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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2023

 

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For The Transition Period From ________ To ________

 

Commission File Number 1-36346

 

OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Cayman Islands   98-1150254

(State or other jurisdiction

of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

     

Suite 201

42 Edward Street

P.O. Box 469

Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands

  KY1-9006
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (345) 749-7570

 

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:

 

Title of Each Class   Trading Symbols   Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Ordinary Shares, par value $0.001 (USD) per share   OXBR   The NASDAQ Capital Market
Warrants   OXBRW   The NASDAQ Capital Market

 

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated Filer Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company    

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes ☐ No

 

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

 

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No

 

The aggregate market value of the voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $10,013,951 (based upon the quoted closing sale price per share of the registrant’s ordinary shares on The NASDAQ Capital Market) on the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter (June 30, 2023). For purposes of this calculation, the registrant has assumed that its directors and executive officers as of June 30, 2023 were affiliates.

 

As of March 26, 2024, 5,870,234 ordinary shares, par value $0.001 (USD) per share, were outstanding.

 

Documents Incorporated by Reference:

 

Information required by Part III is incorporated by reference from registrant’s Proxy Statement for its 2024 annual meeting of stockholders or an amendment to this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of its fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.

 

 

 

 
 

 

OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED

 

Index to Annual Report on Form 10-K

 

Year Ended December 31, 2023

 

    Page
     
CAUTIONARY STATEMENTS FOR FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION 3
     
PART I.  
     
ITEM 1. BUSINESS 3
     
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS 13
     
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS 27
     
ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY 27
     
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES 28
     
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS 28
     
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES 28
     
PART II.  
     
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES 28
     
ITEM 6. [RESERVED] 29
     
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS 29
     
ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK 39
     
ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA 39
     
ITEM 9. CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE 39
     
ITEM 9A. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES 39
     
ITEM 9B. OTHER INFORMATION 40
     
ITEM 9C. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS 40
     
PART III.  
     
ITEM 10. DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE 40
     
ITEM 11. EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION 40
     
ITEM 12. SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS 40
     
ITEM 13. CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE 41
     
ITEM 14. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES 41
     
PART IV.  
     
ITEM 15. EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES 41
     
ITEM 16. FORM 10-K SUMMARY 41
     
  INDEX TO EXHIBITS 41
     
  SIGNATURES 44

 

2
 

 

SPECIAL NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

Unless the context dictates otherwise, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company,” or “the Company” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K refer to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited, SurancePlus Holdings Ltd., Oxbridge Re NS, SurancePlus Inc. and DSN Blockchain Technologies Ltd.

 

All statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including in the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” (refer to Part I, Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K), other than statements of historical fact, including estimates, projections, statements relating to our business plans, objectives and expected operating results, and the assumptions upon which those statements are based, are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These forward-looking statements generally are identified by the words such as “believe,” “project,” “predict,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “may,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “will be,” “will continue,” “will likely result,” and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties which may cause actual results to differ materially from our historical results and the forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements. A detailed discussion of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from such forward-looking statements is included in the section entitled “Risk Factors” (refer to Part I, Item 1A, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K). We undertake no obligation, other than imposed by law, to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements which speak only to the dates on which they were made.

 

PART I

 

ITEM 1 BUSINESS

 

Overview

 

We are a Cayman Islands specialty property and casualty reinsurer that provides reinsurance solutions through our reinsurance subsidiaries, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS. We focus on underwriting fully collateralized reinsurance contracts primarily for property and casualty insurance companies in the Gulf Coast region of the United States, with an emphasis on Florida. We specialize in underwriting medium frequency, high severity risks, where we believe sufficient data exists to analyze effectively the risk/return profile of reinsurance contracts. Oxbridge Re NS functions as a reinsurance sidecar which increases the underwriting capacity of Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited. Oxbridge Re NS issues participating notes to third party investors, the proceeds of which are utilized to collateralize Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited’s reinsurance obligations.

 

In addition to our historical reinsurance business operations, in 2023, our new subsidiary SurancePlus Inc. (“SurancePlus”) began developing, offering, and selling a tokenized reinsurance security representing fractionalized interests in reinsurance contracts, with each token representing an interest in participating notes issued by Oxbridge Re NS. These efforts culminated in the development, launch, and issuance of our first tokenized reinsurance security, the DeltaCat Re Token, which we believe is the first “on-chain” reinsurance security of its kind to be developed by a subsidiary of a public company. Following the issuance of the DeltaCat Re Token, we intend to develop, launch, and issue additional series of tokenized reinsurance securities representing fractional interests in reinsurance contracts, and we are also using our tokenization experience and activities as a foundation for developing Web3-focused business offerings and products relating to the tokenization of other real-world assets (RWAs), including RWAs held or being acquired by third parties. Our tokenization business will be conducted through SurancePlus and through other subsidiaries of our wholly owned subsidiary, SurancePlus Holdings Ltd. (“SurancePlus Holdings”), a Cayman Islands exempted company that we have organized to serve as a holding company for subsidiaries that will operate our developing Web3-focused business operations.

 

In our historical reinsurance business operations, we underwrite reinsurance contracts on a selective and opportunistic basis as opportunities arise based on our goal of achieving favorable long-term returns on equity for our shareholders. Our goal is to achieve long-term growth in book value per share by writing business that generates attractive underwriting profits relative to the risk we bear. Additionally, we intend to complement our underwriting profits with investment profits on an opportunistic basis. Our underwriting business focus is on fully collateralized reinsurance contracts for property catastrophes, primarily in the Gulf Coast region of the United States. Within that market and risk category, we attempt to select the most economically attractive opportunities across a variety of property and casualty insurers. As we attempt to grow our capital base, we expect that we will consider growth opportunities in other geographic areas and risk categories.

 

Our level of profitability in our reinsurance business operations is primarily determined by how adequately our premiums assumed and investment income cover our costs and expenses, which consist primarily of acquisition costs and other underwriting expenses, claim payments and general and administrative expenses. One factor leading to variation in our operational results is the timing and magnitude of any follow-on offerings we undertake (if any), and issuance of participating notes to investors as we are able to deploy new capital to collateralize new reinsurance treaties and consequently, earn additional premium revenue. In addition, our results of operations may be seasonal in that hurricanes and other tropical storms typically occur during the period from June 1 through November 30. Further, our results of operations may be subject to significant variations due to factors affecting the property and casualty insurance industry in general, which include competition, legislation, regulation, general economic conditions, judicial trends, and fluctuations in interest rates and other changes in the investment environment.

 

3
 

 

Because we employ an opportunistic underwriting and investment philosophy, period-to-period comparisons of our underwriting results may not be meaningful. In addition, our historical investment results may not necessarily be indicative of future performance. Due to the nature of our reinsurance and investment strategies, our operating results will likely fluctuate from period to period.

 

Organizational Chart

 

 

Other Developments

 

Formation of SurancePlus

 

SurancePlus Inc., an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited, was incorporated as a British Virgin Islands Business Company on December 19, 2022 for the purposes of tokenizing reinsurance contracts underwritten by its affiliated licensed reinsurer, Oxbridge Re NS.

 

On March 27, 2023, we, through SurancePlus, issued a press release announcing the commencement of an offering by SurancePlus of up to $5.0 million of DeltaCat Re Tokens (“Tokens”) with a purchase price of $10.00 per Token and representing one share of Series DeltaCat Re Preferred Shares per Token (the “Private Placement”).

 

On June 27, 2023, SurancePlus completed the Private Placement. The aggregate amount raised in the Private Placement was $2,447,760 for the issuance of 244,776 Tokens, of which approximately $1,280,000 was received from third-party investors and approximately $1,167,000 was received from Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited.

 

On September 11, 2023, the DeltaCat Re tokens were reclassified as tokenized interests carrying rights equivalent to the DeltaCat Re Preferred Shares in accordance with the provisions of the British Virgin Islands law.

 

4
 

 

Oxbridge Acquisition Corp.

 

On February 28, 2023, the Company announced in a press release that Oxbridge Acquisition Corp. (“Oxbridge Acquisition”) filed a Current Report on Form 8-K with the Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with Oxbridge Acquisition’s business combination with Jet Token Inc., a Delaware corporation. Upon the closing of the transaction, the combined company became Jet.AI Inc. (“Jet.AI”). Jet.AI offers fractional aircraft ownership, jet card, aircraft brokerage and charter service through its fleet of private aircraft and those of Jet.AI’s Argus Platinum operating partner. Jet.AI’s charter app enables travelers to look, book and fly. The funding and capital markets access from this transaction is expected to enable Jet.AI to continue its growth strategy of AI software development and fleet expansion. The business combination was completed on August 10, 2023.

 

The Company’s wholly-owned licensed reinsurance subsidiary, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited (“Oxbridge Reinsurance”), was the lead investor in Oxbridge Acquisition’s sponsor and currently indirectly holds the equivalent of 1,423,827 of Jet.AI common stock (NASDAQ: JTAI), 3,094,999 of Jet.AI public warrants (NASDAQ: JTAIW) and 285 of Jet.AI Series A-1 Convertible Preferred Stock with purchase price of $285,000.

 

Bridge Loan with Affiliate

 

On September 11, 2023, the Company, along with seven (7) other investors, entered into a binding term sheet (“Bridge Agreement”) with Jet.AI to provide Jet.AI with an aggregate sum of $500,000 of short-term bridge financing pending its receipt of funds from its other existing financing arrangements. During the month of September 2023, and prior to the Bridge Agreement, Jet.AI had engaged in discussions with numerous third parties to secure short-term bridge funding but was not offered terms it found acceptable.

 

The Bridge Agreement provides for the issuance of Notes in an aggregate principal amount of $625,000, reflecting a 20% original issue discount. The Notes bear interest at 5% per annum and mature on March 11, 2024. Jet.AI is required to redeem the Notes with 100% of the proceeds of any equity or debt financing at a redemption premium of 110% of the principal amount of the Notes. Jet.AI anticipates redeeming the Notes in full with proceeds expected to be received over the next several months from existing financing arrangements.

 

An event of default under the Notes includes failing to redeem the Notes as provided above and other typical bankruptcy events of Jet.AI. In an event of default, the outstanding principal amount of the Notes will increase by 120%, and the company may convert its Note into shares of common stock of Jet.AI at the conversion price set forth in the Bridge Agreement with registration rights associated with those shares.

 

The Company invested the sum of $100,000 in the Notes and is recorded as “Loan Receivable” on the consolidated balance sheets at cost. On March 11, 2024, the Notes matured and were redeemed by Jet.AI in accordance with the Bridge Agreement. The Company receive an aggregate of $140,000 upon the redemption of the Notes.

 

Our Business Strategy

 

Our goal is to achieve attractive risk-adjusted returns for our shareholders through the prudent management of underwriting and investments risks relative to our capital base. To achieve this objective, the following are the principal elements of our business strategy.

 

  Maintain a Commitment to Disciplined Underwriting. We employ a disciplined and data-driven underwriting approach to select a diversified portfolio of risks that we believe will generate an attractive return to our shareholders over the long term. Neither our underwriting nor our investment strategies are designed to generate smooth or predictable quarterly earnings, but rather to optimize growth in book value per share over the long term.
     
  Focus on Risk Management. We treat risk management as an integral part of our underwriting and business management processes. All of our reinsurance contracts contain loss limitation provisions that limit our losses to the value of the assets collateralizing our reinsurance contracts.

 

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  Deployment of Capital. In order to eliminate the possibility of complete losses, we intend to place only a portion of our total capital at risk in any single year. This means that we expect lower returns than some of our competitors in years where there are lower than average catastrophe losses but that our capital will not be completely eroded in the event of multiple large losses.
     
  Take Advantage of Market Opportunities. Although our business is initially focused on catastrophe coverage for Gulf Coast insurers we intend to continuously evaluate various market opportunities in which our business may be strategically or financially expanded or enhanced in the future. Such opportunities could take the form of investing into related party special purpose acquisition companies, further diversifying our business into other geographic or market areas, which could include quota share reinsurance contracts, joint ventures, renewal rights transactions, corporate acquisitions of other insurers or reinsurers, spinoffs, mergers or the formation of insurance or reinsurance platforms in new markets.
     
  Develop and Pursue Additional Tokenization Business Opportunities. Through SurancePlus Holdings and our Web3-focused subsidiaries, we intend to leverage our experience and knowledge with the tokenization of RWAs (including the initial DeltaCat Re Token) to develop other Web3-focused business offerings and products relating to the tokenization of RWAs, including RWAs held or being acquired by third parties.
     
    We believe the environment in the reinsurance and insurance markets will continue to produce opportunities for us, either through organic expansion, through acquisitions, or a combination of both.

 

The Reinsurance Industry

 

General

 

Reinsurance is an arrangement in which an insurance company, referred to as the reinsurer, agrees to assume from another insurance company, referred to as the ceding company or cedant, all or a portion of the insurance risks that the ceding company has underwritten under one or more insurance contracts. In return, the reinsurer receives a premium for the insured risks that it assumes from the ceding company, although reinsurance does not discharge the ceding company from its liabilities to policyholders. It is standard industry practice for primary insurers to reinsure portions of their insurance risks with other insurance companies under reinsurance agreements or contracts. This permits primary insurers to underwrite policies in amounts larger than the risks they are willing to retain. Reinsurance is generally designed to:

 

  Reduce the ceding company’s net liability on individual risks, thereby assisting it in managing its risk profile and increasing its capacity to underwrite business as well as increasing the limit to which it can underwrite on a single risk;
  assist the ceding company in meeting applicable regulatory and rating agency capital requirements;
  assist the ceding company in reducing the short-term financial impact of sales and other acquisition costs; and
  enhance the ceding company’s financial strength and statutory capital.

 

When reinsurance companies purchase reinsurance to cover their own risks assumed from ceding companies, this is known as retrocessional reinsurance. Reinsurance or retrocessional reinsurance can benefit a ceding company or reinsuring company, referred to herein as a “retrocedant,” as applicable, in various ways, such as by reducing exposure to individual risks and by providing catastrophe protection from larger or multiple losses. Like ceding companies, retrocedants can use retrocessional reinsurance to manage their overall risk profile or to create additional underwriting capacity, allowing them to accept larger risks or to write more business than would otherwise be possible, absent an increase in their capital or surplus.

 

Reinsurance contracts do not discharge ceding companies from their obligations to policyholders. Ceding companies therefore generally require their reinsurers to have, and to maintain, either a strong financial strength rating or security, in the form of collateral, as assurance that their claims will be paid.

 

Insurers generally purchase multiple tranches of reinsurance protection above an initial retention elected by the insurer. The amount of reinsurance protection purchased by an insurer is typically determined by the insurer through both quantitative and qualitative methods. In the event of losses, the amount of loss that exceeds the amount of reinsurance protection purchased is retained by the insurer.

 

As a program is constructed from the ground up, each tranche added generally has a lower probability of loss than the prior tranche and therefore is generally subject to a lower reinsurance premium charged for the reinsurance protection purchased. Insurer catastrophe programs are typically supported by multiple reinsurers per program.

 

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Reinsurance brokers play an important role in the reinsurance market. Brokers are intermediaries that assist the ceding company in structuring a particular reinsurance program and in negotiating and placing risks with third-party reinsurers. In this capacity, the broker is selected and retained by the ceding company on a contract-by-contract basis, rather than by the reinsurer. Though brokers are not parties to reinsurance contracts, reinsurers generally receive premium payments from brokers rather than ceding companies, and reinsurers that do not provide collateralized reinsurance are frequently required to pay amounts owed on claims under their policies to brokers. These brokers, in turn, pay these amounts to the ceding companies that have reinsured a portion of their liabilities with reinsurers.

 

Types of Reinsurance Contracts

 

Property reinsurance products are often written in the form of treaty reinsurance contracts, which are contractual arrangements that provide for the automatic reinsurance of a type or category of risk underwritten. Treaty reinsurance premiums, which are typically due in installments, are a function of the number and type of contracts written, as well as prevailing market prices. The timing of premiums written varies by line of business. The majority of property catastrophe business is written at the January and June annual renewal periods, depending on the type and location of the risks covered. Most hurricane and wind-storm coverage, particularly in the Gulf Coast region of the United States, is written at the June annual renewal periods.

 

Property catastrophe reinsurance contracts are typically “all risk” in nature, providing protection to the ceding company against losses from hurricanes and other natural and man-made catastrophes such as floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, storms and fires, referred to herein collectively as “perils.” The predominant exposures covered by these contracts are losses stemming from property damage and business interruption resulting from a covered peril. Coverage can also vary from “all natural” perils, which is the most expansive form, to more limited types such as windstorm-only coverage.

 

Property catastrophe reinsurance contracts are typically written on an “excess-of-loss” basis, which provides coverage to the ceding company when aggregate claims and claim expenses from a single occurrence for a covered peril exceed an amount that is specified in a particular contract. The coverage provided under excess-of-loss reinsurance contracts may be on a worldwide basis or may be limited in scope to specific regions or geographical areas. Under these contracts, protection is provided to an insurer for a portion of the total losses in excess of a specified loss amount, up to a maximum amount per loss specified in the contract.

 

Excess-of-loss contracts are typically written on a losses-occurring basis, which means that they cover losses that occur during the contract term, regardless of when the underlying policies came into force. Premiums from excess-of-loss contracts are earned rateably over the contract term, which is ordinarily 12 months. Most excess-of-loss contracts provide for a reinstatement of coverage following a covered loss event in return for an additional premium.

 

The Florida Property and Casualty Insurance Market

 

General Overview

 

Florida’s property and casualty insurance market has undergone significant changes in the past few decades. This market, which was formerly dominated by large, national, multi-line insurance companies, now includes Citizens Property Insurance Corporation (“Citizens”), a state-sponsored insurance company created by the Florida Legislature; Florida-based insurance companies that focus primarily on writing property insurance policies in the state of Florida; and Florida-based subsidiaries of national insurance companies that focus on writing property insurance policies in the state of Florida. While these four types of companies participate in the market at varying levels, Citizens and the Florida-based insurance companies are now the dominant market participants. Within the private market, which excludes Citizens, there is a strong dependence on small insurance companies, which have limited capitalization and a limited ability to diversify.

 

While the Florida property and casualty insurance market faces various challenges, the primary challenge is the potential for exposure to catastrophic windstorms. According to the Report, the state of Florida has:

 

  more than $1.8 trillion in insured residential property exposure;
  more than $4 billion in expected average annual losses due to windstorms (with respect to residential and commercial residential properties only); and
  nearly $60 billion in 1-in-100 probable maximum losses due to windstorms (with respect to residential and commercial residential properties only).

 

According to the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (“NOAA”) Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-6, entitled “The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones from 1851 to 2010 (and Other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts) (the “NOAA Memorandum”), “forty percent of all U.S. hurricanes and major hurricanes were in Florida,” and “sixty percent of category 4 or higher hurricane strikes have occurred in either Florida or Texas.” The NOAA Memorandum also indicates that, between 1851 and 2010, there were 114 hurricane strikes and 37 major hurricanes in Florida. (For these purposes, a “major hurricane” is a category 3, 4, or 5 hurricane.)

 

Our Reinsurance Contracts and Products

 

We write primarily property catastrophe reinsurance. We currently expect that substantially all of the reinsurance products we write in the foreseeable future will be in the form of treaty reinsurance contracts. When we write treaty reinsurance contracts, we do not evaluate separately each of the individual risks assumed under the contracts and are therefore largely dependent on the individual underwriting decisions made by the cedant. Accordingly, as part of our initial review and renewal process, we carefully review and analyze the cedant’s risk management and underwriting practices in evaluating whether to provide treaty reinsurance and in appropriately pricing the treaty.

 

Our portfolio of business continues to be characterized by relatively large transactions with a relatively few number of cedants. We anticipate that our business will continue to be characterized by a relatively small number of reinsurance contracts for the foreseeable future.

 

Our contracts are written on an excess-of-loss basis, generally with a per-event cap. We generally receive the premium for the risk assumed and indemnify the cedant against all or a specified portion of losses and expenses in excess of a specified dollar or percentage amount. Our contracts are generally both single-year or multi-year contracts and our policy years generally commence on June 1 of each year and end on May 31 of the following year.

 

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The bulk of our portfolio of risks is assumed pursuant to traditional reinsurance contracts. However, from time to time we take underwriting risk by purchasing a catastrophe-linked bond, or via a transaction booked as an industry loss warranty (as described below) or an indemnity swap. An indemnity swap is an agreement which provides for the exchange between two parties of different portfolios of catastrophe exposure with similar expected loss characteristics (for example, U.S. earthquake exposure for Asian earthquake exposure).

 

We believe our most attractive near-term opportunity is in property catastrophe reinsurance coverage for insurance companies. In addition to seeking profitable pricing, we manage our risks with contractual limits on our exposure. Property catastrophe reinsurance contracts are typically “all risk” in nature, meaning that they protect against losses from earthquakes and hurricanes, as well as other natural and man-made catastrophes such as tornados, fires, winter storms, and floods (where the contract specifically provides for such coverage). Losses on these contracts typically stem from direct property damage and business interruption. We generally write property catastrophe reinsurance on an excess-of-loss basis. These contracts typically cover only specific regions or geographical areas.

 

We are not licensed or admitted as an insurer in any jurisdiction other than the Cayman Islands. In addition, we do not have a financial rating and do not expect to have one in the near future. Many jurisdictions such as the United States do not permit clients to take credit for reinsurance on their statutory financial statements if such reinsurance is obtained from unlicensed or non-admitted insurers without appropriate collateral. As a result, we anticipate that all of our clients will require us to fully collateralize the reinsurance contracts we bind with them. Each of our contracts are fully collateralized and separately structured, with our liability being limited to the value of the assets held in the trust. We are generally not required to top-up the value of the assets held as collateral in respect of a particular reinsurance agreement, unless such collateral is subject to market risk. For each reinsurance agreement, a reinsurance trust is established in favor of the cedant, and the trustee of the reinsurance trust is a large bank that is agreed upon by our company and the cedant.

 

The premium for the contract is ordinarily deposited into the trust, together with additional capital from our company, up to the coverage limit. Each reinsurance contract contains express limited recourse language to the effect that the liabilities of the relevant reinsurance contract are limited to the realizable value of the collateral held in respect of that contract. Upon the expiration of the reinsurance contract, the assets of the trust net of insured losses and other expenses are transferred to our company.

 

Underwriting

 

Most of our reinsurance contracts have other reinsurers participating as lead underwriters, and these lead underwriters generally set the premium for the risk. We follow the premium pricing of the lead underwriters in most cases subject to the guidance of the Underwriting Committee of our Board of Directors. Each quarter, our Board of Directors will set parameters for the maximum level of capital to be deployed for the quarter and the expected premium and risk profile that each of our contracts must meet.

 

Our reinsurance portfolio of business continues to be characterized by relatively large transactions with a relatively few number of cedants and anticipate that our reinsurance entities business will continue to be characterized by a relatively small number of reinsurance contracts for the foreseeable future.

 

The bulk of our portfolio of risks is assumed pursuant to traditional reinsurance contracts. However, from time to time we take underwriting risk by purchasing a catastrophe-linked bond, or via a transaction booked as an industry loss warranty (as described below) or an indemnity swap. An indemnity swap is an agreement which provides for the exchange between two parties of different portfolios of catastrophe exposure with similar expected loss characteristics (for example, U.S. earthquake exposure for Asian earthquake exposure).

 

Marketing and Distribution

 

We expect that, in the future, the majority of our business will be sourced through reinsurance brokers. Brokerage distribution channels provide us with access to an efficient, variable distribution system without the significant time and expense that would be incurred in creating an in-house marketing and distribution network. Reinsurance brokers receive a brokerage commission that is usually a percentage of gross premiums written.

 

We intend to build relationships with global reinsurance brokers and captive insurance companies located in the Cayman Islands. Our management team has significant relationships with most of the primary and specialty broker intermediaries in the reinsurance marketplace in our target market. We believe that maintaining close relationships with brokers will give us access to a broad range of reinsurance clients and opportunities.

 

Brokers do not have the authority to bind us to any reinsurance contract. We review and approve all contract submissions in our corporate offices located in the Cayman Islands. From time to time, we may also enter into relationships with managing general agents who could bind us to reinsurance contracts based on narrowly defined underwriting guidelines.

 

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Investment Strategy

 

Our Company takes an opportunistic approach with respect to investment income and intend to increase shareholder value through supplemental investment income when favorable opportunities are available. The Company, from time to time, and dependent upon favorable investment conditions and our investment guidelines, may invest in real estate and other ventures that have the potential to increase shareholder value. Through its reinsurance subsidiaries, the Company has made and intend to make future investments that can contribute to the growth of capital and surplus in its licensed reinsurance subsidiaries over time.

 

Some of our company’s capital is held in trust accounts that collateralize the reinsurance policies that we write. The investment parameters for capital held in such trust accounts are generally established by the cedant for the relevant policy. Currently, all amounts held in trust accounts are in cash and cash equivalents.

 

Our Board of Directors periodically reviews our investment policy and returns.

 

Claims Management

 

Claims are managed internally by the company’s management team. Management reviews and responds to initial loss reports, administers claims databases, determines whether further investigation is required and where appropriate, retains outside claims counsel, establishes case reserves and approves claims for payment. In addition, we may conduct audits of any significant client throughout the year, and in the process, evaluate our clients’ claims handling abilities, reserving philosophies, loss notification processes and the overall quality of our clients’ performance.

 

Upon receipt, claims notices are recorded within our underwriting, financial and claims systems. When we are notified of insured losses or discover potential losses as part of our claims’ audits, we record a case reserve as appropriate for the estimated amount of the exposure at that time. The estimate reflects the judgment of management based on general reserving practices, the experience and knowledge of the manager regarding the nature of the specific claim and, where appropriate, advice of outside counsel. Reserves are also established to provide for the estimated expense of settling claims, including legal and other fees and the general expenses of administering the claims adjustment process.

 

Loss Reserves

 

Loss reserves represent estimates, including actuarial and statistical projections at a given point in time, of the ultimate settlement and administration costs of claims incurred (including claims incurred but not reported (“IBNR”)). Estimates are not precise in that, among other things, they are based on predictions of future developments and estimates of future trends in claims severity and frequency and other variable factors such as inflation. It is likely that the ultimate liability will be greater or less than such estimates and that, at times, this variance will be material.

 

For our property and other catastrophe policies, we initially establish our loss reserves based on loss payments and case reserves reported by ceding companies. As we are not the only reinsurer on most contracts, the lead reinsurer will set the loss amount estimates for the contract and the cedant will have the ability to pay for case losses consistent with that amount on our pro-rata share of the contract.

 

We then add to these case reserves our estimates for IBNR. To establish our IBNR estimates, in addition to the loss information and estimates communicated by cedants, we also use the services of an independent actuary. We may also use our computer-based vendor and proprietary modeling systems to measure and estimate loss exposure under the actual event scenario, if available. Although the loss modeling systems assist with the analysis of the underlying loss, and provide us with information and the ability to perform an enhanced analysis, the estimation of claims resulting from catastrophic events is inherently difficult because of the variability and uncertainty of property catastrophe claims and the unique characteristics of each loss.

 

If IBNR estimates are made, we assess the validity of the assumptions we use in the reserving process on a quarterly basis during an internal review process. During this process actuaries verify that the assumptions we have made continue to form what they consider to be a sound basis for projection of future liabilities.

 

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Although we believe that we are prudent in our assumptions and methodologies, we cannot be certain that our ultimate payments will not vary, perhaps materially, from the estimates we have made. If we determine that adjustments to an earlier estimate are appropriate, such adjustments are recorded in the quarter in which they are identified. The establishment of new reserves, or the adjustment of reserves for reported claims, could result in significant upward or downward changes to our financial condition or results of operations in any particular period. We regularly review and update these estimates, using the most current information available to us.

 

Our estimates are reviewed quarterly by an independent actuary in order to provide additional insight into the reasonableness of our loss reserves.

 

Competition

 

The reinsurance industry is highly competitive. We expect to compete with major reinsurers, most of which are well established with significant operating histories, strong financial strength ratings and long-standing client relationships.

 

Our competitors include Renaissance Re, Berkshire Hathaway, PartnerRe Ltd, Aeolus and Nephila which are dominant companies in the reinsurance industry. Although we seek to provide coverage where capacity and alternatives are limited, we directly compete with these larger companies due to the breadth of their coverage across the property and casualty market in substantially all lines of business. We also compete with smaller companies and other niche reinsurers from time to time.

 

While we have a limited operating history, we believe that our unique approach to multi-year underwriting will allow us to be successful in underwriting transactions against more established competitors.

 

Our Tokenization Business

 

We have decided to develop and pursue business opportunities in the tokenization of RWAs based on the expectation that a successful expansion into this specialization will further increase the underwriting capacity and potential profitability of our reinsurance subsidiaries, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS. We believe this represents a unique opportunity to drive value to our shareholders. The Boston Consulting Group published research projecting the RWA asset tokenization market to reach $16.1 trillion by 2030. A separate publication by Bloomberg reported  that, in 2023, reinsurance was one of the top performing hedge fund strategies. It is at the intersection of these two, i.e., RWA tokenization and reinsurance, that we believe there exist substantial growth opportunities for our business.

 

Accordingly, SurancePlus was incorporated to further innovate upon existing capital raising mechanisms of Oxbridge Re NS for collateralizing reinsurance contracts while simultaneously transforming the corresponding investment product into one that is more accessible to United States accredited investors under Rule 506(c) of Regulation D and to international investors under Regulation S. SurancePlus has since applied insights and technology from the Web3 digital ecosystem to create a multi-year series of real-world asset-backed digital securities, called the Cat Re (short for “catastrophe reinsurance”) token series. Ownership of the tokens confer an indirect fractional interest in reinsurance contracts entered into by Oxbridge Re NS or Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited. The DeltaCat Re token was the first of the token series, and it was issued in 2023 on the Avalanche blockchain network. The subsequent year’s offering of EpsilonCat Re tokens was announced in a Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 18, 2024. SurancePlus intends to continue to issue the Cat Re token series over several years.

 

We project that SurancePlus Inc. may develop into a significant revenue generating stream for the Oxbridge Re group that may progressively reduces Oxbridge Re’s annual capital deployed into collateralizing reinsurance contracts.. As opportunities arise, Oxbridge Re intends to pursue, through its Web3-focused subsidiaries, additional expansion of its RWA tokenization business to further increase underwriting profit.

 

Employees

 

As of March 26, 2024, we had four employees, all of which were full-time. We believe that our relations with our employees are good. None of our employees are subject to collective bargaining agreements, and we are not aware of any current efforts to implement such agreements. We believe that we will continue to have relatively few employees and intend to outsource some functions to specialist firms in the Cayman Islands if and when we determine that such functions are necessary. We intend to use the expertise of our Board of Directors and where necessary, external consultants to provide any other service we may require from time to time.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

We are not currently involved in any litigation or arbitration. We anticipate that, similar to the rest of the insurance and reinsurance industry, we will be subject to litigation and arbitration in the ordinary course of business.

 

Regulation and Capital Requirements

 

Our wholly-owned reinsurance subsidiaries, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS, each holds a Class C Insurer’s License issued in accordance with the terms of the Insurance Law (as revised) of the Cayman Islands (the “Law”), and is subject to regulation by the Cayman Islands Monetary Authority (“CIMA”), in terms of the Law. As the holder of a Class C Insurer’s License, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS are permitted to undertake insurance business approved by CIMA.

 

Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS are subject to minimum capital and surplus requirements, and our failure to meet these requirements could subject us to regulatory action. Pursuant to The Insurance (Capital and Solvency) (Classes B, C and D Insurers) Regulations, 2012 (the “Capital and Solvency Regulations”) published under the Law, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS are required to maintain the statutory minimum capital requirement (as defined under the Capital and Solvency Regulations) of $500 and prescribed capital requirement (as defined under the Capital and Solvency Regulations) of $500, and a minimum margin of solvency equal to or in excess of the total prescribed capital requirement. Any failure to meet the applicable requirements or minimum statutory capital requirements could subject us to further examination or corrective action by CIMA, including restrictions on dividend payments, limitations on our writing of additional business or engaging in finance activities, supervision or liquidation.

 

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CIMA may at any time direct Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS, in relation to a policy, a line of business or the entire business, to cease or refrain from committing an act or pursing a course of conduct and to perform such acts as in the opinion of CIMA are necessary to remedy or ameliorate the situation. See the discussion in “Risk Factors” under the heading “Any suspension or revocation of our reinsurance license would materially impact our ability to do business and implement our business strategy” for more information.

 

In addition, as a Cayman Islands exempted company, we may not carry on business or trade locally in the Cayman Islands except in furtherance of our business outside the Cayman Islands, and we are prohibited from soliciting the public of the Cayman Islands to subscribe for any of our securities or debt. We are further required to file a return with the Registrar of Companies in January of each year and to pay an annual registration fee at that time.

 

The Cayman Islands has no exchange controls restricting dealings in currencies or securities.

 

Available Information

 

Our website is located at www.oxbridgere.com. Copies of our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available, free of change, on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such material electronically with or furnish it to the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). The SEC also maintains a website that contains our SEC filings. The address of the SEC’s website is www.sec.gov.

 

Summary of Risk Factors

 

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in the section titled “Risk Factors,” that represent challenges that we face in connection with the successful implementation of our strategy. The occurrence of one or more of the events or circumstances described in the section titled “Risk Factors,” alone or in combination with other events or circumstances may have an adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and results of operations. In that case, the market price of our securities could decline, and you may lose some or all of your investment. Such risks include, but are not limited to:

 

We will need additional capital in the future in order to grow and operate our business. Such capital may not be available to us or may not be available to us on favorable terms. Furthermore, our raising additional capital could dilute your ownership interest in our company.

  Our results of operations will fluctuate from period to period and may not be indicative of our long-term prospects.
  Our tokenization business operations are at an early stage of development and have a limited operating history, and our strategy of developing a Web3-focused tokenization business may not be successful.
  Developing a Web3.0-focused business around the tokenization of RWAs involves significant risks.

Failure to become rated by A.M. Best, or receipt of a negative rating, could significantly and negatively affect our ability to grow.
Established competitors with greater resources may make it difficult for us to effectively market our products or offer our products at a profit.
If actual renewals of our existing contracts do not meet expectations, our premiums assumed in future years and our future results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Reputation is an important factor in the reinsurance industry, and our lack of an established reputation may make it difficult for us to attract or retain business.
If our losses and loss adjustment expenses greatly exceed our loss reserves, our financial condition may be significantly and negatively affected.
The property and casualty reinsurance market may be affected by cyclical trends and over-supply.
Our property and property catastrophe reinsurance operations will make us vulnerable to losses from catastrophes and may cause our results of operations to vary significantly from period to period.
We could face unanticipated losses from war, terrorism, and political unrest, and these or other unanticipated losses could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on our clients’ evaluations of the risks associated with their insurance underwriting, which may subject us to reinsurance losses.
Changing climate conditions may adversely affect our financial condition, profitability or cash flows.
Operational risks, including human or systems failures, are inherent in our business.
The effect of emerging claim and coverage issues on our business is uncertain
We are required to maintain sufficient collateral accounts, which could significantly and negatively affect our ability to implement our business strategy.
The inability to obtain business provided from brokers could adversely affect our business strategy and results of operations.

 

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The involvement of reinsurance brokers may subject us to their credit risk.
Our use of fair value accounting of our significant investment in Jet.AI Inc. could result in income statement volatility, which in turn, could cause significant market price and trading volume fluctuations for our securities
U.S. and global economic downturns could harm our business, our liquidity and financial condition and the price of our securities.
Our ability to implement our business strategy could be delayed or adversely affected by Cayman Islands employment restrictions.
Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise our information and expose us to liability, which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.
If we lose or are unable to retain our senior management and other key personnel and are unable to attract qualified personnel, our ability to implement our business strategy could be delayed or hindered, which, in turn, could significantly and negatively affect our business.
There are differences under Cayman Islands corporate law and Delaware corporate law with respect to interested party transactions which may benefit certain of our shareholders at the expense of other shareholders.
Any suspension or revocation of our reinsurance license would materially impact our ability to do business and implement our business strategy.
Our reinsurance subsidiaries are subject to minimum capital and surplus requirements, and our failure to meet these requirements could subject us to regulatory action.
As a holding company, we will depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends.
We may be subject to the risk of possibly becoming an investment company under U.S. federal securities law.
Insurance regulations to which we are, or may become, subject, and potential changes thereto, could have a significant and negative effect on our business.
We will likely be exposed to credit risk due to the possibility that counterparties may default on their obligations to us.
Provisions of our Third Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association (“Articles”) could adversely affect the value of our securities.
Provisions of the Companies Law of the Cayman Islands could prevent a merger or takeover of our company.
Holders of our securities may have difficulty obtaining or enforcing a judgment against us, and they may face difficulties in protecting their interests because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.
Provisions of our Articles may reallocate the voting power of our ordinary shares.
We do not currently have an effective registration statement registering the issuance of the shares underlying our publicly traded warrants, and therefore you may not be able to exercise the warrants in a cash exercise.
We may become subject to taxation in the Cayman Islands which would negatively affect our results.
We may be subject to United States federal income taxation.
We may be treated as a PFIC, in which case a U.S. holder of our ordinary shares should be subject to disadvantageous rules under U.S. federal income tax laws. We may be treated as a CFC and may be subject to the rules for related person insurance income, and in either case this may subject a U.S. holder of our ordinary shares to disadvantageous rules under U.S. federal income tax laws.
United States tax-exempt organizations who own ordinary shares may recognize unrelated business taxable income.
Changes in United States tax laws may be retroactive and could subject us, and/or United States persons who own ordinary shares to United States income taxation on our undistributed earnings.
We do not intend to resume paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future.
Outages, computer viruses and similar events could disrupt our operations.
Increased Information Technology (“IT”) security threats and more sophisticated computer crime could pose a risk to our systems, networks, and services.

Increased scrutiny by and changing expectations from investors, employees, and other stakeholders regarding our environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) practices and reporting could cause us to incur additional costs and adversely impact our reputation, tenant and employee acquisition and retention, and access to capital.

 

12
 

 

ITEM 1A RISK FACTORS

 

Risks Relating to Our Business

 

We will need additional capital in the future in order to grow and operate our business. Such capital may not be available to us or may not be available to us on favorable terms. Furthermore, our raising additional capital could dilute your ownership interest in our company.

 

We expect that we will need to raise additional capital in the future through public or private equity or debt offerings or otherwise in order to:

 

  further capitalize our reinsurance subsidiaries and implement our growth strategy;
  fund liquidity needs caused by underwriting or investment losses;
  replace capital lost in the event of significant reinsurance losses or adverse reserve developments;
  meet applicable statutory jurisdiction requirements;
  fund our business activities relating to our new tokenization business operations; and/or
  respond to competitive pressures.

 

Additional capital may not be available on terms favorable to us, or at all. Further, any additional capital raised through the sale of equity could dilute your ownership interest in our company and may cause the market price of our ordinary shares and warrants to decline. Additional capital raised through the issuance of debt may result in creditors having rights, preferences and privileges senior or otherwise superior to those of our ordinary shares and warrants.

 

Our results of operations will fluctuate from period to period and may not be indicative of our long-term prospects.

 

We anticipate that the performance of our reinsurance operations and our investment portfolio will fluctuate from period to period. Fluctuations will result from a variety of factors, including:

 

  reinsurance contract pricing;
  our assessment of the quality of available reinsurance opportunities;
  the volume and mix of reinsurance products we underwrite;
  loss experienced on our reinsurance liabilities;
  our ability to assess and integrate our risk management strategy properly; and
  the performance of our investment portfolio.

 

In particular, we plan to underwrite products and make investments to achieve favorable return on equity over the long term. In addition, our opportunistic nature and focus on long-term growth in book value will result in fluctuations in total premiums written from period to period as we concentrate on underwriting contracts that we believe will generate better long-term, rather than short-term, results. Accordingly, our short-term results of operations may not be indicative of our long-term prospects.

 

Our tokenization business operations are at an early stage of development and have a limited operating history, and our strategy of developing a Web3-focused RWA tokenization business may not be successful.

 

Our Web3-focused RWA tokenization business is still in the development stage, and our operating history in such business has been limited to the development and issuance of a token for participation in reinsurance contracts underwritten by our Oxbridge Re NS subsidiary. We have not yet announced any revenue-producing activities for tokenization of RWAs that are held by or being acquired by third parties, and we may not be able to successfully complete the development of any products or services relating to tokenization of third-party RWAs. Accordingly, we have only a very limited operating history and limited experience in this business and have not earned any revenues to date in this business (other than limited management fees from the issuance of the DeltaCat Re Tokens). If we are not able to develop this business as planned, we may not be able to generate material revenues from our developing tokenization business.

 

Developing a Web3.0-focused business around the tokenization of RWAs involves significant risks.

 

Our planned tokenization business activities are based on a new area of technology and carries significant risks, including the following:

 

  an active trading market for tokenized RWAs may not develop or be sustained;
  there is no guarantee that tokenized RWAs will hold their value or increase in value;
  tokenized RWAs of SurancePlus may not be listed on any securities exchange and may not be available to trade on any alternative trading system (“ATS”), which would result in limited liquidity for holders;
  if the tokenized RWAs become available for trading on an ATS, the number of securities traded on such ATS may be very small, making the market price more easily manipulated;
  technology on which an ATS relies for its operations may not function properly;
  blockchain networks are relatively new technologies;
 

asset tokenization via blockchain technologies is a relatively new digital innovation;

  blockchain network transaction fees may significantly increase over the duration of the investment;
  smart contracts may have implementation errors that vitiate them;
  blockchain transactions may be taken advantage of for financial crimes; and
  the Avalanche blockchain the tokenized RWAs rely upon and the tokenized RWAs themselves may be the target of malicious cyberattacks.

 

13
 

 

Failure to become rated by A.M. Best, or receipt of a negative rating, could significantly and negatively affect our ability to grow.

 

Companies, insurers and reinsurance brokers use ratings from independent ratings agencies as an important means of assessing the financial strength and quality of reinsurers. This rating reflects the rating agency’s opinion of our financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet obligations. It is not an evaluation directed toward the protection of investors or a recommendation to buy, sell or hold our securities. A.M. Best assigns ratings based on its analysis of balance sheet strength, operating performance and business profile.

 

Currently, A.M Best has not assigned us a financial strength rating, and we do not intend to seek a rating in the foreseeable future. Without a rating, or if we received a negative rating, our growth potential and business strategy will be limited because of the need to collateralize the insurance policies that we write.

 

Established competitors with greater resources may make it difficult for us to effectively market our products or offer our products at a profit.

 

The reinsurance industry is highly competitive. We compete with major reinsurers, all of which have substantially greater financial, marketing and management resources than we do. Competition in the types of business that we seek to underwrite is based on many factors, including:

 

  premium charges;
  the general reputation and perceived financial strength of the reinsurer;
  relationships with reinsurance brokers;
  terms and conditions of products offered;
  ratings assigned by independent rating agencies;
  speed of claims payment and reputation; and
  the experience and reputation of the members of our underwriting team in the particular lines of reinsurance we seek to underwrite.

 

Additionally, although the members of our underwriting team have general experience across many property and casualty lines, they may not have the requisite experience or expertise to compete for all transactions that fall within our strategy of offering customized frequency and severity contracts at times and in markets where capacity and alternatives may be limited.

 

Our competitors Renaissance Re, Berkshire Hathaway, PartnerRe Ltd, Aeolus Re, and Nephila which are dominant companies in the reinsurance industry, as well as smaller companies and other niche reinsurers. Although we seek to provide coverage where capacity and alternatives are limited, we will directly compete with these larger companies due to the breadth of their coverage across the property and casualty market in substantially all lines of business.

 

We cannot assure you that we will be able to compete successfully in the reinsurance market. Our failure to compete effectively could significantly and negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations and may increase the likelihood that we may be deemed to be a passive foreign investment company or an investment company.

 

If actual renewals of our existing contracts do not meet expectations, our premiums assumed in future years and our future results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

 

Many of our contracts are generally written for a one-year term. In our financial forecasting process, we make assumptions about the renewal of our prior year’s contracts. The insurance and reinsurance industries have historically been cyclical businesses with periods of intense competition, often based on price. If actual renewals do not meet expectations or if we choose not to write on a renewal basis because of pricing conditions, our premiums assumed in future years and our future operations would be materially adversely affected.

 

Reputation is an important factor in the reinsurance industry, and our lack of an established reputation may make it difficult for us to attract or retain business.

 

Reputation is a very important factor in the reinsurance industry, and competition for business is, in part, based on reputation. Although our reinsurance policies will be fully collateralized, we are a relatively newly formed reinsurance company and do not yet have a well-established reputation in the reinsurance industry. Our lack of an established reputation may make it difficult for us to attract or retain business. In addition, we do not have or currently intend to obtain financial strength ratings, which may discourage certain counterparties from entering into reinsurance contracts with us.

 

14
 

 

If our losses and loss adjustment expenses greatly exceed our loss reserves, our financial condition may be significantly and negatively affected.

 

Our results of operations and financial condition will depend upon our ability to accurately assess the potential losses and loss adjustment expenses associated with the risks we reinsure. Reserves are estimates at a given time of claims an insurer ultimately expects to pay, based upon facts and circumstances then known, predictions of future events, estimates of future trends in claim severity and other variable factors. The inherent uncertainties of estimating loss reserves are generally greater for reinsurance companies as compared to primary insurers, primarily due to:

 

  the lapse of time from the occurrence of an event to the reporting of the claim and the ultimate resolution or settlement of the claim;
  the diversity of development patterns among different types of reinsurance treaties; and
  the necessary reliance on the client for information regarding claims.

 

Our estimation of reserves may be less reliable than the reserve estimations of a reinsurer with a greater volume of business and an established loss history. Our actual losses and loss adjustment expenses paid may deviate substantially from the estimates of our loss reserves and could negatively affect our results of operations. If our loss reserves are later found to be inadequate, we would increase our loss reserves with a corresponding reduction in our net income and capital in the period in which we identify the deficiency, and such a reduction would also negatively affect our results of operations. If our losses and loss adjustment expenses greatly exceed our loss reserves, our financial condition may be significantly and negatively affected.

 

The property and casualty reinsurance market may be affected by cyclical trends and over-supply.

 

We write reinsurance in the property and casualty markets, which tend to be cyclical in nature. Ceding company underwriting results, prevailing general economic and market conditions, liability retention decisions of companies and ceding companies and reinsurance premium rates each influence the demand for property and casualty reinsurance. Prevailing prices and available surplus to support assumed business then influence reinsurance supply. Supply may fluctuate in response to changes in return on capital realized in the reinsurance industry, the frequency and severity of losses and prevailing general economic and market conditions.

 

Continued increases in the supply of reinsurance may have consequences for the reinsurance industry generally and for us, including lower premium rates, increased expenses for customer acquisition and retention, less favorable policy terms and conditions and/or lower premium volume. Furthermore, unpredictable developments, including courts granting increasingly larger awards for certain damages, increases in the frequency of natural disasters (such as hurricanes, windstorms, tornados, earthquakes, wildfires and floods), fluctuations in interest rates, changes in the investment environment that affect market prices of investments and inflationary pressures, affect the industry’s profitability. The effects of cyclicality could significantly and negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Due to the influx of new risk capital from alternative capital market participants such as hedge funds and pension funds, we believe that the reinsurance industry is currently over-capitalized and will continue in this trend for the foreseeable future. The over-capitalization of the market is not uniform as there are a number of insurers and reinsurers that have suffered and continue to suffer from capacity issues. We continue to assess the opportunities that may be available to us with insurance and reinsurance companies with this profile. If the reinsurance market continues to soften, our strategy is to reduce premium writings rather than accept mispriced risk and conserve our capital for a more opportune environment. Significant rate increases could occur if financial and credit markets experience adverse shocks that result in the loss of capital of insurers and reinsurers, or if there are major catastrophic events, especially in North America.

 

Our property and property catastrophe reinsurance operations will make us vulnerable to losses from catastrophes and may cause our results of operations to vary significantly from period to period.

 

Our reinsurance operations expose us to claims arising out of unpredictable catastrophic events, such as hurricanes, hailstorms, tornados, windstorms, earthquakes, floods, fires, explosions, and other natural or man-made disasters. Because of our emphasis on Florida, we are particularly vulnerable to hurricanes and with windstorm losses occurring in Florida. The incidence and severity of catastrophes are inherently unpredictable but the loss experience of property catastrophe reinsurers has been generally characterized as low frequency and high severity. Claims from catastrophic events could reduce our earnings and cause substantial volatility in our results of operations for any fiscal quarter or year and adversely affect our financial condition. Corresponding reductions in our surplus levels could impact our ability to write new reinsurance policies.

 

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Catastrophic losses are a function of the insured exposure in the affected area and the severity of the event. Because accounting standards do not permit reinsurers to reserve for catastrophic events until they occur, claims from catastrophic events could cause substantial volatility in our financial results for any fiscal quarter or year and could significantly and negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

We could face unanticipated losses from war, terrorism, and political unrest, and these or other unanticipated losses could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Like other reinsurers, we face potential exposure to large, unexpected losses resulting from man-made catastrophic events, such as acts of war, acts of terrorism and political instability. These risks are inherently unpredictable and recent events may indicate that the frequency and severity of these types of losses may increase. It is difficult to predict the timing of these events or to estimate the amount of loss that any given occurrence will generate. To the extent that losses from these risks occur, our financial condition and results of operations could be significantly and negatively affected.

 

We depend on our clients’ evaluations of the risks associated with their insurance underwriting, which may subject us to reinsurance losses.

 

In the proportional reinsurance business, in which we assume an agreed percentage of each underlying insurance contract being reinsured, or quota share contracts, we do not separately evaluate each of the original individual risks assumed under these reinsurance contracts. Therefore, we are largely dependent on the original underwriting decisions made by ceding companies. We are subject to the risk that the clients may not have adequately evaluated the insured risks and that the premiums ceded may not adequately compensate us for the risks we assume. We also do not separately evaluate each of the individual claims made on the underlying insurance contracts under quota share arrangements. Therefore, we are dependent on the original claims decisions made by our clients.

 

Changing climate conditions may adversely affect our financial condition, profitability or cash flows.

 

Climate change, to the extent it produces extreme changes in temperatures and changes in weather patterns, could impact the frequency or severity of weather events and wildfires. Further, it could impact the affordability and availability of homeowners insurance, which could have an impact on pricing. Changes in weather patterns could also affect the frequency and severity of other natural catastrophe events to which we may be exposed. The occurrence of these events would significantly and negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Operational risks, including human or systems failures, are inherent in our business.

 

Operational risks and losses can result from, among other things, fraud, errors, failure to document transactions properly or to obtain proper internal authorization, failure to comply with regulatory requirements, information technology failures or external events.

 

We believe that our modeling, underwriting and information technology and application systems are critical to our business and our growth prospects. Moreover, we rely on our information technology and application systems to further our underwriting process and to enhance our ability to compete successfully. A major defect or failure in our internal controls or information technology and application systems could result in management distraction, harm to our reputation or increased expenses.

 

The effect of emerging claim and coverage issues on our business is uncertain.

 

As industry practices and legal, judicial and regulatory conditions change, unexpected issues related to claims and coverage may emerge. It is possible that certain provisions of our future reinsurance contracts, such as limitations or exclusions from coverage or choice of forum, may be difficult to enforce in the manner we intend, due to, among other things, disputes relating to coverage and choice of legal forum. These issues may adversely affect our business by either extending coverage beyond the period that we intended or by increasing the number or size of claims. In some instances, these changes may not manifest themselves until many years after we have issued insurance or reinsurance contracts that are affected by these changes. As a result, we may not be able to ascertain the full extent of our liabilities under our insurance or reinsurance contracts for many years following the issuance of our contracts. The effects of unforeseen development or substantial government intervention could adversely impact our ability to adhere to our goals.

 

16
 

 

We are required to maintain sufficient collateral accounts, which could significantly and negatively affect our ability to implement our business strategy.

 

We are not licensed or admitted as a reinsurer in any jurisdiction other than the Cayman Islands. Certain jurisdictions, including the United States, do not permit insurance companies to take credit for reinsurance obtained from unlicensed or non-admitted insurers on their statutory financial statements unless appropriate security measures are implemented. Consequently, we must continue to maintain sufficient funds in escrow accounts to serve as collateral for our reinsurance contracts. Because we intend to continue to utilize our funds (rather than utilizing the credit markets) to serve as collateral for our reinsurance obligations, we may not be able to fully utilize our capital to expand our reinsurance coverage as rapidly as other reinsurers.

 

The inability to obtain business provided from brokers could adversely affect our business strategy and results of operations.

 

We anticipate that a substantial portion of our business will be placed primarily through brokered transactions, which involve a limited number of reinsurance brokers. If we are unable to identify and grow the brokered business provided through one or more of these reinsurance brokers, many of whom may not be familiar with our Cayman Islands jurisdiction, this failure could significantly and negatively affect our business and results of operations.

 

The involvement of reinsurance brokers may subject us to their credit risk.

 

As a standard practice of the reinsurance industry, reinsurers frequently pay amounts owed on claims under their policies to reinsurance brokers, and these brokers, in turn, remit these amounts to the ceding companies that have reinsured a portion of their liabilities with the reinsurer. In some jurisdictions, if a broker fails to make such a payment, the reinsurer might remain liable to the client for the deficiency notwithstanding the broker’s obligation to make such payment. Conversely, in certain jurisdictions, when the client pays premiums for policies to reinsurance brokers for payment to the reinsurer, these premiums are considered to have been paid and the client will no longer be liable to the reinsurer for these premiums, whether or not the reinsurer has actually received them. Consequently, we assume a degree of credit risk associated with the brokers that we do business with.

 

Our use of fair value accounting of our significant investment in Jet.AI Inc. could result in income statement volatility, which in turn, could cause significant market price and trading volume fluctuations for our securities.

 

Our significant beneficial interests in Jet.AI Inc.’s common stock and public warrants are recorded at fair value with changes in fair value being recorded in the consolidated statements of operations during the period of change. Additionally, the fair value of the investment must be remeasured quarterly. Because of this, and due to significance of our investment in Jet.AI relative to our total assets, our earnings may experience greater volatility in the future as a decline in the fair value of our investment in Jet.AI Inc. could significantly reduce both our earnings and shareholders’ equity, which in turn, could cause significant market price and trading volume fluctuations for our securities.

 

U.S. and global economic downturns could harm our business, our liquidity and financial condition and the price of our securities.

 

Weak economic conditions may adversely affect (among other aspects of our business) the demand for and claims made under our products, the ability of customers, counterparties and others to establish or maintain their relationships with us, our ability to access and efficiently use internal and external capital resources and our investment performance. Volatility in the U.S. and other securities markets may adversely affect our investment portfolio and our resulting results of operations.

 

17
 

 

Our ability to implement our business strategy could be delayed or adversely affected by Cayman Islands employment restrictions.

 

Under Cayman Islands law, persons who are not Caymanian, do not possess Caymanian status, or are not otherwise entitled to reside and work in the Cayman Islands pursuant to provisions of the Immigration Law (2015 Revision) of the Cayman Islands, which we refer to as the Immigration Law, may not engage in any gainful occupation in the Cayman Islands without an appropriate governmental work permit. Although Jay Madhu and Wrendon Timothy have obtained Permanent Residency in the Cayman Islands, the failure to obtain work permits, or extensions thereof, for other employee(s) could prevent us from continuing to implement our business strategy seamlessly.

 

Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise our information and expose us to liability, which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.

 

In the ordinary course of our business, we may collect and store sensitive data, including proprietary business, in our data centers and on our networks. The secure processing, maintenance and transmission of this information is critical to our operations and business strategy. Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, disrupt our operations, and damage our reputation, which could adversely affect our business, revenues and competitive position.

 

If we lose or are unable to retain our senior management and other key personnel and are unable to attract qualified personnel, our ability to implement our business strategy could be delayed or hindered, which, in turn, could significantly and negatively affect our business.

 

Although we only employ four individuals, two of whom are members of senior management, our future success may depend to a significant extent on the efforts of our senior management and other key personnel (who have not yet been hired) to implement our business strategy. We believe there are only a limited number of available, qualified executives with substantial experience in our industry. In addition, we will need to add personnel, including underwriters, to implement our business strategy. We could face challenges attracting personnel to the Cayman Islands. Accordingly, the loss of the services of one or more of the members of our senior management or other key personnel (when hired), or our inability to hire and retain other key personnel, could delay or prevent us from fully implementing our business strategy and, consequently, significantly and negatively affect our business.

 

We do not currently maintain key man life insurance with respect to any of our senior management. If any member of senior management dies or becomes incapacitated, or leaves the Company to pursue employment opportunities elsewhere, we would be solely responsible for locating an adequate replacement for such senior management and for bearing any related cost. To the extent that we are unable to locate an adequate replacement or are unable to do so within a reasonable period of time, our business may be significantly and negatively affected.

 

There are differences under Cayman Islands corporate law and Delaware corporate law with respect to interested party transactions which may benefit certain of our shareholders at the expense of other shareholders.

 

Under Cayman Islands corporate law, a director may vote on a contract or transaction where the director has an interest as a shareholder, director, officer or employee provided such interest is disclosed. None of our contracts will be deemed to be void because any director is an interested party in such transaction and interested parties will not be held liable for monies owed to the company. In contracts, under Delaware law, interested party transactions are potentially voidable.

 

Risks Relating to Insurance and Other Regulations

 

Any suspension or revocation of our reinsurance licenses would materially impact our ability to do business and implement our business strategy.

 

Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS are each licensed as an insurer only in the Cayman Islands by CIMA, and we do not intend to obtain a license in any other jurisdiction. The suspension or revocation of each of our licenses to do business as a reinsurance company in the Cayman Islands for any reason would mean that we would not be able to enter into any new reinsurance contracts until the suspension ended or we became licensed in another jurisdiction. Any such suspension or revocation of our licenses would negatively impact our reputation in the reinsurance marketplace and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

 

18
 

 

As a regulated insurance company, each of Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS is subject to the supervision of CIMA and CIMA may at any time direct Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and/or Oxbridge Re NS, in relation to a policy, a line of business or the entire business, to cease or refrain from committing an act or pursing a course of conduct and to perform such acts as in the opinion of CIMA are necessary to remedy or ameliorate the situation.

 

Furthermore, in certain circumstances, including when CIMA is of the opinion that:

 

  a licensee either is or appears to be likely to become unable to meet its obligations as they fall due;
  a licensee is carrying on its business in a manner which is seen as detrimental to the general public interest or to the interests of its creditors or policy holders;
  the activities of any member of the licensee’s insurance group are detrimental to those interests of the licensee’s creditors, as well as its policy holders;
  a licensee has contravened the Law or the Money Laundering Regulations (2023 Revision) of the Cayman Islands;
  the licensee has failed to comply with a condition of its license such as maintaining a margin of solvency as prescribed by CIMA;
  the direction and/or management of the licensee’s business has not been conducted in a fit and proper manner;
  a director, manager or officer of the licensee’s business is not someone who would qualify or be seen as a person suitable to hold the respective position;
  any person who is either holding or acquiring control or ownership of the licensee is not a fit and proper person to have such control or ownership;
  the licensee has ceased to carry on business; or
  the licensee is placed in liquidation or is dissolved;

 

CIMA may take one of a number of steps, including:

 

  requiring the licensee to take steps to rectify the matter;
  suspending the license of the licensee pending a full inquiry into the licensee’s affairs;
  revoking the license;
  imposing conditions upon the licensee in terms of decisions made by it, including the suspension of voting rights or nullification of votes cast by it, and amending or revoking any such condition;
  requiring the substitution or removal of any director, manager or officer of the licensee, at the expense of the licensee;
  appointing a person to advise the licensee on the proper conduct of its affairs, at the expense of the licensee;
  appointing a person to assume control of the licensee’s affairs; or
  otherwise requiring such action to be taken by the licensee as CIMA considers necessary.

 

Failures to comply with a direction given by CIMA may be punishable by a fine of up to five hundred thousand Cayman Islands dollars (US$609,756.10 based on the Cayman Islands’ pegged exchange rate of CI$0.82 per US$1.00) or imprisonment for a term of five years or both, and a fine of an additional ten thousand Cayman Islands dollars (US$12,195.12) for every day after conviction on which the offense so continues.

 

Our reinsurance subsidiaries are subject to minimum capital and surplus requirements, and our failure to meet these requirements could subject us to regulatory action.

 

Pursuant to the Capital and Solvency Regulations, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS, our reinsurance subsidiaries, are each required to maintain the statutory minimum capital requirement (as defined under the Capital and Solvency Regulations) of $500 and prescribed capital requirement (as defined under the Capital and Solvency Regulations) of $500, and a minimum margin of solvency equal to or in excess of the total prescribed capital requirement. Any failure to meet the applicable requirements or minimum statutory capital requirements could subject us to further examination or corrective action by CIMA, including restrictions on dividend payments, limitations on our writing of additional business or engaging in finance activities, supervision or liquidation.

 

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As a holding company, we will depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends.

 

We are a holding company and do not have any significant operations or assets other than our ownership of the shares of our subsidiaries Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS. Dividends and other permitted distributions from our subsidiaries will be our primary source of funds to meet ongoing cash requirements, including future debt service payments, if any, and other expenses, and to pay dividends to our shareholders if we choose to do so. Our subsidiaries will be subject to applicable law as well as significant regulatory restrictions limiting their ability to declare and pay dividends. The inability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends in an amount sufficient to enable us to meet our cash requirements at the holding company level could have an adverse effect on our operations and our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders if we choose to do so and/or meet our debt service obligations, if any.

 

We are subject to the risk of possibly becoming an investment company under U.S. federal securities law.

 

In the United States, the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”), regulates certain companies that invest in or trade securities. We run the risk of inadvertently being deemed to be an investment company that is required to register under the Investment Company because a significant portion of our assets may be deemed to consist of, or may be deemed to have consisted of, investment securities, including potentially Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited’s interest in Oxbridge Acquisition Corp. However, we rely on an exemption under the Investment Company Act for an entity organized and regulated as a foreign insurance company which is engaged primarily and predominantly in the reinsurance of risks on insurance agreements. The law in this area is subjective and there is a lack of guidance as to the meaning of ‘‘primarily and predominantly’’ under the relevant exemption to the Investment Company Act. For example, there is no standard for the amount of premiums that need to be written relative to the level of an entity’s capital in order to qualify for the exemption. If this exception were deemed inapplicable, we would have to seek to register under the Investment Company Act as an investment company, which, under the Investment Company Act, would require an order from the SEC. Our inability to obtain such an order could have a significant adverse impact on our business, as we might have to cease certain operations or risk substantial penalties for violating the Investment Company Act.

 

Registered investment companies are subject to extensive, restrictive and potentially adverse regulation relating to, among other things, capital structure, leverage, management, dividends and transactions with affiliates. Registered investment companies are not permitted to operate their business in the manner in which we operate (and intend to operate) our business. Specifically, if we were required to register under the Investment Company Act, provisions of the Investment Company Act would limit (and in some cases even prohibit) our ability to raise additional debt and equity securities or issue options or warrants (which could impact our ability to compensate key employees), limit our ability to use financial leverage, limit our ability to incur indebtedness, and require changes to the composition of our Board of Directors. Provisions of the Investment Company Act would also prohibit (subject to certain exceptions) transactions with affiliates.

 

Accordingly, if we were required to register as an investment company, we would not be permitted to have many of the relationships that we have or expect that we may have with affiliated companies.

 

If at any time it were established that we had been operating as an investment company in violation of the registration requirements of the Investment Company Act, there would be a risk, among other material adverse consequences, that we could become subject to monetary penalties or injunctive relief, or both, or that we would be unable to enforce contracts with third parties or that third parties could seek to obtain rescission of transactions with us undertaken during the period in which it was established that we were an unregistered investment company.

 

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Insurance regulations to which we are, or may become, subject, and potential changes thereto, could have a significant and negative effect on our business.

 

Although we do not presently expect that we will conduct business in any jurisdiction other than the Cayman Islands, we cannot assure you that insurance regulators in the United States or elsewhere will not review our activities and claim that we are subject to such jurisdiction’s insurance licensing requirements. In addition, we are subject to indirect regulatory requirements imposed by jurisdictions that may limit our ability to provide reinsurance. For example, our ability to write reinsurance may be subject, in certain cases, to arrangements satisfactory to applicable regulatory bodies, and proposed legislation and regulations may have the effect of imposing additional requirements upon, or restricting the market for, non-U.S. reinsurers such as Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS, with whom domestic companies may place business. We do not know of any such proposed legislation pending at this time.

 

Furthermore, we may not be able to comply fully with, or obtain desired exemptions from, revised statutes, regulations and policies that currently, or may in the future, govern the conduct of our business. Failure to comply with, or to obtain desired authorizations and/or exemptions under, any applicable laws could result in restrictions on our ability to do business or undertake activities that are regulated in the jurisdictions in which we operate and could subject us to fines and other sanctions. In addition, changes in the laws or regulations to which our reinsurance subsidiary is subject or may become subject, or in the interpretations thereof by enforcement or regulatory agencies, could have a material adverse effect on our business, our business plans, and our growth strategy.

 

We will likely be exposed to credit risk due to the possibility that counterparties may default on their obligations to us.

 

Due to our investments in our portfolio, we are exposed to credit risk due to the possibility that counterparties may default on their obligations to us. Issuers or borrowers whose securities or debt we hold, customers, reinsurers, clearing agents, exchanges, clearing houses and other financial intermediaries and guarantors may default on their obligations to us due to bankruptcy, insolvency, lack of liquidity, adverse economic conditions, operational failure, fraud or other reasons. Such defaults could have a significant and negative effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

 

Risks Relating to our Securities

 

Provisions of our Third Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association (“Articles”) could adversely affect the value of our securities.

 

Our Articles permit our Board of Directors to allot, issue, grant options over or otherwise dispose of further shares (including fractions of such share) with or without preferred, deferred or other rights or restrictions, whether in regard to dividend or other distribution, voting, return of capital or otherwise and to such persons, at such times and on such other terms as they consider appropriate. Accordingly, our Board of Directors may authorize the issuance of preferred shares with terms and conditions and under circumstances that could have an effect of discouraging a takeover or other transaction, deny shareholders the receipt of a premium on their ordinary shares in the event of a tender or other offer for ordinary shares and have a depressive effect on the value of our ordinary shares.

 

Provisions of the Companies Law of the Cayman Islands could prevent a merger or takeover of our company.

 

As compared to mergers under corporate law in the United States, it may be more difficult to consummate a merger of two or more companies in the Cayman Islands or the merger of one or more Cayman Islands companies with one or more overseas companies, even if such transaction would be beneficial to our shareholders. The Companies Law of the Cayman Islands, as amended (the “Companies Law”), permits mergers and consolidations between Cayman Islands companies and between Cayman Islands companies and non-Cayman Islands companies. For these purposes, (a) “merger” means the merging of two or more constituent companies and the vesting of their undertaking, property and liabilities in one of such companies as the surviving company and (b) a “consolidation” means the combination of two or more constituent companies into a combined company and the vesting of the undertaking, property and liabilities of such companies to the consolidated company. In order to effect such a merger or consolidation, the directors of each constituent company must approve a written plan of merger or consolidation, which must then be authorized by (a) a special resolution of the shareholders of each constituent company, and (b) such other authorization, if any, as may be specified in such constituent company’s articles of association. The written plan of merger or consolidation must be filed with the Registrar of Companies together with a declaration as to the solvency of the consolidated or surviving company, a list of the assets and liabilities of each constituent company and an undertaking that a copy of the certificate of merger or consolidation will be given to the shareholders and creditors of each constituent company and that notification of the merger or consolidation will be published in the Cayman Islands Gazette. Dissenting shareholders have the right to be paid the fair value of their shares (which, if not agreed between the parties, will be determined by the Cayman Islands court) if they follow the required procedures, subject to certain exceptions. Court approval is not required for a merger or consolidation which is effected in compliance with these statutory procedures.

 

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In addition, there are statutory provisions that facilitate the reconstruction and amalgamation of companies, provided that the arrangement is approved by a majority in number of each class of shareholders or creditors (representing 75% by value) with whom the arrangement is to be made and who must, in addition, represent three-fourths in value of each such class of shareholders or creditors, as the case may be, that are present and voting either in person or by proxy at a meeting, or meetings, convened for that purpose. The convening of the meetings and subsequently the arrangement must be sanctioned by the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands. While a dissenting shareholder has the right to express to the court the view that the transaction ought not to be approved, the court can be expected to approve the arrangement if it determines that:

 

  the statutory provisions as to the required majority vote have been met;
  the shareholders have been fairly represented at the meeting in question and the statutory majority are acting bona fide without coercion of the minority to promote interests adverse to those of the class;
  the arrangement is such that may be reasonably approved by an intelligent and honest man of that class acting in respect of his interest; and
  the arrangement is not one that would more properly be sanctioned under some other provision of the Companies Law.

 

When a takeover offer is made and accepted by holders of 90% of the shares within four months, the offeror may, within a two-month period commencing on the expiration of such four-month period, require the holders of the remaining shares to transfer such shares on the terms of the offer. An objection can be made to the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands, but such objection is unlikely to succeed in the case of an offer which has been so approved unless there is evidence of fraud, bad faith or collusion.

 

If an arrangement and reconstruction is thus approved, the dissenting shareholder would have no rights comparable to appraisal rights, which would otherwise ordinarily be available to dissenting shareholders of certain corporations incorporated in the United States, including Delaware corporations, providing rights to receive payment in cash for the judicially determined value of the shares.

 

Holders of our securities may have difficulty obtaining or enforcing a judgment against us, and they may face difficulties in protecting their interests because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

 

Because we are a Cayman Islands company, there is uncertainty as to whether the Grand Court of the Cayman Islands would recognize or enforce judgments of United States courts obtained against us predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state thereof, or be competent to hear original actions brought in the Cayman Islands against us predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state thereof.

 

We are incorporated as an exempted company limited by shares under the Companies Law. A significant amount of our assets are located outside of the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for persons purchasing our securities to effect service of process within the United States upon us or to enforce judgments against us or judgments obtained in U.S. courts predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States or any state of the United States.

 

Although there is no statutory enforcement in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, the courts of the Cayman Islands will, based on the principle that a judgment by a competent foreign court will impose upon the judgment debtor an obligation to pay the sum for which judgment has been given, recognize and enforce a foreign judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction if such judgment is final, for a liquidated sum, not in respect of taxes or a fine or penalty if not inconsistent with a Cayman Islands judgment in respect of the same matters, and was not obtained in a manner, and is not of a kind, the enforcement of which is contrary to the public policy of the Cayman Islands. There is doubt, however, as to whether the courts of the Cayman Islands will, in an original action in the Cayman Islands, recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state of the United States on the grounds that such provisions are penal in nature. Furthermore, a Cayman Islands court may stay proceedings if concurrent proceedings are being brought elsewhere.

 

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Unlike many jurisdictions in the United States, Cayman Islands law does not specifically provide for shareholder appraisal rights on a merger or consolidation of an entity. This may make it more difficult for shareholders to assess the value of any consideration they may receive in a merger or consolidation or to require that the offeror give a shareholder additional consideration if he believes the consideration offered is insufficient. In addition, shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies such as ours have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records and accounts. Our directors have discretion under our Articles to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, the corporate records may be inspected by shareholders, but are not obligated to make them available to shareholders. This fact may make it more difficult for shareholders to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest. Finally, subject to limited exceptions, under Cayman Islands law, a minority shareholder may not bring a derivative action against our Board of Directors.

 

Provisions of our Articles may reallocate the voting power of our ordinary shares.

 

In certain circumstances, the total voting power of our ordinary shares held by any one person will be reduced to less than 9.9% of the total voting power of the total issued and outstanding ordinary shares. In the event a holder of our ordinary shares acquires shares representing 9.9% or more of the total voting power of our total ordinary shares, there will be an effective reallocation of the voting power of the ordinary shares as described in the Articles.

 

We do not currently have an effective registration statement registering the issuance of the shares underlying our publicly traded warrants, and therefore you may not be able to exercise the warrants in a cash exercise.

 

For you to be able to effect a cash exercise of our publicly traded warrants, the sale of the ordinary shares to be issued to you upon exercise of the warrants must be covered by an effective and current registration statement. We have not maintained a current registration statement relating to the sale of the shares of common stock underlying the warrants. As a result, you would be unable to exercise the warrants in a cash exercise and will be required to engage in a cashless exercise in which a number of warrant shares equal to the fair market value of the exercised shares will be withheld. In those circumstances, we may, but are not required to, redeem the warrants by payment in cash. Consequently, there is a possibility that you will never be able to exercise the warrants and receive the underlying ordinary shares. This potential inability to exercise the warrants in a cash exercise, our right to cancel the warrants under certain circumstances, and the possibility that we may redeem the warrants for nominal value, may have an adverse effect on demand for the warrants and the prices that can be obtained from reselling them.

 

Risks Relating to Taxation

 

We may become subject to taxation in the Cayman Islands which would negatively affect our results.

 

Under current Cayman Islands law, we are not obligated to pay any taxes in the Cayman Islands on either income or capital gains. The Governor-in-Cabinet of Cayman Islands has granted us an exemption from the imposition of any such tax on us for twenty years from April 23, 2013. We cannot be assured that after such date we would not be subject to any such tax. If we were to become subject to taxation in the Cayman Islands, our financial condition and results of operations could be significantly and negatively affected.

 

We may be subject to United States federal income taxation.

 

We are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and intend to operate in a manner that will not cause us to be treated as engaging in a United States trade or business and will not cause us to be subject to current United States federal income taxation on our income. However, because there are no definitive standards provided by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), regulations or court decisions as to the specific activities that constitute being engaged in the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, and as any such determination is essentially factual in nature, we cannot assure you that the United States Internal Revenue Service, or the IRS, will not successfully assert that we are engaged in a trade or business in the United States and thus are subject to current United States federal income taxation.

 

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We may be treated as a PFIC, in which case a U.S. holder of our ordinary shares should be subject to disadvantageous rules under U.S. federal income tax laws.

 

Significant potential adverse United States federal income tax consequences generally apply to any United States person who owns shares in a “passive foreign investment company”, or PFIC. In general, a non-U.S. corporation is classified as a PFIC for a taxable year in which, after taking into account the income and assets of the corporation and certain subsidiaries pursuant to certain look-through rules, either (i) 75% or more of its gross income is passive income, or (ii) 50% or more of the average quarterly value of its gross assets is attributable to assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income.

 

Passive income generally includes interest, dividends and other investment income. However, the income derived in the active conduct of an insurance business is excluded from the term “passive income” if (i) for years before 2021, the income is earned by a corporation that is predominantly engaged in an insurance business, and (ii) for years after 2021, the income is earned by a “qualifying insurance corporation”. In order for a non-U.S. property and casualty insurance company to be treated as a “qualifying insurance corporation” for a taxable year, the company’s “applicable insurance liabilities” generally must be greater than 25% of the company’s assets for the taxable year. In the case of a non-U.S. property and casualty insurance company, the term “applicable insurance liabilities” means the amount of loss and loss adjustment expenses, but shall not exceed the amount reported to the applicable regulator in an applicable financial statement. It is not clear whether the term “applicable insurance liabilities” includes not only the unpaid loss and loss adjustment expenses, but also includes the paid loss and loss adjustment expenses during the taxable year. If each of Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS is a “qualified insurance corporation” for a taxable year, then neither Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited, nor Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited, nor Oxbridge Re NS should be deemed to be a PFIC for the taxable year.

 

Regardless of whether the term “applicable insurance liabilities” includes not only the unpaid loss and loss adjustment expenses but also the paid loss and loss adjustment expenses, we believe that each of Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS met the requirements for being a “qualified insurance corporation” for the 2023 and 2022 years. For years prior to 2022, we also believe that each of those corporations met the requirement of being predominantly engaged in an insurance business. Accordingly, we believe that we have not been a PFIC during 2023 or prior years. We do not have an expectation, however, as to whether or not we may be a PFIC in years after 2023. If you are a United States person, we urge you to consult your own tax advisor concerning the potential tax consequences to you under the PFIC rules.

 

We may be treated as a CFC and may be subject to the rules for related person insurance income, and in either case this may subject a U.S. holder of our ordinary shares to disadvantageous rules under U.S. federal income tax laws.

 

Controlled Foreign Corporation. United States persons who, directly or constructively through attribution rules, own 10% or more of the voting power or value of our ordinary shares, which we refer to as United States 10% shareholders, may be subject to the controlled foreign corporation, or CFC, rules. Under the controlled foreign corporation rules of the Code, each United States 10% shareholder must annually include his pro rata share of the controlled foreign corporation’s ‘‘Subpart F income,’’ even if no distributions are made. In general, a foreign insurance company will be treated as a controlled foreign corporation only if United States 10% shareholders collectively own, directly or constructively, more than 25% of the total combined voting power or total value of the company’s shares. If you are a United States person we urge you to consult your own tax advisor concerning the controlled foreign corporation rules. We believe that certain United States persons may be deemed to own, directly or constructively (including through the ownership of warrants), 10% or more of the voting power or value of our ordinary shares, and we believe that those United States persons collectively own, directly or constructively, more than 25% of the voting power or value of our ordinary shares.

 

Related Person Insurance Income. A different definition of CFC is applicable in the case of a foreign corporation which earns “related person insurance income” (“RPII”). RPII is a Code Subpart F insurance income attributable to insurance policies or reinsurance contracts where the person that is directly or indirectly insured or reinsured is a RPII shareholder or a related person to the RPII shareholder. A “RPII shareholder” is a United States person who owns, directly or indirectly through foreign entities, any amount of our ordinary shares. Generally, for purposes of the RPII rules, a related person is someone who controls or is controlled by the RPII shareholder or someone who is controlled by the same person or persons which control the RPII shareholder. Control is measured by either more than 50% in value or more than 50% in voting power of shares after applying certain constructive ownership rules. For purposes of taking into account RPII, and subject to the exceptions described below, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited or Oxbridge Re NS will be treated as a CFC if our RPII shareholders collectively own, indirectly, 25% or more of the total combined voting power or value of their respective shares on any day during a taxable year. If Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited or Oxbridge Re NS is a CFC at any time during a taxable year under the special RPII rules, any U.S. Holder that owns ordinary shares on the last day of any such taxable year must include in gross income for U.S. federal income tax purposes the U.S. Holder’s allocable share of the RPII of Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited for the entire taxable year, subject to certain modifications. Among other exceptions, the RPII rules do not apply if the insurance company’s RPII, determined on a gross basis, is less than 20% of such respective entity’s gross insurance income for such taxable year. We do not believe that the 20% gross insurance income threshold will be met. However, we cannot assure you that this is or will continue to be the case. Consequently, we cannot assure you that a person who is a direct or indirect United States shareholder will not be required to include amounts in its income in respect of RPII in any taxable year.

 

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United States tax-exempt organizations who own ordinary shares may recognize unrelated business taxable income.

 

If you are a United States tax-exempt organization you may recognize unrelated business taxable income if a portion of our Code Subpart F insurance income is allocated to you. In general, Code Subpart F insurance income will be allocated to you if we are a CFC as discussed above and you are a United States 10% shareholder or there is related person insurance income and certain exceptions do not apply. If you are a United States tax-exempt organization, we advise you to consult your own tax advisor regarding the risk of recognizing unrelated business taxable income.

 

Changes in United States tax laws may be retroactive and could subject us, and/or United States persons who own ordinary shares to United States income taxation on our undistributed earnings.

 

The tax laws and interpretations regarding whether a company is engaged in a United States trade or business, is a CFC, has RPII, or is a PFIC are subject to change, possibly on a retroactive basis. There are currently no regulations regarding the application of the PFIC rules to an insurance company and the regulations regarding RPII are still in proposed form. New regulations or pronouncements interpreting or clarifying such rules may be forthcoming from the IRS. We are not able to predict if, when or in what form such guidance will be provided and whether such guidance will have a retroactive effect.

 

We do not intend to resume paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

 

On November 12, 2017, our board of directors decided to suspend our regular quarterly cash dividend. The board of directors intends to reconsider in the future the payment of a quarterly cash dividend, but the timing of such reconsideration has not been determined, and there is no intention to resume dividend payments in the foreseeable future, if at all. Any decision to resume dividend payments will be dependent upon a variety of factors, including the state of our business as well as general market conditions at the time of reconsideration, and there is no assurance that dividend payments will recommence.

 

Outages, computer viruses and similar events could disrupt our operations.

 

We rely on information technology networks and systems, some of which are owned and operated by third parties, to process, transmit and store electronic information. Any of these systems may be susceptible to outages due to fire, floods, power loss, telecommunications failures, terrorist or cyber-attacks and similar events. Despite the implementation of network security measures, our systems and those of third parties on which we rely may also be vulnerable to computer viruses and similar disruptions. If we or the third parties on whom we rely are unable to prevent such outages and breaches, our operations could be disrupted.

 

Increased Information Technology (“IT”) security threats and more sophisticated computer crime could pose a risk to our systems, networks, and services.

 

Cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. There have been an increased number of significant cyber-attacks targeted at the retail, insurance, financial and banking industries that include, but are not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data or causing operational disruption. Cyber-attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as by causing denial-of-service attacks on websites. Cyber-attacks by third parties or insiders utilize techniques that range from highly sophisticated efforts to electronically circumvent network security or overwhelm a website to more traditional intelligence gathering, and social engineering aimed at obtaining information necessary to gain access.

 

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Increased global IT security threats are more sophisticated and targeted computer crimes pose a risk to the security of our systems and networks and the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our data. The open nature of interconnected technologies may allow for a network or Web outage or a privacy breach that reveals sensitive data or transmission of harmful/malicious code to business partners and clients. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable, or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventive measures.

 

Cyber-attacks may result in substantial financial and reputational cost, including but are not limited to:

 

  Compromising of confidential information;
  Manipulation and destruction of data;
  Loss of trade secrets;
  System downtimes and operational disruptions;
  Remediation costs that may include liability for stolen assets or information and repairing system damage, as well as incentives offered to business partners in an effort to maintain business relationships;
  Loss of revenues resulting from unauthorized use of proprietary information;
  Cost to deploy additional protection strategies, training employees and engaging third party experts and consultants;
  Reputational damage adversely affecting investor confidence; and
  Costly litigation.

 

The control environment for cybersecurity is an ever-changing risk landscape across the entire attack surface which includes risks from on-premises, cloud infrastructure, software as a service and mobile applications. While we attempt to mitigate these risks by employing a number of cybersecurity measures, such measures may be insufficient to prevent a cyberattack and our systems, networks, and services remain potentially vulnerable to advanced threats.

 

Increased scrutiny by and changing expectations from investors, employees, and other stakeholders regarding our environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) practices and reporting could cause us to incur additional costs and adversely impact our reputation, tenant and employee acquisition and retention, and access to capital.

 

Companies across all industries are facing increasing scrutiny related to their ESG practices and disclosure. Investors, employees, and other stakeholders have begun to focus increasingly on ESG practices and to place heightened importance on the environmental and social cost of their investments, business decisions and consumer choices. For example, an increasing number of investment funds focus on positive ESG practices and sustainability scores when making an investment decision. Additionally, certain institutional investors have demonstrated increased activism with respect to their existing investments, including by urging companies to take certain actions in areas of perceived ESG significance.

 

Investors, particularly institutional investors, use or may use third-party benchmarks and scores to assess our ESG practices against our peers and if we are perceived as lagging, such investors may decide to not invest in our ordinary shares or to divest from their current investment, and we may face reputational challenges. Alternatively, such investors may decide to actively engage with us to improve ESG disclosure or performance, and may also make voting decisions on this basis. Given increased investor focus and demand, public disclosure regarding ESG practices is becoming more broadly expected. Any disclosure we make may include our policies and practices on a variety of ESG matters, including corporate governance, environmental compliance, human capital management, and workforce inclusion and diversity. It is possible that stakeholders may not be satisfied with our ESG practices, reporting and goals, or with our speed of adoption. If our ESG practices and disclosures do not meet investor, tenant, employee or other stakeholder expectations, which continue to evolve, our reputation and employee retention, and access to capital may be negatively impacted.

 

In 2022, the SEC proposed extensive rules aimed at enhancing and standardizing climate-related disclosures in an effort to foster greater consistency, comparability and reliability of climate-related information among public issuers. In March 2024, the SEC adopted final rules which will require public issuers to include prescribed climate-related information in their registration statements and annual reports, including information regarding greenhouse gas emissions and climate-related risks and opportunities and related financial impacts, governance and strategy. Additionally, we may become subject to new compliance requirements and/or new costs or taxes associated with natural resource or energy usage and related emissions (such as a “carbon tax”), which could increase our operating costs.

 

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We could incur additional costs relating to implementing, monitoring and reporting various ESG practices and initiatives, as well as complying with applicable law, which could place a strain on our personnel, systems and resources. Our failure, or perceived failure, to meet the goals and objectives we set in any ESG disclosure within the timelines announced or at all, or the expectations of our various stakeholders could negatively impact our reputation, tenant and employee retention, and access to capital.

 

ITEM 1B UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

The Company has no unresolved written comments regarding its periodic or current reports from the staff of the SEC.

 

ITEM 1C CYBERSECURITY

 

Governance

 

Cybersecurity is an integral part of the Board’s risk analysis and discussions with management. At least annually, the full Board is updated on the Company’s cybersecurity risks and risk mitigation strategy by our Chief Information Officer (“CIO”), who is responsible for management of our Information Technology program. The Board also receives ad hoc updates, as needed, about material changes to the Company’s cybersecurity program and/or the cybersecurity landscape, including briefings on major legislative and regulatory developments.

 

Our CIO regularly evaluates the Company’s cybersecurity risk profile and leads the development of strategies to mitigate risks and address cybersecurity issues that may arise in consultation with members of our senior management team. Our CIO holds a Ph.D. in Information Systems from the London School of Economics and has over 20 years’ experience and certifications in the field of information technology and data security.

 

We have formal policies and procedures that address cybersecurity incident response and disaster recovery from interference with our critical applications. Our Cybersecurity Incident Response Standard provides a documented framework for responding to cybersecurity incidents in coordination across multiple departments. In the event of such an incident, our Cybersecurity Incident Response Team (“CIRT”), which is comprised of our CIO, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, and outside legal counsel, would respond to such incident in accordance with our Cybersecurity Incident Response Standard. Any cybersecurity incident that is designated by the CIRT with a “High” severity classification according to the Cybersecurity Incident Response Standard or that otherwise necessitates regulatory disclosure because of its materiality, will be communicated by the CIRT to the Board within specified timeframes. All cybersecurity incidents, will be evaluated by our CIRT to assess the impact of the incident on the Company, considering qualitative and quantitative factors. In conducting this assessment and responding to an incident, the CIRT Team may utilize the services of third-party consultants. Third-party consultants may be engaged to assist with the identification of the source of any cybersecurity incidents, remediation and recovery from such incident, and the refinement of cybersecurity controls to avert similar future cybersecurity threats and incidents.

 

Cybersecurity user awareness training is mandatory for all new hires and for existing employees on an annual basis to help protect our employees and the Company against cybersecurity threats. Novel cybersecurity threats to the Company that are identified by our CIO are communicated to all employees by email, as needed, in an effort to promote awareness and protect the Company from cyber attacks.

 

Risk Management Strategy

 

We maintain an Enterprise Risk Management (“ERM”) program to identify and respond to the most critical risks to our business, including cybersecurity risks. Risks and vulnerabilities from our increased reliance on information technology systems are assessed at least annually by our CIO and Executive Management Team as part of our ERM program. In response to such assessments, controls are embedded into our processes and technology by our CIO and Executive Management Team to seek to mitigate risks to our systems and processes from cybersecurity incidents. We continuously evaluate whether we have adequate controls in place utilizing a risk-based approach that tailors and applies best practice from various industry standard IT Management frameworks such as Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL), Control Objectives for Information Technologies (COBIT), National Institute of Standards and Technology CyberSecurity Framework, and ISO/IEC 27001.

 

Our daily operations are continuously monitored. We monitor traffic traversing our computer networks and have implemented IT controls and processes to secure our business applications and prevent unauthorized access to or the loss of sensitive data. Our controls include the use of multiple encryption layers for data in transit and at rest, multi-factor authentication, data classification, and data loss prevention. We plan to assess the adequacy of our cybersecurity IT controls through annual cybersecurity vulnerability testing.

 

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We maintain a risk-based approach to evaluating and overseeing cybersecurity risks presented by our third-party vendors. Third-party vendors that meet certain criteria, such as owning and operating any information technology networks and systems on which the Company relies, are evaluated to assess their performance across several domains, including data security and operations management. We seek to maintain effective communication with our third-party vendors to facilitate timely notification of cybersecurity incidents that might impact the Company. We also independently monitor reputable cybersecurity publications for notifications about vulnerabilities in widely used software libraries, APIs, and other generally available technologies upon which our third-party vendors’ products might rely.

 

Although risks from cybersecurity threats have to date not materially affected, and we do not believe they are reasonably likely to materially affect, us, our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition, like other companies in our industry, we could, from time to time, experience threats and security incidents related to our and our third-party vendors’ information systems. For more information, please see “Item 1A. Risk Factors - Increased Information Technology (“IT”) security threats and more sophisticated computer crime could pose a risk to our systems, networks, and services.”

 

ITEM 2 PROPERTIES

 

We currently lease office space at Suite 201, 42 Edward Street, Georgetown, Grand Cayman. This lease expires in February 2027. We believe that our current office is suitable and sufficient for us to conduct our operations for the foreseeable future.

 

ITEM 3 LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

 

We are not currently involved in any litigation or arbitration. We anticipate that, similar to the rest of the insurance and reinsurance industry, we will be subject to litigation and arbitration in the ordinary course of business.

 

ITEM 4 MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

 

Not applicable.

 

PART II

 

ITEM 5 MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

 

Market Information for Ordinary Shares

 

The Company’s ordinary shares and warrants are listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbols “OXBR” and “OXBRW,” respectively.

 

Holders of Record and Tax Information

 

As of March 26, 2024, there were 13 holders of record of our ordinary shares. There are no current applicable Cayman Islands laws, decrees or regulations relating to restrictions on the import or export of capital or exchange controls affecting remittances of dividends, interest and other payments to non-resident holders of our ordinary shares. There are no existing laws or regulations of the Cayman Islands imposing taxes or containing withholding provisions to which United States holders of our ordinary shares are subject. There are no reciprocal tax treaties between the Cayman Islands and the United States.

 

Dividend Policy

 

The declaration and payment of dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our results of operations and cash flows, our financial position and capital requirements, general business conditions, rating agency guidelines (if applicable), any legal, tax, regulatory and contractual restrictions on the payment of dividends, and any other factors considered relevant by our Board of Directors. Our ability to pay dividends will also depend on the requirements of any future financing agreements to which we may be a party and the ability of our reinsurance subsidiaries, or other subsidiaries, to pay dividends to us. Although Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited is not subject to any significant legal prohibitions on the payment of dividends, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS, our reinsurance subsidiaries, are subject to Cayman Islands regulatory constraints that affect their ability to pay dividends to us and include a minimum net worth requirement. Currently, the minimum net worth requirement for Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS is $500. As of December 31, 2023, both subsidiaries exceeded the minimum requirement. By law, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS is restricted from paying a dividend if such a dividend would cause its net worth to drop to less than the required minimum.

 

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We paid no dividends in both 2023 and 2022.

 

Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on a number of factors, including our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, general business conditions and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant.

 

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

 

There were no unregistered sales of equity securities by us during the year ended December 31, 2023, other than as previously disclosed in our Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on June 28, 2023.

 

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

The Company did not repurchase any ordinary shares or warrants in 2023.

 

ITEM 6 [RESERVED]

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 7 MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

The following management discussion and analysis is intended to help the reader understand our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and capital resources. You should read this discussion in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and the related notes contained elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.

 

This discussion contains forward-looking statements that are not historical facts, including statements about our beliefs and expectations. These statements are based upon current plans, estimates and projections. Our actual results may differ materially from those projected in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors. See “Forward Looking Statements” appearing at the beginning of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”

 

General

 

The following is a discussion and analysis of our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 and our financial condition as of December 31, 2023 and 2022. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. References to “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company,” or “the Company” refer to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited, Oxbridge Re NS, SurancePlus Holdings Ltd., SurancePlus, Inc. and DSN Blockchain Technologies Ltd., unless the context dictates otherwise.

 

Overview and Trends

 

We are a Cayman Islands specialty property and casualty reinsurer that provides reinsurance solutions through our reinsurance subsidiaries, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS. We focus on underwriting fully collateralized reinsurance contracts primarily for property and casualty insurance companies in the Gulf Coast region of the United States, with an emphasis on Florida. We specialize in underwriting medium frequency, high severity risks, where we believe sufficient data exists to analyze effectively the risk/return profile of reinsurance contracts. Oxbridge Re NS functions as a reinsurance sidecar which increases the underwriting capacity of Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited. Oxbridge Re NS issues participating notes to third party investors, the proceeds of which are utilized to collateralize Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited’s reinsurance obligations.

 

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In addition to our historical reinsurance business operations, in 2023, our new subsidiary, SurancePlus, began developing, offering, and selling a tokenized reinsurance security representing fractionalized interests in reinsurance contracts, with each token representing an interest in participating notes issued by Oxbridge Re NS. These efforts culminated in the development, launch, and issuance of our first tokenized reinsurance security, the DeltaCat Re Token, which we believe is the first “on-chain” reinsurance security of its kind to be developed by a subsidiary of a public company. Following the issuance of the DeltaCat Re Token, we intend to develop, launch, and issue additional series of tokenized reinsurance securities representing fractional interests in reinsurance contracts, and we are also using our tokenization experience and activities as a foundation for developing Web3-focused business offerings and products relating to the tokenization of other RWAs, including RWAs held or being acquired by third parties. Our tokenization business will be conducted through SurancePlus and through other subsidiaries of our wholly owned subsidiary, SurancePlus Holdings Ltd. (“SurancePlus Holdings”), [a Cayman Islands exempted company] that we have organized to serve as a holding company for subsidiaries that will operate our developing Web3-focused business operations.

 

In our historical reinsurance business operations, we underwrite reinsurance contracts on a selective and opportunistic basis as opportunities arise based on our goal of achieving favorable long-term returns on equity for our shareholders. Our goal is to achieve long-term growth in book value per share by writing business that generates attractive underwriting profits relative to the risk we bear. Additionally, we complement our underwriting profits with investment profits on an opportunistic basis. Our underwriting business focus is on fully collateralized reinsurance contracts for property catastrophes, primarily in the Gulf Coast region of the United States, with an emphasis on Florida. Within that market and risk category, we attempt to select the most economically attractive opportunities across a variety of property and casualty insurers. As our capital base grows, however, we expect that we will consider further growth opportunities in other geographic areas and risk categories.

 

Our level of profitability in our historical reinsurance business is primarily determined by how adequately our premiums assumed and investment income cover our costs and expenses, which consist primarily of acquisition costs and other underwriting expenses, claim payments and general and administrative expenses. One factor leading to variation in our operational results is the timing and magnitude of any follow-on offerings we undertake (if any), as we are able to deploy new capital to collateralize new reinsurance treaties and consequently, earn additional premium revenue. In addition, our results of operations may be seasonal in that hurricanes and other tropical storms typically occur during the period from June 1 through November 30. Further, our results of operations may be subject to significant variations due to factors affecting the property and casualty insurance industry in general, which include competition, legislation, regulation, general economic conditions, judicial trends, and fluctuations in interest rates and other changes in the investment environment.

 

Because we employ an opportunistic underwriting and investment philosophy, period-to-period comparisons of our underwriting results may not be meaningful. In addition, our historical investment results may not necessarily be indicative of future performance. Due to the nature of our reinsurance and investment strategies, our operating results will likely fluctuate from period to period.

 

Compared to most of our competitors, we are small and have low overhead expenses. We believe that our expense efficiency, agility and existing relationships support our competitive position and allows us to profitably participate in lines of business that fit within our strategy. Over time we expect our expense advantage could erode as the industry seeks to reduce frictional costs.

 

Recent Developments

 

Formation of SurancePlus

 

SurancePlus, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, was incorporated as a British Virgin Islands Business Company on December 19, 2022 for the purpose of tokenizing reinsurance contracts underwritten by its affiliated licensed reinsurer, Oxbridge Re NS.

 

On March 27, 2023, we, through SurancePlus, issued a press release announcing the commencement of an offering by SurancePlus of up to $5.0 million of DeltaCat Re Tokens with a purchase price of $10.00 per DeltaCat Re Token and representing one share of Series DeltaCat Re Preferred Shares per DeltaCat Re Token (the “Private Placement”).

 

On June 27, 2023, SurancePlus completed the Private Placement. The aggregate amount raised in the Private Placement was $2,447,760 for the issuance of 244,776 DeltaCat Re Tokens, of which approximately $1,280,000 was received from third-party investors and approximately $1,167,000 was received from Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited.

 

On September 11, 2023, the DeltaCat Re tokens were reclassified as tokenized interests carrying rights equivalent to the DeltaCat Re Preferred Shares in accordance with the provisions of British Virgin Islands law.

 

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Oxbridge Acquisition Corp.

 

On February 28, 2023, the Company announced in a press release that Oxbridge Acquisition Corp. (“Oxbridge Acquisition”) filed a Current Report on Form 8-K with the Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with Oxbridge Acquisition’s business combination with Jet Token Inc., a Delaware corporation. Upon the closing of the transaction, the combined company became Jet.AI Inc. (“Jet.AI”). Jet.AI offers fractional aircraft ownership, jet card, aircraft brokerage and charter service through its fleet of private aircraft and those of Jet.AI’s Argus Platinum operating partner. Jet AI’s charter app enables travelers to look, book and fly. The funding and capital markets access from this transaction is expected to enable Jet.AI to continue its growth strategy of AI software development and fleet expansion. The business combination was completed on August 10, 2023.

 

The Company’s wholly-owned licensed reinsurance subsidiary, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited (“Oxbridge Reinsurance”), was the lead investor in Oxbridge Acquisition’s sponsor and currently indirectly holds the equivalent of 1,423,827 of Jet.AI common stock (NASDAQ: JTAI), 3,094,999 of Jet.AI public warrants (NASDAQ: JTAIW) and 285 of Jet.AI Series A-1 Convertible Preferred Stock with purchase price of $285,000.

 

Bridge Loan with Affiliate

 

On September 11, 2023, the Company, along with seven (7) other investors, entered into a binding term sheet (“Bridge Agreement”) with Jet.AI to provide Jet.AI with an aggregate sum of $500,000 of short-term bridge financing pending its receipt of funds from its other existing financing arrangements. During the month of September 2023, and prior to the Bridge Agreement, Jet.AI had engaged in discussions with numerous third parties to secure short-term bridge funding but was not offered terms it found acceptable.

 

The Bridge Agreement provides for the issuance of Notes in an aggregate principal amount of $625,000, reflecting a 20% original issue discount. The Notes bear interest at 5% per annum and mature on March 11, 2024. Jet.AI is required to redeem the Notes with 100% of the proceeds of any equity or debt financing at a redemption premium of 110% of the principal amount of the Notes. Jet.AI anticipates redeeming the Notes in full with proceeds expected to be received over the next several months from existing financing arrangements.

 

An event of default under the Notes includes failing to redeem the Notes as provided above and other typical bankruptcy events of Jet.AI. In an event of default, the outstanding principal amount of the Notes will increase by 120%, and the company may convert its Note into shares of common stock of Jet.AI at the conversion price set forth in the Bridge Agreement with registration rights associated with those shares.

 

The Company invested the sum of $100,000 in the Notes and is recorded as “Loan Receivable” on the consolidated balance sheets at cost. On March 11, 2024, the Notes matured and were redeemed by Jet.AI in accordance with the Bridge Agreement. The Company receive an aggregate of $140,000 upon the redemption of the Notes.

 

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PRINCIPAL REVENUE AND EXPENSE ITEMS

 

Revenues

 

We derive our most significant revenues from three principal sources:

 

  premiums assumed from reinsurance on property and casualty business;
  income from investments and unrealized (loss)/ gain on other investments;
  income under our Administrative Services Agreement
  income from SurancePlus ITOM fees

 

Premiums Assumed

 

Premiums assumed include all premiums received by a reinsurance company during a specified accounting period, even if the policy provides coverage beyond the end of the period. Premiums are earned over the term of the related policies. At the end of each accounting period, the portion of the premiums that are not yet earned are included in the unearned premiums reserve and are realized as revenue in subsequent periods over the remaining term of the policy. Our policies typically have a term of twelve months. Thus, for example, for a policy that is written on July 1, 2023, typically one-half of the premiums will be earned in 2023 and the other half will be earned during 2024. However, in the event of limit losses on our policies, premium recognition will be accelerated to match losses incurred in the period, when there is no possibility of any future treaty-year losses under the contracts.

 

Premiums from reinsurance on property and casualty business assumed are directly related to the number, type and pricing of contracts we write.

 

Premiums assumed are recorded net of change in loss experience refund, which consists of changes in amounts due to the cedants under two of our reinsurance contracts. These contracts contain retrospective provisions that adjust premiums in the event losses are minimal or zero. We recognize a liability pro-rata over the period in which the absence of loss experience obligates us to refund premiums under the contracts, and we will derecognize such liability in the period in which a loss experience arises. The change in loss experience refund is negatively correlated to loss and loss adjustment expenses described below.

 

Investment Income

 

Income from our investments is primarily comprised of net realized and unrealized gains (losses) interest income and dividends on investment securities. Such income is primarily from the Company’s investments, which includes other investments in Jet.AI and investments held in trust accounts that collateralize the reinsurance policies that we write. The investment parameters for trust accounts are generally be established by the cedant for the relevant policy.

 

Administrative Services Agreement

 

Commencing on the effective date of the SPAC’s IPO, the Sponsor agreed to pay the Company a total of up to $10,000 per month for office space, utilities, secretarial and administrative support to the Sponsor and the SPAC. Upon completion of the SPAC’s initial Business Combination or the SPAC’s liquidation, the Sponsor will cease paying these monthly fees. For the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company received $80,000, and recorded income of $80,000 from the Sponsor under the Administrative Services Agreement, which is included in “net investment and other income” in the consolidated statements of operations.

 

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Incentive, Technology, Origination and Management Fee Income

 

During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company’s subsidiary, SurancePlus, entered into subscription agreements for the sale of DeltaCat Re Tokens representing fractionalized interest in reinsurance contracts underwritten by Oxbridge Re NS. The DeltaCat Re Tokens were issued on the Avalanche blockchain.

 

SurancePlus receives an incentive, technology, origination and management (“ITOM”) fee to cover costs associated with origination, structuring and the blockchain technology related to the DeltaCat Re Tokens. These fees are included in SurancePlus fees income line item in the consolidated statement of operations.

 

Expenses

 

Our expenses consist primarily of the following:

 

  losses and loss adjustment expenses;
     
  policy acquisition costs and underwriting expenses; and
     
  general and administrative expenses.

 

Loss and Loss Adjustment Expenses

 

Loss and loss adjustment expenses are a function of the amount and type of reinsurance contracts we write and of the loss experience of the underlying coverage. As described below, loss and loss adjustment expenses are based on the claims reported by our Company’s ceding insurers, and may include an actuarial analysis of the estimated losses, including losses incurred during the period and changes in estimates from prior periods. Depending on the nature of the contract, loss and loss adjustment expenses may be paid over a period of years.

 

Policy Acquisition Costs and Underwriting Expenses

 

Policy acquisition costs and underwriting expenses consist primarily of brokerage fees, ceding commissions, premium taxes and other direct expenses that relate to our writing of reinsurance contracts. We amortize deferred acquisition costs over the related contract term.

 

General and Administrative Expenses

 

General and administrative expenses consist of salaries and benefits and related costs, including costs associated with our professional fees, rent and other general operating expenses consistent with operating as a public company.

 

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

 

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 (dollars in thousands, except per share amounts):

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
   2023   2022 
         
Revenue          
Assumed premiums  $2,170    645 
Change in unearned premiums reserve   (915)   350 
           
Net premiums earned   1,255    995 
Net investment and other income   303    201 
Management fee income   300    - 
Net realized investment gain   -    27 
Unrealized loss on other investments   (8,945)   (35)
Change in fair value of equity securities   38    (338)
           
Total revenue   (7,049)   850 
           
Expenses          
Losses and loss adjustment expenses   -    1,073 
Policy acquisition costs and underwriting expenses   141    110 
General and administrative expenses   2,183    1,413 
           
Total expenses   2,324    2,596 
           
Loss before income attributable to noteholders   (9,373)   (1,746)
           
Income attributable to noteholders   (542)   (43)
           
Net loss  $(9,915)   (1,789)
           
Loss per share          
Basic and Diluted  $(1.69)   (0.31)
           
Weighted-average shares outstanding          
Basic and Diluted   5,867,129    5,772,396 
           
Performance ratios to net premiums earned:          
Loss ratio   0.0%   107.8%
Acquisition cost ratio   11.2%   11.0%
Expense ratio   185.2%   153.1%
Combined ratio   185.2%   260.9%

 

Comparison of the Year Ended December 31, 2023 to Year Ended December 31, 2022

 

General. Net loss for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $9.9 million or $1.69 basic and diluted loss per share compared to a net loss of $1.8 million or $0.31 basic and diluted earnings per share for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase in loss is due primarily to an increase in unrealized losses on the Company’s investment in Jet.AI and increased general expenses associated with the launch of SurancePlus during the year ended December 31, 2023, when compared with the prior year.

 

Premium Income. Net premiums earned typically reflects the pro-rata inclusion into income of premiums assumed over the life of the reinsurance contracts. Net premiums earned for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased $260,000, to $1.26 million, from $995,000 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase is due to the higher rates on reinsurance contracts during the year ended December 31, 2023, when compared to the prior year.

 

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Losses Incurred. Losses incurred for the year ended December 31, 2023 decreased to $0 from $1.07 million, for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease during the year is wholly due to the triggering of a limit loss on two of the Company’s reinsurance contracts, due to the impact of Hurricane Ian on our book of business in September 2022.

 

Policy Acquisition Costs and Underwriting Expenses. Acquisition costs represent the amortization of the brokerage fees and federal excise taxes incurred on reinsurance contracts placed. Policy acquisition costs and underwriting expenses for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased by $31,000, to $141,000 from $110,000 for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase is due wholly due to the higher rates on reinsurance contracts during the year ended December 31, 2023 as mentioned above when compared to the prior year.

 

General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased by approximately $800,000 to $2.2 million from $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase is due to expense fluctuations during the year ended December 31, 2023, and all the offering costs associated with Maxim equity distribution agreement along with the costs incurred in the launch of SurancePlus Inc.’s DeltaCat Re Token offering being recognized in the year ended December 31, 2023.

 

MEASUREMENT OF RESULTS

 

We use various measures to analyze the growth and profitability of business operations. For our reinsurance business, we measure growth in terms of premiums assumed and we measure underwriting profitability by examining our loss, underwriting expense and combined ratios. We analyze and measure profitability in terms of net income and return on average equity.

 

Premiums Assumed. We use gross premiums assumed to measure our sales of reinsurance products. Gross premiums assumed also correlates to our ability to generate net premiums earned. See also the analysis above relating to the growth in premiums assumed.

 

Loss Ratio. The loss ratio is the ratio of losses and loss adjustment expenses incurred to premiums earned and measures the underwriting profitability of our reinsurance business. The loss ratio for the year ended December 31, 2023 decreased to 0% from 107.8% for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease during the year ended December 31, 2023 is wholly due to the limit losses suffered on two of our reinsurance contracts as a result of Hurricane Ian, in the previous year when compared to no losses during the year ended December 31, 2023.

 

Acquisition Cost Ratio. The acquisition cost ratio is the ratio of policy acquisition costs and other underwriting expenses to net premiums earned. The acquisition cost ratio measures our operational efficiency in producing, underwriting and administering our reinsurance business. The acquisition cost ratio increased marginally to 11.2% for the year ended December 31, 2023.

 

Expense Ratio. The expense ratio is the ratio of policy acquisition costs, other underwriting expenses and general and administrative expenses to net premiums earned. We use the expense ratio to measure our operating performance. The expense ratio increased from 153.1% for the year ended December 31, 2022 to 185.2% for the year ended December 31, 2023. The increase is due to higher general and administrative expenses during the year ended December 31, 2023 primarily from the expenses associated with Maxim’s equity distribution agreement and launch of SurancePlus Inc. private placement offering.

 

Combined Ratio. We use the combined ratio to measure our underwriting performance. The combined ratio is the sum of the loss ratio and the expense ratio. The combined ratio decreased from 260.9% for the year ended December 31, 2022 to 185.2% for the year ended December 31, 2023. The decrease is due to the decrease in loss ratio during the year ending December 31, 2023 as a result of limit loss suffered under two of our reinsurance contracts in the prior year, as well as higher general and administrative expenses.

 

FINANCIAL CONDITION – DECEMBER 31, 2023 COMPARED TO DECEMBER 31, 2022

 

Restricted Cash and Cash Equivalents. As of December 31, 2023, our restricted cash and cash equivalents decreased by $183,000, to $3.7 million from $3.9 million as of December 31, 2023. The decrease is the result of funds being released from the underlying trusts for treaty year ending May 31, 2023 more than offsetting new collateral deposits for treaty year ending May 31, 2024.

 

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Investments. As of December 31, 2023, our equity securities increased marginally by $38,000 to $680,000, from $642,000 as of December 31, 2023. The increase is primarily a result of the positive change in value of the equity securities market during the year ended December 31, 2023.

 

Other investments. As of December 31, 2023, our other investments decreased to $2.5 million from $11.4 million at December 31, 2022. The decrease is due to the fair value changes of our investment in Jet.AI in which the Company has an equity investment measured at fair value.

 

Reserve of losses and loss adjustment expenses. As of December 31, 2023, our reserve for loss and loss adjustment expenses decreased to $0 from $1.1 million at December 31, 2022. The decrease is due to the payment made during 2023 and no losses occurring in the current year.

 

Notes Payable to Noteholders. As of December 31, 2023, our notes payable decreased by $98,000 to $118,000 from $216,000 at December 31, 2022, The decrease is due to a payment made to noteholders on the underlying contracts for previous treaty periods.

 

Unearned Premiums Reserve. As of December 31, 2023, our unearned premiums reserve increased by $915,000, to $915,000 from $0 at December 31, 2022. The increase is due wholly to the recognition of premium income on in-force reinsurance contracts during the year ending December 31, 2023.

 

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

 

General

 

We are organized as a holding company and provide administrative and management services to our subsidiaries, as well as to Oxbridge Acquisition Corp., a special purpose acquisition company, up to the time of its business combination with Jet.AI Inc. (“Jet.AI”) in August 2023. Our operations are conducted through our reinsurance subsidiaries, Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS and our Web3 focused subsidiary, SurancePlus, which includes the underwriting of risks associated with our property and casualty reinsurance programs, as well as the tokenization of RWAs such as reinsurance contracts. We have minimal continuing cash needs at the holding company level, with such needs principally being related to the payment of administrative expenses and shareholder dividends (if any). There are restrictions on Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited’s and Oxbridge Re NS’ ability to pay dividends which are described in more detail below.

 

Sources and Uses of Funds

 

Our sources of funds primarily consist of premium receipts (net of brokerage fees and federal excise taxes, where applicable) and investment income, including interest, dividends and realized gains. We use cash to pay losses and loss adjustment expenses, other underwriting expenses, dividends, and general and administrative expenses. Substantially all of our surplus funds, net of funds required for cash liquidity purposes, are invested in accordance with our business plan and investment guidelines. Our investment portfolio, except for our investment in Jet.AI, is primarily comprised of cash and highly liquid securities, which can be liquidated, if necessary, to meet current liabilities, We believe that we have sufficient flexibility to liquidate any securities that we own to generate liquidity.

 

As of December 31, 2023, we believe we had sufficient cash flows from operations to meet our liquidity requirements. We expect that our operational needs for liquidity will be met by cash, investment income and funds generated from underwriting activities. We have no current plans to issue debt and expect to fund our operations for the foreseeable future from operating cash flows, as well as from potential future equity offerings. However, we cannot provide assurances that in the future we will not incur indebtedness to implement our business strategy, pay claims or make acquisitions.

 

Although Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited is not subject to any significant legal prohibitions on the payment of dividends, its subsidiaries Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and Oxbridge Re NS are subject to Cayman Islands regulatory constraints that affect its ability to pay dividends to us and include a minimum net worth requirement. Currently, the minimum net worth requirement for each subsidiary is $500. As of December 31, 2023, each subsidiary exceeded the minimum required. By law, each subsidiary is restricted from paying a dividend if such a dividend would cause its net worth to drop to less than the required minimum.

 

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Cash Flows

 

Our cash flows from operating, investing, and financing activities for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 are summarized below.

 

Cash Flows for the Year ended December 31, 2023 (in thousands)

 

Net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2023 totaled $1,260, which consisted primarily of cash received on net written premiums less cash disbursed for operating expenses. Net cash used in investing activities of $105 which due mainly to investment in note receivable from Jet.AI. Net cash provided by financing activities was $1,182 which consisted primarily of net proceeds from Delta Cat Re Tokens offset by the partial redemption payment made to noteholders.

 

Cash Flows for the Year ended December 31, 2022 (in thousands)

 

Net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 totaled $829, which consisted primarily of cash received on net written premiums less cash disbursed for operating expenses and reserve for loss and loss adjustment expenses. Net cash used in investing activities of $661 was primarily due to other investments and the net purchase and sales of equity securities. There was no cash used in or provided by financing activities.

 

OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS

 

As of December 31, 2023, we had no off-balance sheet arrangements as defined in Item 303(a)(4) of Regulation S-K.

 

Exposure to Catastrophes

 

As with other reinsurers, our operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected by volatile and unpredictable natural and man-made disasters, such as hurricanes, windstorms, earthquakes, floods, fires, riots and explosions, and particularly to weather events in the State of Florida. Although we attempt to limit our exposure to levels we believe are acceptable, it is possible that an actual catastrophic event or multiple catastrophic events could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. As described under “CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES—Reserves for Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses” below, under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”), we are not permitted to establish loss reserves with respect to losses that may be incurred under reinsurance contracts until the occurrence of an event which may give rise to a claim. As a result, only loss reserves applicable to losses incurred up to the reporting date may be established, with no provision for a contingency reserve to account for expected future losses.

 

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

We are required to make estimates and assumptions in certain circumstances that affect amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and related footnotes. We evaluate these estimates and assumptions on an on-going basis based on historical developments, market conditions, industry trends and other information that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. These accounting policies pertain to fair value measurements, particular with respect to our investment in Jet.AI., premium revenues and risk transfer, reserve for loss and loss adjustment expenses, and deferred acquisition costs.

 

Fair value measurement: GAAP establishes a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements).

 

The three levels of the fair value hierarchy under GAAP are as follows:

 

Level 1 Inputs that reflect unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date;

 

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Level 2 Inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability either directly or indirectly, including inputs in markets that are not considered to be active;

 

and

 

Level 3 Inputs that are unobservable.

 

Inputs are used in applying the various valuation techniques and broadly refer to the assumptions that market participants use to make valuation decisions, including assumptions about risk. For fixed maturity securities, inputs may include price information, volatility statistics, specific and broad credit data, liquidity statistics, broker quotes for similar securities and other factors. The fair value of investments in stocks and exchange-traded funds is based on the last traded price. A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. However, the determination of what constitutes “observable” requires significant judgment by the Company’s investment custodians and management. The investment custodians and management consider observable data to be market data which is readily available, regularly distributed or updated, reliable and verifiable, not proprietary, and provided by independent sources that are actively involved in the relevant markets.

 

Premium Revenue and Risk Transfer. We record premiums revenue as earned pro-rata over the terms of the reinsurance agreements and the unearned portion at the balance sheet date is recorded as unearned premiums reserve. A reserve is made for estimated premium deficiencies to the extent that estimated losses and loss adjustment expenses exceed related unearned premiums. Investment income is not considered in determining whether or not a deficiency exists.

 

We account for reinsurance contracts in accordance with ASC 944, ‘‘Financial Services – Insurance.” Assessing whether or not a reinsurance contract meets the conditions for risk transfer requires judgment. The determination of risk transfer is critical to reporting premiums written. If we determine that a reinsurance contract does not transfer sufficient risk, we must account for the contract as a deposit liability.

 

Reserves for Losses and Loss Adjustment Expenses. We determine our reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses on the basis of the claims reported by our ceding insurers and for losses IBNR, we use the assistance of an independent actuary. The reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses represent management’s best estimate of the ultimate settlement costs of all losses and loss adjustment expenses.

 

We believe that the amounts are adequate; however, the inherent impossibility of predicting future events with precision, results in uncertainty as to the amount which will ultimately be required for the settlement of losses and loss expenses, and the differences could be material. Adjustments are reflected in the consolidated statements of income in the period in which they are determined.

 

Under GAAP, we are not permitted to establish loss reserves until the occurrence of an actual loss event. As a result, only loss reserves applicable to losses incurred up to the reporting date may be recorded, with no allowance for the provision of a contingency reserve to account for expected future losses. Losses arising from future events, which could be substantial, are estimated and recognized at the time the loss is incurred.

 

As at December 31, 2023 we had no reserves for loss and loss adjustment expenses due to no significant events occurring during the year and no reported claims on contract in force. See Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements.

 

Our reserving methodology does not lend itself well to a statistical calculation of a range of estimates surrounding the best point estimate of our reserve for loss and loss adjustment expense. Due to the low frequency and high severity nature of claims within much of our business, our reserving methodology principally involves arriving at a specific point estimate for the ultimate expected loss on a contract-by-contract basis, and our aggregate loss reserves are the sum of the individual loss reserves established.

 

Deferred Acquisition Costs. We defer certain expenses that are directly related to and vary with producing reinsurance business, including brokerage fees on gross premiums assumed, premium taxes and certain other costs related to the acquisition of reinsurance contracts. These costs are capitalized and the resulting asset, deferred acquisition costs, is amortized and charged to expense in future periods as premiums assumed are earned. The method followed in computing deferred acquisition costs limits the amount of such deferral to its estimated realizable value. The ultimate recoverability of deferred acquisition costs is dependent on the continued profitability of our reinsurance underwriting. If our underwriting ceases to be profitable, we may have to write off a portion of our deferred acquisition costs, resulting in a further charge to income in the period in which the underwriting losses are recognized.

 

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ITEM 7A QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

As a smaller reporting company as defined by Rule 229.10(f)(1) of the Exchange Act, we are not required to provide the information under this item.

 

ITEM 8 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

 

The financial statements and supplementary data have been filed as a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K as indicated in the Index to Consolidated Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedules appearing on page 50 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

ITEM 9 CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

 

None.

 

ITEM 9A CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

 

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

 

Under the supervision and with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer (our principal executive officer) and our Chief Financial Officer (our principal financial officer), we have evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) of the Exchange Act) as of the end of the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K (December 31, 2023). Our disclosure controls and procedures are intended to ensure that the information we are required to disclose in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is (i) recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms and (ii) accumulated and communicated to our management, including the principal executive officer and principal financial officer to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures.

 

Based on that evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that, as of the end of the period covered by this Annual Report on Form 10-K, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective.

 

It should be noted that any system of controls, however well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, and not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the system will be met. In addition, the design of any control system is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events.

 

Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

 

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over our financial reporting (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) of the Exchange Act). Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

 

Our internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of our assets, (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, and that our receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of our management and directors, and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of our assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

 

Our management, with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting based on the framework in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”). Based on this evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that, as of December 31, 2023, our internal control over financial reporting was effective.

 

39
 

 

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

 

This Annual Report does not include an attestation report of our independent registered public accounting firm regarding internal control over financial reporting. Management’s report was not subject to attestation by our independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to scaled disclosure requirements applicable to non-accelerated filers that permit us to provide only management’s report in this Annual Report.

 

Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

 

There have been no changes in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the three months and the year ended December 31, 2023 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

 

ITEM 9B OTHER INFORMATION

 

None of our directors or executive officers adopted, modified or terminated a “Rule 10b5-1 trading arrangement” or “non-Rule-10b5-1 trading arrangement,” as each term is defined in Item 408(a) of Regulation S-K, during the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2023.

 

ITEM 9C DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

 

Not applicable.

 

PART III

 

ITEM 10 DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

 

Other than the information regarding our code of ethics set forth below, the information required by this Item is incorporated herein by reference to the definitive proxy statement for our 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days after December 31, 2023.

 

We have adopted a code of ethics applicable to all employees and directors, including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer and principal accounting officer. We have posted the text of our code of ethics to our internet website: www.oxbridgere.com. To access our code of ethics, select “Investor Information” on our website and then select “Corporate Governance,” then “Code of Conduct.” We intend to disclose any change to or waiver from our code of ethics by posting such change or waiver to our internet website within the same section as described above.

 

ITEM 11 EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

 

The information required by this Item is incorporated herein by reference to the definitive proxy statement for our 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders or an amendment to this Form 10-K to be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days after December 31, 2023.

 

ITEM 12 SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS

 

The information required by this Item is incorporated herein by reference to the definitive proxy statement for our 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders or an amendment to this Form 10-K to be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days after December 31, 2023.

 

40
 

 

ITEM 13 CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

 

The information required by this Item is incorporated herein by reference to the definitive proxy statement for our 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders or an amendment to this Form 10-K to be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days after December 31, 2023.

 

ITEM 14 PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES

 

The information required by this Item is incorporated herein by reference to the definitive proxy statement for our 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders or an amendment to this Form 10-K to be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days after December 31, 2023.

 

PART IV

 

ITEM 15 EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

 

(a) Documents Filed as Part of the Report

 

The Consolidated Financial Statements, other financial information, financial statement schedules and report of independent registered public accounting firm have been filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K as indicated in the Index to Consolidated Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedules appearing on page 50 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

(b) Exhibits

 

Reference is made to the separate exhibit index contained on page 48 filed herewith.

 

(c) Financial Statement Schedules

 

The financial statement schedules and report of independent registered public accounting firm have been filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K as indicated in the Index to Consolidated Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedules appearing on page 50 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

ITEM 16 FORM 10-K SUMMARY

 

None.

 

Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited

Index to Exhibits

 

Exhibit   Title
     
3   Third Amended and Restated Memorandum and Articles of Association of Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited, as amended through December 19, 2014 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed December 24, 2014) (Commission File No. 1-36346).
     
4.1   Warrant Agreement, dated March 26, 2014, between Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited and Broadridge Corporate Issuer Solutions, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed May 28, 2014) (Commission File No. 1-36346).
     
4.3   Amendment #1 to Warrant Agreement between Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited and Broadridge Corporate Issuer Solutions, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on November 19, 2018) (Commission File No. 1-36346).
     
4.4#   Description of Securities Registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
     
4.5   Amendment #2 to Warrant Agreement between Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited and Broadridge Corporate Issuer Solutions, LLC (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on February 2, 2024) (Commission File No. 1-36346).

 

41
 

 

10.2*   Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited 2014 Omnibus Incentive Plan (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.10 to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed December 24, 2014) (Commission File No. 1-36346).
     
10.4*   Amended and Restated Employment Agreement, dated January 9, 2023, with Jay Madhu (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.3 to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 13, 2023) (Commission File No. 1-36346).
     
10.5*   Amended and Restated Employment Agreement, dated January 9, 2023, with Wrendon Timothy (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.4 to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 13, 2023) (Commission File No. 1-36346).
     
10.6*   Form of Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited 2014 Omnibus Incentive Plan Restricted Share Award (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 28, 2015) (Commission File No. 1-36346).
     
10.7*   Form of Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited 2014 Omnibus Incentive Plan Share Option Award Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 28, 2015) (Commission File No. 1-36346).
     
10.8*   Oxbridge Re Holdings 2021 Omnibus Incentive Plan (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 13, 2023) (Commission File No.1-36346).
     
10.9*   Form of Restricted Stock Agreement under the Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited 2021 Omnibus Incentive Plan (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.5 to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 13, 2023) (Commission File No.1-36346).
     
10.10   Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited Non-Employee Director Compensation Program (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed January 13, 2023) (Commission File No.1-36346).
     
10.11   Share Purchase Agreement, dated August 11, 2021, by and between Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited and OAC Sponsor Ltd. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.7 to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed November 7, 2021) (Commission File No. 1-36346).
     
10.12   Equity Distribution Agreement, dated September 20, 2022, between Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited and Maxim Group LLC (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 1.1 to Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed September 30, 2022) (Commission File No.1-36346).
     
97.1#   Clawback Policy.
     
21.1   List of Subsidiaries of Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited.
     
23.1   Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.
     
31.1   Certifications of the Chief Executive Officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and Rule 13a-14(a) or 15d-14(a) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

42
 

 

31.2   Certifications of the Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and Rule 13a-14(a) or 15d-14(a) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
     
32   Written Statement of the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. § 1350.
     
101   The following materials from Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 are filed herewith, formatted in iXBRL (Inline Extensible Business Reporting Language): (i) Consolidated Balance Sheets, (ii) Consolidated Statements of Operations, (iii) Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, (iv) Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity and (v) Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
     
104   Cover Page Interactive Data File (embedded within the Inline XBRL document)

 

* Indicates a management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement.

# Filed herewith

 

 

43
 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.

 

  OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED
     
  By /s/ JAY MADHU
    Jay Madhu
   

Chief Executive Officer and President

(Principal Executive Officer)

     
  Date: March 26, 2024

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below as of March 25, 2024 by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities indicated:

 

/s/ WRENDON TIMOTHY   /s/ JAY MADHU
Wrendon Timothy   Jay Madhu
Chief Financial Officer and Secretary   Chief Executive Officer, President and Director
(Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer)   (Principal Executive Officer)

 

/s/ LESLEY THOMPSON   /s/ DWIGHT MERREN
Lesley Thompson   Dwight Merren
Director   Director

 

/s/ ARUN GOWDA    
Arun Gowda    
Director    

 

44
 

 

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedules

 

    Form 10-K
    Page(s)
     
Consolidated Financial Statements    
     
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm - (PCAOB ID 400)   F-1
     
Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31, 2023 and 2022   F-2
     
Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022   F-3
     
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022   F-4
     
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022   F-6
     
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements   F-7
     
Financial Statements Schedules    
     
Schedule I – Summary of Investments – Other than Investments in Related Parties   F-31
     
Schedule II – Condensed Financial Information of the Registrant   F-32
     
Schedule III – Supplementary Insurance Information   F-35
     
Schedule IV – Supplementary Reinsurance Information   F-36

 

45
 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

 

To the Shareholders and the Board of Directors

Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited

Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands:

 

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

 

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited and Subsidiaries (the “Company”), as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 and the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in shareholders’ equity and cash flows for the years then ended and the related notes and the consolidated financial statement schedules (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the consolidated results of its operations and its cash flows for the years then ended, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

 

Basis for Opinion

 

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

 

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

 

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

 

HACKER, JOHNSON & SMITH PA

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2013.

Tampa, Florida

March 26, 2024

 

F-1
 

 

OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED AND SUBSIDIARIES

Consolidated Balance Sheets

(expressed in thousands of U.S. Dollars, except per share and share amounts)

 

   2023   2022 
   At December 31, 
   2023   2022 
         
Assets          
Investments:          
Equity securities, at fair value (cost: $1,926)  $680    642 
Cash and cash equivalents   495    1,207 
Restricted cash and cash equivalents   3,250    2,721 
Premiums receivable   977    282 
Other investments   2,478    11,423 
Loan receivable   

100

    

-

 
Due from related parties   63    45 
Deferred policy acquisition costs   101    - 
Operating lease right-of-use assets   9    44 
Prepayment and other assets   96    114 
Prepaid offering costs   -    133 
Property and equipment, net   4    5 
Total assets  $8,253    16,616 
           
Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity          
Liabilities:          
Other Liabilities – Delta Cat Re Tokenholders  $1,523    - 
Notes payable to noteholders   118    216 
Reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses   -    1,073 
Unearned premiums reserve   915    - 
Operating lease liabilities   9    44 
Accounts payable and other liabilities   356    294 
Total liabilities   2,921    1,627 
           
Shareholders’ equity:          
Ordinary share capital, (par value $0.001, 50,000,000 shares authorized; 5,870,234 and 5,769,587 shares issued and outstanding)   6    6 
Additional paid-in capital   32,740    32,482 
Accumulated Deficit   (27,414)   (17,499)
Total shareholders’ equity   5,332    14,989 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity  $8,253    16,616 

 

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

F-2
 

 

OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED AND SUBSIDIARIES

Consolidated Statements of Operations

(expressed in thousands of U.S. Dollars, except per share amounts)

 

   2023   2022 
   Years Ended December 31, 
   2023   2022 
         
         
Revenue          
Assumed premiums  $2,170    645 
Change in unearned premiums reserve   (915)   350 
           
Net premiums earned   1,255    995 
SurancePlus fee income   300    - 
Net investment and other income   303    201 
Net realized investment gain   -    27 
Unrealized loss on other investments   (8,945)   (35)
Change in fair value of equity securities   38    (338)
           
Total revenue  $(7,049)   850 
           
Expenses          
Losses and loss adjustment expenses  $-    1,073 
Policy acquisition costs and underwriting expenses   141    110 
General and administrative expenses   2,183    1,413 
           
Total expenses  $2,324    2,596 
           
Loss before income attributable to noteholders and tokenholders  $(9,373)   (1,746)
           
Income attributable to noteholders and tokenholders   (542)   (43)
           
Net loss  $(9,915)   (1,789)
           
Loss per share          
Basic and Diluted   (1.69)   (0.31)
           
Weighted-average shares outstanding          
Basic and Diluted   5,867,129    5,772,396 

 

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

F-3
 

 

OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED AND SUBSIDIARIES

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(expressed in thousands of U.S. Dollars)

 

   2023   2022 
   Years ended December 31 
   2023   2022 
Operating activities           
Net loss   $(9,915)   (1,789)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:           
Share-based compensation    258    127 
Depreciation and amortization    6    4 
Net realized investment gains    -    (27)
SurancePlus fee income   

(300

)   - 
Change in fair value of equity securities    (38)   338 
Change in fair value of other investments    8,945    35 
Change in operating assets and liabilities:           
Premiums receivable    (695)   2 
Due from related parties    (18)   (40)
Deferred policy acquisition costs    (101)   38 
Prepayment and other assets    18    (64)
Prepaid offering costs    133    (133)
Other Liablities Delta Cat Re Tokenholders   543    - 
Losses payable    (1,073)   1,073 
Unearned premiums reserve    915    (350)
Accounts payable and other liabilities    62    (43)
           
Net cash used in operating activities   $(1,260)   (829)
           
Investing activities           
Purchase of equity securities    -    (1,002)
Purchase of loan receivable   (100)   - 
Purchase of other investments    -    (285)
Proceeds from sale of equity securities    -    626 
Purchase of property and equipment    (5)   - 
           
Net cash used in investing activities   $(105)   (661)
           
Financing activities           
Partial redemption of notes payable to noteholders    (98)   - 
Gross proceeds from the issuance of Delta Cat Re tokens   1,280    - 
Net cash provided by financing activities    $1,182    - 
           
   (continued) 

 

F-4
 

 

OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED AND SUBSIDIARIES

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, continued

(expressed in thousands of U.S. Dollars)

 

   Years ended December 31 
   2023   2022 
         
Cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash and cash equivalents:          
Net change during the year  $(183)   (1,490)
Balance at beginning of year  $3,928    5,418 
           
Balance at end of year  $3,745    3,928 

 

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

F-5
 

 

OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED AND SUBSIDIARIES

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity

Years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

(expressed in thousands of U.S. Dollars, except per share amounts)

 

   Shares   Amount   Capital   Deficit   Equity 
   Ordinary Share Capital   Additional Paid-in   Accumulated   Total Shareholders’ 
   Shares   Amount   Capital   Deficit   Equity 
                     
Balance at December 31, 2021   5,749,587   $6   $32,355   $(15,710)  $16,651 
Net loss for the year   -    -    -    (1,789)   (1,789)
Issuance of restricted stock   20,000    -    -    -    - 
Share-based compensation   -    -    127    -    127 
Balance at December 31, 2022   5,769,587   $6   $32,482   $(17,499)  $14,989 
                          
Balance at December 31, 2022   5,769,587   $6    32,482    (17,499)   14,989 
                          
Net loss for the year   -    -    -    (9,915)   (9,915)
Issuance of Restricted stock, net   100,647    -    -    -    - 
Share-based compensation   -          -    258    -    258 
Balance at December 31, 2023   5,870,234   $6   $32,740   $(27,414)  $5,332 

 

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

F-6
 

 

OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED AND SUBSIDIARIES

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

1. ORGANIZATION AND BASIS OF PRESENTATION

 

(a) Organization

 

Oxbridge Re Holdings Limited (the “Company”) was incorporated as an exempted company on April 4, 2013 under the laws of the Cayman Islands. The Company directly owns 100% of the equity interest in Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited, an exempted entity incorporated on April 23, 2013 under the laws of the Cayman Islands and for which a Class “C” Insurer’s license was granted on April 29, 2013 under the provisions of the Cayman Islands Insurance Law. The Company also indirectly owns 100% of the equity interest in Oxbridge Re NS, an entity incorporated as an exempted company on December 22, 2017 under the laws of the Cayman Islands to function as a reinsurance sidecar facility and to increase the underwriting capacity of Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited. The Company also indirectly owns 100% of the equity interest in SurancePlus, an entity incorporated as a business company on December 19, 2022 under the laws of the British Virgin Islands to issue digital securities. The Company and its subsidiaries (collectively “Oxbridge Re”) provide the following: SurancePlus; is a Web3-focused subsidiary that currently leverages blockchain technology to democratize access to high-return reinsurance contracts via digital securities. Oxbridge Reinsurance Limited; is a licensed reinsurance subsidiary that provides reinsurance business solutions primarily to property and casualty insurers in the Gulf Coast region of the United States; Oxbridge Re NS; a licensed reinsurance SPV/side car that provides third-party investors with access to reinsurance contracts with returns uncorrelated to the financial markets. The Company operates as a single business segment through its wholly-owned subsidiaries. The Company’s headquarters and principal executive offices are located at Suite 201, 42 Edward Street, George Town, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, and have their registered offices at P.O. Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands.

 

The Company’s ordinary shares and warrants are listed on The NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbols “OXBR” and “OXBRW,” respectively.

 

(b) Basis of Presentation and Consolidation

 

The accompanying consolidated financial statements for the Company have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated upon consolidation.

 

The Company consolidates in these consolidated financial statements the results of operations and financial position of all voting interest entities (“VOE”) in which the Company has a controlling financial interest and all variable interest entities (“VIE”) in which the Company is considered to be the primary beneficiary. The consolidation assessment, including the determination as to whether an entity qualifies as a VIE or VOE, depends on the facts and circumstances surrounding each entity.

 

2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

Use of Estimates: In preparing the consolidated financial statements, management was required to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of the consolidated assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and related disclosures at the financial reporting date and throughout the periods being reported upon. Certain of the estimates result from judgments that can be subjective and complex and consequently actual results may differ from these estimates, which would be reflected in future periods. Material estimates that are particularly susceptible to significant change in the near-term relate to the determination of the reserve for losses and loss adjustment expenses (if any), which may include amounts estimated for claims incurred but not yet reported. The Company uses various assumptions and actuarial data it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances to make these estimates. Although considerable variability is likely to be inherent in these estimates, management believes that the amounts provided are reasonable. These estimates are continually reviewed and adjusted if necessary. Such adjustments are reflected in current operations.

 

F-7
 

 

OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED AND SUBSIDIARIES

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, Continued

 

2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (continued)

 

Revenue Recognition

 

SurancePlus incentive, technology, origination and management (“ITOM”) fee income represents fee income related to the completion of the DeltaCat tokenized reinsurance securities as well as placement of the underlying insurance policies. The Company recognizes the associated revenue at the time of the placement of the underlying insurance policies as the performance obligation is satisfied at that time.

 

Cash and cash equivalents: Cash and cash equivalents are comprised of cash and short- term investments with original maturities of three months or less.

 

Restricted cash and cash equivalents: Restricted cash and cash equivalents represent funds held in accordance with the Company’s trust agreements with ceding insurers and trustees, which requires the Company to maintain collateral with a market value greater than or equal to the limit of liability, less unpaid premium.

 

Investments: The Company from time to time invests in fixed-maturity securities and equity securities, and for which its fixed-maturity securities are classified as available-for-sale. The Company’s available for sale fixed-maturity investments are carried at fair value with changes in fair value included as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in shareholders’ equity. For the Company’s investment in equity securities, and for the Company’s investment in Jet.AI. classified as “other investments”, the changes in fair value are recorded within the consolidated statements of operations. At December 31, 2023 and 2022 the company did not own any fixed maturity debt securities.

 

Unrealized gains or losses are determined by comparing the fair market value of the securities with their cost or amortized cost. Realized gains and losses on investments are recorded on the trade date and are included in the consolidated statements of operations. The cost of securities sold is based on the specified identification method. Investment income is recognized as earned and discounts or premiums arising from the purchase of debt securities are recognized in investment income using the interest method over the remaining term of the security.

 

Fair value measurement: GAAP establishes a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (Level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy under GAAP are as follows:

 

Level 1 Inputs that reflect unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the measurement date;
   
Level 2 Inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability either directly or indirectly, including inputs in markets that are not considered to be active; and
   
Level 3 Inputs that are unobservable.

 

Inputs are used in applying the various valuation techniques and broadly refer to the assumptions that market participants use to make valuation decisions, including assumptions about risk. For fixed maturity securities, inputs may include price information, volatility statistics, specific and broad credit data, liquidity statistics, broker quotes for similar securities and other factors. The fair value of investments in stocks and exchange-traded funds is based on the last traded price. A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement. However, the determination of what constitutes “observable” requires significant judgment by the Company’s investment custodians and management. The investment custodians consider observable data to be market data which is readily available, regularly distributed or updated, reliable and verifiable, not proprietary, and provided by independent sources that are actively involved in the relevant markets.

 

F-8
 

 

OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED AND SUBSIDIARIES

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, Continued

 

2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (continued)

 

Deferred policy acquisition costs (“DAC”): Policy acquisition costs consist of brokerage fees, federal excise taxes and other costs related directly to the successful acquisition of new or renewal insurance contracts and are deferred and amortized over the terms of the reinsurance agreements to which they relate. The Company evaluates the recoverability of DAC by determining if the sum of future earned premiums and anticipated investment income is greater than the expected future claims and expenses. If a loss is probable on the unexpired portion of policies in force, a premium deficiency loss is recognized.

 

Offering Expenses:

 

During the year ended December 31, 2023 the Company recognized offering costs totaling $133,000 on the consolidated statements of operations which was related to an equity distribution agreement with Maxim Group LLC (“Maxim”) for the sale of the ordinary shares. During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company recognized in the consolidated statements of operations $236,000 of offering expenses in relation to the offering of Delta Cat Re digital securities issuable by the Company’s new subsidiary, SurancePlus Inc. (See Note 6)

 

In accordance with the terms of the equity distribution agreement with Maxim, we intend to offer and sell ordinary shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $6.3 million from time to time.

 

Property and equipment: Property and equipment are recorded at cost when acquired. Property and equipment are comprised of motor vehicles, furniture and fixtures, computer equipment and leasehold improvements and are depreciated, using the straight-line method, over their estimated useful lives, which are five years for furniture and fixtures and computer equipment and four years for motor vehicles. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the lesser of the estimated useful lives of the assets or remaining lease term. The Company periodically reviews property and equipment that have finite lives, and that are not held for sale, for impairment by comparing the carrying value of the assets to their estimated future undiscounted cash flows. For the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, there were no impairments in property and equipment.

 

Reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses: The Company determines its reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses, if any, on the basis of the claims reported by the Company’s ceding insurers and for losses incurred but not reported (“IBNR”), management uses the assistance of an independent actuary. The reserves for losses and loss adjustment expenses represent management’s best estimate of the ultimate settlement costs of all losses and loss adjustment expenses. Management believes that the amounts are adequate; however, the inherent impossibility of predicting future events with precision, results in uncertainty as to the amount which will ultimately be required for the settlement of losses and loss expenses, and the differences could be material. Adjustments are reflected in the consolidated statements of operations in the period in which they are determined.

 

Loss experience refund payable: Certain contracts include retrospective provisions that adjust premiums or result in profit commissions in the event losses are minimal or zero. In accordance with GAAP, the Company will recognize a liability in the period in which the absence of loss experience obligates the Company to pay cash or other consideration under the contracts. On the contrary, the Company will derecognize such liability in the period in which a loss experience arises. Such adjustments to the liability, which accrue throughout the contract terms, will reduce the liability should a catastrophic loss event covered by the Company occur.

 

Premiums assumed: The Company records premiums assumed, net of loss experience refunds, as earned pro-rata over the terms of the reinsurance agreements, or period of risk, where applicable, and the unearned portion at the consolidated balance sheet date is recorded as unearned premiums reserve. A reserve is made for estimated premium deficiencies to the extent that estimated losses and loss adjustment expenses exceed related unearned premiums. Investment income is not considered in determining whether or not a deficiency exists.

 

F-9
 

 

OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED AND SUBSIDIARIES

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, Continued

 

2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (continued)

 

Subsequent adjustments of premiums assumed, based on reports of actual premium by the ceding companies, or revisions in estimates of ultimate premium, are recorded in the period in which they are determined. Such adjustments are generally determined after the associated risk periods have expired, in which case the premium adjustments are fully earned when assumed.

 

Certain contracts allow for reinstatement premiums in the event of a full limit loss prior to the expiration of the contract. A reinstatement premium is not due until there is a full limit loss event and therefore, in accordance with GAAP, the Company records a reinstatement premium as written only in the event that the reinsured incurs a full limit loss on the contract and the contract allows for a reinstatement of coverage upon payment of an additional premium. For catastrophe contracts which contractually require the payment of a reinstatement premium equal to or greater than the original premium upon the occurrence of a full limit loss, the reinstatement premiums are earned over the original contract period. Reinstatement premiums that are contractually calculated on a pro-rata basis of the original premiums are earned over the remaining coverage period.

 

Unearned Premiums Ceded: The Company may reduce the risk of future losses on business assumed by reinsuring certain risks and exposures with other reinsurers (retrocessionaires). The Company remains liable to the extent that any retrocessionaire fails to meet its obligations and to the extent that the Company does not hold sufficient security for their unpaid obligations.

 

Ceded premiums are written during the period in which the risk incept and are expensed over the contract period in proportion to the period of protection. Unearned premiums ceded consist of the unexpired portion of the reinsurance obtained. There were no unearned premiums ceded at December 31, 2023 and 2022.

 

SurancePlus Fee Income: SurancePlus incentive, technology, origination and management (“ITOM”) fee income represents fee income related to the completion of the DeltaCat tokenized reinsurance securities as well as placement of the underlying insurance policies. The Company recognizes the associated revenue at the time of the placement of the underlying insurance policies as the performance obligation is satisfied at that time.

 

Uncertain income tax positions: The authoritative GAAP guidance on accounting for, and disclosure of, uncertainty in income tax positions requires the Company to determine whether an income tax position of the Company is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by the relevant tax authority, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. For income tax positions meeting the more likely than not threshold, the tax amount recognized in the consolidated financial statements, if any, is reduced by the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with the relevant taxing authority. The application of this authoritative guidance has had no effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements because the Company had no uncertain tax positions at December 31, 2023.

 

Loss Per Share: Basic loss per share has been computed on the basis of the weighted-average number of ordinary shares outstanding during the years presented. Diluted loss per share is computed based on the weighted-average number of ordinary shares outstanding and reflects the assumed exercise or conversion of diluted securities, such as stock options and warrants, computed using the treasury stock method.

 

Share-Based Compensation: The Company accounts for share-based compensation under the fair value recognition provisions of GAAP which requires the measurement and recognition of compensation for all stock-based awards made to employees and directors, including stock options and restricted stock issuances based on estimated fair values. The Company measures compensation for restricted stock based on the price of the Company’s ordinary shares at the grant date. Determining the fair value of stock options at the grant date requires significant estimation and judgment. The Company uses an option-pricing model (Black-Scholes option pricing model) to assist in the calculation of fair value for stock options. When estimating the expected volatility, the Company takes into consideration the historical volatility of entities similar to itself. The Company considers factors such as an entity’s industry, stage of life cycle, size and financial leverage when selecting similar entities. The Company may use a sample peer group of companies in the reinsurance industry and/or the Company’s own historical volatility in determining the expected volatility

 

F-10
 

 

OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED AND SUBSIDIARIES

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, Continued

 

2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES (continued)

 

Additionally, the Company uses the guidance in the SEC’s Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107 to determine the estimated life of options issued and has assumed no forfeitures during the life of the options.

 

The Company uses the straight-line attribution method for all grants that include only a service condition. Compensation expense related to all awards is included in general and administrative expenses.

 

Segment Information: Under GAAP, operating segments are based on the internal information that management uses for allocating resources and assessing performance as the source of the Company’s reportable segments. The Company manages its business on the basis of one operating segment, Property and Casualty Reinsurance, in accordance with the qualitative and quantitative criteria established under GAAP.

 

Reclassifications: Any reclassifications of prior period amounts have been made to conform to the current period presentation.

 

3. CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS

 

   2023   2022 
   December 31, 
   2023   2022 
   (in thousands) 
Cash held on deposit  $495   $1,207 
Restricted cash held in trust   3,250    2,721 
Total  $3,745   $3,928 

 

Cash and cash equivalents are held by large and reputable counterparties in the United States of America and in the Cayman Islands. Restricted cash held in trust is custodied with Truist Bank, and is held in accordance with the Company’s trust agreements with the ceding insurers and trustees, which require that the Company provide collateral having a market value greater than or equal to the limit of liability, less unpaid premium.

 

F-11
 

 

OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED AND SUBSIDIARIES

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, Continued

 

4. INVESTMENTS

 

The Company from time to time invests in fixed-maturity securities and equity securities, with its fixed-maturity securities classified as available-for-sale. At December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company did not hold any available-for-sale securities.

 

Proceeds received, and the gross realized gains and losses from sale of equity securities, for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 are as follows:

 

  

Gross

proceeds

from sales

  

Gross

Realized

Gains

  

Gross

Realized

Losses

 
   ($ in thousands) 
             
Year ended December 31, 2023               
Equity securities  $-   $-   $- 
                
Year ended December 31, 2022               
Equity securities  $626   $27   $- 

 

Other Investments

 

On August 7, 2023, OXAC held an extraordinary general meeting at which the business combination with Jet Token, Inc. was approved by OXAC shareholders. In conjunction with the business combination, OXAC was redomesticated as a Delaware entity, and changed its name to Jet.AI Inc (“Jet.AI”). The business combination was closed on August 10, 2023, and on August 11, 2023, OXAC common stock and warrants began trading on the Nasdaq under the new ticker symbols JTAI and JTAIW.

 

The Company’s beneficial interests in Jet. AI’s ordinary shares, public warrants and Extension Loan are recorded at fair value and are classified in “Other Investments” on the consolidated balance sheets. The fair value calculation of the Company’s beneficial interest in Jet.AI’s ordinary shares and public warrants is dependent on the observable trading prices of JetAI’s Class A shares and public warrants. The fair value calculation of the Company’s beneficial interest in the Extension Loan is estimated to be the pro-rata original principal amount of the Extension Loan due to the short-term nature.

 


The Sponsor holds 2,875,000 ordinary shares, 575 Series A-1 preferred shares with purchase price of $1,000 each, along with the 4,897,500 warrants. One of the Company’s executive officers is an independent member of Jet.AI’s board.

 

As a result of the re-measurement of our investment in Jet.AI, we recognized for the year ended December 31, 2023, an unrealized loss of $8,945,000 within our consolidated statements of operations.

 

Other investments as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 consist of the following (in thousands):

 

   2023   2022 
   December 31, 
   2023   2022 
Jet.AI Series A-1 Convertible Preferred Stock  $285   $- 
Jet.AI. Promissory Note   -    214 
Jet.AI. common stock (2022: Class B Ordinary Shares)   2,193    11,209 
Total  $2,478   $11,423 
           
Beginning of year  $11,423   $11,173 
Investment in affiliate   -    285 
Unrealized loss on investment in affiliate   (8,945)   (35)
End of year  $2,478   $11,423 

 

F-12
 

 

OXBRIDGE RE HOLDINGS LIMITED AND SUBSIDIARIES

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, Continued

 

 

4. INVESTMENTS (continued)

 

Assets Measured at Estimated Fair Value on a Recurring Basis

 

The following table presents information about the Company’s financial assets measured at estimated fair value on a recurring basis that is reflected in the consolidated balance sheets at carrying value. The table indicates the fair value hierarchy of the valuation techniques utilized by the Company to determine such fair value as of December 31, 2023 and 2022:

 

   (Level 1)   (Level 2)   (Level 3)   Total 
   Fair Value Measurements Using     
   (Level 1)   (Level 2)   (Level 3)   Total 
As of December 31, 2023  ($ in thousands) 
Financial Assets:                    
Cash and cash equivalents  $495   $   -   $-   $495 
                     
Restricted cash and cash equivalents  $3,250   $-   $-   $3,250 
                     
Other investments  $

2,193

   $-   $285   $2,478 
                     
Equity securities  $680   $-   $-   $680 
                     
Total  $6,618   $-   $285   $6,903 

 

   (Level 1)   (Level 2)   (Level 3)   Total 
   Fair Value Measurements Using     
   (Level 1)   (Level 2)   (Level 3)   Total 
As of December 31, 2022  ($ in thousands) 
Financial Assets:                    
Cash and cash equivalents  $1,207   $-   $-   $1,207 
                     
Restricted cash and cash equivalents  $2,721   $-   $-   $2,721 
                     
Other investments  $-   $-   $11,423   $11,423 
                     
Equity securities  $642