Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Omnicom Group
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$75.05 224 $16,820
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
8-K 2019-02-14 Off-BS Arrangement
8-K 2019-02-12 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-11 Amend Bylaw, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-13 Other Events
8-K 2018-10-16 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-12 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-17 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-22 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-02-15 Officers, Exhibits
ANGI Angi Homeservices
GRPN Groupon
CRTO Criteo
NCMI National Cinemedia
TLRA Telaria
INUV Inuvo
SRAX Social Reality
AMCN Airmedia Group
IZEA IZEA
ISIG Insignia Systems
OMC 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
EX-21 a2018q4exhibit21.htm
EX-23 a2018q4exhibit23.htm
EX-31.1 a2018q4exhibit311.htm
EX-31.2 a2018q4exhibit312.htm
EX-32 a2018q4exhibit32.htm

Omnicom Group Earnings 2018-12-31

OMC 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 a2018q410-k.htm 10-K Document


______________________________________________________________________________________________________
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018
____________________________________________________________
Commission File Number: 1-10551
_________________________________________________________________________________
OMNICOM GROUP INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
New York
 
13-1514814
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
437 Madison Avenue, New York, NY
 
10022
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (212) 415-3600
____________________________________________________________
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.15 Par Value
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
____________________________________________________________

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes þ No o

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No þ

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding twelve months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every interactive data file required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding twelve months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes þ No o

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. þ

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer þ
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o
Smaller reporting company o
 
Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  o No þ
____________________________________________________________

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2018 was $16,936,300,000.

As of January 31, 2019, there were 223,690,798 shares of Omnicom Group Inc. Common Stock outstanding.

Portions of the Omnicom Group Inc. Definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders scheduled to be held on May 20, 2019 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report to the extent described herein.




OMNICOM GROUP INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
Page
 
PART I
 
Item 4.
 
PART II
 
 
PART III
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14.
 
PART IV
 
Item 16.
Form 10-K Summary
 
 
 
 




i



FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K constitute forward-looking statements, including statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. In addition, from time to time, the Company or its representatives have made, or may make, forward-looking statements, orally or in writing. These statements may discuss goals, intentions and expectations as to future plans, trends, events, results of operations or financial condition, or otherwise, based on current beliefs of the Company’s management as well as assumptions made by, and information currently available to, the Company’s management. Forward-looking statements may be accompanied by words such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “plan,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “future,” “guidance,” “intend,” “may,” “will,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project” or similar words, phrases or expressions. These forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside the Company’s control. Therefore, you should not place undue reliance on such statements. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements include: international, national or local economic conditions that could adversely affect the Company or its clients; losses on media purchases and production costs incurred on behalf of clients; reductions in client spending, a slowdown in client payments and a deterioration in the credit markets; the ability to attract new clients and retain existing clients in the manner anticipated; changes in client advertising, marketing and corporate communications requirements; failure to manage potential conflicts of interest between or among clients; unanticipated changes relating to competitive factors in the advertising, marketing and corporate communications industries; ability to hire and retain key personnel; currency exchange rate fluctuations; reliance on information technology systems; changes in legislation or governmental regulations affecting the Company or its clients; risks associated with assumptions the Company makes in connection with its critical accounting estimates and legal proceedings; and the Company’s international operations, which are subject to the risks of currency repatriation restrictions, social or political conditions and regulatory environment. The foregoing list of factors is not exhaustive. You should carefully consider the foregoing factors and the other risks and uncertainties that may affect the Company’s business, including those described in Item 1A, “Risk Factors” and Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this report. Except as required under applicable law, the Company does not assume any obligation to update these forward-looking statements.



ii



PART I
Introduction
This report is our 2018 annual report to shareholders and our 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K, or 2018 10-K.
Omnicom Group Inc., a New York corporation formed in 1986, through its branded networks and agencies provides advertising, marketing and corporate communications services to over 5,000 clients in more than 100 countries. The terms “Omnicom,” “the Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” each refer to Omnicom Group Inc. and its subsidiaries unless the context indicates otherwise.
Item 1. Business
Our Business
Omnicom is a strategic holding company and a leading global provider of advertising, marketing and corporate communications services. We operate in a highly competitive industry and compete against other global, national and regional advertising and marketing services companies, as well as technology, social media and professional services companies. The proliferation of media channels, including the rapid development and integration of interactive technologies and mediums, has fragmented consumer audiences targeted by our clients. These developments make it more complex for marketers to reach their target audiences in a cost-effective way, causing them to turn to global service providers such as Omnicom for a customized mix of advertising and marketing services designed to optimize their total marketing expenditure.
On a global, pan-regional and local basis, our networks and agencies provide a comprehensive range of services in the following fundamental disciplines: advertising, customer relationship management, or CRM, which includes CRM Consumer Experience and CRM Execution & Support, public relations and healthcare. Advertising includes creative services, as well as strategic media planning and buying and data analytics services. CRM Consumer Experience includes Omnicom’s Precision Marketing Group and digital/direct agencies, as well as our branding, shopper marketing and experiential marketing agencies and CRM Execution & Support includes field marketing, sales support, merchandising and point of sale, as well as other specialized marketing and custom communications services. Public relations services include corporate communications, crisis management, public affairs and media and media relations services. Healthcare includes advertising and media services to global healthcare clients. Our business model was built and continues to evolve around our clients. Our fundamental business principle is that our clients’ specific marketing requirements are the central focus of how we structure our service offerings and allocate our resources. This client-centric business model requires that multiple agencies within Omnicom collaborate in formal and informal virtual client networks utilizing our key client matrix organization structure. This collaboration allows us to cut across our internal organizational structures to execute our clients’ marketing requirements in a consistent and comprehensive manner. We use our client-centric approach to grow our business by expanding our service offerings to existing clients, moving into new markets and obtaining new clients. In addition to collaborating through our client service models, our agencies and networks collaborate across internally developed technology platforms. Annalect, our proprietary data and analytics platform, serves as the strategic resource for all of our agencies and networks to share when developing client service strategies across our virtual networks. Omni, our people-based precision marketing and insights platform, identifies and defines personalized consumer experiences at scale across creative, media and CRM, as well as other disciplines.
Driven by our clients’ continuous demand for more effective and efficient marketing activities, we strive to provide an extensive range of advertising, marketing and corporate communications services through various client-centric networks that are organized to meet specific client objectives. A comprehensive listing of our service offerings includes:
advertising
 
investor relations
branding
 
marketing research
content marketing
 
media planning and buying
corporate social responsibility consulting
 
merchandising and point of sale
crisis communications
 
mobile marketing
custom publishing
 
multi-cultural marketing
data analytics
 
non-profit marketing
database management
 
organizational communications
digital/direct marketing
 
package design
digital transformation
 
product placement
entertainment marketing
 
promotional marketing
experiential marketing
 
public affairs
field marketing
 
public relations


1



financial/corporate business-to-business advertising
 
retail marketing
graphic arts/digital imaging
 
sales support
healthcare marketing and communications
 
search engine marketing
instore design
 
shopper marketing
interactive marketing
 
social media marketing
 
 
sports and event marketing
As clients increase their demands for marketing effectiveness and efficiency, they have made it a practice to consolidate their business within one service provider in the pursuit of a single engagement covering all consumer touch points. We have structured our business around this trend. We believe that our key client matrix organization structure approach to collaboration and integration of our services and solutions has provided a competitive advantage to our business in the past and we expect this to continue over the medium and long term. Our key client matrix organization structure facilitates superior client management and allows for greater integration of the services required by the world’s largest brands. Our over-arching strategy is to continue to use our virtual client networks to grow our business relationships with our largest clients by serving them across our networks, disciplines and geographies. In addition, in 2018, we substantially completed the process of forming practice areas within our global network structure to bring together agencies operating in common disciplines. This action leverages existing resources and, in close coordination with our key client matrix organization, enhances the development of custom client solutions.
The various components of our business, including revenue by discipline and geographic area, and material factors that affected us in 2018 are discussed in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” or MD&A, of this report. None of our acquisitions or dispositions, individually or in the aggregate, in the three-year period ended December 31, 2018 was material to our results of operations or financial position. For information about our acquisitions, see Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements.
Our Clients
Our clients operate in virtually every sector of the global economy. In many cases, multiple agencies or networks serve different brand, product groups or both within the same client. For example, in 2018 our largest client represented 3.0% of revenue and was served by more than 225 of our agencies. Our 100 largest clients, which represent many of the world's major marketers, comprised approximately 51% of revenue and were each served, on average, by more than 60 of our agencies.
Our Employees
At December 31, 2018, we employed approximately 70,400 people worldwide. The skill sets of our workforce across our agencies and within each discipline are similar. Common to all is the ability to understand a client’s brand or product and their selling proposition and to develop a unique message to communicate the value of the brand or product to the client’s target audience, whether through traditional channels or emerging digital platforms. Recognizing the importance of this core competency, we have established tailored training and education programs for our client service professionals around this competency. See the MD&A for a discussion of the effect of salary and related costs on our results of operations.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
At January 31, 2019, our executive officers were:
Name
Position
Age
John D. Wren
Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer
66
Philip J. Angelastro
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
54
Michael J. O’Brien
Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
57
Andrew L. Castellaneta
Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer
60
Peter L. Swiecicki
Senior Vice President, Finance and Controller
60
Jonathan B. Nelson
CEO, Omnicom Digital
51
Each executive officer has held his present position for at least five years, except: Mr. Wren was named Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer in May 2018 and previously served as President and Chief Executive Officer from 1997 to May 2018; Mr. Angelastro was named Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer in September 2014 and previously served as Senior Vice President Finance and Controller from 2002 until September 2014; Mr. Castellaneta was named Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer in January 2015 and previously served as Assistant Controller from 2000 until January 2015; and Mr. Swiecicki was named Senior Vice President, Finance and Controller in January 2015 and previously served as Director of Business Operations from 2013 until January 2015 after holding various positions with BBDO Worldwide from 1983 until 2013. Additional information about our directors and executive officers will appear in our definitive proxy statement, which is expected to be filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, by April 10, 2019.


2



Available Information
We file annual, quarterly and current reports and any amendments to those reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Documents we file with the SEC are available free of charge on our website at http://investor.omnicomgroup.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is filed with the SEC. The information included on or available through our website is not part of this or any other report we file with the SEC. Any document that we file with the SEC is available on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Adverse economic conditions, a reduction in client spending, a deterioration in the credit markets or a delay in client payments could have a material effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
Economic conditions have a direct impact on our business, results of operations and financial position. Adverse global or regional economic conditions pose a risk that clients may reduce, postpone or cancel spending on advertising, marketing and corporate communications projects. Such actions would reduce the demand for our services and could result in a reduction in our revenue, which would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial position. A contraction in the availability of credit may make it more difficult for us to meet our working capital requirements. In addition, a disruption in the credit markets could adversely affect our clients and could cause them to delay payment for our services or take other actions that would negatively affect our working capital. In such circumstances, we may need to obtain additional financing to fund our day-to-day working capital requirements, which may not be available on favorable terms, or at all. Even if we take action to respond to adverse economic conditions, reductions in revenue and disruptions in the credit markets by aligning our cost structure and more efficiently managing our working capital, such actions may not be effective.
In an economic downturn, the risk of a material loss related to media purchases and production costs incurred on behalf of our clients could significantly increase and methods for managing or mitigating such risk may be less available or unavailable.
In the normal course of business, our agencies enter into contractual commitments with media providers and production companies on behalf of our clients at levels that can substantially exceed the revenue from our services. These commitments are included in accounts payable when the services are delivered by the media providers or production companies. If permitted by local law and the client agreement, many of our agencies purchase media and production services for our clients as an agent for a disclosed principal. In addition, while operating practices vary by country, media type and media vendor, in the United States and certain foreign markets, many of our agencies’ contracts with media and production providers specify that our agencies are not liable to the media and production providers under the theory of sequential liability until and to the extent we have been paid by our client for the media or production services.
Where purchases of media and production services are made by our agencies as a principal or are not subject to the theory of sequential liability, the risk of a material loss as a result of payment default by our clients could increase significantly and such a loss could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
In addition, our methods of managing the risk of payment default, including obtaining credit insurance, requiring payment in advance, mitigating the potential loss in the marketplace or negotiating with media providers, may be less available or unavailable during a severe economic downturn.
Clients periodically review and change their advertising, marketing and corporate communications requirements and relationships. If we are unable to remain competitive or retain key clients, our business, results of operations and financial position may be adversely affected.
We operate in a highly competitive industry. Key competitive considerations for retaining existing clients and winning new clients include our ability to develop solutions that meet client needs in a rapidly changing environment, the quality and effectiveness of our services and our ability to serve clients efficiently, particularly large multinational clients, on a broad geographic basis. While many of our client relationships are long-standing, from time to time clients put their advertising, marketing and corporate communications business up for competitive review. We have won and lost accounts as a result of these reviews. To the extent that we are not able to remain competitive or retain key clients, our revenue may be adversely affected, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.


3



The loss of several of our largest clients could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
Our 100 largest clients represent approximately 51% of our revenue. Clients generally are able to reduce or cancel current or future spending on advertising, marketing and corporate communications projects at any time on short notice for any reason. A significant reduction in spending on our services by our largest clients, or the loss of several of our largest clients, if not replaced by new clients or an increase in business from existing clients, would adversely affect our revenue and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
Acquiring new clients and retaining existing clients depends on our ability to avoid and manage conflicts of interest arising from other client relationships, retaining key personnel and maintaining a highly skilled workforce.
Our ability to acquire new clients and retain existing clients may, in some cases, be limited by clients’ perceptions of, or policies concerning, conflicts of interest arising from other client relationships. If we are unable to maintain multiple agencies to manage multiple client relationships and avoid potential conflicts of interests, our business, results of operations and financial position may be adversely affected.
Our employees are our most important assets and our ability to attract and retain key personnel is an important aspect of our competitiveness. If we are unable to attract and retain key personnel, our ability to provide our services in the manner clients have come to expect may be adversely affected, which could harm our reputation and result in a loss of clients, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
Currency exchange rate fluctuations could impact our business, results of operations and financial position.
Our international operations represent approximately 48% of our 2018 revenue. We operate in all major international markets including the Euro Zone, the United Kingdom, or the U.K., Australia, Brazil, Canada, China and Japan. Our agencies transact business in more than 50 different currencies. Substantially all of our foreign operations transact business in their local currency and accordingly, their financial statements are translated into U.S. Dollars. As a result, both adverse and beneficial fluctuations in foreign exchange rates impact our business, results of operations and financial position. In addition, funds transferred to the United States can be adversely or beneficially impacted by changes in foreign currency exchange rates.
We rely extensively on information technology systems and cybersecurity incidents could adversely affect us.
We rely on information technology systems and infrastructure to process, store and transmit data, summarize results, manage our business and maintain client advertising and marketing information. Increased cybersecurity threats and attacks, which are becoming more sophisticated, pose a risk to our systems and networks. Security breaches, improper use of our systems and unauthorized access to our data and information by employees and others may pose a risk that sensitive data may be exposed to unauthorized persons or to the public. We also have access to sensitive or personal data or information that is subject to privacy laws and regulations. Our systems and processes to protect against, detect, prevent, respond to and mitigate cybersecurity incidents and our organizational training for employees to develop an understanding of cybersecurity risks and threats may be unable to prevent material security breaches, theft, modification or loss of data, employee malfeasance and additional known and unknown threats. Such events could adversely affect our business and reputation. In addition, we use third-party service providers, including cloud providers, to store, transmit and process data. Our insurance may not protect us against damages resulting from cybersecurity incidents, which could adversely affect our business and reputation.
Government regulation and consumer advocates may limit the scope and content of our services, which could affect our ability to meet our clients’ needs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
Government agencies and consumer groups directly or indirectly affect or attempt to affect the scope, content and manner of presentation of advertising, marketing and corporate communications services, through regulation or other governmental action, which could affect our ability to meet our clients’ needs. Such regulation may seek, among other things, to limit the tax deductibility of advertising expenditures by certain industries or for certain products and services. In addition, there has been a tendency on the part of businesses to resort to the judicial system to challenge advertising practices and claims, which could cause our clients affected by such actions to reduce their spending on our services. Any regulatory or judicial action that affects our ability to meet our clients' needs or reduces client spending on our services could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.


4



Further, laws and regulations, related to user privacy, use of personal information and Internet tracking technologies have been proposed or enacted in the United States and a number of international markets. These laws and regulations could affect the acceptance of new communications technologies and the use of current communications technologies as advertising mediums. These actions could affect our business and reduce demand for certain of our services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
As a global business we face certain risks of doing business internationally and we are exposed to risks from operating in high-growth markets and developing countries, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
The operational and financial performance of our international businesses are affected by global and regional economic conditions, competition for new business and staff, currency exchange rate fluctuation, political conditions, regulatory environment and other risks associated with extensive international operations. In addition, we conduct business in numerous high-growth markets and developing countries which tend to have longer billing collection cycles, currency repatriation restrictions and commercial laws that can be undeveloped, vague, inconsistently enforced, retroactively applied or frequently changed. The risks associated with our international operations could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position. Additionally, our operations are subject to the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws and regulations. These laws and regulations are complex and stringent, and any violation could have an adverse effect on our business and reputation. For financial information by geographic region, see Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements.
We have substantial operations in the U.K. and the Euro Zone. In June 2016, voters in the U.K. elected to withdraw from the European Union, or E.U. (commonly referred to as “Brexit”). Unless the E.U. agrees to an extension, the U.K. is scheduled to exit the E.U. on March, 29, 2019, and it is possible that the U.K. may exit without an agreement in place. The uncertainties related to Brexit have cross-border operational, financial and tax implications, among others, and any economic volatility that may arise in the U.K., the E.U. or elsewhere may adversely affect our business.
We may be unsuccessful in evaluating material risks involved in completed and future acquisitions.
We regularly evaluate potential acquisitions of businesses that are complementary to our businesses and client needs. As part of the process, we conduct business, legal and financial due diligence with the goal of identifying and evaluating material risks involved in any particular transaction. Despite our efforts, we may be unsuccessful in ascertaining or evaluating all such risks. As a result, the intended advantages of any given acquisition may not be realized. If we fail to identify certain material risks from one or more acquisitions, our business, results of operations and financial position could be adversely affected.
Our goodwill is an intangible asset that may become impaired, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
In accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or U.S. GAAP or GAAP, we have recorded a significant amount of goodwill related to our acquisitions; a substantial portion of which represents the intangible specialized know-how of the acquired workforce. As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, we review the carrying value of goodwill for impairment annually at the end of the second quarter of the year and whenever events or circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. The estimates and assumptions about future results of operations and cash flows made in connection with the impairment testing could differ from future actual results of operations and cash flows. While we have concluded, for each year presented in the financial statements included in this report, that our goodwill is not impaired, future events could cause us to conclude that the intangible asset values associated with a given operation may become impaired. Any resulting non-cash impairment charge could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
We could be affected by future laws or regulations enacted in response to climate change concerns and other actions.
Generally, our businesses are not directly affected by current laws and other regulations aimed at mitigating the impact of climate change by reducing emissions or otherwise, although our businesses could be in the future. However, we could be indirectly affected by increased prices for goods or services provided to us by companies that are directly affected by these laws and regulations and pass their increased costs through to their customers. Further, if our clients are impacted by such laws or requirements, either directly or indirectly, their spending for advertising and marketing services may decline, which could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial position. Additionally, to comply with potential future changes in environmental laws and regulations, we may need to incur additional costs; therefore, at this time, we cannot estimate what impact such regulations may have on our business, results of operations and financial position.


5



Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
We conduct business and maintain offices throughout the world. The facility requirements of our businesses are similar across geographic regions and disciplines. We believe that our facilities are adequate for our current operations and are well maintained. Our principal corporate offices are located at 437 Madison Avenue, New York, New York; 1055 Washington Boulevard, Stamford, Connecticut and 525 Okeechobee Boulevard, West Palm Beach, Florida. We also maintain executive offices in London, England; Shanghai, China and Singapore.
We lease substantially all our office space under operating leases that expire at various dates. Lease obligations of our foreign operations are generally denominated in their local currency. Office base rent expense was $287.8 million, $330.4 million and $334.1 million in 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively, net of rent received from non-cancelable third-party subleases.
Future minimum office base rent under non-cancelable operating leases, net of rent receivable from existing non-cancelable third-party subleases, is (in millions):
 
Net Rent
2019
$
308.5

2020
266.3

2021
219.6

2022
183.5

2023
150.3

Thereafter
662.4

 
$
1,790.6

See Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements for a description of our lease commitments, which comprise a significant component of our occupancy and other costs. See Note 22 to the consolidated financial statements for a discussion of the impact of the adoption of FASB Accounting Standards Codification Topic 842, Leases.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
In the ordinary course of business, we are involved in various legal proceedings. We do not presently expect that these proceedings will have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial position.
In December 2016, two of our subsidiaries received subpoenas from the U.S. Department of Justice Antitrust Division concerning its ongoing investigation of video production and post-production practices in the advertising industry. In November 2018, the Company received confirmation that the investigation of the Company's subsidiaries had been closed without any action taken against the Company, its subsidiaries or employees.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not Applicable.


6



PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “OMC.” As of January 31, 2019, there were 2,014 registered holders of our common stock.
Common stock repurchases during the three months ended December 31, 2018 were:
Period
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid
Per Share
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans
or Programs
 
Maximum Number
of Shares that May
Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans
or Programs
October 1 - 31, 2018
 
504,601

 
$
71.56

 
 
November 1 - 30, 2018
 

 

 
 
December 1 - 31, 2018
 
260,488

 
70.91

 
 
 
 
765,089

 
$
71.34

 
 
During the three months ended December 31, 2018, we purchased 600,000 shares of our common stock in the open market for general corporate purposes and withheld 165,089 shares from employees to satisfy estimated statutory income tax obligations related to vesting of restricted stock awards and stock option exercises. The value of the common stock withheld was based on the closing price of our common stock on the applicable vesting or exercise date. There were no unregistered sales of equity securities during the three months ended December 31, 2018.
For information on securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans, see Item 12, “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters,” which relevant information will be included in our definitive proxy statement, which is expected to be filed with the SEC by April 10, 2019.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
The following selected financial data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes that begin on page F-1 of this report, as well as the MD&A.
 
(In millions, except per share amounts)
For the years ended December 31:
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Revenue
$
15,290.2

 
$
15,273.6

 
$
15,416.9

 
$
15,134.4

 
$
15,317.8

Operating Profit
2,133.5

 
2,083.8

 
2,030.5

 
1,920.1

 
1,944.1

Net Income - Omnicom Group Inc.
1,326.4

 
1,088.4

 
1,148.6

 
1,093.9

 
1,104.0

Net Income Per Common Share - Omnicom Group Inc.:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
5.85

 
4.68

 
4.80

 
4.43

 
4.27

Diluted
5.83

 
4.65

 
4.78

 
4.41

 
4.24

Dividends Declared Per Common Share
2.40

 
2.25

 
2.15

 
2.00

 
1.90

 
(In millions)
At December 31:
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments
$
3,657.9

 
$
3,796.4

 
$
3,022.8

 
$
2,619.7

 
$
2,390.3

Total assets
24,617.0

 
24,931.2

 
23,165.4

 
22,110.7

 
21,428.4

Long-term debt, including current portion
4,883.7

 
4,912.9

 
4,920.6

 
4,565.6

 
4,542.5

Long-term liabilities
1,197.8

 
1,091.2

 
892.3

 
800.5

 
774.3

Total shareholders’ equity
2,547.1

 
2,615.1

 
2,162.0

 
2,452.4

 
2,850.0

In 2018, we adopted FASB Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, or ASC 606. As a result of the adoption of ASC 606, in 2018 revenue and operating profit decreased $146.1 million and $6.6 million, respectively. See Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
In 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or Tax Act, reduced net income - Omnicom Group Inc. See Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding the impact of the Tax Act on income tax expense.


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
We are a strategic holding company providing advertising, marketing and corporate communications services to clients through our branded networks and agencies around the world. On a global, pan-regional and local basis, our networks and agencies provide a comprehensive range of services in the following fundamental disciplines: advertising, CRM, which includes CRM Consumer Experience and CRM Execution & Support, public relations and healthcare. Our business model was built and continues to evolve around our clients. While our networks and agencies operate under different names and frame their ideas in different disciplines, we organize our services around our clients. Our fundamental business principle is that our clients’ specific marketing requirements are the central focus of how we structure our service offerings and allocate our resources. This client-centric business model requires that multiple agencies within Omnicom collaborate in formal and informal virtual client networks utilizing our key client matrix organization structure. This collaboration allows us to cut across our internal organizational structures to execute our clients’ marketing requirements in a consistent and comprehensive manner. We use our client-centric approach to grow our business by expanding our service offerings to existing clients, moving into new markets and obtaining new clients. In addition, we pursue selective acquisitions of complementary companies with strong entrepreneurial management teams that typically currently serve or could serve our existing clients.
As a leading global advertising, marketing and corporate communications company, we operate in all major markets and have a large and diverse client base. In 2018, our largest client represented 3.0% of revenue and our 100 largest clients, which represent many of the world's major marketers, comprised approximately 51% of revenue. Our clients operate in virtually every sector of the global economy with no one industry comprising more than 14% of our revenue in 2018. Although our revenue is generally balanced between the United States and international markets and we have a large and diverse client base, we are not immune to general economic downturns.
As described in more detail below, in 2018, revenue increased $16.6 million, or 0.1%, compared to 2017. Changes in foreign exchange rates increased revenue $85.1 million, or 0.6%, acquisition revenue, net of disposition revenue, reduced revenue $326.6 million, or 2.1%, reflecting the disposition of certain non-strategic businesses, and organic growth increased revenue $404.2 million, or 2.6%. In addition, the impact of the adoption of ASC 606 (see Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements) reduced revenue by $146.1 million, or 1.0%.
Global economic conditions have a direct impact on our business and financial performance. Adverse global or regional economic conditions pose a risk that our clients may reduce, postpone or cancel spending on advertising, marketing and corporate communications services, which would reduce the demand for our services. Revenue is typically lower in the first and third quarters and higher in the second and fourth quarters, reflecting client spending patterns during the year and additional project work that usually occurs in the fourth quarter. Additionally, certain global events targeted by major marketers for advertising expenditures, such as the FIFA World Cup and the Olympics, and certain national events, such as the U.S. election process, may affect our revenue period-over-period in certain businesses. Typically, these events do not have a significant impact on our revenue in any period. In 2018, our agencies in North America continued their modest growth with uneven performance across our service disciplines. In Europe, while mixed by country, most of our businesses had strong growth, however, the continuing uncertain economic and political conditions in the E.U., have been complicated by the status of Brexit. In Brazil, unstable economic and political conditions contributed to the continuing volatility in the market. Most of our businesses in Asia-Pacific had positive growth consistent with recent periods. The economic and fiscal issues facing the countries we operate in can cause economic uncertainty and volatility; however, the impact on our business varies by country. We monitor economic conditions closely, as well as client revenue levels and other factors and, in response to reductions in our client revenue, if necessary, we will take actions available to us to align our cost structure and manage our working capital. There can be no assurance whether, or to what extent, our efforts to mitigate any impact of future adverse economic conditions, reductions in client revenue, changes in client creditworthiness and other developments will be effective.
Certain business trends have had a positive impact on our business and industry. These trends include clients increasingly expanding the focus of their brand strategies from national markets to pan-regional and global markets and integrating traditional and non-traditional marketing channels, as well as utilizing new communications technologies and emerging digital platforms. As clients increase their demands for marketing effectiveness and efficiency, they have made it a practice to consolidate their business within one service provider in the pursuit of a single engagement covering all consumer touch points. We have structured our business around these trends. We believe that our key client matrix organization structure approach to collaboration and integration of our services and solutions have provided a competitive advantage to our business in the past and we expect this to continue over the medium and long term. In addition, in 2018, we completed the process of forming practice areas within our global network structure to bring together agencies operating in common disciplines. This action leverages existing resources and, in close coordination with our key client matrix organization, enhances the development of custom client solutions.


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Driven by our clients’ continuous demand for more effective and efficient marketing activities, we strive to provide an extensive range of advertising, marketing and corporate communications services through various client-centric networks that are organized to meet specific client objectives. These services include, among others, advertising, branding, content marketing, corporate social responsibility consulting, crisis communications, custom publishing, data analytics, database management, digital/direct marketing, digital transformation, entertainment marketing, experiential marketing, field marketing, financial/corporate business-to-business advertising, graphic arts/digital imaging, healthcare marketing and communications, in-store design, interactive marketing, investor relations, marketing research, media planning and buying, merchandising and point of sale, mobile marketing, multi-cultural marketing, non-profit marketing, organizational communications, package design, product placement, promotional marketing, public affairs, public relations, retail marketing, sales support, search engine marketing, shopper marketing, social media marketing and sports and event marketing.
In the near term, barring unforeseen events and excluding the impact of changes in foreign exchange rates, because of continued improvement in operating performance by many of our agencies and new business activities, we expect our organic revenue to increase modestly for 2019 and over the long term to be in excess of the weighted average nominal GDP growth in our major markets. We expect to continue to identify acquisition opportunities intended to build upon the core capabilities of our strategic disciplines and business platforms, expand our operations in high-growth and emerging markets and enhance our capabilities to leverage new technologies that are being used by marketers today.
We continually evaluate our portfolio of businesses to identify areas for investment and acquisition opportunities, as well as to identify non-strategic or underperforming businesses for disposition. During the third quarter of 2018, we disposed of certain businesses, primarily in our CRM Execution & Support discipline, and recorded a net gain of $178.4 million primarily related to the sale of Sellbytel, our European-based outsourced sales, service and support company. Also, during the third quarter, we took certain repositioning actions in an effort to continue to improve our strategic position and achieve operating efficiencies, and we recorded charges of $149.4 million for incremental severance, office lease consolidation and termination, asset write-offs, and other charges. We expect the reduction to our earnings for the disposition activity to be substantially offset by savings achieved from the operating efficiencies and cost reductions, as well as any incremental earnings from new acquisition activity, and we expect a net reduction to revenue of approximately 3% to 3.5% in the first half of 2019 and 2.5% for the full year.
Given our size and breadth, we manage our business by monitoring several financial indicators. The key indicators that we focus on are revenue and operating expenses. We analyze revenue growth by reviewing the components and mix of the growth, including growth by principal regional market and marketing discipline, the impact from foreign currency exchange rate changes, growth from acquisitions, net of dispositions and growth from our largest clients. Operating expenses are comprised of cost of services, selling, general and administrative expenses, or SG&A, and depreciation and amortization.
In 2018, our revenue increased 0.1% compared to 2017. Changes in foreign exchange rates increased revenue 0.6%, acquisition revenue, net of disposition revenue, reduced revenue 2.1%, and organic growth increased revenue 2.6%. Across our principal regional markets, the changes in revenue were: North America decreased 2.8%, Europe increased 6.0%, Asia-Pacific increased 3.6% and Latin America decreased 7.5%. In North America, modest growth in the United States was offset by a decrease in revenue primarily resulting from the impact of the adoption of ASC 606, the disposition of our specialty print media business in the second quarter of 2017 and negative performance in Canada. Organic revenue growth in the United States was led by our CRM Consumer Experience, healthcare, advertising and media and public relations businesses, and was partially offset by a decrease in our CRM Execution & Support discipline. The revenue increase in Europe resulted from strong organic revenue in the region, particularly in France, Spain and the Czech Republic, modest organic revenue growth in the U.K., and the strengthening of the Euro and the British Pound against the U.S. Dollar in the first half of the year, which was partially offset by disposition activity and negative performance in Germany. The decrease in revenue in Latin America was primarily a result of the weakening of the Brazilian Real against the U.S. Dollar. In Asia-Pacific, organic growth in most countries in the region, especially Australia, China, New Zealand and India, was partially offset by disposition activity. The change in revenue in 2018 compared to 2017, in our four fundamental disciplines was: Advertising increased 1.3%, CRM Consumer Experience increased 0.2%, CRM Execution & Support decreased 11.0%, Public Relations increased 1.7% and Healthcare increased 12.7%.
We measure cost of services in two distinct categories: salary and service costs and occupancy and other costs. As a service business, salary and service costs make up a significant portion of our operating expenses and substantially all these costs comprise the essential components directly linked to the delivery of our services. Salary and service costs include employee compensation and benefits, freelance labor and direct service costs, which include third-party supplier costs and client-related travel costs. Occupancy and other costs consist of the indirect costs related to the delivery of our services, including office rent and other occupancy costs, equipment rent, technology costs, general office expenses and other expenses.


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SG&A expenses, which increased slightly year-over-year, primarily consist of third-party marketing costs, professional fees and compensation and benefits and occupancy and other costs of our corporate and executive offices, which includes group-wide finance and accounting, treasury, legal and governance, human resource oversight and similar costs.
Operating expenses, which include the net gain from the disposition of subsidiaries and the repositioning charges, as described above (see Note 13 to the consolidated financial statements), decreased $33.1 million, in 2018 compared to 2017. Salary and service costs, which tend to fluctuate with changes in revenue, increased $78.9 million, or 0.7%, in 2018 compared to 2017. The year-over-year increase primarily reflects the incremental severance and other charges of $73.7 million incurred in connection with the repositioning actions taken in the third quarter of 2018. Occupancy and other costs, which are less directly linked to changes in revenue than salary and service costs, increased $68.8 million, or 5.5%, in 2018 compared to 2017. The year-over-year change reflects a decrease of $4.7 million, which was offset by $73.5 million of repositioning charges primarily related to office lease consolidation and termination actions taken in the third quarter of 2018. Operating margin increased year-over-year to 14.0% from 13.6% and EBITA margin increased year-over-year to 14.6% from 14.4%. The net gain on disposition of subsidiaries and repositioning expenses, increased operating profit and operating margin year-over year by $29.0 million and 0.2%, respectively.
Net interest expense increased $10.3 million to $209.2 million in 2018 compared to 2017. Interest expense on debt increased $17.4 million to $241.9 million in 2018. Interest income in 2018 increased $7.5 million, compared to the prior year.
Our effective tax rate for 2018, decreased period-over-period to 25.6% from 36.9% in 2017. The decrease was primarily attributable to the reduction of the U.S. federal statutory income tax rate to 21% from 35% resulting from the Tax Act which was enacted in December 2017. Additionally, income tax expense for 2018 reflects the following: a reduction of approximately $19 million, primarily as a result of the successful resolution of foreign tax claims, a reduction of $25.0 million related to the net income tax effect of the net gain on disposition of subsidiaries and repositioning actions (see Note 13 to the consolidated financial statements) and additional income tax expense of $28.9 million, reflecting the finalization of the provisional estimate of the effect of the Tax Act recorded in the fourth quarter of 2017 (see Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements).
Net income - Omnicom Group Inc. in 2018 increased, due to the factors described above, $238.0 million, or 21.9%, to $1,326.4 million from $1,088.4 million in 2017. The net gain on disposition of subsidiaries and repositioning actions, after the allocable share of $6.9 million to noncontrolling interests, and the additional income tax expense from the finalization of the provisional estimate of the effect of the Tax Act, increased net income - Omnicom Group Inc. $18.2 million. Diluted net income per share - Omnicom Group Inc. increased 25.4% to $5.83 in 2018, compared to $4.65 in 2017, due to the factors described above, as well as the impact of the reduction in our weighted average common shares outstanding resulting from repurchases of our common stock, net of shares issued for restricted stock awards, stock option exercises and the employee stock purchase plan. The net gain on disposition of subsidiaries and repositioning actions net of the additional income tax expense from the finalization of the provisional estimate of the effect of the Tax Act, increased diluted net income per share - Omnicom Group Inc. $0.08.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The following summary of our critical accounting policies provides a better understanding of our financial statements and the related discussion in this MD&A. We believe that the following policies may involve a higher degree of judgment and complexity in their application than most of our accounting policies and represent the critical accounting policies used in the preparation of our financial statements. Readers are encouraged to consider this summary together with our financial statements and the related notes, including Note 2, for a more complete understanding of the critical accounting policies discussed below.
Estimates
We prepare our financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP and are required to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. We use a fair value approach in testing goodwill for impairment and when evaluating our equity method and cost method investments to determine if an other-than-temporary impairment has occurred. Actual results could differ from those estimates and assumptions.
Acquisitions and Goodwill
We have made and expect to continue to make selective acquisitions. The evaluation of potential acquisitions is based on various factors, including specialized know-how, reputation, geographic coverage, competitive position and service offerings of the target businesses, as well as our experience and judgment.
Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method. The assets acquired, including identified intangible assets, liabilities assumed and any noncontrolling interest in the acquired business are recorded at their acquisition date fair values. In circumstances where control is obtained and less than 100% of a business is acquired, goodwill is recorded as if 100%


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were acquired. Acquisition-related costs, including advisory, legal, accounting, valuation and other costs are expensed as incurred. Certain acquisitions include an initial payment at closing and provide for future additional contingent purchase price payments (earn-outs), which are recorded as a liability at the acquisition date fair value. Subsequent changes in the fair value of the liability are recorded in results of operations. The results of operations of acquired businesses are included in results of operations from the acquisition date. In 2018, we completed six acquisitions of new subsidiaries.
Our acquisition strategy is focused on acquiring the expertise of an assembled workforce in order to continue to build upon the core capabilities of our various strategic business platforms and agency brands through the expansion of their geographic reach or their service capabilities to better serve our clients. Additional key factors we consider include the competitive position and specialized know-how of the acquisition targets. Accordingly, as is typical in most service businesses, a substantial portion of the assets we acquire are intangible assets primarily consisting of the know-how of the personnel, which is treated as part of goodwill and under U.S. GAAP is not required to be valued separately. For each acquisition, we undertake a detailed review to identify other intangible assets that are required to be valued separately. A significant portion of the identifiable intangible assets acquired is derived from customer relationships, including the related customer contracts, as well as trade names. In valuing these identified intangible assets, we typically use an income approach and consider comparable market participant measurements.
We evaluate goodwill for impairment at least annually at the end of the second quarter of the year and whenever events or circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Under FASB ASC Topic 350, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other, we have the option of either assessing qualitative factors to determine whether it is more-likely-than-not that the carrying value of our reporting units exceeds their respective fair value or proceeding directly to the goodwill impairment test. Although not required, we performed the annual impairment test and compared the fair value of each of our reporting units to its respective carrying value, including goodwill. We identified our regional reporting units as components of our operating segments, which are our five global agency networks. The regional reporting units of each agency network are responsible for the agencies in their region. They report to the segment managers and facilitate the administrative and logistical requirements of our key client matrix organization structure for delivering services to clients in their regions. We have concluded that for each of our operating segments, their regional reporting units have similar economic characteristics and should be aggregated for purposes of testing goodwill for impairment at the operating segment level. Our conclusion was based on a detailed analysis of the aggregation criteria set forth in FASB ASC Topic 280, Segment Reporting, and in FASB ASC Topic 350. Consistent with our fundamental business strategy, the agencies within our regional reporting units serve similar clients in similar industries, and in many cases the same clients. In addition, the agencies within our regional reporting units have similar economic characteristics. The main economic components of each agency are employee compensation and related costs and direct service costs and occupancy and other costs, which include rent and occupancy costs, technology costs that are generally limited to personal computers, servers and off-the-shelf software and other overhead expenses. Finally, the expected benefits of our acquisitions are typically shared by multiple agencies in various regions as they work together to integrate the acquired agency into our virtual client network strategy.
Goodwill Impairment Review - Estimates and Assumptions
We use the following valuation methodologies to determine the fair value of our reporting units: (1) the income approach, which utilizes discounted expected future cash flows, (2) comparative market participant multiples for EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization), and (3) when available, consideration of recent and similar acquisition transactions.
In applying the income approach, we use estimates to derive the discounted expected cash flows (“DCF”) for each reporting unit that serves as the basis of our valuation. These estimates and assumptions include revenue growth and operating margin, EBITDA, tax rates, capital expenditures, weighted average cost of capital and related discount rates and expected long-term cash flow growth rates. All of these estimates and assumptions are affected by conditions specific to our businesses, economic conditions related to the industry we operate in, as well as conditions in the global economy. The assumptions that have the most significant effect on our valuations derived using a DCF methodology are: (1) the expected long-term growth rate of our reporting units' cash flows and (2) the weighted average cost of capital (“WACC”) for each reporting unit.
The assumptions used for the long-term growth rate and WACC in our evaluations as of June 30, 2018 and 2017 were:
 
June 30,
 
2018
 
2017
Long-Term Growth Rate
4%
 
4%
WACC
10.5% - 11.1%
 
9.6% - 10.3%


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Long-term growth rate represents our estimate of the long-term growth rate for our industry and the markets of the global economy we operate in. For the past ten years, the average historical revenue growth rate of our reporting units and the Average Nominal GDP growth of the countries comprising the major markets that account for substantially all of our revenue was approximately 3.2% and 3.4%, respectively. We considered this history when determining the long-term growth rates used in our annual impairment test at June 30, 2018. We believe marketing expenditures over the long term have a high correlation to GDP. Based on our historical performance, we also believe that our long-term growth rate will exceed Average Nominal GDP growth in the markets we operate in, which are similar across our reporting units. For our annual test as of June 30, 2018, we used an estimated long-term growth rate of 4%.
When performing the annual impairment test as of June 30, 2018 and estimating the future cash flows of our reporting units, we considered the current macroeconomic environment, as well as industry and market specific conditions at mid-year 2018. In the first half of 2018, our revenue increased 2.2%, which excluded our net disposition activity and the impact from changes in foreign exchange rates. While our businesses in Europe had improved performance, the continuing uncertain economic and political conditions in the E.U. have been further complicated by the United Kingdom's ongoing negotiations with the European Council to withdraw from the E.U. During the first half of 2018, weakness in certain Latin American economies we operate in has the potential to affect our near-term performance in that region. We considered the effect of these conditions in our annual impairment test.
The WACC is comprised of: (1) a risk-free rate of return, (2) a business risk index ascribed to us and to companies in our industry comparable to our reporting units based on a market derived variable that measures the volatility of the share price of equity securities relative to the volatility of the overall equity market, (3) an equity risk premium that is based on the rate of return on equity of publicly traded companies with business characteristics comparable to our reporting units, and (4) a current after-tax market rate of return on debt of companies with business characteristics similar to our reporting units, each weighted by the relative market value percentages of our equity and debt.
Our five reporting units vary in size with respect to revenue and the amount of debt allocated to them. These differences drive variations in fair value among our reporting units. In addition, these differences as well as differences in book value, including goodwill, cause variations in the amount by which fair value exceeds book value among the reporting units. The reporting unit goodwill balances and debt vary by reporting unit primarily because our three legacy agency networks were acquired at the formation of Omnicom and were accounted for as a pooling of interests that did not result in any additional debt or goodwill being recorded. The remaining two agency networks were built through a combination of internal growth and acquisitions that were accounted for using the acquisition method and as a result, they have a relatively higher amount of goodwill and debt.
Goodwill Impairment Review - Conclusion
Based on the results of our impairment test, we concluded that our goodwill at June 30, 2018 was not impaired, because the fair value of each of our reporting units was substantially in excess of its respective net book value. The minimum decline in fair value that one of our reporting units would need to experience in order to fail the goodwill impairment test was approximately 60%. Notwithstanding our belief that the assumptions we used for WACC and long-term growth rate in our impairment testing are reasonable, we performed a sensitivity analysis for each of our reporting units. The results of this sensitivity analysis on our impairment test as of June 30, 2018 revealed that if the WACC increased by 1% and/or the long-term growth rate decreased by 1%, the fair value of each of our reporting units would continue to be substantially in excess of its respective net book value and would pass the impairment test.
We will continue to perform our impairment test at the end of the second quarter of each year unless events or circumstances trigger the need for an interim impairment test. The estimates used in our goodwill impairment test do not constitute forecasts or projections of future results of operations, but rather are estimates and assumptions based on historical results and assessments of macroeconomic factors affecting our reporting units as of the valuation date. We believe that our estimates and assumptions are reasonable, but they are subject to change from period to period. Actual results of operations and other factors will likely differ from the estimates used in our discounted cash flow valuation and it is possible that differences could be significant. A change in the estimates we use could result in a decline in the estimated fair value of one or more of our reporting units from the amounts derived as of our latest valuation and could cause us to fail our goodwill impairment test if the estimated fair value for the reporting unit is less than the carrying value of the net assets of the reporting unit, including its goodwill. A large decline in estimated fair value of a reporting unit could result in a non-cash impairment charge and may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Subsequent to the annual impairment test at June 30, 2018 and considering our operating performance in the second half of the year, there were no events or circumstances that triggered the need for an interim impairment test. Additional information about acquisitions and goodwill appears in Notes 2, 5 and 6 to the consolidated financial statements.


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Revenue Recognition
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted ASC 606 (see Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements). As described below, in accordance with ASC 606 we changed certain aspects of our revenue recognition accounting policy. ASC 606 was applied using the modified retrospective method, where the cumulative effect of the initial application was recognized as an adjustment to opening retained earnings at January 1, 2018. Therefore, comparative prior periods have not been adjusted and continue to be reported under FASB ASC Topic 605, Revenue Recognition.
Under ASC 606, revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services (the performance obligation) in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for those goods or services (the transaction price). We measure revenue by estimating the transaction price based on the consideration specified in the client arrangement. Revenue is recognized as the performance obligations are satisfied. Our revenue is primarily derived from the planning and execution of advertising communications and marketing services in the following fundamental disciplines: Advertising, which includes creative advertising services and strategic media planning and buying services, Customer Relationship Management or CRM, which includes CRM Consumer Experience and CRM Execution & Support, Public Relations and Healthcare Advertising. Our client contracts are primarily fees for service on a rate per hour or per project basis. Revenue is recorded net of sales, use and value added taxes.
Performance Obligations
In substantially all our disciplines, the performance obligation is to provide advisory and consulting services at an agreed-upon level of effort to accomplish the specified engagement. Our client contracts are comprised of diverse arrangements involving fees based on any one or a combination of the following: an agreed fee or rate per hour for the level of effort expended by our employees; commissions based on the client’s spending for media purchased from third parties; qualitative or quantitative incentive provisions specified in the contract; and reimbursement for third-party costs that we are required to include in revenue when we control the vendor services related to these costs and we act as principal. The transaction price of a contract is allocated to each distinct performance obligation based on its relative stand-alone selling price and is recognized as revenue when, or as, the customer receives the benefit of the performance obligation. Clients typically receive and consume the benefit of our services as they are performed. Substantially all our client contracts provide that we are compensated for services performed to date and allow for cancellation by either party on short notice, typically 90 days, without penalty.
Generally, our short-term contracts, which normally take 30 to 90 days to complete, are performed by a single agency and consist of a single performance obligation. As a result, we do not consider the underlying services as separate or distinct performance obligations because our services are highly interrelated, occur in close proximity, and the integration of the various components of a marketing message is essential to overall service. In certain of our long-term client contracts, which have a term of up to one year, the performance obligation is a stand-ready obligation, because we provide a constant level of similar services over the term of the contract. In other long-term contracts, when our services are not a stand-ready obligation, we consider our services distinct performance obligations and allocate the transaction price to each separate performance obligation based on its stand-alone selling price, including contracts for strategic media planning and buying services, which are considered to be multiple performance obligations, and we allocate the transaction price to each distinct service based on the staffing plan and the stand-alone selling price. In substantially all of our creative services contracts we have distinct performance obligations for our services, including certain creative services contracts where we act as an agent and arrange, at the client’s direction, for third-parties to perform studio production efforts.
Revenue Recognition Methods
A substantial portion of our revenue is recognized over time, as the services are performed, because the client receives and consumes the benefit of our performance throughout the contract period, or we create an asset with no alternative use and are contractually entitled to payment for our performance to date in the event the client terminates the contract for convenience. For these over time client contracts, other than when we have a stand-ready obligation to perform services, revenue is recognized over time using input measures that correspond to the level of staff effort expended to satisfy the performance obligation on a rate per hour or equivalent basis. For client contracts when we have a stand-ready obligation to perform services on an ongoing basis over the life of the contract, typically for periods up to one year, where the scope of these arrangements is broad and there are no significant gaps in performing the services, we recognize revenue using a time-based measure resulting in a straight-line revenue recognition. From time to time, there may be changes in the client service requirements during the term of a contract and the changes could be significant. These changes are typically negotiated as new contracts covering the additional requirements and the associated costs, as well as additional fees for the incremental work to be performed.


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To a lesser extent, for certain other contracts where our performance obligations are satisfied in phases, we recognize revenue over time using certain output measures based on the measurement of the value transferred to the customer, including milestones achieved. Where the transaction price or a portion of the transaction price is derived from commissions based on a percentage of purchased media from third parties, the performance obligation is not satisfied until the media is run and we have an enforceable contract providing a right to payment. Accordingly, revenue for commissions is recognized at a point in time, typically when the media is run, including when it is not subject to cancellation by the client or media vendor.
Principal vs. Agent
In substantially all our businesses, we incur third-party costs on behalf of clients, including direct costs and incidental, or out- of-pocket costs. Third-party direct costs incurred in connection with the creation and delivery of advertising or marketing communication services include, among others: purchased media, studio production services, specialized talent, including artists and other freelance labor, event marketing supplies, materials and services, promotional items, market research and third-party data and other related expenditures. Out-of-pocket costs include, among others: transportation, hotel, meals and telecommunication charges incurred by us in the course of providing our services. Billings related to out-of-pocket costs are included in revenue since we control the goods or services prior to delivery to the client.
However, the inclusion of billings related to third-party direct costs in revenue depends on whether we act as a principal or as an agent in the client arrangement. In most of our businesses, including Advertising, which also includes studio production efforts and media planning and buying services, Public Relations, Healthcare Advertising and most of our CRM Consumer Experience businesses, we act as an agent and arrange, at the client's direction, for third parties to perform certain services. In these cases, we do not control the goods or services prior to the transfer to the client. As a result, revenue is recorded net of these costs, equal to the amount retained for our fee or commission.
In certain businesses we may act as principal when contracting for third-party services on behalf of our clients. In our events business and most of our CRM Execution & Support businesses, including field marketing and certain specialty marketing businesses, we act as principal because we control the specified goods or services before they are transferred to the client and we are responsible for providing the specified goods or services, or we are responsible for directing and integrating third-party vendors to fulfill our performance obligation at the agreed upon contractual price. In such arrangements, we also take pricing risk under the terms of the client contract. In certain specialty media buying business, we act as principal when we control the buying process for the purchase of the media and contract directly with the media vendor. In these arrangements, we assume the pricing risk under the terms of the client contract. When we act as principal, we include billable amounts related to third-party costs in the transaction price and record revenue over time at the gross amount billed, including out-of-pocket costs, consistent with the manner that we recognize revenue for the underlying services contract. However, in media buying contracts where we act as principal, we recognize revenue at a point in time, typically when the media is run, including when it is not subject to cancellation by the client or media vendor.
Variable Consideration
Some of our client arrangements include variable consideration provisions, which include performance incentives, tiered commission structures and vendor rebates in certain markets outside of the United States. Variable consideration is estimated and included in total consideration at contract inception based on either the expected value method or the most likely outcome method. These estimates are based on historical award experience, anticipated performance and other factors known at the time. Performance incentives are typically recognized in revenue over time. Variable consideration for our media businesses in certain international markets includes rebate revenue and is recognized when it is probable that the media will be run, including when it is not subject to cancellation by the client. In addition, when we receive rebates or credits from vendors for transactions entered into on behalf of clients, they are remitted to the clients in accordance with contractual requirements or retained by us based on the terms of the client contract or local law. Amounts passed on to clients are recorded as a liability and amounts retained by us are recorded as revenue when earned, which is typically when the media is run.
NEW ACCOUNTING STANDARDS
See Note 22 to the consolidated financial statements for information on the adoption of new accounting standards and accounting standards not yet adopted.



14



RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Accounting Changes
Effective January 1, 2018, we adopted ASC 606 (see Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements). As described below, in accordance with ASC 606 we changed certain aspects of our revenue recognition accounting policy. ASC 606 was applied using the modified retrospective method, where the cumulative effect of the initial application was recognized as an adjustment to opening retained earnings at January 1, 2018. Therefore, comparative prior periods have not been adjusted and continue to be reported under FASB ASC Topic 605, Revenue Recognition, or ASC 605.
Upon adoption of ASC 606, our accounting policy for certain third-party out-of-pocket costs, which are incurred in connection with our services and are billed to clients, was required to be changed. In addition, our policy for performance incentives (variable consideration) included in certain client contracts was required to be changed. The inclusion of third-party out-of-pocket costs in revenue depends on whether we act as a principal or agent in the client arrangement. Under ASC 606, the principal versus agent assessment is based on whether we control the specified goods or services before they are transferred to the customer. As a result of the adoption of ASC 606, certain third-party costs are no longer included in revenue and cost of services. This change was the principal adjustment to our reported revenue and operating expenses included in the table below. However, the change had no impact on operating profit.
In addition, performance incentives included in certain client contracts can increase revenue if we meet certain quantitative or qualitative objectives in delivering our services. Under ASC 606, performance incentives are now treated as variable consideration. Prior to the adoption of ASC 606, performance incentives were recognized in revenue under ASC 605 when specific quantitative goals were achieved or when our performance against qualitative goals was acknowledged by the client. Under ASC 606, variable consideration is estimated and included in total consideration at contract inception based on either the expected value method or the most likely outcome method. These estimates are based on historical award experience, anticipated performance and our best judgment at the time. As a result of this change, we recorded a cumulative effect adjustment to increase opening retained earnings at January 1, 2018 by $19.5 million, to reflect the transition requirements of ASC 606. The effect of this change on our financial position and cash flows was not material.
The impact of the adoption of ASC 606 on revenue, operating expenses and operating profit for the year ended December 31, 2018 was (in millions):
 
As Reported
 
Adjustments
 
Amounts without the Adoption of ASC 606
Revenue
$
15,290.2

 
$
146.1

 
$
15,436.3

Operating Expenses
13,156.7

 
139.5

 
13,296.2

Operating Profit
2,133.5

 
6.6

 
2,140.1

The impact of the adoption of ASC 606 on net income - Omnicom Group Inc., diluted net income per share - Omnicom Group Inc. and the consolidated financial statements was not material.



15


RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - 2018 Compared to 2017 (in millions):
 
2018
 
2017
Revenue
$
15,290.2

 
$
15,273.6

Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
Salary and service costs
11,306.1

 
11,227.2

Occupancy and other costs
1,309.6

 
1,240.8

Net gain on disposition of subsidiaries
(178.4
)
 

Cost of services
12,437.3

 
12,468.0

Selling, general and administrative expenses
455.4

 
439.7

Depreciation and amortization
264.0

 
282.1

 
13,156.7

 
13,189.8

Operating Profit
2,133.5

 
2,083.8

Operating Margin - %
14.0
%
 
13.6
%
Interest Expense
266.4

 
248.6

Interest Income
57.2

 
49.7

Income Before Income Taxes and Income From Equity Method Investments
1,924.3

 
1,884.9

Income Tax Expense
492.7

 
696.2

Income From Equity Method Investments
8.9

 
3.5

Net Income
1,440.5

 
1,192.2

Net Income Attributed To Noncontrolling Interests
114.1

 
103.8

Net Income - Omnicom Group Inc.
$
1,326.4

 
$
1,088.4

Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We use EBITA and EBITA Margin as additional operating performance measures that exclude the non-cash amortization expense of intangible assets, which primarily consists of amortization of intangible assets arising from acquisitions. We define EBITA as earnings before interest, taxes and amortization of intangible assets, and EBITA Margin as EBITA divided by revenue. EBITA and EBITA Margin are non-GAAP financial measures. We believe that EBITA and EBITA Margin are useful measures for investors to evaluate the performance of our business. Non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, financial information presented in compliance with U.S. GAAP. Non-GAAP financial measures reported by us may not be comparable to similarly titled amounts reported by other companies.
The following table reconciles the U.S. GAAP financial measure of net income - Omnicom Group Inc. to EBITA and EBITA Margin for the for the periods presented (in millions):
 
2018
 
2017
Net Income - Omnicom Group Inc.
$
1,326.4

 
$
1,088.4

Net Income Attributed To Noncontrolling Interests
114.1

 
103.8

Net Income
1,440.5

 
1,192.2

Income From Equity Method Investments
8.9

 
3.5

Income Tax Expense
492.7

 
696.2

Income Before Income Taxes and Income From Equity Method Investments
1,924.3

 
1,884.9

Interest Expense
266.4

 
248.6

Interest Income
57.2

 
49.7

Operating Profit
2,133.5

 
2,083.8

Add back: Amortization of intangible assets
102.5

 
113.8

Earnings before interest, taxes and amortization of intangible assets (“EBITA”)
$
2,236.0

 
$
2,197.6

 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
15,290.2

 
$
15,273.6

EBITA
$
2,236.0

 
$
2,197.6

EBITA Margin - %
14.6
%
 
14.4
%
Revenue
In 2018, revenue increased $16.6 million, or 0.1%, to $15,290.2 million from $15,273.6 million in 2017. Changes in foreign exchange rates increased revenue $85.1 million, acquisition revenue, net of disposition revenue, reduced revenue $326.6 million, and organic growth increased revenue $404.2 million.


16


The impact of changes in foreign exchange rates increased revenue 0.6%, or $85.1 million, primarily resulting from the strengthening of the Euro and British Pound, against the U.S. Dollar, partially offset by the weakening of the Brazilian Real, Russian Ruble and Australian Dollar against the U.S. Dollar.
The components of revenue change in the United States (“Domestic”) and the remainder of the world (“International”) were (in millions):
 
Total
 
Domestic
 
International
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
December 31, 2017
$
15,273.6

 
 
 
$
8,196.9

 
 
 
$
7,076.7

 
 
Components of revenue change:
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

Foreign exchange rate impact
85.1

 
0.6
 %
 

 
 %
 
85.1

 
1.2
 %
Acquisition revenue, net of disposition revenue
(326.6
)
 
(2.1
)%
 
(108.7
)
 
(1.3
)%
 
(217.9
)
 
(3.1
)%
Organic growth
404.2

 
2.6
 %
 
58.0

 
0.7
 %
 
346.2

 
4.9
 %
Impact of adoption of ASC 606
(146.1
)
 
(1.0
)%
 
(146.4
)
 
(1.8
)%
 
0.3

 
 %
December 31, 2018
$
15,290.2

 
0.1
 %
 
$
7,999.8

 
(2.4
)%
 
$
7,290.4

 
3.0
 %
The components and percentages are calculated as follows:
The foreign exchange impact is calculated by translating the current period’s local currency revenue using the prior period average exchange rates to derive current period constant currency revenue (in this case $15,205.1 million for the Total column). The foreign exchange impact is the difference between the current period revenue in U.S. Dollars and the current period constant currency revenue ($15,290.2 million less $15,205.1 million for the Total column).
Acquisition revenue is calculated as if the acquisition occurred twelve months prior to the acquisition date by aggregating the comparable prior period revenue of acquisitions through the acquisition date. As a result, acquisition revenue excludes the positive or negative difference between our current period revenue subsequent to the acquisition date and the comparable prior period revenue and the positive or negative growth after the acquisition is attributed to organic growth. Disposition revenue is calculated as if the disposition occurred twelve months prior to the disposition date by aggregating the comparable prior period revenue of dispositions through the disposition date. The acquisition revenue and disposition revenue amounts are netted in the table.
Organic growth is calculated by subtracting the foreign exchange rate impact, and the acquisition revenue, net of disposition revenue components from total revenue growth, excluding the impact of the adoption of ASC 606.
The impact of the adoption of ASC 606 is discussed above in the “Accounting Changes” section.
The percentage change is calculated by dividing the individual component amount by the prior period revenue base of that component ($15,273.6 million for the Total column).
Changes in the value of foreign currencies against the U.S. Dollar affect our results of operations and financial position. For the most part, because the revenue and expense of our foreign operations are both denominated in the same local currency, the economic impact on operating margin is minimized. Assuming exchange rates at February 11, 2019 remain unchanged, we estimate the impact of changes in foreign exchange rates to reduce revenue in the first half of 2019 by approximately 2.5% to 3% and 1.5% for the full year.
Revenue and organic growth, expressed as a percentage and excluding the impact of ASC 606, in our principal regional markets were (in millions):
 
2018
 
2017
 
$ Change
 
% Organic Growth
Americas:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
North America
$
8,442.5

 
$
8,686.0

 
$
(243.5
)
 
0.4
 %
Latin America
457.5

 
494.8

 
(37.3
)
 
2.0
 %
EMEA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Europe
4,375.4

 
4,127.9

 
247.5

 
5.7
 %
Middle East and Africa
304.4

 
314.6

 
(10.2
)
 
(2.9
)%
Asia-Pacific
1,710.4

 
1,650.3

 
60.1

 
7.9
 %
 
$
15,290.2

 
$
15,273.6

 
$
16.6

 
2.6
 %


17


In Europe, our primary markets are the U.K. and the Euro Zone. Revenue for 2018 in the U.K., which represents 9.5% of total revenue, increased 4.3%, and revenue in the Euro Zone and the other European countries, which together comprised 19.1% of total revenue, increased 6.9%.
In North America, modest growth in the United States was offset by a decrease in revenue primarily resulting from the impact of the adoption of ASC 606, the disposition of our specialty print media business in the second quarter of 2017 and negative performance in Canada. Organic revenue growth in the United States was led by our CRM Consumer Experience, healthcare, advertising and media and public relations businesses, and was partially offset by a decrease in our CRM Execution & Support discipline. The revenue increase in Europe resulted from strong organic revenue in the region, particularly in France, Spain and the Czech Republic, modest organic revenue growth in the U.K., and the strengthening of the Euro and the British Pound against the U.S. Dollar in the first half of the year, which was partially offset by disposition activity and negative performance in Germany. The decrease in revenue in Latin America was primarily a result of the weakening of the Brazilian Real against the U.S. Dollar. In Asia-Pacific, organic growth in most countries in the region, especially Australia, China, New Zealand and India, was partially offset by disposition activity.
In the normal course of business, our agencies both gain and lose business from clients each year due to a variety of factors. The net change in 2018 was an overall gain in new business. Under our client-centric approach, we seek to broaden our relationships with all of our clients. Our largest client represented 3.0% of revenue in 2018 and 2017. Our ten largest and 100 largest clients represented 19.1% and 50.7% of revenue in 2018, respectively, and 19.6% and 50.5% of revenue in 2017, respectively.
In an effort to monitor the changing needs of our clients and to further expand the scope of our services to key clients, we monitor revenue across a broad range of disciplines and group them into the following categories: advertising, CRM, which includes CRM Consumer Experience and CRM Execution & Support, public relations and healthcare.
Revenue for 2018 and 2017 and the change in revenue and organic growth from 2017 by discipline were (in millions):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018 vs. 2017
 
$
 
% of
Revenue
 
$
 
% of
Revenue
 
$
Change
 
% Organic Growth
Advertising
$
8,281.0

 
54.2
%
 
$
8,175.9

 
53.6
%
 
$
105.1

 
2.9
 %
CRM Consumer Experience
2,620.7

 
17.1
%
 
2,615.9

 
17.1
%
 
4.8

 
5.9
 %
CRM Execution & Support
1,900.5

 
12.4
%
 
2,135.8

 
14.0
%
 
(235.3
)
 
(2.7
)%
Public Relations
1,435.1

 
9.4
%
 
1,411.4

 
9.2
%
 
23.7

 
1.8
 %
Healthcare
1,052.9

 
6.9
%
 
934.6

 
6.1
%
 
118.3

 
4.5
 %
 
$
15,290.2

 
 
 
$
15,273.6

 
 
 
$
16.6

 
2.6
 %
We provide services to clients that operate in various industry sectors. Revenue by sector for 2018 and 2017 was:
 
2018
 
2017
Food and Beverage
13
%
 
13
%
Consumer Products
9
%
 
10
%
Pharmaceuticals and Health Care
13
%
 
12
%
Financial Services
8
%
 
8
%
Technology
8
%
 
9
%
Auto
10
%
 
10
%
Travel and Entertainment
7
%
 
7
%
Telecommunications
5
%
 
5
%
Retail
6
%
 
6
%
Other
21
%
 
20
%


18


Operating Expenses
Operating expenses for 2018 compared to 2017 were (in millions):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018 vs. 2017
 
$
 
% of
Revenue
 
$
 
% of
Revenue
 
$
Change
 
%
Change
Revenue
$
15,290.2

 
 
 
$
15,273.6

 
 
 
$
16.6

 
0.1
 %
Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Salary and service costs
11,306.1

 
73.9
 %
 
11,227.2

 
73.5
%
 
78.9

 
0.7
 %
Occupancy and other costs
1,309.6

 
8.6
 %
 
1,240.8

 
8.1
%
 
68.8

 
5.5
 %
Net gain on disposition of subsidiaries
(178.4
)
 
(1.2
)%
 

 
%
 
(178.4
)
 
 
Cost of services
12,437.3

 
 
 
12,468.0

 
 
 
(30.7
)
 
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
455.4

 
3.0
 %
 
439.7

 
2.9
%
 
15.7

 
3.6
 %
Depreciation and amortization
264.0

 
1.7
 %
 
282.1

 
1.8
%
 
(18.1
)
 
(6.4
)%
 
13,156.7

 
86.0
 %
 
13,189.8

 
86.4
%
 
(33.1
)
 
(0.3
)%
Operating Profit
$
2,133.5

 
14.0
 %
 
$
2,083.8

 
13.6
%
 
$
49.7

 
2.4
 %
In the third quarter of 2018, we disposed of certain businesses, primarily in our CRM Execution & Support discipline, and recorded a net gain of $178.4 million. Also, during the third quarter, we took certain repositioning actions in an effort to continue to improve our strategic position and achieve operating efficiencies, and we recorded charges of $149.4 million for incremental severance, office lease consolidation and termination, asset write-offs and other charges. The impact of the repositioning actions and net gain on sale of subsidiaries on operating expenses for 2018 was (dollars in millions):
 
Increase (Decrease)
 
Repositioning
Actions
 
Net Gain on Disposition of Subsidiaries
 
Total
Salary and service costs
$
73.7

 
$

 
$
73.7

Occupancy and other costs
73.5

 

 
73.5

Net gain on disposition of subsidiaries

 
(178.4
)
 
(178.4
)
Cost of services
147.2

 
(178.4
)
 
(31.2
)
Selling, general and administrative expenses
2.2

 

 
2.2

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

 
$
149.4

 
$
(178.4
)
 
$
(29.0
)
Operating expenses, which include the net gain from the disposition of subsidiaries and the repositioning charges, as described above (see Note 13 to the consolidated financial statements), decreased $33.1 million, in 2018 compared to 2017. Salary and service costs, which tend to fluctuate with changes in revenue, increased $78.9 million, or 0.7%, in 2018 compared to 2017. The year-over-year increase primarily reflects the incremental severance and other charges of $73.7 million incurred in connection with the repositioning actions taken in the third quarter of 2018. Occupancy and other costs, which are less directly linked to changes in revenue than salary and service costs, increased $68.8 million, or 5.5%, in 2018 compared to 2017. The year-over-year change reflects a decrease of $4.7 million, which was offset by $73.5 million of repositioning charges primarily related to office lease consolidation and termination actions taken in the third quarter of 2018. Operating margin increased year-over-year to 14.0% from 13.6% and EBITA margin increased year-over-year to 14.6% from 14.4%. The net gain on disposition of subsidiaries and repositioning expenses, increased operating profit and operating margin year-over year by $29.0 million and 0.2%, respectively.
Net Interest Expense
Net interest expense increased $10.3 million year-over-year to $209.2 million in 2018. Interest expense on debt increased $17.4 million to $241.9 million in 2018, primarily due to a reduced benefit from the fixed-to-floating interest rate swaps resulting from higher rates on the floating rate leg. Our long-term debt portfolio at December 31, 2018, after taking into consideration our outstanding interest rate swaps, was approximately 75% fixed rate obligations and 25% floating rate obligations and was unchanged from December 31, 2017. A discussion of our interest rate swaps is included in Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements. Interest income in 2018 increased $7.5 million year-over-year to $57.2 million due to higher interest earned on the cash held by our international treasury centers.


19


Income Taxes
Our effective tax rate for 2018 decreased year-over-year to 25.6% from 36.9% in 2017. The decrease was primarily attributable to the reduction of the U.S. federal statutory income tax rate to 21% from 35% resulting from the Tax Act. Income tax expense in 2018 was reduced by approximately $19 million, primarily as a result of the successful resolution of foreign tax claims and $7.4 million related to the excess tax benefits from share-based compensation.
Additionally, income tax expense for 2018 reflects the following items recorded in the third quarter of 2018 (in millions):
 
Increase (Decrease)
 
Income Before Income Taxes
 
Income Tax Expense
Net gain on disposition of subsidiaries
$
178.4

 
$
11.0

Repositioning actions
(149.4
)
 
(36.0
)
Adjustment to provisional effect of the Tax Act

 
28.9

 
$
29.0

 
$
3.9

The net gain resulting from the net disposition of subsidiaries reflects favorable local tax rates applied to certain non-U.S. gains. The tax benefit on the repositioning actions was calculated based on the jurisdictions where the charges were incurred and reflects the likelihood that we will be unable to obtain a tax benefit for all charges incurred. Further, in 2018 we recorded additional income tax expense of $28.9 million reflecting the finalization of the provisional estimate of the effect of the Tax Act recorded in the fourth quarter of 2017 (see Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements).
Net Income Per Share - Omnicom Group Inc.
Net income - Omnicom Group Inc. in 2018 increased, due to the factors described above, $238.0 million, or 21.9%, to $1,326.4 million from $1,088.4 million in 2017. The net gain on disposition of subsidiaries and repositioning actions, after the allocable share of $6.9 million to noncontrolling interests, and the additional income tax expense from the finalization of the provisional estimate of the effect of the Tax Act, increased net income - Omnicom Group Inc. $18.2 million. Diluted net income per share - Omnicom Group Inc. increased 25.4% to $5.83 in 2018, compared to $4.65 in 2017, due to the factors described above, as well as the impact of the reduction in our weighted average common shares outstanding resulting from repurchases of our common stock, net of shares issued for restricted stock awards, stock option exercises and the employee stock purchase plan. The net gain on disposition of subsidiaries and repositioning actions net of the additional income tax expense from the finalization of the provisional estimate of the effect of the Tax Act, increased diluted net income per share - Omnicom Group Inc. $0.08.




20



RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - 2017 Compared to 2016 (in millions):
 
2017
 
2016
Revenue
$
15,273.6

 
$
15,416.9

Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
Salary and service costs
11,227.2

 
11,419.0

Occupancy and other costs
1,240.8

 
1,230.6

Cost of services
12,468.0

 
12,649.6

Selling, general and administrative expenses
439.7

 
443.9

Depreciation and amortization
282.1

 
292.9

 
13,189.8

 
13,386.4

Operating Profit
2,083.8

 
2,030.5

Operating Margin - %
13.6
%
 
13.2
%
Interest Expense
248.6

 
231.3

Interest Income
49.7

 
42.6

Income Before Income Taxes and Income From Equity Method Investments
1,884.9

 
1,841.8

Income Tax Expense
696.2

 
600.5

Income From Equity Method Investments
3.5

 
5.4

Net Income
1,192.2

 
1,246.7

Net Income Attributed To Noncontrolling Interests
103.8

 
98.1

Net Income - Omnicom Group Inc.
$
1,088.4

 
$
1,148.6

As discussed below, in 2017 the Tax Act reduced net income - Omnicom Group Inc. by $106.3 million and diluted net income per share - Omnicom Group Inc. by $0.45.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We use EBITA and EBITA Margin as additional operating performance measures that exclude the non-cash amortization expense of intangible assets, which primarily consists of amortization of intangible assets arising from acquisitions. We define EBITA as earnings before interest, taxes and amortization of intangible assets, and EBITA Margin as EBITA divided by revenue. EBITA and EBITA Margin are non-GAAP financial measures. We believe that EBITA and EBITA Margin are useful measures for investors to evaluate the performance of our business. Non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, financial information presented in compliance with U.S. GAAP. Non-GAAP financial measures reported by us may not be comparable to similarly titled amounts reported by other companies.
The following table reconciles the U.S. GAAP financial measure of net income - Omnicom Group Inc. to EBITA and EBITA Margin for the for the periods presented (in millions):
 
2017
 
2016
Net Income - Omnicom Group Inc.
$
1,088.4

 
$
1,148.6

Net Income Attributed To Noncontrolling Interests
103.8

 
98.1

Net Income
1,192.2

 
1,246.7

Income From Equity Method Investments
3.5

 
5.4

Income Tax Expense
696.2

 
600.5

Income Before Income Taxes and Income From Equity Method Investments
1,884.9

 
1,841.8

Interest Expense
248.6

 
231.3

Interest Income
49.7

 
42.6

Operating Profit
2,083.8

 
2,030.5

Add back: Amortization of intangible assets
113.8

 
115.2

Earnings before interest, taxes and amortization of intangible assets (“EBITA”)
$
2,197.6

 
$
2,145.7

 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
15,273.6

 
$
15,416.9

EBITA
$
2,197.6

 
$
2,145.7

EBITA Margin - %
14.4
%
 
13.9
%



21



Revenue
In 2017, revenue decreased $143.3 million to $15,273.6 million from $15,416.9 million in 2016. Changes in foreign exchange rates increased revenue $42.9 million, acquisition revenue net of disposition revenue, decreased revenue $647.3 million and organic growth increased revenue $461.1 million.
The components of revenue change in the United States (“Domestic”) and the remainder of the world (“International”) were (in millions):
 
Total
 
Domestic
 
International
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
 
$
 
%
December 31, 2016
$
15,416.9

 
 
 
$
8,627.8

 
 
 
$
6,789.1

 
 
Components of revenue change:
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

Foreign exchange impact
42.9

 
0.3
 %
 

 
 %
 
42.9

 
0.6
 %
Acquisition revenue, net of disposition revenue
(647.3
)
 
(4.2
)%
 
(474.4
)
 
(5.5
)%
 
(172.9
)
 
(2.5
)%
Organic growth
461.1

 
3.0
 %
 
43.5

 
0.5
 %
 
417.6

 
6.2
 %
December 31, 2017
$
15,273.6

 
(0.9
)%
 
$
8,196.9

 
(5.0
)%
 
$
7,076.7

 
4.2
 %
The components and percentages are calculated as follows:
The foreign exchange impact is calculated by translating the current period’s local currency revenue using the prior period average exchange rates to derive current period constant currency revenue (in this case $15,230.7 million for the Total column). The foreign exchange impact is the difference between the current period revenue in U.S. Dollars and the current period constant currency revenue ($15,273.6 million less $15,230.7 million for the Total column).
Acquisition revenue is calculated as if the acquisition occurred twelve months prior to the acquisition date by aggregating the comparable prior period revenue of acquisitions through the acquisition date. As a result, acquisition revenue excludes the positive or negative difference between our current period revenue subsequent to the acquisition date and the comparable prior period revenue and the positive or negative growth after the acquisition is attributed to organic growth. Disposition revenue is calculated as if the disposition occurred twelve months prior to the disposition date by aggregating the comparable prior period revenue of dispositions through the disposition date. The acquisition revenue and disposition revenue amounts are netted in the table.
Organic growth is calculated by subtracting the foreign exchange rate impact, and the acquisition revenue, net of disposition revenue components from total revenue growth.
The percentage change is calculated by dividing the individual component amount by the prior period revenue base of that component ($15,416.9 million for the Total column).
In 2017, changes in foreign exchange rates continued to negatively impact revenue but at a more moderate rate as compared to 2016. The impact of foreign exchange rates in 2017 increased revenue by 0.3%, or $42.9 million. While a number of currencies weakened against the U.S. Dollar, including the Australian Dollar, Brazilian Real, Canadian Dollar and Russian Ruble, the most significant impact resulted from the weakening of the British Pound.
Revenue and organic growth for 2017 and the change in revenue from 2016 in our principal regional markets were (in millions):
 
2017
 
2016
 
$ Change
 
% Organic Growth
Americas:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
North America
$
8,686.0

 
$
9,174.0

 
$
(488.0
)
 
0.6
%
Latin America
494.8

 
423.6

 
71.2

 
0.6
%
EMEA:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Europe
4,127.9

 
3,904.2

 
223.7

 
7.0
%
Middle East and Africa
314.6

 
278.9

 
35.7

 
12.5
%
Asia-Pacific
1,650.3

 
1,636.2

 
14.1

 
5.8
%
 
$
15,273.6

 
$
15,416.9

 
$
(143.3
)
 
3.0
%
In Europe, our primary markets are the U.K. and the Euro Zone. Revenue for 2017 in the U.K., which represents 9.1% of total revenue, decreased 0.9%, and revenue in the Euro Zone and the other European countries, which together represent 17.9% of total revenue, increased 9.4%.


22



In North America, moderate growth in the United States and strong growth in Canada was partially offset by the weakening of the Canadian Dollar against the U.S. Dollar. In Europe, growth in the U.K., Spain, Russia and Italy was offset by the weakening of the British Pound and Russian Ruble against the U.S. Dollar and negative performance in the Netherlands. The increase in revenue in Latin America was a result of our acquisition activity in Brazil, which was partially offset by the weakening of most currencies in the region against the U.S. Dollar, especially the Brazilian Real. The continuing uncertainty in the economic and political climate in Brazil resulted in organic revenue declines that partially offset the growth from our acquisition and also overshadowed strong growth in Mexico. In Asia-Pacific, growth in the major economies in the region was also partially offset by the weakening of most currencies in the region against the U.S. Dollar.
In the normal course of business, our agencies both gain and lose business from clients each year due to a variety of factors. The net change in 2017 was an overall gain in new business. Under our client-centric approach, we seek to broaden our relationships with all of our clients. Our largest client represented 3.0% and 3.0% of revenue in 2017 and 2016, respectively. Our ten largest and 100 largest clients represented 19.6% and 50.5% of revenue in 2017, respectively, and 18.3% and 52.4% of revenue in 2016, respectively.
Revenue for 2017 and 2016 and the change in revenue and organic growth from 2016 by discipline were (in millions):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017 vs. 2016
 
$
 
% of
Revenue
 
$
 
% of
Revenue
 
$
Change
 
% Organic Growth
Advertising
$
8,175.9

 
53.6
%
 
$
8,233.3

 
53.4
%
 
$
(57.4
)
 
3.9
%
CRM Consumer Experience
2,615.9

 
17.1
%
 
2,698.9

 
17.5
%
 
(83.0
)
 
0.9
%
CRM Execution & Support
2,135.8

 
14.0
%
 
2,173.8

 
14.1
%
 
(38.0
)
 
4.0
%
Public Relations
1,411.4

 
9.2
%
 
1,405.8

 
9.1
%
 
5.6

 
0.5
%
Healthcare
934.6

 
6.1
%
 
905.1

 
5.9
%
 
29.5

 
2.8
%
 
$
15,273.6

 
 
 
$
15,416.9

 
 
 
$
(143.3
)
 
3.0
%
We provide services to clients that operate in various industry sectors. Revenue by sector for 2017 and 2016 was:
 
 
2017
 
2016
Food and Beverage
 
13
%
 
13
%
Consumer Products
 
10
%
 
10
%
Pharmaceuticals and Health Care
 
12
%
 
12
%
Financial Services
 
8
%
 
7
%
Technology
 
9
%
 
9
%
Auto
 
10
%
 
8
%
Travel and Entertainment
 
7
%
 
7
%
Telecommunications
 
5
%
 
5
%
Retail
 
6
%
 
6
%
Other
 
20
%
 
23
%
Operating Expenses
Operating expenses for 2017 compared to 2016 were (in millions):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2017
 
2016
 
2017 vs. 2016
 
$
 
% of
Revenue
 
$
 
% of
Revenue
 
$
Change
 
%
Change
Revenue
$
15,273.6

 
 
 
$
15,416.9

 
 
 
$
(143.3
)
 
(0.9
)%
Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Salary and service costs
11,227.2

 
73.5
%
 
11,419.0

 
74.1
%
 
(191.8
)
 
(1.7
)%
Occupancy and other costs
1,240.8

 
8.1
%
 
1,230.6

 
8.0
%
 
10.2

 
0.8
 %
Cost of services
12,468.0

 
 
 
12,649.6

 
 
 
 
 
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
439.7

 
2.9
%
 
443.9

 
2.9
%
 
(4.2
)
 
(0.9
)%
Depreciation and amortization
282.1

 
1.8
%
 
292.9

 
1.9
%
 
(10.8
)
 
(3.7
)%
 
13,189.8

 
86.4
%
 
13,386.4

 
86.8
%
 
(196.6
)
 
(1.5
)%
Operating Profit
$
2,083.8

 
13.6
%
 
$
2,030.5

 
13.2
%
 
$
53.3

 
2.6
 %


23



Operating expenses decreased $196.6 million, or 1.5% in 2017 compared to 2016. Salary and service costs, which tend to fluctuate with changes in revenue, decreased $191.8 million, or 1.7%, in 2017 compared to 2016. Occupancy and other costs, which are less directly linked to changes in revenue than salary and service costs, increased $10.2 million, or 0.8%, in 2017 compared to 2016, principally resulting from our ongoing efforts to leverage scale and enhance efficiency. SG&A expenses decreased $4.2 million year-over-year primarily related to professional fees incurred in connection with our acquisition activities. As a result, operating margin in 2017 increased to 13.6% from 13.2% in 2016 and EBITA margin increased year-over-year to 14.4% from 13.9%.

Net Interest Expense
Net interest expense increased $10.2 million year-over-year to $198.9 million in 2017. Interest expense on debt increased $14.8 million to $224.5 million in 2017, primarily due to a reduced benefit from the fixed-to-floating interest rate swaps resulting from higher rates on the floating rate leg and higher interest expense on commercial paper. Our long-term debt portfolio at December 31, 2017, after taking into consideration our outstanding interest rate swaps, was approximately 75% fixed rate obligations and 25% and was unchanged from December 31, 2016. A discussion of our interest rate swaps is included in Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements. Interest income in 2017 increased $7.1 million year-over-year to $49.7 million due to higher interest earned on cash held by our international treasury centers.
Income Taxes
Our effective tax rate for 2017 was 36.9% compared to 32.6% for 2016. The increase is attributable to the estimated impact of the Tax Act of $106.3 million partially offset by the recognition of an excess tax benefit from share-based compensation of $20.8 million resulting from the adoption of FASB ASU 2016-09, which requires that beginning in 2017 excess tax benefits and deficiencies arising from share-based compensation be recognized in results of operations in the period when the restricted stock awards vest or stock options are exercised. In prior years, excess tax benefits and deficiencies from share-based compensation were recorded in additional paid-in capital.
Net Income Per Share - Omnicom Group Inc.
Net income - Omnicom Group Inc. decreased $60.2 million, or 5.2%, to $1,088.4 million in 2017 from $1,148.6 million in 2016. The year-over-year decrease is due to the impact of the Tax Act of $106.3 million, which is partially offset by the after tax increase from the factors described above. Diluted net income per share - Omnicom Group Inc. decreased 2.7% to $4.65 in 2017, compared to $4.78 in 2016. The impact of the Tax Act reduced diluted net income per share - Omnicom Group Inc. $0.45. In addition, the impact of the reduction in our weighted average common shares outstanding resulting from repurchases of our common stock, net of shares issued for restricted stock awards and stock option exercises and shares issued under our employee stock purchase plan improved diluted net income per share - Omnicom Group Inc. in 2017 compared to 2016.
Effect of the Tax Act
The following table presents the effect of the Tax Act on income tax expense, net income - Omnicom Group Inc. and diluted earnings per share Omnicom Group Inc. (in millions):
 
2017 As Reported
 
Effect of Tax Act
 
2017 Excluding Effect of Tax Act
Income before income taxes and income from equity method investments
$
1,884.9

 
$

 
$
1,884.9

Income tax expense
$
696.2

 
$
106.3

 
$
589.9

Effective tax rate
36.9
%
 
 
 
31.3
%
Net income - Omnicom Group Inc.
$
1,088.4

 
$
(106.3
)
 
$
1,194.7

Diluted net income per share - Omnicom Group Inc.
$
4.65

 
$
(0.45
)
 
$
5.10

Excluding the effect of the Tax Act from income tax expense, net income Omnicom Group Inc. and diluted net income per share Omnicom Group Inc. are Non-GAAP measures. We believe that these measures help investors understand the effect of the Tax Act on our reported results.


24



LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Cash Sources and Requirements
Our primary liquidity sources are our operating cash flow, cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments. Additional liquidity sources include our credit facilities and commercial paper program, and access to the capital markets. At December 31, 2018, we have a $2.5 billion revolving credit facility, or Credit Facility, expiring on July 31, 2021, uncommitted credit lines aggregating $1.2 billion and the ability to issue up to $2 billion of commercial paper. Borrowings under the Credit Facility may be in U.S. Dollars, British Pounds or Euro. Our liquidity funds our non-discretionary cash requirements and our discretionary spending.
Working capital is our principal non-discretionary funding requirement. In addition, we have contractual obligations related to our senior notes, recurring business operations, primarily related to lease obligations, and contingent purchase price obligations (earn-outs) from prior acquisitions. Our principal discretionary cash spending includes dividend payments to common shareholders, capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions and repurchases of our common stock. Our short-term borrowing requirements normally peak in the second quarter of the year due to the timing of payments for incentive compensation, income taxes and contingent purchase price obligations. In addition, our $500 million 6.25% Senior Notes due 2019 mature on July 15, 2019 and are classified as current. Based on past performance and current expectations, we believe that our operating cash flow will be sufficient to meet our non-discretionary cash requirements, and our discretionary spending for the next twelve months.
Cash and cash equivalents decreased $143.6 million from December 31, 2017. The components of the decrease were:
Sources  
Cash flow from operations
 
 
$
1,722.3

Less: Increase in operating capital
 
 
(80.5
)
Principal cash sources
 
 
1,641.8

Uses
Capital expenditures
$
(195.7
)
 
 
Dividends paid to common shareholders
(548.5
)
 
 
Dividends paid to noncontrolling interest shareholders
(134.9
)
 
 
Acquisition payments, including payment of contingent purchase price obligations and acquisition of additional noncontrolling interests, net of cash acquired
(477.1
)
 
 
Repurchases of common stock, net of proceeds from stock plans
(568.3
)
 
 
Principal cash uses
 
 
(1,924.5
)
Principal cash sources in excess of principal cash uses
 
 
(282.7
)
Foreign exchange rate changes
 
 
(203.0
)
Investing activities and other
 
 
261.6

Increase in operating capital
 
 
80.5

Decrease in cash and cash equivalents
 
 
$
(143.6
)
Principal cash sources and uses amounts are Non-GAAP liquidity measures. These amounts exclude changes in working capital and other investing and financing activities, including commercial paper issuances and redemptions used to fund working capital changes. This presentation reflects the metrics used by us to assess our sources and uses of cash and was derived from our consolidated statement of cash flows. We believe that this presentation is meaningful to understand the primary sources and uses of our cash flow and the effect on our cash and cash equivalents. Non-GAAP liquidity measures should not be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, financial information presented in compliance with U.S. GAAP. Non-GAAP liquidity measures as reported by us may not be comparable to similarly titled amounts reported by other companies. Additional information regarding our cash flows can be found in our consolidated financial statements.
Cash Management
Our regional treasury centers in North America, Europe and Asia manage our cash and liquidity. Each day, operations with excess funds invest these funds with their regional treasury center. Likewise, operations that require funds borrow from their regional treasury center. The treasury centers aggregate the net position which is either invested with or borrowed from third parties. To the extent that our treasury centers require liquidity, they have the ability to issue up to a total of $2 billion of U.S. Dollar-denominated commercial paper or borrow under the Credit Facility or the uncommitted credit lines. This process enables us to manage our debt more efficiently and utilize our cash more effectively, as well as manage our risk to foreign exchange rate imbalances. In countries where we either do not conduct treasury operations or it is not feasible for one of our treasury centers to fund net borrowing requirements on an intercompany basis, we arrange for local currency uncommitted credit lines.


25



We have a policy governing counterparty credit risk with financial institutions that hold our cash and cash equivalents and we have deposit limits for each institution. In countries where we conduct treasury operations, generally the counterparties are either branches or subsidiaries of institutions that are party to the Credit Facility. These institutions generally have credit ratings equal to or better than our credit ratings. In countries where we do not conduct treasury operations, all cash and cash equivalents are held by counterparties that meet specific minimum credit standards.
At December 31, 2018, our foreign subsidiaries held approximately $962 million of our total cash and cash equivalents of $3.7 billion. Most of the cash is available to us, net of any foreign withholding taxes payable upon repatriation to the United States.
Our net debt position, which we define as total debt, including short-term debt, less cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments, at December 31, 2018 increased $105.6 million as compared to December 31, 2017. The increase in net debt is due to a decrease in cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments of $138.5 million primarily arising from the unfavorable impact of foreign exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents of $203.0 million, partially offset by an increase in operating capital of $80.5 million.
The components of net debt at December 31, 2018 and 2017 were (in millions):
 
2018
 
2017
Short-term debt
$
8.1

 
$
11.8

Long-term debt, including current portion
4,883.7

 
4,912.9

Total debt
4,891.8

 
4,924.7

Cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments
3,657.9

 
3,796.4

Net debt
$
1,233.9

 
$
1,128.3

Net debt is a Non-GAAP liquidity measure. This presentation, together with the comparable U.S. GAAP liquidity measures, reflects one of the key metrics used by us to assess our cash management. Non-GAAP liquidity measures should not be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, financial information presented in compliance with U.S. GAAP. Non-GAAP liquidity measures as reported by us may not be comparable to similarly titled amounts reported by other companies.
Debt Instruments and Related Covenants
At December 31, 2018, the total principal amount of our fixed rate senior notes was $4.9 billion, and the total notional amount of the outstanding fixed-to-floating interest rate swaps was $1.25 billion. The interest rate swaps have the economic effect of converting our long-term debt portfolio to approximately 75% fixed rate obligations and 25% floating rate obligations. A discussion of our interest rate swaps is included in Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements.
Omnicom Group Inc., or OGI, and its wholly owned finance subsidiary, Omnicom Capital Inc., or OCI, are co-obligors under all the senior notes. The senior notes are a joint and several liability of OGI and OCI, and OGI unconditionally guarantees OCI’s obligations with respect to the senior notes. OCI provides funding for our operations by incurring debt and lending the proceeds to our operating subsidiaries. OCI’s assets consist of cash and cash equivalents and intercompany loans made to our operating subsidiaries and the related interest receivable. There are no restrictions on the ability of OGI or OCI to obtain funds from our subsidiaries through dividends, loans or advances. The senior notes are senior unsecured obligations that rank equal in right of payment with all existing and future unsecured senior indebtedness.
The Credit Facility contains financial covenants that require us to maintain a Leverage Ratio of consolidated indebtedness to consolidated EBITDA of no more than 3 times for the most recently ended 12-month period (EBITDA is defined as earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization) and an Interest Coverage Ratio of consolidated EBITDA to interest expense of at least 5 times for the most recently ended 12-month period. At December 31, 2018, we were in compliance with these covenants as our Leverage Ratio was 2.1 times and our Interest Coverage Ratio was 9.9 times. The Credit Facility does not limit our ability to declare or pay dividends or repurchase our common stock.
At December 31, 2018, our long-term and short-term debt was rated BBB+ and A2 by S&P and Baa1 and P2 by Moody's. Our access to the commercial paper market and the cost of these borrowings are affected by our credit ratings and market conditions. Our senior notes and Credit Facility do not contain provisions that require acceleration of cash payments in the event our credit ratings are downgraded.
Credit Markets and Availability of Credit
We typically fund our day-to-day liquidity by issuing commercial paper. Additional liquidity sources include our Credit Facility or the uncommitted credit lines. At December 31, 2018, there were no outstanding commercial paper issuances or borrowings under the Credit Facility or material borrowings under the uncommitted credit lines.


26



Commercial paper activity for the three years ended December 31, 2018 was (dollars in millions):
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Average amount outstanding during the year
$
411.7

 
$
902.3

 
$
861.3

Maximum amount outstanding during the year
$
1,218.7

 
$
1,769.8

 
$
1,608.9

Average days outstanding
5.7

 
13.0

 
11.2

Weighted average interest rate
2.19
%
 
1.29
%
 
0.70
%
While we expect to continue funding our day-to-day liquidity by issuing commercial paper, we may draw on our Credit Facility. However, disruptions in the credit markets may lead to periods of illiquidity in the commercial paper market and higher credit spreads. To mitigate any future disruption in the credit markets and to fund our liquidity, we may borrow under the Credit Facility or access the capital markets if favorable conditions exist. We will continue to monitor closely our liquidity and conditions in the credit markets. We cannot predict with any certainty the impact on us of any future disruptions in the credit markets. In such circumstances, we may need to obtain additional financing to fund our day-to-day working capital requirements. Such additional financing may not be available on favorable terms, or at all.
Contractual Obligations and Other Commercial Commitments
In the normal course of business, we enter into numerous contractual and commercial undertakings. The following tables should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements.
Contractual obligations at December 31, 2018 were (in millions):
 
 
 
Obligation Due
 
Total
Obligation
 
2019
 
2020 - 2021
 
2022 - 2023
 
After 2023
Long-term debt:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Principal
$
4,900.0

 
$
500.0

 
$
1,000.0

 
$
1,250.0

 
$
2,150.0

Interest
767.4

 
184.5

 
274.0

 
170.7

 
138.2

Lease obligations
1,953.6

 
364.7

 
565.6

 
357.0

 
666.3

Contingent purchase price obligations
146.5

 
65.4

 
72.3

 
8.8

 

Transition tax liability on accumulated foreign earnings
139.1

 
15.1

 
23.6

 
33.9

 
66.5

Defined benefit pension plans benefit obligation
258.4

 
8.9

 
26.1

 
32.7

 
190.7

Postemployment arrangements benefit obligation
126.5

 
7.8

 
14.8

 
15.0

 
88.9

Uncertain tax positions
182.8

 
25.6

 
47.2

 
71.9

 
38.1

 
$
8,474.3

 
$
1,172.0

 
$
2,023.6

 
$
1,940.0

 
$
3,338.7

Certain acquisitions include an initial payment at closing and provide for future additional contingent purchase price payments (earn-outs) that are recorded as a liability at the acquisition date fair value. Subsequent changes in the fair value of the liability are recorded in results of operations.
The Tax Act included a transition tax on accumulated foreign earnings, which is payable through 2025. See Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements for additional information.
The unfunded benefit obligation for our defined benefit pension plans and liability for our postemployment arrangements was $327.5 million at December 31, 2018. In 2018, we contributed $8.0 million to our defined benefit pension plans and paid $8.1 million in benefits for our postemployment arrangements. We do not expect these payments to increase significantly in 2019.
The liability for uncertain tax positions is subject to uncertainty as to when or if the liability will be paid. We have assigned the liability to the periods presented based on our judgment as to when these liabilities will be resolved by the appropriate taxing authorities.
See Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements for a description of our lease commitments, which comprise a significant component of our occupancy and other costs. See Note 22 to the consolidated financial statements for a discussion of the impact of the adoption of FASB Accounting Standards Codification Topic 842, Leases.


27



Commercial commitments at December 31, 2018 were (in millions):
 
 
 
Commitment Expires
 
Total
Commitment
 
2019
 
2020 - 2021
 
2022 - 2023
 
After 2023
Standby letters of credit
$
4.6

 
$
1.0

 
$

 
$
2.5

 
$
1.1

Guarantees
115.3

 
87.5

 
16.5

 
6.7

 
4.6

 
$
119.9

 
$
88.5

 
$
16.5

 
$
9.2

 
$
5.7

At December 31, 2018, there were no significant off-balance sheet arrangements.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We manage our exposure to foreign currency exchange rate risk and interest rate risk through various strategies, including the use of derivative financial instruments. We use forward foreign exchange contracts as economic hedges to manage the cash flow volatility arising from foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. We use interest rate swaps to manage our interest expense and structure our long-term debt portfolio to achieve a mix of fixed rate and floating rate debt. We do not use derivatives for trading or speculative purposes. Using derivatives exposes us to the risk that counterparties to the derivative contracts will fail to meet their contractual obligations. We manage that risk through careful selection and ongoing evaluation of the counterparty financial institutions based on specific minimum credit standards and other factors.
We evaluate the effects of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates and other relevant market risks on our derivatives. We periodically determine the potential loss from market risk on our derivatives by performing a value-at-risk, or VaR, analysis. VaR is a statistical model that uses historical currency exchange and interest rate data to measure the potential impact on future earnings of our derivative financial instruments assuming normal market conditions. The VaR model is not intended to represent actual losses but is used as a risk estimation and management tool. Based on the results of the model, we estimate with 95% confidence a maximum one-day change in the net fair value of our derivative financial instruments at December 31, 2018 was not significant.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
Our international operations represent approximately 48% of our revenue. Changes in the value of foreign currencies against the U.S. Dollar affect our results of operations and financial position. For the most part, because the revenue and expenses of our foreign operations are denominated in the same local currency, the economic impact on operating margin is minimized. The effects of foreign currency exchange transactions on our results of operations are discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements.
While our major international markets include the Euro Zone, the U.K., Australia, Brazil, Canada, China and Japan, our agencies transact business in more than 50 different currencies. As an integral part of our global treasury operations, we centralize our cash and use multicurrency pools, and to a lesser extent forward foreign exchange contracts, to manage the foreign currency exchange risk that arises from imbalances between subsidiaries and their respective treasury centers from which they borrow or invest funds. At December 31, 2018, there were no outstanding forward foreign exchange contracts and at December 31, 2017, we had outstanding forward foreign exchange contracts with an aggregate notional amount of $92.8 million. In addition, there are circumstances where revenue and expense transactions are not denominated in the same currency. In these instances, amounts are either promptly settled or hedged with forward foreign exchange contracts. To manage that risk, we had outstanding forward foreign exchange contracts with an aggregate notional amount of $86.1 million and $136.3 million at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The net fair value of the forward foreign contracts at December 31, 2018 and 2017 was a current liability of $0.1 million and a current asset of $0.9 million, respectively.
Foreign currency derivatives are designated as economic hedges; therefore, any gain or loss in fair value incurred on those instruments is generally offset by decreases or increases in the fair value of the underlying exposures. By using these financial instruments, we reduced financial risk of adverse foreign exchange changes by foregoing any gain which might have occurred if the markets moved favorably. The terms of our forward foreign exchange contracts are generally less than 90 days.
Interest Rate Risk
We use interest rate swaps to manage our interest cost and structure our long-term debt portfolio to achieve a mix of fixed rate and floating rate debt. Based on market conditions, we may terminate the swaps to reduce our exposure to rising interest rates or to monetize any gain and lock in a reduction in interest expense. Gains or losses on termination will be amortized to interest expense over the term of the underlying debt. At December 31, 2018, the total notional amount of the outstanding fixed-to-floating interest rate swaps was $1.25 billion. The interest rate swaps have the economic effect of converting our long-term debt portfolio to approximately 75% fixed rate obligations and 25% floating rate obligations. A discussion of our interest rate swaps is included in Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements.


28



Credit Risk
We provide advertising, marketing and corporate communications services to several thousand clients that operate in nearly every sector of the global economy and we grant credit to qualified clients in the normal course of business. Due to the diversified nature of our client base, we do not believe that we are exposed to a concentration of credit risk as our largest client represented 3.0% of revenue in 2018. However, during periods of economic downturn, the credit profiles of our clients could change.
In the normal course of business, our agencies enter into contractual commitments with media providers and production companies on behalf of our clients at levels that can substantially exceed the revenue from our services. These commitments are included in accounts payable when the services are delivered by the media providers or production companies. If permitted by local law and the client agreement, many of our agencies purchase media and production services for our clients as an agent for a disclosed principal. In addition, while operating practices vary by country, media type and media vendor, in the United States and certain foreign markets, many of our agencies’ contracts with media and production providers specify that our agencies are not liable to the media and production providers under the theory of sequential liability until and to the extent we have been paid by our client for the media or production services.
Where purchases of media and production services are made by our agencies as a principal or are not subject to the theory of sequential liability, the risk of a material loss as a result of payment default by our clients could increase significantly and such a loss could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.
In addition, our methods of managing the risk of payment default, including obtaining credit insurance, requiring payment in advance, mitigating the potential loss in the marketplace or negotiating with media providers, may be less available or unavailable during a severe economic downturn.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
See Item 15, “Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules.”
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
None.
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
We maintain disclosure controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in reports we file with the SEC is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within applicable time periods. Disclosure controls and procedures include, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports we file or submit under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, is accumulated and communicated to management, including our Chief Executive Officer, or CEO, and Chief Financial Officer, or CFO, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. Management, including our CEO and CFO, conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of December 31, 2018. Based on that evaluation, our CEO and CFO concluded that, as of December 31, 2018, our disclosure controls and procedures are effective to ensure that decisions can be made timely with respect to required disclosures, as well as ensuring that the recording, processing, summarization and reporting of information required to be included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 are appropriate.
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(f). Management, with the participation of our CEO, CFO and our agencies, conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the framework in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. Based on that evaluation, our CEO and CFO concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2018. There have not been any changes in our internal control over financial reporting during our most recent fiscal quarter that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect our internal control over financial reporting.
KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm that audited our consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, has issued an attestation report on Omnicom’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, dated February 12, 2019, which is included on page F-2 of this 2018 10-K.
Item 9B. Other Information
None.


29



PART III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

The information regarding Executive Officers of the Registrant is included in Part I, Item 1, “Business.” Additional information called for by this Item, to the extent not included in this document, is incorporated herein by reference to the information to be included under the captions “Item 1 - Election of Directors,” “Stock Ownership Information - Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance” and “Additional Information - Shareholder Proposals and Director Nominations for the 2020 Annual Meeting” in our definitive proxy statement, or Proxy Statement, which is expected to be filed with the SEC within 120 days of the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018.
Item 11. Executive Compensation

The information called for by this Item is incorporated herein by reference to the information to be included under the captions “Executive Compensation,” “Item 1 - Election of Directors - Directors' Compensation for Fiscal 2018” and “Item 1 - Election of Directors - Board Policies and Processes - Compensation Committee Interlocks and Insider Participation” in our Proxy Statement.
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

The information called for by this Item is incorporated herein by reference to the information to be included under the captions “Stock Ownership Information - Beneficial Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management” and “Stock Ownership Information - Equity Compensation Plans” in our Proxy Statement.
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

The information called for by this Item is incorporated herein by reference to the information to be included under the captions “Item 1 - Election of Directors - Omnicom Board of Directors - Transactions with Related Persons” and “Item 1 - Election of Directors - Omnicom Board of Directors - Director Independence” in our Proxy Statement.
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services

The information called for by this Item is incorporated herein by reference to the information to be included under the caption “Item 3 - Ratification of the Appointment of Independent Auditors - Fees Paid to Independent Auditors” in our Proxy Statement.
PART IV
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
(a)(1)
Financial Statements:
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31, 2018 and 2017
 
Consolidated Statements of Income for the Three Years Ended December 31, 2018
 
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the Three Years Ended December 31, 2018
 
Consolidated Statements of Equity for the Three Years Ended December 31, 2018
 
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Three Years Ended December 31, 2018
 
 
Selected Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited)
 
 
 
(a)(2)
Financial Statement Schedules:
 
 
Schedule II - Valuation and Qualifying Accounts for the Three Years Ended December 31, 2018
 
 
 
 
All other schedules are omitted because they are not applicable.
 


30



(a)(3)
Exhibits:
Exhibit
Number
Description
3(i)
 
 
3(ii)
 
 
4.1
 
 
4.2
 
 
4.3
 
 
4.4
 
 
4.5
 
 
4.6
 
 
4.7
 
 
4.8
 
 
4.9
 
 
4.10
 
 
4.11
 
 
4.12
 
 
4.13
 
 
4.14


31



10.1
Amended and Restated Five Year Credit Agreement, dated as of July 31, 2014, by and among Omnicom Capital Inc., Omnicom Finance plc, Omnicom Group Inc., the banks, financial institutions and other institutional lenders and initial issuing banks listed on the signature pages thereof, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, HSBC Securities (USA) Inc. and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC as lead arrangers and book managers, JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., HSBC Securities (USA) Inc. and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as syndication agents, BNP Paribas and U.S. Bank National Association, as documentation agents, and Citibank, N.A., as administrative agent for the lenders (Exhibit 10.1 to our Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 1-10551) filed on August 1, 2014 and incorporated herein by reference).
 
 
10.2
 
 
10.3
 
 
10.4
Standard form of the Director Indemnification Agreement (Exhibit 10.25 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K (File No. 1-10551) for the year ended December 31, 1989 and incorporated herein by reference).
 
 
10.5
 
 
10.6
 
 
10.7
 
 
10.8
 
 
10.9
 
 
10.10
 
 
10.11
 
 
10.12
 
 
10.13
 
 
10.14
 
 
10.15
 
 
10.16
 
 
10.17
 
 
10.18
 
 
10.19
 
 
10.20


32



Item 16. Form 10-K Summary

None.


33



SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
 
 
OMNICOM GROUP INC.
February 12, 2019
BY:
/s/ PHILIP J. ANGELASTRO
 
 
Philip J. Angelastro
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Signature
Title
Date
 
 
 
/s/ JOHN D. WREN
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer)
February 12, 2019
John D. Wren
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ PHILIP J. ANGELASTRO
Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer)
February 12, 2019
Philip J. Angelastro
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ ANDREW L. CASTELLANETA
Senior Vice President, Chief Accounting Officer (Principal Accounting Officer)
February 12, 2019
Andrew L. Castellaneta
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ ALAN R. BATKIN
Director
February 12, 2019
Alan R. Batkin
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ MARY C. CHOKSI
Director
February 12, 2019
Mary C. Choksi
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ ROBERT CHARLES CLARK
Director
February 12, 2019
Robert Charles Clark
 
 
 
 
 
/s/ LEONARD S. COLEMAN, JR.
Director
February 12, 2019
Leonard S. Coleman, Jr.