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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                 to

Commission File Number: 001-37493

 

Ooma, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in charter)

 

 

Delaware

 

06-1713274

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

525 Almanor Avenue, Suite 200, Sunnyvale, California 94085

(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)

Registrant’s telephone number (650) 566-6600

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.0001

OOMA

The New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company or emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

 

Large Accelerated Filer

 

 

 

Accelerated Filer

 

Non-Accelerated Filer

 

 

 

Small reporting company

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.      

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.     

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of July 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $408 million, based upon the closing price reported for such date on the New York Stock Exchange.  

24.3 million shares of common stock were issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for its 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Such Proxy Statement will be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates. Except with respect to information specifically incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K, the Proxy Statement is not deemed to be filed as part of this Form 10-K.

 

 

 


Ooma, Inc.

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

4

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

13

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

43

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

43

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

43

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

43

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

44

Item 6.

 

[Reserved]

 

45

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

46

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

58

Item 8.

 

Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

59

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

85

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

85

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

85

Item 9C.

 

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

 

85

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

86

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

86

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

86

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

86

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

86

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

87

Exhibits

 

89

Signatures

 

90

 

 

 


FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022 (“Form 10-K”) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). The words “believe,” “will,” “may,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “should,” “plan,” “expect,” “predict,” “could,” “potentially” and variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements, which may include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

our future financial performance, including trends in revenue, cost of revenue, operating expenses and income taxes;

our estimates of the size of our market opportunity and forecasts of market growth;

our ability to develop, launch or acquire new products and services, improve our existing products and services, manage our supply chain, and increase the value of our products and services;

changes to our business resulting from increased competition or changes in market trends;

our ability to increase our revenue and our revenue growth rate, anticipate demand for our products, and effectively manage our future growth;

our ability to successfully maintain our relationships with our key retailers and resellers;

our ability to attract and retain customers, including our ability to maintain adequate customer care and manage increases in our churn rate;

our ability to improve local number portability provisioning and obtain direct inward dialing numbers;

our ability to maintain, protect and enhance our brand and intellectual property;

government regulation, including compliance with regulatory requirements and changes in market rules, rates and tariffs;

our ability to comply with applicable FCC regulations, including those regarding E-911 services;

increasing regulation of our services and the imposition of federal, state and municipal sales and use taxes, fees or surcharges on our services;

the effects of industry trends on our results of operations;

server or system failures that could affect the quality or disrupt the services we provide and our ability to maintain data security;

our ability to borrow additional funds and access capital markets, as well as our ability to comply with the terms of our indebtedness and the possibility that we may incur additional indebtedness in the future;

the differences between our services, including emergency calling, compared to traditional phone services;

the sufficiency of our cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments to meet our working capital and capital expenditure requirements;

our ability to successfully enter new markets, manage our international expansion, and identify, evaluate and consummate acquisitions;

the future trading prices of our common stock; and

other risk factors included under the section titled “Risk Factors”

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. Such statements are based on management’s expectations as of the date of this filing and involve many risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results, events or circumstances to differ materially from those expressed or implied in our forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties include those described throughout this report and particularly in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. Readers are urged to carefully review and consider all of the information in this Form 10-K and in other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Form 10-K to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this filing or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements.  Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

When we use the terms “Ooma,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” in this report, we are referring to Ooma, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries unless the context requires otherwise. Ooma, Ooma Premier, Ooma Telo, Ooma Office, Ooma Home, Broadsmart, Talkatone and the Ooma logo referred to or displayed herein are trademarks of Ooma, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.  All other company and product names referred to herein may be trademarks of the respective companies with which they are associated.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 3


PART I

Item 1. Business

Overview

Ooma provides leading communications services and related technologies that bring unique features, ease of use, and affordability to businesses of all sizes and residential customers through our smart software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) and unified communications platforms. For businesses, we deliver advanced voice and collaboration features including messaging, intelligent virtual attendants, and video conferencing to help them run more efficiently. For consumers, our residential phone service provides PureVoice high-definition voice quality, advanced functionality and integration with mobile devices.

We drive the adoption of our platforms by providing communications solutions to the large and growing markets for business, residential and mobile users, and then facilitate growth by offering new and innovative connected services to our user base. Our customers typically adopt our platforms by making a purchase or rental of our on-premise devices, connecting to the internet and activating services, for which they primarily pay on a monthly basis. We believe we have achieved high levels of customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty. Our business and residential phone service solutions are each top-ranked by our customers according to surveys by PC Mag and Consumer Reports, respectively.

Our services rely upon the following main elements: our multi-tenant cloud service, on-premise devices, desktop and mobile applications, end-point devices and calling platform. Ooma’s cloud provides a high-quality, secure, managed and reliable connection integrating every element of our platforms. Our platforms power all aspects of our business, providing a high-volume, low-cost infrastructure for our communications solutions, and enabling a number of other current and future productivity, automation, monitoring, safety, security and networking infrastructure applications and services.

We generate revenues primarily from the sale of subscriptions and other services for our business and residential communications solutions. We primarily offer our solutions in the U.S. and Canada. We believe that our differentiated solutions and our long-term customer relationships uniquely position us to add new connected services and exploit adjacent markets. We believe that our platforms are particularly well-suited to enable the delivery of connected services because they are always on, monitored and interactive.

We have experienced strong revenue growth in recent periods. Our total revenue was $192.3 million, $168.9 million and $151.6 million in fiscal 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. We have grown our combined Ooma Business and Ooma Residential core users to approximately 1,100,000 as of January 31, 2022. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” below for additional information.

We were incorporated in 2003 as a Delaware corporation and our stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “OOMA.” Our corporate headquarters are located in Sunnyvale, California. Our primary website address is www.ooma.com.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 4


Our Solutions

Ooma Business

Our mission is providing business communications services that are simple, easy to use, and deliver excellent value to small, medium-sized and large companies. We offer a range of solutions to fit each business’ needs, along with personalized support to resolve any issues in deploying and maintaining Ooma services. We refer to Ooma Office and Ooma Enterprise collectively as Ooma Business.

Ooma Office

Ooma Office is a cloud-based multi-user communications system for small and medium-sized businesses designed to manage communications in and out of the office with a suite of powerful features at an affordable price. Ooma Office is simple and intuitive to setup and use, mobile-friendly, scalable, and provides a variety of configurations to meet our customers’ specific needs. Customers have their choice of equipment for voice service, including IP phones, smartphones, PCs and traditional analog phones. Ooma Office provides a curated set of advanced features, managed through an online portal, including a virtual receptionist, SMS and MMS messaging, extension dialing, ring groups, call park, audio conferencing, music-on-hold, intercom/paging, and voicemail forwarding to e-mail. The Ooma Office mobile app allows virtual deployment without hardware, so users can make, receive and transfer phone calls, listen to voicemails, text, and manage their Ooma account on the go from any iOS or Android device.

Ooma Office Pro provides a set of additional features that are designed for businesses whose needs are above and beyond our standard Ooma Office service, including: HD video conferencing (Ooma Meetings), call recording, call analytics, caller info match, enhanced robocall blocking, voicemail transcription, and integrations with Google Workspace and Microsoft 365 applications. The Office desktop app for Pro users conveniently enables users to have their complete business communications system on their PCs and Macs to make and receive calls, host and join video meetings, use SMS and MMS messaging, access company directories, access in-depth caller profiles for both inbound and outbound calls, and other capabilities. The app works anywhere the computer has an internet connection, keeping employees and teams connected while working from home, on the road, or in the office.

We also offer the following additional services to our Ooma Office customers:

Ooma Connect delivers fixed wireless internet connectivity to replace or back-up slow and costly DSL, satellite, and cable services. This solution consists of the Ooma Connect Base Station and the cellular antenna, which provides wireless internet through a nationwide advanced cellular network. Our Continuous Voice technology for internet back-up improves call quality by sending redundant voice streams across both the primary and wireless Internet link.

Ooma Managed Wi-Fi is a plug-and-play enterprise-grade Wi-Fi solution that is designed to take the complexity and high cost out of wireless networking for small and medium-sized businesses. Ooma Wi-Fi enables businesses in industries such as retail, restaurant, and hospitality to support Wi-Fi IP phones on Ooma Office, Wi-Fi access for guests, and securely connect online payment systems and cloud-based applications, such as Microsoft Office, Google Workspace or CRM systems.

Ooma Enterprise

Ooma Enterprise is a highly customizable, flexible, and scalable unified-communications-as-a-service (“UCaaS”) solution that complements Ooma Office and allows us to meet the needs of organizations of all sizes. Telecommunications and networking services available through Ooma Enterprise include mobile and softphone telephony, presence and instant messaging, multiparty audio, video and web conferencing, and call center capabilities with full Application Programming Interface (“API”) support.

Our enterprise UCaaS platform enables easy drag-and-drop call flow management, using modular applications that can be selectively enabled to suit customer needs. Some of these applications include WebRTC, Call Center, Mobile and Desktop applications, Team Chat, and a distinctive reporting portal for end users and administrators. Additionally, for our call center customers, we offer agents and call center managers the ability to visualize their performance through their day or over time with custom reporting solutions. Our global cloud-based network provides business-class security, redundancy, and failover, as well as uniquely routes calls through the shortest path to provide the highest voice quality.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 5


Our platform is built on an open API architecture that enables agility, customizations, and integrations into back-end solutions such as CRM, predictive analytics, accounting and customer renewal systems, either internally or via third party developers. This gives Ooma Enterprise customers the ability to streamline business processes and ensure their customers are serviced faster, boosting satisfaction, repeat orders, referrals, and revenues in addition to enabling their users to improve productivity.

In addition, we offer Ooma Direct Routing for Microsoft Teams. Through our global network, every device enabled with the Teams app – desktops, laptops, smart phones and tablets – becomes a fully functional business phone that connects Teams users to external phone lines.

Ooma AirDial

In November 2021, we announced Ooma AirDial, a complete integrated solution for business intended to address the expected decommissioning of legacy copper-wire analog phone service, also known as plain old telephone service (“POTS”). Ooma AirDial will combine phone service, a data connection and hardware in a single package that is designed to be easy to install and manage. Safety and business-critical systems that today require a POTS line – including elevator phones, fax machines, public safety phones, building access systems and more – can be quickly and easily migrated to a digital connection.  We commenced selling AirDial during the first quarter of fiscal 2023. 

 

 


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 6


Ooma Residential

Ooma Residential includes Ooma Telo basic and premier services as well as our smart security solutions. Our residential phone service provides PureVoice HD voice quality, advanced functionality and integration with mobile devices. Overall, our residential platform enables an ecosystem for connected services by integrating with other automation solutions to enable innovative and valuable features.

Home Phone Services

Ooma Basic provides unlimited personal calling within the U.S. and features such as: voicemail access, call waiting, caller ID, network address book and 911 calling, with text alerts when 911 is dialed from the home. Our Ooma Mobile HD app allows users to make and receive phone calls and access Ooma features and settings with any iOS or Android device over a Wi-Fi or cellular data connection. The app includes unlimited mobile domestic calls, subject to normal residential usage limitations, and enables users to make international calls on their mobile devices using Ooma’s low-cost international calling plan.

Ooma Premier offers a suite of advanced calling features on a monthly or annual subscription basis, including: custom and anonymous call blocking, receiving incoming calls on the Ooma Mobile App, call forwarding, three-way conference calling, backup number, and integration with a variety of devices and services to enable new functionality and automation, such as Google Voice, Dropbox and Amazon Alexa. We also offer other premium subscription services to our customers, independent of Ooma Premier, including an international calling plan and voicemail transcription service.

Home Phone Products

We offer three ways to connect to our residential phone services:

Ooma Telo is a complete home communications solution designed to serve as the primary phone line in the home, delivering high-quality voice communications, advanced calling features and connected services that are not offered by traditional landlines. Users make a one-time purchase of an Ooma Telo and plug it into a high-speed internet connection and standard home phone devices. Users have the option to transfer their existing phone number for a one-time fee or to select a new number at no cost. Once set up, users have access to free nationwide calling, international calling with low rates and the features described above.

Ooma Telo Air is a wireless Ooma Telo with built-in Wi-Fi and Bluetooth capabilities that connects to the internet using the home’s Wi-Fi network and can be paired with mobile phones to answer incoming calls from any phone in the home.

Ooma Telo 4G combines the Ooma Telo base station with the Ooma 4G Cellular Adapter and battery back-up to deliver an always-on home phone solution with all of the advanced features provided by our unique cloud-based residential platform.

Home Security

Ooma Smart Security is an innovative security and monitoring platform that utilizes our Ooma Telo products to provide do-it-yourself home security and awareness through a range of sensors including: door and window, motion, garage door, water, alarm siren, and a keypad that acts as a physical control panel for the security system. Ooma Smart Security also offers professional monitoring services, remote 911 features and multi-user geofencing capabilities to automatically arm and disarm the security system. The Ooma Smart Security mobile app for iOS and Android is the interface through which users interact with the system to pair sensors, toggle between home and away modes, check activity logs and manage and receive notifications.

Talkatone

Our Talkatone mobile app is available to anyone with an iOS or Android mobile device and can be downloaded from the Apple App Store or Google Play for free. Registered users choose their own phone number to make and receive free texts and calls to most U.S. and Canadian numbers using a Wi-Fi or cellular data connection within and out-of-network. Talkatone also enables users to call, text, chat and share with friends and family that do not have the app installed. Advertising is displayed within the mobile app and users can choose to purchase premium services such as ad-free usage and international calling plans.


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 7


Sales and Marketing

Our sales and marketing objective is to grow our customer base and sell to our existing customers additional services using an integrated and multi-channel marketing approach. We continually test and refine our marketing and sales tactics to drive sales at a low customer acquisition cost.

Marketing and Advertising

Online. We use online marketing including search engine marketing, search engine optimization, online video, digital display advertising and social media to attract customers as they do online research for the products and services we offer. We continue to reach out to our prospect leads over time using e-mail and telemarketing until they purchase or the lead is retired.

Traditional. We use radio advertising to build awareness and interest for our products and services, which benefits both Ooma Business and Ooma Residential. We believe that radio advertising provides an opportunity to build the Ooma brand cost-effectively, educate prospects on Ooma’s unique combination of quality and value, and capture prospects’ attention. Businesses and consumers who hear our ads are directed to our web site, our inbound sales personnel, and/or to key retail partners.

Word-of-mouth. We actively mobilize our customers and brand advocates to spread word-of-mouth marketing by sharing Ooma news and information through social media and e-mail. We sell additional services to our existing customer base by offering free trials and promotional offers, as well as sending e-mail communications and leaving messages on their Ooma voicemail service.

Sales, Customers and Backlog

Our business and residential products are sold through direct channels, retailers, value-added resellers, master agents and other resellers. The direct channel, value-added resellers and master agents are our primary distribution channels for business solutions and direct and retail are our primary distribution channels for residential customers. Our direct sales force is focused on business sales and includes trained sales representatives located in the U.S. and Canada responding to inbound telephone calls and sales leads generated through marketing activity and our website and third-party web sites.

Our retail distribution includes national and regional consumer electronics, big box retailers and leading online retailers, including Amazon, Best Buy, Costco.com, Walmart.com and others. We also have strategic partnerships with third parties, such as T-Mobile, which enables us to sell our services and products to certain of their customers. No single customer accounted for 10% or more of our total revenue for fiscal 2022, 2021 and 2020.

Our service plans are generally sold as monthly subscriptions; however, certain plans are also offered as annual and multi-year subscriptions. Products are generally shipped and billed shortly after receipt of an order. We do not believe that our product backlog at any particular time is meaningful because it is not necessarily indicative of future revenue in any given period as such orders may be rescheduled or cancelled without penalty prior to shipment. The majority of our product revenue comes from orders that are received and shipped in the same quarter. 

Customer Support

Our primary customer support objective is to satisfy our customers and educate them on the features and benefits of our products to optimize the overall user experience. We employ an active customer management strategy in which we drive incremental revenue through cross-selling of products and services. Our customer support teams also manage the porting process for our customers as well as billing and payment activities.

We maintain two customer contact centers: one operated by us in Newark, California, which primarily supports our business customers, and the other operated by a third-party provider in Manila, Philippines, which primarily supports our residential customers. In addition, our offices located in Vancouver, British Columbia and Boca Raton, Florida support our enterprise customers. We utilize a variety of communication media to serve the needs of our customers including telephone, online chat, online tutorials and e-mail.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 8


Engineering, Research and Development

We take an integrated approach to the development of our technology. Our extensive engineering resources span both hardware and software, and our business scope encompasses the entire platform from user devices such as handsets to cloud infrastructure, giving us the ability to create unique features and services for our customers. We believe our integrated engineering and business strategy is a significant competitive advantage and makes it feasible for us to leverage our platforms to deliver a broad range of productivity, automation and infrastructure connected services.

We have invested significant time and resources into developing our engineering, research and development team, resulting in a group with diverse skills, ranging from digital and radio frequency hardware design to embedded software, network software, telecommunications, database architecture, operations support systems, billing, security, web design and mobile app development. Because our team develops and integrates our solutions, we are able to offer a solution that works seamlessly between software and hardware and respond to customer feedback to add in additional features and services that work across our platforms. Our team consists of a core set of engineers located primarily in the San Francisco Bay Area, augmented by development teams in several international locations.

Operations and Manufacturing

We currently serve most of our customers from three separate data center facilities located in Northern California, Texas and Virginia, where we lease space from Equinix, Inc. We also lease data center space in certain cities in Europe. While our service operations are partially redundant, account provisioning and billing are operated out of the San Jose facility for most of our customers. Our network operations and carrier operations teams are responsible for designing our core routing and switching infrastructure, managing growth and maintenance (including the introduction of new services) and orchestrating vendor relationships for hosted services, IP transit and carrier services and daily operation of our cloud and other services. The design of these services, and the tools for monitoring and managing them, are developed in combination with our engineering team.

We primarily contract with manufacturers in China and other Asian countries to produce our on-premise devices and end-point devices. We configure and ship to our channel partners and end users through our internal manufacturing and logistics team based in Newark, California. Our internal logistics team also manages reverse logistics for channel and warranty returns and works closely with our engineering team to develop tooling and processes that bring new products into production.


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 9


Competition

The market for communications solutions and other connected services for business, home and mobile users is very large, complex, fragmented and defined by changing technology and customer demands. We expect competition to continue to increase in the future. We believe that the defining factors driving competition in our market include:

 

Quality and consistency of communications services;

 

Lifetime value of initial investment and ongoing cost of services;

 

Breadth of features and capabilities;

 

System reliability, availability and performance;

 

Speed and ease of activation, setup, and configuration;

 

Ownership and control of the proprietary technology;

 

Integration with multiple end-point devices and mobile solutions;

 

Customer satisfaction and brand loyalty; and

 

Ability to effectively access reseller channels

We believe that we generally compete favorably on the basis of the factors listed above. We face competition from a broad range of providers of communications solutions and other connected services for business, home and mobile users. Some of these competitors include:

 

Established communications providers, such as AT&T Inc., Comcast Corporation, Verizon Communications Inc. and Rogers Communications Inc;

 

Other cloud-based communications companies such as RingCentral Inc., Vonage Holdings Corp, 8x8 Inc., Nextiva, Inc., Intermedia.net Inc., Dialpad Inc., Microsoft Corporation, Zoom Video Communications, Inc., and Alphabet Inc. (Google Voice); and

 

Traditional on-premise hardware business communications providers such as Avaya Inc., Cisco Systems, Inc. and Mitel, Inc.

All of these companies currently or may in the future host their solutions through the cloud. Additionally, we recently entered the POTS replacement market and our new AirDial product will face competition from other companies, such as Granite Telecommunications LLC and DataRemote Inc., promoting their own POTS-related products and solutions.

See the section entitled “Risks Related to Our Business and Industry” in Item 1A. "Risk Factors" below for more information related to competition.

 


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 10


Human Capital

People and Culture.  We view our people and our company culture as key to our success. We aim to attract and retain talented people representing diverse perspectives and skills, who are driven by our common Ooma values:

We care that everyone loves their Ooma experience.

We think big to innovate and revolutionize markets.

We create smarter solutions that uniquely deliver both superior experiences and superior value.

We embrace diversity of thought to make the best decisions.

We respect that problems are best solved by fact-based discussions and positive intent.

We choose to be a force for good in the world.

From time-to-time, we conduct confidential company-wide surveys to capture our employees’ views of the organization, company goals and job satisfaction, which our senior leadership team reviews and acts upon, as appropriate. Our employees are encouraged to engage with company leadership and openly raise concerns and questions, including via our quarterly employee communications meeting with the CEO and senior management team.  Our management team also regularly hosts “Ask and Answer” sessions across the organization to create more opportunities for employees to communicate, share ideas and learn about Ooma.  

Diversity, Equity, Inclusion (“DEI”) and Racial Justice.  Our commitment to DEI and racial justice is more than the policies and practices we develop and adhere to – it is an integral part of who we are and how we operate. We believe it is our responsibility to embrace a diverse employee workforce, build a strong and caring culture of inclusion and lead with both passion and compassion. We believe our diversity makes us strong and have pledged along with the Silicon Valley Leadership Group to be an agent of sustainable change. Our internal DEI and Racial Justice committee leads our commitment to put this pledge into action and provides an open door to all of our personnel who would like to actively contribute to the effort.  We believe a diverse and inclusive workforce serves to enrich our employee experience.

Compensation and Benefits.  We aim to provide our employees competitive salaries and benefit programs that help meet the varying needs of our workforce. These programs include an employee stock purchase plan, equity awards and bonuses, a 401(k) retirement plan with a company match, healthcare benefits, paid time off and family leave, and flexible work arrangements. We conduct annual benchmarking to assess our compensation and benefit programs against those of our peers.  

Community Support.  We believe in giving back and promoting community outreach through corporate giving and employee volunteerism. Through our “Ooma Giving Back” program, we partner with certain non-profit organizations to help support several local communities.

Employees and Contractors

As of January 31, 2022, we had a total of 383 full-time employees, all of whom are located in the U.S. and Canada. None of our employees is represented by a labor union or subject to a collective bargaining agreement. Additionally, we utilize third party contractors and temporary personnel to supplement our workforce.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 11


Intellectual Property

We rely on a combination of patents, trade secrets, copyrights, trademarks, confidentiality and proprietary rights agreements with our employees, consultants and other third parties, as well as other contractual protections to establish and protect our intellectual property rights. We control access to our software, documentation and other proprietary information, and our software is protected by U.S. and international copyright laws. As of January 31, 2022, we had 47 issued patents and 8 patent applications pending in the U.S. and 4 patent applications pending in foreign jurisdictions, all of which are associated with U.S. applications. Our issued patents will expire approximately between 2031 and 2040.  We are also a party to various license agreements with third parties who typically grant us the right to use certain third-party technology in conjunction with our products and services, or to integrate software into our products, including open source software and other software available on commercially reasonable terms. Although our success depends, in part, on our ability to protect our proprietary technology and other intellectual property rights, we believe the technological and creative skills of our personnel, the development of new features and functionality and frequent enhancements to our products and services are the primary methods of establishing and maintaining our technology leadership position.

See the section entitled “Risks Related to Security, IT Systems and Intellectual Property” in Item 1A. "Risk Factors” below for more information on our intellectual property risks.

Regulatory Matters

Traditional telephone service historically has been subject to extensive federal and state regulation, while Internet services generally have been subject to less regulation. Because some elements of VoIP resemble the services provided by traditional telephone companies and others resemble the services provided by internet service providers, the VoIP industry has not fit easily within the existing framework of telecommunications law. The Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”), the U.S. Congress, and various regulatory bodies in the states and in foreign countries have imposed regulations on VoIP providers and are continuing to consider new regulatory requirements on VoIP services.

Federal Regulation.  As a provider of internet communications services, we are subject to a number of FCC regulations. Among others, these regulatory obligations include: contributing to the Federal Universal Service Fund (“USF”), the Telecommunications Relay Service Fund and federal programs related to phone number administration; providing access to E-911 services; protecting customer information; and porting phone numbers upon a valid customer request.

State Regulation.  The FCC has preempted much regulation of internet voice communications services. However, a number of states have ruled that non-nomadic internet voice communications services may or do fall within the definition of “telecommunications services” or are otherwise within state telecommunications regulatory jurisdiction and therefore those states assert that they have authority to regulate the service. Although no states currently require certification for nomadic internet voice communications service providers, a number of states have imposed certain traditional telecommunications requirements on such services. For example, a number of states require us to contribute to state USF and E-911 and pay other surcharges, which are passed through to our customers, while others are actively considering extending their public policy programs to include the services we provide. We expect that state public utility commissions will continue their attempts to apply state telecommunications regulations to internet voice communications services like ours.

International Regulation.  As we expand internationally, we are subject to laws and regulations in the countries in which we offer our services. Regulatory treatment of internet communications services outside the U.S. varies from country to country, is often unclear, and may be more onerous than imposed on our services in the U.S. In Canada, our service is regulated by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (“CRTC”) which, among other things, imposes requirements similar to the U.S. related to the provision of E-911 services in all areas of Canada where the traditional telephone carrier offers such 911 services. Our regulatory obligations in foreign jurisdictions could have a material adverse effect on our ability to expand internationally, and on the use of our services in international locations.

See the section entitled “Risks Related to Regulatory and Tax Matters” in Item 1A. Risk Factors below for more information.

Available Information

Our filings with the SEC such as our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to these reports are available free of charge at http://investors.ooma.com as soon as reasonably practical after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. The SEC’s website, www.sec.gov, contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The content on any website referred to in this Form 10-K is not incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K unless expressly noted.

 

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 12


ITEM 1A. Risk Factors

Our current and prospective investors should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” before making investment decisions regarding our common stock. The risks and uncertainties described below may not be the only ones we face but include the most significant factors currently known by us. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, also may become important factors that affect us. If any of the risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment.

Risk Factor Summary  

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, and the following is a summary of key risk factors when considering an investment. This summary should be read together with the more detailed description of each risk factor contained in the subheadings further below and should not be relied upon as an exhaustive summary of the material risks facing our business:

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

If we are unable to attract new users of our services on a cost-effective basis, our business will be materially and adversely affected.

Our customers may terminate their subscriptions for our service in most cases without penalty, and increased customer turnover, or costs we incur to retain our customers and induce them to add users and/or functionality could materially and adversely affect our financial performance.

We depend on several sole suppliers to provide the components for, and a small number of vendors to manufacture, certain on-premise devices and end-point devices we sell, and any delay or interruption in manufacturing, configuring and delivering by these third parties would result in delayed or reduced shipments to our customers and may increase our costs and harm our business and results of operations.

We rely on third parties, including third parties located in Russia, for some of our software development, quality assurance and operations, and anticipate we will continue to do so for the foreseeable future.

A ransomware attack or other security breach could delay or interrupt service to our customers, compromise the integrity of our systems or data that we collect, result in the loss of our intellectual property or confidential information, harm our reputation, or subject us to significant liability.

The ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including any resurgences, could disrupt and cause harm to our business, operating results or financial condition.

We rely significantly on retailers and reseller partnerships to sell our products; our failure to effectively develop, manage and maintain these sales channels could materially and adversely affect our revenue and business.

We face competition in our markets by our competitors (including mergers or other strategic transactions involving our competitors) and may lack sufficient financial or other resources to compete successfully.

To deliver our services, we rely on third parties for our network connectivity and co‑location facilities for certain features in our services and for certain elements of providing our services.

Interruptions in our services could harm our reputation, result in significant costs to us and impair our ability to sell our services.

We rely on third parties to provide the majority of our customer service and support representatives. If these third parties do not provide our customers with reliable, high‑quality service, our reputation and our business will be harmed.

Our business could suffer if we cannot obtain or retain direct inward dialing numbers, or DIDs, are prohibited from obtaining local or toll-free numbers, or are limited to distributing local or toll-free numbers to only certain customers.

If we are unable to effectively process local number and toll-free number portability provisioning in a timely manner, our growth may be negatively affected.

We may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.

If we fail to continue developing our brand or our reputation is harmed, our business may suffer.

Our quarterly and annual results have fluctuated in the past and may continue to do so. As a result, we may fail to meet or to exceed the expectations of research analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to fluctuate.

If additional tariffs or other restrictions are placed on our goods imported from other countries, our revenue, gross margin, and results of operations may be materially harmed.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 13


A significant portion of our revenues today come from small and medium-sized businesses, which may have fewer financial resources to weather an economic downturn.

If we are not able to manage our inventory levels and purchase commitments effectively, we may experience excess inventory levels, inventory obsolescence, or shortages of inventory that could adversely affect our results of operations.

We may lose key members of our management team and other key employees, and may be unable to attract and retain employees we need to support our operations and growth.

We may expand through acquisitions of, or investments in, other companies, each of which may divert our management’s attention, disrupt our operations and harm our results of operations.

We may not be able to secure additional financing on favorable terms, or at all, to meet our future capital needs.

If we are unable to develop, acquire and/or sell new products, services or applications on a timely and cost-effective basis, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Risks Related to Security, IT Systems and Intellectual Property  

We have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, significant costs to protect against security breaches. We may incur significant additional costs in the future to address problems caused by any actual or perceived security breaches.

Failures in internet infrastructure or interference with broadband access could cause current or potential customers to believe that our systems are unreliable, leading our current customers to switch to our competitors or potential customers to avoid using our services.

The success of our business relies on customers’ continued and unimpeded access to broadband service. Providers of broadband services may block or degrade our services, which could adversely affect our revenue and growth.

If we experience excessive fraudulent activity or cannot meet evolving credit card association merchant standards, we could incur substantial costs and lose the right to accept credit cards for payment, which could cause our customer base to decline significantly.

Any failure to obtain registration or protection of our intellectual property rights could materially and adversely affect our business.

Risks Related to Regulatory and Tax Matters

Our services are subject to regulation and future legislative or regulatory actions could adversely affect our business and expose us to liability.

The adoption of additional 911 requirements by the FCC could increase our costs that could make our service more expensive, decrease our profit margins, or both.

If we cannot comply with the FCC’s rules imposing call signaling requirements on VoIP providers like us, we may be subject to fines, cease and desist orders, or other penalties.

Failure to comply with communications and telemarketing laws could result in significant fines or place significant restrictions on our business.

The FCC has continued to increase regulation of interconnected VoIP services and may at any time determine certain VoIP services are telecommunications services subject to traditional common carrier regulation.

Reform of federal and state USF programs could increase the cost of our service to our customers, diminishing or eliminating our pricing advantage.

We process, store, and use personal information and other data, which subjects us and our customers to a variety of evolving industry standards, contractual obligations and other legal rules related to privacy, which may increase our costs, decrease adoption and use of our products and services, and expose us to liability.

Use or delivery of our services may become subject to new or increased regulatory requirements, taxes or fees.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 14


Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry

If we are unable to attract new users of our services on a cost-effective basis our business will be materially and adversely affected.

In order to grow our business, we must continue to attract new users on a cost-effective basis. We use and periodically adjust the mix of advertising and marketing programs to promote our services. Significant increases in the pricing of one or more of our advertising channels could increase our advertising costs or may cause us to choose less expensive and perhaps less effective channels to promote our services. As we add to or change the mix of our advertising and marketing strategies, we may need to expand into channels with significantly higher costs than our current programs, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. We will incur advertising and marketing expenses in advance of when we anticipate recognizing any revenue generated by such expenses, and we may fail to experience an increase in revenue or brand awareness as a result of such expenditures. We have made in the past, and may make in the future, significant expenditures and investments in new advertising campaigns, and we cannot assure you that any such investments will lead to the cost-effective acquisition of additional customers. New users are drawn to our products and services by rankings circulated by organizations such as Amazon, Apple and Google app stores and highly regarded publications such as PCMag. If we are unable to maintain effective advertising programs and garner favorable rankings, our ability to attract new customers could be materially and adversely affected, which could lead us to increase our advertising and marketing expenditures substantially, and our results of operations may suffer.

We market our products and services principally to businesses and households. Some of these business customers and consumers are less technically knowledgeable and may be resistant to new technologies such as our cloud-based communications solutions and our connected services. Because our potential customers need to connect additional hardware at their location and take other steps not required for the use of traditional communications services such as telephone, fax and e-mail, these customers may be reluctant to use our service. These customers may also lack sufficient resources, financial or otherwise, to invest in learning about our services, and therefore may be unwilling to adopt them. If these customers choose not to adopt our services, our ability to grow our business could be negatively affected.

Our customers may terminate their subscriptions for our service in most cases without penalty, and increased customer turnover, or costs we incur to retain our customers and encourage them to add users and, in the future, to purchase additional functionalities and premium services, could materially and adversely affect our financial performance.

Our service plans are generally sold as monthly subscriptions and our customers may terminate their monthly subscription for convenience without any penalty. Certain of our service plans are also sold as annual and multi-year subscriptions, typically ranging up to 3 years. However, our customers have no obligation to renew their subscriptions for such services and may elect to terminate their subscription for any number of reasons. As a result, we have no assurance that the revenue stream associated with a particular customer account will continue beyond the initial subscription term.  Additionally, our Ooma Business customers may choose to reduce the number of lines or remove some of the solutions to which they subscribe. Given Ooma Business customers generally pay more for their subscriptions than residential or mobile customers, any increased churn in business customers could materially and adversely affect our financial performance and user churn, resulting in a significant impact on our results of operations, and increase the costs we incur in our efforts to retain our customers and encourage them to upgrade their services and increase their number of users.

Our core user churn rate could increase significantly in the future if customers are not satisfied with our service, the value proposition of our services, our ability to otherwise meet their needs and expectations, and/or other factors beyond our control. As a result, we may have to acquire new customers or new users within our existing customer base on an ongoing basis simply to maintain our existing level of revenue. If a significant number of customers terminate, reduce or fail to renew their subscriptions, we may need to incur significantly higher marketing expenditures than anticipated to maintain or increase our revenue, which could harm our business and results of operations. Our efforts to mitigate risk of customer churn due to any factor may divert management’s time and focus away from efforts to address customer churn due to other factors. This broad-based susceptibility to churn could materially and adversely affect our financial performance.

Our future success also depends in part on our ability to sell additional subscriptions and functionalities to our current customer base, which may require increasingly sophisticated, costlier sales efforts and a longer sales cycle. Any increase in the costs necessary to upgrade, expand and retain existing customers could materially and adversely affect our financial performance. Such increased costs could cause us to increase our subscription rates, which could increase our customer turnover rate. If our efforts to convince customers to add users and, in the future, to purchase additional functionalities are not successful, our business may suffer.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 15


We depend on several sole suppliers to provide the components for, and a small number of vendors to manufacture, certain on-premise devices and end-point devices we sell, and any delay or interruption in manufacturing, configuring and delivering by these third parties would result in delayed or reduced shipments to our customers and may increase our costs and harm our business and results of operations.

We primarily contract with manufacturers in China and other Asian countries to produce our on-premise devices and end-point devices and our results of operations has been and could be further affected by slowdowns in manufacturing due to external factors such as the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. For example, the Chinese government has from time to time imposed certain restrictions on movement of people and goods to limit the spread of COVID-19, including recently as the outbreak in Hong Kong has spread to China, which has disrupted supply chains globally. Further, many other countries have imposed or are imposing certain restrictions on the movement of people and goods and may continue to lift and reimpose such restrictions as needed.

We currently do not have long-term contracts with our contract manufacturers and they are not obligated to provide products to or perform services for us for any specific period, in any specific quantities or at any specific price, except as may be provided in a particular purchase order. If these third parties are unable or unwilling to deliver products of acceptable quality or in a timely manner, our ability to bring services to market, the reliability of our services and our reputation could suffer. We expect that it could take several months to effectively transition to new third-party manufacturers or fulfillment agents. We may also decide to switch to or bring on additional contract manufacturers to better meet our needs. Switching to or bringing on a new contract manufacturer and commencing production is expensive and time-consuming and may cause delays in order fulfillment at our existing contract manufacturers or cause other disruptions.

Additionally, several components used in our on-premise devices, end-point devices and new products such as Ooma AirDial are “single sourced” and any interruption in the suppliers of such components could cause our business and operating results to suffer as we identify alternative sources of components. For example, we have experienced longer lead times in the supply of some of these components as a result of global supply chain disruptions caused in-part by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and war in the Ukraine. We are also subject to the risk of shortages (including changes in the prioritization of our orders), price increases and the risk that our suppliers may discontinue or modify components used in our products. The occurrence of other events outside our control, such as public health crises, natural disasters or climate change, could impact our suppliers’ facilities and component providers, many of which are located in China and other countries in Asia.  Travel restrictions have been imposed by many countries, including air travel and transport, that have caused and are likely to continue to cause delays in shipment of our products as well as increased logistics costs. If our supply chain continues to be disrupted, we could also experience material and adverse impacts on the availability or cost of components used in our on-premise devices and end-point devices, and to the extent these challenges continue for a prolonged period, we may not be able to provide our customers and channel partners with a sufficient supply of products and devices at price points or with functional characteristics and reliability that meet our customers’ needs. Future repetition of such delays could negatively affect our ability to deliver product to our customers in a timely manner and may harm our business, operating results and hinder our growth.

We rely on third parties, including third parties located in Russia, for some of our software development, quality assurance and operations, and anticipate we will continue to do so for the foreseeable future.

We outsource certain of our software development and design, quality assurance and operations activities to third-party contractors that have employees and consultants in a number of international locations, including Russia. Our dependence on third-party contractors creates numerous risks; in particular, international sanctions imposed as a result of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 could limit our ability to transact with our third-party software development contractors in Russia, which could disrupt or delay current or future planned research and development activities, increase our costs, or force us to shift development efforts to resources in other geographies that may not possess the same level of cost efficiencies. More generally, there is the risk that we may not maintain control or effective management with respect to these business operations. Our agreements with these third-party contractors are either not terminable by them (other than at the end of the term or upon an uncured breach by us) or require at least 30 days’ prior written notice of termination. If we experience problems with our third-party contractors, the costs charged by our third-party contractors increase, or our agreements with our third-party contractors are terminated, we may not be able to develop new solutions, enhance or operate existing solutions or provide customer support in an alternate manner that is equally or more efficient and cost-effective. If we are unsuccessful in maintaining existing and, if needed, establishing new relationships with third parties, our ability to efficiently operate existing services or develop new services and provide adequate customer support could be impaired, and as a result, our competitive position or our results of operations could suffer.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 16


A ransomware attack or other security breach could delay or interrupt service to our customers, compromise the integrity of our systems or data that we collect, result in the loss of our intellectual property or confidential information, harm our reputation, or subject us to significant liability.

Our operations depend on our ability to protect our network from interruption or damage resulting from unauthorized access or entry, computer viruses or malware or other events beyond our control, and our ability to detect any such events. In the past, we may have been subject to undetected distributed denial-of-service, or DDOS cyberattacks, or other forms of attacks by hackers intent on bringing down our services or accessing confidential information, and we may be subject to DDOS and other forms of attacks in the future. Recent developments in the threat landscape include an increased number of cyber extortion and ransomware attacks, with higher financial ransom demand amounts and increasing sophistication and variety of ransomware techniques and methodology. We cannot assure you that our backup systems, regular data backups, physical, technological and organizational security protocols and measures and other procedures that are currently in place, or that may be in place in the future, will be adequate to detect or prevent unauthorized access to our systems, significant damage, system interruption, degradation or failure, or data loss or to respond to a cyberattack once launched. Additionally, hackers may attempt to directly gain access to a customer's on-premise appliance, or their mobile phone, which may delay or interrupt services, or may subject our customers to further security risks, including in relation to any connected household devices a customer might have now or in the future, such as our connected smart security sensors and our partner's connected devices or to our network more generally. Also, our services are web-based, and the amount of data we store for our users on our servers has been increasing as our business has grown.

Despite our ongoing efforts to enhance the implementation of security measures, our infrastructure and those of third parties we rely upon may be vulnerable to hackers, phishing, computer viruses, worms, ransomware other malicious software programs or similarly disruptive problems caused by our customers, employees, consultants or other internet users who attempt to invade public and private data networks. In some cases, we do not have in place disaster recovery facilities for certain ancillary services, such as email delivery of messages. Currently, a majority of our customers authorize us to bill their credit or debit card accounts directly for all transaction fees that we charge. We rely on encryption and authentication technology to ensure secure transmission of confidential information, including customer credit and debit card numbers. Despite our efforts to encrypt and secure transmission of confidential customer information, hackers with sufficiently sophisticated technology or methods may still be able to infiltrate our systems to gain unauthorized access to payment card information. Further, advances in computer capabilities, new discoveries in the field of cryptography or other developments may result in a compromise or breach of the technology we use to protect transaction data. In addition, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to the information systems change frequently, and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures.

Additionally, third parties may attempt to fraudulently induce domestic and international employees, consultants or customers into disclosing sensitive information, such as user names, passwords or customer proprietary network information, or CPNI, or other information in order to gain access to our customers' data or to our data. CPNI includes information such as the phone numbers called by a customer, the frequency, duration, and timing of such calls, and any services purchased by the customer, such as call waiting, call forwarding and caller ID, in addition to other information that may appear on a customer's bill. Third parties may also attempt to fraudulently induce employees, consultants or customers into disclosing sensitive information regarding our intellectual property and other confidential business information, or our information technology systems. In addition, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, or to sabotage systems, change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Any compromise or perceived compromise of our security could damage our reputation with our end-customers, and could subject us to significant liability, as well as regulatory action, including financial penalties, which would materially adversely affect our brand, results of operations, financial condition, business and prospects.

Please see below under “Risks Related to Security, IT Systems and Intellectual Property” for further risks related to security breaches.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 17


 

The ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including any resurgences, could disrupt and cause harm to our business, operating results, or financial condition.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a material impact on the United States, Canada, and global economies and could materially impact our business in a number of ways. It remains difficult to predict the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the broader economy and how consumer behavior may change, and whether such change is temporary or permanent. In Northern California, where our corporate headquarters is located, the process of gradually returning our employees to work onsite may be delayed by the occurrence of new and unforeseen developments in the pandemic, which could adversely impact the effectiveness of our organization.

During the early periods of the pandemic, we experienced an increase in the rate of customer terminations or service cancellations or failures to renew, which we refer to as churn. Although we have seen improvement in our customer churn rate from these increased levels, our churn could again increase in future periods, which may result in a decline to our user growth rate. Moreover, current or potential customers may delay or decrease spending with us, or may not pay us or may delay paying us for previously performed services, due to the lingering effects that the COVID-19 pandemic may have on their business. Given that a significant portion of our revenues today comes from small and medium-sized businesses, these customers may be especially susceptible to negative economic impact stemming from the pandemic and government mandates, which could reduce their demand for our products and services. Current or potential customers and partners may also not be interested in taking sales meetings or cancel existing sales meetings with our sales representatives, which could materially lengthen our sales cycle and slow our sales growth. Traditional “brick-and-mortar” retailers have reduced, and could continue to reduce, purchases of our products as retailers shift focus to online channels, close some of their physical stores and make other operational changes, which may negatively affect our sales and operating results.

The duration and extent of the impact from the COVID-19 pandemic on our business will continue to depend on future developments that cannot be accurately forecasted at this time, such as the transmission rate and geographic spread of the disease, the extent and effectiveness of current or future containment actions, the widespread use of effective vaccines, the severity of breakthrough cases and COVID-19 variants, and the impact of these and other factors on our employees, customers, partners, and vendors. If we are not able to respond to and manage the impact of such events effectively and if the macroeconomic conditions of the general economy or the industry in which we operate do not improve, or worsen from present levels, our business, operating results, financial condition and cash flows could be adversely affected. Please see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Position and Results of Operations” for additional information regarding the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated economic disruptions.

We rely significantly on retailers and reseller partnerships to sell our products; our failure to effectively develop, manage and maintain these sales channels could materially and adversely affect our revenue and business.

A significant portion of our Ooma Residential and Ooma Business product sales are made through a combination of direct sales and leading retailers such as Amazon, Costco.com, Best Buy and Walmart, as well as reseller partnerships. Our future success depends on our ability to effectively maintain, develop and expand our retail channel and reseller partnership sales as we seek to grow and expand our customer base. We generally do not have long-term contracts with our retailers and reseller partners, and we have in the past and may in the future experience a loss of or reduction in sales through any of these third parties, which could materially reduce our revenue and profit margins. Our competitors may in some cases be effective in causing our current and potential retailers, and reseller partners to favor their services or prevent or reduce sales of our services. If we fail to maintain or develop new relationships with retailers and reseller partners in new markets or expand the number of retailers and reseller partners in existing markets, fail to manage, train, or provide appropriate incentives to our existing retailers and reseller partners, or if they are not successful in their sales efforts, sales of our products and services may decrease and our results of operations would suffer. Furthermore, to the extent these retailers or reseller partners are negatively impacted by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including declaring bankruptcy, or otherwise affected by strategic transactions, our sales may also be adversely impacted as a result.

In addition, our Talkatone application relies significantly on the Apple and Google app stores for distribution. Its future success depends on our continued ability to distribute Talkatone through these app stores and increase its visibility therein. If Apple or Google determine that Talkatone is non-compliant with their app store vendor policies, they may revoke our rights to sell Talkatone through their app store at any time, which could adversely affect our revenue.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 18


We face competition in our markets by our competitors and may lack sufficient financial or other resources to compete successfully. Mergers or other strategic transactions involving our competitors could adversely affect our ability to compete effectively and harm our results of operations.

The cloud-based communications and connected services industries are highly competitive and we expect that competition will continue to be intense in the future. We face continued competition from established communications providers, such as AT&T Inc., Comcast Corporation, Verizon Communications Inc. and Rogers Communications Inc; as well as traditional on-premise, hardware business communications providers, mobile communications app companies providing “over-the-top” solutions, large internet companies that offer services with features that compete with some of what we offer, and certain other communications companies. These companies currently or may in the future host their solutions through the cloud.

In addition, some of our competitors have been acquired, and may in the future consolidate with or be acquired by, other companies and competitors. Some of our competitors may enter into new alliances with each other or may establish or strengthen cooperative relationships with systems integrators, third-party consulting firms or other parties. Any such consolidation, acquisition, alliance or cooperative relationship could adversely affect our ability to compete effectively and lead to pricing pressure and our loss of market share, and could result in a competitor with greater financial, technical, marketing, service and other resources, all of which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Furthermore, increased competition may result in aggressive business tactics by our competitors, including: offering products similar to our platforms and solutions on a bundled basis at no charge; announcing competing products combined with extensive marketing efforts; providing financial incentives to consumers; and asserting intellectual property rights irrespective of the validity of the claims.  Our retail partners may offer the products and services of competing companies, which would adversely affect our business. Competition from other companies may also adversely affect our negotiations with service providers and suppliers, including, in some cases, requiring us to lower our prices. We may not be able to compete successfully with the offerings and sales tactics of other companies, which could result in the loss of customers and, as a result, our revenue and profitability could be adversely affected.

To deliver our services, we rely on third parties for our network connectivity and co‑location facilities for certain features in our services and for certain elements of providing our services.

We expect that we will continue to rely on third-party service providers for hosting, internet access and other services that are vital to our service offering for the foreseeable future. For example, Equinix, Inc. and others provide data center facilities, and Inteliquent and others provide origination services. Inteliquent is also our primary provider of 911 services. We also rely on third-party services for our SMS and speech-to-text services which are sole-sourced. If any of these network service providers stop providing us with access to their infrastructure, fail to provide these services to us on a cost-effective basis, cease operations, or otherwise terminate these services, the delay caused by qualifying and switching to another third-party network service provider, if one is available, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We may be required to transfer our servers to new data center facilities if we are unable to renew our leases on acceptable terms, if at all, or the owners of the facilities decide to close their facilities, and we may incur significant costs and possible service interruption in connection with doing so. Any financial difficulties, such as bankruptcy or foreclosure, faced by our third-party data center operators or any of the service providers with which we or they contract, may have negative effects on our business, the nature and extent of which are difficult to predict. Additionally, if our data centers are unable to keep up with our increasing needs for capacity, our ability to grow our business could be materially and adversely impacted.

If problems occur with any of these third-party network or service providers, it may cause errors or reduced quality in our services, and we could encounter difficulty identifying the source of the problem. The occurrence of errors or reduced quality in our service, whether caused by our systems or a third-party network or service provider, may result in the loss of our existing customers, delay or loss of market acceptance of our services, termination of our relationships and agreements with our resellers or liability for failure to meet service level agreements, and may seriously harm our business and results of operations.

We rely on purchased or leased hardware and software licensed from third parties in order to offer our service. In some cases, we integrate third-party licensed software components into our platforms. This hardware and software may not continue to be available at reasonable prices or on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any loss of the right to use any of this hardware or software could significantly increase our expenses and otherwise result in delays in the provisioning of our service until equivalent technology is either developed by us, or, if available, is identified, obtained and integrated. Any errors or defects in third-party hardware or software could result in errors or a failure of our service which could harm our business.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 19


We also contract with one or more third parties to provide enhanced 911, or E-911, services, including assistance in routing emergency calls and terminating E-911 calls. Our providers operate a national call center that is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week, to receive certain emergency calls and maintain public service answering point, or PSAP, databases for the purpose of deploying and operating E-911 services. On mobile devices, we generally rely on the underlying cellular or wireless carrier to provide E-911 services. Any failure to perform, including interruptions in service, by our vendors, could cause failures in our customers’ access to E-911 services and expose us to significant liability and damage our reputation.

Interruptions in our services could harm our reputation, result in significant costs to us and impair our ability to sell our services.

Because our technology platforms are complex, incorporate a variety of new computer hardware, and the platforms continue to evolve, our services may have errors, defects or required updates that are identified after customers begin using such services, which could result in unanticipated service interruptions. Although we test our services to detect and correct errors and defects before their initial release and before we make updates or other changes to such services, we have occasionally experienced significant service interruptions as a result of undetected errors or defects and may experience future interruptions of service if we fail to detect and correct errors and defects. In addition, updates to our hardware and/or software due to changes in third-party service providers may be required from time to time.  For example, some of our Ooma Residential customers will require new hardware in order for service continuation beginning in July 2022, and while we are in the process of shipping such new hardware to such customers, some customers nevertheless may experience service interruptions.  Furthermore, the costs incurred in correcting root causes for service outages and updating our hardware and/or software may be substantial and these and other related consequences could negatively impact our results of operations.

We currently serve the majority of our customers from data centers located in Northern California, Texas and Virginia, where we lease space from Equinix, Inc. We also lease data center space in certain cities in Europe. These facilities and the procedures we have implemented to restore services quickly in the event of a service outage, by themselves, will not prevent future outages. Any damage to, or failure of, these facilities, the communications network providers with whom we or they contract or with the systems by which our communications providers allocate capacity among their customers, including us, could result in interruptions in our service. Additionally, in connection with the expansion or consolidation of our existing data center facilities, we may move or transfer our data and our customers’ data to other data centers. Despite precautions we take during this process, any unsuccessful data transfers may impair or cause disruptions in the delivery of our service.

Despite precautions taken at our hosting facilities, the occurrence of a natural disaster or an act of terrorism or other unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our service. Even with the disaster recovery arrangements that we have in place, our service could be interrupted. Any defects in, or unavailability of, the components of our platforms that cause interruptions of our services could, among other things: cause a reduction in revenue or a delay in market acceptance of our services; require us to issue refunds to our customers or expose us to claims for damages; cause us to lose existing customers and make it more difficult to attract new customers; divert our development resources or require us to make extensive changes to our software, which would increase our expenses and slow innovation; increase our technical support costs; and harm our reputation and brand.

We rely on third parties to provide the majority of our customer service and support representatives. If these third parties do not provide our customers with reliable, high‑quality service, our reputation and our business will be harmed, and we may be exposed to significant liability.

We offer customer support through both our online account management website and our toll-free customer support number. Our customer support is currently provided via a third-party provider located in the Philippines, as well as our employees in the U.S. The ability to support our customers was disrupted by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and may be in the future disrupted by other natural disasters, inclement weather conditions, civil unrest, strikes, acts of terrorism, breaches of data security, and other adverse events in the Philippines. Furthermore, as we expand our operations internationally, we will need to make significant expenditures and investments in our customer service and support to adequately address the complex needs of international customers, such as support in multiple foreign languages. We currently offer support almost exclusively in English. In addition, a significant service outage may cause a high volume of customer support inquiries, and our third‑party customer service center may not be able to respond to such inquiries in a timely manner. Industry consolidation among providers of services to us may impact our ability to obtain these services or increase our costs for these services.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 20


If we fail to continue developing our brand or our reputation is harmed, our business may suffer.

We believe that continuing to strengthen our current brand will be critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our services and will require continued focus on active marketing efforts. The demand for and cost of online and traditional advertising have been increasing and may continue to increase. Accordingly, we may need to increase our investment in, and devote greater resources to, advertising, marketing, and other efforts to create and maintain brand loyalty among users. Brand promotion activities may not yield increased revenue, and even if they do, any increased revenue may not offset the expenses incurred in building our brands. If we fail to promote and maintain our brand, or if we incur substantial expense in an unsuccessful attempt to promote and maintain our brands, our business could be materially and adversely affected.

Our services, as well as those of our competitors, are regularly reviewed and commented upon by online and social media sources, as well as computer and other business publications. Negative reviews, or reviews in which our competitors’ products and services are rated more highly than our solutions, could negatively affect our brand and reputation. From time to time, our customers have expressed dissatisfaction with our services, including dissatisfaction with our customer support, our billing policies and the way our services operate. If we do not handle customer complaints effectively, our brand and reputation may suffer, we may lose our customers’ confidence, and they may choose to terminate, reduce or not to renew their subscriptions. In addition, many of our customers participate in social media and online blogs about internet-based services, including our services, and our success depends in part on our ability to minimize negative and generate positive customer feedback through such online channels where existing and potential customers seek and share information. If actions we take or changes we make to our services upset these customers, their blogging could negatively affect our brand and reputation. Complaints or negative publicity about our services or customer service could materially and adversely impact our ability to attract and retain customers and our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may not be able to effectively manage our growth and the increased complexity of our business, which could negatively impact our brand, financial performance and increase the risk of investing in our stock.

We have experienced substantial growth in our business, including an increase in the number of customers we consider to be our core users. This growth has placed and may continue to place significant demands on our management and our operational and financial infrastructure. As our operations grow in size, scope and complexity, we will need to increase our sales and marketing efforts, add additional sales and marketing personnel worldwide and improve and upgrade our systems and infrastructure to attract, service, and retain an increasing number of users. For example, we expect the volume of simultaneous calls to increase significantly as our user base grows. Our network hardware and software may not be able to accommodate this additional simultaneous call volume. The expansion of our systems and infrastructure will require us to commit substantial financial, operational and technical resources in advance of an increase in the volume of business, with no assurance that the volume of business will increase. Any such additional capital investments will increase our cost base. Continued growth could also strain our ability to maintain reliable service levels for our users, develop and improve our operational, financial and management controls, enhance our reporting systems and procedures and recruit, train, and retain highly skilled personnel. If we fail to achieve the necessary level of efficiency in our organization as we grow, and if the current and future members of our management team do not effectively scale with this growth, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

Our rates of growth may decline in the future.

Our user growth and revenue growth rates may decline over time as the size of our active user base increases, and it is possible that the size of our active user base may fluctuate or decline in one or more markets, particularly as we achieve greater market penetration. Our revenue growth rate may generally decline over time as our revenue increases to higher levels. As our growth rates decline, investors' perceptions of our business may be adversely affected and the trading price of our common stock could decline.

Our business could suffer if we cannot obtain or retain direct inward dialing numbers, or DIDs, are prohibited from obtaining local or toll-free numbers, or are limited to distributing local or toll-free numbers to only certain customers.

Our future success depends on our ability to procure large quantities of local and toll-free DIDs in the U.S. and foreign countries in desirable locations at a reasonable cost and without restrictions. Our ability to procure and distribute DIDs depends on factors outside of our control, such as applicable regulations, the practices of the communications carriers that provide DIDs, the cost of these DIDs, and the level of demand for new DIDs. Due to their limited availability, there are certain popular area code prefixes we generally cannot obtain. Our inability to acquire DIDs for our operations would make our services less attractive to potential customers in the affected local geographic areas. In addition, future growth in our customer base and the customer bases of our competitors will increase our dependence on needing sufficiently large quantities of DIDs.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 21


If we are unable to effectively process local number and toll-free number portability provisioning in a timely manner, our growth may be negatively affected.

We support local number and toll-free number portability, which allows our customers to transfer to us and thereby retain their existing phone numbers when subscribing to our services. During the number transfer process, our new customers must maintain both our service and their existing phone service. We depend on third-party carriers to transfer phone numbers, a process we do not control, and these third-party carriers may refuse or substantially delay the transfer of these numbers to us. Local number portability is considered an important feature by many potential customers, and if we fail to reduce any related delays, we may experience increased difficulty in acquiring new customers. Moreover, the FCC requires us to comply with specified number porting timeframes when customers leave our service for the services of another provider. In Canada, the CRTC has imposed a similar number portability requirement on service providers like us. If we, or our third-party carriers, are unable to process number portability requests within the requisite timeframes, we could be subject to fines and penalties. Additionally, in the U.S., both customers and carriers may seek relief from the relevant state public utility commission, the FCC, or in state or federal court for violation of local number portability requirements.

We may not be able to achieve or sustain profitability in the future.

We have incurred net losses since our inception, including net losses of approximately $1.8 million in fiscal 2022. We have expended significant resources to develop, market, promote, and sell our products and solutions and we expect to continue investing for future growth. Although we generated cash from operations of $6.7 million for fiscal 2022, we cannot assure you that our operating cash flow will remain positive in the future as a result of our increased expenditures. Achieving profitability will require us to increase revenue, manage our cost structure and avoid significant liabilities. Revenue growth may slow, revenue may decline or we may incur significant losses in the future for a number of possible reasons, including general macroeconomic conditions, increasing competition (including competitive pricing pressures), a decrease in the growth of the markets in which we compete, or failure for any reason to continue capitalizing on growth opportunities. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen operating expenses, difficulties, complications, delays, service delivery and quality problems and other unknown factors that may result in losses in future periods. If these losses exceed our expectations or our revenue growth expectations are not met in future periods, our financial performance will be harmed and our stock price could be volatile or decline.

Our quarterly and annual results have fluctuated in the past and may continue to do so in the future. As a result, we may fail to meet or to exceed the expectations of research analysts or investors, which could cause our stock price to fluctuate.

Our quarterly and annual results of operations and cash flows, have varied historically from period to period, and we expect that they will continue to fluctuate due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including:

 

our ability to retain existing customers and attract new customers, sell premium solutions to our existing customers and introduce new solutions;

 

the actions of our competitors, including pricing changes or the introduction of new solutions and products;

 

our ability to effectively manage our growth and successfully penetrate the communications and connected services markets for businesses, residential and mobile;

 

the number of monthly, annual and multi-year subscriptions at any given time;

 

the timing, cost and effectiveness of our advertising and marketing efforts;

 

the timing, operating cost and capital expenditures related to the operation, maintenance, and expansion of our business;

 

delays or disruptions in our supply chain;

 

the timing of our decisions with regard to product resource allocation;

 

seasonality of consumers’ purchasing patterns and seasonality of advertising patterns;

 

service outages or security breaches and any related impact on our reputation;

 

our ability to accurately forecast revenue and appropriately plan our expenses;

 

our ability to effectively transact with our third-party software development contractors in Russia, including any disruptions or delays in research and development activities due to international sanctions imposed as a result of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022;

 

quarantines, travel limitations, or business disruptions in regions affecting our operations, including our field sales and installation services teams, or the operations of third parties upon which we rely, stemming from the actual, imminent or perceived outbreaks of epidemics or pandemics;

 

costs associated with defending and resolving intellectual property infringement and other claims;

 

changes in tax laws, regulations, or accounting rules;

 

the timing and cost of developing or acquiring technologies, services or businesses and our ability to successfully manage any such acquisitions;

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 22


 

how well we execute on our strategy and operating plans and the impact of changes in our business model that could adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition; and

 

the impact of worldwide economic, industry, and market conditions, such as higher levels of inflation.

Any one of the factors above, or the cumulative effect of some or all of the factors referred to above, may result in significant fluctuations in our quarterly and annual results of operations and cash flows. This variability and unpredictability could result in our failure to meet our internal operating plan or the expectations of securities analysts or investors for any period, which could cause our stock price to decline. In addition, a significant percentage of our operating expenses is fixed in nature and is based on forecasted revenue trends. Accordingly, in the event of revenue shortfalls, we may not be able to mitigate the negative impact on net income (loss) and margins in the short term. If we fail to meet or exceed the expectations of research analysts or investors, the market price of our shares could fall substantially and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class-action suits.

If additional tariffs or other restrictions are placed on our goods imported from other countries, or if the United States were to withdraw from or modify existing trade agreements or regulations, our revenue, gross margin, and results of operations may be materially harmed.

During 2019, the U.S. federal government announced new and increased tariffs on certain Chinese imported goods, and China has imposed tariffs in response to the actions of the U.S. Such actions subject a wide range of our products to tariffs and increased existing tariffs on certain of our products, which have negatively impacted, and could continue to negatively impact our gross margins. If additional tariffs or other restrictions are placed on goods imported into the United States from China or other countries, or any related counter-measures are taken by China or other countries, our revenue and results of operations may be materially harmed. We cannot assure you that the current administration will not continue to increase tariffs on imports from China or alter trade agreements and terms between China and the United States, which may include limiting trade with China.

Trade restrictions, including tariffs, quotas, embargoes, safeguards and customs restrictions, could increase the cost or reduce the supply of products available to us, or could increase the lead times of certain components and equipment that we may purchase from foreign vendors located in China and other countries, or may require us to modify our supply chain organization or other current business practices, any of which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, the U.S. National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019, imposed a ban on the use of certain surveillance, telecommunications, and other equipment manufactured in China, to help protect critical infrastructure and other sites deemed to be sensitive for national security purposes in the U.S. While this ban has not had a direct effect on our supply chain, any expansion to this ban or imposition of any similar bans by the U.S. federal government may require us to find new sources of system assembly, which may result in higher costs and disruption to our business.

We are dependent on international trade agreements and regulations, such as the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement, or USMC. If the United States were to withdraw from or materially modify certain international trade agreements or regulations, our business and operating results could be materially and adversely affected and our customer relationships in Canada and other countries could be harmed.

A significant portion of our revenues today come from small and medium-sized businesses, which may have fewer financial resources to weather an economic downturn.

A significant portion of our revenues today comes from small and medium-sized businesses. These customers may be more susceptible to negative impact from economic downturns (including short- to intermediate-term economic disruption caused by catastrophic events such as the COVID-19 pandemic) than larger, more established businesses as these businesses typically have fewer financial resources than larger entities. As the majority of our customers pay for our subscriptions through credit and debit cards, weakness in certain segments of the credit markets and in the U.S. and global economies has resulted in and may in the future result in increased numbers of rejected credit and debit card payments and business failures, which could materially affect our business by increased customer default or cancellations. If small and medium-sized businesses experience financial hardship or declare bankruptcy as a result of a weak economy or for any other reason, the overall demand for our subscriptions could be materially and adversely affected.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 23


If we are not able to manage our inventory levels and purchase commitments effectively, we may experience excess inventory levels, inventory obsolescence, or shortages of inventory that could adversely affect our results of operations.

Our vendor-supplied on-premise devices and end-point devices frequently have lead times of several months for delivery and are built based on our estimates of future demand. Our ability to accurately forecast demand is affected by many factors, including an increase or decrease in customer demand for our products and services, changes in consumer preferences, market acceptance of new product and service introductions by us and our competitors, levels of inventory held by channel partners, sales promotional activities by us or our competitors, and unanticipated changes in general market demand and macro-economic conditions.  In addition, because we rely on third-party contract manufacturers and other vendors for the supply of our devices and components, our inventory levels are subject to the conditions regarding the timing of purchase orders and delivery dates not within our control.  

It is likely that from time to time we will have either an excess or shortage of product inventory. For example, in recent periods, we have increased our inventory levels and non-cancelable purchase commitments to third party contract manufacturers and other suppliers to mitigate supply disruptions caused by component shortages, longer lead times and increased transportation uncertainty. These increased levels may result in write-down charges from excess or obsolete inventory, charges from excess purchase commitments, the sale of inventory at discounted prices, and other actions, which may cause our gross margin to decline and harm our reputation and brand. Conversely, insufficient levels of inventory may negatively affect relations with customers. For instance, our customers rely upon our ability to meet committed delivery dates, and any disruption in the supply of our services could result in loss of customers or harm to our ability to attract new customers. Retailers may elect to return any unsold inventory without any penalty, which could result in excess inventory charges. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We may lose key members of our management team and other key employees, and may be unable to attract and retain employees we need to support our operations and growth.  

Our future performance depends on the continued services and contributions of our senior management and other key employees to execute on our business plan, and to identify and pursue opportunities and services innovations. The loss of services of senior management or other key employees could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our development and strategic objectives. The replacement of any of these senior management personnel would likely involve significant time and costs, and such loss could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives. Many members of our senior management have been our employees for many years and therefore have significant experience and understanding of our business that would be difficult to replace. Our inability to attract and retain the necessary personnel could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of business. We do not maintain key person insurance for any of our personnel.

We may expand through acquisitions of, or investments in, other companies, each of which may divert our management’s attention, result in additional dilution to our stockholders, increase expenses, disrupt our operations and harm our results of operations.

Our business strategy may, from time to time, include acquiring or investing in complementary services, technologies or businesses. We may not be able to find suitable acquisition candidates, and we may not be able to complete acquisitions on favorable terms, if at all.  If we do complete acquisitions, we may not ultimately strengthen our competitive position or achieve our goals, and any acquisitions we complete could be viewed negatively by users, customers or investors. If we fail to successfully integrate such acquisitions, or the technologies associated with such acquisitions, the revenue and operating results of the combined company could be adversely affected. Acquisitions may disrupt our ongoing operations, divert management from their primary responsibilities, subject us to additional liabilities, increase our expenses and adversely impact our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows. We may not successfully evaluate or utilize the acquired technology and accurately forecast the financial impact of an acquisition transaction, including accounting charges.

We may have to pay cash, incur debt or issue equity securities to pay for any such acquisition, each of which could affect our financial condition or the value of our capital stock. The sale of equity to finance any such acquisitions could result in dilution to our stockholders. If we incur debt it would result in increased fixed obligations and could also subject us to covenants or other restrictions that would impede our ability to manage our operations. In addition, our future operating results may be impacted by performance earnouts or contingent payments. Furthermore, acquisitions may require large one-time charges and can result in increased debt or contingent liabilities, adverse tax consequences, additional stock-based compensation expense and the recording and subsequent amortization or impairments of amounts related to certain purchased intangible assets, any of which could negatively impact our future results of operations.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 24


When we enter into strategic transactions in which we acquire other companies, we cannot guarantee we will be able to successfully integrate the teams, assets or business of these target companies into our business, that we will be able to fully recover the costs of such transactions, that we will retain existing key customer and partner relationships, that we will be successful in leveraging such strategic transactions into increased business for our products, or that we will otherwise be able to achieve the intended results of the acquisitions.

We may not be able to secure additional financing on favorable terms, or at all, to meet our future capital needs.

We intend to continue making expenditures and investments to support the growth of our business. In the future, we may require additional capital to pursue our business objectives and to respond to business opportunities, challenges, or unforeseen circumstances, including the need to develop new solutions or enhance our existing solutions, enhance our operating infrastructure, and acquire complementary businesses and technologies. Accordingly, we may decide to engage in equity or debt financings, draw down under our existing credit facility or enter into new credit facilities to secure additional funds. However, additional funds may not be available when we need them on terms acceptable to us, or at all. For example, our existing credit facility contains affirmative and negative covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, including covenants which may limit our ability to, among other things, incur additional indebtedness and liens, make certain investments, merge or consolidate with other entities and make certain dispositions.  Any debt financing we secure in the future could involve further restrictive covenants, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities. In addition, volatility in the credit markets may have an adverse effect on our ability to obtain debt financing. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and the trading price of our common stock would likely decline. Additionally, any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences, and privileges superior to those of holders of our common stock. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing under our credit facility or alternative sources on terms satisfactory to us, our ability to continue pursuing our business objectives and to respond to business opportunities, challenges or unforeseen circumstances could be significantly limited, and our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could be materially and adversely affected, and the trading price of our common stock would likely decline. In the event additional financing is required from outside sources, we may not be able to raise it on terms acceptable to us or at all.

If we are unable to develop, acquire and/or sell new products, services or applications on a timely and cost-effective basis, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

The cloud-based communications and connected services industries are characterized by rapid changes in customer requirements, frequent introductions of new and enhanced services, and continuing and rapid technological advancement. To compete successfully in these emerging markets, we must anticipate and adapt to unpredictable technological changes and evolving industry standards and continue to design, develop, manufacture and sell new and enhanced services and products that provide increasingly higher levels of performance and reliability at lower cost. For fiscal 2022, we derived approximately 49% and 49% of our revenue from Ooma Residential and Ooma Business, respectively, and expect they will continue to account for most of our revenue for the foreseeable future.

However, our future success will also depend on our ability to introduce and sell new services, products, features and functionality that enhance or are beyond the voice, fax, text and connected services we currently offer, as well as to improve usability and support and increase customer satisfaction. The success of new product introductions, such as Ooma AirDial, depends on a number of factors including, but not limited to: pricing, market and consumer acceptance, the ability to successfully identify and originate product trends, effective forecasting and management of product demand, purchase commitments and inventory levels, availability of products in appropriate quantities to meet anticipated demand, ability to obtain timely and adequate delivery of components for our new products from third-party suppliers, management of manufacturing and supply costs, and the risk that new products may have quality issues or other defects or bugs in the early stages of introduction. Moreover, the market for POTS line replacement is relatively new and the launch of Ooma AirDial may not result in long term success or significant revenue for us. Our failure to develop solutions that satisfy customer preferences in a timely and cost-effective manner may harm our ability to renew our subscriptions with existing customers and to create or increase demand for our services and products and may materially and adversely impact our results of operations.

The introduction or announcement of new services and technologies by our competitors could make our existing solutions obsolete, cause customers to defer purchases of our products and services, or otherwise adversely affect our business and results of operations. Further, we may experience higher product returns from retailers or reseller partners and may face challenges managing the inventory of new or existing products, which could lead to excess inventory charges and/or discounting of such products. In addition, new products may have varying selling prices and costs compared to legacy products, which could negatively impact our gross margins and operating results. 

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 25


We may experience difficulties with software development, operations, design or marketing that could delay or prevent the introduction or implementation of new or enhanced products, services and applications. We have in the past experienced delays in the planned release dates of new features and upgrades and have discovered defects in new services and applications after their introduction. We cannot assure you that new products, or new features or upgrades to existing products and services, will be released according to schedule, or that, when released, they will not contain defects. Either of these situations could result in adverse publicity, loss of revenue, higher than expected costs, delay in market acceptance or claims by customers brought against us, all of which could harm our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition.

Moreover, the development of new or enhanced products, services or applications may require substantial investment, and we must continue to invest a significant amount of resources in our research and development efforts to remain competitive. We do not know whether these investments will be successful. If we are unable to develop, license or acquire new or enhanced products, services and applications on a timely and cost‑effective basis, or if such new or enhanced products, services and applications do not achieve adequate market acceptance, we may not be able to realize a return on our investments and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Our success depends, in part, on increased public acceptance of our connected services, applications and products.

Our future growth depends on our ability to significantly increase revenue generated from our Ooma Business and Ooma Residential communications solutions and other connected services. The markets for cloud-based communications, smart security services and connected services are evolving rapidly and are characterized by an increasing number of market entrants. If these markets fail to develop, develop more slowly than we anticipate or develop in a manner different than we expect, our services could fail to achieve market acceptance, which in turn could materially and adversely affect our business.

Our future growth in the small and medium-sized business and enterprise markets depends on the continued use of voice communications by businesses, as compared to e-mail and other data-based methods. A decline in the overall rate of voice communications by businesses would harm our business. Furthermore, our continued growth depends on future demand for and adoption of internet voice communications systems and services and on future demand for connected communications services. Although the number of broadband subscribers worldwide has grown significantly in recent years, only a small percentage of businesses have adopted internet voice communications services to date. For demand and adoption of internet voice communications services by businesses to increase, internet voice communications networks must improve the quality of their service for real-time communications by managing the effects of and reducing packet loss, packet delay, and packet jitter, as well as unreliable bandwidth, so that high-quality service can be consistently provided. Additionally, the cost and feature benefits of internet voice communications must be sufficient to cause customers to switch from traditional phone service providers. We must devote substantial resources to educate potential customers about the benefits of internet voice communications solutions, in general, and of our services in particular. If any or all of these factors fail to occur, our business may be materially and adversely affected.

Our Ooma Residential product and services are being sold to individuals and families. With the growth of mobile technologies, many consumers have chosen to eliminate their home telephone service. Our ability to continue growing our user base depends on our ability to convince our customers and potential customers that our service is sufficiently useful and cost-effective, that it makes sense to maintain or establish home telephone services with us. Our growth could slow and our financial condition could be adversely affected if the trend of eliminating home telephone service continues or accelerates.

Our mobile platform, available to any consumer with a Wi-Fi® or cellular data connected mobile device, operates in a market that is fragmented and where it is difficult to gain consumer awareness. Many of our competitors in this market have been able to establish a significant user base and reputation in the market, which may make it more difficult for our products to be adopted. Furthermore, as new mobile devices are released, we may encounter difficulties supporting these devices and services, and we may need to devote significant resources to the creation, support, and maintenance of our mobile applications. Additionally, our competitors may allocate additional resources to marketing and promotion of their products, making it even more difficult to be noticed. It is also unclear how the adoption of “over-the-top” based communications will continue to grow. If the number of consumers using “over-the-top” based communications stagnates or declines, such movement may result in an intensified competition for consumers in this space.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 26


We are expanding our international operations, which may expose us to significant risks.

To date, we have not generated significant revenue from outside of the U.S. and Canada, but we have expanded operations outside North America as we ramp up to provide services in certain countries internationally. The future success of our business will depend, in part, on our ability to expand our operations and customer base worldwide. Operating in international markets requires significant resources and management attention and will subject us to regulatory, economic and political risks different from those in the U.S. Because of our limited experience with international operations and developing and managing sales and distribution channels in international markets, our international expansion efforts may not be successful. In addition, we will face risks in doing business internationally that could materially and adversely affect our business, including:

 

our ability to comply with differing technical and environmental standards, data privacy and telecommunications regulations, and certification requirements outside the U.S.;

 

potential contractual and other liability to our business partners if we fail to meet their aggressive expansion schedules in new locations;

 

difficulties and costs associated with staffing and managing foreign operations;

 

potentially greater difficulty collecting accounts receivable and longer payment cycles;

 

the need to adapt and localize our services for specific countries;

 

the need to offer customer care in various native languages;

 

reliance on third parties over which we have limited control, including international resellers, for marketing and reselling our services;

 

availability of reliable broadband connectivity and wide area networks in targeted areas for expansion;

 

lower levels of adoption of credit or debit card usage for internet related purchases by foreign customers and compliance with various foreign regulations related to credit or debit card processing and data privacy requirements;

 

difficulties in understanding and complying with local laws, regulations, and customs in foreign jurisdictions;

 

export controls and trade and economic sanctions administered by the Department of Commerce Bureau of Industry and Security and the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control;

 

tariffs and other non-tariff barriers, such as quotas and local content rules;

 

tariffs imposed by the U.S. on goods from other countries and tariffs imposed by other countries on U.S. goods, including the tariffs implemented and additional tariffs that have been proposed by the U.S. government on various imports from China, Canada, Mexico and the EU, and by the governments of these jurisdictions on certain U.S. goods, and any other possible tariffs that may be imposed on services such as ours, the scope and duration of which, if implemented, remain uncertain;

 

compliance with various anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA;

 

limited protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;

 

adverse tax consequences;

 

fluctuations in currency exchange rates, economic stability, and inflationary conditions which could increase the price of our services outside of the U.S., increase the expenses of our international operations, including expenses related to foreign contractors, and expose us to foreign currency exchange rate risk;

 

exchange control regulations, which might restrict or prohibit our conversion of other currencies into U.S. Dollars;

 

restrictions on the transfer of funds;

 

international conflict and sanctions, such as those resulting from the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022;

 

public health crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, could worsen a slowdown in the global economy and demand for our products and services and limit the ability of our field sales teams to conduct sales efforts;

 

deterioration of political relations between the U.S. and other countries; and

 

political or social unrest or economic instability in a specific country or region, which could have an adverse impact on our third-party software development and quality assurance operations there.

Our failure to manage any of these risks successfully could harm our future international operations and our overall business.

 

 


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 27


Risks Related to Security, IT Systems and Intellectual Property

We have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, significant costs to protect against security breaches. We may incur significant additional costs in the future to address problems caused by any actual or perceived security breaches.

Any system failure or security breach that causes interruptions or data loss in our operations or in the computer systems of our customers or leads to the misappropriation of our or our customers' CPNI could result in significant liability to us. Such failure or breach could cause our service to be perceived as not being secure, subject us to regulatory requirements such as FCC notification, result in significant monetary costs, such as fines, legal fees and expenditures to improve and enhance our security measures, cause considerable harm to us and our reputation (including requiring notification to customers, regulators or the media) and deter current and potential customers from using our services.

Additionally, we could incur significant costs, both monetary and with respect to management's time and attention, to investigate and remediate a data security breach. Because our onboarding and billing functions are conducted primarily through a single data center, any security breach in that data center may cause an interruption in our business operations.  If any of these events occurs, or is believed to occur, our reputation and brand could be damaged, our business may suffer, we could be required to expend significant capital and other resources to alleviate problems caused by such actual or perceived breaches, we could be exposed to a risk of loss, litigation or regulatory action and possible liability, and our ability to operate our business, including our ability to provide maintenance and support services to our channel partners and end-customers, may be impaired. If current or prospective channel partners and end-customers believe that our systems and solutions do not provide adequate security for their businesses' needs, our business and our financial results could be harmed. Actual, potential or anticipated attacks may cause us to incur increasing costs, including costs to deploy additional personnel and protection technologies, train employees and engage third-party experts and consultants.

Although we maintain privacy, data breach and network security liability insurance, we cannot be certain that our coverage will be adequate for liabilities actually incurred or that insurance will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all. In addition, although we have developed an information security program, we cannot guarantee these measures would be sufficient to protect us from a network security incident. Any actual or perceived compromise or breach of our security measures, or those of our third-party service providers, or any unauthorized access to, misuse or misappropriation of personally identifiable information, channel partners' or end-customers information, or other information, could violate applicable laws and regulations, contractual obligations or other legal obligations and cause significant legal and financial exposure, adverse publicity and a loss of confidence in our security measures, any of which could have an material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

Failures in internet infrastructure or interference with broadband access could cause current or potential customers to believe that our systems are unreliable, leading our current customers to switch to our competitors or potential customers to avoid using our services.

Many of our services depend on our customers’ broadband access to the internet, usually provided through a cable or digital subscriber line, or DSL, connection. In addition, users who access our services and applications through mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, must have a high-speed connection, such as Wi-Fi, 3G, 4G, 5G or LTE, to use our services and applications. Currently, this access is provided by companies that have significant and increasing market power in the broadband and internet access marketplace, including incumbent phone companies, cable companies and wireless companies. Increasing numbers of users and increasing bandwidth requirements may degrade the performance of internet and mobile infrastructure, resulting in outages or deteriorations in connectivity and negatively impacting the quality with which we can deliver our solutions. As our customer base grows and their usage of communications capacity increases, we will be required to make additional investments in network capacity to maintain adequate data transmission speeds, the availability of which may be limited, or the cost of which may be on terms unacceptable to us. If adequate capacity is not available to us as our customers’ usage increases, our network may be unable to achieve or maintain sufficiently high data transmission capacity, reliability or performance. Furthermore, as the rate of adopting new technologies increases, the networks on which our services and applications rely may not be able to sufficiently adapt to the increased demand for these services, including ours. In the past, we have experienced disruptions to our service and were able to restore service without incurring material expenses. Outages to date have not materially affected our results of operations.  However, the costs incurred in correcting root causes for service outages may be substantial and these and other related consequences could negatively impact our results of operations.

Frequent or persistent interruptions could cause current or potential users to believe that our systems or services are unreliable, leading them to switch to our competitors or to avoid our services, and could permanently harm our reputation and brands. Because some of our services rely on integration between features that use both wired and wireless infrastructures, any of the aforementioned problems with either wired or wireless infrastructure may result in the inability of customers to take advantage of our integrated services and therefore may decrease the attractiveness of our collective services to current and potential customers.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 28


The success of our business relies on customers’ continued and unimpeded access to broadband service. Providers of broadband services may block or degrade our services or charge their customers more for using our services, which could adversely affect our revenue and growth.

Some of the providers of broadband internet access and high-speed mobile access, such as AT&T and Verizon, market and sell products and services to our current and potential customers that directly compete with our own offerings, which can potentially give such providers a competitive advantage. Broadband providers also may take measures that affect their customers’ ability to use our service, such as degrading the quality of the data packets we transmit over their lines, giving those packets low priority, giving other packets higher priority than ours, blocking our packets entirely or attempting to charge their customers more for also using our services. In the past, actions like these taken by U.S. providers would violate the net neutrality rules adopted by the FCC and described below. However, the FCC has largely reversed the net neutrality rules, and most foreign countries have not adopted formal net neutrality or open internet rules, creating an increased risk broadband providers will engage in such anti-competitive measures against us in the United States and elsewhere.

Also, a number of states have enacted or are considering legislation or executive actions that would regulate the conduct of broadband providers. For example, on September 30, 2018, California enacted the California Internet Consumer Protection and Net Neutrality Act of 2018, making California the fourth state to enact a state-level net neutrality law since the FCC repealed its nationwide regulations, mandating that all broadband services in California must be provided in accordance with state net neutrality requirements. The law has been challenged by telecom and broadband industry groups. However, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the law on January 28, 2022. It is possible the plaintiffs will petition the court to review the decision en banc or petition the United States Supreme Court for review. We cannot predict whether the FCC orders or state initiatives will be modified, overturned, or vacated by legal action of the court, federal or state legislation, or the FCC. The FCC’s orders could affect the market for broadband internet access service in a way that impacts our business, for example by increasing the cost of broadband internet service and thereby depressing demand for our services, by increasing the costs of services we purchase or by creating tiers of internet access service and by either charging us for or prohibiting us from being available through these tiers, and we cannot predict the impact of these events upon our business and results of operations.

If we experience excessive fraudulent activity or cannot meet evolving credit card association merchant standards, we could incur substantial costs and lose the right to accept credit cards for payment, which could cause our customer base to decline significantly.

A majority of our customers authorize us to bill their credit card accounts directly for service fees that we charge. If people pay for our services with stolen credit cards, we could incur substantial third-party vendor costs for which we may not be reimbursed. Further, our customers provide us with credit card billing information online or over the phone, and we do not review the physical credit cards used in these transactions, which increases our risk of exposure to fraudulent activity. We also incur charges, which we refer to as chargebacks, from the credit card companies’ claims that the customer did not authorize the credit card transaction to purchase our service, something we have experienced in the past. If the number of unauthorized credit card transactions becomes excessive, we could be assessed substantial fines for excess chargebacks and we could lose the right to accept credit cards for payment. We have also been affected by the credit card breaches at various retail stores, which have caused millions of consumers to cancel credit cards as a result of the breach. We have found that some consumers do not renew their services after a card cancellation, which can have a material negative impact on our revenue. In addition, credit card issuers may change merchant standards, including data protection and documentation standards, required to utilize their services from time to time.

We are currently not in compliance with all of the applicable technical requirements of the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, or PCI, but we are working to become fully compliant as soon as is practicable. If we fail to become compliant or maintain compliance with current merchant standards, such as PCI, or fail to meet new standards, the credit card associations may fine us or, while unusual, may impose certain restrictions on our ability to accept credit cards or terminate our agreements with them, rendering us unable to accept credit cards as payment for our services. Our services have been in the past, and may also be in the future, subject to fraudulent or abusive usage in violation of applicable law or our acceptable use policies, including but not limited to revenue share fraud, domestic traffic pumping, subscription fraud, premium text message scams, and other fraudulent schemes, any of which could result in our incurring substantial costs for the completion of calls. Although our customers are required to set passwords and Personal Identification Numbers, or PINs, to protect their accounts and may configure in which destinations international calling is enabled from their extensions, third parties have accessed and used our customers’ accounts and extensions through fraudulent means in the past, and they may do so in the future, which also could result in substantial call completion and other costs for us. In addition, third parties may have attempted in the past, and may attempt in the future, to fraudulently induce domestic and international employees or consultants into disclosing customer credentials and other account information. Communications fraud can result in unauthorized access to customer accounts and customer data, unauthorized use of customers’ services, and charges to customers for fraudulent usage and expenses we must pay to carriers. We may be required to pay for these

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 29


charges and expenses with no reimbursement from the customer, and our reputation may be harmed if our services are subject to fraudulent usage.

Although we implement multiple fraud prevention and detection controls, we cannot assure you that these controls will be adequate to protect against fraud. Substantial losses due to fraud or our inability to accept credit card payments, which could cause our paid customer base to significantly decrease, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and ability to grow our business.

Accusations of infringement of third-party intellectual property rights could materially and adversely affect our business.

There has been substantial litigation in the sectors in which we operate regarding intellectual property rights. In the past, we have been sued by third parties claiming infringement of their intellectual property rights and we were able to settle such litigation.  However, we may be sued for infringement from time to time in the future, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to settle any future claims or, if we are able to settle any such claims, that the settlement will be on terms favorable to us. Our broad range of technology may increase the likelihood that third parties will claim that we infringe their intellectual property rights.

We have in the past received, and may in the future receive, notices of claims of infringement, misappropriation or misuse of other parties’ proprietary rights. Notwithstanding their merits, accusations and lawsuits like these often require significant time and expense to defend, may negatively affect customer relationships, may divert management’s attention away from other aspects of our operations and, upon resolution, may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

Certain technology necessary for us to provide our services may, in fact, be patented by other parties either now or in the future. If such technology were validly patented by another person, we would have to negotiate a license for the use of that technology. We may not be able to negotiate such a license at a price that is acceptable to us or at all. The existence of such a patent, or our inability to negotiate a license for any such technology on acceptable terms, could force us to cease using the technology and cease offering products and services incorporating the technology, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. If we were found to be infringing on the intellectual property rights of any third party, we could be subject to liability for such infringement, which could be material. We could also be prohibited from using or selling certain products or services, prohibited from using certain processes, or required to redesign certain products or services, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

These and other outcomes may:

 

result in the loss of a substantial number of existing customers or prohibit the acquisition of new customers;

 

cause us to pay license fees for intellectual property we are deemed to have infringed;

 

cause us to incur costs and devote valuable technical resources to redesigning our services;

 

cause our cost of revenue to increase;

 

cause us to accelerate expenditures to preserve existing revenue;

 

cause existing or new vendors to require prepayments or letters of credit;

 

materially and adversely affect our brand in the marketplace and cause a substantial loss of goodwill;

 

cause us to change our business methods or services;

 

require us to cease certain business operations or offering certain products, services or features; and

 

lead to our bankruptcy or liquidation.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 30


Any failure to obtain registration or protection of our intellectual property rights could materially and adversely affect our business.

We rely, in part, on patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret law to protect our intellectual property in the U.S. and abroad. We cannot assure you that the particular forms of intellectual property protection we seek, including business decisions about when to file patents and when to maintain trade secrets, will be adequate to protect our business. We seek to protect our technology, software, documentation and other information under trade secret and copyright law, which afford only limited protection. For example, we typically enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, third-party contractors, customers and vendors in an effort to control access to use and distribution of our technology, software, documentation and other information. These agreements may not effectively prevent unauthorized use or disclosure of confidential information and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of such unauthorized use or disclosure, and it may be possible for a third party to legally reverse engineer, copy or otherwise obtain and use our technology without authorization. In addition, improper disclosure of trade secret information by our current or former employees, consultants, third-party contractors, customers or vendors to the public or others who could make use of the trade secret information would likely preclude that information from being protected as a trade secret.

We cannot predict whether our pending patent applications will result in issued patents or whether any issued patents will effectively protect our intellectual property. Even if a pending patent application results in an issued patent, the patent may be circumvented or its validity may be challenged in various proceedings in U.S. District Court, before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office or before their foreign equivalents, such as reexamination, which may require legal representation and involve substantial costs and diversion of management time and resources. In addition, we cannot assure you that every significant feature of our solutions is protected by our patents, or that we will mark our products with any or all patents they embody. As a result, we may be prevented from seeking damages in whole or in part for infringement of our patents.

The unlicensed use of our brand, including domain names, by third parties could harm our reputation, cause confusion among our customers and impair our ability to market our products and services. To that end, we have registered numerous trademarks and service marks, have applied for registration of additional trademarks and service marks and have acquired a number of domain names in and outside the U.S. to establish and protect our brand names as part of our intellectual property strategy. If our applications receive objections or are successfully opposed by third parties, it will be difficult for us to prevent third parties from using our brand without our permission. Moreover, successful opposition to our applications might encourage third parties to make additional oppositions or commence trademark infringement proceedings against us, which could be costly and time consuming to defend against. There have been in the past, and may be in the future, instances where third parties have used our trade names, or have adopted confusingly similar trade names to ours. If we are not successful in protecting our trademarks, our trademark rights may be diluted and subject to challenge or invalidation, which could materially and adversely affect our brand.

Despite our efforts to implement our intellectual property strategy, we may not be able to protect or enforce our proprietary rights in the U.S. or internationally (where effective intellectual property protection may be unavailable or limited). For example, we have entered into agreements containing confidentiality and invention assignment provisions in connection with the outsourcing of certain software development, quality assurance and development activities to third-party contractors in a number of international locations. We have also entered into an agreement containing a confidentiality provision with a third-party contractor located in the Philippines, where we have outsourced a significant portion of our customer support function. Such agreements may not adequately protect our proprietary rights in the applicable jurisdictions and foreign countries, as their respective laws may not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the U.S. In addition, our competitors may independently develop technologies similar or superior to our technology, duplicate our technology in a manner that does not infringe our intellectual property rights or design around any of our patents. Furthermore, detecting and policing unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and resource-intensive. Moreover, litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights, to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others, or to defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Such litigation, whether successful or not, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management time and resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 31


We license technology from third parties we do not control and cannot be assured of retaining such licenses.

We rely upon certain technology, including hardware and software, licensed from third parties. These licenses are typically offered on standard commercial terms made generally available by the companies providing the licenses. There can be no assurance that the technology licensed by us will continue to provide competitive features and functionality or that the licenses for technology currently utilized by us or other technology which we may seek to license in the future, will be available to us on commercially reasonable terms or at all. The loss of, or inability to maintain, existing licenses could result in shipment delays or reductions until equivalent technology or suitable alternative products are developed, identified, licensed and integrated, and could harm our business.

Potential problems with our information systems could interfere with our business and operations.

We rely on our information systems and those of third parties for processing customer orders, distribution of our services, billing our customers, processing credit card transactions, customer relationship management, supporting financial planning and analysis, accounting functions and financial statement preparation and otherwise running our business. Information systems may experience interruptions, including interruptions of related services from third-party providers, which may be beyond our control. Such business interruptions could cause us to fail to meet customer requirements. All information systems, both internal and external, are potentially vulnerable to damage or interruption from a variety of sources, including without limitation, computer viruses, ransomware attacks or other security breaches, energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war, telecommunication failures, and employee or other theft, as well as third-party provider failures. Any disruption in our information systems and those of the third parties upon which we rely could have a significant impact on our business.

We may implement enhanced information systems in the future to meet the demands resulting from our growth and to provide additional capabilities and functionality. The implementation of new systems and enhancements is frequently disruptive to the underlying business of an enterprise, and can be time-consuming and expensive, increase management responsibilities and divert management attention. Any disruptions relating to our systems enhancements or any problems with the implementation, particularly any disruptions impacting our operations or our ability to accurately report our financial performance on a timely basis during the implementation period, could materially and adversely affect our business. Even if we do not encounter these material and adverse effects, the implementation of these enhancements may be much costlier than we anticipated. If we are unable to successfully implement the information systems enhancements as planned, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows could be negatively impacted.

Our use of open source technology could impose limitations on our ability to commercialize our services.

We use open source software in our platforms on which our services operate. There is a risk that the owners of the copyrights in such software may claim that such licenses impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to market or provide our services. If such owners prevail in such claim, we could be required to make the source code for our proprietary software (which contains our valuable trade secrets) generally available to third parties, including competitors, at no cost, to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our services, to re-engineer our technology, or to discontinue offering our services in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis or at all, any of which could cause us to discontinue our services, harm our reputation, result in customer losses or claims, increase our costs or otherwise materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. If a copyright holder of such open source software were to allege we had not complied with the conditions of one or more of these licenses, we could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending against such allegations and could be subject to significant damages, enjoined from the sale of our solutions that contained the open source software and required to comply with the foregoing conditions, which could disrupt the distribution and sale of some of our solutions.


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 32


Regulatory and Tax Matters

Our services are subject to regulation and future legislative or regulatory actions could adversely affect our business and expose us to liability.

Federal Regulation. Our business is regulated by the FCC. As a communication services provider, we are subject to FCC regulations relating to privacy, disability access, law enforcement access, porting of numbers, revenue reporting, Federal USF contributions and other regulatory assessments, E‑911, and other matters. If we do not comply with FCC rules and regulations, we could be subject to FCC enforcement actions, substantial fines, loss of licenses, potential private right of actions and possibly restrictions on our ability to operate or offer certain of our services. Any enforcement action by the FCC, which may include a public process, would hurt our reputation in the industry, possibly impair our ability to sell our services to customers and could have a materially adverse impact on our revenue.

State Regulation. We are also subject to state consumer protection laws, as well as U.S. state, municipal and local sales, use, excise, utility user and ad valorem taxes, fees or surcharges. The imposition of such regulatory obligations or the imposition of additional taxes on our services could increase our cost of doing business and limit our growth.

International Regulation. As we expand internationally, we may be subject to telecommunications, consumer protection, data privacy and other laws and regulations in the foreign countries where we offer our services. For example, we are subject to regulation in Canada by the CRTC, subject to Canadian federal privacy laws and provincial consumer protection legislation. Our international operations are potentially subject to country-specific governmental regulation and related actions that may increase our costs and prevent us from offering or providing our products and services in certain countries. Certain of our services may be used by customers located in countries where VoIP and other forms of IP communications may be illegal or require special licensing. In countries where local laws and regulations prohibit (or come to prohibit) the use of our products, users may continue to use our products and services, which could subject us to costly penalties or governmental action adverse to our business and damaging to our brand and reputation, our international expansion efforts, or our business and operating results.

The adoption of additional 911 requirements by the FCC could increase our costs that could make our service more expensive, decrease our profit margins, or both.

The FCC has adopted additional 911 requirements for interconnected VoIP providers, providers of enterprise telephone services, non-interconnected VoIP providers and texting providers. We may or may not be able to comply with these obligations. For example, beginning January 6, 2022, providers of non-fixed interconnected VoIP services must supply automated dispatchable location, if technically feasible, or either registered location information obtained by the customer or alternative location information. At present, we have no means to automatically identify the physical location of our customers. Our obligation to comply with the FCC’s VoIP E-911 order and related costs puts us at a competitive disadvantage to VoIP service providers who are either not subject to the requirements or have chosen not to comply with the FCC’s mandates. We cannot guarantee emergency calling service consistent with the VoIP E‑911 order will be available to all of our customers, especially those accessing our services on a mobile device or from outside of the U.S. The FCC’s current E-911 requirements and changes to those requirements, including their impact on our customers due to service price increases or other factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.

If we cannot comply with the FCC’s rules imposing call signaling requirements on VoIP providers like us, we may be subject to fines, cease and desist orders, or other penalties.

The FCC’s rules regarding the system of compensation for various types of traffic require, among other things, interconnected VoIP providers like us, who originate interstate or intrastate traffic destined for the PSTN, to transmit the telephone number associated with the calling party to the next provider in the call path. Intermediate providers must pass unaltered calling party number or charge number signaling information they receive from other providers to subsequent providers in the call path. In addition, effective June 30, 2021, the FCC began requiring voice service providers in the U.S. either to fully implement “STIR/SHAKEN” technology on their entire networks or implement a robocall mitigation program on those portions of their networks that are not STIR/SHAKEN-enabled. Canada is also currently in the process of implementing STIR/SHAKEN requirements. Although we have implemented STIR/SHAKEN in the U.S. and are in the process of implementing STIR/SHAKEN in Canada, to the extent that we inadvertently pass traffic that does not have appropriate calling party number or charge number information, we could be subject to fines, cease and desist orders, or other penalties. Similarly, to the extent that we cannot authenticate our customers, their traffic may be more likely to be blocked or adversely labeled. Additionally, as a VoIP provider, we rely on the FCC to design rules that do not disadvantage our service relative to those of incumbent local exchange carriers and competitive local exchange carriers.  Should the FCC decide to do so, it could result in an inferior user experience for Ooma’s service, which may negatively impact our business.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 33


We may not be able to comply with FCC rules governing completion of calls to rural areas and related reporting requirements.

The FCC’s rules governing the completion of calls to rural areas and related reporting requirements require us, among other things, to monitor the performance of our intermediate providers – telecom companies we use to help complete telephone calls to rural areas and take steps to prevent rural call completion problems that may be caused by our intermediate providers, such as persistent low answer or completion rates, unexplained anomalies in performance, or repeated complaints to the FCC. Under certain circumstances, if our routing choices, meaning the intermediate providers we chose to help us complete calls to rural areas, result in lower quality service, we may be held liable for the actions taken by our intermediate providers. If we cannot comply with these rules, we could be subject to investigation and enforcement action and could be exposed to substantial liability. The FCC also has increased enforcement activity related to completion of calls to rural customers, and we could be subject to substantial fines and to conduct requirements that could increase our costs if we are the subject of an enforcement proceeding and cannot demonstrate calls from our customers to rural customers are completed at a satisfactory rate.

Failure to comply with communications and telemarketing laws could result in significant fines or place significant restrictions on our business.

We rely on a variety of marketing techniques in connection with our sales efforts, including telemarketing and email marketing campaigns. We also record certain telephone calls between our customers or potential customers and our sales and service representatives for training and quality assurance purposes. These activities are subject to a variety of state and federal laws such as the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 (also known as the Federal Do-Not-Call law, or the TCPA), the Telemarketing Sales Rule, the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003 (also known as the CAN-SPAM Act) and various U.S. state laws regarding telemarketing and telephone call recording. These laws are subject to varying interpretations by courts and governmental authorities and often require subjective interpretation, making it difficult to predict their application and therefore making our compliance efforts more challenging. We cannot be certain our efforts to comply with these laws, rules and regulations will be successful, or, if they are successful, that the cost of such compliance will not be material to our business. Changes to these or similar laws, or to their application or interpretation, or new laws, rules and regulations governing our communication and marketing activities could adversely affect our business. In the event that any of these laws, rules or regulations significantly restricts our business, we may not be able to develop adequate alternative communication and marketing strategies. Further, non-compliance with these laws, rules and regulations carries significant financial penalties and the risk of class action litigation, which would adversely affect our financial performance and significantly harm our reputation and our business.

The FCC has continued to increase regulation of interconnected VoIP services and may at any time determine certain VoIP services are telecommunications services subject to traditional common carrier regulation.

The FCC is considering, in various proceedings, issues arising from the transition from traditional copper networks to IP networks. The FCC is also considering whether interconnected VoIP services should be treated as telecommunications services, which could subject interconnected VoIP services to additional common carrier regulation. The FCC’s efforts may result in additional regulation of IP network and service providers, which may negatively affect our business.

Reform of federal and state Universal Service Fund programs could increase the cost of our service to our customers, diminishing or eliminating our pricing advantage.

The FCC and a number of states are considering reform or other modifications to USF programs, including the manner in which companies, like us, contribute to the federal USF program, and whether certain non-interconnected VoIP providers and broadband providers, among others, should contribute to the USF. If the FCC or certain states adopt new contribution mechanisms or otherwise modify contribution obligations that continue to increase our contribution burden, we will either need to absorb the increased costs or raise the amount we currently collect from some of our customers to cover these obligations, which would either reduce our profit margins or diminish our price advantage. A number of states require us to contribute funds to state USF programs, while others are actively considering extending their programs to include the services we provide. We currently charge our customers certain fees and other surcharges, which may result in our services becoming less competitive as compared to those provided by others. If our pricing advantage is diminished or eliminated, or if we are required to absorb these increased costs and not pass-through to our customers, our results of operations would be negatively impacted.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 34


Our products must comply with industry standards, FCC regulations, state, local, country‑specific and international regulations, and changes may require us to modify existing products and/or services.

In addition to reliability and quality standards, the market acceptance of telephony over broadband IP networks is dependent upon the adoption of industry standards so that products from multiple manufacturers are able to communicate with each other. Our unique hybrid SaaS connectivity platforms rely on communication standards such as SIP, SRTP and network standards such as TCP/IP and UDP to interoperate with other vendors’ equipment. There is currently a lack of agreement among industry leaders about which standard should be used for a particular application and about the definition of the standards themselves. We also must comply with certain rules and regulations of the FCC regarding electromagnetic radiation and safety standards established by Underwriters Laboratories (“UL”), as well as similar regulations and standards applicable in other countries. In addition, the market acceptance of POTS replacement products such as Ooma AirDial will depend on compliance with industry standards such as National Fire Protection Association NFPA 72, UL 864 and American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME A17.1B. As standards evolve, we may be required to modify our existing products or develop and support new versions of our products. We must comply with certain federal, state and local requirements regarding how we interact with our customers, including marketing practices, consumer protection, privacy, and billing issues, the provision of 9-1-1 emergency service and the quality of service we provide to our customers. The failure of our products and services to comply, or delays in compliance, with various existing and evolving standards could delay or interrupt volume production of our VoIP telephony products, subject us to fines or other imposed penalties, or harm the perception and adoption rates of our service, any of which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.

We process, store, and use personal information and other data, which subjects us and our customers to a variety of evolving industry standards, contractual obligations and other legal rules related to privacy, which may increase our costs, decrease adoption and use of our products and services, and expose us to liability.

There are numerous U.S. federal, state and local, and foreign laws and regulations, as well as contractual obligations and industry standards, that provide for certain obligations and restrictions with respect to data privacy and security, and the collection, storage, retention, protection, use, processing, transmission, sharing, disclosure, and protection of personal information and other customer data. The scope of these obligations and restrictions is changing, subject to differing interpretations, and may be inconsistent among countries or conflict with other rules, and their status remains uncertain.

In the U.S. and in other jurisdictions, a variety of regulations are currently being proposed that would increase restrictions on online service providers in the field of data privacy and security, and we believe that the adoption of such increasingly restrictive regulation is likely. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”) regulates the processing of personal data, which could result in civil penalties for violations. In addition, a new privacy law, the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”) will take effect on January 1, 2023 (with certain provisions having retroactive effect to January 1, 2022). The CPRA’s implementing regulations are expected on or before July 1, 2022, and enforcement is scheduled to begin July 1, 2023. We will continue to monitor developments related to the CPRA. The full impact of the CPRA on our business is yet to be determined. The CPRA modifies the CCPA, potentially resulting in further uncertainty and requiring us to incur additional costs and expenses in an effort to comply.

In Canada, penalties for non-compliance with certain Canadian anti-spam legislation are considerable, including administrative monetary penalties of up to $10 million and a private right of action.

Within the EU, strict laws apply in connection with the collection, storage, retention, use, processing, transmission, sharing, disclosure and protection of personal information, and other customer data. Data protection regulators within the EU and other jurisdictions have the power to fine non-compliant organizations significant amounts and seek injunctive relief, including the cessation of certain data processing activities. For example, the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, comprehensively regulates the processing of personal data of any individual residing in the EU. The GDPR provides for significant penalties in the event of violations, including fines of up to 4% of the violating company’s worldwide revenue. We have taken administrative, contractual and other measures designed to achieve compliance with the GDPR, but we cannot guarantee these measures are sufficient. While the United Kingdom’s Data Protection Act substantially implements the GDPR, the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union has created regulatory uncertainty, including the cross-border transfer of data. Such uncertainty may adversely impact the operations of our U.K. subsidiary by adding operational complexities and expenses. In addition, on July 16, 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union, or the CJEU, invalidated the Privacy Shield program, which allowed transfers of EU personal data to the U.S. for participating companies consistent with European privacy requirements for transfer of such data to non-EU countries. The Court also raised concerns about transfer of personal data to the U.S. under standard contractual clauses, or SCCs. Although European regulators have since issued a new set of SCCs for data transfers to the U.S., the new SCCs do not address every concern raised by the CJEU. As a result, the CJEU decision has created uncertainty about data transfer to the U.S.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 35


Obligations and restrictions imposed by current and future applicable laws, regulations, contracts and industry standards, in particular as we continue to expand our international operations, may increase the cost of our operations, affect our ability to provide all the current features of our business, residential and mobile products and services and our customers’ ability to use our products and services, and could require us to modify the features and functionality of our products and services. Such obligations and restrictions may limit our ability to collect, store, process, use, transmit and share data, and to allow our customers to collect, store, retain, protect, use, process, transmit, share and disclose data with others through our products and services. Compliance with such obligations and restrictions could increase the cost of our operations. Failure to comply with obligations and restrictions related to data privacy and security could subject us to lawsuits, fines, criminal penalties, statutory damages, consent decrees, injunctions, adverse publicity and other losses that could harm our business.

Our customers can use our services to store contact and other personal or identifying information, and to process, transmit, receive, store and retrieve a variety of communications and messages, including, for our Ooma Business customers, information about their own customers and other contacts. In addition, customers may use our services to transmit and store protected health information, or PHI, that is protected under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, or HIPAA. Noncompliance with laws and regulations relating to privacy such as HIPAA may lead to significant fines, penalties or liabilities. Our actual compliance, our customers’ perception of our compliance, costs of compliance with such regulations and customer concerns regarding their own compliance obligations (whether factual or in error) may limit the use and adoption of our service and reduce overall demand. Furthermore, privacy concerns, including the inability or impracticality of providing advance notice to customers of privacy issues related to the use of our services, may cause our customers’ customers to resist providing the personal data necessary to allow our customers to use our services effectively. Even the perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may inhibit market adoption of our service in certain industries.

In addition to government activity, privacy advocacy groups and industry groups have adopted and are considering the adoption of various self-regulatory standards and codes of conduct that may place additional burdens on us and our customers, which may further reduce demand for our services and harm our business.

While we try to comply with all applicable data protection laws, regulations, standards, and codes of conduct, as well as our own posted privacy policies and contractual commitments to the extent possible, any failure by us to protect our users’ privacy and data, including as a result of our systems being compromised by hacking or other malicious or surreptitious activity, could result in a loss of user confidence in our services and ultimately in a loss of users, which could materially and adversely affect our business. Our customers may also accidentally disclose their passwords, store them on a mobile device that is lost or stolen, or otherwise fall prey to attacks outside our system, creating the perception that our systems are not secure against third-party access. If our third-party contractors or vendors violate applicable laws or our policies, such violations may also put our customers’ information at risk and could in turn have a material and adverse effect on our business.

Use or delivery of our services may become subject to new or increased regulatory requirements, taxes or fees.

The increasing growth and popularity of internet voice communications heighten the risk that governments will regulate or impose new or increased fees or taxes on internet voice communications services. To the extent the use of our services continues to grow, regulators may be more likely to seek to regulate or impose new or additional taxes, surcharges or fees on our services. Similarly, advances in technology, such as improvements in locating the geographic origin of internet voice communications, could cause our services to become subject to additional regulations, fees or taxes, or could require us to invest in or develop new technologies, which may be costly. In addition, as we continue to expand our user base and offer more services, we may become subject to new regulations, taxes, surcharges or fees. Increased regulatory requirements, taxes, surcharges or fees on internet voice communications services, which could be assessed by governments retroactively or prospectively, would substantially increase our costs, and, as a result, our business would suffer. In addition, the tax status of our services could subject us to conflicting taxation requirements and complexity with regard to the collection and remittance of applicable taxes. Any such additional taxes could harm our results of operations.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 36


We are subject to anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws with respect to our operations and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal and/or civil liability and harm our business.

We are subject to the FCPA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, and possibly other anti-bribery and anti‑money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption laws are interpreted broadly and prohibit companies and their employees and third-party intermediaries from authorizing, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to recipients in the public or private sector. We use third-party representatives for product testing, customs, export, and import matters outside of the U.S. As we increase our international sales and business, we may engage with business partners and third-party intermediaries to sell our products and services abroad and to obtain necessary permits, licenses, and other regulatory approvals. We or our third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities.

Noncompliance with anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, other enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, significant fines, damages, other civil and criminal penalties or injunctions, suspension and/or debarment from contracting with certain persons, the loss of export privileges, reputational harm, adverse media coverage, and other collateral consequences. If any subpoenas or investigations are launched, or governmental or other sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal litigation, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially harmed. In addition, responding to any action will likely result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources, significant defense costs and other professional fees. Enforcement actions and sanctions could further harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We are subject to governmental sanctions and export and import controls, economic embargoes and trade sanctions that could impair our ability to expand our business to, and compete in, international markets and could subject us to liability if we are not in compliance with applicable laws.

Our products and services are subject to export and import laws and regulations, including the U.S. Export Administration Regulations, U.S. Customs regulations, and various economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls. U.S. export control laws and economic sanctions programs generally prohibit the export of certain products and services to countries, governments and persons subject to U.S. economic embargoes and trade sanctions unless a license, approval, or other authorization is obtained from the U.S. Government. Obtaining the necessary authorizations and licenses for a particular sale may be time-consuming, is not guaranteed and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we and certain of our employees could be subject to substantial civil or criminal penalties, including the possible loss of export or import privileges, government investigations, reputational harm, fines which may be imposed on us and responsible employees or managers, and, in extreme cases, the incarceration of responsible employees or managers.

In addition, any changes in our products or services, or changes in applicable export, import, embargo and trade sanctions regulations, may create delays in the introduction and sale of our products and services in international markets or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our products and services to certain countries, governments, or persons altogether. Any change in export, import, embargo, or trade sanctions regulations, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations, could also result in decreased use of our products and services, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products and services to existing or potential customers with international operations. Any decreased use of our products and services or limitation on our ability to export or sell our products and services would likely adversely affect our business.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 37


We may be subject to liabilities on past services for taxes, surcharges and fees.

We collect and remit state or municipal sales, use, excise, utility user and ad valorem taxes, fees, or surcharges on the charges to our customers for our services or goods in only those jurisdictions where we believe we have a legal obligation to do so or for business reasons to reduce risk. In addition, we have historically substantially complied with the collection of certain California sales/use taxes and financial contributions to the California 9-1-1 system (the Emergency Telephone Users Surcharge) and federal USF. With limited exception, we believe we are generally not subject to taxes, fees, or surcharges imposed by other state and municipal jurisdictions or that such taxes, fees, or surcharges do not apply to our service. There is uncertainty as to what constitutes sufficient “in state presence” for a state or local municipality to levy taxes, fees and surcharges for sales made over the internet. Taxing authorities have in the past, and likely will in the future, challenge our position on the lack of enforceability of such taxes, fees and surcharges where we have no relevant presence, and audit our business and operations with respect to sales, use, telecommunications and other taxes, which could result in increased tax liabilities for us or our customers, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and our relationships with our customers. Finally, the application of other indirect taxes (such as sales and use tax, value added tax, or VAT, goods and services tax, business tax, and gross receipt tax) to e-commerce businesses, such as ours, is a complex and evolving area. The application of existing, new, or future laws, whether in the U.S. or internationally, could have adverse effects on our business, prospects, and results of operations. There have been, and will continue to be, substantial ongoing costs associated with complying with the various indirect tax requirements in the numerous markets in which we conduct or will conduct business.

Changes in effective tax rates, or adverse outcomes resulting from examination of our income or other tax returns, could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our future effective tax rates could be subject to volatility or adversely affected by a number of factors, including:

 

changes in the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities;

 

expiration of, or lapses in, the research and development tax credit laws;

 

expiration or non-utilization of net operating loss carryforwards;

 

tax effects of share-based compensation;

 

certain non-deductible expenses as a result of acquisitions;

 

expansion into new jurisdictions;

 

potential challenges to and costs related to implementation and ongoing operation of our intercompany arrangements; and

 

changes in tax laws and regulations and accounting principles, or interpretations or applications thereof.

As we expand our operations outside the U.S. and Canada, certain changes to U.S. tax laws, including limitations on the ability to defer U.S. taxation on earnings outside of the U.S. until those earnings are repatriated to the U.S. could affect the tax treatment of our foreign earnings. Any changes in our effective tax rate could adversely affect our results of operations.

We may be unable to use some or all of our net operating loss carryforwards, which could materially and adversely affect our reported financial condition and results of operations.

As of January 31, 2022, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, of $125.1 million and $94.8 million, respectively, available to offset future taxable income, which will begin to expire in 2030 if not utilized. We also have federal and research and development tax credit carryforwards that will begin to expire in 2030 and California research and development tax credit carryforwards with no expiration date.  Realization of these net operating loss and research tax credit carryforwards depends on future income, and there is a risk that our existing carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. No deferred tax assets have been recognized on our balance sheet related to these NOLs, as they are fully reserved by a valuation allowance. If we have previously had, or have in the future, one or more Section 382 “ownership changes”, or if we do not generate sufficient taxable income, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of our NOLs, even if we achieve profitability. If we are limited in our ability to use our NOLs in future years in which we have taxable income, we will pay more taxes than if we were able to fully utilize our NOLs. This could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 38


Risks Related to Being a Public Company

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results in a timely manner, which may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock.

Pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we are required to make a formal assessment and provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. We expect that the requirements of these rules and regulations will continue to increase our compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming and costly, and place significant demands on our financial and operational resources, as well as IT systems.  Our control environment may not be sufficient to remediate or prevent future material weaknesses or significant deficiencies from occurring. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance that the control system’s objectives will be met. Due to the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that misstatements due to error or fraud will not occur or that all control issues and all instances of fraud will be detected.

Our independent registered public accounting firm is required to and has issued an attestation report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of January 31, 2022. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, investors could lose confidence in the accuracy and reliability of our financial reports, which would cause the price of our common stock to decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by regulatory authorities, including the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange.

Our actual operating results may differ significantly from our guidance.

From time to time, we plan to release earnings guidance in our quarterly earnings conference calls, quarterly earnings releases, or otherwise, regarding our future performance that represents our management’s estimates as of the date of release. This guidance, which will include forward‑looking statements, will be based on projections prepared by our management. Projections are based upon a number of assumptions and estimates that, while presented with numerical specificity, are inherently subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control and are based upon specific assumptions with respect to future business decisions, some of which will change. We intend to state possible outcomes as high and low ranges which are intended to provide a sensitivity analysis as variables are changed but are not intended to imply that actual results could not fall outside of the suggested ranges. The principal reason that we release guidance is to provide a basis for our management to discuss our business outlook with analysts and investors. Accordingly, we do not accept any responsibility for any projections or reports published by any such third parties.

Guidance is necessarily speculative in nature, and it can be expected that some or all of the assumptions underlying the guidance furnished by us will not materialize or will vary significantly from actual results. Accordingly, our guidance is only an estimate of what management believes is realizable as of the date of release. Actual results may vary from our guidance and the variations may be material. In light of the foregoing, investors are urged not to rely upon our guidance in making an investment decision regarding our common stock.

Any failure to successfully implement our operating strategy or the occurrence of any of the events or circumstances set forth in this “Risk Factors” section in this report could result in the actual operating results being different from our guidance, and the differences may be adverse and material.


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 39


Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

Our stock price has been and may continue to be volatile, or may fluctuate or decline, resulting in a substantial loss of your investment.

Our stock price may fluctuate in response to a number of events and factors, such as quarterly operating results; changes in our financial projections provided to the public or our failure to meet those projections; our operating and financial performance and prospects and the performance of other similar companies; the public's reaction to our press releases, other public announcements and filings with the SEC; significant transactions, or new features, products or services by us or our competitors; changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts; failure of securities analysts to cover or track our common stock; media coverage of our business and financial performance; trends in our industry; any significant change in our management; sales of common stock by us, our investors or members of our management team; and changes in general market, economic and political conditions in the U.S. and global economies or financial markets, including as a result of public health crises.

The market price of our common stock could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to, among other things, the factors described in this “Risk Factors” section or otherwise, and other factors beyond our control, such as fluctuations in the valuations of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us. In addition, the stock market in general, and the market prices for companies in our industry, have experienced volatility that often has been unrelated to operating performance. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect the price of our stock, regardless of our operating performance. In the past, many companies that have experienced volatility in their stock price have become subject to securities class action litigation. We have been subject to this type of litigation in the past and may continue to be a target in the future. Securities litigation against us has resulted and could result in substantial costs and has and would divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, any of which could harm our business.

If we fail to meet expectations related to future growth, profitability, or other market expectations, our stock price may decline significantly, which could have a material adverse impact on investor confidence and employee retention.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception these sales might occur, could cause our stock price to decline.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception these sales might occur, could cause the market price of our common stock to decline and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. In addition, we have registered shares of common stock which we may issue under our employee stock plans and they may be sold freely in the public market upon issuance. We may issue our shares of common stock or securities convertible into our common stock from time to time in connection with a financing, acquisition, and investments or otherwise. Any such issuance could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders and cause the trading price of our common stock to decline.

If securities analysts do not publish or cease publishing research or reports about our business or if they publish negative evaluations of our stock, the price of our stock could decline.

We expect that the trading price for our common stock will be affected by any research or reports that industry or financial analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of the analysts who elect to cover us downgrade their evaluations of our stock or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our stock could decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company, our stock may lose visibility in the market, which in turn could cause its price to decline.

We have never paid cash dividends and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock.

We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. If we do not pay cash dividends, you would receive a return on your investment in our common stock only if the market price of our common stock increases before you sell your shares.

Our charter documents and Delaware law could prevent a takeover that stockholders consider favorable and could also reduce the market price of our stock.

Our Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation and our Amended and Restated Bylaws contain provisions that could delay or prevent a change in control of our company. These provisions could also make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors and take other corporate actions. These provisions include:

 

providing for a classified board of directors with staggered, three-year terms;

 

authorizing the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that our board of directors could issue to increase the number of outstanding shares to discourage a takeover attempt;

 

prohibiting cumulative voting in the election of directors;

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 40


 

providing that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum;

 

prohibiting stockholder action by written consent;

 

limiting the persons who may call special meetings of stockholders; and

 

requiring advance notification of stockholder nominations and proposals.

These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporate Law may prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, from merging or combining with us for a certain period of time without the consent of our board of directors. These and other provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our bylaws and under Delaware law could discourage potential takeover attempts, reduce the price investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock and result in the market price of our common stock being lower than it would be without these provisions.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees.

Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our stockholders, any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws, or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and other employees. While the Delaware Supreme Court determined that such choice of forum provisions are facially valid, a stockholder may nevertheless seek to bring such a claim arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, against us, our directors, officers, or other employees in a venue other than in the federal district courts of the United States of America. In such instance, we would expect to vigorously assert the validity and enforceability of the exclusive forum provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, and this may require significant additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions.

We were subject to a securities class action litigation in connection with our initial public offering, are currently subject to a class litigation, and may be subject to other litigation in the future.

The Company, its directors, and certain officers were named as defendants in a consolidated securities class action in connection with its initial public offering. On October 18, 2019, the Court dismissed the class action lawsuit with prejudice and the plaintiff released all claims against the Company and all other defendants relating to the allegations in the class action. In addition, in February 2021 the Company and Ooma Canada Inc. were named as defendants in a class action complaint in the Federal Court of Canada, alleging violations of Canada’s Trademarks Act and Competition Act. In the future, especially following periods of volatility in the market price of our shares, additional purported class action or derivative complaints may be filed against us. The outcome of any pending and potential future litigation is difficult to predict and quantify and the defense of such claims or actions can be costly. In addition to diverting financial and management resources and general business disruption, we may suffer from adverse publicity that could harm our brand or reputation, regardless of whether the allegations are valid or whether we are ultimately held liable. A judgment or settlement that is not covered by or is significantly in excess of our insurance coverage for any claims, or our obligations to indemnify the underwriters and the individual defendants, could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 41


General Risk Factors

If we are unable to hire, retain and motivate qualified personnel, our business will suffer.

Our future growth and success depends, in part, on our continued ability to hire and retain highly skilled personnel. We believe there is, and will continue to be, intense competition for highly skilled technical, sales and other personnel with experience in our industry in the San Francisco Bay Area, where our headquarters is located, and in other parts of the United States and Canada. We have from time to time experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, challenges in hiring and retaining skilled personnel with appropriate qualifications. We must provide competitive compensation packages and a high-quality work environment to hire, retain and motivate employees. If we and/or our partners are unable to hire, retain and motivate the existing workforce or attract qualified personnel to fill key positions, we may be unable to manage our business effectively, including the development, marketing and sale of existing and new services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. To the extent we hire personnel from competitors, we may be subject to allegations such personnel have been improperly solicited or divulged proprietary or other confidential information.

Catastrophic events or political instability could disrupt and cause harm to our business, operating results, or financial condition.

Our corporate headquarters, offices, warehouses and one of our data center facilities are located in Northern California, a region that frequently experiences earthquakes. We also maintain an office in Boca Raton, Florida, an area that has been prone to severe weather events, such as hurricanes.  In addition, our third-party contract manufacturer facilities in China and our sole third-party customer service and support facility in the Philippines are located on the Pacific Rim near known earthquake fault zones that are vulnerable to damage from earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and/or typhoons. We and our contractors are also vulnerable to other types of disasters, such as power loss, fire, floods, pandemics, cyber-attack, war, political or civil unrest and terrorist attacks and similar events that are beyond our control. In particular, we depend on third-party contactors located in Russia for engineering and development services. We cannot assure you that our ability to continue transacting with third-party contractors in Russia would not be impacted by the effects of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 or any resulting international sanctions. If any disasters were to occur, our ability to operate our business could be seriously impaired, and we may endure system interruptions, reputational harm, loss of intellectual property, delays in our services development, lengthy interruptions in our services, breaches of data security and loss of critical data, all of which could harm our future results of operations. Such events may also reduce demand for our products and services because of reduced global or national economic activity and can cause disruptions and extreme volatility in global financial markets, increase rates of default and bankruptcy, and impact levels of business and consumer spending. In addition, we do not carry earthquake insurance and we may not have adequate insurance to cover our losses resulting from other disasters or other similar significant business interruptions. Any significant losses not recoverable under our insurance policies could seriously impair our business and financial condition.

Climate change may have an impact on our business.

Any of our primary locations may be vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. For example, our offices and facilities in California have experienced, and are projected to continue to experience, climate-related events at an increasing frequency, including drought, heat waves, wildfires and power shutoffs associated with wildfire prevention. Furthermore, it may be more difficult to mitigate the impact of these events on some of our employees while they continue to work from home as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Changing market dynamics, global policy developments and the increasing frequency and impact of extreme weather events on critical infrastructure in the U.S. and elsewhere have the potential to disrupt our business, the business of our third-party suppliers and the business of our customers, and may cause us to experience higher churn, losses and additional costs to maintain or resume operations.

 

 


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 42


ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

ITEM 2. Properties

Our corporate headquarters are located in Sunnyvale, California and consists of leased office space totaling approximately 33,400 square feet. We lease additional office and warehouse space in the San Francisco Bay Area for various product development, operational and customer support purposes. We also lease offices in Boca Raton, Florida and several other locations throughout the U.S. as well as Vancouver, British Columbia.

We lease space from third-party data centers under co-location agreements that support our cloud infrastructure, the most significant locations being San Jose, California; Dallas, Texas; Ashburn, Virginia; and other small locations internationally.

For a discussion of legal proceedings, see Note 11: Commitments and Contingencies – Legal Proceedings in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II, Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" of this Form 10-K, which information is incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

 

 

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 43


PART II

ITEM 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information for Common Stock. Our common stock has been trading on the NYSE under the symbol “OOMA” since July 17, 2015.

Holders of Record. As of January 31, 2022, there were approximately 66 holders of record of our common stock. Because many of our shares of common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders.

Dividend Policy. We have not declared or paid, and do not anticipate declaring or paying in the foreseeable future, any cash dividends on our capital stock.

Stock Price Performance Graph.  The graph below compares the cumulative total return on our common stock with that of the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index and the NYSE. The graph assumes $100 was invested at the close of market on the last trading day of fiscal 2017 in our common stock, the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index and the NYSE, and its relative performance is tracked through January 31, 2022, the last trading day of our fiscal year 2022.

This performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or incorporated by reference into any filing of Ooma, Inc. under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing. The stock price performance on this performance graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

Sales of Unregistered Securities. Not applicable.

Use of Proceeds. Not applicable.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 44


ITEM 6. [Reserved]

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 45


ITEM 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes to those statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. In addition to historical financial information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including those discussed under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The last day of our fiscal year is January 31, and we refer to our fiscal year ended January 31, 2022 as fiscal 2022, our fiscal year ended January 31, 2021 as fiscal 2021 and our fiscal year ended January 31, 2020 as fiscal 2020. All other references to years are references to calendar years.

This section of this Form 10-K generally discusses fiscal 2022 and 2021 items and year-to-year comparisons between fiscal 2022 and 2021. Discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for fiscal 2021 as compared to 2020 is included in Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended January 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on April 7, 2021.

Executive Overview

Ooma provides leading communications services and related technologies that bring unique features, ease of use, and affordability to businesses of all sizes and residential customers through our smart SaaS and unified communications platforms. For businesses, we deliver advanced voice and collaboration features including messaging, intelligent virtual attendants, and video conferencing to help them run more efficiently. For consumers, our residential phone service provides PureVoice high-definition voice quality, advanced functionality and integration with mobile devices.

We generate subscription and services revenue by selling subscriptions and other services for our communications services, as well as other connected services. We generate our product and other revenue from the sale of our on-premise devices and end-point devices. We primarily offer our solutions in the U.S. and Canada.

We refer to Ooma Office and Ooma Enterprise collectively as Ooma Business. Ooma Residential includes Ooma Telo basic and premier services as well as our smart security solutions. See Item 1. Business above for additional information regarding our business, including products and services offered, competitive market and regulatory matters.

Fiscal 2022 Financial Performance

 

Total revenue was $192.3 million, up 14% year-over-year, primarily driven by the continued growth of Ooma Business.

 

Subscription and services revenue from Ooma Business and Ooma Residential grew 23% and 3% year-over-year, respectively.

 

Subscription and services gross margin was 72%, up from 71% in fiscal 2021. Total gross margin was 62%, consistent with fiscal 2021.

 

GAAP net loss was $1.8 million, improved from a net loss of $2.4 million in fiscal 2021, largely driven by our revenue growth and higher gross margins for subscription and services.

 

Non-GAAP net income was $12.6 million, compared to $11.5 million in fiscal 2021.

 

Adjusted EBITDA was $15.6 million, compared to $14.0 million in fiscal 2021.

 

As of January 31, 2022, we had total cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments of $31.3 million, up $3.0 million from $28.3 million as of January 31, 2021.


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 46


COVID-19 Update

During fiscal 2022, we remained focused on executing our growth strategy while adapting to the evolving changes in our market environment and business activities driven by the COVID-19 pandemic. We have continued to evaluate and refine our return to work strategy, as well as our investments in our go-to-market, channel development and product development efforts. We and our third-party reseller partners have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, challenges in attracting and retaining sales employees and contractors, which we believe is largely attributable to the ongoing effects of the pandemic.

The severity and duration of the pandemic, including any resurgences, and the extent to which it may impact our operations remains uncertain. In recent periods, we have increased our inventory levels to mitigate global supply chain disruptions caused by component shortages and longer lead times. These increased levels may result in excess and/or obsolete inventory in future periods. In addition, although we saw improvement in our customer churn rate from the increased levels that we experienced earlier in the pandemic, our churn could again increase in future periods which may result in a decline to our core user growth rate. The overall effects of the COVID-19 pandemic may not be fully reflected in our results of operations and overall financial performance until future periods.

The global macroeconomic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and related impacts on our customers’ business operations and their demand for our products and services may persist for an indefinite period, even after the pandemic has subsided. See “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A above for more information on risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. 

Key Factors Affecting Our Performance

Our historical financial performance and key business metrics have been, and we expect that our financial performance and key business metrics in the future will be, primarily driven by the following factors:

Core user growth. Our growth in the number of core users, a key business metric defined below, is a key indicator of our market penetration, the growth of our business and our anticipated future subscription and services revenue, especially Ooma Business.

Low core user churn. We believe that maintaining our current low core user churn is an important factor in our ability to continue to improve our financial performance and is a distinguishing advantage over many of our competitors. We focus on providing high-quality services and support to our users so they are motivated to remain with us. Our core user churn rate is higher for Ooma Business customers than Ooma Residential customers, which is driven in part by the failure rate of small businesses as well as the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Accordingly, we expect that our overall core user churn rate will increase to the extent that sales of our business products increase relative to sales of residential products.

Growth in additional services and products. We believe that there is significant opportunity for us to increase the additional subscription and services that our customers purchase from us in both the business and residential markets, which generates more value to Ooma over the life of our customer relationship. In order to drive adoption of additional services, we will need to continue to enhance our existing solutions and develop new connected services and products. We are investing in Ooma Business to develop additional features to continue our momentum serving businesses of all sizes and further increase our average revenue per user. For example, we plan to launch a third Ooma Office tier of service during fiscal 2023 that will contain features that are even more advanced than Office Pro. Additionally, we see opportunity to capitalize on Ooma AirDial as an integrated solution for businesses to replace legacy copper-wire analog phone service. We also plan to evolve our Ooma Connect and Wi-Fi solutions as part of our longer-term strategy to provide a more complete solution for small and medium-sized businesses.

Investing in long-term revenue growth. We believe that our total addressable market opportunity is large and we intend to continue significantly investing in sales and marketing to grow our user base in multiple verticals and channels. We expect the domestic and international markets in which we conduct our business will remain highly competitive. We plan to work together with our strategic partners to explore and pursue potential growth opportunities related to the market transition to 5G internet. We expect to continue investing in research and development to enhance our platforms and develop additional connected services and products, as well as launch our Ooma Business services in a number of international countries. We may evaluate additional possible acquisitions of businesses, products and technologies that are complementary to our business.


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 47


Key Business Metrics

We review the key metrics below to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, formulate financial projections and make strategic decisions. 

The following table sets forth our key business metrics for each of the periods indicated (in thousands, except percentages):

 

 

As of January 31,

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Core users

 

 

1,100

 

 

 

1,074

 

 

 

1,048

 

Annualized exit recurring revenue (AERR)

 

$

176,937

 

 

$

160,528

 

 

$

143,190

 

Net dollar subscription retention rate

 

 

96

%

 

 

96

%

 

 

100

%

Adjusted EBITDA

 

$

15,568

 

 

$

14,013

 

 

$

966

 

Core Users increased year-over-year, which was primarily driven by growth in business users. As of January 31, 2022, Ooma Business users comprised approximately 28% of our total core users, up from 25% as of January 31, 2021. We believe that the number of our core users is an indicator of our market penetration, the growth of our business and our anticipated future subscription and services revenue. We define our core users as the number of active residential user accounts and office user extensions. We believe that the relationship that we establish with our core users positions us to sell additional premium communications services and other new connected services to them.

Annualized Exit Recurring Revenue grew year-over-year due to an increase in the average revenue per core user, which was largely driven by an increase in business users. We believe that AERR is an indicator of recurring subscription and services revenue for near-term future periods. We estimate our AERR by dividing our recurring quarterly subscription revenue (excluding Talkatone revenue) by the average number of core users each quarter and annualize by multiplying by four. We then multiply that result by the number of core users at the end of the period to calculate AERR.

Net Dollar Subscription Retention Rate was comparable on a year-over-year basis. We believe that our net dollar subscription retention rate provides insight into our ability to retain and grow our subscription and services revenue, and is an indicator of the long-term value of our customer relationships and the stability of our revenue base. It measures the percentage year-over-year change in our recurring subscription revenue per core user (excluding Talkatone revenue), which is then adjusted by factoring in the percentage of our core users we have retained during the same period. Our net dollar subscription retention rate is affected by changes in average amounts that our core users pay to us, fluctuations in the number of our core users, and our core user churn rate.

We calculate our estimated net dollar subscription retention rate for our core users by multiplying:

 

(i)

our year-over-year percentage change in annual recurring revenue per core user, which is calculated by:

 

determining the annual recurring revenue per core user by dividing annual recurring revenue for the period ended by the number of core users at the end of that particular period; and

 

calculating the year-over-year percentage change in annual recurring revenue per core user by dividing the current period recurring revenue per core user by the annual recurring revenue per core user for the same period in the prior year.

by:

 

(ii)

our core user annual retention rate, which is calculated by:

 

determining our core user churn, by identifying the number of paying core users who terminate service during a month, excluding infant churn, which we define as office extensions and home users who terminate service prior to the end of the second full calendar month after their activation date;

 

calculating our monthly churn rate by dividing our churn in a month by the number of core users at the beginning of that month; and

 

calculating our annual retention rate as one minus the sum of our monthly churn rates for the preceding 12-month period.


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 48


Adjusted EBITDA

In addition, we use Adjusted EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Tax and Depreciation and Amortization) to manage our business, evaluate our performance and make planning decisions. We consider this metric to be a useful measure of our operating performance, because it contains adjustments for unusual events or factors that do not directly affect what management considers being the core operating performance, and are used by our management for that purpose. We also believe this measure enables us to better evaluate our performance by facilitating a meaningful comparison of our core operating results in a given period to those in prior and future periods. Investors often use similar measures to evaluate the operating performance with competitors. Adjusted EBITDA represents net income before interest and other income, income tax provision or benefit, depreciation and amortization of capital expenditures, amortization of acquired intangible assets and other acquisition-related charges, stock-based compensation and related taxes, restructuring charges and certain litigation costs that are not representative of the ordinary course of our business.

Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP.  Some of these limitations are:

 

Adjusted EBITDA does not consider any expenses for assets being depreciated and amortized that are necessary to our business;

 

Adjusted EBITDA does not consider the impact of income tax provisions or benefits, other income/expense, stock-based compensation and related taxes, amortization of acquired intangible assets and other acquisition-related charges, restructuring charges and certain litigation costs that are not recurring in nature; and

 

Other companies, including companies in our industry, may calculate Adjusted EBITDA differently, which reduces its usefulness as a comparative measure.

Because of these limitations, you should consider Adjusted EBITDA alongside other financial performance measures, including net loss and our other GAAP results.

The following table provides a reconciliation of net loss (the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure) to Adjusted EBITDA for each of the periods indicated (in thousands):

 

 

Fiscal Year Ended January 31,

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

GAAP net loss

 

$

(1,751

)

 

$

(2,441

)

 

$

(18,801

)

Reconciling items:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest and other income, net

 

 

(179

)

 

 

(419

)

 

 

(780

)

Income tax provision (benefit)

 

 

 

 

 

85

 

 

 

(130

)

Depreciation and amortization of capital expenditures

 

 

3,117

 

 

 

2,877

 

 

 

2,548

 

Amortization of acquired intangible assets and acquisition-related costs

 

 

1,304

 

 

 

1,304

 

 

 

1,289

 

Stock-based compensation and related taxes

 

 

13,077

 

 

 

12,607

 

 

 

13,149

 

Restructuring charges

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3,085

 

Litigation costs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

606

 

Adjusted EBITDA

 

$

15,568

 

 

$

14,013

 

 

$

966

 

 


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 49


Components of Results of Operations

Revenue

Subscription and services revenue is derived primarily from recurring subscription fees related to service plans such as Ooma Business, Ooma Residential and other communications services, and to a lesser extent from payments associated with our Talkatone mobile application and prepaid international calls. We expect our subscription and services revenue to grow as we expand our core user base, driven primarily by growth in Ooma Business.

Product and other revenue consists primarily of sales of our on-premise devices and end-point devices used in connection with our services, including shipping and handling fees for our direct customers.

Cost of revenue and gross margin

Cost of subscription and services revenue includes payments made for third-party network operations and telecommunications services; certain telecom taxes and fees, including Federal USF contributions; credit card processing fees; costs to build out and maintain data centers; depreciation and maintenance of servers and equipment; personnel costs associated with customer care and network operations support and allocated overhead costs.

Cost of product and other revenue includes the costs associated with the manufacturing of our on-premise devices and end-point devices, as well as personnel costs for employees and contractors, costs related to porting our customers’ phone numbers to our service, shipping and handling costs, tariffs imposed on imported product and allocated overhead costs.

Subscription and services gross margin may fluctuate from period-to-period based on the interplay of a number of factors, including revenue mix and fluctuations in the costs described above. We expect our subscription and services gross margin to increase over the long-term, primarily as we achieve scale efficiencies and as Ooma Business revenue becomes a larger portion of total subscription revenue.

Product and other gross margin may fluctuate from period-to-period based on a number of factors, including total units shipped as compared to the direct costs of production and relatively fixed personnel costs incurred. We sell our on-premise devices at aggressive price points to facilitate the adoption of our platforms and services. We expect our product and other gross margin to continue to be negative for the foreseeable future.

Our subscription and services gross margin is significantly higher than product and other gross margin. As a result, any significant change in revenue mix will cause our total gross margin to change. For example, in periods where we sell significantly more on-premise devices, we would expect our total gross margin to be impacted.

Operating expenses

Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel costs for employees and contractors, advertising and marketing costs, amortization of sales commissions paid to internal sales personnel and third parties, amortization of acquired intangible assets, travel expenses and allocated overhead costs. We expect our sales and marketing expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to grow our business.

Research and development expenses are focused on developing new and expanded features for our services and improvements to our platforms and backend architecture. Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel costs for employees and contractors, as well as license and product certification fees and allocated overhead costs. We expect our research and development expenses to increase in absolute dollars.

General and administrative expenses consist of personnel costs for our finance, legal, human resources and other administrative employees and contractors, as well as professional service fees and allocated overhead costs. We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase in absolute dollars.

Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 50


Consolidated Results of Operations

The tables in this section set forth selected consolidated statements of operations data for each of the periods indicated (dollars in thousands):

 

 

 

Fiscal Year Ended January 31,

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subscription and services

 

$

175,942

 

 

$

156,873

 

 

$

139,499

 

Product and other

 

 

16,348

 

 

 

12,074

 

 

 

12,094

 

Total revenue

 

 

192,290

 

 

 

168,947

 

 

 

151,593

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subscription and services

 

 

49,563

 

 

 

46,134

 

 

 

43,748

 

Product and other

 

 

24,289

 

 

 

18,009

 

 

 

18,464

 

Total cost of revenue

 

 

73,852

 

 

 

64,143

 

 

 

62,212

 

Gross profit

 

 

118,438

 

 

 

104,804

 

 

 

89,381

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

58,631

 

 

 

50,919

 

 

 

50,497

 

Research and development

 

 

38,193

 

 

 

36,079

 

 

 

37,770

 

General and administrative

 

 

23,544

 

 

 

20,581

 

 

 

20,825

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

120,368

 

 

 

107,579

 

 

 

109,092

 

Loss from operations

 

 

(1,930

)

 

 

(2,775

)

 

 

(19,711

)

Interest and other income, net

 

 

179

 

 

 

419

 

 

 

780

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(1,751

)

 

 

(2,356

)

 

 

(18,931

)

Income tax (provision) benefit

 

 

 

 

 

(85

)

 

 

130

 

Net loss

 

$

(1,751

)

 

$

(2,441

)

 

$

(18,801

)

 

Costs and expenses included stock-based compensation expense and related payroll taxes as follows (in thousands): 

 

  

 

 

 

Fiscal Year Ended January 31,

 

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Cost of revenue

 

 

$

1,026

 

 

$

1,054

 

 

$

1,311

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

 

1,932

 

 

 

1,978

 

 

 

2,004

 

Research and development

 

 

 

4,373

 

 

 

4,387

 

 

 

4,773

 

General and administrative

 

 

 

5,746

 

 

 

5,188

 

 

 

5,061

 

Total stock-based compensation expense

 

 

$

13,077

 

 

$

12,607

 

 

$

13,149

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Ooma | FY2022 Form 10-K | 51


Revenue

 

 

Fiscal Year Ended January 31,

 

 

Change

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2022 vs. 2021

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subscription and services

 

$

175,942

 

 

$

156,873

 

 

$

139,499

 

 

$

19,069

 

 

12

%

Product and other

 

 

16,348

 

 

 

12,074

 

 

 

12,094

 

 

 

4,274

 

 

35

%

Total revenue

 

$

192,290

 

 

$

168,947

 

 

$

151,593

 

 

$

23,343

 

 

14

%

Percentage of revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subscription and services

 

 

91

%

 

 

93

%

 

 

92

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product and other

 

 

9

%

 

 

7

%

 

 

8

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

100

%

 

 

100

%

 

 

100

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fiscal 2022 Compared to Fiscal 2021

We derived approximately 49% and 44% of our total revenue from Ooma Business and approximately 49% and 54% from Ooma Residential in fiscal 2022 and 2021, respectively.

Subscription and services revenue increased $19.1 million or 12% year-over-year, primarily attributable to an increase in our core users and an increase in the average revenue per user, driven by the growth in sales of Ooma Business and a higher mix of sales of our Office Pro tier service.  Subscription and services revenue from Ooma Business and Ooma Residential grew 23% and 3% year-over-year, respectively.

Product and other revenue increased $4.3 million or 35% year-over-year due to an increase in shipments of Ooma Business products, primarily driven by sales of our fixed wireless products to a strategic customer.

Cost of Revenue and Gross Margin

 

 

Fiscal Year Ended January 31,

 

 

Change

 

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2022 vs. 2021

 

Cost of revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subscription and services

 

$

49,563

 

 

 

46,134

 

 

 

43,748

 

 

$

3,429

 

 

7

%

Product and other

 

 

24,289

 

 

 

18,009

 

 

 

18,464

 

 

 

6,280

 

 

35

%

Total cost of revenue

 

$

73,852

 

 

$