Company Quick10K Filing
Owens Corning
Price60.56 EPS5
Shares110 P/E13
MCap6,662 P/FCF11
Net Debt3,145 EBIT793
TEV9,807 TEV/EBIT12
TTM 2019-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios
10-K 2020-12-31 Filed 2021-02-17
10-Q 2020-09-30 Filed 2020-10-28
10-Q 2020-06-30 Filed 2020-07-29
10-Q 2020-03-31 Filed 2020-04-29
10-K 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-02-19
10-Q 2019-09-30 Filed 2019-10-23
10-Q 2019-06-30 Filed 2019-07-24
10-Q 2019-03-31 Filed 2019-04-24
10-K 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-02-20
10-Q 2018-09-30 Filed 2018-10-24
10-Q 2018-06-30 Filed 2018-07-25
10-Q 2018-03-31 Filed 2018-04-25
10-K 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-02-21
10-Q 2017-09-30 Filed 2017-10-25
10-Q 2017-06-30 Filed 2017-07-26
10-Q 2017-03-31 Filed 2017-04-26
10-K 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-02-08
10-Q 2016-09-30 Filed 2016-10-26
10-Q 2016-06-30 Filed 2016-07-27
10-Q 2016-03-31 Filed 2016-04-27
10-K 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-02-10
10-Q 2015-09-30 Filed 2015-10-21
10-Q 2015-06-30 Filed 2015-07-22
10-Q 2015-03-31 Filed 2015-04-22
10-K 2014-12-31 Filed 2015-02-11
10-Q 2014-09-30 Filed 2014-10-22
10-Q 2014-06-30 Filed 2014-07-23
10-Q 2014-03-31 Filed 2014-04-23
10-K 2013-12-31 Filed 2014-02-12
10-Q 2013-09-30 Filed 2013-10-23
10-Q 2013-06-30 Filed 2013-07-24
10-Q 2013-03-31 Filed 2013-04-24
10-K 2012-12-31 Filed 2013-02-20
10-Q 2012-09-30 Filed 2012-10-24
10-Q 2012-06-30 Filed 2012-08-01
10-Q 2012-03-31 Filed 2012-04-25
10-K 2011-12-31 Filed 2012-02-15
10-Q 2011-09-30 Filed 2011-10-26
10-Q 2011-06-30 Filed 2011-08-03
10-Q 2011-03-31 Filed 2011-04-27
10-K 2010-12-31 Filed 2011-02-16
10-Q 2010-09-30 Filed 2010-10-27
10-Q 2010-06-30 Filed 2010-08-04
10-Q 2010-03-31 Filed 2010-04-28
10-K 2009-12-31 Filed 2010-02-17
8-K 2020-10-28
8-K 2020-09-16
8-K 2020-08-06
8-K 2020-07-29
8-K 2020-05-07
8-K 2020-04-29
8-K 2020-04-16
8-K 2020-02-19
8-K 2019-12-05
8-K 2019-10-23
8-K 2019-10-10
8-K 2019-09-18
8-K 2019-08-12
8-K 2019-07-24
8-K 2019-07-01
8-K 2019-06-19
8-K 2019-04-24
8-K 2019-04-18
8-K 2019-04-08
8-K 2019-02-20
8-K 2019-02-06
8-K 2019-01-03
8-K 2018-10-24
8-K 2018-07-30
8-K 2018-07-25
8-K 2018-05-04
8-K 2018-04-25
8-K 2018-03-28
8-K 2018-02-21
8-K 2018-02-01
8-K 2018-02-01
8-K 2018-01-25
8-K 2018-01-23

OC 10K Annual Report

Part I
Item 1.Business
Item 1A.Risk Factors
Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2.Properties
Item 3.Legal Proceedings
Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5.Market for Owens Corning's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6.Selected Financial Data
Item 7.Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8.Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9.Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A.Controls and Procedures
Item 9B.Other Information
Part III
Item 10.Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11.Executive Compensation
Item 12.Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13.Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, Director Independence
Item 14.Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15.Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16.Form 10 - K Summary
EX-10.16 oc-20201231x10kxex1016.htm
EX-10.17 oc-20201231xex1017.htm
EX-10.30 oc-20201231x10kxex1030.htm
EX-10.32 oc_20201231-10kxex1032.htm
EX-21.1 oc-20201231x10kxex211.htm
EX-23.1 oc-20201231x10kxex231.htm
EX-31.1 oc-20201231x10kxex311.htm
EX-31.2 oc-20201231x10kxex312.htm
EX-32.1 oc-20201231x10kxex321.htm
EX-32.2 oc-20201231x10kxex322.htm

Owens Corning Earnings 2020-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
151296302012201420172020
Assets, Equity
2.01.61.20.70.3-0.12012201420172020
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
1.30.80.3-0.3-0.8-1.32012201420172020
Ops, Inv, Fin

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission File Number: 1-33100
Owens Corning
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware43-2109021
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
One Owens Corning Parkway,Toledo,OH43659
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(419) 248-8000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareOCNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  þ    No  r
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  r    No  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  þ    No  r
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  þ    No  r
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  þ      Accelerated filer  r      Non-accelerated filer  r      Smaller reporting company        Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. r
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  þ
On June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of $0.01 par value common stock (the voting stock of the registrant) held by non-affiliates (assuming for purposes of this computation only that the registrant had no affiliates) was approximately $6,023,086,936.
As of February 12, 2021, 104,926,383 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of Owens Corning’s proxy statement to be delivered to stockholders in connection with the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on or about April 15, 2021 (the “2021 Proxy Statement”) are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.




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Table of Contents
-1-
PART I

ITEM 1.BUSINESS

OVERVIEW

Owens Corning is a global building and industrial materials leader that manufactures and delivers a broad range of high-quality insulation, roofing, and fiberglass composite materials. Its insulation products conserve energy and improve acoustics, fire resistance and air quality in the spaces where people live, work and play. Its roofing products and systems enhance curb appeal of people’s homes and protect homes and commercial buildings alike. Its fiberglass composites make thousands of products lighter, stronger, and more durable. In short, the Company provides innovative products and solutions that deliver a material difference to its customers and, ultimately, makes the world a better place.

The business is global in scope, with operations in 33 countries, and human in scale, with approximately 19,000 employees and longstanding, local relationships with its customers. Based in Toledo, Ohio, Owens Corning recorded net sales in 2020 of $7.1 billion. Founded in 1938, it has been a Fortune 500® company for 66 consecutive years.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, the terms “Owens Corning,” “Company,” “we” and “our” in this report refer to Owens Corning and its subsidiaries. References to a particular year mean the Company’s year commencing on January 1 and ending on December 31 of that year.
SEGMENT OVERVIEW
The Company has three reportable segments: Composites, Insulation and Roofing. Our Composites, Insulation and Roofing reportable segments accounted for approximately 27%, 36% and 37% of our total reportable segment net sales, respectively, in 2020.
Composites
Owens Corning glass fiber materials can be found in over 40,000 end-use applications within five primary markets: building and construction, transportation, consumer, industrial, and power and energy. Such end-use applications include pipe, roofing shingles, sporting goods, consumer electronics, telecommunications cables, boats, aviation, automotive, industrial containers and wind-energy. Our products are manufactured and sold worldwide. We primarily sell our products directly to parts molders and fabricators. Within the building and construction market, our Composites segment sells glass fiber and/or glass mat directly to a small number of major shingle manufacturers, including our own Roofing segment.
Our Composites segment includes vertically integrated downstream activities. The Company manufactures, fabricates and sells glass reinforcements in the form of fiber. Glass reinforcement materials are also used downstream by the Composites segment to manufacture and sell glass fiber products in the form of fabrics, non-wovens and other specialized products.
Demand for composites is driven by general global economic activity and, more specifically, by the increasing replacement of traditional materials such as aluminum, wood and steel with composites that offer lighter weight, improved strength, lack of conductivity and corrosion resistance. We estimate that over the last 35 years, on average, annual global demand for composite materials grew at about 1.6 times global industrial production growth.
We compete with glass fiber manufacturers worldwide. According to various industry reports and Company estimates, our Composites segment is a world leader in the production of glass fiber reinforcement materials. Primary methods of competition include innovation, quality, customer service and global geographic reach.
Insulation
Our insulating products help customers conserve energy, provide improved acoustical performance and offer convenience of installation and use. Our Insulation segment includes a diverse portfolio of high, mid and low-temperature products with a geographic mix of United States, Canada, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Latin America, a market mix of residential, commercial, industrial and other markets, and a channel mix of retail, contractor and distribution.
Our products in the residential market include thermal and acoustical batts, loosefill insulation, foam sheathing and accessories, and are sold under well-recognized brand names and trademarks such as Owens Corning PINK® FIBERGLAS™ Insulation. Our products in the commercial and industrial markets include glass fiber pipe insulation, energy efficient flexible duct media, bonded and granulated mineral wool insulation, cellular glass insulation and foam insulation used in above- and below-grade


Table of Contents
-2-
ITEM 1.BUSINESS (continued)
construction applications, and are sold under well-recognized brand names and trademarks such as Thermafiber®, FOAMULAR®, FOAMGLAS® and Paroc®. We sell our insulation products primarily to insulation installers, home centers, lumberyards, retailers and distributors in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Latin America.
Demand for Owens Corning’s insulating products is driven by North American new residential construction, repair and remodeling activity, commercial and industrial construction activity in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Latin America, and increasingly stringent building codes and the growing need for energy efficiency. Demand in the segment typically follows seasonal home improvement, remodeling and renovation and residential, commercial and industrial construction industry patterns. Demand for new residential construction in North America typically follows housing starts on a three-month lagged basis, although the new residential construction cycle can elongate due to labor availability and other factors beyond our control. The peak season for home construction and remodeling in our geographic markets generally corresponds with the second and third calendar quarters. Demand for commercial and industrial applications is more heavily tied to industrial production growth, commercial construction activity, and overall economic conditions in the global markets we serve.
Our Insulation segment competes primarily with fiberglass insulation manufacturers in the United States, with an international presence in Canada, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Latin America. According to industry reports and Company estimates, Owens Corning is North America’s largest producer of residential, commercial and industrial insulation. Principal methods of competition include innovation and product design, service, location, quality, price and compatibility of systems solutions.
Working capital practices for this segment historically have followed a seasonal cycle. Typically, our insulation plants run continuously throughout the year. This production plan, along with the seasonal nature of portions of the segment, generally results in higher finished goods inventory balances in the first half of the year. Since sales increase during the second half of the year, our accounts receivable balances are typically higher during this period.
Roofing
Our primary products in the Roofing segment are laminate and strip asphalt roofing shingles. Other products include roofing components, synthetic packaging materials and oxidized asphalt. We have been able to meet the growing demand for longer lasting, aesthetically attractive laminate products with modest capital investment.
 
We sell shingles and roofing components primarily through distributors, home centers, lumberyards, retailers and contractors in the United States. Our synthetic packaging materials are used primarily in the construction industry for lumber and metal packaging. Oxidized asphalt is a significant input used in the production of our asphalt roofing shingles. We are vertically integrated and have manufacturing facilities that process asphalt for use in our roofing shingles manufacturing process. In addition, we sell processed asphalt to other shingle manufacturers, to roofing contractors for built-up roofing asphalt systems and to manufacturers in a variety of other industries, including automotive, chemical, rubber and construction. Asphalt input costs and third-party asphalt sales prices are correlated to crude oil prices. As a result, third-party asphalt sales are largely a cost-plus business.
Demand for products in our Roofing segment is generally driven by both residential repair and remodeling activity and by new residential construction. Roofing damage from major storms can significantly increase demand in this segment. As a result, sales in this segment do not always follow seasonal home improvement, remodeling and new construction industry patterns as closely as our Insulation segment.
Our Roofing segment competes primarily with asphalt shingle manufacturers in the United States. According to various industry reports and Company estimates, Owens Corning’s Roofing segment is the second largest producer of asphalt roofing shingles in the United States. Principal methods of competition include innovation and product design, proximity to customers, quality and price.
Our manufacturing operations are generally continuous in nature, and we warehouse much of our production prior to sale since we operate with relatively short delivery cycles. One of the raw materials important to this segment is sourced from a sole supplier. We have a long-term supply contract for this material, and have no reason to believe that any availability issues will exist. If this supply was to become unavailable, our production could be interrupted until such time as the supplies again became available or the Company reformulated its products. Additionally, the supply of asphalt, another significant raw material in this segment, has been constricted at times. Although this has not caused an interruption of our production in the past, prolonged asphalt shortages would restrict our ability to produce products in this segment.


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GENERAL
Intellectual Property
The Company relies on a combination of intellectual property laws, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions, to protect our intellectual property, proprietary technology and our brands. Through continuous and extensive use of the color PINK since 1956, Owens Corning became the first owner of a single color trademark registration. In addition to our Owens Corning and PINK brands, the Company has registered, and applied for the registration of, U.S. and international trademarks, service marks, and domain names. Additionally, the Company has filed U.S. and international patent applications, including numerous issued patents, covering certain of our proprietary technology resulting from research and development efforts. Over time, the Company has assembled a portfolio of intellectual property rights including patents, trademarks, service marks, copyrights, domain names, know-how and trade secrets covering our products, services and manufacturing processes. Our proprietary technology is not dependent on any single or group of intellectual property rights and the Company does not expect the expiration of existing intellectual property to have a material adverse effect on the business as a whole. The Company believes the duration of our patents is adequate relative to the expected lives of our products. Although the Company protects its intellectual property and proprietary technology, any significant impairment of, or third-party claim against, our intellectual property rights could harm our business or our ability to compete.
 
Environmental Control

Owens Corning has established policies and procedures to ensure that its operations are conducted in compliance with all relevant laws and regulations and that enable the Company to meet its high standards for corporate sustainability and environmental stewardship. Our manufacturing facilities are subject to numerous foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the presence of hazardous materials, pollution and protection of the environment, including emissions to air, discharges to water, management of hazardous materials, handling and disposal of solid wastes, and remediation of contaminated sites. All Company manufacturing facilities operate using an ISO 14001 or equivalent environmental management system. The Company’s 2030 Sustainability Goals require significant global reductions in energy use, water consumption, waste to landfill, emissions of greenhouse gases, fine particulate matter and toxic air emissions. The Company is dedicated to continuous improvement in our environmental, health and safety performance and to achieving its 2030 Sustainability Goals.

The Company has not experienced a material adverse effect upon our capital expenditures or competitive position as a result of environmental control legislation and regulations. Operating costs associated with environmental compliance were approximately $39 million in 2020. The Company continues to invest in equipment and process modifications to remain in compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations worldwide.

Our manufacturing facilities are subject to numerous national, state and local environmental protection laws and regulations. Regulatory activities of particular importance to our operations include those addressing air pollution, water pollution, waste disposal and chemical control. It is possible that new laws and regulations will specifically address climate change, toxic air emissions, ozone forming emissions and fine particulate matter. New environmental and chemical regulations could impact our ability to expand production or construct new facilities in geographic regions in which we operate. However, based on information known to the Company, including the nature of our manufacturing operations and associated air emissions, at this time we do not expect any of these new laws, regulations or activities to have a material adverse effect on our results of current operations, financial condition or long-term liquidity.

Owens Corning is involved in remedial response activities and is responsible for environmental remediation at a number of sites, including certain of its currently owned or formerly owned plants. These responsibilities arise under a number of laws, including, but not limited to, the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and similar state or local laws pertaining to the management and remediation of hazardous materials and petroleum. The Company has also been named a potentially responsible party under the United States Federal Superfund law, or state equivalents, at a number of disposal sites. The Company became involved in these sites as a result of government action or in connection with business acquisitions. At the end of 2020, the Company was involved with a total of 21 sites worldwide, including 8 Superfund sites and 13 owned or formerly owned sites. None of the liabilities for these sites are individually significant to the Company.



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Remediation activities generally involve a potential range of activities and costs related to soil and groundwater contamination. This can include pre-cleanup activities such as fact finding and investigation, risk assessment, feasibility studies, remedial action design and implementation (where actions may range from monitoring to removal of contaminants, to installation of longer-term remediation systems). A number of factors affect the cost of environmental remediation, including the number of parties involved in a particular site, the determination of the extent of contamination, the length of time the remediation may require, the complexity of environmental regulations, variability in clean-up standards, the need for legal action, and changes in remediation technology. Taking these factors into account, Owens Corning has predicted the costs of remediation reasonably estimated to be paid over a period of years. The Company accrues an amount on an undiscounted basis, consistent with the reasonable estimates of these costs when it is probable that a liability has been incurred. Actual cost may differ from these estimates for the reasons mentioned above.

At December 31, 2020, the Company had an accrual totaling $7 million for its environmental liabilities, of which the current portion is $3 million. Changes in required remediation procedures or timing of those procedures at existing legacy sites, or discovery of contamination at additional sites, could result in material increases to the Company’s environmental obligations.

Additional Government Laws and Regulations

In addition to environmental laws and regulations, we are subject to various laws and regulations around the world. For example, trade regulations, including tariffs or other import or export restrictions, may increase the cost of some of our raw materials or cross-border shipments, and limit our ability to do business in certain countries or with certain individuals. Our business is also subject to competition laws in the various jurisdictions where we operate, including the Sherman Antitrust Act and related federal and state antitrust laws in the United States, as well as similar foreign laws and regulations. These laws and regulations generally prohibit competitors from fixing prices, boycotting competitors, or engaging in other conduct that unreasonably restrains competition, and such laws and regulations may impact potential business relationships or transactions with third parties in the future. In addition, health and safety regulations (including laws or regulations promulgated in response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, as discussed below in Item 1A, “Risk Factors”) have necessitated, and may continue to necessitate, increased operating costs or capital investments to promote a safe working environment. The Company is also required to comply with increasingly complex and changing laws and regulations enacted to protect business and personal data in the United States and other jurisdictions regarding privacy, data protection and data security, including those related to the collection, storage, use, transmission and protection of personal information and other consumer, customer, vendor or employee data. Further, an increasing number of laws and regulations focused on product and chemical hazards and preferential product selection could also impact our ability to manufacture and sell certain products or require significant research and development investment and capital expenditures to meet regulatory requirements. With respect to the laws and regulations noted above, as well as other applicable laws and regulations, the Company’s compliance programs may under certain circumstances involve material investments in the form of additional processes, training, personnel, information technology and capital. For a discussion of the risks associated with certain applicable laws and regulations, see Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
Human Capital Resources
Important to the Company’s long-term success is ensuring its people feel valued, included, and engaged – from recruitment to retirement. That is why Owens Corning is dedicated to fostering an environment of learning and growth within a supportive, caring culture. We are committed to providing a safe, healthy workplace and a meaningful, engaging employee experience.
As of December 31, 2020, Owens Corning had approximately 19,000 employees, of which about 11,000 are located outside the United States. Approximately 8,000 (63%) of hourly employees are subject to collective bargaining agreements. The Company believes that its relations with employees are good.
The Company focuses on a number of human capital resource objectives in managing its business which, taken together, may be material to understanding our business under certain circumstances.
Safety and Well-Being
One of our primary objectives is the safety and well-being of our employees. Working safely is an unconditional, organization-wide expectation at Owens Corning, which we believe directly benefits employees’ lives, improves our manufacturing processes and reduces our costs. The Company maintains comprehensive safety programs focused on identifying hazards and eliminating risks that can lead to severe injuries. One of our primary safety measures is the Recordable Incidence Rate (“RIR”) as defined by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. For the year ended December 31, 2020, our RIR was 0.61, compared to 0.66 in the same period a year ago.


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Additionally, with our Healthy Living platform, we provide a multifaceted well-being program designed to drive sustainable, long-term change, improve the health and lives of employees, and strengthen the culture and work experience.
Employee Performance and Related Objectives
We also focus on managing employee performance, development, succession planning, and turnover. Our goal is to create a high-performance culture and team that is diverse, capable and engaged. We strive to have clear objectives, effective performance management, and a structure that includes regular talent reviews, succession planning, development, and compensation analysis.
Corporate Culture
Another objective we pursue is maintaining a corporate culture focused on inclusion and diversity, ethics and compliance, training, and positive employee relations and engagement.
The Company believes its success and sustainability are enhanced by an inclusive and diverse workforce. We believe that inclusion and diversity add value to the business by fostering an environment that leads to high engagement and innovative thinking in the workplace. Our Chief Executive Officer, along with more than a thousand other company leaders around the world, signed the CEO Action for Diversity & Inclusion pledge in 2018, signaling our goal to advance diversity and inclusion within the workplace. Owens Corning operates programs that foster gender and ethnic diversity as well as equality within its workforce, including supporting various employee-led affinity groups, so its employees feel valued and appreciated for the distinct voices they bring to the team.
The Company performs a biennial pay equity review with the assistance of a third-party vendor. These reviews include a robust, statistical analysis of pay equity across the majority of its global salaried workforce. Consistent with our commitment to “equal pay for equal work,” we remediate all identified and substantiated pay gaps through pay increases. Further, the Company has implemented processes and policies to avoid inheriting unequal pay bias of prior employers.
Ethics and compliance efforts include our support of the Owens Corning Code of Conduct (“Code of Conduct”), which is dedicated to encouraging compliance with a range of legal guidelines and our corporate values. Our training efforts encompass the Code of Conduct and other areas of compliance and development as relevant to employees. We also seek to foster positive and productive relations with the labor organizations representing them.
Owens Corning employees contribute service hours to boards, special causes and nonprofit organizations in the communities where they live and operate. These programs aim to enable the Company’s employees to connect with the community, further improve its reputation locally and globally, and instill a sense of pride in the workforce.
Owens Corning is a recognized leader on social issues. Select awards and honors earned by the Company include:
Named a 2020 Noteworthy Company by DiversityInc for diversity, equity and inclusion
Obtained a perfect score on the Human Rights Campaign’s 2020 Corporate Equality Index
Recognized as one of the “2020 World’s Most Ethical Companies” by Ethisphere Institute for the third year in a row
Ranked 1st among the 100 Best Corporate Citizens in 2020 by 3BL Media for the second year in a row
More information about Owens Corning’s approach to human capital and other social issues can be found in our Sustainability Report on our website.1

1 The information on our website, including our Sustainability Report, is not, and will not be deemed to be, a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or incorporated into any of our other filings with the SEC.


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AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION
Owens Corning makes available, free of charge, through its website, the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission. These documents are available through the Investor Relations page of the Company’s website at www.owenscorning.com.


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ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS
In an enterprise as diverse as ours, a wide range of factors could affect future performance. We discuss in this section some of the risk factors that could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, value and results of operations. You should consider these risk factors in connection with evaluating the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K because these factors could cause our actual results and financial condition to differ materially from those projected in forward-looking statements.
The Company maintains processes that aim to manage enterprise risks through identification and mitigation of those risks. Despite our efforts, we may fail to identify or mitigate certain risks, which could have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition, value and results of operations.
RISKS RELATING TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact, and could continue to have a significant impact, on the Company's operations and results.
We have been managing matters related to the global COVID-19 pandemic, including the following impacts that we have experienced at various times since the first quarter of 2020:
We believe that COVID-19 placed downward pressure on demand for some of our products, on at least a temporary basis and caused us to curtail some of our operations as we attempted to balance demand with inventory and output.
Governmental authorities have implemented numerous measures to contain the virus, such as travel bans and restrictions, quarantines, shelter-in-place orders and business shutdowns. Some of these actions resulted in temporary curtailment of some operations and increased costs to operate certain facilities.
In the first quarter of 2020, we recorded an impairment to goodwill that was driven, at least in part, by an increase in the discount rate arising from higher equity risk premiums that reflected significant uncertainty surrounding the effect that COVID-19 would have on the Insulation reporting unit’s near-term cash flows.
The Company has focused on managing costs, capital expenditures and working capital during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Although it is not possible to predict the ultimate impact of COVID-19, including on our business, results of operations, financial position or cash flows, such impacts may be material and may include:
shifting customer demand for our products in the markets that we serve around the world;
increased credit risk, including increased failure by customers experiencing business disruptions to make timely payments;
reduced availability and productivity of employees;
costs associated with production curtailments that are driven by governmental actions, customer demand or other causes related to COVID-19;
increased operational risks resulting from changes to operations and remote work arrangements, including the potential effects on internal controls and procedures, cybersecurity risks and increased vulnerability to security breaches, information technology disruptions and other similar events;
higher costs in certain areas such as transportation and distribution, as well as incremental costs associated with health screenings, temperature checks and enhanced cleaning and sanitation protocols to protect our employees and others;
delays and disruptions in the availability of and timely delivery of materials and equipment used in our operations, as well as increased costs for such materials and equipment;
a negative impact on our liquidity position, as well as increased costs and less ability to access funds under our existing credit facilities and the capital markets;



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impairment in the value of tangible or intangible assets that could be recorded as a result of weaker or more volatile economic conditions; and
administrative proceedings, litigation or regulatory compliance matters.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic may also exacerbate other risks discussed in this Item 1A. “Risk Factors.” The impact depends on the severity and duration of the current COVID-19 pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities and other third parties in response, each of which is uncertain, rapidly changing and difficult to predict.
MACROECONOMIC, MARKET AND OPERATIONAL RISKS
Low levels of residential, commercial or industrial construction activity can have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
A large portion of our products are used in the markets for residential and commercial construction and repair and remodeling. Demand for certain of our products is affected in part by the level of new residential construction in the United States and elsewhere, although typically not until a number of months after the change in the level of construction. Lower demand in the regions and markets where our products are sold could result in lower revenues and lower profitability. Historically, construction activity has been cyclical and is influenced by prevailing economic conditions, including the level of interest rates and availability of financing, inflation, employment levels, consumer spending habits, consumer confidence and other macroeconomic factors outside our control. Residential and commercial construction is also affected by the cost and availability of skilled labor, which could impact both the cost and pace of construction activity, as well as the construction methods used, all of which could adversely affect demand for our products.
Some of our products, particularly in our insulation business, are used in industrial applications, such as piping and storage tanks. Lower levels of industrial production and other macroeconomic factors affecting industrial construction activity could lessen demand for those products and lead to lower revenues or profitability.
We face significant competition in the markets we serve and we may not be able to compete successfully.
All of the markets we serve are highly competitive. We compete with manufacturers and distributors, both within and outside the United States, in the sale of building products and composite products. Some of our competitors may have superior financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we do. In some cases, we face competition from manufacturers in countries able to produce similar products at lower costs. We also face competition from the introduction by competitors of new products or technologies that may address our customers’ needs in a better manner, whether based on considerations of pricing, usability, effectiveness, sustainability, quality or other features or benefits. If we are not able to successfully commercialize our innovation efforts, we may lose market share. Price competition or overcapacity may limit our ability to raise prices for our products when necessary, may force us to reduce prices and may also result in reduced levels of demand for our products and cause us to lose market share. In addition, in order to effectively compete, we must continue to develop new products that meet changing consumer preferences and successfully develop, manufacture and market these new products. Our inability to effectively compete could result in the loss of customers and reduce the sales of our products, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our sales may fall rapidly in response to declines in demand because we do not operate under long-term volume agreements to supply our customers and because of customer concentration in certain segments.
Many of our customer volume commitments are short-term; therefore, we do not have a significant manufacturing backlog. As a result, we do not benefit from the visibility provided by long-term volume contracts against downturns in customer demand and sales. Further, we are not able to immediately adjust our costs in response to declines in sales. In addition, although no single customer represents more than 10% of our annual sales, our ability to sell some of the products in Insulation and Roofing are dependent on a limited number of customers, who account for a significant portion of such sales. The loss of key customers for these products, a consolidation of key customers or a significant reduction in sales to those customers, could significantly reduce our revenues from these products. In addition, if key customers experience financial pressure or consolidate, they could attempt to demand more favorable contractual terms, which would place additional pressure on our margins and cash flows. Lower demand for our products, loss of key customers and material changes to contractual terms could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, some of our sales are concentrated in certain geographic areas, and market growth that is skewed to other geographic areas may negatively impact our rate of growth or market share.




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ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS (continued)
Worldwide economic conditions and credit tightening could have a material adverse impact on the Company.
The Company’s business may be materially and adversely impacted by changes in United States or global economic conditions, including global industrial production rates, inflation, deflation, interest rates, availability of capital, consumer spending rates, energy availability and commodity prices, trade laws, and the effects of governmental initiatives to manage economic conditions. Changes in and/or new laws, regulations and policies that may be enacted in the United States or elsewhere could also materially impact economic conditions and the Company's business and results of operations. Volatility in financial markets and the deterioration of national and global economic conditions could materially adversely impact the Company’s operations, financial results and/or liquidity including as follows:
the financial stability of our customers or suppliers may be compromised, which could result in reduced demand for our products, additional bad debts for the Company or non-performance by suppliers;
one or more of the financial institutions associated with our credit facilities cease to be able to fulfill their funding obligations, or the amount of eligible receivables under our receivables securitization facility could decrease, which could materially adversely impact our liquidity;
it may become more costly or difficult to obtain financing or refinance the Company’s debt in the future;
the value of the Company’s assets held in pension plans may decline; and/or
the Company’s assets may be impaired or subject to write-down or write-off.
Uncertainty about global economic conditions may cause consumers of our products to postpone spending in response to tighter credit, negative financial news and/or declines in income or asset values. This could have a material adverse impact on the demand for our products and on our financial condition and operating results. A deterioration of economic conditions would likely exacerbate these adverse effects and could result in a wide-ranging and prolonged impact on general business conditions, thereby negatively impacting our operations, financial results and/or liquidity.
We are subject to risks associated with our international operations.
We sell products and operate plants throughout the world. Our international sales and operations are subject to risks and uncertainties, including:
difficulties and costs associated with complying with a wide variety of complex and changing laws, including securities laws, tax laws, employment and pension-related laws, competition laws, U.S. and foreign export and trading laws, and laws governing improper business practices, treaties and regulations;
limitations on our ability to enforce legal rights and remedies;
adverse domestic or international economic and political conditions, business interruption, war and civil disturbance;
changes to tax, currency, or other laws or policies that may adversely impact our ability to repatriate cash from non-United States subsidiaries, make cross-border investments, or engage in other intercompany transactions;
future tax legislation, regulations, or related guidance or interpretations;
changes to tariffs or other import or export restrictions, penalties or sanctions, including modification or elimination of international agreements covering trade or investment;
costs and availability of shipping and transportation;
nationalization or forced relocation of properties by foreign governments;
currency exchange rate fluctuations between the United States Dollar and foreign currencies; and
uncertainty with respect to any potential changes to laws, regulations and policies that could exacerbate the risks described above.
As we continue to expand our business globally, we may have difficulty anticipating and effectively managing these and other risks that our international operations may face, which may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, we operate in many parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption and we could be adversely affected by violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and similar worldwide anti-corruption laws. The FCPA and similar anti-corruption laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Although we mandate compliance with these anti-corruption laws and maintain an anti-corruption compliance program, we cannot provide assurance that these measures will


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necessarily prevent violations of these laws by our employees or agents. If we were found to be liable for violations of anti-corruption laws, we could be liable for criminal or civil penalties or other sanctions, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We will not be insured against all potential losses and could be seriously harmed by natural disasters, catastrophes, pandemics, theft or sabotage.
Many of our business activities globally involve substantial investments in manufacturing facilities and many products are produced at a limited number of locations. These facilities could be materially damaged by natural disasters such as floods, tornados, hurricanes, fires, earthquakes, pandemics or by theft or sabotage. We could incur uninsured losses and liabilities arising from such events, including damage to our reputation, and/or suffer material losses in operational capacity, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Climate change, weather conditions and storm activity could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
Weather conditions and the level of severe storms can have a significant impact on the markets for residential and commercial construction, repair and improvement. As a result, climate change that results in altered weather conditions or storm activity could have a significant impact on our business. These factors could impact our business as follows:
generally, any weather conditions that slow or limit residential or commercial construction activity can adversely impact demand for our products; and
a portion of our annual product demand is attributable to the repair of damage caused by severe storms. In periods with below average levels of severe storms, demand for such products could be reduced.
Lower demand for our products as a result of either of these scenarios could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, severely low temperatures may lead to significant and immediate spikes in costs of natural gas, electricity and other commodities that could negatively affect our results of operation.
Climate change and associated weather phenomena, such as flooding, may impact our ability to operate manufacturing facilities in some locations. Further, laws or regulations aimed at addressing climate change may materially impact our cost of doing business.
We may be exposed to cost increases or reduced availability of energy, materials or transportation, which could reduce our margins and have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business relies heavily on certain commodities and raw materials used in our manufacturing processes. Additionally, we spend a significant amount on inputs that are influenced by energy prices, such as asphalt, chemicals, resins, and transportation. Price increases for these inputs could raise costs and reduce our margins if we are not able to offset them by increasing the prices of our products, improving productivity or hedging where appropriate. In particular, energy prices could increase as a result of climate change legislation or other environmental mandates. Availability of certain of the raw materials we use has occasionally been limited, and our sourcing of some of these raw materials from a limited number of suppliers, and in some cases a sole supplier, increases the risk of unavailability. For example, if one of the raw materials important to our business is sourced from a sole supplier, our production could be interrupted regardless of whether we have a long-term supply contract for the material. Despite our contractual supply agreements with many of our suppliers, it is possible that we could experience a lack of certain raw materials that limits our ability to manufacture our products, thereby materially and adversely impacting our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our efforts in acquiring and integrating other businesses, establishing joint ventures, expanding our production capacity or divesting assets are subject to a number of risks.
Some of the ways we have historically grown or restructured our business have been through acquisitions, joint ventures, the expansion of our production capacity and divestitures. Our ability to grow or restructure our business depends upon our ability to identify, negotiate and finance suitable arrangements. If we cannot successfully execute on such arrangements or receive any required regulatory approvals on a timely basis, we may be unable to generate desired returns, and our expectations of future results of operations, including cost savings and synergies, may not be achieved. Acquisitions, joint ventures, production capacity expansions and divestitures involve substantial risks, including:
unforeseen difficulties in operations, technologies, products, services, accounting and personnel;
increased cybersecurity risks;
diversion of financial and management resources from existing operations;


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ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS (continued)
unforeseen difficulties related to entering geographic regions, markets or product lines where we do not have prior experience;
risks relating to obtaining sufficient financing;
difficulty in integrating the acquired business’ standards, processes, procedures and controls with our existing operations;
potential loss of key employees;
unanticipated competitive responses;
potential loss of customers; and
undisclosed or undiscovered liabilities or claims, or retention of unpredictable future liabilities.
Our failure to address these risks or other problems encountered in connection with our past or future acquisitions, investments and divestitures could cause us to fail to realize the anticipated benefits of such transactions, incur unanticipated liabilities, and harm our business generally. Future acquisitions and investments could also result in dilutive issuances of our equity securities, the incurrence of debt, contingent liabilities, or amortization expenses, or write-offs of goodwill, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, the anticipated benefits of our investments may not materialize.
LEGAL, REGULATORY AND COMPLIANCE RISKS
We could face potential product liability and warranty claims, we may not accurately estimate costs related to such claims, and we may not have sufficient insurance coverage available to cover such claims.
Our products are used and have been used in a wide variety of residential, commercial and industrial applications. We face an inherent business risk of exposure to product liability or other claims in the event our products are alleged to be defective or that the use of our products is alleged to have resulted in harm to others or to property. We may, in the future, incur liability if product liability lawsuits against us are successful. Moreover, any such lawsuits, whether or not successful, could result in adverse publicity to us, which could cause our sales to decline. We maintain insurance coverage to protect us against product liability claims, but that coverage may not be adequate to cover all claims that may arise or we may not be able to maintain adequate insurance coverage in the future at an acceptable cost. Any liability not covered by insurance or that exceeds our established reserves could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In addition, consistent with industry practice, we provide warranties on many of our products. We may experience costs of warranty claims when the product is not performing to the satisfaction of the claimant even though it has not caused harm to others or property. We estimate our future warranty costs based on historical trends and product sales, but we may fail to accurately estimate those costs and thereby fail to establish adequate warranty reserves for them. Warranty claims are not insurable.
We are subject to various legal and regulatory proceedings, including litigation in the ordinary course of business, and uninsured judgments or a rise in insurance premiums may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In the ordinary course of business, we are subject to various legal and regulatory proceedings, which may include but are not limited to those involving antitrust, tax, trade, environmental, intellectual property, data privacy and other matters, including general commercial litigation. Any claims raised in legal and regulatory proceedings, whether with or without merit, could be time consuming and expensive to defend and could divert management’s attention and resources. Additionally, the outcome of legal and regulatory proceedings may differ from our expectations because the outcomes of these proceedings are often difficult to predict reliably. Various factors and developments can lead to changes in our estimates of liabilities and related insurance receivables, where applicable, or may require us to make additional estimates, including new or modified estimates that may be appropriate due to a judicial ruling or judgment, a settlement, regulatory developments or changes in applicable law. A future adverse ruling, settlement or unfavorable development could result in charges that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations in any particular period.
In accordance with customary practice, we maintain insurance against some, but not all, of these potential claims. In the future, we may not be able to maintain insurance at commercially acceptable premium levels. In addition, the levels of insurance we maintain may not be adequate to fully cover any and all losses or liabilities. If any significant judgment or claim is not fully insured or indemnified against, it could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


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ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS (continued)
We may be subject to liability under and may make substantial future expenditures to comply with environmental and emerging product-based laws and regulations.
Our manufacturing facilities are subject to numerous foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the presence of hazardous materials, pollution and the protection of the environment, including those governing emissions to air, discharges to water, use, storage and transport of hazardous materials, storage, treatment and disposal of waste, remediation of contaminated sites and protection of worker health and safety.
Liability under these laws involves inherent uncertainties. Environmental liability estimates may be affected by changing determinations of what constitutes an environmental exposure or an acceptable level of cleanup. For example, remediation activities generally involve a potential range of activities and costs related to soil and groundwater contamination. This can include pre-cleanup activities such as fact finding and investigation, risk assessment, feasibility studies, remedial action design and implementation (where actions may range from monitoring to removal of contaminants, to installation of longer-term remediation systems). Please see "Item 1 - Business - Environmental Control” for information on costs and accruals related to environmental remediation. To the extent that the required remediation procedures or timing of those procedures change, additional contamination is identified, or the financial condition of other potentially responsible parties is adversely affected, the estimate of our environmental liabilities may change. Change in required remediation procedures or timing of those procedures at existing legacy sites, or discovery of contamination at additional sites, could result in increases to our environmental obligations. Violations of environmental, health and safety laws are subject to civil, and, in some cases, criminal sanctions. As a result of these uncertainties, we may incur unexpected interruptions to operations, fines, penalties or other reductions in income which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. It is possible that new laws and regulations will specifically address climate change, toxic air emissions, ozone forming emissions and fine particulate matter. New environmental and chemical regulations could impact our ability to expand production or construct new facilities in every geographic region in which we operate. Continued and increased government and public emphasis on environmental issues is expected to result in increased future investments for environmental controls at ongoing operations, which will be charged against income from future operations. Present and future environmental laws and regulations applicable to our operations, and changes in their interpretation, may require substantial capital expenditures or may require or cause us to modify or curtail our operations, which may have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Although emerging in nature, an increasing number of laws and regulations focused on product and chemical hazards and preferential product selection could also impact our ability to manufacture and sell certain products or require significant research and development investment and capital expenditures to meet regulatory requirements.
Our intellectual property rights may not provide meaningful commercial protection for our products or brands and third parties may assert that we violate their intellectual property rights, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Owens Corning relies on its intellectual property, including numerous patents, trademarks, trade secrets, confidential information, as well as its licensed intellectual property to differentiate our products and brands in the marketplace. We monitor and protect against activities that might infringe, dilute, or otherwise harm our intellectual property and rely on the laws of the United States and other countries. However, in some instances, we may be unaware of unauthorized use of our intellectual property. To the extent we cannot protect our innovations or are unable to enforce our intellectual property, unauthorized use and misuse of our intellectual property or innovations could harm our competitive position and have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the laws of some non-United States jurisdictions provide less protection for our proprietary rights than the laws of the United States and we therefore may not be able to effectively enforce our intellectual property rights in these jurisdictions. If we are unable to maintain certain exclusive licenses, our brand recognition and sales could be adversely impacted. Current employees, contractors and suppliers have, and former employees, contractors and suppliers may have, access to trade secrets and confidential information regarding our operations which could be disclosed improperly and in breach of contract to our competitors or otherwise used to harm us.
Third parties may also claim that we are infringing upon their intellectual property rights. If we are unable to successfully defend or license such alleged infringing intellectual property or if we are required to substitute similar technology from another source, our operations could be adversely affected. Even if we believe that such intellectual property claims are without merit, defending such claims can be costly, time consuming and require significant resources. Claims of intellectual property infringement also might require us to redesign affected products, pay costly damage awards, or face injunctions prohibiting us from manufacturing, importing, marketing or selling certain of our products. Even if we have agreements to indemnify us, indemnifying parties may be unable or unwilling to do so.
FINANCIAL RISKS
Our level of indebtedness could adversely impact our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our debt level and degree of leverage could have important consequences, including the following:


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ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS (continued)
our ability to obtain additional debt or equity financing for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, acquisitions and general corporate or other purposes may be limited;
a substantial portion of our cash flow could be required for the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness, and may not be available for other business purposes;
certain of our borrowings are at variable rates of interest, exposing us to the risk of increased interest rates;
if due to liquidity needs we must replace any indebtedness upon maturity, we would be exposed to the risk that we may not be able to refinance such indebtedness;
our ability to adjust to changing market conditions may be limited and place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors if they have less debt; and
we may be vulnerable in a downturn in general economic conditions or in our business, or we may be unable to carry out important capital spending.
The credit agreement governing our senior credit facility, the indentures governing our senior notes, and the receivables purchase agreement governing our receivables securitization facility contain various covenants that impose operating and financial restrictions on us and/or our subsidiaries. Additionally, instruments and agreements governing our future indebtedness may impose other restrictive conditions or covenants that could restrict our ability to conduct our business operations or pursue growth strategies.
Downgrades of our credit ratings could adversely impact us.
Our credit ratings are important to our cost of capital. The major debt rating agencies routinely evaluate our debt based on a number of factors, which include financial strength and business risk as well as transparency with rating agencies and timeliness of financial reporting. A downgrade in our debt rating could result in increased interest on our existing variable interest rate debt, increased interest and other expenses for future borrowings, and reduced ability for our suppliers to utilize supply chain financing programs. Downgrades in our debt rating could also restrict our access to capital markets and affect the value and marketability of our outstanding notes.
If we were required to write down all or part of our goodwill or other indefinite-lived intangible assets, our results of operations or financial condition could be materially adversely affected in a particular period.
Declines in the Company’s business may result in an impairment of the Company’s tangible and intangible assets which could result in a material non-cash charge. A significant or prolonged decrease in the Company’s market capitalization, including a decline in stock price, or a negative long-term performance outlook, could result in an impairment of its tangible and intangible assets which results when the carrying value of the Company’s assets exceed their fair value. For example, during the first quarter of 2020, the Company’s significant share price reduction during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic was determined to be an indicator of impairment under ASC 350 and, based on the results of interim testing over the Insulation reporting unit, the Company recorded pre-tax non-cash impairment charges of $987 million in the first quarter of 2020. At least annually, the Company assesses goodwill and intangible assets for impairment. Since the Company utilizes a discounted cash flow methodology to calculate the fair value of its reporting units, weak demand for a specific product line or business could result in an impairment. Accordingly, any determination requiring the write-off of a significant portion of goodwill or intangible assets could negatively impact the Company’s results of operations.
Our ongoing efforts to increase productivity and reduce costs may not result in anticipated savings in operating costs.
Our cost reduction and productivity efforts, including those related to our existing operations, production capacity expansions, new manufacturing platforms, or other capital expenditures, may not produce anticipated results. Our ability to achieve cost savings and other benefits within expected time frames is subject to many estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions are subject to significant economic, competitive, legal and other uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control. If these estimates and assumptions are incorrect, if we experience delays, or if other unforeseen events occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely impacted.
Our operations require substantial capital, leading to high levels of fixed costs that will be incurred regardless of our level of business activity.
Our businesses are capital intensive, and regularly require capital expenditures to expand operations, maintain equipment, increase operating efficiency and comply with applicable laws and regulations, leading to high fixed costs, including depreciation expense. Also, increased regulatory focus could lead to additional or higher costs in the future. We are limited in our ability to reduce fixed costs quickly in response to reduced demand for our products and these fixed costs may not be fully absorbed, resulting in higher average unit costs and lower gross margins if we are not able to offset this higher unit cost with


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ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS (continued)
price increases. Alternatively, we may be limited in our ability to quickly respond to unanticipated increased demand for our products, which could result in an inability to satisfy demand for our products and loss of market share.
The Company’s income tax net operating loss may be limited and our results of operations may be adversely impacted.
The Company has deferred tax assets related to both U.S. federal and state net operating losses (NOLs) for income tax purposes, which the Company expects generally are available, with some exceptions, to offset future taxable income. However, the Company’s ability to utilize or realize the current carrying value of the NOLs may be impacted by certain events, such as changes in tax legislation or the interpretation thereof, or insufficient future taxable income prior to expiration of the NOLs, or annual limits imposed under sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code, or by state law, as a result of a change in control. A change in control is generally defined as a cumulative change of more than 50% in the ownership positions of certain stockholders during a rolling three-year period. Changes in the ownership positions of certain stockholders could occur as the result of stock transactions by such stockholders and/or by the issuance of stock by the Company. Such limitations may cause the Company to pay income taxes earlier and in greater amounts than would be the case if the NOLs were not subject to such limitations. Additionally, uncertainty exists with respect to future regulatory guidance and interpretations of the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the "Tax Act"), as well as assumptions that the Company makes related to the Tax Act, which could have an impact on the use of the Company's NOLs.
Should the Company determine that it is likely that its recorded NOL benefits are not realizable, the Company would be required to reduce the NOL reflected on its financial statements to the net realizable amount either by a direct adjustment to the NOL or by establishing a valuation allowance and recording a corresponding charge to current earnings. The corresponding charge to current earnings would have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations in the period in which it is recorded. Conversely, if the Company is required to increase its NOL either by a direct adjustment or reversing any portion of the accounting valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets related to its NOLs, such credit to current earnings could have a positive effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations in the period in which it is recorded.
Our hedging activities to address energy price fluctuations may not be successful in offsetting increases in those costs or may reduce or eliminate the benefits of any decreases in those costs.
In order to mitigate short-term variation in our operating results due to commodity price fluctuations in certain geographic markets, we may hedge a portion of our near-term exposure to the cost of energy. The results of our hedging practices could be positive, neutral or negative in any period depending on price changes of the hedged exposures.
Our hedging activities are not designed to mitigate long-term commodity price fluctuations and, therefore, would not protect us from long-term commodity price increases. In addition, in the future, our hedging positions may not correlate to our actual energy costs, which would cause acceleration in the recognition of unrealized gains and losses on our hedging positions in our operating results.
Our results of operations in a given period may be impacted by price volatility in certain wind-generated energy markets.
In connection with our sustainability goals to reduce greenhouse gas and toxic air emissions, we entered into contracts pursuant to which we have agreed to purchase wind-generated electricity from third parties. Under these contracts, we do not take physical delivery of wind-generated electricity. The generated electricity is instead sold by our counterparties to local grid operators at the prevailing market price and we obtain the associated non-tax renewable energy credits. The prevailing market pricing for wind-generated electricity can be affected by factors beyond our control and is subject to significant period over period volatility. For example, wind-generated energy output fluctuates due to climactic and other factors beyond our control and can be constrained by available transmission capacity, thereby significantly impacting pricing. Due to this potential volatility, it is possible that these contracts could have an impact on our results of operations in a given reporting period.
HUMAN CAPITAL RISKS
We depend on our senior management team and other skilled and experienced personnel to operate our business effectively, and the loss of any of these individuals or the failure to attract additional personnel could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations.
We are highly dependent on the skills and experience of our senior management team and other skilled and experienced personnel. These individuals possess sales, marketing, manufacturing, logistical, financial, business strategy and administrative skills that are important to the operation of our business. We cannot assure that we will be able to retain all of our existing senior management personnel and skilled and experienced personnel. The loss of any of these individuals or an inability to attract additional personnel could prevent us from implementing our business strategy and could adversely impact our business


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ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS (continued)
and our future financial condition or results of operations. This risk is emerging in the sense that future labor markets may impact our ability to retain these individuals.
Increases in the cost of labor, union organizing activity, labor disputes and work stoppages at our facilities could delay or impede our production, reduce sales of our products and increase our costs.
The costs of labor are generally increasing, including the costs of employee benefit plans. We are subject to the risk that strikes or other types of conflicts with personnel may arise or that we may become the subject of union organizing activity at additional facilities. In particular, renewal of collective bargaining agreements typically involves negotiation, with the potential for work stoppages or increased costs at affected facilities.
Significant changes in the factors and assumptions used to measure our defined benefit plan obligations, actual investment returns on pension assets and other factors could have a negative impact on our financial condition or liquidity.
We have certain defined benefit pension plans and other post-employment benefit (OPEB) plans. Our future funding requirements for defined benefit pension and OPEB plans depend upon a number of factors and assumptions, including our actual experience against assumptions with regard to interest rates used to determine funding levels; return on plan assets; benefit levels; participant experience (e.g., mortality and retirement rates); health care cost trends; and applicable regulatory changes. To the extent actual results are less favorable than our assumptions, there could be a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
Additional risks exist due to the nature and magnitude of our investments, including the implementation of or changes to the investment policy, insufficient market capacity to absorb a particular investment strategy or high-volume transactions, and the inability to quickly rebalance illiquid and long-term investments.
If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our pension or OPEB obligations, we could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, seek additional capital, or restructure or refinance our indebtedness.
RISKS RELATED TO OWNERSHIP OF OUR COMMON STOCK
The market price of our common stock is subject to volatility.
The market price of our common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include actual or anticipated variations in our operational results and cash flow, our earnings relative to our competition, changes in financial estimates by securities analysts, trading volume, sales by holders of large amounts of our common stock, short selling, market conditions within the industries in which we operate, seasonality of our business operations, the general state of the securities markets and the market for stocks of companies in our industry, governmental legislation or regulation and currency and exchange rate fluctuations, as well as general economic and market conditions, such as recessions.
We are a holding company with no operations of our own and depend on our subsidiaries for cash.
As a holding company, most of our assets are held by our direct and indirect subsidiaries and we will primarily rely on dividends and other payments or distributions from our subsidiaries to meet our debt service and other obligations and to enable us to pay dividends. The ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other payments or distributions to us will depend on their respective operating results and may be restricted by, among other things, the laws of their jurisdiction of organization (which may limit the amount of funds available for the payment of dividends or other payments), agreements of those subsidiaries, agreements with any co-investors in non-wholly-owned subsidiaries, the terms of our facilities and senior notes and the covenants of any future indebtedness we or our subsidiaries may incur.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws or Delaware law might discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company or changes in our management and therefore depress the trading price of our common stock.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could depress the trading price of our common stock through provisions that may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our Company or changes in our management that our stockholders may deem advantageous.
Additionally, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an “interested” stockholder and which may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company.


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ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS (continued)
Dividends on our common stock are declared at the discretion of our Board of Directors.
Since February 2014, the Board has declared a quarterly dividend on our common stock. The payment of any future cash dividends to our stockholders is not guaranteed and will depend on decisions that will be made by our Board of Directors and will depend on then-existing conditions, including our operating results, financial conditions, contractual restrictions, corporate law restrictions, capital agreements, applicable laws of the State of Delaware and business prospects.
GENERAL RISKS
We are subject to risks relating to our information technology systems, and any failure to adequately protect our critical information technology systems could materially affect our operations.
We rely on information technology systems across our operations, including for management, supply chain and financial information and various other processes and transactions. Our ability to effectively manage our business depends on the security, reliability and capacity of these systems. Information technology system failures, network disruptions or breaches of security could disrupt our operations, causing delays or cancellation of customer orders or impeding the manufacture or shipment of products, processing of transactions or reporting of financial results. An attack or other problem with our systems could also result in the disclosure of proprietary information about our business or confidential information concerning our customers or employees, which could result in significant damage to our business and our reputation.
We have put in place security measures designed to protect against the misappropriation or corruption of our systems, intentional or unintentional disclosure of confidential information, or disruption of our operations. However, advanced cybersecurity threats, such as computer viruses, attempts to access information, and other security breaches, are persistent and continue to evolve, making them increasingly difficult to identify and prevent. Protecting against these threats may require significant resources, and we may not be able to implement measures that will protect against all of the significant risks to our information technology systems. In addition, we rely on a number of third party service providers to execute certain business processes and maintain certain information technology systems and infrastructure, and any breach of security on their part could impair our ability to effectively operate. Moreover, our operations in certain geographic locations may be particularly vulnerable to security attacks or other problems.
Any breach of our security measures could result in unauthorized access to and misappropriation of our information, corruption of data or disruption of operations or transactions, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.


ITEM 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.



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ITEM 2.PROPERTIES
Composites

Our Composites segment operates out of 27 manufacturing facilities. We recently finalized plans to expand our operations in Fort Smith, Arkansas, and we expect this new capacity to be available in 2023. Principal manufacturing facilities for our Composites segment, all of which are owned by the Company, include the following:
 
Aiken, South CarolinaJackson, Tennessee
Amarillo, TexasKimchon, Korea
Anderson, South CarolinaL’Ardoise, France
Apeldoorn, The NetherlandsRio Claro, Brazil
Chambery, France Taloja, India
Fort Smith, ArkansasTlaxcala, Mexico
Gous, RussiaYuhang, China
Insulation
Our Insulation segment operates out of 42 manufacturing facilities. Principal manufacturing facilities for our Insulation segment, all of which are owned by the Company, include the following:
 
Delmar, New YorkSanta Clara, California
Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaSedalia, Missouri
Fairburn, GeorgiaTallmadge, Ohio
Guangzhou, Guandong, ChinaTessenderlo, Belgium
Joplin, MissouriToronto, Ontario, Canada
Kansas City, KansasTrzemeszno, Poland
Mexico City, MexicoVilnius, Lithuania
Newark, OhioWabash, Indiana
Rockford, IllinoisWaxahachie, Texas
Roofing
Our Roofing segment operates out of 35 total manufacturing facilities. This number separately counts many roofing and asphalt manufacturing facilities that are located at the same site. Principal manufacturing facilities for our Roofing segment, all of which are owned by the Company, include the following:
 
Brookville, IndianaMinneapolis, Minnesota
Denver, ColoradoPortland, Oregon
Irving, TexasQingdao, China
Kearny, New JerseySavannah, Georgia
Medina, OhioSilvassa, India
Memphis, TennesseeSummit, Illinois
We believe that these properties are in good condition and well maintained, and are suitable and adequate to carry on our business. The capacity of each plant varies depending upon product mix.
Our principal executive offices are located in the Owens Corning World Headquarters, Toledo, Ohio, an owned facility of approximately 400,000 square feet. Our research and development activities are primarily conducted at our Science and Technology Center, located on approximately 500 acres of land owned by the Company outside of Granville, Ohio. It consists of approximately 20 structures totaling more than 650,000 square feet. In addition, we have application development and other product and market focused research and development centers in various locations.


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ITEM 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Environmental Legal Proceedings
None.

Litigation, Other Regulatory Proceedings and Environmental Matters
Additional information required by this item is incorporated by reference to Note 14, Contingent Liabilities and Other Matters.
 

ITEM 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.



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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The name, age and business experience during the past five years of Owens Corning’s executive officers as of January 1, 2021 are set forth below. Each executive officer holds office until his or her successor is elected and qualified or until his or her earlier resignation, retirement or removal. All those listed have been employees of Owens Corning during the past five years except as indicated.
 
Name and Age  Position*
Brian D. Chambers (54)Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer since April 2020; President and Chief Executive Officer (2019); formerly President and Chief Operating Officer (2018); formerly President, Roofing (2014)
Todd Fister (46)
President, Insulation since July 2019; formerly Vice President of Global Insulation and Strategy (2019); formerly Vice President and Managing Director for Europe Insulation and Global Foamglas® (2018); formerly Vice President and Managing Director for Foamglas® (2017); formerly Vice President of Strategic Marketing (2014)
Kenneth S. Parks (57)Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since January 2021; formerly Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (2020); formerly Chief Financial Officer of Mylan N.V. (2016); formerly Chief Financial Officer of WESCO, International, Inc. (2012)
Paula Russell (43)Executive Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer since January 2021; formerly Senior Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer (December 2019); formerly Vice President, Chief Human Resources Officer (April 2019); formerly Vice President of Total Rewards and Center of Excellence (2018); formerly Vice President of Total Rewards (2017); formerly Vice President of Human Resources, Composites (2012)
Marcio Sandri (57)  President, Composites since May 2018; formerly Vice President Global Strategy and Operations, Composites (2017); formerly Vice President and General Manager, Composites (2007)
Kelly J. Schmidt (55)  Vice President, Controller since April 2011
Daniel T. Smith (55)  
Executive Vice President, Chief Growth Officer since January 2021; formerly Senior Vice President, Chief Growth Officer (2019); formerly Senior Vice President, Organization and Administration (2014)
Gunner Smith (47)President, Roofing since August 2018, formerly Vice President of Distribution Sales for Roofing (2012)

*Information in parentheses indicates year during the past five years in which service in position began. The last item listed for each individual represents the position held by such individual at the beginning of the five-year period.



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Part II
 

ITEM 5.MARKET FOR OWENS CORNING’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Owens Corning’s common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “OC.”
Holders of Common Stock
The number of stockholders of record of Owens Corning’s common stock on February 12, 2021 was 310.
Cash Dividends
The payment of any future cash dividends to our stockholders will depend on decisions that will be made by our Board of Directors and will depend on then existing conditions, including our operating results, financial conditions, contractual restrictions, corporate law restrictions, capital agreements, applicable laws of the State of Delaware and business prospects.
Under the credit agreement applicable to our senior revolving credit facility, the Company may not declare a cash dividend if a default or event of default exists or would come to exist at the time of declaration or if a dividend declaration violates the provisions of our formation documents or other material agreements.
The Company’s subsidiaries are subject to certain restrictions on their ability to pay dividends under the agreements governing our senior revolving credit facility and our receivables securitization facility.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities; Use of Proceeds from Registered Securities
None.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table provides information about Owens Corning’s purchases of its common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2020:
 
Period
Total Number of
Shares (or Units)
Purchased*
Average Price
Paid per Share
(or Unit)
Total Number of
Shares (or Units)
Purchased as Part of
Publicly Announced
Plans or Programs**
Maximum Number of
Shares (or Units) that
May Yet Be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs**
October 1-31, 2020
134,336 $74.26 — 2,286,726 
November 1-30, 2020
501,291 74.06 498,190 1,788,536 
December 1-31, 2020
2,317,361 75.72 2,301,810 9,486,726 
Total2,952,988 $75.37 2,800,000 9,486,726 
 
*The Company retained 152,988 shares surrendered to satisfy tax withholding obligations in connection with the vesting of restricted shares granted to our employees.

**
On December 3, 2020, the Board of Directors approved a share buy-back program under which the Company is authorized to repurchase up to 10 million shares of the Company's outstanding common stock (the "2020 Repurchase Authorization"). The 2020 Repurchase Authorization is in addition to the share buy-back program announced October 24, 2016 (the 2016 Repurchase Authorization and collectively with the 2020 Repurchase Authorization, the "Repurchase Authorization"). The Repurchase Authorization enables the Company to repurchase shares through open market, privately negotiated, or other transactions. The actual number of shares repurchased will depend on timing, market conditions and other factors and is at the Company's discretion. The Company repurchased 2.8 million shares of its common stock for $211 million during the three months ended December 31, 2020 under the Repurchase Authorization. As of December 31, 2020, approximately 9.5 million shares remain available for repurchase under the Repurchase Authorization.



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ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR OWENS CORNING’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES (continued)




Performance Graph
The annual changes for the five-year period shown in the graph on this page are based on the assumption that $100 had been invested in Owens Corning (OC) stock, the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index ("S&P 500"), and the Dow Jones U.S. Construction & Materials Index ("DJ Constr. & Mat.") on December 31, 2015, and that all quarterly dividends were reinvested. The total cumulative dollar returns shown on the graph represent the value that such investments would have had on December 31, 2020. We have selected the U.S. Construction & Materials Index to include in the graph below as that index is used in an external metric to determine performance-based compensation and is utilized by the Company's investor relations function.
oc-20201231_g1.jpg
Performance Graph
 
201520162017201820192020
OC$100 $111 $201 $97 $146 $172 
S&P 500$100 $112 $136 $130 $171 $203 
DJ Constr. & Mat.$100 $119 $138 $108 $156 $193 


ITEM 6.SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The selected financial data previously required by Item 301 of Regulation S-K has been omitted in reliance on SEC Release No. 33-10890.


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ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

This Management’s Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) is intended to help investors understand Owens Corning, our operations and our present business environment. MD&A is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, our Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying Notes thereto contained in this report. Unless the context requires otherwise, the terms “Owens Corning,” “Company,” “we,” "its," and “our” in this report refer to Owens Corning and its subsidiaries.
This section of this Form 10-K generally discusses 2020 and 2019 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2020 and 2019. Discussions of 2018 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2019 and 2018 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Part II, Item 7 of the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.

GENERAL
Owens Corning is a leading global producer of glass fiber reinforcements and other materials for composites and of residential, commercial and industrial building materials. The Company has three reporting segments: Composites, Insulation and Roofing. Through these lines of business, the Company manufactures and sells products worldwide. We maintain leading market positions in many of our major product categories.

EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW
The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant uncertainty in the markets we serve and increased volatility in the financial markets in 2020. The spread of COVID-19 impacted the Company's operations and financial results in varying ways as the impact and pace of recovery varied throughout the geographies and end markets we serve. While the pandemic continues to pervade much of the globe, we are continuing to serve our customers, while taking significant precautions to provide a safe environment for our employees and customers. The extent of the pandemic’s effect on our operational and financial performance will depend in large part on future developments, which cannot be predicted with confidence at this time. Future developments include the duration, scope and severity of the pandemic, the actions taken to contain or mitigate its impact, the impact on governmental programs and budgets, the effective distribution of vaccines or other treatments, and the continued resumption of widespread economic activity.
Net loss attributable to Owens Corning was $383 million in 2020, compared to Net earnings attributable to Owens Corning of $405 million in 2019. The Company reported a loss of $124 million in earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) in 2020 compared to earnings of $753 million in 2019. The Company generated $878 million in adjusted earnings before interest and taxes (“Adjusted EBIT”) in 2020 compared to $828 million in 2019. See the Adjusted Earnings Before Interest and Taxes paragraph of MD&A for further information regarding EBIT and Adjusted EBIT, including the reconciliation to net earnings (loss) attributable to Owens Corning. Segment EBIT performance compared to 2019 decreased $82 million in our Composites segment, increased $20 million in our Insulation segment, and increased $136 million in our Roofing segment. Within our Corporate, Other and Eliminations category, General corporate expenses and other increased by $24 million.
Cash and cash equivalents were $717 million as of December 31, 2020, compared to $172 million as of December 31, 2019, as a result of strong cash flow provided by operating activities, lower cash paid for additions to property, plant and equipment and the issuance of $300 million of 2030 senior notes on May 12, 2020. In 2020, the Company's operating activities provided $1,135 million of cash flow, compared to $1,037 million in 2019. The change was primarily driven by lower inventories year-over-year. During 2020, the Company repaid all outstanding borrowings on the term loan associated with the purchase of Paroc.
In December 2020, the Board of Directors approved a share buy-back program under which the Company is authorized to repurchase up to 10 million shares of the Company's outstanding common stock (the "2020 Repurchase Authorization"). The 2020 Repurchase Authorization is in addition to the share buy-back program announced October 24, 2016 (the 2016 Repurchase Authorization and collectively with the 2020 Repurchase Authorization, the "Repurchase Authorization"). The Repurchase Authorization enables the Company to repurchase shares through open market, privately negotiated, or other transactions. The actual number of shares repurchased will depend on timing, market conditions and other factors and is at the Company's discretion. In 2020, the Company repurchased 4.1 million shares of the Company’s common stock for $292 million under a previously announced repurchase authorization. As of December 31, 2020, 9.5 million shares remain available for repurchase under the repurchase authorization.



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ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Consolidated Results (in millions)
 Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 202020192018
Net sales$7,055 $7,160 $7,057 
Gross margin$1,610 $1,609 $1,632 
% of net sales23 %22 %23 %
Marketing and administrative expenses$664 $698 $700 
Goodwill impairment charge$944 — — 
Other expenses, net$58 $37 $36 
Non-operating expense (income)$(14)$34 $(14)
Earnings (loss) before interest and taxes$(124)$753 $821 
Interest expense, net$132 $131 $117 
Loss on extinguishment of debt$— $32 $— 
Income tax expense$129 $186 $156 
Net earnings (loss) attributable to Owens Corning$(383)$405 $545 
The Consolidated Results discussion below provides a summary of our results and the trends affecting our business, and should be read in conjunction with the more detailed Segment Results discussion that follows.
NET SALES
Net sales decreased $105 million in 2020 compared to 2019. The decrease in net sales was primarily driven by lower selling prices across all three segments. Higher sales volumes in our Roofing segment were partially offset by lower third party asphalt sales, lower sales volumes in our Composites segment and an unfavorable product mix in our Composites and Insulation segments.
GROSS MARGIN
Gross margin in 2020 was largely flat compared to 2019.
MARKETING AND ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES
Marketing and administrative expenses decreased $34 million in 2020 compared to 2019. The decrease was primarily driven by cost control actions across the Company.
GOODWILL IMPAIRMENT CHARGE
The Company recorded a non-cash impairment charge of $944 million in the first quarter of 2020 related to the Insulation reporting unit, which was equal to the excess of the reporting unit's carrying value over its fair value.
OTHER EXPENSES, NET
Other expenses, net increased $21 million in 2020 compared to 2019. The increase was primarily driven by intangible asset impairment charges of $43 million and $13 million of higher restructuring charges, partially offset by $26 million of gains on sale of precious metals used in production tooling as needs changed in response to economic and technological factors.
NON-OPERATING EXPENSE (INCOME)
Non-operating expense (income) decreased $48 million compared to 2019, primarily due to the $43 million favorable year-over-year comparison to pension settlement losses recognized in 2019.
INTEREST EXPENSE, NET
Interest expense, net in 2020 was largely flat compared to 2019.


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ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)
LOSS ON EXTINGUISHMENT OF DEBT
During 2020, there were no extinguishments of debt. For the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company recognized a $32 million loss on extinguishment of debt in connection with the repurchase of a portion of its outstanding 2022 senior notes and 2036 senior notes in a tender offer.
INCOME TAX EXPENSE
Income tax expense for 2020 was $129 million compared to $186 million in 2019. The Company’s effective tax rate for 2020 was (50%) on pre-tax losses of $256 million.  The difference between the (50%) effective tax rate and the U.S. federal statutory tax rate of 21% is primarily attributable to charges related to the impairment of goodwill and certain other indefinite-lived intangible assets recorded in the first quarter of 2020, which were largely non-deductible. In addition, non-cash charges were recorded related to adjustments to valuation allowances against certain deferred tax assets. The company also recorded an amortizable asset in the US related to its transfer of economic rights of its non-US based Intellectual Property to the U.S., as further discussed in the following paragraph.
In December 2020, the Company completed an intercompany restructuring that resulted in the transfer of certain intellectual property rights held by wholly owned foreign subsidiaries to the U.S. The intellectual property rights transferred to the U.S. resulted in a step-up in the tax basis for U.S. tax purposes resulting in the Company recognizing a deferred tax asset of $37 million and a current year tax expense of $5 million. The recognized tax benefit of $37 million is amortizable for U.S. tax purposes over a fifteen-year period.
On July 20, 2020 the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) issued final regulations under IRC Section 951A permitting a taxpayer to elect to exclude from its inclusion of global intangible low-taxed income (GILTI), income subject to a high foreign effective tax rate. As a result of the final regulations, the Company recorded a net non-cash income tax benefit of $13 million in the third quarter relating to the 2018 and 2019 tax years.
On March 6, 2019, the U.S. Treasury and the IRS proposed regulations that provide guidance on determining the amount of a domestic corporation’s deduction for GILTI and foreign-derived intangible income (FDII) recently added by the Tax Act. The proposed regulations provide special rules to determine the deduction amount, which adjusted the Company’s 2018 tax estimate and resulted in an increase to tax expense of $12 million for 2019.
The realization of deferred tax assets depends on achieving a certain minimum level of future taxable income. Management currently believes that it is at least reasonably possible that the minimum level of taxable income will be met within the next 12 months to reduce the valuation allowances of certain foreign jurisdictions by a range of zero to $9 million.
The Company’s effective tax rate for 2019 was 31% on pre-tax income of $590 million. The difference between the 31% effective tax rate and the U.S. federal statutory tax rate of 21% is primarily attributable to U.S. state and local income tax expense, legislative changes, the impact of U.S federal tax expense on foreign earnings, an increase in tax valuation allowances recorded against U.S. foreign tax credits and certain foreign deferred tax assets and other discrete adjustments.


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ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)
Restructuring and Acquisition-Related Costs
The Company has incurred restructuring, transaction and integration costs related to acquisitions, along with restructuring costs in connection with its global cost reduction and productivity initiatives. These costs are recorded in the Corporate, Other and Eliminations category. Please refer to Note 10 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for further information on the nature of these costs.
The following table presents the impact and respective location of these income (expense) items on the Consolidated Statements of Earnings (Loss) (in millions):
 Twelve Months Ended December 31,
Location202020192018
Restructuring costsCost of sales$(26)$(15)$(17)
Restructuring costsOther expenses, net(15)(12)(5)
Restructuring costsNon-operating expense— (1)— 
Acquisition-related costsMarketing and administrative expenses— — (7)
Acquisition-related costsOther expenses, net— — (9)
Recognition of acquisition inventory fair value step-upCost of sales— — (2)
Total restructuring, acquisition and integration-related costs$(41)$(28)$(40)
Adjusted Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (“Adjusted EBIT”)
Adjusted EBIT is a non-GAAP measure that excludes certain items that management does not allocate to our segment results because it believes they are not representative of the Company’s ongoing operations. Adjusted EBIT is used internally by the Company for various purposes, including reporting results of operations to the Board of Directors of the Company, analysis of performance and related employee compensation measures. Although management believes that these adjustments result in a measure that provides a useful representation of our operational performance, the adjusted measure should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for Net earnings (loss) attributable to Owens Corning as prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.
Adjusting (expense) income items to EBIT are shown in the table below (in millions):
 Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 202020192018
Restructuring costs$(41)$(28)$(22)
Gains on sale of certain precious metals26 — — 
Goodwill impairment charge(944)— — 
Intangible assets impairment charge(43)— — 
Acquisition-related costs— — (16)
Recognition of acquisition inventory fair value step-up— — (2)
Pension settlement losses— (43)— 
Environmental liability charges— (4)— 
Total adjusting items$(1,002)$(75)$(40)
 


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ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)
The reconciliation from Net earnings (loss) attributable to Owens Corning to EBIT and Adjusted EBIT is shown in the table below (in millions):
 Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 202020192018
NET EARNINGS (LOSS) ATTRIBUTABLE TO OWENS CORNING$(383)$405 $545 
Net earnings (loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests(2)— 
NET EARNINGS (LOSS)(385)405 547 
Equity in net earnings (loss) of affiliates— (1)
Income tax expense129 186 156 
EARNINGS (LOSS) BEFORE TAXES(256)590 704 
Interest expense, net132 131 117 
Loss on extinguishment of debt— 32 — 
EARNINGS (LOSS) BEFORE INTEREST AND TAXES(124)753 821 
Adjusting items from above(1,002)(75)(40)
ADJUSTED EBIT$878 $828 $861 

Segment Results
EBIT by segment consists of net sales less related costs and expenses and is presented on a basis that is used internally for evaluating segment performance. Certain items, such as general corporate expenses or income and certain other expense or income items, are excluded from the internal evaluation of segment performance. Accordingly, these items are not reflected in EBIT for our reportable segments and are included in the Corporate, Other and Eliminations category, which is presented following the discussion of our reportable segments.
Composites
The table below provides a summary of net sales, EBIT and depreciation and amortization expense for the Composites segment (in millions):
 Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 202020192018
Net sales$1,960 $2,059 $2,041 
% change from prior year-5 %%-1 %
EBIT$165 $247 $251 
EBIT as a % of net sales%12 %12 %
Depreciation and amortization expense$159 $154 $147 
NET SALES
Net sales in our Composites segment decreased $99 million in 2020 compared to 2019. The decrease was due to lower sales volumes of approximately 1% due to the impact on demand from the COVID-19 pandemic, lower selling prices of $27 million, the unfavorable impact of $20 million from translating sales denominated in foreign currencies into United States Dollars, and the impact of unfavorable customer and product mix.
EBIT
EBIT in our Composites segment decreased $82 million in 2020 compared to 2019. The decline was driven by the $86 million unfavorable impact of production curtailment actions taken in response to the decline in demand from the COVID-19 pandemic. Favorable manufacturing performance of $43 million was offset by lower selling prices and the unfavorable impact of lower sales volumes. The $19 million unfavorable impact of translating sales and costs denominated in foreign currencies into United States Dollars was offset by lower selling, general and administrative expenses. Lower transportation costs and input cost deflation more than offset the impact of unfavorable customer mix.


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ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)
OUTLOOK
Global glass reinforcements market demand has historically been correlated with global industrial production and we believe this relationship will continue. The Company expects the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to create uncertainty in its end markets. The magnitude of the impact will depend on the depth and duration of the crisis, as well as the timing of the recovery in the markets served by the Composites segment. The company continues to focus on managing costs, capital expenditures, and working capital.
 
Insulation
The table below provides a summary of net sales, EBIT and depreciation and amortization expense for the Insulation segment (in millions):
 Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 202020192018
Net sales$2,607 $2,668 $2,720 
% change from prior year-2 %-2 %36 %
EBIT$250 $230 $290 
EBIT as a % of net sales10 %%11 %
Depreciation and amortization expense$201 $194 $186 
NET SALES
In our Insulation segment, 2020 net sales decreased $61 million compared to 2019. The decrease was due to the impact of unfavorable customer and product mix, the $18 million unfavorable impact from the divestiture of an immaterial business in the first quarter of 2020, and lower selling prices of $12 million. Volume growth was largely flat across the segment, with positive volume growth in our North American residential fiberglass business offsetting volume declines in our technical and other building insulation businesses.
EBIT
In our Insulation segment, EBIT increased $20 million in 2020 compared to 2019, primarily due to favorable manufacturing performance partially offset by $12 million in lower selling prices. The $19 million favorable impact of lower selling, general and administrative expenses and the $5 million gain on the divestiture of an immaterial business in the first quarter of 2020 were offset by the unfavorable impact of customer and product mix and higher delivery costs.
OUTLOOK

The outlook for Insulation demand is driven by North American new residential construction, remodeling and repair activity, as well as commercial and industrial construction activity in the United States, Canada, Europe and Asia-Pacific. Demand in commercial and industrial insulation markets is most closely correlated to industrial production growth and overall economic activity in the global markets we serve. Demand for residential insulation is most closely correlated to U.S. housing starts.

During the fourth quarter of 2020, the average Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate (SAAR) of U.S. housing starts was approximately 1.592 million starts, which was up from 1.433 million starts in the fourth quarter of 2019.

Through the fourth quarter of 2020, the North American new residential construction recovery has continued, while global commercial and industrial construction activity has recovered at a slower pace. The Company expects the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to create uncertainty in its end markets. The magnitude of the impact will depend on the depth and duration of the crisis, and the pace of recovery in the end markets and geographies served by the Insulation segment. The company continues to focus on managing costs, capital expenditures, and working capital.


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ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)
Roofing
The table below provides a summary of net sales, EBIT and depreciation and amortization expense for the Roofing segment (in millions):
 Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 202020192018
Net sales$2,695 $2,634 $2,492 
% change from prior year%%-2 %
EBIT$591 $455 $434 
EBIT as a % of net sales22 %17 %17 %
Depreciation and amortization expense$59 $54 $51 
NET SALES
In our Roofing segment, net sales increased $61 million in 2020 compared to 2019. The increase was driven by higher sales volumes of about 6% on higher shingle and components volumes, partially offset by $64 million of lower third-party asphalt sales and $51 million of lower selling prices.
EBIT
In our Roofing segment, EBIT increased $136 million in 2020 compared to 2019. The increase was largely driven by the impact of higher sales volumes, favorable manufacturing performance of $19 million, $12 million in lower transportation costs and the $11 million benefit related to the recovery of certain tariffs paid over the past two years, following a short-term exclusion request granted by the U.S. government. The unfavorable impact of lower selling prices was more than offset by $89 million of input cost deflation, primarily asphalt.
OUTLOOK
In our Roofing segment, we expect the factors that have driven strong margins in recent years, such as growth from remodeling demand, along with higher sales of roofing components, to continue to deliver profitability. Uncertainties that may impact our Roofing margins include demand from storm and other weather events, demand from new construction, competitive pricing pressure and the cost and availability of raw materials, particularly asphalt.

Despite recent strength in the U.S. asphalt shingle market, the Company expects the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to create uncertainty in its end markets. The magnitude of the impact will depend on the depth and duration of the crisis, as well as the timing of the recovery in the markets served by the Roofing segment. The company continues to focus on managing costs, capital expenditures, and working capital.



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ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS (continued)
Corporate, Other and Eliminations
The table below provides a summary of EBIT and depreciation and amortization expense for the Corporate, Other and Eliminations category (in millions):
 Twelve Months Ended December 31,
 202020192018
Restructuring costs$(41)$(28)$(22)
Gains on sale of certain precious metals26 — — 
Goodwill impairment charge(944)— — 
Intangible assets impairment charge(43)— — 
Acquisition-related costs— — (16)
Recognition of acquisition inventory fair value step-up— — (2)
Pension settlement losses— (43)— 
Environmental liability charges— (4)— 
General corporate expense and other(128)(104)(114)
EBIT$(1,130)$(179)