investment strategies and revenue mix, has generally allowed it to benefit from both strong and weak economic environments. Weak economies and the declining financial markets that typically accompany them tend to dampen revenues from asset-based management fees, investment realizations or price appreciation, but their prospect can present opportunities to raise relatively larger amounts of capital for certain strategies, especially opportunistic credit. Additionally, weak financial markets may also present more opportunities for funds to make investments at reduced prices. Conversely, strong financial markets generally increase the value of fund investments, which positions Oaktree for growth in management fees that are based on asset value, and typically create favorable exit opportunities that enhance the prospect for incentive income and fund-related realized investment income proceeds for Oaktree and us. Those same markets may delay or diminish opportunities to deploy capital and thus management fees paid to Oaktree from certain funds.

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The failures of three U.S. commercial banks (First Republic, Silicon Valley Bank and Signature Bank) in 2023 have raised concerns about institutions with concentrated exposure to certain types of depositors in the same industry as well as those with large unrealized losses in their investment security holdings. While the Company does not have any direct exposure to the failed banks, our cash is held with various third-party financial institutions. In particular, our cash is generally held with a large, global systemically important bank, typically in balances that exceed the current FDIC insurance limits. If the banks that we hold our deposits with enter receivership or become insolvent, we may be prevented from accessing our cash and cash equivalents in excess of FDIC insured limits. Oaktree’s credit facility is with a syndicate of large global banks, i