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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number: 1-33168

Grupo Aeroportuario del Centro Norte, S.A.B. de C.V.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

Central North Airport Group

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

United Mexican States

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

Plaza Metrópoli Patriotismo, Piso 5

Av. Patriotismo 201

Col. San Pedro de los Pinos, Benito Juárez

Ciudad de México, México

(Address of principal executive offices)

Ruffo Pérez Pliego del Castillo

Plaza Metrópoli Patriotismo, Piso 5

Av. Patriotismo 201

Col. San Pedro de los Pinos, Benito Juárez

Ciudad de México, México

+ 52 81 8625 4300

rperezpliego@oma.aero

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class:

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

American Depositary Shares (ADSs) each representing 8 Series B shares

OMAB

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

Series B shares

OMAB

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC*

*

Not for trading, but only in connection with the registration of ADSs, pursuant to the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

N/A

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:

Title of each class:

Number of Shares

Series B shares

336,403,425 (excluding 3,942,131 shares repurchased held in treasury )

Series BB shares

49,766,000

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 Yes  No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 Yes  No

Note — Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

 Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Emerging growth company 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP 

IFRS 

Other 

Indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow:

 Item 17 Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

 Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (§ 15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

 Yes  No

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ITEM 1.

IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

1

ITEM 2.

OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

1

ITEM 3.

KEY INFORMATION

1

Risk Factors

1

Forward-Looking Statements

30

ITEM 4.

INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

31

History And Development Of The Company

31

Business Overview

36

Regulatory Framework

68

Organizational Structure

86

Property, Plant And Equipment

88

ITEM 4A.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

88

ITEM 5.

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

88

ITEM 6.

DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

132

ITEM 7.

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED-PARTY TRANSACTIONS

141

Major Shareholders

141

Related-Party Transactions

144

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

146

Legal Proceedings

146

Dividends And Capital Stock Reimbursements

150

ITEM 9.

THE OFFER AND LISTING

151

Share Price History

151

Trading On The Mexican Stock Exchange

151

ITEM 10.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION BYLAWS

152

Material Contracts

167

Exchange Controls

167

Taxation

168

Documents On Display

172

ITEM 11.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

172

ITEM 12.

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

172

ITEM 12A.

DEBT SECURITIES

172

ITEM 12B.

WARRANTS AND RIGHTS

172

ITEM 12C.

OTHER SECURITIES

173

ITEM 12D.

AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES

173

ITEM 13.

DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

175

ITEM 14.

MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

175

ITEM 15.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

175

ITEM 16.

[RESERVED]

178

ITEM 16A.

AUDIT COMMITTEE’S FINANCIAL EXPERT

178

ITEM 16B.

CODE OF ETHICS

178

ITEM 16C.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES AUDIT AND NON-AUDIT FEES

179

ITEM 16D.

EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

179

ITEM 16E.

PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

179

ITEM 16F.

CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

181

ITEM 16G.

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

182

ITEM 16H.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

186

ITEM 17.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

187

ITEM 18.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

187

ITEM 19.

EXHIBITS

187

PART I

Item 1.          Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not applicable.

Item 2.          Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not applicable.

Item 3.          Key Information

RISK FACTORS

Risks Related to Our Operations

The outbreak of COVID-19 has had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on the global economy and on our business, operations and results.

The outbreak, and measures taken to contain or mitigate the coronavirus (“COVID-19”), have had dramatic adverse consequences for the global economy, including demand, operations, supply chains and financial markets. COVID-19 has led to travel restrictions imposed by governments, flight cancellations, and a marked decline in passenger demand for air travel, domestically and worldwide.

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, since 2020, the Mexican Government established different measures to contain or mitigate the coronavirus, including the issuance of decrees suspending all non-essential activities in the country from March 31, 2020 through May 30, 2020. However, since the beginning of the pandemic, airports were and have been considered essential and our airports have remained operational since. As a consequence of these measures, total passenger traffic in our airports declined 22.2% and 52.3% in 2021 and 2020, as compared to 2019.

In response to the material deterioration in air traffic, we took a number of actions in 2020 and 2021 to mitigate our business, operations and financial condition, including, among others, (a) the temporary reduction of certain operating areas in terminal buildings, which resulted in electricity savings and optimization of our cleaning and security crew, (b) deferral of cost in minor maintenances based on prevailing levels of operations, (c) headcount reduction of approximately 100 positions implemented in the third quarter of 2020, and (d) deferral and discount agreements with commercial and aeronautical clients, most of which were phased out on June 30, 2021. Additionally, we established health and safety protocols aimed at enhancing the well-being of passengers and essential operating personnel across the airports we operate. Protective gear is required for staff working on the premises, and sanitization practices in accordance with the guidelines of local health authorities remain in place.

On November 24, 2021, a new COVID-19 variant named Omicron was reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). This new variant was first detected in specimens collected in Botswana and South Africa, and was identified as having spread faster than other variants. As a result, we expect that the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to adversely impact the countries and regions where we operate in 2022. Our total passenger traffic decreased 10.0% in the first quarter of 2022 as compared to the first quarter of 2019.

The full extent of the ongoing impact of COVID-19 on the Company’s longer-term operational and financial performance will depend on future developments, including those outside our control related to the efficacy and speed of vaccination programs in curbing the spread of the virus, the introduction and spread of new variants of the virus such as the Delta and Omicron variants, which may be resistant to currently approved vaccines, passenger testing requirements, mask mandates or other restrictions on travel, all of which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted. Even where formal advisories and restrictions have been lifted or reduced, the increased spread or resurgence of COVID-19 could result in the reintroduction of or increase in such formal advisories and restrictions.

1

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a material impact on the Company, and the continuation of reduced air travel demand could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, operating results, financial condition and liquidity.

Large scale international events, including acts of terrorism, wars and the military action launched by Russian forces in Ukraine, could have a negative impact on international air travel and our revenues.

Events such as the conflicts in the Middle East and terrorist attacks worldwide have negatively affected in the past the frequency and pattern of air travel worldwide.

On February 24, 2022, Russian forces launched significant military action against Ukraine, and sustained conflict and disruption in the region has continued as of the date of this report. The impact to Ukraine as well as actions taken by other countries could have a material adverse effect on our operations. Any general increase of hostilities in Ukraine, even if not made on or targeted directly at the air travel industry, or the fear of or the precautions taken in anticipation of any potential military attacks such as elevated national threat warnings, travel restrictions, selective cancellation or redirection of flights and new security regulations, among others, (and any related economic impact of such events) could result in decreased passenger traffic and increased costs to the air travel industry as a result of new security requirements and, as a result, could cause a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

In addition, in response to the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the U.S. and other countries have imposed sanctions or other restrictive actions against Russia. The U.S. and global markets are experiencing volatility and disruption following the escalation of such geopolitical tensions and the military conflict between Russia and Ukraine. Any of the above factors, including sanctions, export controls, tariffs, trade wars and other governmental actions, could have a material adverse effect on the travel industry and therefore our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations. See also “Variations in international fuel prices could directly or indirectly adversely affect our business and results of operations.”

Our revenues are highly dependent on levels of air traffic, which depend on factors beyond our control.

Passenger and cargo traffic volumes and air traffic movements depend on many factors beyond our control, including the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonality, severe or extreme weather, economic conditions in Mexico, the United States or globally, the political situation in Mexico and elsewhere in the world, the attractiveness of the destinations of our airports relative to that of other competing destinations, fluctuations in fuel prices (which could cause airlines to increase tariffs and have a negative impact on traffic as a result of increased fuel costs), changes in regulatory policies applicable to the aviation industry and an increase or decrease in Mexican airlines’ fleets, among others. For more information on the effect COVID-19 has had on our passenger traffic, see “The outbreak of COVID-19 has had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on the global economy and on our business, operations and results.”

Our revenues are closely linked to both passenger and cargo traffic volumes and to the number of air traffic movements at our airports. These factors directly determine our revenues from aeronautical services and indirectly determine our revenues from non-aeronautical services. Any decreases in passenger and cargo traffic volumes and the number of air traffic movements to or from our airports as a result of these factors could adversely affect our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

Our business could be adversely affected by global political developments, particularly with regard to U.S. policies toward Mexico.

Changes in economic, political and regulatory conditions in the United States or in U.S. laws and policies governing foreign trade and foreign relations could create uncertainty in the international markets and could have a negative impact on the Mexican economy and public finances. This correlation is due, in part, to the high level of economic activity between the two countries generally, including the trade facilitated by the North American Free Trade Agreement (“NAFTA”), as well as physical proximity.

2

On October 1, 2018, Mexico announced that it had reached an agreement with Canada and the United States to modernize their free trade relationship and replace NAFTA. The new agreement, which is known as the United States Mexico Canada Agreement (USMCA), was formally signed on November 30, 2018 and entered into force on July 1, 2020. We cannot predict the impact of the USMCA on particular industries or government policies and the changes to international trade that may result.

Following the U.S. elections in November 2020 and the change in the U.S. administration for the four-year period from 2021 to 2024, there is uncertainty regarding future U.S. policies with respect to matters of importance to Mexico and its economy, particularly trade and migration. Policies adopted could create tension between the Mexican and U.S. governments or reduce economic activity between Mexico and the United States, thus affecting the travel of passengers between those countries. For more information on travel restrictions related to COVID-19, see “The outbreak of COVID-19 has had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on the global economy and on our business, operations and results.”

Furthermore, in September 2017, the U.S. administration announced its plan to phase out the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program (“DACA”), which allows certain individuals who entered the U.S. as undocumented minors to defer immediate deportation and to be eligible for a work permit. Because the majority of individuals who benefit from this program are from Mexico, terminating the program may affect relations between Mexico and the U.S., as well as transit between the two countries. On July 16, 2021, the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas issued a ruling partially suspending DACA. The ruling permits the continued processing of DACA renewals but does not allow for any new applications to be granted. There is still uncertainty about whether and when DACA will be ratified, and we cannot assess the impact it may have on particular industries or government policies that may result. If new federal immigration legislation is enacted in the U.S., such laws may contain provisions that could make it more difficult for Mexican citizens to travel between Mexico and the United States. Such restrictions could have a material adverse effect on our passenger traffic results. Also, the U.S. passed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act on December 22, 2017, which, among others, reduces the U.S. corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%, and implemented new import taxes on certain goods, approved on January 22, 2018. We cannot predict the impact that these measures may have on trade between the U.S. and Mexico or whether foreign direct investment from the U.S. to Mexico will decrease.

The foregoing factors and further policy changes could have an impact on Mexico’s gross domestic product (“GDP”) growth, the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Mexican peso, levels of foreign direct investment and portfolio investment in Mexico, interest rates, inflation, and the Mexican economy generally; which in turn, may impact the level of passenger traffic in our airports and adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.

Our business could be adversely affected by a downturn in the global economy, particularly with regard to the U.S. economy.

The outbreak of COVID-19 has adversely affected the economies and financial markets of many countries, including the United States and Mexico. The extent to which COVID-19 impacts these economies will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the duration and scope of the outbreak and the actions taken to contain or treat the outbreak, within the United States, Mexico and around the world. The United States and Mexico technically entered into a recession in 2020 following the COVID-19 outbreak. Although recent vaccine approvals and rollout have raised hopes of a turnaround in the COVID-19 pandemic later this year, renewed waves and new variants pose concerns for the outlook. Growth may be stymied if virus surges (including from new variants such as Delta and Omicron) prove difficult to contain, infections and deaths mount rapidly before vaccines are widely available. The COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with the measures implemented by governmental authorities to contain and mitigate the effects of COVID-19, including shutdowns of non-essential infrastructure businesses, stricter border controls, stringent quarantines and social distancing, triggered significant economic downturn in Mexico and the United States. The extent and effect of a potentially new recession is difficult to predict, including whether such recession and any recovery thereof will be similar to past periods of recession and recovery.

3

Moreover, international events, such as decreases in oil prices and the slower growth in the Chinese economy, have led to volatility in the international markets and adversely affected the Mexican economy. As a result, Mexico has been forced to cut public expenses, since oil output is one of the main sources of revenue in Mexico. In recent years, however, the U.S. economy has improved, with the GDP increasing at an annualized rate in real terms of 2.3% in 2019, decreased 3.5% in 2020 and increased 5.7% in 2021, and our international passenger traffic increasing 7.9%, decreased 56.9% and increased 94.3%, respectively. In the event of an economic downturn, developing countries, which have largely rebounded from the economic and financial crisis in 2009, would be impacted through trade and financial channels.

Our business is particularly dependent on the condition of the U.S. economy and is particularly influenced by trends in the United States relating to leisure travel, consumer spending and international tourism. For more information on U.S. travel restrictions related to COVID-19, see “The outbreak of COVID-19 has had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on the global economy and on our business, operations and results.” According to the Mexican National Institute of Statistics and Geography (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía), in 2021, exports from Mexico to the United States represented approximately 80.7% of Mexican exports, and 47.5% of foreign direct investment in Mexico originated in the United States. According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2021, secondary income received from the United States, which includes government and private transfers, was approximately U.S.$18.1 billion.

Since the demand for aeronautical services in Mexico is substantially dependent on the performance of the Mexican economy, which is in turn highly dependent on the performance of the U.S. economy, a further downturn in the U.S. economy or a disruption in commercial activities among the U.S. and Mexico could cause a material adverse effect on our results of operations, prospects and financial condition. More generally, further downturns in the global economy and/or in the Mexican economy would also adversely affect our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. See also “—Risks Related to Mexico—The Company is significantly dependent upon the volume of air passenger traffic in Mexico, and negative economic developments in Mexico could adversely affect its business and results of operations.”

Variations in international fuel prices could directly or indirectly adversely affect our business and results of operations.

International fuel prices, which represent a significant cost for airlines, have experienced significant volatility in recent years.

For example, European Brent crude oil spot prices dropped from U.S.$67.77 per barrel on December 31, 2019 to U.S.$9.12 per barrel on April 21, 2020, and increased from U.S.$51.22 per barrel on December 31, 2020, to U.S.$ 77.24 per barrel on December 31, 2021. The price of fuel may be subject to further fluctuations resulting from a reduction or increase in output of petroleum, voluntary or otherwise, by oil-producing countries, other market forces, a general increase in international hostilities, or any future terrorist attacks. From December 31, 2021, to April 22, 2022 the European Brent crude oil spot prices surged 30.3% largely as a result of concerns over potential supply disruptions in connection with the current conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the outcome of which and the impact that it may have on fuel prices is uncertain.

4

In the past, increased costs were among the factors leading to cancellations of routes, decreases in frequencies of flights and, in some cases, even contributed to filings for bankruptcy by some airlines. Our business could be negatively impacted by hydrocarbon price volatility as the result of, or as a result of the threat of, Russian activities in Ukraine and as the result of, or as a result of the threat of, Russia expanding its production of oil and gas to finance its activities in Ukraine and destabilize world energy markets. Oil prices are particularly sensitive to actual and perceived threats to global political stability and to changes in production from member states in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. An actual increase, or the threat of an increase, in Russian military activities in Ukraine could lead to increased volatility in global oil and gas prices. Further, recent increases in oil prices may lead to an unpredictable drop in pricing in the medium to long-term, and any substantial variation in fuel prices could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, trade and monetary sanctions in response to future developments relating to the movement of Russian military units into Ukraine could significantly affect worldwide oil prices and demand and cause turmoil in the global financial system, which could in turn materially affect our business and financial condition. See also “Large scale international events, including acts of terrorism, wars and the military action launched by Russian forces in Ukraine, could have a negative impact on international air travel and our revenues.”

Our business is highly dependent on the operations of Mexico City International Airport.

In 2019, 2020 and 2021, approximately 43.0%, 40.0% and 40.3%, respectively, of our domestic passengers flew to or from our airports via Mexico City International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional de la Ciudad de México, S.A. de C.V.) As a result, our domestic traffic is highly dependent upon the operations of Mexico City International Airport.

On July 3, 2017, the Mexican Federal Antitrust Commission (Comisión Federal de Competencia Económica, or the “Antitrust Commission”) issued Corrective Measures for the Mexico City International Airport to address the inefficiencies observed at the airport during congested hours, limiting operations between the hours of 7:00 and 22:00. In response, on September 29, 2017, the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation (Secretaría de Infraestructura, Comunicaciones y Transportes and formerly known as Ministry of Communications and Transportation) announced in the Federal Official Gazette the General Guidelines for the allocation of slots at congested airports (see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to the Regulation of Our Business—The Company cannot predict how the regulations governing the business will be applied.”). The indirect effect of the new regulation in 2017 was a decrease in the number of flights and an increase in the number of flight cancellations to and from Mexico City International Airport and other regional destinations.

To alleviate congestion at the Mexico City International Airport, a new Mexico City international airport was being built and was expected to start operations in 2022. The current Mexican federal administration that took office on December 1, 2018 cancelled the construction of the new Mexico City international airport. There is still uncertainty about what effect, if any, the cancellation of the new Mexico City international airport will have on our operations and passenger traffic results.

In addition, the current Mexican federal administration announced that it would seek to alleviate congestion at the existing airport by (i) converting a military airport approximately 40 kilometers (24.9 miles) outside of Mexico City (the “Felipe Ángeles Airport”) to a civil airport that started operations on March 21, 2022, (ii) expanding the Toluca International Airport, which is approximately 60 kilometers (37.3 miles) outside of Mexico City and (iii) expanding the boarding gate capacity at Terminal 2 of the existing Mexico City International Airport, which expansion plan was announced on September 24, 2019. There is still uncertainty about what impact the new Felipe Ángeles airport will have to alleviate congestion at the existing Mexico City International Airport. We cannot assure you that the airport’s operations will remain at existing levels or increase in the future.

Security enhancements have resulted in increased costs and may require additional investments in the future.

In 2021, 12.8% of the passengers served by our airports were international passengers, of which, 85.2% arrived or departed on flights originating in or departing to the United States. The air travel business is susceptible to increased costs resulting from enhanced security and higher insurance. Following the events of September 11, 2001, we reinforced security at our airports, and our general liability insurance premiums increased substantially. For more information on the insurance policies we carry, see “Item 4. Information on the Company – Property, Plant and Equipment.”

5

Because a substantial majority of our international flights involve travel to and from the United States, we may be required to comply with security directives of the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”) in addition to the directives of Mexican aviation authorities. World events, such as the terrorist attacks worldwide attributed to the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or any other organization, could lead to additional security measures taken by the FAA or the International Civil Aviation Organization (“ICAO”), an agency of the United Nations Organization, and could require us to incur in additional costs to comply with these measures. Similarly, our airport operations and passenger volume could be negatively impacted by terrorist attacks on aircrafts, such as those which occurred with international airlines’ aircraft operating over Egypt and the Ukraine in 2015.

While governments in other countries have agreed to indemnify airlines for liabilities they might incur resulting from terrorist attacks, the Mexican government has not done so and has given no indication of any intention to do the same. In addition, fuel prices and supplies, which constitute a significant cost for airlines using our airports, may be subject to increases resulting from any future terrorist attacks, a general increase in international hostilities or a reduction in output of fuel, voluntary or otherwise, by oil producing countries. Such increases in airlines’ costs have resulted in higher airline ticket prices and decreased demand for air travel generally, thereby having an adverse effect on our revenues and results of operations. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, airlines and airports have had to implement additional security and compliance measures to comply with local health and safety regulations, which could increase costs. We have, among other things, installed disinfectant gel dispensers and air purifiers, mandated facemasks, installed preventive barriers, instituted spacing and flow of movement measures, and provided training to our employees. These enhanced measures have not resulted in a significant increase in our operating costs to date, but we may be required to adopt additional safety measures in the future. Security measures taken to comply with future security directives or in response to a terrorist attack or threat could reduce passenger capacity at our airports due to increased passenger screening and slower security checkpoints and increase our operating costs, which would have an adverse effect on our overall performance.

Furthermore, under the Mexican Airport Law, we are currently responsible for inspecting passengers and their carry-on luggage before they board any aircraft. Under Mexican law, we may be liable to third parties for personal injury or property damage resulting from the performance of such inspection. In addition, we may be required to adopt additional security measures in the future or undertake capital expenditures if security measures for carry-on luggage are enhanced, which could increase our liability or adversely affect our operating results.

The operation of baggage screening equipment could increase our expenses and may expose us to greater liability.

The ICAO’s security guidelines requires checked baggage on all international commercial flights and domestic commercial flights to undergo a comprehensive screening process for the detection of explosives. In some countries, such as the United States, the federal government (in the case of the United States, through the Transportation Security Administration (“TSA”)) is responsible for screening checked baggage. On May 1, 2014 and July 1, 2016, the Mexican Bureau of Civil Aviation (currently the Federal Civil Aviation Agency (Agencia Federal de Aviación Civil or “AFAC”)) published mandatory circulars CO SA-17.2/10 R3 and CO SA-17.9/16, respectively, which require that all airlines screen checked baggage and that all airports have screening equipment that complies with specified guidelines. We have purchased and installed screening equipment in all of our airports to facilitate compliance with the baggage screening guidelines, and our subsidiary, Servicios Complementarios del Centro Norte, S.A. de C.V., has operated the checked baggage screening system since March 1, 2012.

We incur ongoing expenses to maintain and operate this equipment and expect to incur ongoing expenses to maintain any equipment purchased. In the future, we could be required to undertake significant additional capital expenditures for items such as a new screening technology or additional equipment if screening guidelines are expanded further and require that additional steps be taken to comply with the requirements. For instance, replacement of the majority of our baggage screening equipment with new Computer Tomography X-ray (CTX) baggage screening equipment began in 2021 and will continue through 2025, although regulatory changes could force our airports to undertake this replacement sooner. In addition, the circular CO SA-17.9/16 established that airports must have alternative baggage screening methods in case the inspection technology currently used is no longer available. We believe that we comply with the baggage screening guidelines, but AFAC may require additional investments. These additional expenses could restrict our liquidity and adversely affect our financial position.

6

Although Mexican law holds airlines liable for screening checked baggage, the purchase, installation and operation of equipment could increase our exposure to liability as a result of our involvement in the screening process.

Competition from other tourist destinations could adversely affect our business.

The principal factor affecting our results of operations and business is the number of passengers using our airports. The number of passengers using our airports (particularly the Acapulco, Mazatlán and Zihuatanejo airports) may vary as a result of factors beyond our control, including the level of tourism in Mexico. In addition, our passenger traffic volume may be adversely affected by the attractiveness, affordability and accessibility of competing tourist destinations in Mexico, such as Cancún, Puerto Vallarta and Los Cabos, or elsewhere, such as Florida, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic and other Caribbean islands and destinations in Central America.

Tourism levels may decrease, and therefore the number of passengers using our airports in the future may not exceed or match current levels, which could have a direct and indirect impact on our aeronautical and non-aeronautical revenues.

Our business is highly dependent upon revenues from seven of our thirteen airports and OMA Logística, S.A. de C.V. (“OMA Logística”) and could be adversely impacted by any condition affecting those businesses.

In 2021, approximately 80.5% of the sum of our aeronautical and non-aeronautical revenues were generated from seven of our thirteen airports and OMA Logística, S.A. de C.V. (“OMA Logística”). The Monterrey airport generated the most significant portion of our revenues. The following table lists the percentage of the sum of aeronautical and non-aeronautical revenues generated at our airports, including the percentage of total revenues generated by our other subsidiaries:

    

For Year Ended

 

Airport / Subsidiary

December 31, 2021

 

Monterrey

 

42.2

%

Culiacán

 

9.1

%

Chihuahua

 

6.7

%

Ciudad Juárez

 

6.3

%

OMA Logistica S.A. de C.V. ("OMA Logística")

 

6.1

%

Mazatlán

 

5.2

%

San Luis Potosí

 

3.3

%

Acapulco

 

3.3

%

Six other airports, Servicios Complementarios del Centro Norte and Terminal 2 NH Collection Hotel

 

17.8

%

Total

 

100.0

%

(1)OMA Logística includes revenues from Consorcio Hotelero Aeropuerto Monterrey, S.A.P.I. de C.V. and OMA-VYNMSA Aero Industrial Park, S.A. de C.V., as well as certain commercial and cargo revenues.

As a result of the substantial contribution to our revenues from these seven airports and OMA Logística, any event or condition affecting these principal airports could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

Lastly, we cannot predict any future effect COVID-19 will have on our revenues. For more information on risks related to COVID-19 see “The outbreak of COVID-19 has had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on the global economy and on our business, operations and results.”

7

We are dependent on information technology, and our systems and infrastructure face certain risks, including cybersecurity risks.

We rely on a variety of information technology to manage our operations. The proper functioning of these systems is critical to the efficient operation and management of our business. If critical information systems fail or are otherwise unavailable, our ability to provide services at our airports, collect accounts receivable, pay expenses and maintain our security and customer data, could be adversely affected. In addition, these systems may require modifications or upgrades as a result of technological changes or growth in our business. These changes may be costly and disruptive to our operations, and could impose substantial demands on management time. Our systems may be vulnerable to damage or disruption caused by circumstances beyond our control, such as catastrophic events, power outages, natural disasters, computer system or network failures, viruses or malware, physical or electronic break ins, unauthorized access and cyber-attacks.

In the third quarter of 2021, we detected that several of our servers had been compromised with ransomware. Relying on our backup processes and consolidated infrastructure, we were able to restore the majority of our compromised servers within 48 hours of the incident. The main systems at the airports were not affected and remained in operation with minimal disruption.

To prevent future cybersecurity incidents, we are constantly updating our infrastructure with the latest security technologies, and we conduct vulnerability analyses and penetration testing periodically. Our information systems contain backup systems, including physical and software safeguards located outside of our offices, and a cold site for critical systems. In addition, we protect our systems with antivirus software, end-point protection software and last generation firewalls, including firewalls to filter traffic from the Internet. There can be no assurances that these preventive actions to mitigate cybersecurity risks and incidents will be successful in avoiding future cyber-attacks. Any such incident could hinder our ability to protect the privacy of our clients and business by causing the unauthorized distribution of confidential data and valuable financial information, which may cause damage to our reputation and may require us to incur additional expenses. Although actions are taken continuously to improve and monitor our information technology systems, these systems remain vulnerable to failures or unauthorized access, which could adversely affect our operations, financial condition and liquidity.

We face risks associated with our diversification activities, which could lead to our inability to recover our investment as planned.

We face risks associated with the nature of the diversification projects that we have developed and in which we participate as shareholders, which could impact our results of operations, prospects and financial condition. Our Terminal 2 NH Collection Hotel and our Hilton Garden Inn Hotel depend on passenger traffic travel to and from the Mexico City International Airport and the Monterrey airport, respectively, and any event that reduces passenger volume in these airports could adversely affect the results of operations of these hotels. The passenger traffic volume in such airports depends on factors beyond our control, such as the attractiveness of the commercial, industrial and tourist centers that the airports serve. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the passenger traffic volume in such airports will increase or maintain the current level.

As a result of the various measures implemented to control the spread of COVID-19, such as the suspension of non-essential activities and the reduced demand for air travel and hotel services, the operation of our two hotels has experienced significant declines in occupancy rates and in revenues. In 2020, the occupancy rates in our Terminal 2 NH Collection Hotel and our Hilton Garden Inn Hotel in the Monterrey airport were 42.4 and 41.6 percentage points lower, respectively, than in 2019. On April 6, 2020, we temporarily suspended services our Hilton Garden Inn Hotel through July 6, 2020 due to low occupancy demand as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak. In 2021, the average occupancy rates in our Terminal 2 NH Collection Hotel and our Hilton Garden Inn Hotel in the Monterrey airport were 20.3 and 31.6 percentage points lower, respectively, than in 2019.

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Both of the hotels that we operate, our OMA-VYNMSA industrial park and our OMA Carga bonded warehouses could face additional competition from third parties developing similar projects in areas adjacent to the Monterrey airport. Despite our efforts to retain clients, we cannot predict whether our clients will continue occupying our commercial spaces or cancel their contracts. Furthermore, the continued growth at our OMA-VYNMSA industrial park and our OMA Carga bonded warehouses business could also decline should there be a slowdown in the Mexican economy. All such factors could adversely affect the profitability of our non-aeronautical businesses and our ability to recover our investments in such projects.

Our operations depend on certain key airline customers, and the loss or suspension of operations of one or more of them could result in a loss of a significant amount of our revenues.

Of the total aeronautical revenues generated at our airports in 2021, VivaAerobus represented 36.0%, Volaris represented 24.5% and Aeroméxico and its affiliates represented 18.7%. None of our contracts with our airline customers obliges them to continue providing service from our airports and, if any of our key customers reduces their use of our airports, competing airlines may not add flights to their schedules to replace any flights no longer handled by our principal airline customers. On June 30, 2020, Aeromexico and its affiliates, which accounted for 20.3% of our total passenger traffic in 2020 and 19.5% of our passenger traffic in 2021, filed voluntary Chapter 11 petitions in the United States to implement a financial restructuring while continuing to operate. On January 28, 2022, the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York confirmed Aeromexico’s plan of reorganization, and the restructuring was successfully completed on March 17, 2022. In addition, as of December 9, 2020, Interjet, which accounted for 5.7% of our total passenger traffic in 2020, stopped operating at our airports due to the financial impact of the outbreak of COVID-19 on their operations. Our business and results of operations could be adversely affected if we do not continue to generate comparable portions of our revenues from our key customers.

Due to increased competition, volatility in fuel prices and the general decrease in demand because of global volatility in the financial and exchange markets, economic crises and the current COVID-19 related health crisis, many airlines are operating in adverse conditions. Should fuel prices increase or in the event of other adverse health or economic developments, one or more of our principal carriers could become insolvent, cancel routes, suspend operations or file for bankruptcy. All such events could have a material adverse effect on our results from operations. Furthermore, any accident, incident or any other event that affects the perception of safety standards of any of the major airlines may affect their image and generate a public perception that it is less safe or reliable than other airlines. These events would affect consumer demand and the number of passengers serviced by the airline, thus affecting our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

The global airline industry has experienced and continues to experience significant financial difficulties and recent warnings regarding industry profitability. On February 21, 2021, the IATA announced that it did not expect the airline industry to be cash positive until 2022. In October 2021, the International Air Transport Association, or IATA, issued its 2022 financial forecast for the global commercial airline industry, estimating net post-tax loss of about U.S.$-12.0 billion, given that airlines will continue to have difficulty reducing their costs to offset lower revenues. The forecast also indicated that net profit margins were expected to slightly increase to -2.7% in 2022 compared to -11.0% in 2021. The IATA may further reduce its forecasts, and the short-term and long-term effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on the global airline industry is still uncertain. The economic shock from the COVID-19 outbreak, which has been felt more acutely by airlines, has and may continue to trigger insolvencies within the global airline industry.

Some of our airline and other clients and tenants have asked for assistance, either through discounts on payments owed to us or by an extension on those payments. During 2020 and early 2021, we provided payment extensions to our main airline customers, which allowed us to mitigate noncompliance risks. During 2020 and the first half of 2021, we also offered incentives to our commercial tenants through discounts or payment extensions. No such arrangement materially affected our financial condition or liquidity. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, our reserve for doubtful accounts receivable, increased by 231% to Ps.20.8 million as of December 31, 2020, and slightly decreased to Ps.20.3 million as of December 31, 2021. We cannot assure you whether the COVID-19 pandemic will continue to cause an increase in our reserve for doubtful accounts receivable in 2022. For more information on the impact of COVID-19 on our business, see “The outbreak of COVID-19 has had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on the global economy and on our business, operations and results.”

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In addition, Mexican law prohibits an international airline from transporting passengers from one Mexican location to another (unless the flight originated outside Mexico), which limits the number of airlines providing domestic service in Mexico. On December 18, 2015, the United States and Mexico entered into an Air Transport Agreement with the purpose of promoting and facilitating an international aviation system, based on competition among airlines, to facilitate the expansion of international air transport opportunities and ensure the highest degree of safety and security in air transport. The agreement, which replaced the agreement that had been in effect since 1960, became effective as of August 21, 2016, after approval by the Mexican Senate and the competent authorities in the United States. The agreement provides for an increase in services on existing routes between both nations, as well as the addition of new routes and an increase in the frequency of flights on existing routes. The agreement also grants Mexican airlines the ability to further penetrate international markets, as it permits airlines from both countries that operate flights between the United States and Mexico to pick up passengers and continue with the flights to a third country. This agreement may be modified in the future to provide for international airlines to operate domestic flights in our airports, but until then we expect to continue to generate a significant portion of our revenues from domestic travel from a limited number of airlines.

Collective labor conflicts in Mexico could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.

A number of events, such as (i) the endorsement by the Mexican Senate of the International Labor Organization’s Convention C098, the “Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention”, (ii) the approval by Congress to modify the Mexican Federal Labor Law, and (iii) the adverse labor effect resulting from the COVID-19 crisis, have led and continue to cause labor conflicts in Mexico.

In addition, such conflicts have been exacerbated by (i) new labor unions created to negotiate and/or dispute existing collective bargaining agreements on behalf of the labor unions that currently hold such contracts, (ii) a 20.0% increase of the general minimum wage nationwide as of January 1, 2020, a subsequent 15.0% increase of the general minimum wage as of January 1, 2021, and a 22.0% increase as of January 1, 2022 and (iii) a 5.0% increase of the minimum wage in the municipalities near the northern border of Mexico on January 1, 2020, an additional 15.0% increase as of January 1, 2021, and a 22.0% increase as of January 1, 2022. These developments in recent years have led workers and labor unions to demand more significant benefits and higher salary increases than in prior years.

Moreover, the effects of the Mexican government's response to COVID-19 during 2020 and the first half of 2021 included travel restrictions, stay-at-home ordinances, restrictions on non-essential activities and other restrictions on the overall operation of businesses across Mexico, which have been eased as of the second half of 2021. We cannot predict if these measures will be rigorously implemented again in the case of a new outbreak, nor whether they may strain relationships by and between businesses, on the one hand, and labor unions and/or their employees, on the other. As of the date of this report, the Company has not experienced any material adverse effect as a result of the different labor related developments or those that have resulted from the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic and cannot predict whether these will affect its labor force and relations going forward. For more information on the impact of COVID-19, see “The outbreak of COVID-19 has had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on the global economy and on our business, operations and results.” For more information on employee relations, see “If a change in relations with our labor force should occur, such a change could have an adverse impact on our results of operations” and “Changes to Mexican laws, regulations and decrees applicable to the Company could have a material adverse impact on the results of operations”.

The Company cannot predict how these developments may affect the Company’s results of operations or its financial condition. Any increased demands by the Company’s unionized workers may lead to higher labor costs, which could have a negative impact on its results of operations.

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If a change in relations with our labor force should occur, such a change could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.

If any conflicts with our employees were to arise, including with our unionized employees (which accounted for 54.5% of our total employees as of December 31, 2021), resulting events such as strikes or other disruptions that could arise with respect to our workforce could have a negative impact on our results of operations. As of the date of this report, the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak have not affected our relations with our labor force, but we cannot assure you that any further effects resulting from COVID-19 will not cause any disruptions in the future.

Our unionized employees are represented by a national union of airport workers that operates throughout Mexico. To the extent unionized airport workers seek material modifications to the conditions agreed with us and with other Mexican airport operators, our operations could be adversely affected by union activities, including organized strikes or other work stoppages.

Our operations could be adversely affected due to changes in the collection of passenger charges.

Passenger charges are collected by the airlines and then paid to us on the basis of contracts entered into with each airline operating at our airports. We cannot guarantee that all airlines will continue collecting the passenger charges for us. Should one or more airlines stop collecting passenger charges for us, we would have to collect these charges directly ourselves, which would result in additional costs for us.

Recently, some airlines have reported losses. In cases where we extend days of credit to airlines, substantially all of our revenues from passenger charges and other aeronautical services are secured by a performance bond or other types of guarantees; however, guarantees may not fully cover the amount owed by an airline at a certain date. In the event of the insolvency of any of these airlines, we would not be certain of the collection of any amounts invoiced to that airline in respect of passenger charges. In cases where the airlines cannot provide adequate or sufficient performance bonds or other types of guarantees, the airlines operate under advance payment conditions.

In addition, the COVID-19 outbreak has and will likely continue to adversely affect the global airline industry. For more information on how COVID-19 has affected airlines, see “Our operations depend on certain key airline customers, and the loss or suspension of operations of one or more of them could result in a loss of a significant amount of our revenues.” Given the economic uncertainty for many airlines, it is possible that airlines will stop paying us the applicable passenger charges. Should one or more airlines stop paying us for passengers (other than diplomats, infants, transfer and transit passengers) departing from our terminals, our business and results of operation could be adversely affected. For more information on the impact of COVID-19 on our business, see “The outbreak of COVID-19 has had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on the global economy and on our business, operations and results.”

The main domestic airlines operating at our airports may refuse to pay certain increases in our specific rates for regulated aeronautical services.

In the past, we have entered into a series of agreements with the Mexican National Air Transportation Chamber of Commerce (Cámara Nacional de Aerotransportes), pursuant to which we have established specific rates for regulated services applicable to our principal airline customers. Historically, amounts paid under these agreements have not been material, and we do not expect any such agreements with the Mexican National Air Transportation Chamber of Commerce to have a material effect on our results of operations. Although passenger traffic volume (and therefore overall revenues) may increase, any agreed incentives and/or discounts offered to airlines as a means to prevent or settle any potential dispute could reduce our aeronautical revenues per terminal passenger in the future. In addition, should any of our principal airline customers refuse to continue to make payment to us, or should they refuse to pay increases in our charges for aeronautical services in future years, our results of operations could be adversely impacted by decreased cash flows from operations.

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Our operation depends on our management team for its knowledge and experience and the loss of capable executives could affect our operations.

The current and future performance of our operations depends significantly on the continuous contribution of managers and other key employees. In order to achieve the objectives of each manager or key position, the ability, experience, aptitude and knowledge of each candidate is taken into account for recruitment and personnel allocation purposes. We cannot guarantee that in the future our executive team will be maintained, or that if new executives are incorporated, they will have the same level of knowledge and experience. The potential lack of a capable management team could adversely affect the operations, financial situation and results of operations.

The operations of our airports may be affected by the actions of third parties, which are beyond our control.

As is the case with most airports, the operation of our airports is largely dependent on the services of third parties, such as air traffic control authorities, airlines, airline providers and ground transportation providers. We also depend upon the Mexican government or government entities for provision of services, such as electricity, supply of fuel to aircraft, air traffic control and immigration and customs services for our international passengers. The disruption or stoppage of taxi or bus services at one or more of our airports could also adversely affect our operations. We are not responsible for and cannot control the services provided by these parties. Any disruption in, or adverse consequence resulting from, their services, including a work stoppage or other similar event, may have a material adverse effect on the operation of our airports and on our results of operations.

In addition, if any service providers were to halt operations at any of our airports, we could be required to seek a new provider of these services or to provide these services ourselves, either of which may result in increased costs and have an adverse impact on our results of operations.

We may be liable for property taxes as a result of claims asserted against us by certain municipalities.

Various municipalities have assessed tax credits against us for the payment of property taxes with respect to the real estate on which we operate our airports in those cities. We have appealed all the administrative law proceedings, as well as the tax credits, assessed against us and, while some have been dismissed by the relevant administrative authority, some are still pending. We believe there are no legal grounds which enable the municipalities to collect such taxes and although we intend to defend our position vigorously, if procedures are brought by authorities, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in such defense. See “Item 8. Financial Information—Legal Proceedings—Property Tax Claims” for a full discussion of these property tax proceedings. Some Mexican airport operators contesting the assessment of similar property tax claims have been required to post material surety bonds in connection with their challenge of those assessments. If we are required to post similar surety bonds in the future, the terms of the surety bonds may restrict our ability to pay dividends or otherwise limit our flexibility. In addition, if we are required to pay for additional state or municipal rights, we could face costs, limiting our liquidity, flexibility and ability to pay dividends.

Furthermore, if the Mexican Congress changes the current laws or if we do not prevail in these proceedings, these tax liabilities could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any change in law which enables municipalities to request construction or operation permits may affect our ability to comply with investments required under our Master Development Programs, which in turn may result in additional payments for governmental tariffs and affect our results of operations.

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Inability to generate sufficient future taxable profits or adverse changes to tax laws, regulatory requirements or accounting standards could have a negative impact on the recoverability of certain deferred tax assets.

We recognize deferred tax assets relating to tax losses carried forward and deductible temporary differences only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the tax losses carried forward and the temporary differences can be utilized. Net deferred tax assets amounted to approximately Ps.428,215 thousand at December 31, 2021. The deferred tax assets are quantified on the basis of currently enacted tax rates and accounting standards and are subject to change as a result of future changes to tax laws or the rules for computing taxable profits and allowable losses. Failure to generate sufficient future taxable profits or changes in tax laws or accounting standards may reduce our estimated recoverable amount of net deferred tax assets. Such a reduction could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. For further information on deferred tax assets, refer to Note 4 to our audited consolidated financial statements. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Critical Accounting Policies—Deferred Income Taxes.”

Natural disasters could adversely affect our business.

From time to time, the northern and central regions of Mexico experience torrential rains, hurricanes (particularly during the months of July through September) and, depending on the region, earthquakes and volcanic activity. In addition, the Mazatlán, Culiacán and Acapulco airports are susceptible to occasional flooding due to torrential rainfall.

Natural disasters may impede or cause the suspension of operations, damage infrastructure necessary to our operations or adversely affect the destinations served by our airports. For instance, on November 3, 2016, the Tampico airport flooded due to heavy rains, causing the collapse of part of the bordering fence. Although, the affected neighbors filed claims for damages against the Tampico airport, the insurance carrier rejected the neighbors’ claims alleging that the damage was caused by a natural disaster. In addition, the Terminal 2 NH Collection Hotel located in Terminal 2 of the Mexico City International Airport was temporarily closed after the earthquake on September 19, 2017. Although the Terminal 2 NH Collection Hotel did not suffer any structural damage, utilities of the hotel were interrupted and hotel operations were suspended until September 25, 2017.

Any of these events could reduce our passenger and cargo traffic volume in the airports and our guest volume in the Terminal 2 NH Collection Hotel. For example, our international passenger traffic decreased 1.2% during September 2017, partially due to the cancellation of flights caused by hurricanes Harvey and Max. The occurrence of natural disasters in the destinations that we serve could adversely affect our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

We have insurance for the physical facilities at our airports against damage caused by natural disasters, accidents or other similar events, but we do not have insurance covering losses due to resulting business interruption. Moreover, should losses occur, losses caused by damages to the physical facilities may exceed the pre-established limits on any of our insurance policies.

Our operations are at greater risk of disruption due to the dependence of several of our airports on a single commercial runway.

As is the case with many other domestic and international airports around the world, several of our airports, including the Monterrey, Culiacán, Ciudad Juárez and Mazatlán airports, have only one runway for most commercial flights. The operation of our runways may be disrupted due to required maintenance or repairs. In addition, our runways may require unscheduled repair or maintenance due to natural disasters, aircraft accidents and other factors that are beyond our control. The closure of any runway for a significant period of time could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

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We are exposed to risk related to construction projects.

The building requirements under our Master Development Programs could encounter delays or cause us to exceed our budgeted costs for such projects, which could limit our ability to expand capacity at our airports, increase our operating or capital expenditures and could adversely affect our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. Such delays or budgetary overruns also could limit our ability to comply with our Master Development Programs, which are established as a necessary requirement to our concessions.

From March 31, 2020 to June 1, 2020, we stopped most construction works, including those needed to comply with our Master Development Program, as a result of the restrictions imposed by the Mexican government on non-essential activity, including construction, in Mexico due to the COVID-19 outbreak. These restrictions generated delays in our scheduled works to comply with our Master Development Program commitments for 2020. Even though the delays were notified to and agreed upon with the regulator, should we experience any other delay that prevents us from complying with our Master Development Program commitments, there could be penalties which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, prospect and financial condition.

We are exposed to the risk of non-performance by our subcontractors.

We currently subcontract certain services (including security and surveillance services) necessary to conduct our operations. In the event that our subcontractors fail to perform their obligations under our agreements, we could incur extra costs in providing replacements and could be exposed to liability for operations that we may have to provide directly, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

In accordance with applicable labor laws, subcontractors are required to register their employees with the Mexican Social Security Institute (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social), the National Workers’ Housing Fund Institute (Instituto del Fondo Nacional de la Vivienda para los Trabajadores) and anyone employing the services of subcontractors that has failed to comply with these laws is jointly liable for the payment of social security obligations as well as any applicable penalties. Therefore, if subcontractors providing services at our airports do not have their employees registered at the Mexican Social Security Institute and the National Workers’ Housing Fund Institute, we could be held jointly liable for the payment of social security obligations that such contractors may have, as well as any applicable penalties.

For more information on the recent legal reform affecting subcontracting and its effects on the Company, see also “—Risks Related to the Regulation of Our Business— Changes to Mexican laws, regulations and decrees applicable to the Company could have a material adverse impact on the results of operations”.

Our ability to expand certain of our airports and to comply with applicable safety guidelines could be limited by difficulties we encounter in acquiring additional land on which to operate our airports.

Certain guidelines established by the ICAO require the maintenance of a perimeter surrounding the land used for airport operations. At several of our airports, we do not control portions of the land within the required perimeters. If portions of such land adjacent to certain of our airports are developed by third parties in a manner that encroaches on the required perimeters, our ability to comply with applicable guidelines of the ICAO or to expand our airport operations could be adversely affected. Also, the growth of certain cities in the proximity of our airports could limit our ability to expand our airports.

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To allow the future expansion of the Monterrey airport, including the construction of a second commercial runway and the relocation of the control tower, between 2007 and 2011 we entered into a series of agreements for the purchase and exchange of plots of land adjacent or nearby the Monterrey airport. We currently own approximately 575 hectares (2.2 square miles) of land adjacent or nearby the Monterrey airport with an aggregate book value of Ps.1,705,774 thousand (U.S.$83.3 million). Improvements made to airport facilities at our expense may be recognized by AFAC as part of our investment in the airport concession. To recover the cost of our investments in land reserve, on December 4, 2012, we received authorization from the former Mexican Bureau of Civil Aviation (currently AFAC) to reallocate Ps.386,538 thousand (amount expressed in nominal 2009 pesos) in investments included in the 2011–2015 Master Development Program for the Monterrey airport to recover the cost of land acquisition. Additionally, the 2011 Master Development Program review recognized Ps.77,307 thousand (amount expressed in nominal 2009 pesos) in land acquisition costs. The recovery of the remaining investment of Ps.696,767 thousand (amount expressed in nominal 2009 pesos) in land acquisition costs has been included in the indicative period of our current approved Master Development Program for 2026-2035. The remaining amount of the investments may not be recognized by the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation in the future.

Our future profitability and growth will depend upon our ability to expand our airports in the future. Potential limitations on our possibility of expansion, such as those described above, could restrict any such expansion and thus have a material adverse effect on the future profitability and growth of our business.

We are exposed to risks inherent to the operation of airports.

We are obligated to protect the public at our airports and to reduce the risk of accidents at our airports. As with any company dealing with members of the public, we must implement certain measures for the protection of the public, such as fire safety in public spaces, design and maintenance of car parking facilities and access routes to meet road safety rules. We are also obligated to take certain measures related to aviation activities, such as maintenance, management and supervision of aviation facilities, rescue and fire-fighting services for aircraft, measurement of runway friction coefficients, flood control at the Acapulco airport and measures to control the threat from birds and other wildlife on airport sites. These obligations may require us to incur additional costs and could increase our exposure to liability to third parties for personal injury or property damage resulting from our operations.

Our insurance policies may not provide sufficient coverage against all liabilities.

While we seek to insure all reasonable risks, our insurance policies may not cover all of our liabilities in the event of an accident, terrorist attack or any other incident. The markets for airport insurance and construction insurance are limited, and a change in coverage policy by the insurance companies involved could reduce our ability to obtain and maintain adequate or cost-effective coverage. A certain number of our assets cannot, by their nature, be covered by property insurance (notably aircraft movement areas, and certain civil engineering works and infrastructure). In addition, we do not currently carry business-interruption insurance.

We are exposed to risks related to handling cargo.

The air cargo system is a complex, multi-faceted network that handles a vast amount of freight, packages and mail carried aboard passenger and all-cargo aircraft. The air cargo system is vulnerable to several security threats, including: potential plots to place explosives aboard aircraft; illegal shipments of hazardous materials; criminal activities, such as smuggling and theft; and potential hijackings and sabotage by persons with access to aircraft. Several procedural and technology initiatives to enhance air cargo security and detect terrorist and criminal threats have been put in place, such as an x-ray machine certified by the TSA in the bonded OMA Carga area at the Monterrey airport, or are under consideration.

We may be subject to risks related to the integrity of our facilities or the reduction of our cargo traffic volume. The occurrence of such events could adversely affect our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

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We may not be able to detect money laundering operations and other illegal or improper activities, which could expose us to additional liabilities and adversely affect our operations and financial results.

We are required to comply with applicable anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism and other regulations in Mexico. Such laws require us to adopt and implement certain policies and procedures designed to detect and prevent transactions with third parties involved in money laundering or terrorist activities. Although we have adopted such policies and procedures, these procedures require services related to third parties that are not under our control, including third-party providers of complementary services or retailers, restaurants and other commercial tenants leasing spaces at the airport. To the extent that we may fail to fully comply with applicable laws and regulations or fail to detect illegal activities carried out by third parties, the competent authorities may impose certain fines on us and our reputation may also be adversely affected.

We could be exposed to additional risks if we pursue business opportunities in other countries.

From time to time, we may consider strategic participation in airport assets located in other countries. In the past, we have evaluated business opportunities in Mexico and other countries, and we may evaluate international expansion opportunities through capital investment in other concessions in the future. Expansion into a market outside of Mexico could require significant capital expenditures. If we pursue an international expansion opportunity, we could face internal or external risks, including, without limitation: (i) a lack of market experience in the relevant country, (ii) foreign exchange and economic volatility, (iii) the dedication of significant management resources to execute the international operation and (iv) exposure to risks inherent to doing business in the relevant country. Our inability to successfully manage the risks and uncertainties related to such business opportunities could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition, including our capital structure. 

Risks Related to the Regulation of Our Business

The Company provides a public service regulated by the Mexican government, and the flexibility in managing aeronautical activities is limited by the regulatory environment in which the Company operates.

The Company’s aeronautical fees charged to airlines and passengers are regulated, like most airports in other countries. In 2019, 2020 and 2021, approximately 67.5%, 54.8% and 60.5%, respectively, of the Company’s total revenues, and approximately 76.0%, 71.5% and 76.1%, respectively, of the sum of its aeronautical and non-aeronautical revenues were earned from aeronautical services, which are subject to price regulation under the Company’s maximum rates. These regulations may limit the Company’s flexibility in operating its aeronautical activities, which could have a material adverse effect on its business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. In addition, several of the regulations applicable to the Company’s operations that affect its profitability are authorized (as in the case of the Master Development Programs) or established (as in the case of maximum rates) by the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation for five-year terms. The Company generally does not have the ability to unilaterally change its obligations (such as the investment obligations under its Master Development Programs or the obligation under its concessions to provide a public service) or increase our maximum rates applicable under those regulations should the passenger traffic or other assumptions on which the regulations were based change during the applicable term. In addition, this price regulation system may be amended in the future in a manner that would cause additional sources of the Company’s revenues to be regulated.

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The Company’s results of operations may be adversely affected by required efficiency adjustments to its maximum rates.

The Company’s maximum rates in Mexico are subject to annual efficiency adjustments, which have the effect of reducing the maximum rates for each year to reflect projected efficiency improvements. For the five year period ending December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2025, the maximum rates applicable to the Company’s airports reflect an annual efficiency improvement of 0.70%. Future annual efficiency adjustments will be determined by the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation in connection with the setting of each Mexican airport’s maximum rates every five years. For a description of these efficiency adjustments, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Framework—Revenue Regulation—Methodology for Determining Future Maximum Rates.” We cannot provide assurance that we will achieve efficiency improvements sufficient to maintain or increase our operating income as a result of the progressive decrease in each of our airport’s maximum rate.

The Company cannot predict how the regulations governing the business will be applied.

Many of the laws, regulations and instruments that regulate the Company’s business were adopted or became effective in 1999, and there is only a limited history and examples that would allow the Company to predict the impact of these legal requirements on its future operations. Mexican law establishes ranges of sanctions that might be imposed should the Company fail to comply with the terms of one of its concessions, the Mexican Airport Law and its regulations or other applicable laws. The Company cannot predict the sanctions that are likely to be assessed for a given violation within these ranges. It may encounter difficulties in complying with these laws, regulations and instruments.

Although the Master Development Programs and maximum rates through 2025 have been set, the Company cannot predict what the Master Development Program for 2026 and following years will establish. When determining the maximum rates for the next five year period (from 2026 to 2030), the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation may be solicited by different entities (for example, the Antitrust Commission) and the carriers operating at our airports) to modify the maximum rates, thus reducing the Company’s profitability. The laws and regulations governing the business, including the rate-setting process and the Mexican Airport Law, may change in the future or be applied or interpreted in a way that could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

Additionally, on October 16, 2019, the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation established AFAC, an independent regulatory agency, that replaced the Mexican Bureau of Civil Aviation (Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil). AFAC is responsible for establishing, coordinating, overseeing and controlling international and national air transportation, as well as the airports, complementary services and generally all activities related to civil aviation. AFAC was formally established on February 26, 2021, and while the internal regulations and operation manuals further enacted did not change materially with respect to the previous ones, the Company cannot predict the actions that the AFAC will take in the future, or the effect of any such actions on its business.

On February 20, 2014, a bill of the Federal Antitrust Law (Ley Federal de Competencia Económica) was submitted to Mexico’s Congress in furtherance and as a result of certain amendments to Mexico’s Constitution passed in 2013. The bill was enacted and published on May 23, 2014. The law grants broader powers to the Antitrust Commission, including the authority to regulate essential facilities, order the divestment of assets and eliminate barriers to competition in order to promote access to the market. Such law also sets forth important changes in connection with mergers and anti-competitive behavior, increases liabilities and the amount of fines that may be imposed for violations of the law and limits the availability of legal defenses against the application of the law. The Antitrust Commission may therefore determine that the services that the Company provides at its airports are essential and require it to implement significant changes to its business operations and thus generate a significant impact on its results of operations.

For example, pursuant to the Federal Antitrust Law (Ley Federal de Competencia Económica), the Antitrust Commission determined that the slots allocated to air carriers at the Mexico City International Airport constitute an essential service. The Antitrust Commission found that the allocation of slots led to flight delays and cancellations and, among others, hindered entry to new competitors. On July 3, 2017, the Antitrust Commission issued a series of corrective measures (the “Corrective Measures”) for the Mexico City International Airport to address the inefficiencies and anticompetitive effects observed at such airport.

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In response to the Antitrust Commission’s findings, the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation (Secretaría de Infraestructura, Comunicaciones y Transportes) published an amendment to the regulations of the Mexican Airport Law in the Federal Official Gazette on September 29, 2017, as well as general guidelines for the allocation of slots at congested airports (the “General Guidelines”). The Antitrust Commission found that the reforms issued by the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation did not provide a solution to the issues the Antitrust Commission had addressed and that the General Guidelines directly contradicted the Corrective Measures. As a result, the Antitrust Commission filed an appeal (controversia constitucional) before the Mexican Supreme Court, arguing that the Antitrust Commission, not the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation, has the authority to regulate the allocation of slots as a public essential service. On November 26, 2019 the Mexican Supreme Court ruled against the Antitrust Commission.

Even though none of its airports have been declared congested as of the date of this report, the Company cannot predict whether or when this will happen. Similarly, it cannot predict whether the Antitrust Commission will declare any of its airports, or any complementary or commercial service provided at the airports, as essential services, and consequently, establish rules, recommendations, guidelines or conditions that could limit or restrict the Company’s aeronautical and/or non-aeronautical revenues.

The regulations pursuant to which the maximum rates applicable to the aeronautical revenues are established do not guarantee that the consolidated results of operations, or the results of operations of any airport, will be profitable, or that the Company will realize the expected return on investment.

The regulations applicable to the Company’s aeronautical activities establish an annual maximum rate for each airport, which is the maximum annual amount of revenues per workload unit (which is equal to one terminal passenger or 100 kilograms (220 pounds) of cargo) that the Company may earn at that airport from services subject to price regulation. For a discussion of the framework for establishing its maximum rates and the application of the rates, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Framework—Revenue Regulation.” On November 30, 2020, the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation approved, based on the terms of the Company’s concessions, the maximum rates for its airports from January 1, 2021 through December 31, 2025. Under the terms of the Company’s concessions, there is no guarantee that the results of operations of any airport will be profitable. The Company may not realize its expected return on investment from investments under the Master Development Programs.

The Company’s concessions provide that an airport’s maximum rates will be adjusted periodically for inflation (determined by reference to the Mexican Producer Price Index (Índice Nacional de Precios Productor), excluding fuel). Although the Company is entitled to request additional adjustments to an airport’s maximum rates under certain circumstances including, among others, required capital investments not foreseen in the Master Development Programs, decreases in capital investments attributable to Mexican economy-related passenger traffic decreases or modifications of the concession tax payable by the Company, its concessions provide that such a request will be approved only if the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation determines that certain limited events specified in the concessions have occurred. Therefore, such a request may not be granted in the future. If a request to increase an airport’s maximum rates is not granted, and the Company is impacted by the circumstances that led to the request, its results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected, and the value of Series B shares and ADSs could decline.

The Company business is dependent upon international regulations that affect Mexican airlines.

The FAA evaluates the legal framework for civil aviation and issues related to the monitoring, staff training and inspection processes related to regulations issued by the ICAO.

On May 25, 2021, the FAA announced that, following an assessment of the Mexican Federal Agency for Civil Aviation (AFAC), it had determined that Mexico was not in compliance with international safety standards set by ICAO, and as a result, downgraded Mexico’s aviation safety from Category 1 rating to an ICAO Category 2 rating.

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The FAA had already downgraded Mexico’s aviation safety rating from a Category 1 rating to a Category 2 rating on July 30, 2010, as a result of the FAA’s visit to the Mexican Bureau of Civil Aviation (currently AFAC) between January and July 2010. The downgrade was attributable to an insufficient number of flight inspectors and administrative and organizational elements in the Mexican Bureau of Civil Aviation (currently AFAC).

The consequences of the above-mentioned downgrades were the suspension of the right to operate code-shared flights and the restriction of Mexican airlines’ ability to increase the frequency of, or add new routes to, the United States.

In 2019, 2020 and 2021, 2.9%, 2.8% and 5.0%, respectively, of our total passenger traffic, corresponded to passengers who traveled through our airports on flights to or from the United States operated by Mexican Airlines. The Company cannot be certain of how long this rating will be maintained and we cannot predict what impact such a downgrade would have on our passenger traffic or results of operations, or on the public perception of the safety of our airports.

If the Company exceeds the maximum rate at any airport at the end of any year, it could be subject to sanctions.

Historically, the Company has set the tariffs it charges for aeronautical services at each airport in order to come as close as possible to its authorized maximum rate for that airport in any given year. For example, in 2021, the revenues subject to maximum rate regulation represented approximately 92.1% of the amounts the Company was entitled to earn under the maximum rates for all of its airports. The Company may not be able to establish tariffs in the future that allows it to collect substantially all of the revenues it is entitled to earn from services subject to price regulation.

The specific tariffs the Company charges for aeronautical services are determined based on various factors, including projections of passenger traffic volumes, the Mexican Producer Price Index (excluding fuel), the Mexican Consumer Price Index and the value of the peso relative to the U.S. dollar. These variables are outside of the Company’s control. The Company’s projections could differ from the applicable actual data, and, if these differences occur at the end of any year, they could cause the Company to exceed the maximum rate at any one or more of its airports during that year.

If the Company exceeds the maximum rate at any airport at the end of any year, the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation may assess a fine and may reduce the maximum rate at that airport in the subsequent year. The imposition of sanctions for violations of certain terms of a concession, including for exceeding an airport’s maximum rate, can result in termination of the concession if the relevant term has been violated and sanctions have been imposed at least three times. In the event that any one of the Company’s concessions is terminated, its other concessions may also be terminated. For a discussion of events that may lead to a termination of a concession, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Framework—Penalties and Termination and Revocation of Concessions and Concession Assets.”

Depreciation of the peso may cause the Company to exceed the maximum rates.

The Company aims to charge prices that are as close as possible to its maximum chargeable rates, and it is entitled to adjust the specific tariffs only once every six months for inflation (or earlier upon a cumulative increase of 5% in the Mexican Producer Price Index (excluding fuel)). However, the Company generally collects passenger charges from airlines 30 to 60 days following the date of each flight. The tariffs for the services that it provides to international flights or international passengers are generally denominated in U.S. dollars but are paid in Mexican pesos based on the average exchange rate for the month prior to each flight. Accordingly, depreciation of the peso, particularly late in the year, could cause the Company to exceed the maximum rates at one or more of its airports, which could lead to the imposition of fines and the subsequent termination of one or more of its concessions.

The peso has historically experienced significant volatility. From December 31, 2019 to December 31, 2020, the peso depreciated by approximately 5.5%, from Ps.18.86 per U.S.$1.00 on December 31, 2019 to Ps.19.89 per U.S.$1.00 on December 31, 2020. From December 31, 2020 to December 31, 2021, the peso depreciated by approximately 3.1% from Ps.19.89 per U.S.$1.00 to Ps.20.51 per U.S.$1.00. On April 22, 2022, the exchange rate was Ps.21.31 per U.S.$1.00.

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The Mexican government may terminate or reacquire the concessions under various circumstances, some of which are beyond the control of the Company.

The Company’s concessions are its principal assets, and it would be unable to continue operations without them. A concession may be revoked by the Mexican government for certain prescribed reasons, including the failure to comply with the Master Development Programs, a temporary or permanent halt in the Company’s operations, actions affecting the operations of other concession holders in Mexico, the failure to pay damages resulting from its operations, the failure to keep the rates from exceeding its maximum rates or the failure to comply with any other material term of its concessions. Violations of certain terms of a concession (including violations for exceeding the applicable maximum rate) can result in revocation of a concession only if sanctions have been imposed for violations of the relevant term at least three times. Violations of other terms of a concession can result in the immediate termination of the concession. The concessions may also be terminated upon the Company’s bankruptcy or insolvency. Violations of the Mexican Airport Law, its regulations or other federal regulations could result in similar sanctions. In the event that any one of the Company’s concessions is terminated, its other concessions may also be terminated. For a discussion of events that may lead to a termination of a concession, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Framework—Penalties and Termination and Revocation of Concessions and Concession Assets.”

Under applicable Mexican law and the terms of the Company’s concessions, its concessions may also be made subject to additional conditions, including under the renewed Master Development Programs, which the Company may be unable to meet. Failure to meet these conditions may also result in fines, other sanctions and the termination of the concessions.

The Mexican government may also terminate one or more of the concessions at any time through reversion, if, in accordance with applicable Mexican law, it determines that it is in the public interest to do so. The Mexican government may also assume the operation of any airport in the event of war, public disturbance or a threat to national security. In addition, in the case of a force majeure event, the Mexican government may require the Company to implement certain changes in its operations. In the event of a reversion of the public domain assets that are the subject of the concessions, the Mexican government under Mexican law is required to compensate the Company for the value of the concessions or added costs based on the results of an audit performed by appraisers or, in the case of a mandated change in the Company’s operations, the cost of that change. Similarly, in the event of an assumption of the Company’s operations, other than in the event of war, the government is required to compensate it and any other affected parties for any resulting damages. The Company may not receive compensation equivalent to the value of its investment in or any additional damages related to its concessions and related assets in the event of such action.

In the event that any one of the Company’s concessions is terminated, whether through revocation or otherwise, its other concessions may also be terminated. Thus, the loss of any concession would have a material adverse effect on the business and results of operations.

The Mexican government could grant new concessions that compete with the airports operated by the Company.

The Mexican government could grant additional concessions to operate existing government-managed airports or authorize the construction of new airports, which could compete directly with the airports operated by the Company.

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On February 5, 2014, the Mexican government announced in the Federal Official Gazette that the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation granted to Administradora de Servicios Aeroportuarios de Chihuahua, S.A. de C.V., a concession for 20 years to construct, operate and exploit a civil-aviation airport in the municipality of Bocoyna, Chihuahua, located 250 kilometers (144 miles) from the city of Chihuahua, within an area of 95.5 hectares (0.4 square miles). The government of the state of Chihuahua owns 98% of the capital stock of Administradora de Servicios Aeroportuarios de Chihuahua, S.A. de C.V. The airport has an ICAO Category 3C rating and could present competition to the Company’s airport located in the municipality of Chihuahua, which has a higher ICAO Category 4D rating and is located 18 kilometers (11.2 miles) from the city of Chihuahua. The Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation has the capacity to upgrade the category of the airport depending on improvements to infrastructure made by the concessionaire or could downgrade the category if the concessionaire does not maintain adequate conditions in the airport. On February 21, 2020, the State of Chihuahua announced that the airport was expected to start operations in late 2020, with limited operations through late 2021. On February 1, 2022, the State of Chihuahua mentioned that the airport is expected to start operations in 2023, due to constructions delays because of COVID-19. The airport is expected to be fully operational beginning in 2023 and will serve both commercial and general aviation flights. It will have an annual capacity to serve up to 80,000 passengers per year during the first five years of operations, and later increase its capacity to serve up to 250,000 passengers per year. As of the date of this report, the Company cannot predict whether the Chihuahua airport will materially affect its results of operations or financial performance.

In the future, the Company may face competition from Aeropuerto del Norte, an airport near Monterrey operated by a third party pursuant to a concession. Historically, Aeropuerto del Norte has been used solely for general aviation operations. The state of Nuevo León has requested in the past that the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation amend Aeropuerto del Norte’s concession to allow it to serve commercial aviation operations. To date, the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation has not amended Aeropuerto del Norte’s concession. However, the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation may authorize such an amendment and commercial aviation flights may operate from Aeropuerto del Norte in the future. Any competition from other such airports could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition. Under certain circumstances, the grant of a concession for a new or existing airport must be made pursuant to a public bidding process. In the event that a competing concession is offered in a public bidding process, the Company may not participate in such a process, or it may not be successful if it were to participate. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Framework—Grants of New Concessions.”

The Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation could require the Company to monitor certain aircraft movements at its airports that the Company does not currently control, which could result in increased costs.

The Mexican Air Traffic Control Authority (Servicios a la Navegación en el Espacio Aéreo Mexicano) or “SENEAM”, could require the Company to monitor certain aircraft movements at its airports that the Company does not currently control, which could result in increased costs. SENEAM may require the Company to manage and control aircraft movements in and out of its arrival and departure gates and remote boarding locations at its airports. Should SENEAM require the Company to control, or if the Company, for efficiency purposes, requests to control, these aircraft movements directly at any or all of its other airports in the future, the Company’s results of operations could be negatively impacted by increased operating insurance and liability costs resulting from taking on these obligations.

Changes to Mexican laws, regulations and decrees applicable to the Company could have a material adverse impact on the results of operations.

In recent years, the Mexican government has implemented changes to the tax laws applicable to Mexican companies, including the Company. The terms of the Company’s concessions do not exempt it from any changes to the Mexican tax laws. Should the Mexican government implement changes to the tax laws that result in the Company having significantly higher income tax, the Company will be required to pay higher amounts due pursuant to any such changes, which could have a material adverse impact on its results of operations. For example, the issuance of the Business Flat Tax (Impuesto Empresarial a Tasa Única), which was published on October 1, 2007 and repealed in 2013, adversely impacted the Company’s results of operations in each of the years from 2007 through 2013. In addition, changes to the Mexican constitution or to any other Mexican laws could also have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

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On December 27, 2016, the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit announced an increase, effective January 1, 2017, in the maximum gasoline and diesel prices to be applied in certain regions of Mexico, which caused an increase of gasoline prices of up to 20% in those areas. Furthermore, in November 2017, the Mexican Government removed price controls on gasoline and diesel, and such removal remains in place as of today. The removal of price controls and the resulting price increases led to widespread protests across Mexico. The Company cannot predict the effect of changes in gasoline and diesel prices, and any related political and social unrest, on the Mexican economy or whether the Mexican Government may alter its strategy for price liberalization in the future.

On May 1, 2019, the Mexican Government published significant reforms in the Federal Official Gazette to the Mexican Federal Labor Law. These changes include the creation of courts specializing in labor law and protections to the collective rights of workers and union rights. As a result of these reforms, employees cannot be forced to join a union and more than one union can exist in every workplace. Currently, all unionized Company employees are represented by a national union of airport workers that operates throughout Mexico. To the extent unionized airport workers seek to create or join new unions, and/or materially modify the conditions agreed with the Company and with other Mexican airport operators, the Company’s operations could be adversely affected by union activities, including organized strikes or other work stoppages. The Company cannot predict how these developments may affect the Company’s results of operations or its financial condition. Any increased demands by the Company’s unionized workers may lead to higher labor costs, which could have a negative impact on its results of operations. For more information, see “Collective labor conflicts in Mexico could have an adverse impact on our results of operations” and “If a change in relations with our labor force should occur, such a change could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.”

As part of the current Federal Administration’s effort to protect worker’s rights, on October 23, 2019, NOM-035-STPS-2018 became effective. This NOM seeks to identify and prevent psychosocial risk factors in the workplace and promote a favorable work environment. Some of the obligations set forth in this NOM include the creation of internal policies to prevent psychosocial risks, such as workloads, excessive work hours and shift rotations, negative interference in family life, negative leaderships in the workplace and violence in the workplace. While the Company has complied with the NOM provisions, the Company cannot predict whether its employees will eventually claim that the Company violated any of the provisions under the NOM. Any claims against the Company filed by its employees may lead to higher labor costs, which could have a negative impact on our results of operations. For more information, see “If a change in relations with our labor force should occur, such a change could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.”

In December 2019, the Mexican government published several amendments to the Income Tax Law, Value Added Tax Law, Excise Tax Law and the Federal Tax Code, most of which became effective on January 1, 2020. This set of tax reforms is one of the most important in the past few years and its main purpose is to tackle tax evasion by strengthening tax authorities’ control mechanisms. These amendments imposed stringent restrictions on the deductibility of certain expenses, such as a new earnings-stripping rule applicable to net interest, and the non-deductibility of payments to related parties that are deemed subject to preferential tax regimes or by means of structured arrangements, introduced regulations regarding hybrid mismatches and added amendments to the tax treatment applicable to tax transparent foreign entities or arrangements, all of which could affect our operating results. None of these amendments significantly impacted our operating results in 2021.

The 2020 tax reform also introduced a new mandatory disclosure regime aimed at tax advisors, for purposes of reporting and monitoring specific tax schemes listed under article 199 of the Federal Tax Code.

On January 11, 2021, the Mexican Government published reforms to Article 311 of Mexican Federal Labor Law in the Federal Official Gazette, regulating remote working conditions. As a result of these reforms, employees that work more than 40% of their work hours from home or from any other place that is not the applicable company’s domicile without supervision or guidance from the employer have new rights and obligations. These new rules also sets forth new obligations for employers. For example, employers must now provide the necessary tools and services for employees to fulfill their jobs. This reform became effective as of January 12, 2021 and provides for the publication of a Mexican Official Norm (Norma Oficial Mexicana, or “NOM”) which will determine the conditions to be complied with by employers to protect the security and health of employees working under this modality. These developments may adversely affect the Company’s results of operations or financial condition.

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On April 23, 2021, the Mexican government published a decree pursuant to which several amendments were made to the Federal Labor Law, Income Tax Law, VAT Law, among others, in order to prohibit outsourcing of personnel, limit subcontracting and amending profit-sharing rules. The amendments became effective April 24, 2021, except for certain legal provisions that became effective August 1, 2021. Among the most important amendments made were: (i) prohibition of outsourcing of personnel, however the provision of specialized services or the execution of specialized works (through external providers or companies within the same business group) is still allowed, only to the extent the services provided are not part of the corporate purpose or the primary economic activity of the company receiving the services; (iii) joint and several liability of companies hiring specialized services with a contractor who fails to comply with its labor obligations; (iv) companies that provide specialized services will require to be registered with the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (STPS); (v) increase in fines for violation of the rules; and (vi) payments related to subcontracting of personnel will not receive income tax deduction or VAT accreditation. In order to comply with the new regulations, the Company transferred certain employees to its airport subsidiaries, terminated certain subcontracting services contracts and ensured that its remaining subcontracted service providers complied with the new regulation. None of these regulatory amendments nor the actions the Company took in response thereto had any material impact in the Company’s results of operations or its financial condition, and we do not expect any material impacts in the future.

On March 10, 2021, a decree amending certain terms of the Electric Industry Law (“EIL”) became effective. The amendments aim to strengthen the state-owned utility Comisión Federal de Electricidad (“CFE”). The amendment includes, among others, (a) modifications to the order of priority of dispatch to the national electric grid; (b) modifications to the granting of permits referred in the EIL, which will now be subject to the planning criteria issued by the Ministry of Energy; and (c) powers granted to the Energy Regulatory Commission (“CRE”, for its acronym in Spanish) to revoke vesting self-supply contracts. The EIL amendments have been subject of numerous amparo lawsuits before federal courts in Mexico, in which judges have granted general injunctions, suspending the effects of the EIL amendments, for the benefit of anyone affected by the amendments, until a ruling on the merits of the amparo lawsuits is issued by the competent courts. Furthermore, the EIL’s constitutionality was judicially challenged by the Mexican Federal Antitrust Commission (Comisión Federal de Competencia Económica) and local governments, and through an unconstitutionality proceeding (acción de insconstitucionalidad) filed by two-thirds of the Mexican Senate. However, the Mexican Supreme Court dismissed the action of unconstitutionality and the constitutional challenges for lack of sufficient votes to proceed with these actions. As of the date of this report, the Mexican Supreme Court has not issued any binding precedent on the matter, so the federal courts reviewing the amparos filed against the EIL could rule differently than the Mexican Supreme Court.

On September 30, 2021, the Mexican federal executive branch presented a bill before the House of Representatives (Camara de Diputados) to amend Articles 25, 27 and 28 of the Mexican Constitution, which bill proposed changes to the legal framework that governs CFE and the Mexican power industry generally. The bill was vetoed by the House of Representatives as of April 17, 2022 and will not go into effect.

In addition, in 2017 we entered into a self supply agreement (“SSA”) under the self-supply (“autoabasto”) legal figure, with a wind electricity generator, which expires in 2028. In 2021, approximately 82.3% of the total electricity consumption of the Company was supplied under this agreement. As of the date of this report, we cannot predict how these amendments to the EIL and the proposed bill to amend the Constitution will affect the SSA if they ever become effective.

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Risks Related to Mexico

The Company’s business is significantly dependent upon the volume of air passenger traffic in Mexico, and negative economic developments in Mexico could adversely affect its business and results of operations.

In 2019, 2020 and 2021, domestic terminal passengers have represented approximately 88.1%, 89.3% and 87.2%, respectively, of the passenger traffic volume in the Company’s airports. In addition, all of its assets are located, and all of its operations are conducted, in Mexico. Accordingly, the Company’s financial conditions and results of operations are substantially dependent on economic conditions prevailing from time to time in Mexico. As a result, its business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected by any deterioration of the general condition of the Mexican economy, by a devaluation of the peso, by inflation and high interest rates in Mexico or by other negative political, social and economic developments in Mexico.

In the past, Mexico has experienced economic crises, caused by internal and external factors, characterized by exchange-rate instability (including large devaluations), high inflation, high domestic interest rates, economic contraction, a reduction of international capital flows, a reduction of liquidity in the banking sector and high unemployment rates.

The Mexican economy underwent an economic crisis that began in 2008 and continued in 2009 as a result of the impact of the global financial crisis, which affected many emerging economies. The Mexican economy’s link with the U.S. economy remains very important, and therefore, any downside to the economic outlook of the U.S. may hinder any recovery in Mexico. This correlation may have an impact on Mexico’s GDP growth and other macro-economic conditions. The Mexican economy achieved real GDP growth rates of 5.0%, -8.5% and -0.1 in 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and is estimated to increase by 2.8% in 2022 and to grow by 2.7% in 2023, according to the World Economic Outlook published by the International Monetary Fund in January 2022.

During 2021, average reference interest rates in Mexico decreased by 70 basis points compared to 2020. The annualized interest rates on 28-day short-term Mexican treasury bills, or Cetes (Certificados de la Tesorería de la Federación), averaged approximately 6.7%, 7.6%, 7.8%, 5.3% and 4.6% for 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. To the extent that the Company incurs peso-denominated debt in the future, it could be at high interest rates.

If inflation or interest rates increase significantly or if the Mexican economy is otherwise further adversely impacted, the Company’s business, financial condition, prospects and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected because, among other things, demand for transportation services may decrease. Similar events may occur, and the recurrence of such events may adversely affect the Company’s business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

Political conditions in Mexico, could materially and adversely affect the Mexican economy and political climate and, in turn, the operations of the Company.

Last presidential and federal congressional elections in Mexico were held on July 1, 2018. President López Obrador’s term will expire on September 30, 2024. Historically, the Mexican president has strongly influenced new policies and governmental actions that impact the Mexican economy. We cannot assure you that the current administration or any other future administration will maintain business-friendly and open-market economic policies and policies that stimulate economic growth and social stability. Any administration could implement substantial changes in law, policy and regulations in Mexico, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, any actions taken by the administration may lead to riots, protests and looting that could adversely affect our operations. Our financial condition and results of operation may be adversely affected by changes in Mexico’s political climate, to the extent that such changes affect the nation’s economic policies, growth, stability, outlook or regulatory environment.

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In addition, following the congressional elections on July 1, 2018, Morena obtained an absolute majority in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies and, together with its allied political parties (Partido del Trabajo and Partido Encuentro Social), obtained a majority in the Mexican Senate. The current members of the Mexican Congress took office on September 1, 2018. We cannot assure you that Morena and its political party allies or any future members will not introduce new legislative initiatives or modify existing legislation that could, in turn, result in economic or political conditions that could materially and adversely affect our business. On June 6, 2021, a number of electoral processes took place including mid-term elections for the Mexican Chamber of Deputies as well as governor elections in fifteen states, including six of the states in which we operate our airports. While the opposition coalition made important gains in the Chamber of Deputies, Morena won 11 of the states’ governor races. Changes in laws, public policies or regulations may affect the political and economic environment in Mexico and, consequently, contribute to economic uncertainty and heightened volatility of the Mexican capital markets and in securities issued by Mexican companies.

Furthermore, our business may be adversely affected by fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar as compared to the Mexican peso, inflation, interest rates, changes in laws and other political or social developments in Mexico over which we have no control. Any of the above may have an adverse effect on Mexico’s economic situation and, in turn, on our business, results of operations, financial condition and ability to repay our indebtedness.

Adverse domestic events could negatively impact the Company’s business and results of operations.

The operations of our airports may be disrupted due to the actions of third parties, such as protestors or demonstrators, which are beyond our control. Any disruption in our operations, or adverse consequence resulting from protests or riots, including flight delays, a work stoppage or other similar event, may have a material adverse effect on the operation of our airports and on our results of operations.

Demonstrations and riots taking place in cities where our airports are located and where they are either a potential target or in the path of such demonstrations could generate flight cancellations and the suspension of our operations and could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

Depreciation of the peso relative to the U.S. dollar could adversely affect the results of operations and financial condition of the Company.

From December 31, 2019 to December 31, 2020, the peso depreciated from Ps.18.86 per U.S.$1.00 on December 31, 2019 to Ps.19.89 per U.S.$1.00 on December 31, 2020. From December 31, 2020 to December 31, 2021, the peso appreciated from Ps.19.89 per U.S.$1.00 on December 31, 2020 to Ps.20.51 per U.S.$1.00 on December 31, 2021 a depreciation of 3.1%. During the first months of 2022, the peso appreciated, reaching Ps.21.31 per U.S.$1.00 on April 22, 2022.

A depreciation of the peso affects the Company’s business in the following ways: (i) international passengers and international flights pay tariffs reported in U.S. dollars; while these tariffs are generally collected in Mexican pesos up to 60 days following the date of each flight, any depreciation of the Mexican peso has a positive impact on the Company’s results from operations, which are reported in Mexican pesos; (ii) the Company has cash balances denominated in U.S. dollars; a depreciation in the Mexican peso would result in higher cash balances when converted to Mexican pesos, thus causing foreign exchange gains; and (iii) the Company has financial liabilities denominated in U.S. dollars; a depreciation in the Mexican peso results in higher debt balances when converted to Mexican pesos, thus causing foreign exchange losses. As of December 31, 2021, the Company had U.S.$4.8 million of liabilities denominated in U.S. dollars, representing 0.8% of its consolidated debt. As of March 31, 2022, U.S.$21.6 million of the Company’s cash balance was denominated in U.S. dollars.

Moreover, the depreciation of the peso also affects some of the Company’s airline customers transacting in U.S. dollars, including the purchases or leases of equipment, maintenance and fuel. Severe devaluation or depreciation of the peso may also result in the disruption of the international foreign exchange markets and may limit the Company’s ability to transfer or to convert pesos into U.S. dollars and other currencies.

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High incidences of crime in Mexico, including extortion and drug trafficking, could adversely affect the Company’s business.

Higher incidences of crime throughout Mexico, including extortion and drug trafficking, could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition, as it may decrease the international and domestic passenger traffic directed to or within Mexico. The travel warning issued by the U.S. Department of State (Bureau of Consular Affairs) on March 16, 2022 (the “Travel Advisory”) urges U.S. citizens not to travel to the states of Colima, Guerrero, Michoacán, Sinaloa (except the city of Mazatlán), and Tamaulipas. This Travel Advisory also urges U.S. citizens to defer non-essential travel to cities, states and other regions, such as Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, areas of the state of Jalisco that border the states of Michoacán, Mexico State, Morelos, Nayarit, the eastern edge of Sonora which borders the state of Chihuahua, and Zacatecas. Drug-related violence and other incidents of organized crime may not be contained, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects and financial condition.

In January 2019, the Mexican government implemented measures to reduce the theft of fuel transported in pipelines operated by Mexican state-owned entity Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) throughout Mexico. As a result of these measures, certain states in Mexico, such as Mexico State, Hidalgo, Querétaro, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Tamaulipas and Nuevo León, were affected by a shortage of gasoline for automobile use. Even though there were no shortages of aircraft fuel as a result of the actions implemented by the Mexican government, we cannot assure that future actions taken by the Mexican government against theft of fuel will not affect the availability of aircraft fuel in states where our airports are located, which, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our operations.

The value and prices of securities issued by Mexican companies, including us, may be adversely affected by developments in other countries.

The market value of securities of Mexican companies, including us, may be, to varying degrees, affected by economic and market conditions in other countries. Although economic conditions in these countries may differ significantly from economic conditions in Mexico, investors’ reactions to developments in any of these other countries may have an adverse effect on the market value of securities of Mexican issuers. In past years, prices of both Mexican debt and equity securities have been adversely affected by the sharp drop in Asian securities markets and the economic crises in Argentina, Brazil, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Venezuela and the United Arab Emirates.

In addition, economic conditions in Mexico have become increasingly correlated to economic conditions in the United States. Therefore, an economic downturn in the United States will significantly adversely impact the Mexican economy. Furthermore, the Company cannot assure you that any policies adopted by the Biden U.S. administration will not have an impact in the market value of its securities, or that the market value of its securities will not be adversely affected by events elsewhere. See also, ““—Risks Related to Our Operations— Large scale international events, including acts of terrorism, wars and the military action launched by Russian forces in Ukraine, could have a negative impact on international air travel and our revenues.”

Delays in the process of obtaining necessary governmental approvals could affect the ability to expand the airports of the Company.

The expansion, development and growth of the Company’s airports from time to time may require governmental approvals, administrative proceedings or some other governmental action. Any delay or inability to obtain such approvals or favorable outcomes of such proceedings could have a negative impact on the expansion, development and growth of the Company’s airports.

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Mexico’s environmental legislation could limit the growth of some of our airports.

The level of environmental regulation in Mexico is increasing and the enforcement of environmental laws has become more common. For instance, Mexico launched a carbon dioxide (“CO2”) market in 2018. The market requires that industries that generate above a certain amount of CO2 emissions pay for rights to excess emissions. Starting in 2019, the legislation also requires that companies report their global emissions as verified by the Mexican Emissions Registry (Registro Nacional de Emisiones). In addition, new water quality standards are being discussed, which would require greater water quality for all of our wastewater disposal. There can be no assurance that environmental regulations or their enforcement will not change in a manner that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, prospects or financial condition.

According to the Mexican Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales) norm NOM-SEMARNAT-059-2010, mangroves are protected species, and it is a criminal offense to remove such species. Within the grounds of our Acapulco and Zihuatanejo airports, we have extended areas with mangroves, which may limit our potential to expand such airports.

The Mexican National Water Commission (Comisión Nacional del Agua) has the authority to restrict water use in some of our airports due to water shortage in northern Mexico and has enhanced its mechanisms to verify compliance with the fiscal, administrative and technical requirements regarding the extraction and discharge of water. Concessionaires who fail to comply with any of these requirements may be subject to administrative procedures that may result in the cancellation of water extraction rights and /or the imposition of significant fines.

Furthermore, all thirteen of our airports have received the Environmental Quality Certification awarded by the Federal Office for the Protection of the Environment (Procuraduría Federal de Protección al Ambiente). However, compliance with current or future environmental regulations may require us to incur additional costs in order to bring our airports into compliance, and if we fail to comply with current or future environmental regulations, we may be subject to fines and other sanctions.

On August 11, 2014, the Mexican National Agency of Industrial Safety and Protection of the Environment of the Hydrocarbons Sector (Agencia Nacional de Seguridad Industrial y de Protección al Medio Ambiente del Sector Hidrocarburos, or “ASEA”) was created. While initially taking a secondary role to the role of the Mexican Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources, ASEA has started to enforce its legal powers. Our airport growth projects related to fuel supply must now be approved by ASEA, which may result in more burdensome proceedings for the approval of special projects related to hydrocarbons. As of the date of this report, there can be no assurance whether ASEA’s rules and regulations will materially affect our business or results of operations.

Minority shareholders may be less able to enforce their rights against the Company, its directors or controlling shareholders in Mexico.

Under Mexican law, the protections afforded to minority shareholders are different from those afforded to minority shareholders in the United States. For example, there are no precedent cases in which Mexican courts found that the directors violated their fiduciary duties. As a result, it may be difficult for minority shareholders to bring an action against directors for breach of these duties and achieve the same results as in most jurisdictions in the United States. Procedures for class-action lawsuits were incorporated into Mexican law and became effective in March 2012. However, these rules and procedures are different and more limited than those in place in the United States. Therefore, it may be more difficult for minority shareholders to enforce their rights against the Company, its directors or its controlling shareholders.

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Enforcing civil liabilities against us or our directors, officers and controlling persons may be difficult.

We are organized under the laws of Mexico, and almost all of our directors, officers and controlling persons reside in Mexico. In addition, a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of our directors, officers and controlling persons are located in Mexico. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process on such persons within the United States or elsewhere outside of Mexico or to enforce judgments against us or our directors, officers and controlling persons, including in any action based on civil liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws. There is doubt as to the enforceability in Mexico, whether in original actions or in actions to enforce judgments of U.S. courts or other courts outside of Mexico, of liabilities based solely on U.S. federal securities laws.

Mexican law and the bylaws of the Company restrict the ability of non-Mexican shareholders to invoke the protection of their governments with respect to their rights as shareholders.

As required by Mexican law, the Company’s bylaws provide that non-Mexican shareholders shall be considered as Mexicans in respect of their ownership interests in the Company and shall be deemed to have agreed not to invoke the protection of their governments in certain circumstances. Under this provision, a non-Mexican shareholder is deemed to have agreed not to invoke the protection of his own government by asking such government to interpose a diplomatic claim against the Mexican government with respect to the shareholder’s rights as a shareholder, but is not deemed to have waived any other rights it may have, including any rights under the U.S. securities laws, with respect to its investment in the Company. If you invoke such governmental protection in violation of this agreement, your shares could be forfeited to the Mexican government.

The Company is subject to different corporate disclosure standards than U.S. companies.

A principal objective of the securities laws of the United States is to promote full and fair disclosure of all material corporate information. However, there may be less publicly available information about foreign issuers of securities listed in the United States than is regularly published by or about U.S. issuers of listed securities.

Risks Related to Our Shareholders

SETA has the right to appoint certain key members of our management, and SETA’s interests may differ from those of other shareholders.

As of the date of this report, Fintech Holdings, Inc., Bagual S.à r.l. (“Bagual”), Grenadier S.à r.l. (“Grenadier”), Pequod S.à r.l. (“Pequod”), Harpoon S.à r.l. (“Harpoon”), Expanse S.à r.l. (“Expanse”) and Aerodrome Infrastructure S.à.r.l. (“Aerodrome”), together (“Fintech”), through Aerodrome and their direct subsidiary SETA, are the beneficial owners of 30.1% of our total capital stock. SETA directly owns Series B shares representing 1.9% of our total capital stock and owns Series BB shares that represent 12.8% of our capital stock. On July 9, 2021 Aerodrome acquired 60,155,201 Series B shares representing 15.4% of our capital stock through a tender offer. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Recent Developments—Purchase of shares by Fintech Holdings Inc. and its affiliates”.

As long as SETA retains at least 7.65% of our capital stock in the form of Series BB, all of its special rights, including its right to nominate, appoint and remove certain directors and officers as holder of Series BB shares, will remain in place. The rights and obligations of SETA in our management are explained in “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Major Shareholders.”

The termination of the Technical Assistance Agreement would also trigger the conversion of SETA’s remaining Series BB shares into Series B shares, resulting in the termination of all of SETA’s special rights. As long as the Technical Assistance Agreement remains in effect and SETA continues to hold at least 7.65% of our capital stock in the form of Series BB shares, it also has the right to appoint and nominate the same number of directors and officers that it is currently entitled to appoint under our bylaws. For further information on the Technical Assistance Agreement and its terms, see “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Related Party Transactions—Arrangements Relating to SETA.”

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SETA’s veto rights as holder of at least 7.65% of our capital stock in the form of Series BB shares and its right to nominate, appoint and remove certain directors and officers as holder of Series BB shares, which will continue for as long as it maintains the aforementioned percentage and the Technical Assistance Agreement remains in effect, could constitute an obstacle for us to bring in a new strategic shareholder and/or operator. With the right to nominate, appoint and remove certain members of our senior management, SETA influences the actions of our management. Should SETA’s shares fall below this threshold, our management could change significantly. In the event of termination of the Technical Assistance Agreement, SETA would cease to have the special rights of the Series BB shares, which may adversely affect and disrupt our operations.

On September 14, 2020, Empresas ICA, S.A.B. de C.V. and Controladora de Operaciones de Infraestructura, S.A. de C.V. (“CONOISA”) filed Amendment No. 9 amending the Schedule 13D filed with the SEC, informing that prior to June 12, 2020, SETA was a wholly-owned subsidiary of ICA Tenedora,. S.A. de C.V. (“ICATEN”). On June 10, 2020, each of Bagual, Grenadier, Pequod, Harpoon and Expanse entered into a Stock Purchase Agreement with ICATEN and in the case of Bagual, a Stock Purchase Agreement with each of ICATEN and ICA Infraestructura, S.A. de. C.V. (a subsidiary of ICATEN), to purchase collectively 100% of the capital stock of SETA. The transactions closed on June 12, 2020 and the aggregate purchase price for the SETA shares was Ps. 5.47 per share for 862,703,377 shares.

On May 24, 2021, Aerodrome, SETA, Bagual, Grenadier, Pequod, Harpoon, Expanse, Fintech, and David Martínez purchased 923,703 ADSs, representing 7,389,624 Series B Shares, and 52,765,577 Series B Shares of the Company through a cash tender offer in the U.S and an offer by Aerodrome in Mexico directed to holders of Series B Shares. The transaction closed on July 9, 2021 and the aggregate purchase price for the Company’s shares was Ps.137 per Series B Share and Ps.1,096 per ADS, for a total of approximately Ps.8,241 million.

The interests of SETA, Fintech, or any shareholder holding Series BB shares may differ from those of our other shareholders and can be contrary to the preferences and expectations of our other shareholders. SETA and the officers nominated or appointed by it may not exercise their rights in ways that favor the interests of our other shareholders. Furthermore, as a result of our board’s decision-making process, officers appointed by SETA may influence decisions taken by the rest of our officers.

Risks Related to Our ADSs

You may not be entitled to participate in future preemptive rights offerings.

Under Mexican law, if we issue new shares for cash as part of a capital increase, we generally must grant our shareholders the right to purchase a sufficient number of shares to maintain their existing ownership percentage in the Company. Rights to purchase shares in these circumstances are known as preemptive rights. We may not legally be permitted to allow holders of ADSs in the United States to exercise any preemptive rights in any future capital increase, unless we file a registration statement with the SEC with respect to that future issuance of shares or the offering qualifies for an exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

At the time of any future capital increase, we will evaluate the costs and potential liabilities associated with filing a registration statement with the SEC and any other factors that we consider important to determine whether we will file such a registration statement.

We may not file a registration statement with the SEC in the future to allow holders of ADSs or shares in the United States to participate in a preemptive rights offering. In addition, under current Mexican law, sales by the depository of preemptive rights and distribution of the proceeds from such sales to you, the ADS holders, is not possible. As a result, your equity interest in the Company may be diluted proportionately.

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Holders of ADSs are not entitled to attend shareholders’ meetings, and they may only vote through the depositary.

Under Mexican law, a shareholder is required to deposit its shares with the Secretary of the Company, S.D. Indeval Institución para el Depósito de Valores, S.A. de C.V. (“Indeval”), a Mexican or foreign credit institution or a brokerage house in order to attend a shareholders’ meeting. A holder of ADSs will not be able to meet this requirement, and accordingly is not entitled to attend shareholders’ meetings. A holder of ADSs is entitled to instruct the depositary as to how to vote the shares represented by ADSs, in accordance with the procedures provided for in the deposit agreement, but a holder of ADSs will not be able to vote its shares directly at a shareholders’ meeting or to appoint a proxy to do so.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Form 20-F contains forward-looking statements. We may from time to time make forward-looking statements in our annual and periodic reports to the SEC on Forms 20-F and 6-K, in our annual report to shareholders, in offering circulars and prospectuses, in press releases and other written materials and in oral statements made by our officers, directors or employees to analysts, institutional investors, representatives of the media and others. Examples of such forward-looking statements include but are not limited to:

projections of operating revenues, net comprehensive income (loss), net income (loss) per share, capital expenditures, dividends, capital structure or other financial items or ratios,

statements of our plans, objectives or goals,

changes in our regulatory environment,

statements about our future economic performance or that of Mexico, and

statements of assumptions underlying such statements.

Words such as “believe,” “anticipate,” “plan,” “expect,” “intend,” “target,” “estimate,” “project,” “predict,” “forecast,” “guideline,” “should” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements.

Forward-looking statements involve inherent risks and uncertainties. We caution you that a number of important factors could cause actual results to differ materially from the projections, plans, objectives, expectations, estimates and intentions expressed in such forward-looking statements. These factors, some of which are discussed above under “Risk Factors,” include material changes in the performance or terms of our concessions, developments in legal proceedings, economic and political conditions and government policies in Mexico or elsewhere, inflation rates, exchange rates, regulatory developments, customer demand and competition. We caution you that the foregoing list of factors is not exclusive and that other risks and uncertainties, including the duration and severity of the COVID-19 outbreak and its impacts on our business; may cause actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking statements.

Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update them in light of new information or future developments.

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Item 4.          Information on the Company

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY

Grupo Aeroportuario del Centro Norte, S.A.B. de C.V., which we refer to by the acronym “GACN”, is a corporation (sociedad anónima bursátil de capital variable) organized under the laws of Mexico. We were incorporated in 1998 as part of the Mexican government’s program for the opening of Mexico’s airports to private investment. The duration of our corporate existence is indefinite. We are a holding company and conduct substantially all of our operations through our subsidiaries. The terms “GACN”, “the Company”, “we”, “us” and “our” in this annual report refer to Grupo Aeroportuario del Centro Norte, S.A.B. de C.V., together with its subsidiaries, and to properties and assets that we own or operate, unless otherwise specified. Our registered office is located at Plaza Metrópoli Patriotismo, Piso 5, Av. Patriotismo 201, Col. San Pedro de los Pinos, Benito Juárez, Ciudad de México, México 03800, telephone +52.81.8625.4300. Our U.S. agent is Puglisi & Associates. Our U.S. agent’s address is 850 Library Avenue, Suite 204, Newark, Delaware 19711.

The SEC maintains a World Wide Web site on the Internet at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports and information statements and other information regarding us. The reports and information statements and other information about us can also be downloaded from the SEC’s website or our website at http://www.oma.aero.

Investment by SETA and Its Affiliates

In 2000, as part of the first stage of our privatization, the Mexican government sold Series BB shares to SETA in a public bidding process. Pursuant to this transaction, SETA paid the Mexican government a total of Ps.864,055,578 (amount in nominal pesos, excluding interest) (U.S.$76.0 million based on the exchange rate in effect on the date of SETA’s bid) in exchange for:

all of our Series BB shares, which in 2000 represented 15.0% of our outstanding capital stock;
an option to acquire from the Mexican government shares representing 36.0% of the capital stock in 2000. This option was subsequently assigned to and exercised by Aeroinvest (currently CONOISA);
an option to subscribe for up to 3% of newly issued Series B shares (1% of which expired unexercised on June 14, 2005, and 2% of which was exercised in September 2006); and
the right and obligation to enter into various agreements with us and the Mexican government, including a participation agreement setting forth the rights and obligations of each of the parties involved in the privatization (including SETA) (the “Participation Agreement”), a 15-year Technical Assistance Agreement setting forth SETA’s right and obligation to provide technical assistance to us in exchange for an annual fee and a shareholders’ agreement under terms established during the public bidding process. These agreements are described in greater detail under “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related-Party Transactions.”

Currently, Series BB shares represent 12.9 % of our capital stock and the remainder consist of Series B shares.

SETA’s current shareholders are:

Fintech, through its wholly-owned subsidiaries, which own directly 100% of SETA. Bagual owns 19.6% of the capital stock of SETA; Grenadier owns 21.5% of the capital stock of SETA; Pequod owns 21.5% of the capital stock of SETA; Harpoon owns 20.4% of the capital stock of SETA and

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Expanse owns 17.1% of the capital stock of SETA. On June 10, 2020, each of the wholly-owned subsidiaries previously mentioned entered into a Stock Purchase Agreement with ICATEN and in the case of Bagual, a Stock Purchase Agreement with each of ICATEN and ICA Infraestructura, S.A. de. C.V. (a subsidiary of ICATEN), to purchase collectively 100% of the capital stock of SETA.  The transactions closed on June 12, 2020 and the aggregate purchase price for the SETA shares was 5.47 Mexican pesos per share for 862,703,377 shares. SETA currently owns all of the outstanding Series BB shares representing 12.9% of our capital stock and also owns Series B shares representing 1.9% of our total capital stock.

Under the Technical Assistance Agreement, SETA provides management and consulting services and transfers industry expertise and technology to us in exchange for a fee, which in 2021 amounted to approximately Ps.133,558 thousand. This agreement is more fully described in “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related-Party Transactions.”

Initial Public Offering

On November 29, 2006, a Mexican trust established by Nacional Financiera, S.N.C., or NAFIN (a Mexican national credit institution and development bank owned and controlled by the Mexican Government), acting pursuant to the instructions of the former Ministry of Communications and Transportation (as of October 10, 2021, the “Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation”), sold 48.02% of our outstanding capital stock through a global public offering of shares in the form of ADSs and Series B shares, concurrently in the United States and Mexico. The net proceeds from the sale of the shares totaled approximately U.S.$432.2 million and were paid to the Mexican government.

Master Development Programs and Capital Expenditures

Master Development Program

Every five years, we are required to submit to the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation for approval a Master Development Program for each of our concessions describing, among other matters, our traffic forecasts for the following 15 years, and detailed expansion, modernization and major and minor maintenance plans for the following five years. Each Master Development Program is required to be updated and resubmitted for approval to the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation every five years. Upon such approval, the Master Development Program is binding for the following five years and deemed to constitute part of the relevant concession. Any major construction, renovation or expansion of an airport generally may only be made pursuant to a concession holder’s Master Development Program and upon approval by the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation. In November 2020, the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation approved the Master Development Programs for each of our subsidiary concession holders for the 2021 to 2025 period. These five-year Master Development Programs, which were approved by the Ministry of Infrastructure, Communications and Transportation, are in effect from January 1, 2021 until December 31, 2025, and we are required to comply with them on a year-by-year basis. We do not expect the COVID-19 pandemic to affect our committed investments under the current Master Development Programs.

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The following table sets forth our committed investments, including major maintenance expenditures, under our Master Development Programs by airport for 2021 through 2025. Figures are updated based on the Producer Price Index for the construction industry:

Committed Investments Under Master Development Programs by
Airport for 2021 through 2025 (1)

For the Year Ended December 31, 

    

    

    

    

    

    

Total

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2021 - 2025

(in thousands of pesos)

Acapulco

 

194,906

62,525

52,111

23,049

47,116

 

379,708

Ciudad Juárez

 

269,745

233,994

361,160

225,755

71,513

 

1,162,166

Culiacán

 

321,973

348,248

385,012

84,056

102,069

 

1,241,358

Chihuahua

 

216,921

192,384

243,013

133,863

83,834

 

870,015

Durango

 

84,931

129,513

94,640

51,148

28,588

 

388,819

Mazatlán

 

91,288

81,524

151,541

17,611

46,128

 

388,091

Monterrey

 

1,092,149

1,540,828

1,428,589

2,158,157

1,947,414

 

8,167,136

Reynosa

 

120,696

50,939

51,668

41,327

33,396

 

298,026

San Luis Potosí

 

178,187

95,956

103,792

58,968

34,362

 

471,265

Tampico

 

120,304

80,482

62,785

12,615

59,390

 

335,578

Torreón

 

94,664

127,691

44,851

32,263

38,352

 

337,822

Zacatecas

 

82,216

27,784

21,633

19,423

25,815

 

176,870

Zihuatanejo

 

90,488

89,883

21,373

36,373

59,899

 

298,016

Total

 

2,958,467

 

3,061,752

 

3,022,167

 

2,894,608

 

2,577,877

 

14,514,871

(1)In pesos with purchasing power as of December 2021.

The following table sets forth our committed investments, including major maintenance expenditures, under our Master Development Programs by category for 2021 through 2025:

Committed Investments Under Master Development Programs by

Category for 2021 through 2025 (1)

For the Year Ended December 31, 

    

    

    

    

    

    

Total

2021

2022

2023

2024

2025

2021 - 2025

(in thousands of pesos)

Terminal capacity expansions and quality projects

 

703,497

1,213,086

1,493,599

1,665,437

1,658,836

 

6,734,455

Projects to meet ICAO directives

 

272,259

161,262

16,206

11,831

10,958

 

472,516

Operational Infrastructure Expansion

 

219,308

203,880

182,248

241,630

361,522

 

1,208,588

Runways and aprons

 

428,384

509,621

401,690

327,907

156,020

 

1,823,622

Machinery and equipment

 

504,938

607,753

229,242

184,025

251,063

 

1,777,021

Security, Safety and Information Technology Equipment

 

447,906

180,199

627,655

416,467

94,022

 

1,766,249

Other

 

382,175

185,952

71,527

47,311

45,456

 

732,421

Total

 

2,958,467

 

3,061,752

 

3,022,169

 

2,894,606

 

2,577,875

 

14,514,871

(1)In pesos with purchasing power as of December 2021.

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Expenditures Under the Master Development Programs and Other Strategic Capital Expenditures

Expenditures incurred to comply with our obligations under the Master Development Programs include expenditures associated with improvements to our concession assets, major maintenance costs and other items recorded as operating costs as incurred. Major maintenance expenditures are not subject to capitalization and reduce our major maintenance provision. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Critical Accounting Policies—Major Maintenance Provision.” Thus, not all expenditures incurred to comply with our obligations under the Master Development Programs will constitute capital expenditures.

In addition to investments in our Master Development Programs, we have also invested in commercial, real estate and other business opportunities, including our investment in hotels in Terminal 2 of the Mexico City International Airport and in the Monterrey airport, as well as our industrial park in the Monterrey airport.

The following table sets forth our actual capital expenditures, including capital expenditures made pursuant to our Master Development Programs and other strategic capital expenditures by airport for 2017 through 2021:

Actual Capital Expenditures by Airport for 2017 through 2021

For the Year Ended December 31, 

    

2017

2018

    

2019

    

2020

2021

(in thousands of pesos)

Acapulco

 

372,253

 

279,099

 

12,221

34,592

44,088

Ciudad Juárez

 

33,404

 

9,096

 

29,839

78,794

165,227

Culiacán

 

44,389

 

34,035

 

65,480

40,919

91,355

Chihuahua

 

122,448

 

141,908

 

173,576

37,908

63,584

Durango

 

19,991

 

13,788

 

48,932

47,209

35,601

Mazatlán

 

30,222

 

31,306

 

37,812

23,805

45,625

Monterrey

 

505,445

 

282,514

 

244,038

748,245

1,002,022

Reynosa

 

127,353

 

153,562

 

63,443

30,191

62,780

San Luis Potosí

 

108,757

 

231,726

 

71,716

53,596

67,399

Tampico

 

46,742

 

26,169

 

111,210

50,152

129,471

Torreón

 

20,017

 

19,990

 

9,105

29,400

28,802

Zacatecas

 

19,174

 

9,656

 

17,555

29,443

18,318

Zihuatanejo

 

28,138

 

13,587

 

105,374

74,516

129,957

Other

 

103,626

 

67,927

 

58,625

122,714

26,313

Total

 

1,581,959

1,314,363

 

1,048,926

 

1,401,483

1,910,541

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The following table sets forth our actual capital expenditures by category across all of our airports for 2017 through 2021:

Actual Capital Expenditures by Category for 2017 through 2021

For the Year Ended

December 31, 

2017

2018

 

2019

2020

2021

(in thousands of pesos)

Capacity and quality project

882,289

961,580

598,829

946,848

1,019,023