Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Owens & Minor
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-09-30 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-06-30 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-03-31 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2014-12-31 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-09-30 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-06-30 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-03-31 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2013-12-31 Annual: 2013-12-31
8-K 2019-03-12 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-25 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-19 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-19 Officers, Amend Bylaw, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-12 Enter Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-07 Amend Bylaw, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-10 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-06 Officers, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-07 Officers, Amend Bylaw, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-31 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-07 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-06 Officers
8-K 2018-05-09 Officers, Amend Bylaw, Shareholder Vote, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-04 Enter Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-30 Enter Agreement, M&A, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-09 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-02 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-28 Officers, Amend Bylaw, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-14 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-31 Earnings, Exhibits
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GBX Greenbrier Companies 0
HES Hess 0
PETS PetMed Express 0
TPVG Triplepoint Venture Growth Bdc 0
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OMI 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Part II
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Note 1-Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2-Significant Risks and Uncertainties
Note 3-Acquisitions
Note 4-Accounts Receivable, Net
Note 5-Merchandise Inventories
Note 6-Financing Receivables and Payables
Note 7-Property and Equipment
Note 8-Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Note 9-Exit and Realignment Costs
Note 10-Debt
Note 11-Share-Based Compensation
Note 12-Retirement Plans
Note 13-Derivatives
Note 14-Income Taxes
Note 15-Net Income (Loss) per Common Share
Note 16-Shareholders' Equity
Note 17 - Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Note 18-Commitments and Contingencies
Note 19-Legal Proceedings
Note 20-Segment Information
Note 21-Condensed Consolidating Financial Information
Note 22-Subsequent Events
EX-3.2 a32omibylawsrev362019.htm
EX-10.7 a107formcicseveranceagreem.htm
EX-10.47 a1047cphippsseparatio592.htm
EX-21.1 exhibit211123118.htm
EX-23.1 exhibit231123118.htm
EX-31.1 exhibit311201810k.htm
EX-31.2 exhibit312201810k.htm
EX-32.1 exhibit321201810k.htm
EX-32.2 exhibit322201810k.htm

Owens & Minor Earnings 2018-12-31

OMI 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 omi1231201810k.htm 10-K Document

 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
 
 
FORM 10-K 
 
 
 
x
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the year ended December 31, 2018
¨
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number 1-9810
 
 
 
OWENS & MINOR, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
 
Virginia
 
54-1701843
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
 
9120 Lockwood Boulevard, Mechanicsville, Virginia
 
23116
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (804) 723-7000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $2 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
3.875% Senior Notes due 2021
 
Not Listed
4.375% Senior Notes due 2024
 
Not Listed
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer (as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act).    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x   No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨ 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large accelerated filer
 
x
  
Accelerated filer
 
¨
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
¨
  
Smaller reporting company
 
¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x
The aggregate market value of Common Stock held by non-affiliates (based upon the closing sales price) was approximately $1,041,712,963 as of June 30, 2018.
The number of shares of the Company’s common stock outstanding as of February 15, 2019 was 62,235,014 shares.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
The proxy statement for the annual meeting of shareholders to be held on May 10, 2019, is incorporated by reference for Item 5 of Part II and Part III.
 
 
 

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Form 10-K Table of Contents
 
 
 
 
 
Item No.
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1

 
1A.

 
1B.

 
2

 
3

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4

 
Mine Safety Disclosures
5

 
6

 
7

 
7A.

 
8

 
9

 
9A.

 
9B.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10

 
11

 
12

 
13

 
14

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15

 
Corporate Officers can be found at the end of this Form 10-K.



Part I
Item 1. Business
General
Owens & Minor, Inc. and subsidiaries (we, us or our), a Fortune 500 company headquartered in Richmond, Virginia, is a leading global healthcare solutions company with integrated technologies, products and services aligned to deliver significant and sustained value for healthcare providers and manufacturers across the continuum of care. Our teammates serve healthcare industry customers in 90 countries, by providing quality products and helping to reduce total costs across the supply chain by optimizing point-of care performance, freeing up capital and clinical resources and managing contracts to optimize financial performance. The description of our business should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and supplementary data included in this Form 10-K.
Founded in 1882, Owens & Minor was incorporated in 1926 and has operated continuously from its Richmond, Virginia headquarters. Through organic growth and acquisitions over many years, we significantly expanded and strengthened our company, achieving international scale in the healthcare market. Today, we have distribution, production, customer service and sales facilities located across Asia, Europe, Latin America and the United States.
In 2017, we acquired Byram Healthcare (Byram), a leading U.S. distributor of disposable medical supplies sold directly to patients and home health agencies. This acquisition expanded our capabilities beyond the hospital setting all the way to the patient's home with principal product lines of diabetes, ostomy, wound care, urology and incontinence supplies.
On April 30, 2018, we acquired substantially all of Avanos Medical, Inc.'s (Avanos, previously Halyard Health, Inc.) Surgical and Infection Prevention (S&IP) business, the name “Halyard Health” (and all variations of that name and related intellectual property rights) and its information technology (IT) systems in exchange for $758 million, net of cash acquired. The Halyard business is a leading global provider of medical supplies and solutions for the prevention of healthcare associated infections across acute care and non-acute care markets.
In 2018, we have made changes to the leadership team, organizational structure, budgeting and financial reporting processes which require changes to segment reporting. These changes align our operations into two distinct business units: Global Solutions and Global Products. Global Solutions (previously Domestic and International) is our U.S. and European distribution, logistics and value-added services business. Global Products (previously Proprietary Products) manufactures and sources medical surgical products through our production and kitting operations. Beginning with the quarter ended March 31, 2018, we now report financial results using this two segment structure and have recast prior year segment results on the same basis. Financial information by segment and geographic area appears in Note 20, “Segment Information,” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report.
Global Solutions
In our Global Solutions segment, we offer a comprehensive portfolio of products and services to healthcare providers and manufacturers. Our portfolio of medical and surgical supplies includes branded products purchased in large volume from manufacturers and our own proprietary products. We store our products at our distribution centers and provide delivery of these products, along with related services, to healthcare providers around the nation.
Our service offerings to healthcare providers include supplier management, analytics, inventory management, and clinical supply management. These value-add services help providers improve their process for contracting with vendors, purchasing supplies and streamlining inventory. These services include our operating room-focused inventory management program that helps healthcare providers manage suture and endo-mechanical inventory, as well as our customizable surgical supply service that includes the kitting and delivery of surgical supplies in procedure-based totes to coincide with the healthcare providers' surgical schedule.
In addition to services to healthcare providers, we offer a variety of programs dedicated to providing logistics and marketing solutions to our suppliers as well. These are designed to help manufacturers drive sales growth, increase market share and achieve operational efficiencies. Manufacturer programs are generally negotiated on an annual basis and provide for enhanced levels of support that are aligned with the manufacturer’s annual objectives and growth goals. We have contractual arrangements with manufacturers participating in these programs that provide performance-based incentives to us, as well as cash discounts for prompt payment. Program incentives can be earned on a monthly, quarterly or annual basis.
We also provide contract logistics services to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device industries offering a broad range of supply chain logistics services to manufacturers. Our business services include order-to-cash, re-labeling, customer service and returns management. Our warehousing and transportation offerings include storage, controlled-substance handling, cold-chain, emergency and export delivery, inventory management and pick & pack services.


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We operate a network of over 40 distribution centers located throughout the continental United States, which are strategically located to efficiently serve our provider and manufacturer customers. A significant investment in information technology supports our business including warehouse management systems, customer service and ordering functions, demand forecasting programs, electronic commerce, data warehousing, decision support and supply-chain management. In Europe, we have a network of 19 logistics centers serving customers in 12 European countries, including Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
We customize product deliveries, whether the orders are “just-in-time,” “low-unit-of-measure,” pallets, or truckloads. We also customize delivery schedules according to customers’ needs to increase their efficiency in receiving and storing products. We have deployed low-unit-of-measure automated picking modules in our larger distribution centers to maximize efficiency, and our distribution center teammates use voice-pick technology to enhance speed and accuracy in performing certain warehousing processes. We partner with Penske Logistics to deliver most supplies in the United States. In situations where they are more cost-effective and timely, we use contract carriers and parcel delivery services.
The majority of our distribution arrangements compensate us on a cost-plus percentage basis, under which a negotiated percentage mark-up is added to the contract cost of the product agreed to by the customer and the supplier or Group Purchasing Organization (GPOs). We price our services for other arrangements under activity-based pricing models. In these cases, pricing depends upon the type, level and/or complexity of services that we provide to customers, and in some cases we do not take title to the product (although we maintain certain custodial risks). As a result, this fee-for-service pricing model aligns the fees we charge with the cost of the services provided, which is a component of distribution, selling and administrative expenses, rather than with the cost of the product, which is a component of cost of goods sold.
Through our acquisition of Byram Healthcare, we have expanded our business along the continuum of care through delivery of disposable medical supplies sold directly to patients and home health agencies. Byram specializes in various patient care product lines including ostomy, wound care, diabetes, urology, incontinence and enteral. We receive payments for products sold through Byram from managed care plans, the U.S. federal government under the Medicare program, state governments under their respective Medicaid or similar programs, private insurers and directly from patients. Byram has a nationwide sales force, focusing on managed care and key referral sources, six centers of excellence aligned with specific product categories, and a nationwide network to optimize shipping distance and time.
In 2018, our new customer solution, Fusion5, began in earnest and was created to help healthcare providers succeed in the shift from fee-for-service to value based care. A principal area where Fusion5 is currently engaged is helping providers manage bundled payment episodes under the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement, or BPCI, Advanced program. Fusion5 incurred start-up operating costs during 2018 as the venture prepares to provide services to a portfolio of customers including Integrated Delivery Networks (IDNs), physician groups and individual practitioners in 2019 and beyond.
Global Products

Our Global Products segment manufactures and sources medical surgical products through our production and kitting operations. With the acquisition of our Halyard Surgical and Infection Prevention (“Halyard”) business, we have expanded to provide medical supplies and solutions for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections across the acute and alternate site channels.
We both manufacture and source our products. Our manufacturing facilities are located in the United States, Thailand, Honduras, Mexico and Ireland. Our business has recognized brands across its portfolio of product offerings, including sterilization wrap, surgical drapes and gowns, facial protection, protective apparel, medical exam gloves, custom and minor procedure kits and other medical products.
We use a wide variety of raw materials and other inputs in our production processes, with polypropylene polymers and nitrile constituting our most significant raw material purchases. We base our purchasing decisions on quality assurance, cost effectiveness and regulatory requirements, and we work closely with our suppliers to assure continuity of supply while maintaining high quality and reliability. We primarily purchase these materials from external suppliers, some of which are single-source suppliers. Global commodity prices can affect pricing of certain raw materials on which we rely. In our Halyard business, polypropylene polymers, which are oil based, and nitrile represent a significant component of our manufacturing costs. In addition, the prices of other raw materials we use, such as resins and finishing supplies, often fluctuate in response to changes in oil prices.
We support customer sales through a dedicated global sales force and direct our primary sales and marketing efforts toward hospitals and other healthcare providers to highlight the unique benefits and competitive differentiation of our products. We work directly with physicians, nurses, professional societies, hospital administrators and GPOs to collaborate and educate on emerging practices and clinical techniques that prevent infection and speed recovery. These marketing programs are delivered directly to healthcare providers. Additionally, we provide marketing programs to our strategic distribution partners

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throughout the world. We operate five major distribution centers located in North America, Europe, Australia and Japan that ship multiple finished products to multiple customers, as well as other distribution sites that also have customer shipping capabilities, in order to optimize cost and customer service requirements.
Our proprietary products are typically purchased pursuant to purchase orders or supply agreements in which the purchaser specifies whether such products are to be supplied through a distributor or directly. This segment may sell on an intercompany basis to our Global Solutions segment when we are the designated distributor, to other third-party distributors or directly to healthcare providers.
Our Customers
We currently provide products and services to thousands of healthcare provider customers either directly or indirectly through third-party distributors. These customers include multi-facility networks of healthcare providers offering a broad spectrum of healthcare services to a particular market or markets as well as smaller, independent hospitals in the United States. In addition to contracting with healthcare providers at the IDN level and through GPOs, we also contract with other types of healthcare providers including surgery centers, physicians’ practices and smaller networks of hospitals that have joined together to negotiate terms. We have contracts to provide distribution services to the members of a number of national GPOs, including Vizient, Premier, Inc. (Premier) and HealthTrust Purchasing Group (HPG). Below is a summary of these agreements:
GPO
 
Year of Renewal
 
Term
 
Sales to Members as a % of Consolidated Net Revenue in 2018
Vizient
 
2016
 
3 years
 
40%
Premier
 
2016
 
5 years
 
19%
HPG
 
2017
 
4 years
 
13%
We have our own independent relationships with most of our hospital customers through separate contractual commitments that may or may not be based upon the terms of our agreement with the GPO. As a result, the termination or expiration of an agreement with a particular GPO would not necessarily mean that we would lose the members of such GPO as our customers.
Our supplier and manufacturer customers represent the largest and most influential healthcare manufacturers in the industry. We have long-term relationships with these important companies in the healthcare supply chain and have long provided traditional distribution services to them. In the Global Solutions segment, sales of products supplied by Medtronic, Johnson & Johnson and Becton Dickinson accounted for approximately 10%, 7% and 7%, respectively of our consolidated net revenue for 2018. In addition, combined sales of products supplied by Medline Industries and Cardinal Health, both of which are also our competitors, accounted for approximately 11% of our consolidated net revenue for 2018.
In Europe, we serve a diverse customer base of approximately 500 manufacturer clients, including pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device manufacturers.
Asset Management
In our business, a significant investment in inventory and accounts receivable is required to meet the rapid delivery requirements of customers and provide high-quality service. As a result, efficient asset management is essential to our profitability. We continually work to refine our processes to optimize inventory and collect accounts receivable.
Inventory
We are focused in our efforts to optimize inventory and continually consolidate products and collaborate with suppliers on inventory productivity initiatives. When we convert large-scale, multi-state IDN customers to our distribution network, an additional investment in inventory in advance of expected sales is generally required. We actively monitor inventory for obsolescence and use inventory turnover and other operational metrics to measure our performance in managing inventory.
    





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Accounts Receivable
In the normal course of business, we provide credit to our customers and use credit management techniques to evaluate customers’ creditworthiness and facilitate collection. These techniques may include performing initial and ongoing credit evaluations of customers based primarily on financial information provided by them and from sources available to the general public. We also use third-party information from sources such as credit reporting agencies, banks and other credit references. We actively manage our accounts receivable to minimize credit risk, days sales outstanding (DSO) and accounts receivable carrying costs. Our ability to accurately invoice and ship product to customers enhances our collection results and affects our DSO performance. As we diversify our customer portfolio, the change in business mix also affects our DSO. We have arrangements with certain customers under which they make deposits on account, either because they do not meet our standards for creditworthiness or in order to obtain more favorable pricing.
Competition
The industries in which we operate are highly competitive. Global Solutions competitors include two major nationwide manufacturers who also provide distribution services, Cardinal Health, Inc. and privately-held Medline Industries, Inc. In addition, we compete with a number of regional and local distributors, companies that distribute products to patient's homes and customer self-distribution models. Major logistics competitors serving healthcare manufacturers in the United States and in Europe include United Parcel Service, FedEx Corporation, Deutsche Post DHL and Alloga, as well as local competitors in specific countries.
The major competitors of our Global Products business include Cardinal Health, Inc., Medline Industries, Inc., Hogy Medical, Multigate Medical Products, Mölnlycke Health Care and HARTMANN Group. In the United States, several of our distribution partners and GPOs are also competitors or are increasingly seeking to compete with us by direct sourcing their own products. In developing and emerging markets, we compete against reusable products, or low usage of infection prevention products, due in large part to limited awareness and education on infection prevention practices and products. The highly competitive environment requires us to seek out technological innovations and to market our products effectively. Our products face competition from other brands that may be less expensive than our products and from other companies that may have more resources than we do. Competitive factors include price, alternative clinical practices, innovation, quality and reputation. To successfully compete, we must demonstrate that our products offer higher quality, more innovative features or better value versus other products.
Research and Development
We continuously engage in research and development to commercialize new products and enhance the effectiveness, reliability and safety of our existing products. In our Global Products business, we are focused on maintaining our market position by providing innovative customer-preferred product enhancements, with a particular focus on the operating room. Leveraging customer insights and our vertically integrated manufacturing capabilities, we seek to continuously improve our product designs, specifications and features to deliver cost efficiencies while improving healthcare worker and patient protection. We continuously refresh our surgical drape and gown portfolio to ensure that our products are aligned with the latest medical and procedural standards. Our research team works with healthcare providers to develop and design exam glove and apparel portfolios that optimize comfort and fit and provide cost-effective infection prevention solutions for use throughout the hospital. We are also investing in new categories and solutions that complement our technical expertise and existing intellectual property. We are particularly focused on those new categories that we believe will leverage our existing scalable technology platforms as well as our sales and marketing expertise.
Intellectual Property
Patents, trademarks and other proprietary rights are very important to the growth of our business. We also rely upon trade secrets, manufacturing know-how, continuing technological innovations and licensing opportunities to maintain and improve our competitive position.
On a regular basis, we review third-party proprietary rights, including patents and patent applications, as available, in an effort to develop an effective intellectual property strategy, avoid infringement of third-party proprietary rights, identify licensing opportunities, and monitor the intellectual property owned by others.
We have approximately 990 patents and patent applications pending in the United States and other countries that relate to the technology used in many of our products. We utilize patents in our surgical and infection protection products and currently have over 100 issued patents in the U.S. and over 450 issued patents in countries outside the U.S. These patents generally expire between 2019 and 2035. We do not license any patents from third parties that are material to our business.
We also file patent applications for innovative product lines and solutions that result from our technical expertise. In order to protect our ongoing research & development investments, we have 65 pending patent applications in the U.S. and 325 pending patent applications in countries outside of the U.S.

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With respect to trademarks, we have approximately 1,000 trademarks and trademark applications pending in the United States and other countries that are used to designate or identify our company or products. We have over 100 U.S. registration trademarks and over 700 registered trademarks outside of the U.S.. We also have 28 pending trademark applications in the U.S. and 150 trademark applications filed outside of the U.S.
Since the Halyard acquisition, we have and will continue to distribute products bearing the well-known “Halyard” brand. Other well-known registered trademarks we use include Aero Blue, Quick Check, Smart-Fold, One Step, Purple, Purple Nitrile, and Purple Nitrile-Xtra.
We consider the patents and trademarks which we own and the trademarks under which we sell certain of our products, as a whole, to be material to our business. However, we do not consider our business to be materially dependent upon any individual patent or trademark.
Regulation
The development, manufacture, marketing, sale, promotion and distribution of our products, as well as the provision of logistics and services in the healthcare industry are subject to comprehensive regulation by federal, state and local government agencies. Government regulation by various national, regional, federal, state and local agencies, globally, addresses (among other matters) inspection of, and controls over, research and laboratory procedures, clinical investigations, product approvals and manufacturing, labeling, packaging, marketing and promotion, pricing and reimbursement, sampling, distribution, quality control, post-market surveillance, record keeping, storage and disposal practices.
Our operations are impacted by trade regulations in many countries that govern the import of raw materials and finished products, as well as laws and regulations data privacy laws (including the General Data Protection Regulation) that require safeguards for the protection of healthcare and other personal data. In addition, we are subject to laws and regulations that seek to prevent corruption and bribery in the marketplace (including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the United Kingdom Bribery Act, which provide guidance on corporate interactions with government officials) as well as laws and regulations pertaining to healthcare fraud and abuse, including state and federal anti-kickback and false claims laws in the United States.
We must also comply with laws and regulations, including those governing operations, storage, transportation, manufacturing, sales, safety and security standards for each of our manufacturing and distribution centers, of the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Drug Enforcement Agency, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Homeland Security, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and state boards of pharmacy, or similar state licensing boards and regulatory agencies.
Compliance with these laws and regulations is costly and materially affects our business. Among other effects, healthcare regulations substantially increase the time, difficulty and costs incurred in obtaining and maintaining approval to market newly developed and existing products. We believe we are in material compliance with all statutes and regulations applicable to our operations.
Our operations outside the U.S. are subject to local, country and European-wide regulations, including those promulgated by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Medical Devices Directive. In addition, quality requirements are imposed by healthcare industry manufacturers and pharmaceutical companies which audit our operations on a regular basis. Each of our manufacturing locations are licensed or registered with the appropriate local authority. In addition, our logistics centers are licensed to distribute medicinal, medical and surgical supplies, as well as certain pharmaceutical and related products, according to the country-specific requirements. Our logistics centers in Europe are able to store ambient, cold-chain or deep frozen products, are licensed to distribute narcotic and other pharmaceutical products included in clinical trials and are licensed for secondary packaging activities for medicinal products. Movianto, our European logistics business, is also ISO 9001:2015 certified across the entire enterprise and ISO 13485:2003 certified at certain facilities. We believe we are in material compliance with all applicable statutes and regulations, as well as prevailing industry best practices, in the conduct of our business operations outside of the United States.
Since we market our products worldwide, certain products of a local nature and variations of product lines must also meet other local regulatory requirements. Certain additional risks are inherent in conducting business outside the United States, including price and currency exchange controls, changes in currency exchange rates, limitations on participation in local enterprises, expropriation, nationalization, and other governmental action. Demand for many of our existing and new medical devices is, and will continue to be, affected by the extent to which government healthcare programs and private health insurers reimburse our customers for patients’ medical expenses in the countries where we do business. Statutory and regulatory requirements for Medicaid, Medicare, and other government healthcare programs govern provider reimbursement levels. From time to time, legislative changes are made to government healthcare programs that impact our business, and the federal and/or state governments may continue to enact measures in the future aimed at containing or reducing reimbursement levels for medical expenses paid for in whole or in part with government funds. We cannot predict the nature of such measures or their

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impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Any reduction in the amount of reimbursements received by our customers could harm our business by reducing their selection of our products and the prices they are willing to pay.
Compliance with these laws and regulations is costly and materially affects our business. Among other effects, healthcare regulations substantially increase the time, difficulty and costs incurred in obtaining and maintaining approval to market newly developed and existing products. We believe we are in material compliance with all statutes and regulations applicable to our operations.
Employees
At the end of 2018, we employed approximately 6,700 full- and part-time teammates in the U.S. and 11,200 outside of the U.S. Most of our teammates outside the U.S. are covered by collective bargaining agreements. We continue to have positive relationships with teammates and works councils.
Available Information
We make our Forms 10-K, Forms 10-Q and Forms 8-K (and all amendments to these reports) available free of charge through the SEC Filings link in the Investor Relations content section on our website located at www.owens-minor.com as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC. Information included on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
You may read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding the company (http://www.sec.gov).
Additionally, we have adopted a written Code of Honor that applies to all of our directors, officers and teammates, including our principal executive officer and senior financial officers. This Code of Honor (including any amendments to or waivers of a provision thereof) and our Corporate Governance Guidelines are available on our website at www.owens-minor.com.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Set forth below are certain risk factors that we currently believe could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These risk factors are in addition to those mentioned in other parts of this report and are not all of the risks that we face. We could also be affected by risks that we currently are not aware of or that we currently do not consider material to our business.
We face competition and accelerating pricing pressure.
The medical/surgical supply distribution industry in the United States is highly competitive and characterized by pricing pressure which accelerated in 2017 and continued into 2018 and put further margin pressure on our business. We expect this margin pressure to continue. We compete with other national distributors and a number of regional and local distributors, as well as customer self-distribution models and, to a lesser extent, certain third-party logistics companies. Competitive factors within the medical/surgical supply distribution industry include market pricing, total delivered product cost, product availability, the ability to fill and invoice orders accurately, delivery time, range of services provided, efficient product sourcing, inventory management, information technology, electronic commerce capabilities, and the ability to meet customer-specific requirements. Our success is dependent on the ability to compete on the above factors, while managing internal costs and expenses. These competitive pressures could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, in recent years, the healthcare industry in the United States has experienced and continues to experience significant consolidation in response to cost containment legislation and general market pressures to reduce costs. This consolidation of our customers and suppliers generally gives them greater bargaining power to reduce the pricing available to them, which may adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition.
The healthcare third-party logistics business in both the United States and Europe also is characterized by intense competition from a number of international, regional and local companies, including large conventional logistics companies and internet based non-traditional competitors that are moving into the healthcare and pharmaceutical distribution business. This competitive market places continuous pricing pressure on us from customers and manufacturers that could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition if we are unable to continue to retain and/or grow our revenues and to offset margin reductions caused by pricing pressures through cost control measures.

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We have significant concentration in and dependence on certain healthcare provider customers and Group Purchasing Organizations.
In 2018, our top ten customers in the United States represented approximately 23% of our consolidated net revenue. In addition, in 2018, approximately 72% of our consolidated net revenue was from sales to member hospitals under contract with our largest group purchasing organizations (GPO): Vizient, Premier and HPG. We could lose a significant healthcare provider customer or GPO relationship if an existing contract expires without being replaced or is terminated by the customer or GPO prior to its expiration. Although the termination of our relationship with a given GPO would not necessarily result in the loss of all of the member hospitals as customers, any such termination of a GPO relationship, or a significant individual healthcare provider customer relationship, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our operating income is dependent on certain significant domestic suppliers.
In the United States, we distribute products from nearly 1,400 suppliers and are dependent on these suppliers for the continuing supply of products. In 2018, sales of products of our ten largest domestic suppliers accounted for approximately 47% of consolidated net revenue. In the Global Solutions segment, sales of products supplied by Medtronic, Johnson & Johnson and Becton Dickinson accounted for approximately 10%, 7% and 7% of our consolidated net revenue for 2018, respectively. In addition, combined sales of products supplied by Medline Industries and Cardinal Health, both of which are also our competitors, accounted for approximately 11% of our consolidated net revenue for 2018. We rely on suppliers to provide agreeable purchasing and delivery terms and performance incentives. Our ability to sustain adequate operating income has been, and will continue to be, dependent upon our ability to obtain favorable terms and incentives from suppliers, as well as suppliers continuing use of third-party distributors to sell and deliver their products. A change in terms by a significant supplier, the decision of such a supplier to distribute its products directly to healthcare providers rather than through third-party distributors, or a key supplier’s failure to sell and deliver us products necessary to meet our customers’ demands could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our inability to adequately integrate acquisitions could have a material adverse effect on our operation.
In connection with our growth strategy, we from time to time acquire other businesses, including recently, the Halyard acquisition (Halyard) and Byram Healthcare (Byram), that we believe will expand or complement our existing businesses and operations. The integration of acquisitions involves a number of significant risks, which may include but are not limited to, the following:
Expenses and difficulties in the transition and integration of operations and systems;
Retention of current customers and the ability to obtain new customers;
The assimilation and retention of personnel, including management personnel, in the acquired businesses;
Accounting, tax, regulatory and compliance issues that could arise;
Difficulties in implementing uniform controls, procedures and policies in our acquired companies, or in remediating control deficiencies in acquired companies not formerly subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002;
Unanticipated expenses incurred or charges to earnings based on unknown circumstances or liabilities;
Failure to realize the synergies and other benefits we expect from the acquisition at the pace we anticipate;
General economic conditions in the markets in which the acquired businesses operate;
Difficulties encountered in conducting business in markets where we have limited experience and expertise;
Failure to fully integrate Information Technology;
Inadequate indemnification from the seller; and
Failure of the seller to perform under the transition services agreement.

If we are unable to successfully complete and integrate our strategic acquisitions in a timely manner, our business, growth strategies and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our global operations increase the extent of our exposure to the economic, political, currency and other risks of international operations.    
Our global operations involve issues and risks, including but not limited to the following, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations:
Lack of familiarity with and expertise in conducting business in foreign markets;
Foreign currency fluctuations and exchange risk;
Unexpected changes in foreign regulations or conditions relating to labor, the economic or political environment, and social norms or requirements;

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Adverse tax consequences and difficulties in repatriating cash generated or held abroad;
Local economic environments, such as in the European markets served by both the Global Solutions and Global Products business units, including recession, inflation, indebtedness, currency volatility and competition; and
Changes in trade protection laws and other laws affecting trade and investment, including import/export regulations in both the United States and foreign countries.

Our operations are also subject to risks of violation of laws that prohibit improper payments to and bribery of government officials and other individuals and organizations. These laws include the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and other similar laws and regulations in foreign jurisdictions, any violation of which could result in substantial liability and a loss of reputation in the marketplace. Failure to comply with these laws also could subject us to civil and criminal penalties that could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Changing conditions in the United States healthcare industry may impact our results of operations.
A large percentage of our revenue is derived in the United States. We, along with our customers and suppliers, are subject to extensive federal and state regulations relating to healthcare as well as the policies and practices of the private healthcare insurance industry. In recent years, there have been a number of government and private initiatives to reduce healthcare costs and government spending. These changes have included an increased reliance on managed care; reductions in Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement levels; consolidation of competitors, suppliers and customers; a shift in healthcare provider venues from acute care settings to clinics, physician offices and home care; and the development of larger, more sophisticated purchasing groups. All of these changes place additional financial pressure on healthcare provider customers, who in turn seek to reduce the costs and pricing of products and services provided by us. We expect the healthcare industry to continue to change significantly and these potential changes, which may include a reduction in government support of healthcare services, adverse changes in legislation or regulations, and further reductions in healthcare reimbursement practices, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to stringent regulatory and licensing requirements.
We are required to comply with extensive and complex laws and regulations at the federal, state and local government levels in the United States and other countries where we operate. We also are required to hold permits and licenses and to comply with the operational and security standards of various governmental bodies and agencies. Any failure to comply with these laws and regulations or any failure to maintain the necessary permits, licenses or approvals, or to comply with the required standards, could disrupt our operations and/or adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Among the healthcare related laws that we are subject to include the U.S. federal Anti-kickback Statute, the U.S. federal Stark Law, the False Claims Act and similar state laws relating to fraud, waste and abuse. The requirements of these laws are complex and subject to varying interpretations, and it is possible that regulatory authorities could challenge our policies and practices. If we fail to comply with these laws, we could be subject to federal or state government investigations or qui tam actions (false claims cases initiated by private parties purporting to act on behalf of federal or state governments), which could result in civil or criminal sanctions, including the loss of licenses or the ability to participate in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal and state healthcare programs. Such sanctions and damages could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Our Byram business is a Medicare-certified supplier and participates in state Medicaid programs. Failure to comply with applicable standards and regulations could result in civil or criminal sanctions, including the loss of our ability to participate in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal and state healthcare programs.
We collect, handle and maintain patient-identifiable health information and other sensitive personal and financial information, which are subject to federal, state and foreign laws that regulate the use and disclosure of such information. Regulations currently in place continue to evolve, and new laws in this area could further restrict our ability to collect, handle and maintain personal or patient information, or could require us to incur additional compliance costs, either of which could have an adverse impact on our results of operations. Violations of federal (such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended, or HIPAA), state or foreign laws (such as the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation, as amended, or GDPR) concerning privacy and data protection could subject us to civil or criminal penalties, breach of contract claims, costs for remediation and harm to our reputation.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service our debt and other obligations.
As of December 31, 2018, on a consolidated basis we had approximately $1.7 billion of aggregate principal amount of secured indebtedness as well as approximately $270 million in obligations under our leasing arrangements and $374.7 million of

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undrawn availability under our credit facilities. Our ratio of total debt to total shareholders’ equity as of December 31, 2018 was approximately 324%.
Our ability to make payments on our indebtedness and our other obligations will depend on our financial and operating performance, which is subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. We may be unable to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness.
If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, or to sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. We cannot assure you that we would be able to implement any of these alternatives on satisfactory terms or at all. In the absence of such operating results and resources, we could face substantial liquidity problems and may be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain the proceeds that we could realize from them, and these proceeds may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due.
If we are unable to service our debt obligations from cash flows, we may need to refinance all or a portion of our debt obligations prior to maturity. Our ability to refinance or restructure our debt will depend upon our financial condition or the condition of the capital markets at such time. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. We may not be able to refinance any of our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
We may not be able to refinance, extend or repay our substantial indebtedness which would have a material adverse affect on our financial condition.
Our 2021 Notes and our 2024 Notes become due and payable on September 2021 and December 2024, respectively. We anticipate that we will need to raise capital in order to repay the 2021 Notes and/or the 2024 Notes. As of December 31, 2018, we owed $275 million under our 2021 Notes and $275 million under our 2024 Notes. If we are unable to raise sufficient capital to repay these obligations at maturity and we are otherwise unable to extend the maturity dates or refinance these obligations, we would be in default. Additionally, our Credit Agreement has a “springing maturity date” with respect to the revolving loans and the term A loans and the term B loans thereunder, that, if as of the date 91 days prior to the maturity date of our 2021 Notes or the 2024 Notes, respectively, all outstanding amounts under the 2021 Notes and the 2024 Notes, respectively, have not been paid in full, then all amounts due with respect to the revolving loans, the term A loans and the term B loans will become due and payable on the maturity dates of the 2021 Notes and 2024 Notes, respectively. We cannot provide any assurances that we will be able to raise the necessary amount of capital to repay these obligations or that we will be able to extend the maturity dates or otherwise refinance these obligations. Upon a default, our lenders would have the right to exercise its rights and remedies to collect, which would include foreclosing on our assets. Accordingly, a default would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
Our Global Products segment is exposed to price fluctuations of key commodities, which may negatively impact our results of operations.
Our Global Products Segment relies on product inputs, such as polypropylene and nitrile, as well as other commodities, in the manufacture of its products. Prices of these commodities are volatile and have fluctuated significantly in recent years, which may contribute to fluctuations in our results of operations. The ability to hedge commodity prices is limited. Furthermore, due to competitive dynamics, we may be unable to pass along commodity-driven cost increases through higher prices. If we cannot fully offset cost increases through other cost reductions, or recover these costs through price increases or surcharges, we could experience lower margins and profitability which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our indebtedness service obligations to increase significantly.
Certain borrowings under our credit agreements bear interest at variable rates and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates were to increase, our debt service obligations on our variable rate indebtedness would increase even though the amount borrowed remained the same, and our earnings and cash flows will correspondingly decrease.

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Our credit facilities and our existing notes have restrictive covenants that could limit our financial flexibility.
The indentures that govern our existing notes and our credit facilities contain financial and other restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interests.
Our credit facilities and the indentures governing our existing notes include restrictions that, among other things, limit our ability to: incur indebtedness; grant liens; engage in mergers, consolidations and liquidations; make asset dispositions, restricted payments and investments; enter into transactions with affiliates; and amend, modify or prepay certain indebtedness. Under our credit facilities, we are subject to financial covenants that require us to maintain ratios for leverage and interest coverage, including on a pro forma basis in the event of an acquisition and limit our capital expenditures.
Our credit facilities also contain restrictions on the amount and timing of share repurchase activity.  This includes prohibiting share repurchases should a default under the Credit Agreement exist prior to or immediately after any share repurchases.
Our failure to comply with these restrictions or covenants could result in a default under the agreements governing the relevant indebtedness. If a default under the credit facilities and the indentures governing our existing notes is not cured or waived, such default could result in the acceleration of debt or other payment obligations under our debt or other agreements that contain cross-acceleration, cross-default or similar provisions, which could require us to repurchase or pay debt or other obligations prior to the date it is otherwise due.
Our ability to comply with covenants contained in the credit facilities and the indentures governing our existing notes and any other debt or other agreements to which we are or may become a party, may be affected by events beyond our control, including prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions. Even if we are able to comply with all of the applicable covenants, the restrictions on our ability to manage our business in our sole discretion could adversely affect our business by, among other things, limiting our ability to take advantage of financings, mergers, acquisitions and other corporate opportunities that we believe would be beneficial to us.

An interruption in the ability of the our business to manufacture products may have a material adverse effect on our business.
We manufacture the majority of our products in eight facilities, three in the United States, one each in Thailand, Ireland and Honduras and two in Mexico. If one or more of these facilities experience damage, or if these manufacturing capabilities are otherwise limited or stopped due to quality, regulatory or other reasons, including natural disasters, geopolitical events, prolonged power or equipment failures, labor disputes or unsuccessful imports/exports of products as well as supply chain transportation disruptions, it may not be possible to timely manufacture the relevant products at previous levels or at all. A reduction or interruption in any of these manufacturing processes could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
An inability to obtain key components, raw materials or manufactured products from third parties may have a material adverse effect on our Global Products segment.
Our Global Products segment depends on the availability of various components, raw materials and manufactured products supplied by others for its operations. If the capabilities of suppliers and third-party manufacturers are limited or stopped, due to quality, regulatory or other reasons, that could negatively impact our ability to manufacture or deliver our products and could lead to exposure to regulatory actions. Further, for quality assurance or cost effectiveness, we have purchased from sole suppliers certain components and raw materials such as polymers used in our products, and we expect to continue to purchase these components and raw materials from these sole suppliers. Although there are other sources in the market place for these items, we may not be able to quickly establish additional or replacement sources for certain components or materials due to regulations and requirements of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory authorities regarding the manufacture of our products. The loss of any sole supplier or any sustained supply interruption that affects the ability to manufacture or deliver our products in a timely or cost effective manner could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Compliance with the terms and conditions of Byram’s Corporate Integrity Agreement requires significant resources and, if we fail to comply, we could be subject to penalties or excluded from participation in government healthcare programs, which could seriously harm our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.


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Prior to its acquisition by Owens & Minor, Byram entered into a five-year Corporate Integrity Agreement beginning April 2016 with the Office of Inspector General of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (“OIG”). The Corporate Integrity Agreement provides that Byram shall, among other things, establish and maintain a compliance program, including a corporate compliance officer and committee, a code of conduct, comprehensive compliance policies and procedures, training and monitoring, a review process for certain arrangements between Byram and referral sources, a compliance hotline, an open door policy and a disciplinary process for compliance violations. The Corporate Integrity Agreement further provides that Byram shall provide periodic reports to the OIG, complete certain regular certifications and engage an Independent Review Organization to perform reviews of certain arrangements between Byram and referral sources.
Failing to meet the Corporate Integrity Agreement obligations could have material adverse consequences for Byram including monetary penalties for each instance of non-compliance. In addition, in the event of an uncured material breach or deliberate violation of the Corporate Integrity Agreement, we could be excluded from participation in federal healthcare programs, or other significant penalties, which could seriously harm our results of operations, liquidity and financial results.

We may incur product liability losses, litigation liability, product recalls, safety alerts or regulatory action associated with the products that we source, assemble, manufacture and sell which can be costly and disruptive to our business.
The risk of product liability claims is inherent in the design, assembly, manufacture and marketing of the medical products of the types we sell. A number of factors could result in an unsafe condition or injury to, or death of, a patient with respect to the products that we source, assemble, manufacture or sell, including physician technique and experience in performing the relevant surgical procedure, component failures, manufacturing flaws, design defects or inadequate disclosure of product-related risks or information.
In addition to product liability claims and litigation, an unsafe condition or injury to, or death of, a patient associated with our products could lead to a recall of, or issuance of a safety alert relating to, our products, or suspension or delay of regulatory product approvals or clearances, product seizures or detentions, governmental investigations, civil or criminal sanctions or injunctions to halt manufacturing and distribution of our products. Any one of these could result in significant costs and negative publicity resulting in reduced market acceptance and demand for our products and harm its reputation. In addition, a recall or injunction affecting our products could temporarily shut down production lines or place products on a shipping hold.
All of the foregoing types of legal proceedings and regulatory actions are inherently unpredictable and, regardless of the outcome, could disrupt our business, result in substantial costs or the diversion of management attention and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

We must obtain clearance or approval from the appropriate regulatory authorities prior to introducing a new product or a modification to an existing product. The regulatory clearance process may result in substantial costs, delays and limitations on the types and uses of products we can bring to market, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
In the United States, before we can market a new product, or a new use of, or claim for, or significant modification to, an existing product, we generally must first receive clearance or approval from the FDA and certain other regulatory authorities. Most major markets for medical products outside the United States also require clearance, approval or compliance with certain standards before a product can be commercially marketed. The process of obtaining regulatory clearances and approvals to market a medical product can be costly and time consuming, involve rigorous pre-clinical and clinical testing, require changes in products or result in limitations on the indicated uses of products. We cannot assure you that these clearances and approvals will be granted on a timely basis, or at all. In addition, once a medical product has been cleared or approved, a new clearance or approval may be required before it may be modified, its labeling changed or marketed for a different use. Medical products are cleared or approved for one or more specific intended uses and promoting a device for an off-label use could result in government enforcement action. Furthermore, a product approval or clearance can be withdrawn or limited due to unforeseen problems with the medical product or issues relating to its application. The regulatory clearance and approval process may result in, among other things, delayed, if at all, realization of product net sales, substantial additional costs and limitations on the types of products we may bring to market or their indicated uses, any one of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We may be unable to realize anticipated cost savings and efficiency and productivity gains or may incur additional and/or unexpected costs in order to realize them.

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In the first quarter of 2017, we unveiled our Rapid Business Transformation (RBT) process to reduce expenses, increase efficiency and productivity and add significant operating income (to replace lost margin). Throughout 2017 and 2018, the RBT process identified and implemented initiatives designed to drive better earnings and cash flow through efficiency and productivity gains, expense reduction and diversification of our business. We have transitioned away from using the term “RBT” and now have the initiatives directly managed by our business units and their respective operating plans. However, our expectations pertaining to cost savings and efficiency and productivity increases are inherently estimates that are difficult to predict and are necessarily speculative in nature, and we cannot assure you that we will achieve expected or any actual run-rate cost savings or efficiency and productivity gains. A variety of factors could cause us not to realize some or all of the expected cost savings, including, among others, macroeconomic conditions, regulatory changes, delays in the anticipated timing of activities related to our cost savings programs, lack of sustainability in cost savings over time, unexpected costs associated with operating our business and our ability to achieve the efficiencies contemplated by the cost savings initiative. We may be unable to realize all of these cost savings within the expected timeframe, or at all, and we may incur additional or unexpected costs in order to realize them.
These cost savings and efficiency and productivity gains are based upon a number of assumptions and estimates that are in turn based on our analysis of the various factors which currently, and could in the future, impact our business. These assumptions and estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to significant business, operational, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies. Certain of the assumptions relate to business decisions that are subject to change, including, among others, our anticipated business strategies, our marketing strategies, our product development and licensing strategies and our ability to anticipate and react to business trends. Other assumptions relate to risks and uncertainties beyond our control, including, among others, the economic environment in which we operate, healthcare regulation and other developments in our industry as well as capital markets conditions from time to time. The actual results of implementing the various cost savings and efficiency and productivity initiatives may differ materially from our estimates. Moreover, our continued efforts to implement these cost savings and efficiency and productivity initiatives may divert management attention from the rest of our business and may preclude us from seeking attractive opportunities, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business.

Our results of operations may suffer upon the bankruptcy, insolvency, or other credit failure of a customer that has a substantial amount owed to us.
We provide credit in the normal course of business to customers. We perform initial and ongoing credit evaluations of customers and maintain reserves for credit losses. The bankruptcy, insolvency or other credit failure of one or more customers with substantial balances due to us could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our investment in Fusion5 has not yet generated revenue and may continue to incur losses.
 
Fusion5 is a new enterprise with limited operating history. In 2018, Fusion5 began managing bundled payment episodes under the BCPI-A program. As of December 31, 2018, Fusion5 had not generated revenue and had incurred losses. Due to the nature of the BPCI-A program and Fusion5’s contracts with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and healthcare providers, the timing of payments to Fusion5 may differ from our expectations. Additionally, changes to the BPCI-A program by CMS with respect to payment timing could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

Our business and operations depend on the proper functioning of critical facilities and distribution networks.
Damage or disruption to our distribution capabilities due to weather, natural disaster, fire, terrorism, pandemic, strikes, the financial and/or operational instability of key suppliers, geo-political events or other reasons could impair our ability to distribute our products and conduct our business. To the extent that we are unable, or it is not financially feasible, to mitigate the likelihood or potential impact of such events, or to manage effectively such events if they occur, there could be a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our operations depend on the proper functioning of information systems, and our business could be adversely affected if we experience a cyber-attack or other systems breach.    
We rely on information systems to receive, process, analyze and manage data in distributing thousands of inventory products to customers from numerous distribution and logistics centers. These systems are also relied upon for billings to and collections from customers, as well as the purchase of and payment for inventory and related transactions from our suppliers. In addition, the success of our long-term growth strategy is dependent upon the ability to continually monitor and upgrade our information systems to provide better service to customers. Our business and results of operations may be materially adversely

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affected if systems are interrupted or damaged by unforeseen events (including cyber-attacks) or fail to operate for an extended period of time, or if we fail to appropriately enhance our systems to support growth and strategic initiatives.
In Europe, our distribution and logistics services include acting as the primary billing, order-to-cash and collections function for many of our customers. These services rely on the performance and upkeep of our information systems. If our information systems are interrupted, damaged or fail to operate, our customers could be negatively impacted which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
General economic conditions may adversely affect demand for our products and services.
Poor or deteriorating economic conditions in the United States and the other countries in which we conduct business could adversely affect the demand for healthcare services and consequently, the demand for our products and services. Poor economic conditions also could lead our suppliers to offer less favorable terms of purchase to distributors, which would negatively affect our profitability. These and other possible consequences of financial and economic decline could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We could be subject to adverse changes in the tax laws or challenges to our tax positions.    
We operate throughout the United States and other countries. As a result, we are subject to the tax laws and regulations of the United States federal, state and local governments and of various foreign jurisdictions. From time to time, legislative and regulatory initiatives are proposed, including but not limited to proposals to repeal LIFO (last-in, first-out) treatment of inventory in the United States or changes in tax accounting methods for inventory, import tariffs and taxes, or other tax items. These and other changes in tax laws and regulations could adversely affect our tax positions, tax rate or cash payments for taxes.
We operate within the European Union, including in the United Kingdom and therefore may be affected by the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union.

We operate within the European Union (the E.U.), including the United Kingdom (the U.K.). The U.K.’s anticipated exit from the E.U. (commonly referred to as Brexit) and the resulting significant change to the U.K.’s relationship with the E.U. and with countries outside the E.U. (and the laws, regulations and trade deals impacting business conducted between them) could disrupt the overall economic growth or stability of the U.K. and the E.U. and otherwise negatively impact our operations in Europe. The U.K. is currently negotiating the terms of Brexit, with the U.K. due to exit the E.U. on March 29, 2019. In November 2018, the U.K. and the E.U. agreed upon a draft Withdrawal Agreement that set out the terms governing the U.K.’s departure, including, among other things, a transition period to allow for a future trade deal to be agreed upon. As the draft Withdrawal Agreement was rejected by the U.K. Parliament on January 15, 2019, there is significant uncertainty about the terms and timing under which the U.K. will leave the E.U. It is possible that Brexit will result in our U.K. and E.U. operations becoming subject to materially different, and potentially conflicting, laws, regulations or tariffs which could require costly new compliance initiatives or changes to legal entity structures or operating practices. Furthermore, in the event the U.K. leaves the E.U. with no agreement (a hard Brexit), there may be additional adverse impacts on immigration and trade between the U.K. and the E.U. or countries outside the E.U. Such impacts could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations. The ultimate effects of Brexit on us will depend on the specific terms of any agreement the U.K. and the E.U. reach to provide access to each other’s respective markets.

Owens & Minor’s continued success is substantially dependent on positive perceptions of Owens & Minor’s reputation.

One of the reasons why customers choose to do business with us and why teammates choose us as a place of employment is the reputation that we have built over many years. To be successful in the future, the Company must continue to preserve, grow and leverage the value of our brand. Reputational value is based in large part on perceptions of subjective qualities. Even an isolated incident, or the aggregate effect of individually insignificant incidents, can erode trust and confidence, particularly if they result in adverse publicity, governmental investigations or litigation, and as a result, could tarnish our brand and lead to adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may experience competition from third-party online commerce sites.

Traditional distribution relationships are being challenged by online commerce solutions. Such competition will require us to cost-effectively adapt to changing technology, to continue to provide enhanced service offerings and to continue to differentiate our business (including with additional value-added services) to address demands of consumers and customers on a timely basis. The emergence of such competition and our inability to anticipate and effectively respond to changes on a timely basis could have a material adverse effect on our business.

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Audits by tax authorities could result in additional tax payments for prior periods, and tax legislation could materially adversely affect our financial results and tax liabilities.

The amount of income taxes we pay is subject to ongoing audits by U.S. federal, state and local tax authorities and by
non-U.S. tax authorities. If these audits result in assessments different from our reserves, our future results may include unfavorable adjustments to our tax liabilities.

We are subject to the tax laws and regulations of the U.S. federal, state and local governments, as well as foreign
jurisdictions. From time to time, various legislative initiatives may be proposed that could materially adversely affect our tax
positions. There can be no assurance that our effective tax rate will not be materially adversely affected by legislation resulting
from these initiatives. On December 22, 2017, U.S. government enacted legislation referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Tax Act), which significantly revises the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. We have recorded an amount of income tax to reflect the impact of the law change based on management’s interpretation of the new legislation. It continues to remain uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the newly enacted federal tax law.

In addition, tax laws and regulations are extremely complex and subject to varying interpretations. Although we believe that our historical tax positions are sound and consistent with applicable laws, regulations and existing precedent, they can be no assurance that our tax positions will not be challenged by relevant tax authorities or that we would be successful in any such challenge.

Recent significant changes to our executive leadership team and any future loss of members of such team, and the resulting management transitions might harm our future operating results.

We have recently experienced significant changes to our executive leadership team. In 2018, we replaced our Chief Executive Officer & President, our Chief Financial Officer and our Executive Vice President - North American Operations. These types of management changes have the potential to disrupt our operations due to the operational and administrative inefficiencies, added costs, increased likelihood of turnover, and the loss of personnel with deep institutional knowledge, which could result in significant disruptions to our operations. In addition, we must successfully integrate the new executive leadership team members within our organization in order to achieve our operating objectives, and changes in key leadership positions may temporarily affect our financial performance and results of operations as new leadership becomes familiar with our business.

Our goodwill may become impaired, which would require us to record a significant charge to earnings in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

U.S. GAAP requires us to test our goodwill for impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently if indicators for potential impairment exist. The testing required by GAAP involves estimates and judgments by management. Although we believe our assumptions and estimates are reasonable and appropriate, any changes in key assumptions, including a failure to meet business plans or other unanticipated events and circumstances such as a rise in interest rates, may affect the accuracy or validity of such estimates. As a result of interim impairment tests performed during 2018, we recorded an impairment loss related to goodwill of $423.1 million. We may be further required to record a significant charge to earnings in our consolidated financial statements during the period in which any impairment of our goodwill is determined, which charge could adversely affect our results of operations.

The market price for our common stock may be highly volatile.

The market price for our common stock may be highly volatile. A variety of factors may have a significant impact on the market price of our common stock, including, but not limited to:

the publication of earnings estimates or other research reports and speculation in the press or investment community;
changes in our industry and competitors;
changes in government or legislation;
our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and prospects;
stock repurchases;
activism by any single large shareholder or combination of shareholders;
any future issuances of our common stock, which may include primary offerings for cash, stock splits, issuances in connection with business acquisitions, issuances of restricted stock/units and the grant or exercise of stock options from time to time;
general market and economic conditions; and    

16


any outbreak or escalation of hostilities in areas where we do business.

In addition, the NYSE can experience extreme price and volume fluctuations that can be unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the companies listed on NYSE. Broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of actual operating performance. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies. This type of litigation, if instituted, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
Our Global Solutions segment operated 47 distribution centers as well as office and warehouse space across the United States as of December 31, 2018. We leased all of the centers from unaffiliated third parties with the exception of one location which we own. We also leased customer service centers as well as small offices for sales personnel across the United States. In addition, we leased space on a temporary basis from time to time to meet our inventory storage needs. Our European properties span 12 countries and included 19 logistics centers (17 leased and 2 owned) and seven transport depots (leased). We also leased office space in Ireland.
At December 31, 2018, our Global Products segment operated facilities located throughout the world that handle manufacturing production, assembly, research, quality assurance testing, distribution and packaging of our products. Our principal facilities include production (3 owned and 2 leased) in Mexico, United States, Thailand and Honduras, distribution (five leased) in the United States, Canada and India, and office space leased in Europe, North America, and Asia. We also operate two kitting facilities in the United States (one leased and one owned) and one in Europe (owned).
We own our corporate headquarters building, and adjacent acreage, in Mechanicsville, Virginia, a suburb of Richmond, Virginia. In addition, we lease our Client Engagement Center (CEC) in Richmond, Virginia designed to support standardization and enhanced service to customers.
We regularly assess our business needs and make changes to the capacity and location of distribution and logistics centers. We believe that our facilities are adequate to carry on our business as currently conducted. A number of leases are scheduled to terminate within the next several years. We believe that, if necessary, we could find facilities to replace these leased premises without suffering a material adverse effect on our business.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are subject to various legal actions that are ordinary and incidental to our business, including contract disputes, employment, workers’ compensation, product liability, regulatory and other matters. We establish reserves from time to time based upon periodic assessment of the potential outcomes of pending matters. In addition, we believe that any potential liability arising from employment, product liability, workers’ compensation and other personal injury litigation matters would be adequately covered by our insurance coverage, subject to policy limits, applicable deductibles and insurer solvency. While the outcome of legal actions cannot be predicted with certainty, we believe, based on current knowledge and the advice of counsel, that the outcome of these currently pending matters, individually or in the aggregate, will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.
Part II

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Owens & Minor, Inc.’s common stock trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol OMI. As of February 15, 2019, there were approximately 3,037 common shareholders of record. We believe there are an estimated additional 28,354 beneficial holders of our common stock. See Selected Quarterly Financial Information in Item 15 of this report for high and low closing sales prices of our common stock and quarterly cash dividends per common share and Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, for a discussion of our dividend payments.

17


5-Year Total Shareholder Return
The following performance graph compares the performance of our common stock to the Standard & Poor's Composite-500 Index (S&P 500 Index) and the Standard & Poor's Composite-500 Healthcare Index (S&P 500 Healthcare Index), an independently prepared index that includes more than 50 companies in the healthcare industry. This graph assumes that the value of the investment in the common stock and each index was $100 on December 31, 2013, and that all dividends were reinvested.

chart-f39a0ebfe3916e0a2a9.jpg
 
Base
Period
 
Years Ended
Company Name / Index
12/2013
 
12/2014
 
12/2015
 
12/2016
 
12/2017
 
12/2018
Owens & Minor, Inc.
$
100.00

 
$
98.9

 
$
104.3

 
$
105.2

 
$
58.5

 
$
20.8

S&P 500 Index
100.00

 
113.7

 
115.3

 
129.1

 
157.2

 
150.3

S&P 500 Healthcare
100.00

 
125.3

 
134.0

 
130.4

 
159.2

 
169.4

Share Repurchase Program. In October 2016, our Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $100 million of the company’s outstanding common stock to be executed at the discretion of management over a three-year period. The authorization took effect in December 2016 upon the completion of the previous authorization. The timing of repurchases and the exact number of shares of common stock to be purchased will depend upon market conditions and other factors and may be suspended or discontinued at any time. Purchases under the share repurchase program are made either pursuant to 10b5-1 plans entered into by the company from time to time and/or during the company’s scheduled quarterly trading windows for officers and directors. Our Credit Agreement contains restrictions on the amount and timing of share repurchase activity. This includes prohibiting share repurchases should a default under the Credit Agreement exist prior to or immediately after any share repurchases.
We did not repurchase any shares during the year ended December 31, 2018.

18


Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data
(in thousands, except ratios and per share data)
 
At or for the years ended December 31,
 
2018 (1)
 
2017 (2)
 
2016 (3)
 
2015 (4)
 
2014 (5)
 
Summary of Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net revenue
$
9,838,708

 
$
9,318,275

 
$
9,723,431

 
$
9,772,946

 
$
9,440,182

 
Net income (loss)
$
(437,012
)
 
$
72,793

 
$
108,787

 
$
103,409

 
$
66,503

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Per Common Share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) per share—basic and diluted
$
(7.28
)
 
$
1.20

 
$
1.76

 
$
1.65

 
$
1.06

 
Cash dividends
$
0.86

 
$
1.03

 
$
1.02

 
$
1.01

 
$
1.00

 
Stock price at year end
$
6.33

 
$
18.88

 
$
35.29

 
$
35.98

 
$
35.11

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Summary of Financial Position:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total assets
$
3,773,788

 
$
3,376,293

 
$
2,717,752

 
$
2,773,776

 
$
2,729,963

 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
103,367

 
$
104,522

 
$
185,488

 
$
161,020

 
$
56,772

 
Total debt
$
1,681,172

 
$
917,363

 
$
569,387

 
$
573,522

 
$
609,173

 
Total equity
$
518,419

 
$
1,015,479

 
$
960,038

 
$
992,590

 
$
990,838

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Selected Ratios:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gross margin as a percent of revenue
13.89
 %
 
12.58
%
 
12.21
%
 
12.43
%
 
12.39
%
 
Distribution, selling and administrative expenses as a percent of revenue
12.83
 %
 
10.91
%
 
9.98
%
 
10.17
%
 
10.42
%
 
Operating income (loss) as a percent of revenue
(3.99
)%
 
0.96
%
 
2.05
%
 
2.05
%
 
1.69
%
 
Days sales outstanding (DSO) (6)
28.5

 
28.7

 
23.1

 
21.0

 
22.1

 
Average annual inventory turnover (7)
7.4

 
8.5

 
9.2

 
9.4

 
10.1

 
(1) We incurred charges of $62.2 million ($49.1 million after tax, or $0.80 per diluted common share) associated with acquisition-related and exit and realignment activities in 2018, $3.5 million ($2.8 million after tax, or $0.04 per diluted common share) in software as a service implementation costs, $27.1 million ($21.4 million after tax, or $0.33 per common share) associated with fair value adjustments related to purchase accounting, and $439.6 million ($406.9 million after tax, or $6.81 per diluted common share) associated with goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges. See Notes 3, 8 and 9 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
(2) We incurred charges of $60.7 million ($38.5 million after tax, or $0.65 per diluted common share) associated with acquisition-related and exit and realignment activities in 2017 and $13.4 million ($9.6 million after tax, or $0.16 per diluted common share) in software as a service implementation costs. We also recognized a $3.4 million tax benefit ($0.06 per diluted share) associated with the release of an income tax valuation allowance and a $34.6 million ($0.58 per diluted common share) tax benefit associated with the estimated benefits under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. See Notes 3, 9 and 14 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
(3) We incurred charges of $24.7 million ($17.8 million after tax, or $0.29 per diluted common share) associated with acquisition-related and exit and realignment activities in 2016 . See Notes 3 and 9 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
(4) We incurred charges of $28.4 million ($23.4 million after tax, or $0.37 per diluted common share) associated with acquisition-related and exit and realignment activities in 2015. We also recognized a gain of $1.5 million ($1.5 million after tax, or $0.02 per diluted common share) associated with the partial recovery of a 2014 contract claim settlement.
(5) We incurred charges of $42.8 million ($35.3 million after tax, or $0.56 per common share) associated with acquisition-related and exit and realignment activities in 2014, a loss on estimated contract claim settlement of $3.9 million ($3.9 million after tax, or $0.06 per common share), a net gain of $3.7 million ($4.7 million after tax, or $0.07 per common share) associated with fair value adjustments related to purchase accounting, and a loss on early retirement of debt of $14.9 million ($9.1 million after tax or $0.14 per common share).

19


(6) Based on year end accounts receivable and net revenue for the fourth quarter of the year. Changes in DSO since December 31, 2017 are also affected by the 2018 Halyard acquisition.
(7) Based on average annual inventory and cost of goods sold for the respective year. Changes in shipping terms with certain of our suppliers have contributed to increased inventory and accounts payable and had an unfavorable impact on inventory turnover. Changes in inventory turnover since December 31, 2017 are also affected by the 2018 Halyard acquisition.

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is intended to assist the reader in the understanding and assessment of significant changes and trends related to the results of operations of the Company together with its subsidiaries. The discussion and analysis presented below refers to, and should be read in conjunction with, the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Overview
Owens & Minor, Inc., along with its subsidiaries, (we, us, or our) is a leading global healthcare solutions company. In 2018, we have made changes to the leadership team, organizational structure, budgeting and financial reporting processes which required changes to segment reporting. These changes align our operations into two distinct business units: Global Solutions and Global Products. Global Solutions (previously Domestic and International) is our U.S. and European distribution, logistics and value-added services business. Global Products (previously Proprietary Products) manufactures and sources medical surgical products through our production and kitting operations. Beginning with the quarter ended March 31, 2018, we now report financial results using this two segment structure and have recast prior year segment results on the same basis. Segment financial information is provided in Note 20 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report.
On April 30, 2018 (the Closing Date), we completed the acquisition of substantially all of Avanos Medical, Inc.'s (Avanos, previously Halyard Health, Inc.) Surgical and Infection Prevention business, the name “Halyard Health” (and all variations of that name and related intellectual property rights) and its information technology (IT) systems in exchange for $758 million, net of cash acquired. The Halyard business is a leading global provider of medical supplies and solutions for the prevention of healthcare associated infections across acute care and non-acute care markets. This business is reported as part of the Global Products segment.
We entered into transition services agreements with Avanos pursuant to which they and we will provide to each other various transitional services, including, but not limited to, facilities, product supply, financial and business services, procurement, human resources, research and development, regulatory affairs and quality assurance, sales and marketing, information technology and other support services. On the Closing Date, certain of our affiliates also entered into transitional distribution agreements with affiliates of Avanos under which the Avanos affiliates will serve as limited risk distributors for our international customer orders on a transitional basis. The services under the transition services agreements and distribution agreements generally commenced on the Closing Date and terminate within 18 months thereafter.

20


Financial Highlights.
The following table provides a reconciliation of reported operating income (loss), net income (loss) and diluted net income (loss) per common share to non-GAAP measures used by management:

For the years ended December 31,
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Operating income (loss), as reported (GAAP)
$
(392,174
)
 
$
89,251

 
$
199,599

Intangible amortization (1)
36,514

 
16,402

 
10,002

Goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges (2)
439,613

 

 

Acquisition-related and exit and realignment charges (3)
62,200

 
60,707

 
24,675

Fair value adjustments related to purchase accounting (4)
27,088

 

 

Other (5)
3,532

 
13,432

 

Operating income, adjusted (non-GAAP) (Adjusted Operated Income)
$
176,773

 
$
179,792

 
$
234,276

 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) as reported (GAAP)
$
(437,012
)
 
$
72,793

 
$
108,787

Intangible amortization (1)
36,514

 
16,402

 
10,002

Income tax expense (benefit) (6)
(7,677
)
 
(5,214
)
 
(2,592
)
Goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges (2)
439,613

 

 

Income tax expense (benefit) (6)
(32,729
)
 

 

Acquisition-related and exit and realignment charges (3)
62,200

 
60,707

 
24,675

Income tax expense (benefit) (6)
(13,079
)
 
(22,200
)
 
(6,835
)
Fair value adjustments related to purchase accounting (4)
27,088

 

 

Income tax expense (benefit) (6)
(5,696
)
 

 

Other (5)
3,532

 
13,432

 

Income tax expense (benefit) (6)
(743
)
 
(3,792
)
 

Tax adjustments (7)
(1,596
)
 
(34,591
)
 

Net income, adjusted (non-GAAP) (Adjusted Net Income)
$
70,415

 
$
97,537

 
$
134,037

 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) per diluted common share, as reported (GAAP)
$
(7.28
)
 
$
1.20

 
$
1.76

Intangible amortization (1)
0.47

 
0.18

 
0.12

Goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges (2)
6.81

 

 

Acquisition-related and exit and realignment charges (3)
0.80

 
0.65

 
0.29

Fair value adjustments related to purchase accounting (4)
0.33

 

 

Other (5)
0.04

 
0.16

 

Tax adjustments (7)
(0.02
)
 
(0.58
)
 

Net income per diluted common share, adjusted (non-GAAP) (Adjusted EPS)
$
1.15

 
$
1.61

 
$
2.17

Net income (loss) per diluted share was $(7.28) for the year ended December 31, 2018, a decline of $8.48 compared to 2017. Adjusted EPS (non-GAAP) was $1.15 for the year ended December 31, 2018, a decline of $0.46 over the prior year. Global Solutions segment operating income was $104.1 million for 2018, compared to $141.1 million for 2017. The declines were a result of a decline in distribution revenues, continued pressure on distribution margins, warehouse inefficiencies in certain of our facilities, increased expenses incurred for the development of new customer solutions, and higher severance and restricted stock expense which were partially offset by positive contributions from Byram Healthcare (acquired in August 2017). Global Products segment operating income was $75.7 million for 2018, compared to $38.5 million for 2017. The increase was a result of the contributions from Halyard (acquired in April 2018).

Use of Non-GAAP Measures
Adjusted Operating Income, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EPS are alternative views of performance used by management, and we believe that investors' understanding of our performance is enhanced by disclosing these performance

21


measures. In general, the measures exclude items and charges that (i) management does not believe reflect our core business and relate more to strategic, multi-year corporate activities; or (ii) relate to activities or actions that may have occurred over multiple or in prior periods without predictable trends. Management uses these non-GAAP financial measures internally to evaluate our performance, evaluate the balance sheet, engage in financial and operational planning and determine incentive compensation.
Management provides these non-GAAP financial measures to investors as supplemental metrics to assist readers in assessing the effects of items and events on our financial and operating results and in comparing our performance to that of our competitors. However, the non-GAAP financial measures used by us may be calculated differently from, and therefore may not be comparable to, similarly titled measures used by other companies.
The non-GAAP financial measures disclosed by us should not be considered a substitute for, or superior to, financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP, and the financial results calculated in accordance with GAAP and reconciliations to those financial statements set forth above should be carefully evaluated.
The following items have been excluded in our non-GAAP financial measures:
(1) Intangible amortization includes amortization of intangible assets established during purchase accounting for business combinations. These amounts are highly dependent on the size and frequency of acquisitions and are being excluded to allow for a more consistent comparison with forecasted, current and historical results and the results of our peers.
(2) Goodwill and intangible assets impairment charges were $423.1 million and $16.5 million, respectively. The charges resulted from our second and fourth quarter goodwill and intangible asset impairment testing performed as a result of a decline in market capitalization of the Company and lower than projected financial results of certain reporting units due to customer losses and operational inefficiencies, which have caused us to revise our expectations with regard to future performance.
(3) Acquisition-related charges, pre-tax, were $45.3 million in 2018, $17.3 million in 2017 and $1.2 million in 2016. Acquisition related expenses in 2018 consist primarily of transition and transaction costs for the Halyard acquisition. Expenses in 2017 consisted of transaction costs for the Byram and Halyard acquisitions. Charges in 2016 consisted of costs incurred to settle certain obligations and address other remaining matters associated with the acquisitions of ArcRoyal and Medical Action which were partially offset on a year-to-date basis by the first quarter gain on sale of property acquired with Medical Action.
Exit and realignment charges, pre-tax, were $16.9 million in 2018, $43.4 million in 2017, and $23.5 million in 2016. Amounts in 2018 and 2017 were associated with severance from reduction in force and other employee costs associated with the establishment of our client engagement centers, the writedown of information system assets which are no longer used and other IT restructuring charges. Additionally, expenses in 2017 were associated with the transition of our Rapid Business Transformation process. Charges in 2016 were associated with severance activities (including our voluntary employee separation program in the first quarter of 2016), and other costs associated with our strategic organizational realignment which include information technology asset write-offs, certain professional fees and costs to streamline administrative functions and processes in the United States and Europe. Further information regarding these items is included in Note 9 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
(4) 2018 includes an incremental charge to cost of goods sold from purchase accounting impacts related to the sale of acquired inventory that was written up to fair value in connection with the Halyard acquisition.
(5) Software as a Service (SaaS) implementation costs associated with significant global IT platforms in connection with the redesign of our global information system strategy.
(6) These charges have been tax effected in the preceding table by determining the income tax rate depending on the amount of charges incurred in different tax jurisdictions and the deductibility of those charges for income tax purposes
(7) Includes tax adjustments primarily associated with the benefits under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.
More information about these charges is provided in Notes 3, 9 and 14 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this annual report.

22


Results of Operations
2018 compared to 2017
Net revenue.
For the years ended December 31,
 
Change
(Dollars in thousands)
2018
 
2017
 
$
 
%
Global Solutions
$
9,188,066

 
$
9,186,018

 
$
2,048

 
%
Global Products
1,111,322

 
504,026

 
607,296

 
120.5
%
Inter-segment
(460,680
)
 
(371,769
)
 
(88,911
)
 
23.9
%
Net revenue
$
9,838,708

 
$
9,318,275

 
$
520,433

 
5.6
%
Consolidated net revenue increased primarily as a result of the acquisition of Byram in August 2017, which contributed revenue growth of $340.1 million to Global Solutions offset by reduced revenues from lost distribution customers, and the acquisition of Halyard on April 30, 2018, which contributed revenue of $663.6 million to Global Products. The changes from prior year also included a favorable impact from foreign currency translation of $19.7 million.
Cost of goods sold.
For the years ended December 31,
 
Change
(Dollars in thousands)
2018
 
2017
 
$
 
%
Cost of goods sold
$
8,471,745

 
$
8,146,409

 
$
325,336

 
4.0
%
Cost of goods sold includes the cost of the product (net of supplier incentives and cash discounts) and all costs incurred for shipments of products from manufacturers to our distribution centers for all customer arrangements where we are the primary obligor and bear risk of general and physical inventory loss. These are sometimes referred to as distribution or buy/sell contracts. Cost of goods sold also includes direct and certain indirect labor, material and overhead costs associated with our Global Products business. There is no cost of goods sold associated with our fee-for-service arrangements. Cost of goods sold compared to prior year reflects changes in sales activity, including sales mix within our products and solutions businesses.
Gross margin.
For the years ended December 31,
 
Change
(Dollars in thousands)
2018
 
2017
 
$
 
%
Gross margin
$
1,366,963

 
$
1,171,866

 
$
195,097

 
16.6
%
As a % of net revenue
13.89
%
 
12.58
%
 
 
 
 
Gross margin included positive contributions from Byram and Halyard, increased revenues for fee-for-service business, and favorable impact from foreign currency translation of $12.2 million; which were partially offset by lower distribution revenues and a decline in distribution margins. With ongoing customer cost pressures and competitive dynamics in healthcare, we expect margin pressure in our distribution business to continue.
We value distribution inventory held in the United States under the LIFO method. Had inventory been valued under the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method, gross margin as a percentage of net revenue would have been 28 basis points higher in 2018 and 4 basis points higher in 2017.
Operating expenses.
For the years ended December 31,
 
Change
(Dollars in thousands)
2018
 
2017
 
$
 
%
Distribution, selling & administrative expenses
$
1,261,748

 
$
1,016,978

 
$
244,770

 
24.1
 %
As a % of net revenue
12.83
%
 
10.91
%
 
 
 
 
Other operating (income) expense, net
$
(4,424
)
 
$
4,930

 
$
(9,354
)
 
(189.7
)%
Distribution, selling and administrative (DS&A) expenses include labor and warehousing costs associated with our distribution and logistics services and all costs associated with our fee-for-service arrangements. Shipping and handling costs

23


are primarily included in DS&A expenses and include costs to store, move, and prepare products for shipment, as well as costs to deliver products to customers.
Overall DS&A expenses compared to prior year reflected increased expenses related to Byram and Halyard, higher distribution warehouse and delivery expenses, and increased expenses incurred for the development of new customer solutions, as well as unfavorable foreign currency translation impacts of $12.1 million. The change in other operating (income) expense, net was attributed primarily to lower software as a service implementation expenses and higher foreign currency transaction gains compared to prior year.
A discussion of the goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges and acquisition-related and exit and realignment charges is included above in the Overview section.

Interest expense, net.
For the years ended December 31,
 
Change
(Dollars in thousands)
2018
 
2017
 
$
 
%
Interest expense, net
$
77,021

 
$
31,773

 
$
45,248

 
142.4
%
Effective interest rate
5.30
%
 
4.34
%
 
 
 
 

Interest expense was higher than prior year as a result of borrowings under our revolving credit facility and new term loans in connection with the Halyard Acquisition. See Note 10 in Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Income taxes.
For the years ended December 31,
 
Change
(Dollars in thousands)
2018
 
2017
 
$
 
%
Income tax (benefit) provision
$
(32,183
)
 
$
(15,315
)
 
$
(16,868
)
 
(110.1
)%
Effective tax rate
6.9
%
 
(26.6
)%
 
 
 
 
    

The change in the effective tax rate resulted primarily from goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges in 2018 which were mostly not deductible for income tax purposes and an income tax benefit in 2017 of $35 million associated with the estimated benefits under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act which did not reoccur in 2018.
2017 compared to 2016
Net revenue.
For the years ended December 31,
 
Change
(Dollars in thousands)
2017
 
2016
 
$
 
%
Global Solutions
$
9,186,018

 
$
9,535,248

 
$
(349,230
)
 
(3.7
)%
Global Products
504,026

 
539,580

 
(35,554
)
 
(6.6
)%
Inter-segment
(371,769
)
 
(351,397
)
 
(20,372
)
 
5.8
 %
Net revenue
$
9,318,275

 
$
9,723,431

 
$
(405,156
)
 
(4.2
)%
Consolidated net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2017,was affected primarily by the exit of a large domestic customer in 2016, lower growth with existing domestic customers and an unfavorable foreign currency translation impact of $4.0 million for the year. Byram contributed $209 million in revenue to the Global Solutions segment in 2017. A decrease in sales of our sourced products primarily contributed to the year over year change in the Global Products segment.
Cost of goods sold.
For the years ended December 31,
 
Change
(Dollars in thousands)
2017
 
2016
 
$
 
%
Cost of goods sold
$
8,146,409

 
$
8,536,121

 
$
(389,712
)
 
(4.6
)%
Cost of goods sold includes the cost of the product (net of supplier incentives and cash discounts) and all costs incurred for shipments of products from manufacturers to our distribution centers for all customer arrangements where we are

24


the primary obligor and bear risk of general and physical inventory loss. These are sometimes referred to as distribution or buy/sell arrangements. Cost of goods sold also includes direct and certain indirect labor, material and overhead costs associated with our Global Products business. There is no cost of goods sold associated with our fee-for-service arrangements. As a result of the decrease in sales activity through our distribution business, partially offset by the impact from Byram, cost of goods sold decreased from prior year by $389.7 million for the year.
Gross margin.
For the years ended December 31,
 
Change
(Dollars in thousands)
2017
 
2016
 
$
 
%
Gross margin
$
1,171,866

 
$
1,187,310

 
$
(15,444
)
 
(1.3
)%
As a % of net revenue
12.58
%
 
12.21
%
 
 
 
 
Gross margin for 2017 included positive contribution from Byram offset by the impact of overall lower revenues, a decline in provider margin and lower income from manufacturer product price changes compared to prior year. Excluding Byram, gross margin as a percentage of net revenue was 12.11% for 2017. With increasing customer cost pressures and competitive dynamics in healthcare, we believe the current trend of increased gross margin pressure will continue.
We value distribution inventory held in the United States under the LIFO method. Had inventory been valued under the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method, gross margin as a percentage of net revenue would have been 4 basis point higher in 2017 and 1 basis point lower in 2016.
Operating expenses.
For the years ended December 31,
 
Change
(Dollars in thousands)
2017
 
2016
 
$
 
%
Distribution, selling & administrative expenses
$
1,016,978

 
$
970,424

 
$
46,554

 
4.8
%
As a % of net revenue
10.91
%
 
9.98
%
 
 
 
 
Other operating (income) expense, net
$
4,930

 
$
(7,388
)
 
$
12,318

 
166.7
%
Distribution, selling and administrative (DS&A) expenses include labor and warehousing costs associated with our distribution and logistics services and all costs associated with our fee-for-service arrangements. Shipping and handling costs are primarily included in DS&A expenses and include costs to store, move, and prepare products for shipment, as well as costs to deliver products to customers.

Excluding Byram, DS&A as a percentage of revenue was 10.53% for the year ended December 31, 2017. Overall expenses reflected decreased sales activity in 2017 and benefits of cost control and productivity initiatives. These were offset in part by increased costs to support new business. As a percentage of net revenue, the increase related to the large customer loss in 2016.

The change in other operating (income) expense, net was attributed primarily to software as a service implementation expenses which were not incurred in 2016.
A discussion of the acquisition-related and exit and realignment charges is included above in the Overview section.
Interest expense, net.
For the years ended December 31,
 
Change
(Dollars in thousands)
2017
 
2016
 
$
 
%
Interest expense, net
$
31,773

 
$
27,057

 
$
4,716

 
17.4
%
Effective interest rate
4.34
%
 
4.93
%
 
 
 
 
The increase in interest expense and change in effective interest rate for the year were a result of the borrowings under our new Credit Agreement entered in July 2017.

25


Income taxes.
For the years ended December 31,
 
Change
(Dollars in thousands)
2017
 
2016
 
$
 
%
Income tax (benefit) provision
$
(15,315
)
 
$
63,755

 
$
(79,070
)
 
(124.0
)%
Effective tax rate
(26.6
)%
 
37.0
%
 
 
 
 
The change in the effective tax rate compared to 2016 resulted from the release of a $3.4 million income tax valuation allowance in Europe and an income tax benefit of $35 million associated with the estimated benefits under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. This benefit reflects the revaluation of our net deferred tax liability based on a U.S. federal tax rate of 21 percent, partially offset by a one-time transition tax on our unremitted foreign earnings and profits. Excluding the effect of tax reform and the release of the valuation allowance, the effective tax rate was 39.5% for 2017.
Financial Condition, Liquidity and Capital Resources
Financial condition. We monitor operating working capital through days sales outstanding (DSO) and merchandise inventory turnover. We estimate a hypothetical increase (decrease) in DSO of one day would result in a decrease (increase) in our cash balances, an increase (decrease) in borrowings against our revolving credit facility, or a combination thereof of approximately $27 million.
The majority of our cash and cash equivalents are held in cash depository accounts with major banks in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Changes in our working capital can vary in the normal course of business based upon the timing of inventory purchases, collection of accounts receivable, and payment to suppliers. Changes in shipping terms with certain of our suppliers have contributed to increased inventory and accounts payable and had an unfavorable impact on inventory turnover. Changes in DSO and inventory turnover since December 31, 2017 are also affected by the 2018 Halyard acquisition.
 
December 31,
 
Change
(Dollars in thousands)
2018
 
2017
 
$
 
%
Cash and cash equivalents
$
103,367

 
$
104,522

 
$
(1,155
)
 
(1.1
)%
Accounts receivable, net
$
823,418

 
$
758,936

 
$
64,482

 
8.5
 %
Days sales outstanding (1)
28.5

 
28.7

 
 
 
 
Merchandise inventories
$
1,290,103

 
$
990,193

 
$
299,910

 
30.3
 %
Inventory turnover (2)
7.4

 
8.5

 
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
1,109,589

 
$
947,572

 
$
162,017

 
17.1
 %
(1) Based on year end accounts receivable and net revenue for the fourth quarter
(2) Based on average annual inventory and costs of goods sold for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017
Liquidity and capital expenditures. The following table summarizes our consolidated statements of cash flows:
 
For the years ended December 31,
(Dollars in thousands)
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net cash provided by (used for):
 
 
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
115,589

 
$
56,774

 
$
187,695

Investing activities
(815,829
)
 
(416,643
)
 
(24,746
)
Financing activities
701,071

 
272,806

 
(142,704
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
(1,986
)
 
6,097

 
4,223

Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
$
(1,155
)
 
$
(80,966
)
 
$
24,468

Cash provided by (used for) operating activities in 2018, 2017 and 2016 reflected fluctuations in net income along with changes in working capital.

26


Cash used for investing activities in 2018, 2017 and 2016 included capital expenditures of $65.7 million, $50.7 million and $30.1 million for our strategic and operational efficiency initiatives, particularly initiatives relating to information technology enhancements and optimizing our distribution network. Cash used for investing activities in 2018 included cash paid for the acquisition of Halyard of $758 million and in 2017 included cash paid for the acquisition of Byram Healthcare of $367 million. Cash used for investing activities in 2016 was partially offset by $5.4 million in proceeds from the sale of property.
Cash used in financing activities included dividend payments of $48.2 million, $63.2 million and $63.4 million and repurchases of common stock under our share repurchase programs for $5.0 million and $71.0 million in the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016. In 2018 and 2017, cash provided by financing activities included proceeds from borrowings of $801.3 million and $354.6 million under our Credit Agreement. Financing activities in 2018 and 2017 also included the repayment of $16.3 million and $3.1 million in borrowings on our Credit Agreement.
Capital resources. Our sources of liquidity include cash and cash equivalents and a revolving credit facility under our Credit Agreement with Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., Bank of America, N.A. and a syndicate of financial institutions (the Credit Agreement). In connection with the Halyard acquisition, we amended our Credit Agreement to include, among others things, an additional $195.8 million Term A-2 loan and $500 million Term B loan. The revolving credit facility and Term A loans mature in July 2022 and the Term B loan matures in October 2025. Our Credit Agreement now includes collateral for the benefit of the Secured Parties (as defined), first priority liens and security interests in (a) all present and future shares of capital stock owned by the Credit Parties (as defined) in the Credit Parties’ present and future subsidiaries (limited, in the case of controlled foreign corporations, to a pledge of 65% of the voting capital stock of each first-tier foreign subsidiary of each Credit Party) and (b) all present and future personal property and assets of the Credit Parties, subject to certain exceptions. Our Credit Agreement has a “springing maturity date” with respect to the revolving loans and the term A loans and the term B loans, if as of the date that is 91 days prior to the maturity date of the Company’s 2021 Notes or the 2024 Notes, respectively, all outstanding amounts owing under the 2021 Notes or the 2024 Notes, respectively, have not been paid in full then the Termination Date (as defined in the Credit Agreement) of the revolving loans, term A loans and term B loans shall be the date that is 91 days prior to the maturity date of the 2021 Notes.
We make principal payments under the term loans on a quarterly basis with the remaining outstanding principal due upon maturity. The interest rate on our revolving credit facility and Term A loans, which is subject to adjustment quarterly, is based on the Eurocurrency Rate, the Federal Funds Rate or the Prime Rate, plus an adjustment based on the better of our credit ratings or debt to EBITDA ratio as defined by the Credit Agreement. Our Term B loan pays interest based on the Eurocurrency Rate, the Federal Funds Rate or the Prime Rate, plus an interest rate margin of 3.50% per annum with respect to Base Rate Loans (as defined in the Credit Agreement), and 4.50% per annum with respect to Eurocurrency Rate Loans (as defined in the Credit Agreement). We are charged a commitment fee of between 12.5 and 25.0 basis points on the unused portion of the facility. The terms of the Credit Agreement limit the amount of indebtedness that we may incur and require us to maintain ratios for leverage and interest coverage, including on a pro forma basis in the event of an acquisition. Based on our Credit Spread, the interest rate under the credit facility at December 31, 2018 is Eurocurrency Rate plus 2.00%.
On February 12, 2019, we entered into a Fourth Amendment to the Credit Agreement, dated as of July 27, 2017. The Fourth Amendment implements certain principal changes to the Credit Agreement, including reduction of the revolving loan facility to $400 million (from $600 million); amendment to the leverage and interest coverage financial covenants (through the maturity date of the Credit Agreement) and the definition of EBITDA; addition of an anti-cash hoarding covenant; amendments to certain negative covenants, including a reduction of certain baskets for restricted payments, prepayments of junior debt, asset sales, investments and capital expenditures; and removal of the incremental facility.

In connection with the Fourth Amendment, we amended our our Security Agreement to include additional Joining Subsidiaries (as defined) providing collateral for the benefit of the Secured Parties (as defined) and holders of our 2021 and 2024 Notes. Also in connection with the Fourth Amendment, we entered into a Fourth Supplemental Indenture pursuant to which the Joining Subsidiaries became guarantors of the Company’s obligations under the 2021 and 2024 Notes.
We have $275 million of 3.875% senior notes due 2021 (the “2021 Notes”) and $275 million of 4.375% senior notes due 2024 (the “2024 Notes”). The 2021 Notes were sold at 99.5% of the principal amount with an effective yield of 3.951%. The 2024 Notes were sold at 99.6% of the principal amount with an effective yield of 4.422%. Interest on the 2021 Notes and 2024 Notes is payable semiannually in arrears, which commenced on March 15, 2015 and December 15, 2014, respectively. We have the option to redeem the 2021 Notes and 2024 Notes in part or in whole prior to maturity at a redemption price equal to the greater of 100% of the principal amount or the present value of the remaining scheduled payments discounted at the Treasury Rate plus 30 basis points.

27


We paid cash dividends on our outstanding common stock at the rate of $0.26 per share for the first three quarters of 2018. The fourth quarter dividend of $0.075 was accrued at December 31, 2018 and paid in January 2019. Quarterly dividends paid in 2017 were $0.2575 per share and were $0.255 per share during 2016. In February 2019, the Board of Directors approved the first quarter dividend of $0.0025 per common share. The payment of future dividends remains within the discretion of the Board of Directors and will depend upon our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements, current and future limitations under our Credit Agreement (as amended) and other factors.
In October 2016, the Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $100 million of our outstanding common stock to be executed at the discretion of management over a three-year period, expiring in December 2019. The program is intended to offset shares issued in conjunction with our stock incentive plan and return capital to shareholders, and may be suspended or discontinued at any time. However, our Credit Agreement contains restrictions on the amount and timing of share repurchase activity. This includes prohibiting share repurchases should a default under the Credit Agreement exist prior to or immediately after any share repurchases. We did not repurchase any shares during 2018. At December 31, 2018, the remaining amount authorized for repurchase under this program was $94.0 million.
We believe available financing sources, including cash generated by operating activities and borrowings under the Credit Agreement (as amended), will be sufficient to fund our working capital needs, capital expenditures, long-term strategic growth, payments under long-term debt and lease arrangements, payments of quarterly cash dividends, share repurchases and other cash requirements. While we believe that we will have the ability to meet our financing needs in the foreseeable future, changes in economic conditions may impact (i) the ability of financial institutions to meet their contractual commitments to us, (ii) the ability of our customers and suppliers to meet their obligations to us or (iii) our cost of borrowing.
We earn a portion of our operating income in foreign jurisdictions outside the United States. Prior to the reporting period in which the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the Act) was enacted we considered foreign earnings to be indefinitely reinvested and provided no United States federal and state taxes or withholding taxes on those earnings. Our cash and cash equivalents held by our foreign subsidiaries totaled $64.9 million and $79.1 million at December 31, 2018 and 2017. Upon enactment, the Act imposes a tax on our total post-1986 foreign earnings at various tax rates. The Company has recognized an amount for this one-time transition tax. The Company continues to remain permanently reinvested in its foreign subsidiaries, with the exception of our newly acquired subsidiary in Thailand. No additional income taxes have been provided for any remaining undistributed foreign earnings not subject to the transition tax, or any additional outside basis difference inherent in these entities in which we assert permanent reinvestment. Management has no specific plans to indefinitely reinvest the unremitted earnings of our newly acquired foreign subsidiary located in Thailand as of December 31, 2018. As such, we have recorded withholding tax liabilities that would be incurred upon future distribution to the U.S. There are no unrecognized deferred taxes as there is no outside basis difference unrelated to unremitted earnings for Thailand. The Company will continue to evaluate its foreign earnings repatriation policy in 2019 for all other foreign subsidiaries in which we operate.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We do not have guarantees or other off-balance sheet financing arrangements, including variable interest entities, which we believe could have a material impact on financial condition or liquidity.
Contractual Obligations
The following is a summary of our significant contractual obligations as of December 31, 2018:
(Dollars in thousands)
Payments due by period
Contractual obligations
Total
 
Less than 1
year
 
1-3 years
 
4-5 years
 
After 5
years
Long-term debt (1)
$
2,102,428

 
$
105,029

 
$
504,834

 
$
678,535

 
$
814,030

Purchase obligations (2)
141,762

 
49,388

 
79,832

 
9,718

 
2,824

Operating leases (2)
251,748

 
64,082

 
95,618

 
46,340

 
45,708

Capital lease obligations (1)
25,479

 
5,735

 
5,744

 
4,003

 
9,997

Unrecognized tax benefits, net (3)
9,568

 

 

 

 

Other long-term liabilities (4)
74,670

 
3,478

 
7,061

 
6,926

 
57,205

Total contractual obligations
$
2,605,655

 
$
227,712

 
$
693,089

 
$
745,522

 
$
929,764

(1) See Note 10 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Debt is assumed to be held to maturity with interest paid at the stated rate in effect at December 31, 2018.
(2) See Note 18 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

28


(3) We cannot reasonably estimate the timing of cash settlement for the liability associated with unrecognized tax benefits.
(4) Other long-term liabilities include estimated minimum required payments for our unfunded retirement plan for certain officers and retirees. See Note 12 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Certain long-term liabilities, including deferred tax liabilities and post-retirement benefit obligations, are excluded as we cannot reasonably estimate the timing of payments for these items.
Critical Accounting Policies
Our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The preparation of the financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts and related disclosures. We continually evaluate the accounting policies and estimates used to prepare the financial statements.
Critical accounting policies are defined as those policies that relate to estimates that require us to make assumptions about matters that are highly uncertain at the time the estimate is made and could have a material impact on our results due to changes in the estimate or the use of different assumptions that could reasonably have been used. Our estimates are generally based on historical experience and various other assumptions that are judged to be reasonable in light of the relevant facts and circumstances. Because of the uncertainty inherent in such estimates, actual results may differ. We believe our critical accounting policies and estimates include allowances for losses on accounts receivable, inventory valuation, accounting for goodwill and long-lived assets, self-insurance liabilities, supplier incentives, and business combinations.
Allowances for losses on accounts receivable. We maintain valuation allowances based upon the expected collectability of accounts and notes receivable. The allowances include specific amounts for accounts that are likely to be uncollectible, such as customer bankruptcies and disputed amounts, and general allowances for accounts that may become uncollectible. These allowances are estimated based on a number of factors, including industry trends, current economic conditions, creditworthiness of customers, age of the receivables, changes in customer payment patterns, and historical experience. At December 31, 2018, accounts receivable were $823.4 million, net of allowances of $19.6 million. An unexpected bankruptcy or other adverse change in the financial condition of a customer could result in increases in these allowances, which could have a material adverse effect on the results of operations.
Inventory valuation. Merchandise inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market, with cost determined using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method for distribution inventories in the U.S. and the first-in, first-out (FIFO) or weighted average cost method for all other inventories. An actual valuation of inventory under the LIFO method is made only at the end of the year based on the inventory levels and costs at that time. LIFO calculations are required for interim reporting purposes and are based on estimates of the expected mix of products in year-end inventory. In addition, inventory valuation includes estimates of allowances for obsolescence and variances between actual inventory on-hand and perpetual inventory records that can arise throughout the year. These estimates are based on factors such as the age of inventory and historical trends. At December 31, 2018, the carrying value of inventory was $1.29 billion, which is $146.5 million lower than the value of inventory had it all been accounted for on a FIFO basis.
Goodwill and long-lived assets. Goodwill represents the excess of consideration paid over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired. Long-lived assets, which are a component of identifiable net assets, include intangible assets with finite useful lives, property and equipment, and computer software costs. Intangible assets with finite useful lives consist primarily of customer relationships, tradenames, and other intangibles acquired through business combinations. Certain assumptions and estimates are employed in determining the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired.
We evaluate goodwill for impairment annually, as of October 1, and whenever events occur or changes in circumstance indicate that the carrying amount of goodwill may not be recoverable. Qualitative factors are first assessed to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value does not exceed the carrying amount, then a quantitative test is performed. The quantitative goodwill impairment test uses valuation techniques to determine fair value, including comparable multiples of reporting unit's earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) and discounted cash flows. The EBITDA multiples are based on an analysis of current enterprise valuations and recent acquisition prices of similar companies, if available. Goodwill totaled $414.1 million at December 31, 2018.

29


Long-lived assets, which exclude goodwill, are evaluated for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of long-lived assets may not be recoverable. We assess long-lived assets for potential impairment by comparing the carrying value of an asset, or group of related assets, to its estimated undiscounted future cash flows. At December 31, 2018, long-lived assets included property and equipment of $386.7 million, net of accumulated depreciation; intangible assets of $321.8 million, net of accumulated amortization; and computer software costs of $67.5 million, net of accumulated amortization.
We recorded $440 million in impairment losses related to goodwill and long-lived assets in 2018. The impairment review of goodwill and long-lived assets requires the extensive use of accounting judgment, estimates and assumptions. The application of alternative assumptions or inability to meet certain financial projections, could produce materially different results.
Self-insurance liabilities. We are self-insured for most employee healthcare, workers’ compensation and automobile liability costs; however, we maintain insurance for individual losses exceeding certain limits. Liabilities are estimated for healthcare costs using current and historical claims data. Liabilities for workers’ compensation and automobile liability claims are estimated using historical claims data and loss development factors. If the underlying facts and circumstances of existing claims change or historical trends are not indicative of future trends, then we may be required to record additional expense that could have a material effect on the results of operations. Self-insurance liabilities recorded in our consolidated balance sheets for employee healthcare, workers’ compensation and automobile liability costs totaled $14.2 million at December 31, 2018 and $13.5 million at December 31, 2017.
Supplier incentives. We have contractual arrangements with certain suppliers that provide incentives, including operational efficiency and performance-based incentives, on a monthly, quarterly or annual basis. These incentives are recognized as a reduction in cost of goods sold as targets become probable of achievement. Supplier incentives receivable are recorded for interim and annual reporting purposes and are based on our estimate of the amounts which are expected to be realized. If we do not achieve required targets under certain programs as estimated, it could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Business Combinations. We allocate the fair value of purchase consideration to the tangible assets acquired, liabilities assumed and intangible assets acquired based on their estimated fair values. The excess of the fair value of purchase consideration over the fair values of these identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. When determining the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, management makes significant estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets.
Critical estimates in valuing certain intangible assets include but are not limited to future expected cash flows from customer relationships and discount rates. Our estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, but which are inherently uncertain and unpredictable and, as a result, actual results may differ from estimates.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
For a discussion of recent accounting pronouncements, see Note 1 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
We are exposed to market risk from changes in interest rates related to our borrowing under our Credit Agreement. However, we enter into interest rate swap agreements to manage our exposure to interest rate changes. We had $926 million in borrowings under our term loans, $210 million in borrowings under our revolving credit facility and $15 million in letters of credit under the Credit Agreement at December 31, 2018. After considering the effects of interest rate swap agreements entered into during July 2018, we estimate an increase in interest rates of 100 basis points would result in a potential reduction in future pre-tax earnings of approximately $7 million per year based on our borrowings outstanding and the effective interest rates at December 31, 2018.
Due to the nature and pricing of our Global Solutions segment distribution services, we are exposed to potential volatility in fuel prices. Our strategies for helping to mitigate our exposure to changing domestic fuel prices has included using trucks with improved fuel efficiency. We benchmark our domestic diesel fuel purchase prices against the U.S. Weekly Retail On-Highway Diesel Prices (benchmark) as quoted by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The benchmark averaged $3.18 per gallon for 2018, an increase from $2.66 per gallon in 2017. Based on our fuel consumption in 2018, we estimate that every 10 cents per gallon increase in the benchmark would reduce our Global Solutions segment operating income by approximately $0.3 million on an annualized basis.
In the normal course of business, we are exposed to foreign currency translation and transaction risks. Our business transactions outside of the United States are primarily denominated in the Euro, British Pound and Thai Baht. We may use

30


foreign currency forwards, swaps and options, where possible, to manage our risk related to certain foreign currency fluctuations.
We are subject to price risk for our raw materials, the most significant of which relates to the cost of polypropylene and nitrile used in the manufacturing processes of our Global Products segment. Prices of the commodities underlying these raw materials are volatile and have fluctuated significantly in recent years and in the future may contribute to fluctuations in our results of operations. The ability to hedge these commodity prices is limited.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
See Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
None.
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
We carried out an evaluation, with the participation of management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, of the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (pursuant to Rule 13a-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended) as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based upon that evaluation, the principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of December 31, 2018.
On April 30, 2018, we completed our acquisition of the Halyard Surgical & Infection Prevention business. As permitted by the Securities and Exchange Commission under the current year acquisition scope exception, we have excluded this acquisition, except for certain balances associated with purchase accounting, from our 2018 assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting since it was not practicable for management to conduct an assessment of internal control over financial reporting between the acquisition date and the date of management's assessment.
In connection with the Halyard acquisition, we entered into transition services agreements with Avanos pursuant to which they and we will provide to each other various transitional services, including, but not limited to, facilities, product supply, financial and business services, procurement, human resources, regulatory affairs and quality assurance, sales and marketing, information technology and other support services for a period of up to 18 months after the closing date. Management has established controls to mitigate the risk over financial reporting and will continue to monitor and evaluate the sufficiency of the controls. We are currently evaluating the acquired processes, information technology systems and other components of internal controls over financial reporting as part of the Company's integration activities which may result in periodic changes. Such changes will be disclosed as required by applicable SEC guidance.
There has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting during our last fiscal quarter (our fourth quarter in the case of an annual report) ended December 31, 2018, that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Item 9B. Other Information
On February 19, 2019, the Company announced that Edward A. Pesicka would become the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and President and be elected to the Company’s Board of Directors effective March 4, 2019, with the intention that the effectiveness of such appointment and election would follow the filing of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 (the “2018 10-K”).  The Company also announced on February 19, 2019 that its Board of Directors had approved an amendment to the Company’s Bylaws to increase the number of Directors from nine to ten effective upon Mr. Pesicka’s election to the Board.  However, in light of the delay in the filing of the Company’s 2018 10-K, the Company and Mr. Pesicka agreed to delay his employment as Chief Executive Officer and President and his election to the Board of Directors (as well as the amendment to the Bylaws) until March 7, 2019, the day following the date that the Company filed the 2018 10-K.  Additionally, the Company and Robert C. Sledd agreed to extend Mr. Sledd’s service as interim President and Chief Executive Officer until Mr. Pesicka joins the Company.




31


Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting, as such term is defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f), for Owens & Minor, Inc. (the Company). The Company has designed its internal control over financial reporting to provide reasonable assurance on the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of the consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
The Company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that: (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the Company’s transactions and dispositions of the Company’s assets; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of the consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles; (3) provide reasonable assurance that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of the Company’s management and directors; and (4) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements.
Internal control over financial reporting includes the controls themselves, monitoring and internal auditing practices and actions taken to correct deficiencies as identified. Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Under the supervision and with the participation of management, including the company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on the framework in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Based on our evaluation under the COSO framework, management concluded that the company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2018.
In reliance on guidance set forth in Question 3 of a “Frequently Asked Questions” interpretative release issued by the Staff of the SEC’s Office of the Chief Accountant and the Division of Corporation Finance in September 2004, as revised on September 24, 2007, regarding Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-47986, Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting and Certification of Disclosure in Exchange Act Periodic Reports, management determined that it would exclude the Halyard Surgical and Infection Prevention business, which was acquired on April 30, 2018, from the scope of the assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. The reason for this exclusion is that we acquired the Halyard Surgical and Infection Prevention business in the second quarter of 2018 and it was not practical for management to conduct an assessment of internal control over financial reporting in the period between the date the acquisition was completed and the date of management’s assessment. Except for goodwill and intangible assets recorded by the Company in connection with the purchase of the Halyard Surgical and Infection Prevention business, management excluded the Halyard Surgical and Infection Prevention business from its assessment of internal control over financial reporting.  Excluding $322 million of goodwill and intangible assets (see Note 3 of Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements), this acquisition represented $770 million of assets and $518 million of revenues (net of intercompany eliminations) as of and for the year ended December 31, 2018, of our consolidated financial statements. The Halyard Surgical and Infection Prevention business will be included in management’s assessment of internal control over financial reporting for the year ending December 31, 2019.
The effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, has been audited by KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which is included in this annual report.

 
/s/     Robert C. Sledd                        
Robert C. Sledd, Chairman, Interim President & Chief Executive Officer


 
/s/ Robert K. Snead
Robert K. Snead, Executive Vice President & Chief Financial Officer


32


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Shareholders and Board of Directors
Owens & Minor, Inc.:

Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited Owens & Minor, Inc.’s and subsidiaries’ (the Company) internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the related consolidated statements of income (loss), comprehensive income (loss), changes in shareholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2018, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements), and our report dated March 6, 2019 expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.
The Company acquired the Surgical & Infection Prevention business from Halyard Health Inc. (Halyard) during 2018, and management excluded from its assessment of the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, Halyard’s internal control over financial reporting associated with total assets of $770 million and total revenues of $518 million (net of intercompany eliminations) included in the consolidated financial statements of the Company as of and for the year ended December 31, 2018. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting of the Company also excluded an evaluation of the internal control over financial reporting of the acquired Halyard business.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audit also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

33


Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ KPMG LLP

Richmond, Virginia
March 6, 2019

34


Part III
Items 10-14.
Information required by Items 10-14 can be found under Corporate Officers at the end of the electronic filing of this Form 10-K and the registrant’s 2019 Proxy Statement pursuant to instructions (1) and G(3) of the General Instructions to Form 10-K.
Because our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), our Chief Executive Officer is required to make, and he has made, an annual certification to the NYSE stating that he was not aware of any violation by of the corporate governance listing standards of the NYSE. Our Chief Executive Officer made his annual certification to that effect to the NYSE as of June 6, 2018. In addition, we have filed, as exhibits to this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the certifications of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer required under Sections 906 and 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission regarding the quality of our public disclosure.






35


Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
a) The following documents are filed as part of this report:
 
Page
Consolidated Statements of Income (Loss) for the Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss) for the Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2018 and 2017
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders' Equity for the Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Selected Quarterly Financial Information (unaudited)
b) Exhibits:
See Index to Exhibits on page 80.

36


OWENS & MINOR, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME (LOSS)
(in thousands, except per share data)
 
Year ended December 31,
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net revenue
$
9,838,708

 
$
9,318,275

 
$
9,723,431

Cost of goods sold
8,471,745

 
8,146,409

 
8,536,121

Gross margin
1,366,963

 
1,171,866

 
1,187,310

Distribution, selling and administrative expenses
1,261,748

 
1,016,978

 
970,424

Goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges
439,613

 

 

Acquisition-related and exit and realignment charges
62,200

 
60,707

 
24,675

Other operating (income) expense, net
(4,424
)
 
4,930

 
(7,388
)
Operating income (loss)
(392,174
)
 
89,251

 
199,599

Interest expense, net
77,021

 
31,773

 
27,057

Income (loss) before income taxes
(469,195
)
 
57,478

 
172,542

Income tax (benefit) provision
(32,183
)
 
(15,315
)
 
63,755

Net income (loss)
$
(437,012
)
 
$
72,793

 
$
108,787

 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) per common share: basic and diluted
$
(7.28
)
 
$
1.20

 
$
1.76

Cash dividends per common share
$
0.86

 
$
1.03

 
$
1.02

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

37


OWENS & MINOR, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(in thousands)
Year ended December 31,
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net income (loss)
$
(437,012
)
 
$
72,793

 
$
108,787

Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
 
 
 
 
 
Currency translation adjustments (net of income tax of $0 in 2018, 2017 and 2016)
(19,366
)
 
43,060

 
(15,017
)
Change in unrecognized net periodic pension costs (net of income tax of $1,377 in 2018, $6 in 2017, and $343 in 2016)
3,920

 
(857
)
 
(727
)
Net unrealized gain (loss) on derivative instruments and other (net of income tax of $1,831 in 2018, and $0 in 2017 and 2016)
(5,082
)
 
196

 
86

Other comprehensive income (loss)
(20,528
)
 
42,399

 
(15,658
)
Comprehensive income (loss)
$
(457,540
)
 
$
115,192

 
$
93,129

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.


38


OWENS & MINOR, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except per share data)
 
December 31,
2018
 
2017
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
103,367

 
$
104,522

Accounts receivable, net
823,418

 
758,936

Merchandise inventories
1,290,103

 
990,193

Other current assets
321,690

 
328,254

Total current assets
2,538,578

 
2,181,905

Property and equipment, net
386,723

 
206,490

Goodwill, net
414,122

 
713,811

Intangible assets, net
321,764

 
184,468

Other assets, net
112,601

 
89,619

Total assets
$
3,773,788

 
$
3,376,293

Liabilities and equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities

 

Accounts payable
$
1,109,589

 
$
947,572

Accrued payroll and related liabilities
48,203

 
30,416

Other current liabilities
314,219

 
331,745

Total current liabilities
1,472,011

 
1,309,733

Long-term debt, excluding current portion
1,650,582

 
900,744

Deferred income taxes
50,852

 
74,247

Other liabilities
81,924

 
76,090

Total liabilities
3,255,369

 
2,360,814

Commitments and contingencies

 

Equity
 
 
 
Common stock, par value $2 per share; authorized—200,000 shares; issued and outstanding— 62,294 shares and 61,476 shares
124,588

 
122,952

Paid-in capital
238,773

 
226,937

Retained earnings
200,670

 
690,674

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(45,612
)
 
(25,084
)
Total equity
518,419

 
1,015,479

Total liabilities and equity
$
3,773,788

 
$
3,376,293

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

39


OWENS & MINOR, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
Year ended December 31,
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Operating activities:
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
$
(437,012
)
 
$
72,793

 
$
108,787

Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to cash provided by operating activities:

 

 

Depreciation and amortization
101,927

 
59,443

 
55,393

Share-based compensation expense
16,376

 
11,911

 
12,042

Goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges
439,613

 

 

Deferred income tax (benefit) expense
(35,018
)
 
(49,988
)
 
4,218

Provision for losses on accounts receivable
9,430

 
2,674

 
377

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

Accounts receivable
11,106

 
(100,010
)
 
(25,244
)
Merchandise inventories
(65,451
)
 
(57,032
)
 
22,589

Accounts payable
92,179

 
143,947

 
43,430

Net change in other assets and liabilities
(23,604
)
 
(33,263
)
 
(37,559
)
Other, net
6,043

 
6,299

 
3,662

Cash provided by operating activities
115,589

 
56,774

 
187,695

Investing activities:

 

 

Acquisitions, net of cash acquired
(751,834
)
 
(366,569
)
 

Additions to computer software and intangible assets
(20,812
)
 
(16,124
)
 
(9,819
)
Additions to property and equipment
(44,873
)
 
(34,613
)
 
(20,302
)
Proceeds from sale of property and equipment
1,690

 
663

 
5,375

Cash used for investing activities
(815,829
)
 
(416,643
)
 
(24,746
)
Financing activities:

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of debt
695,750

 
250,000

 

Proceeds from revolving credit facility
105,500

 
104,600

 

Repayment of debt
(16,250
)
 
(3,125
)
 

Financing costs paid
(28,512
)
 
(1,798
)
 

Cash dividends paid
(48,200
)
 
(63,151
)
 
(63,382
)
Repurchases of common stock

 
(5,000
)
 
(71,028
)
Other, net
(7,217
)
 
(8,720
)
 
(8,294
)
Cash provided by (used for) financing activities
701,071

 
272,806

 
(142,704
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents
(1,986
)
 
6,097

 
4,223

Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents
(1,155
)
 
(80,966
)
 
24,468

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year
104,522

 
185,488

 
161,020

Cash and cash equivalents at end of year
$
103,367

 
$
104,522

 
$
185,488

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

40


OWENS & MINOR, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands, except per share data)
 
 
Common  Shares
Outstanding
 
Common Stock
($2 par value)
 
Paid-In
Capital
 
Retained
Earnings
 
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
 
Total Equity
Balance, December 31, 2015
62,803

 
$
125,606

 
$
211,943

 
$
706,866

 
$
(51,825
)
 
$
992,590

Net income
 
 
 
 
 
 
108,787

 
 
 
108,787

Other comprehensive loss
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(15,658
)
 
(15,658
)
Dividends declared ($1.02 per share)
 
 
 
 
 
 
(63,212
)
 
 
 
(63,212
)
Shares repurchased and retired
(2,045
)
 
(4,091
)
 
 
 
(66,937
)
 
 
 
(71,028
)
Share-based compensation expense, exercises and other
273

 
547

 
8,012

 
 
 
 
 
8,559

Balance, December 31, 2016
61,031

 
122,062

 
219,955

 
685,504

 
(67,483
)
 
960,038

Net income
 
 
 
 
 
 
72,793

 
 
 
72,793

Other comprehensive income
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
42,399

 
42,399

Dividends declared ($1.03 per share)
 
 
 
 
 
 
(62,933
)
 
 
 
(62,933
)
Shares repurchased and retired
(155
)
 
(310
)
 
 
 
(4,690
)
 
 
 
(5,000
)
Share-based compensation expense, exercises and other
600

 
1,200

 
6,982

 
 
 
 
 
8,182

Balance, December 31, 2017
61,476

 
122,952

 
226,937

 
690,674

 
(25,084
)
 
1,015,479

Net loss
 
 
 
 
 
 
(437,012
)
 
 
 
(437,012
)
Other comprehensive loss
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(20,528
)
 
(20,528
)
Dividends declared ($0.86 per share)
 
 
 
 
 
 
(52,992
)
 
 
 
(52,992
)
Share-based compensation expense, exercises and other
818

 
1,636

 
11,836

 
 
 
 
 
13,472

Balance, December 31, 2018
62,294

 
$
124,588

 
$
238,773

 
$
200,670

 
$
(45,612
)
 
$
518,419

See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.

41


OWENS & MINOR, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
(in thousands, except per share data, unless otherwise indicated)
Note 1—Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Owens & Minor, Inc. and subsidiaries (we, us or our), a Fortune 500 company headquartered in Richmond, Virginia, is a leading global healthcare solutions company with integrated technologies, products and services aligned to deliver significant and sustained value for healthcare providers and manufacturers across the continuum of care. Our teammates serve healthcare industry customers in 90 countries, by producing quality products and helping to reduce total costs across the supply chain by optimizing point-of care performance, freeing up capital and clinical resources and managing contracts to optimize financial performance.
During the first quarter, we made certain changes to the leadership team, organizational structure, budgeting and financial reporting processes which resulted in changes to our segment reporting. These changes align our operations into two distinct business units: Global Solutions and Global Products. Global Solutions (previously Domestic and International) is our U.S. and European distribution, logistics and value-added services business. Global Products (previously Proprietary Products) manufactures and sources medical surgical products through our production and kitting operations. The Halyard Surgical & Infection Prevention business (Halyard S&IP or Halyard), acquired April 30, 2018, is included in the Global Products segment. Beginning with the quarter ended March 31, 2018, we reported financial results using this two segment structure and have recast prior year segment results on the same basis.
Basis of Presentation. The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Owens & Minor, Inc. and the subsidiaries it controls, in conformity with U.S generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Reclassifications. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
Use of Estimates. The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to make assumptions and estimates that affect reported amounts and related disclosures. Estimates are used for, but are not limited to, the allowances for losses on accounts receivable, inventory valuation allowances, supplier incentives, depreciation and amortization, goodwill valuation, valuation of intangible assets and other long-lived assets, self-insurance liabilities, tax liabilities, defined benefit obligations, share-based compensation and other contingencies. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents includes cash and marketable securities with an original maturity or maturity at acquisition of three months or less. Cash and cash equivalents are stated at cost. Nearly all of our cash and cash equivalents are held in cash depository accounts in major banks in the United States, Europe, and Asia.
Book overdrafts represent the amount of outstanding checks issued in excess of related bank balances and are included in accounts payable in our consolidated balance sheets, as they are similar to trade payables and are not subject to finance charges or interest. Changes in book overdrafts are classified as operating activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows.
Accounts Receivable, Net. In general, accounts receivable from customers are recorded at the invoiced amount and are reduced by any rebates due to the customer, which are estimated based on contractual terms or historical experience. We assess finance charges on overdue accounts receivable that are recognized as other operating income based on their estimated ultimate collectability. We have arrangements with certain customers under which they make deposits on account. Customer deposits in excess of outstanding receivable balances are classified as other current liabilities. For our direct to patient business, accounts receivable are recorded net of a contractual allowance.
We maintain valuation allowances based upon the expected collectability of accounts receivable. Our allowances include specific amounts for accounts that are likely to be uncollectible, such as customer bankruptcies and disputed amounts and general allowances for accounts that may become uncollectible. Allowances are estimated based on a number of factors, including industry trends, current economic conditions, creditworthiness of customers, age of the receivables, changes in customer payment patterns, and historical experience. Account balances are charged off against the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote.
Financing Receivables and Payables. We have an order-to-cash program in our Global Solutions segment under which we invoice manufacturers’ customers and remit collected amounts to the manufacturers. We retain credit risk for certain

42


uncollected receivables under this program where contractually obligated. We continually monitor the expected collectability in this program and maintain valuation allowances when it is likely that an amount may be or may become uncollectible. Allowances are estimated based on a number of factors including creditworthiness of customers, age of the receivables and historical experience. We write off uncollected receivables under this program when collection is no longer being pursued. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the allowance for uncollectible accounts as part of this program was $0.0 million and $0.1 million. Fees charged for this program are included in net revenue. Product pricing and related product risks are retained by the manufacturer. Balances receivable and related amounts payable under this program are classified in other current assets and other current liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets.
Merchandise Inventories. Merchandise inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market, with cost determined by the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method for distribution inventories in the U.S. Cost of remaining inventories are determined using the first-in, first out (FIFO) or weighted-average cost method.
Property and Equipment. Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation or, if acquired under capital leases, at the lower of the present value of minimum lease payments or fair market value at the inception of the lease less accumulated amortization. Depreciation and amortization expense for financial reporting purposes is computed on a straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets or, for capital leases and leasehold improvements, over the term of the lease, if shorter. In general, the estimated useful lives for computing depreciation and amortization are three to 15 years for machinery and equipment, five to 40 years for buildings and leasehold improvements, and fifteen years for land improvements. Straight-line and accelerated methods of depreciation are used for income tax purposes. Normal maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred, and renovations and betterments are capitalized.
Leases. We have entered into non-cancelable agreements to lease most of our office and warehouse facilities with remaining terms generally ranging from one to 30 years. We also lease some of our transportation and material handling equipment for terms generally ranging from three to ten years. Certain information technology assets embedded in an outsourcing agreement are accounted for as capital leases. Leases are classified as operating leases or capital leases at their inception. Rent expense for leases with rent holidays or pre-determined rent increases are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Incentives and allowances for leasehold improvements are deferred and recognized as a reduction of rent expense over the lease term.
Goodwill. We evaluate goodwill for impairment annually, as of October 1, and whenever events occur or changes in circumstance indicate that the carrying amount of goodwill may not be recoverable. Qualitative factors are first assessed to determine if it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If it is determined that it is more likely than not that the fair value does not exceed the carrying amount, then a quantitative test is performed. The quantitative goodwill impairment test involves a comparison of the estimated fair value of the reporting unit to the respective carrying amount.
We determine the estimated fair value of our reporting units by using an income (discounted cash flow analysis) approach. The income approach is dependent upon several assumptions regarding future periods, including assumptions with respect to future sales growth and a terminal growth rate. In addition, a weighted average cost of capital (“WACC”) is used to discount future estimated cash flows to their present values. The WACC is based on externally observable data considering market participants’ cost of equity and debt, optimal capital structure and risk factors specific to our company.
In connection with our new segment structure, which began in the first quarter of 2018, goodwill is now reported as part of Global Solutions or Global Products. There was no change to our underlying reporting units as part of that segment change and therefore no reallocation of goodwill.
Intangible Assets. Intangible assets acquired through purchases or business combinations are stated at fair value at the acquisition date and net of accumulated amortization in the consolidated balance sheets. Intangible assets, consisting primarily of customer relationships, customer contracts, non-competition agreements, trademarks, and tradenames are amortized over their estimated useful lives. In determining the useful life of an intangible asset, we consider our historical experience in renewing or extending similar arrangements. Customer relationships are generally amortized over three to 15 years and other intangible assets are amortized generally for periods between one and 15 years, based on their pattern of economic benefit or on a straight-line basis.

43


Computer Software. We develop and purchase software for internal use. Software development costs incurred during the application development stage are capitalized. Once the software has been installed and tested, and is ready for use, additional costs incurred in connection with the software are expensed as incurred. Capitalized computer software costs are amortized over the estimated useful life of the software, usually between three and ten years. Capitalized computer software costs are included in other assets, net, in the consolidated balance sheets. Unamortized software at December 31, 2018 and 2017 was $67.5 million and $61.8 million. Depreciation and amortization expense includes $12.8 million, $10.7 million and $12.9 million of software amortization for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016. Implementation costs incurred for a cloud computing arrangement that is considered a service contract (software as a service or SaaS) are expensed as incurred.
Long-Lived Assets. Long-lived assets, which include property and equipment, finite-lived intangible assets, and unamortized software costs, are evaluated for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of long-lived assets may not be recoverable. We assess long-lived assets for potential impairment by comparing the carrying value of an asset, or group of related assets, to their estimated undiscounted future cash flows.
Self-Insurance Liabilities. We are self-insured for most employee healthcare, workers’ compensation and automobile liability costs; however, we maintain insurance for individual losses exceeding certain limits. Liabilities are estimated for healthcare costs using current and historical claims data. Liabilities for workers’ compensation and automobile liability claims are estimated using historical claims data and loss development factors. If the underlying facts and circumstances of existing claims change or historical trends are not indicative of future trends, then we may be required to record additional expense or reductions to expense. Self-insurance liabilities are included in other current liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.
Revenue Recognition. On January 1, 2018, we adopted ASC 606 Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which establishes principles for recognizing revenue and reporting information about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. We applied the guidance using the modified retrospective transition method. The adoption of this guidance had no impact on the amount and timing of revenue recognized, therefore, no adjustments were recorded to our consolidated financial statements upon adoption.
Our revenue is primarily generated from sales contracts with customers. Under most of our distribution and product sales arrangements, our performance obligations are limited to delivery of products to a customer upon receipt of a purchase order. For these arrangements, we recognize revenue at the point in time when shipment is completed, as control passes to the customer upon product receipt.
Revenue for activity-based fees and other services is recognized over time as activities are performed. Depending on the specific contractual provisions and nature of the performance obligation, revenue from services may be recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the service, on a proportional performance model, based on level of effort, or when final deliverables have been provided.
Our contracts sometimes allow for forms of variable consideration including rebates, discounts and performance guarantees. In these cases, we estimate the amount of consideration to which we will be entitled in exchange for transferring the product or service to the customer. Rebates and customer discounts are estimated based on contractual terms or historical experience and we maintain an accrual for rebates or discounts that have been earned but are unpaid. The amount accrued for rebates and discounts due to customers was $44.2 million at December 31, 2018 and $13.0 million at December 31, 2017.
Additionally, we generate fees from arrangements that include performance targets related to cost-saving initiatives for customers that result from our supply-chain management services. Achievement against performance targets, measured in accordance with contractual terms, may result in additional fees paid to us or, if performance targets are not achieved, we may be obligated to refund or reduce a portion of our fees or to provide credits toward future purchases by the customer. For these arrangements, contingent revenue is deferred and recognized as the performance target is achieved and the applicable contingency is released. When we determine that a loss is probable under a contract, the estimated loss is accrued. The amount deferred under these arrangements is not material.
For our direct to patient sales, revenues are recorded based upon the estimated amounts due from patients and third-party payors. Third-party payors include federal and state agencies (under Medicare and Medicaid programs), managed care health plans and commercial insurance companies. Estimates of contractual allowances are based upon historical collection rates for the related payor agreements. The estimated reimbursement amounts are made on a payor-specific basis and are recorded based on the best information available regarding management’s interpretation of the applicable laws, regulations and reimbursement terms.

44


In most cases, we record revenue gross, as we are the primary obligor in the arrangement and we obtain control of the products before they are transferred to the customer. When we act as an agent in a sales arrangement and do not bear a significant portion of inventory risks, primarily for our third-party logistics business, we record revenue net of product cost. Sales taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are excluded from revenues.
See Note 20 for disaggregation of revenue by segment and geography as we believe that best depicts how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of our revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors.
Cost of Goods Sold. Cost of goods sold includes the cost of the product (net of supplier incentives and cash discounts) and all costs incurred for shipments of products from manufacturers to our distribution centers for all customer arrangements where we are the primary obligor, bear the risk of general and physical inventory loss and carry all credit risk associated with sales. Cost of goods sold also includes direct and certain indirect labor, material and overhead costs associated with our Global Products business. We have contractual arrangements with certain suppliers that provide incentives, including cash discounts for prompt payment, operational efficiency and performance-based incentives. These incentives are recognized as a reduction in cost of goods sold as targets become probable of achievement.
In situations where we act as an agent in a sales arrangement and do not bear a significant portion of these risks, primarily for our third-party logistics business, there is no cost of goods sold and all costs to provide the service to the customer are recorded in distribution, selling and administrative expenses.
As a result of different practices of categorizing costs and different business models throughout our industry, our gross margins may not necessarily be comparable to other companies in our industry.
Distribution, Selling and Administrative (DS&A) Expenses. DS&A expenses include shipping and handling costs, labor, depreciation, amortization and other costs for selling and administrative functions associated with our distribution and logistics services and all costs associated with our fee-for-service arrangements.
Shipping and Handling. Shipping and handling costs are primarily included in DS&A expenses on the consolidated statements of income and include costs to store, to move, and to prepare products for shipment, as well as costs to deliver products to customers. Shipping and handling costs totaled $680.1 million, $589.0 million and $558.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Third-party shipping and handling costs billed to customers, which are included in net revenue, are immaterial for all periods presented.
Share-Based Compensation. We account for share-based payments to employees at fair value and recognize the related expense in distribution, general and administrative expenses over the service period for awards expected to vest.
Derivative Financial Instruments. We are directly and indirectly affected by changes in certain market conditions, which may adversely impact our financial performance and are referred to as “market risks.” When deemed appropriate, we use derivatives as a risk management tool to mitigate the potential impact of certain market risks, primarily foreign currency exchange risk and interest rate risk. We use forward contracts, which are agreements to buy or sell a quantity at a predetermined future date and at a predetermined rate or price, and interest rate swaps. We enter derivative transactions that we believe will be highly effective at offsetting the underlying risk and do not enter into derivative financial instruments for trading purposes.
All derivatives are carried at fair value in our consolidated balance sheets. The designation of a derivative instrument as a hedge and its ability to meet the hedge accounting criteria determine how we record the change in fair value of the derivative instrument in our financial statements. A derivative qualifies for hedge accounting if, at inception, we expect the derivative will be highly effective in offsetting the underlying hedged cash flows and we fulfill the hedge documentation standards at the time we enter into the derivative contract. We designate a hedge as a cash flow hedge, fair value hedge, or a net investment hedge based on the exposure we are hedging. For the effective portion of qualifying cash flow hedges, we record changes in fair value in other comprehensive income (“OCI”). We release the derivative’s gain or loss from OCI to match the timing of the underlying hedged items’ effect on earnings.We review the effectiveness of our hedging instruments quarterly, recognize current period hedge ineffectiveness immediately in earnings, and discontinue hedge accounting for any hedge that we no longer consider to be highly effective. We recognize changes in fair value for derivatives not designated as hedges or those not qualifying for hedge accounting in current period earnings.The cash flow impact of the derivative instruments is primarily included in our consolidated statements of cash flows in net cash provided by operating activities.

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Income Taxes. We account for income taxes under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Valuation allowances are provided if it is more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will not be realized. When we have claimed tax benefits that may be challenged by a tax authority, an estimate of the effect of these uncertain tax positions is recorded. It is our policy to provide for uncertain tax positions and the related interest and penalties based upon an assessment of whether a tax benefit is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities. To the extent that the tax outcome of these uncertain tax positions changes, based on our assessment, such changes in estimate may impact the income tax provision in the period in which such determination is made.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Act") was enacted on December 22, 2017. As of December 31, 2018, we have completed our accounting for the tax effects of enactment of the Act.
We earn a portion of our operating income in foreign jurisdictions outside the United States. Prior to the reporting period in which the Act was enacted we considered foreign earnings to be indefinitely reinvested and provided no United States federal and state taxes or withholding taxes on those earnings. Upon enactment, the Act imposes a tax on our total post-1986 foreign earnings at various tax rates. The Company has recognized an amount of this one-time transition tax. We continue to be indefinitely reinvested in foreign operations, with the exception of Thailand, and have not accrued any additional income taxes for any remaining undistributed foreign earnings not subject to the transition tax, or any additional outside basis differences inherent in these entities. The Company does not have a plan to indefinitely reinvest the unremitted earnings of our newly acquired foreign subsidiary located in Thailand as of December 31, 2018. We have recorded withholding tax liabilities that would be incurred upon future distribution of cash back to the U.S. We have not recorded any deferred taxes as there are no outside basis differences unrelated to unremitted earnings in Thailand. The Company will continue to evaluate its foreign earnings repatriation policy in 2019 related to all the other countries in which we operate.
Fair Value Measurements. Fair value is determined based on assumptions that a market participant would use in pricing an asset or liability. The assumptions used are in accordance with a three-tier hierarchy, defined by GAAP, that draws a distinction between market participant assumptions based on (i) observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets (Level 1), (ii) inputs other than quoted prices in active markets that are observable either directly or indirectly (Level 2) and (iii) unobservable inputs that require the use of present value and other valuation techniques in the determination of fair value (Level 3).
The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable reported in the consolidated balance sheets approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. The fair value of long-term debt is estimated based on quoted market prices or dealer quotes for the identical liability when traded as an asset in an active market (Level 1) or, if quoted market prices or dealer quotes are not available, on the borrowing rates currently available for loans with similar terms, credit ratings, and average remaining maturities (Level 2). See Note 10 for the fair value of debt. The fair value of interest rate swaps and foreign currency contracts is determined based on the present value of expected future cash flows considering the risks involved, including non-performance risk, and using discount rates appropriate for the respective maturities. Observable Level 2 inputs are used to determine the present value of expected future cash flows. See Note 13 for the fair value of derivatives.
Acquisition-Related and Exit and Realignment Charges. We present costs incurred in connection with acquisitions in acquisition-related and exit and realignment charges in our consolidated statements of income. Acquisition-related charges consist primarily of transaction costs incurred to perform due diligence and to analyze, negotiate and consummate an acquisition, costs to perform post-closing activities to establish the organizational structure, and costs to transition the acquired company’s information technology and other operations and administrative functions from the former owner.
Exit and realignment charges consist of costs associated with optimizing our operations which include the closure and consolidation of certain distribution and logistics centers, administrative offices and warehouses in the United States and Europe. These charges also include costs related to our strategic organizational realignment which include management changes, certain professional fees, and costs to streamline administrative functions and processes. Costs associated with exit and realignment activities are recorded at their fair value when incurred. Liabilities are established at the cease-use date for remaining operating lease and other contractual obligations, net of estimated sub-lease income. The net lease termination cost is discounted using a credit-adjusted risk-free rate of interest. We evaluate these assumptions quarterly and adjust the liability accordingly. The current portion of accrued lease and other contractual termination costs is included in other current liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets, and the non-current portion is included in other liabilities. Severance benefits are recorded when payment is considered probable and reasonably estimable.

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Income Per Share. Basic and diluted income per share are calculated pursuant to the two-class method, under which unvested share-based payment awards containing nonforfeitable rights to dividends are participating securities.
Foreign Currency Translation. Our foreign subsidiaries generally consider their local currency to be their functional currency. Assets and liabilities of these foreign subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars at period-end exchange rates and revenues and expenses are translated at average exchange rates during the period. Cumulative currency translation adjustments are included in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in shareholders’ equity. Gains and losses on intercompany foreign currency transactions that are long-term in nature and which we do not intend to settle in the foreseeable future are also recognized in other comprehensive income (loss) in shareholders’ equity. Realized gains and losses from foreign currency transactions are recorded in other operating income, net in the consolidated statements of income (loss) and were not material to our consolidated results of operations in 2018, 2017 and 2016.
Business Combinations. We account for acquired businesses using the acquisition method of accounting, which requires that the assets acquired and liabilities assumed be recorded at the date of acquisition at their respective fair values. Any excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair values of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements. During 2018, we adopted Accounting Standard Updates (ASU’s) issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB).
In February 2016, the FASB established Topic 842, Leases, by issuing ASU No. 2016-02, which requires lessees to recognize leases on-balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. Topic 842 was subsequently amended by ASU No. 2018-01, Land Easement Practical Expedient for Transition to Topic 842; ASU No. 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases; and ASU No. 2018-11, Targeted Improvements. The new standard establishes a right-of-use model (ROU) that requires a lessee to recognize a ROU asset and lease liability on the balance sheet for all leases with a term longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern and classification of expense recognition in the income statement.
The new standard is effective for us on January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted. A modified retrospective transition approach is required, applying the new standard to all leases existing at the date of initial application. An entity may choose to use either (1) its effective date or (2) the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the consolidated financial statements as its date of initial application. If an entity chooses the second option, the transition requirements for existing leases also apply to leases entered into between the date of initial application and the effective date. The entity must also recast its comparative period consolidated financial statements and provide the disclosures required by the new standard for the comparative periods. We expect to adopt the new standard on January 1, 2019 and use the effective date as our date of initial application. Consequently, financial information will not be updated and the disclosures required under the new standard will not be provided for dates and periods before January 1, 2019.
The new standard provides a number of optional practical expedients in transition. We expect to elect the ‘package of practical expedients’, which permits us not to reassess under the new standard our prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification and initial direct costs. We do not expect to elect the use-of-hindsight or the practical expedient pertaining to land easements; the latter not being applicable to us.
We expect that this standard will have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements. While we continue to assess all of the effects of adoption, we currently believe the most significant effects relate to (1) the recognition of new ROU assets and lease liabilities on our balance sheet for our office and warehouse facility operating leases, and (2) providing significant new disclosures about our leasing activities.
On adoption, we currently expect to recognize additional operating liabilities ranging from $250 million to $350 million, with corresponding ROU assets of the same amount based on the present value of the remaining minimum rental payments under current leasing standards for existing operating leases.
The new standard also provides practical expedients for an entity’s ongoing accounting. We currently expect to elect the short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. This means, for those leases that qualify, we will not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities, and this includes not recognizing ROU assets or lease liabilities for existing short-term leases of those assets in transition. We also currently expect to elect the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components for all of our leases.
On June 16, 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13 Financial Instruments - Credit Losses, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which changes the way entities measure credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments that are not measured at fair value through net earnings.  This standard will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years.  Early adoption is permitted.  We are evaluating the impact the adoption of ASU No. 2016-13 will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

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In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment, to simplify the subsequent measurement of goodwill. The new guidance eliminates the requirement for an entity to calculate the implied fair value of goodwill to measure a goodwill impairment charge. Instead, an entity will perform its annual, or interim, goodwill impairment testing by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and recording an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value. We early adopted this guidance in conjunction with our interim impairment testing performed during the quarter ended June 30, 2018.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. ASU No. 2017-12 is intended to simplify the application of hedge accounting and provide increased transparency as to the scope and results of hedging programs. For calendar year-end entities, the update will be effective for annual periods beginning January 1, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. We are evaluating the impact the adoption of ASU No. 2017-12 will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
On February 14, 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. ASU No. 2018-02 allows companies to reclassify stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) to retained earnings. ASU No. 2018-02 will be effective for the Company on January 1, 2019 and we do not expect this to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.     
Note 2—Significant Risks and Uncertainties
Many of our hospital customers in the U.S. are represented by group purchasing organizations (GPOs) that contract with us for services on behalf of the GPO members. GPOs representing a significant portion of our business are Vizient, Premier, Inc. (Premier) and Health Trust Purchasing Group (HPG). Members of these GPOs have incentives to purchase from their primary selected distributor; however, they operate independently and are free to negotiate directly with distributors and manufacturers. For 2018, 2017 and 2016, net revenue from hospitals under contract with these GPOs represented the following approximate percentages of our net revenue annually: Vizient—40% to 48%; Premier—19% to 21%; and HPG—13% to 14%.
Net revenue from sales of product supplied by Medtronic represented approximately 10% of our net revenues for 2018, 11% of our net revenues for 2017 and 13% of our net revenues for 2016. Net revenue from sales of product supplied by Johnson & Johnson represented approximately 7% of our net revenues for 2018 and 9% of our net revenues for 2017 and 2016. Net revenue from sales of product supplied by Becton Dickinson represented approximately 7% of our net revenue for 2018 and 9% of our net revenues for 2017 and 2016.
Note 3—Acquisitions
On April 30, 2018 (the Closing Date), we completed the previously announced acquisition of substantially all of Avanos Medical, Inc.'s (Avanos, previously Halyard Health, Inc.) Surgical and Infection Prevention business, the name “Halyard Health” (and all variations of that name and related intellectual property rights) and its information technology (IT) systems in exchange for $758 million, net of cash acquired. The Halyard S&IP business is a leading global provider of medical sup