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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
 OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
Commission File Number: 001-36798
 
PANGAEA LOGISTICS SOLUTIONS, LTD.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
 
Bermuda 98-1205464
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or
Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
 
c/o Phoenix Bulk Carriers (US) LLC
109 Long Wharf, Newport, RI 02840
 
(401) 846-7790
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: 
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Shares, $0.0001 par valuePANLThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨  No ý 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.     Yes ¨  No ý 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act of 1934 during the past 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirement for the past 90 days.     Yes ý  No ¨ 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).     Yes ý No ¨  
                                                                                                                                               
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers in response to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ý 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definition of “accelerated filer” and “large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one): 
Large accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-accelerated FilerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).




If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes     No x
 
The aggregate market value of the registrant's Common Stock held by non-affiliates at June 30, 2023 was approximately $244.9 million based on the Nasdaq closing price for such shares on that date. The registrant has no non-voting common equity.
 
As of March 12, 2024, 46,721,228 shares of Common Shares, $0.0001 par value per share were outstanding.
2




TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART I  
 ITEM 1.
 ITEM 1A.
 ITEM 1B.
 ITEM 2.
 ITEM 3.
 ITEM 4.
PART II  
 ITEM 5.
 ITEM 6.
 ITEM 7.
 ITEM 7A.
 ITEM 8.
 ITEM 9.
 ITEM 9A.
 ITEM 9B.
ITEM 9C.
PART III 
 ITEM 10.
 ITEM 11.
 ITEM 12.
 ITEM 13.
 ITEM 14.
 ITEM 15.
F-1

3


In this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Form 10-K”), references to “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Pangaea Logistics Solutions Ltd and its subsidiaries.
  
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
Our disclosure and analysis in this Annual Report on Form 10-K pertaining to our operations, cash flows and financial position, including, in particular, the likelihood of our success in developing and expanding our business, include forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Statements that are predictive in nature, that depend upon or refer to future events or conditions, or that include words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “estimates,” “projects,” “forecasts,” “may,” “should” and similar expressions are forward-looking statements.
 
All statements in this Form 10-K that are not statements of either historical or current facts are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, such matters as:
 
our future operating or financial results;

our ability to charter-in vessels and to enter into COAs ("Contract of Affreightment"), voyage charters, time charters and forward freight agreements, and the performance of our counterparties in such contracts;

our financial condition and liquidity, including our ability to obtain financing in the future to fund capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate activities;

our expectations of the availability of vessels to purchase, the time it may take to construct new vessels, and vessels’ useful lives;

competition in the drybulk shipping industry;

our business strategy and expected capital spending or operating expenses, including drydocking and insurance costs and the ability to expand our presence in logistics trades and custom supply chain management;

global and regional economic and political conditions and sanctions, including war and piracy; and

statements about shipping market trends, including charter rates and factors affecting supply and demand.

Many of these statements are based on our assumptions about factors that are beyond our ability to control or predict and are subject to risks and uncertainties that are described more fully under the “Risk Factors” section of this Form 10-K. Any of these factors or a combination of these factors could materially affect our future results of operations and the ultimate accuracy of the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause future results to differ include, but are not limited to, the following:
 
changes in governmental rules and regulations or actions taken by regulatory authorities;

cybersecurity threats, including the potential misappropriation of assets or sensitive information, corruption of data or operational disruption;

changes in economic and competitive conditions affecting our business, including market fluctuations in charter rates and charterers’ abilities to perform under existing time charters;

potential liability from future litigation and potential costs due to environmental damage and vessel collisions;

the impact of sanctions on movement of commodities and demand for supply of drybulk vessels;

the length and number of off-hire periods; and

other factors discussed under the “Risk Factors” section of this Form 10-K.

You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K because they are statements about events that are not certain to occur as described or at all. All forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K are qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained in this Form 10-K. These forward-looking statements
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are not guarantees of our future performance, and actual results and future developments may vary materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements.
 
Except to the extent required by applicable law or regulation, we undertake no obligation to release publicly any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Form 10-K or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

PART I.

ITEM 1. BUSINESS
 
Introduction
 
Pangaea Logistics Solutions Ltd. and its subsidiaries (collectively, “Pangaea” or the “Company”) provides seaborne drybulk logistics and transportation services as well as terminal and stevedoring services. Pangaea utilizes its logistics expertise to service a broad base of industrial customers who require the transportation of a wide variety of drybulk cargoes, including grains, coal, iron ore, pig iron, hot briquetted iron, bauxite, alumina, cement clinker, dolomite and limestone. The Company addresses the logistics needs of its customers by undertaking a comprehensive set of services and activities, including cargo loading, cargo discharge, port and terminal operations, vessel chartering, voyage planning, and vessel technical management.

Business overview and Recent Developments
 
The Company provides ocean transportation services to clients utilizing an ocean-going fleet of motor vessels ("m/v") in the Handymax, Supramax, Ultramax and Panamax and Post-Panamax segments. At any time, this fleet may be comprised of a total of 45-60 vessels that are owned or chartered-in on a short-term basis. During 2023, the Company operated 26 vessels which were wholly-owned or partially-owned through joint ventures. The Company uses this fleet to transport approximately 22 million tons of cargo annually to nearly 225 ports around the world, averaging approximately 46 vessels in service daily in 2023 and 49 during 2022.

The Company’s port, projects, and logistics services include cargo loading, cargo discharge, and port and terminal services to vessel and cargo owners. Our logistics capabilities provide a wide array of services which allow our customers to extend their own services, to more efficiently transport their cargo, and to extend relationships with their own suppliers and customers. For some customers, the Company acts as their ocean logistics department, providing scheduling, terminal operations, port services, and marketing functions. The Company has worked with other customers on design, construction, and operation of loading and discharge facilities.

In addition, the Company focuses on fixing cargo and cargo contracts for transportation on backhaul routes. Backhaul routes position vessels for cargo discharge in typical loading areas. Backhaul routes allow us to reduce ballast days and instead earn revenues at times and on routes that are typically traveled without paying cargo.
The Company is a leader in the high ice class sector, supported by its operation of the world's largest fleet of dry bulk vessels over 60,000 dwt with Ice-Class 1A designation. High ice class trading includes service in ice-restricted areas in the Northern Hemisphere during both the winter (Baltic Sea and Gulf of St. Lawrence) and summer (Arctic Ocean). Trading during the ice seasons have historically provided superior profit margins, rewarding the Company for its investment in the specialized ships and the expertise it has developed working in these harsh environments.

The Company derives substantially all of its revenue from contracts of affreightment, COAs”, voyage charters, and time charters. The Company transports a wide range of fundamental global commodities including grains, coal, iron ore, pig iron, hot briquetted iron, bauxite, alumina, cement clinker, dolomite, limestone, and other minor bulk cargo.

The Company’s COAs typically extend for a period of one to five years, although some extend for longer periods. A voyage charter is a contract for the carriage of a specific amount and type of cargo on a load port to discharge port basis, subject to various cargo handling terms. COAs and voyage charters provide voyage revenue to the Company. A time charter is a contract under which the Company is paid to provide a vessel on a per day basis for a specified period of time. Time charters provide charter revenues to the Company.

Active risk management is an important part of our business model. The Company believes its active risk management allows it to reduce the sensitivity of its revenues to market fluctuations and helps it to secure its long-term profitability and lower relative volatility of earnings. We manage market risk by chartering in vessels for periods of less than nine months on average and
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through a portfolio approach based upon owned vessels, chartered-in vessels, COAs, voyage charters, and time charters. The Company tries to identify routes and ports for efficient bunkering to minimize its fuel expense. The Company also seeks to hedge a portion of its exposure to changes in the price of marine fuels, or bunkers, through fuel swaps; and to fluctuating future freight rates through forward freight agreements. The Company has also entered into interest rate agreements to fix a portion of our interest rate exposure.

The Company employs the technical management services of Seamar Management S.A. which is 51% owned by the Company, and Bernard Schulte Shipmanagment, a third party, for its ice class 1A fleet.

Business Strategy
 
The Company’s principal business objectives are to profitably grow its business and increase shareholder value. The Company expects to achieve these objectives through the following strategies:
 
Focus on increasing strategic COAs. COA is an agreement providing for the transportation between specified points for a specific quantity of cargo over a specific time period but without designating specific vessels or voyage schedules, thereby allowing flexibility in scheduling since no vessel designation is required. COAs can either have a fixed rate or a market-related rate. The Company intends to increase our COA business, in particular, COAs for cargo discharge in traditional loading areas (backhaul), by leveraging its relationships with existing customers and attracting new customers. The Company believes that its dedication to solving its customer’s logistics problems, and its reputation and experience in carrying a wide range of cargoes and transiting less common routes and ports, increases its likelihood of securing strategic COAs. COA’s provide a consistent cargo base and revenue for our transportation services, around which we attempt to structure other logistics offerings.

Expand capacity and flexibility by renewing its owned fleet and invest in ice class niche. The Company is continually looking to acquire additional high-quality vessels suited for its business strategy, the needs of its customers and growth opportunities the Company identifies. The Company believes that its experience as a reliable and serious counterparty in the purchase and sale market for second-hand vessels positions it as a candidate for acquisition of high quality vessels. The Company currently controls (owns or has an ownership interest in) a fleet of 24 bulk carriers as of March 14, 2024. The current fleet includes six Ice-Class 1A Panamax, four Post Panamax Ice Class 1A, three Panamax, two Ultramax Ice Class 1C, two Ultramax and seven Supramax drybulk vessels.

Increase backhaul focus, expand and defend its presence in the niche ice trades and increase fleet efficiency. The Company continues to focus on backhaul cargoes, including backhaul cargoes associated with COAs, to reduce ballast days and increase expected earnings for well-positioned vessels. In addition, the Company intends to continue to charter in vessels for periods of less than nine months, on average, to permit it to match its variable costs to demand. The Company believes that increased vessel utilization and positioning efficiency will enhance its profitability. The Company demonstrated its commitment to remain the leader in high ice class large bulk carriers by taking delivery of its four newbuilding Post Panamax Ice Class vessels in 2021.

Focus on customized and complete logistics solutions within targeted dry bulk trades. The Company intends to leverage its experience in designing custom loading and discharging systems in critical ports and optimizing vessel operations in ports to provide complete logistics solutions to its clients. The Company continues to look for opportunities to transport cargo for clients from, or to, rarely used or underdeveloped port facilities to expand its operations. The Company believes this operational expertise and complete logistics solutions will enhance the services offered, strengthen our client relationships and generate increased operating margins for the Company.

Competitive Strengths
 
The Company believes that it possesses a number of competitive strengths in its industry, including:
 
Expertise in certain niche markets and routes. The Company has developed expertise and a major presence in selected niche markets and less commoditized routes, especially the Baltic Sea in winter, the Northern Sea Route between Europe and Asia in summer, and the trade route between Jamaica and the United States, as well as selected ports, particularly in Newfoundland and Baffin Island. The Company believes that there is less competition to carry “minor,” as compared to traditional “major,” bulk cargoes, and, similarly, that there is less competition on less commoditized routes. The Company believes that its experience in carrying a wide range of cargoes and transiting less common routes and ports increases its likelihood of securing higher rates and margins than those available for more commoditized cargoes and routes. The Company believes it operates assets well suited to certain of these routes, including its Ice-
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Class 1A Panamax, Post Panamax Ice Class 1A and Ice-Class 1C Ultramax vessels. The ice-class fleet has historically produced margins that are superior to the average market rate.

Enhanced vessel utilization and profitability through strategic backhaul and triangulation methods. The Company enhances vessel utilization and profitability through selecting COAs and other contracts to carry cargo on what would normally be backhaul or ballast legs. In contrast to the typical practice of incurring charter hire and bunker costs to position an empty vessel in a port or area where cargo is normally loaded, the Company instead actively works with its customers to secure cargoes for discharge in traditional loading areas (backhaul). This practice allows the Company to position vessels for loading at lower costs than it would bear if it positioned such vessels by traveling unladen or if the Company chartered in vessels in a loading area. The Company believes that this focus on backhaul cargoes permits them to benefit from ballast bonuses that are paid to position vessels for fronthaul cargoes or, alternatively, to earn a premium for delivering ships that are in position for fronthaul cargoes.

Strong relationships with major industrial customers. The Company has developed strong commercial relationships with a number of major industrial customers. These customer relationships are based upon the Company’s reputation and specific history of service to these customers. The Company believes that these relationships help it generate recurring business with such customers which, in some cases, are formalized through contracts for repeat business (COAs). The Company also believes that these relationships can help create new opportunities. Although many of these relationships have extended over a period of years, there is no assurance that such relationships or business will continue in the future. The Company believes that its familiarity with local regulations and market conditions at its routinely serviced ports, particularly in Newfoundland, Baffin Island and Jamaica, provides it with a strong competitive advantage and allows it to attract new customers and secure recurring business.

Logistics approach to commodity business. The Company seeks employment for its vessels in a way that utilizes its expertise in enhancing productivity of clients' supply chains. The Company focuses on movements of cargo beyond loading and discharge berths and looks for opportunities to add value in clients' supply chains. The Company believes its additional efforts in providing complete logistics provides a competitive advantage and allows it to maintain strong client relationships and generate increased operating margins for the Company.    

Experienced management team. The day-to-day operations of a logistics and transportation services company requires close coordination among customers, land-based transportation providers and port authorities around the world. Its efficient operation depends on the experience and expertise of management at all levels, from vessel acquisition and financing strategy to oversight of vessel technical operations and cargo loading and discharge. The Company has a management team of senior executive officers and key employees with extensive experience and relationships in the commercial, technical, and financial areas of the drybulk shipping industry.

Strong Alignment and Transparency. The Company observes that many publicly traded shipping companies rely on service providers affiliated with senior management or dominant shareholders for fundamental activities. Beyond the operational benefits to its customers of integrated commercial and technical management, the Company believes that its shareholders are benefited by its strategy of performing many of those activities in-house. Related to these efforts to maximize alignment of interest, the Company believes that the associated transparency of ownership and authority will be attractive to current and prospective shareholders.

Risk-management discipline. The Company believes its risk management strategy allows it to reduce the sensitivity of its earnings to market changes and lower the risk of losses. The Company manages its risks primarily through short-term charter-in agreements of less than nine months, on average, through the use of forward freight agreements ("FFAs") and fuel hedges, and through modest leverage. The Company believes that shorter-term charters permit it to adjust its variable costs to match demand more rapidly than if it chartered in those vessels for longer periods. The Company may choose to manage the risks of higher rates for certain future voyages by purchasing and selling FFAs to limit the impact of changes in chartering rates. Similarly, the Company may choose to manage the risks of increasing fuel costs through bunker hedging transactions in order to limit the impact of changes in fuel prices on voyage results.

Management
 
The Company’s management team consists of senior executive officers and key employees with decades of experience in the commercial, technical, management and financial areas of the logistics and shipping industries. The Company’s Chief Executive Officer, Mark Filanowski, has over 30 years of experience in the shipping industry. Other members of its management team, Mads Boye Petersen and Gianni Del Signore, also have extensive experience in the shipping industry. The Company believes its management team and key employees are well respected in the drybulk sector of the shipping industry
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and, over the years, has developed strong commercial relationships with industrial customers and lenders. The Company believes that the experience, reputation and background of its management team will continue to be key factors in its success.
 
The Company provides logistics services and commercially manages its fleet primarily from offices in Newport, Rhode Island, Copenhagen, Denmark and Singapore. Logistics services and commercial management include identifying cargo for transportation, voyage planning, managing relationships, identifying vessels to charter in, and operating such vessels.
 
The Company’s Ice-Class 1A Panamax vessels are technically managed by a third-party manager. The technical management of the remainder of the Company’s owned fleet is performed in-house by our 51% owned joint venture, Seamar Management, S.A.. The Company’s technical management personnel have experience in the complexities of oceangoing vessel operations, including the supervision of maintenance, repairs, improvements, drydocking and crewing. The technical management for the Company’s chartered-in vessels is performed by each respective third party ship owner.
 
Operations and Assets
 
The Company is a service business and our customers use the services we provide because they believe the Company adds and creates value for them. To add value, the Company offers a wide range of logistics services beyond the traditional loading, carriage and discharge of cargoes. The Company works with certain customers to review their contractual delivery terms and conditions, permitting those customers to reduce costs and certain risks. Another example of value-added services is the formation of a new port in Newfoundland, Canada to load aggregate cargo for export and a temporary port used in Greenland to load the northernmost dry bulk cargo ever carried. As a result of efforts such as these, in some cases the Company is the de facto logistics department for certain clients.
 
The Company’s core offering is the safe, reliable, and timely loading, carriage, and discharge of cargoes for customers. This offering requires identifying customers, agreeing on the terms of service, selecting a vessel to undertake the voyage, working with port personnel to load and discharge cargo, and documenting the transfers of title upon loading or discharge of the cargo. As a result, the Company spends significant time and resources to identify and retain customers and source potential cargoes in its areas of operation. To further expand its customer base and potential cargoes, the Company has developed expertise in servicing ports and routes subject to severe ice conditions, including the Baltic Sea and the Northern Sea Route.
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As of March 14, 2024, the Company operates its fleet of 24 owned or partially owned vessels, which are described in the table below: 
Vessel NameTypeDWTYear BuiltYard
m/v Bulk EnduranceUltramax (Ice Class 1C)59,450 2017Oshima Shipbuilding
m/v Bulk DestinyUltramax (Ice Class 1C)59,450 2017Oshima Shipbuilding
m/v Nordic OasisPanamax (Ice Class 1A)76,180 2016Oshima Shipbuilding
m/v Nordic OlympicPanamax (Ice Class 1A)76,180 2015Oshima Shipbuilding
m/v Nordic OdinPanamax (Ice Class 1A)76,180 2015Oshima Shipbuilding
m/v Nordic OshimaPanamax (Ice Class 1A)76,180 2014Oshima Shipbuilding
m/v Nordic OrionPanamax (Ice Class 1A)75,603 2011Oshima Shipbuilding
m/v Nordic OdysseyPanamax (Ice Class 1A)75,603 2010Oshima Shipbuilding
m/v Bulk ValorSupramax58,105 2013Tsuneishi Heavy Industries (Cebu)
m/v Bulk FriendshipSupramax58,738 2011Nantong Cosco Kawasaki HI
m/v Bulk SachuestSupramax55,618 2010Hyundai Vinashin
m/v Bulk SpiritSupramax52,950 2009Oshima Shipbuilding
m/v Bulk IndependenceSupramax56,548 2008Yokohama
m/v Bulk PrideSupramax58,749 2008Tsuneishi Group (Zhoushan) Shipbuilding Inc.
m/v Bulk FreedomSupramax52,454 2005Tsuneishi Shipbuilding Co. Ltd.
m/v Bulk PrudenceUltramax61,330 2014Imabari Shipbuilding
m/v Bulk CourageousUltramax61,393 2013Imabari Shipbuilding Company Limited (Imabari)
m/v Bulk PromisePanamax78,228 2013Shin Kurushima Toyohashi Shipbuilding Company Limited
m/v Bulk ConcordPanamax76,600 2009Shin Kasado Dockyard Co. Ltd
m/v Bulk Xaymaca (1)
Panamax76,561 2006Imabari SB Marugame
m/v Nordic NuluujaakPost Panamax (Ice Class 1A)95,000 2021Guangzhou Shipyard International Company Limited
m/v Nordic QinnguaPost Panamax (Ice Class 1A)95,000 2021Guangzhou Shipyard International Company Limited
m/v Nordic SanngijuqPost Panamax (Ice Class 1A)95,000 2021Guangzhou Shipyard International Company Limited
m/v Nordic SikuPost Panamax (Ice Class 1A)95,000 2021Guangzhou Shipyard International Company Limited
(1) Formerly known as m/v Bulk PODS
The Company owns its vessels through separate wholly-owned subsidiaries and through joint venture entities with other owners, which the Company consolidates as variable interest entities in its consolidated financial statements.

On September 28, 2020, the Company acquired an additional one-third equity interest in its partially-owned consolidated subsidiary Nordic Bulk Holding Company Ltd. (“NBHC”) from one of NBHC’s shareholders. The Company owns two-thirds of NBHC after the acquisition. NBHC is a corporation that was duly organized under the laws of Bermuda in October 2012. The m/v Nordic Orion (“Orion”), the m/v Nordic Odyssey (“Odyssey”), the m/v Nordic Oshima (“Oshima”), the m/v Nordic Olympic (“Olympic”), the m/v Nordic Odin (“Odin”) and the m/v Nordic Oasis (“Oasis”) are owned by wholly-owned subsidiaries of NBHC. All of these vessels are time chartered to Pangaea Denmark, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, at fixed rates and also have a profit share arrangement. Pangaea Denmark commercially operates these vessels in spot and COA trades.

In September 2019, the Company entered into an LLC agreement for the formation of NBP, that, at inception is owned 75% by the Company and 25% by an independent third party. NBP was established for the purpose of constructing and owning four new-build ice class post-Panamax vessels. The Company took delivery of Nordic Nuluujaak, Nordic Qinngua, Nordic Sanngijuq and Nordic Siku during the second quarter through fourth quarters of 2021. The independent third party made additional contribution which increased their ownership interest in NBP to 50% at December 31, 2022. No change of control transactions occurred according to the NBP LLC agreement.
 
The Company operates a variety of chartered-in drybulk carriers in addition to its owned vessels. These chartered-in vessels, including Panamax, Supramax, Ultramax, Handymax, and Handysize vessels, play a significant role in the Company's operations. The Company employed an average of 46 vessels at any one time during 2023 and 49 in 2022. In 2023, the Company owned interests in 26 vessels and chartered in another 185 for one or more voyages. In 2022, the Company owned interests in 26 vessels and chartered in another 183 for one or more voyages. The Company generally charters in third-party vessels for periods of less than nine months and, in most cases, less than six months. Chartered-in contracts are negotiated through third-party brokers, who are paid commission on a percentage of charter cost. The Company believes that shorter-term charters afford it flexibility to match its variable costs to its customers’ service requirements and to respond quickly to market
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volatility. The Company also believes that this combination of owned and chartered-in vessels helps it to more efficiently match its customer demand than the Company could with only owned vessels or an entirely chartered-in fleet.
 
Corporate Structure
 
The Company is a holding company incorporated under the laws of Bermuda as an exempted company on April 29, 2014. The Company’s principal executives operate from the offices of its wholly-owned subsidiary Phoenix Bulk Carriers (US) LLC, which is located at 109 Long Wharf, Newport, Rhode Island 02840.The phone number at that address is (401) 846-7790. The Company also has offices in Copenhagen, Denmark, Athens, Greece and Singapore. The Company’s corporate website address is http://www.pangaeals.com.
 
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As of March 14, 2024, the Company’s significant subsidiaries are as follows: 
Company NameCountry of OrganizationProportion of Ownership Interest 
Americas Bulk Transport (BVI) LimitedBritish Virgin Islands100%(A)
Phoenix Bulk Management Bermuda LimitedBermuda100%(B)
Pangaea Logistics Solutions (BVI) Limited (“Pangaea BVI”)British Virgin Islands100%(C)
Bulk Ocean Shipping Company (Bermuda) Ltd.Bermuda100%(D)
Phoenix Bulk Carriers (US) LLCDelaware100%(E)
Allseas Logistics Bermuda Ltd.Bermuda100%(F)
Bulk Trident Ltd. (“Bulk Trident”)Bermuda100%(G)
Pangaea Logistics Solutions Denmark A/S. ("Pangaea Denmark") (formerly known as Nordic Bulk Carriers A/S)Denmark100%(H)
Nordic Bulk Ventures (Cyprus) Limited ("NBV")Cyprus100%(H)
109 Long Wharf LLC (“Long Wharf”)Delaware100%(I)
Bulk Nordic Oshima (MI) Corp. (“Bulk Oshima”)Marshall Islands67%(J)
Bulk Nordic Odin (MI) Corp. (“Bulk Odin”)Marshall Islands67%(J)
Bulk Nordic Olympic (MI) Corp. (“Bulk Olympic”)Marshall Islands67%(J)
Bulk Nordic Oasis (MI) Corp.. (“Bulk Oasis”)Marshall Islands67%(J)
Bulk Nordic Odyssey Corp. (MI)Marshall Islands67%(K)
Bulk Nordic Orion Corp. (MI)Marshall Islands67%(K)
Nordic Bulk Holding Company Ltd. (“NBHC”)Bermuda67%(L)
Bulk Courageous Corp. ("Bulk Courageous")Marshall Islands100%(G)
Bulk Phoenix Ltd. ("Bulk Newport")Bermuda100%(G)
Bulk Valor Corp. ("Bulk Valor")Marshall Islands100%(G)
Bulk Promise Corp. ("Bulk Promise")Marshall Islands100%(G)
Bulk Nordic Five Ltd. (“Five”)Bermuda100%(G)
Bulk Nordic Six Ltd. (“Six”)Bermuda100%(G)
Bulk Nordic Seven LLC (“Seven”)Marshall Islands100%(G)
Bulk Nordic Eight LLC (“Eight”)Marshall Islands100%(G)
Bulk Nordic Nine LLC (“Nine”)Marshall Islands100%(G)
Bulk Nordic Ten LLC (“Ten”)Marshall Islands100%(G)
Nordic Bulk Partners LLC (“NBP”)Marshall Islands50%(M)
Nordic Bulk Ventures Holding Company Ltd. (“BVH”)Bermuda100%(A)
Bulk Freedom Corp. ("Bulk Freedom")Marshall Islands100%(G)
Bulk Pride Corp. ("Bulk Pride")Marshall Islands100%(G)
Bulk Independence Corp. ("Bulk Independence")Marshall Islands100%(G)
Bulk Friendship Corp. ("Bulk Friendship")Marshall Islands100%(G)
Phoenix Bulk 25 Corp. ("Phoenix Bulk 25")Marshall Islands100%(G)
Bulk Sachuest Corp. ("Bulk Sachuest")Marshall Islands100%(G)
Bulk Prudence Corp. ("Bulk Prudence")Marshall Islands100%(G)
Venture Logistics NL Inc. ("VLNL")Canada50%(N)
Flintstone Ventures Limited ("FVL")Newfoundland and Labrador100%(O)
Seamar Management S.A.Greece51%(P)
Bulk PODS Ltd. ("Bulk PODS")Marshall Islands100%(G)
Bulk Spirit Ltd. ("Bulk Spirit")Marshall Islands100%(G)
Pangaea Logistics Solutions Singapore Pte. Ltd.Singapore100%(H)
Narragansett Bulk Carriers (US) Corp.Rhode Island100%(H)
Patriot Stevedoring & Logistics, LLCMassachusetts50%(Q)
Bay Stevedoring LLCDelaware100%(R)
Pangaea Logistics Solutions (US) LLC ("PANL US")Delaware100%(S)
Pangaea Baltimore LLC Delaware100%(R)
Pangaea Port Everglades LLC Delaware100%(R)
 

(A)The primary purpose of this corporation is to manage and operate ocean going vessels.
(B)The primary purpose of this entity is to perform certain administrative management functions that have been assigned by PBC.
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(C)The primary purpose of this corporation is to provide logistics services to customers by chartering, managing and operating ships. Formerly known as Phoenix Bulk Carriers (BVI) Limited.
(D)The primary purpose of this corporation is to manage the fuel procurement for all vessels.
(E)The primary purpose of this corporation is to act as the U.S. administrative agent for the Company.
(F)The primary purpose of this corporation is to act as the treasury agent for the Company.
(G)The primary purpose of these entities is owning bulk carriers.
(H)The primary purpose of these entities is to provide logistics services to customers by chartering, managing and operating ships. NBV is the holding company of Pangaea Denmark. Formerly known as Nordic Bulk Carriers A/S.
(I)Long Wharf is a limited liability company duly organized under the laws of Delaware for the purpose of holding real estate located in Newport, Rhode Island.
(J)The primary purpose of these entities is owning bulk carriers. These companies are wholly-owned by NBHC, which is two-third owned by the Company.
(K)The primary purpose of this entity is to transfer ownership of the m/v Nordic Odyssey and m/v Nordic Orion.
(L)The primary purpose of this entity is to own or lease bulk carriers through wholly-owned subsidiaries. The Company’s interest in Bulk Odyssey, Bulk Orion, Bulk Oshima, Bulk Olympic, Bulk Odin and Bulk Oasis is through its interest in NBHC.
(M)The primary purpose of this entity is to own or lease bulk carriers through wholly-owned subsidiaries.
(N)The primary purpose of VLNL is to own and operate the deck barge Miss Nora G. Pearl.
(O)The primary purpose of FVL is the carriage of specialized cargo.
(P)This entity is the technical manager of 14 vessels owned and operated by the Company.
(Q)The primary purpose of the company is to manage and operate the Brayton Point Commerce Center Marine Terminal.
(R)The primary purpose of the company is to manage and operate port terminals.
(S)The primary purpose of the company is to manage U.S.-based business activities.

Crewing and Employees
 
Each of our vessels is crewed with 20-25 independently contracted officers and crew members and, on certain vessels, directly contracted officers. Our technical managers are responsible for locating, contracting and retaining qualified officers for its vessels. The crewing agencies handle each crew member’s training, travel and payroll, and ensure that all the crew members on its vessels have the qualifications and licenses required to comply with international regulations and shipping conventions. The Company typically has more crew members on board than are required by the country of the vessel’s flag in order to allow for the performance of routine maintenance duties.
 
The Company employs approximately 151 shore-based personnel and has approximately 500 independently contracted seagoing personnel on its owned vessels. The shore-based personnel are employed in the United States, Athens, Copenhagen and Singapore.
 
Competition
 
The Company operates in markets that are highly competitive and based primarily on supply and demand for ocean transport of drybulk commodities. The Company competes for COAs on the basis of service, price, route history, size, age and condition of the vessel and for charters on the basis of service, price, vessel availability, size, age and condition of the vessel, as well as on its reputation as an owner and operator. The Company principally competes with owners and operators of Panamax, Supramax, Ultramax and Handymax bulk carriers. The Company attempts to differentiate itself from other owners and operators by extending its services to support more of its customers' supply chains and concentrates on established niche markets.
 
Seasonality
 
Demand for vessel capacity has historically exhibited seasonal variations and, as a result, fluctuations in charter rates. This seasonality may result in quarter-to-quarter volatility in the Company's operating results. The dry bulk carrier market is typically stronger in the fall months in anticipation of increased consumption of coal and other raw materials in the northern hemisphere during the winter months. Seasonal fluctuation are also observed in harvest times in the Northern and Southern Atlantic trades. In addition, unpredictable weather patterns in these months tend to disrupt vessel scheduling and supplies of certain commodities. The Company may earn higher margins on ice-class business in winter and during severe ice trading.
 
Permits and Authorizations
 
The Company is required by various governmental and quasi-governmental agencies to obtain certain permits and certificates with respect to its vessels. The kinds of permits and certificates required depend upon several factors, including the commodity transported, the waters in which the vessel operates, the nationality of the vessel’s crew and the age of the vessel. The Company has been able to obtain all permits and certificates currently required to permit its vessels to operate. Additional laws and
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regulations, environmental or otherwise, may be adopted which could limit its ability to do business or increase the cost of doing business.
 
Environmental and Other Regulations
 
Government regulation and laws significantly affect the ownership and operation of the Company's vessels. The Company is subject to international conventions and treaties, national, state and local laws and regulations in force in the countries in which its vessels may operate or are registered. These regulations relate to safety, health and environmental protection including the storage, handling, emission, transportation and discharge of hazardous and non-hazardous materials, and the remediation of contamination and liability for damage to natural resources. Compliance with such laws, regulations and other requirements entails significant expense, including vessel modifications and implementation of certain operating procedures.
 
A variety of government and private entities subject the Company’s vessels to both scheduled and unscheduled inspections. These entities include the local port authorities (such as the U.S. Coast Guard, harbor master or equivalent), classification societies, flag state administrations (countries of registry), charterers and terminal operators. Certain of these entities require them to obtain permits, certificates or approvals for the operation of its vessels. Failure to maintain necessary permits, certificates or approvals could require it to incur substantial costs or temporarily suspend the operation of one or more of its vessels.

Increasing environmental concerns have created a demand for vessels that conform to the stricter environmental standards. The Company is required to maintain operating standards for all of its vessels that emphasize operational safety, quality maintenance, continuous training of its officers and crews and compliance with United States and international regulations. The Company believes that the operation of its vessels is in substantial compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations and that its vessels have all material permits, certificates or other approvals necessary for the conduct of its operations as of the date of this Form 10-K. However, because such laws and regulations are frequently changed and may impose increasingly strict requirements, the Company cannot predict the ultimate cost of complying with these requirements, or the impact of these requirements on the resale value or useful lives of its vessels. In addition, a future serious marine incident that results in significant oil pollution or otherwise causes significant adverse environmental impact could result in additional legislation or regulation that could negatively affect the Company’s profitability.
 
As a global logistics provider, headquartered in the United States, we recognize the impacts of our actions and are focused on establishing safe, responsible, and sustainable policies and practices that will enhance our business for the long term. Transparency is an important step toward sustainability in our industry and we were pleased to present our third concise Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) report based on the Marine Transportation framework developed by the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB) during 2023. More specifically over the past several years we have taken steps to integrate ESG into operations, including:

1.Renewed our owned fleet with modern second hand and newbuilding vessels with lower overall fuel consumption than
older vessels in order to reduce our fleet’s greenhouse gas emissions. The Company took delivery of four Post Panamax vessels in 2021, which has significantly improved the fleet's emissions profile. The improvement is measured by fuel consumption per deadweight ton.

2.We utilize performance monitoring and weather routing services on both our owned and our chartered fleet. Using
sophisticated forecasting algorithms and machine learning, we optimize the speed of our vessels by considering
commercial and environmental concerns while reducing the amount of fuel consumed when the ships encounter adverse
weather and/or currents;

3.We have established Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plans (SEEMP) to improve the efficiency of our vessels.
Through the SEEMP, we ensure that all our ships are operated efficiently by:
a.Optimizing the speed of the vessels;
b.Making course changes to avoid higher fuel consumption caused by rough weather;
c.Hull cleaning in dry dock to improve speed and reduce fuel consumption;

4.For our chartered-in fleet we seek to employ the most fuel efficient designs available;

5.Ballast water treatment systems are currently installed on all vessels;

6.Use of environmental consultants to assess and improve terminal operations. As the Company expands its operations to ports and terminals, it becomes more exposed to environmental requirements and regulations ashore.
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International Maritime Organization
 
The United Nations’ International Maritime Organization, or the IMO, has adopted the International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto, collectively referred to as MARPOL 73/78 and herein as “MARPOL,” the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea of 1974 ("SOLAS Convention"), and the International Convention on Load Lines of 1966 (the "LL Convention"). MARPOL entered into force on October 2, 1983 and establishes environmental standards related to oil leakage or spilling, air emissions, garbage management, sewage, and handling and disposal of noxious liquids, including harmful substances in packaged form. It has been adopted by over 150 nations, including many of the jurisdictions in which the Company's vessels operate. MARPOL sets forth pollution-prevention requirements applicable to drybulk carriers, among other vessels, and is broken into six Annexes, each of which regulates a different source of pollution. Annex I relates to oil leakage or spilling; Annexes II and III relate to harmful substances carried, in bulk, in liquid or packaged form, respectively; and Annexes IV and V relate to sewage and garbage management, respectively. Annex VI, separately adopted by the IMO in September of 1997, relates to air emissions. New
emissions standards, titled IMO-2020, took effect on January 1, 2020.

In 2013, the IMO's Marine Environmental Protection Committee, or the "MEPC," adopted a resolution amending MARPOL Annex I Condition Assessment Scheme, or "CAS." These amendments became effective on October 1, 2014 and require compliance with the 2011 International Code on the Enhanced Programme of Inspections during Surveys of Bulk Carriers and Oil Tankers, or "ESP Code," which provides for enhanced inspection programs. The Company may need to make certain financial expenditures to comply with these amendments in the future, which could be significant.
 
Air Emissions
 
In September of 1997, the IMO adopted Annex VI to MARPOL to address air pollution from vessels. Effective May 2005, Annex VI sets limits on nitrogen oxide emissions from ships whose diesel engines were constructed (or underwent major conversions) on or after January 1, 2000. It also prohibits “deliberate emissions” of “ozone depleting substances,” defined to include certain halons and chlorofluorocarbons. Deliberate emissions are not limited to times when the ship is at sea; they can for example include discharges occurring in the course of the ship’s repair and maintenance. Emissions of “volatile organic compounds” from certain tankers, and the shipboard incineration (from incinerators installed after January 1, 2000) of certain substances (such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) are also prohibited. Annex VI also includes a global cap on the sulfur content of fuel oil (see below).

The IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee, or MEPC, adopted amendments to Annex VI on October 10, 2008, which amendments were entered into force on July 1, 2010. The Amended Annex VI seeks to further reduce air pollution by, among other things, implementing a progressive reduction of the amount of sulfur contained in any fuel oil used onboard ships. On October 27, 2016, at its 70th session, the MEPC agreed to implement a global 0.5% m/m sulfur oxide emissions limit (reduced from 3.50%) starting from January 1, 2020. This limitation can be met by using low-sulfur compliant fuel oil, alternative fuels, or certain exhaust gas cleaning systems. Ships are now required to obtain bunker delivery notes and International Air Pollution Prevention (“IAPP”) Certificates from their flag states that specify sulfur content. Additionally, at MEPC 73, amendments to Annex VI to prohibit the carriage of bunkers above 0.5% sulfur on ships were adopted and will take effect March 1, 2020, with the exception of vessels fitted with exhaust gas cleaning equipment ("scrubbers") which can carry fuel of higher sulfur content. These regulations subject ocean-going vessels to stringent emissions controls, and may cause us to incur substantial costs, including those related to the purchase, installation and operation of scrubbers and the purchase of compliant fuel oil.

Sulfur content standards are even stricter within certain “Emission Control Areas,” or (“ECAs”). As of January 1, 2015, ships operating within an ECA were not permitted to use fuel with sulfur content in excess of 0.1% m/m. Amended Annex VI establishes procedures for designating new ECAs. Currently, the IMO has designated four ECAs, including specified portions of the Baltic Sea area, North Sea area, North American area and United States Caribbean area. Ocean-going vessels in these areas will be subject to stringent emission controls and may cause us to incur additional costs. Certain ports in which our vessels call, including China and Singapore, are currently or may become subject to local regulations that impose stricter emission controls. In December 2021, the member states of the Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution (the “Barcelona Convention”) agreed to support the designation of a new ECA in the Mediterranean. On December 15, 2022, MEPC 79 adopted the designation of a new ECA in the Mediterranean, with an effective date of May 1, 2025. In July 2023, MEPC 80 announced three new ECA proposals, including the Canadian Arctic waters and the North-East
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Atlantic Ocean. If other ECAs are approved by the IMO, or other new or more stringent requirements relating to emissions from marine diesel engines or port operations by vessels are adopted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) or the states where we operate, compliance with these regulations could entail significant capital expenditures or otherwise increase the costs of our operations. Refer to “Capital Expenditures” in Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and “We are subject to regulation and liability under environmental and operational safety laws that could require significant expenditures or subject us to increased liability” in Item 1A. Risk Factors for further details of our plan for compliance and potential costs.

Amended Annex VI also establishes new tiers of stringent nitrogen oxide emissions standards for marine diesel engines, depending on their date of installation. At the MEPC meeting held from March to April 2014, amendments to Annex VI were adopted which address the date on which Tier III Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) standards in ECAs will go into effect. Under the amendments, Tier III NOx standards apply to ships that operate in the North American and U.S. Caribbean Sea ECAs designed for the control of NOx produced by vessels with a marine diesel engine installed and constructed on or after January 1, 2016. Tier III requirements could apply to areas that will be designated for Tier III NOx in the future. At MEPC 70 and MEPC 71, the MEPC approved the North Sea and Baltic Sea as ECAs for nitrogen oxide for ships built on or after January 1, 2021. The EPA promulgated equivalent (and in some senses stricter) emissions standards in 2010 and we are compliant with the Tier I and Tier II requirements for NOx emissions under the EPA standards and Annex VI. We do not currently own any vessels subject to the Tier III requirements, although we may acquire such vessels in the future. As a result of these designations or similar future designations, we may be required to incur additional operating or other costs.

As determined at the MEPC 70, the new Regulation 22A of MARPOL Annex VI became effective as of March 1, 2018 and requires ships above 5,000 gross tonnage to collect and report annual data on fuel oil consumption to an IMO database, with the first year of data collection having commenced on January 1, 2019. The IMO intends to use such data as the first step in its roadmap (through 2023) for developing its strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from ships, as discussed further below.

As of January 1, 2013, MARPOL made mandatory certain measures relating to energy efficiency for ships. All ships are now required to develop and implement Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plans (“SEEMP”), and new ships must be designed in compliance with minimum energy efficiency levels per capacity mile as defined by the Energy Efficiency Design Index (“EEDI”). Under these measures, by 2025, all new ships built will be 30% more energy efficient than those built in 2014. MEPC 75 adopted amendments to MARPOL Annex VI which brings forward the effective date of the EEDI’s “phase 3” requirements from January 1, 2025 to April 1, 2022 for several ship types, including gas carriers, general cargo ships, and LNG carriers.

Additionally, MEPC 75 introduced draft amendments to Annex VI which impose new regulations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from ships. These amendments introduce requirements to assess and measure the energy efficiency of all ships and set the required attainment values, with the goal of reducing the carbon intensity of international shipping. The requirements include (1) a technical requirement to reduce carbon intensity based on a new Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (“EEXI”), and (2) operational carbon intensity reduction requirements, based on a new operational carbon intensity indicator (“CII”). The attained EEXI is required to be calculated for ships of 400 gross tonnage and above, in accordance with different values set for ship types and categories. With respect to the CII, the draft amendments would require ships of 5,000 gross tonnage to document and verify their actual annual operational CII achieved against a determined required annual operational CII. Additionally, MEPC 75 proposed draft amendments requiring that, on or before January 1, 2023, all ships above 400 gross tonnage must have an approved SEEMP on board. For ships above 5,000 gross tonnage, the SEEMP would need to include certain mandatory content. MEPC 75 also approved draft amendments to MARPOL Annex I to prohibit the use and carriage for use as fuel of heavy fuel oil (“HFO”) by ships in Arctic waters on and after July 1, 2024. The draft amendments introduced at MEPC 75 were adopted at the MEPC 76 session in June 2021 and entered into force in November 2022, with the requirements for EEXI and CII certification coming into effect from January 1, 2023. MEPC 77 adopted a non-binding resolution which urges Member States and ship operators to voluntarily use distillate or other cleaner alternative fuels or methods of propulsion that are safe for ships and could contribute to the reduction of Black Carbon emissions from ships when operating in or near the Arctic. MEPC 79 adopted amendments to MARPOL Annex VI, Appendix IX to include the attained and required CII values, the CII rating and attained EEXI for existing ships in the required information to be submitted to the IMO Ship Fuel Oil Consumption Database. MEPC 79 revised the EEDI calculation guidelines to include a CO2 conversion factor for ethane, a reference to the updated ITCC guidelines, and a clarification that in case of a ship with multiple load line certificates, the maximum certified summer draft should be used when determining the deadweight. The amendments will enter into force on May 1, 2024. In July 2023, MEPC 80 approved the plan for reviewing CII regulations and guidelines, which must be completed at the latest by January 1, 2026. There will be no immediate changes to the CII framework, including correction factors and voyage adjustments, before the review is completed.


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We may incur costs to comply with these revised standards. Additional or new conventions, laws and regulations may be adopted that could require the installation of expensive emission control systems and could adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. The Company plans to continue to invest in its existing fleet to improve fuel efficiency and comply with these revised standards through its comprehensive IMO 2023 plan.

Safety Management System Requirements

The SOLAS Convention was amended to address the safe manning of vessels and emergency training drills. The Convention of Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims (the “LLMC”) sets limitations of liability for a loss of life or personal injury claim or a property claim against ship owners. We believe that our vessels are in substantial compliance with SOLAS and LLMC standards.

Under Chapter IX of the SOLAS Convention, or the International Safety Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention (the “ISM Code”), our operations are also subject to environmental standards and requirements. The ISM Code requires the party with operational control of a vessel to develop an extensive safety management system that includes, among other things, the adoption of a safety and environmental protection policy setting forth instructions and procedures for operating its vessels safely and describing procedures for responding to emergencies. We rely upon the safety management system that we and our technical management team have developed for compliance with the ISM Code. The failure of a vessel owner or bareboat charterer to comply with the ISM Code may subject such party to increased liability, may decrease available insurance coverage for the affected vessels and may result in a denial of access to, or detention in, certain ports.

The ISM Code requires that vessel operators obtain a safety management certificate for each vessel they operate. This certificate evidences compliance by a vessel’s management with the ISM Code requirements for a safety management system. No vessel can obtain a safety management certificate unless its manager has been awarded a document of compliance, issued by each flag state, under the ISM Code. GSSM has valid documents of compliance for our offices and safety management certificates for all of our vessels for which the certificates are required by the IMO. The document of compliance and safety management certificate are renewed as required.

Regulation II-1/3-10 of the SOLAS Convention governs ship construction and stipulates that ships over 150 meters in length must have adequate strength, integrity and stability to minimize risk of loss or pollution. Goal-based standards amendments in SOLAS regulation II-1/3-10 entered into force in 2012, with July 1, 2016 set for application to new oil tankers and bulk carriers. The SOLAS Convention regulation II-1/3-10 on goal-based ship construction standards for bulk carriers and oil tankers, which entered into force on January 1, 2012, requires that all oil tankers and bulk carriers of 150 meters in length and above, for which the building contract is placed on or after July 1, 2016, satisfy applicable structural requirements conforming to the functional requirements of the International Goal-based Ship Construction Standards for Bulk Carriers and Oil Tankers (“GBS Standards”).

Amendments to the SOLAS Convention Chapter VII apply to vessels transporting dangerous goods and require those vessels be in compliance with the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (“IMDG Code”). Effective January 1, 2018, the IMDG Code includes (1) updates to the provisions for radioactive material, reflecting the latest provisions from the International Atomic Energy Agency, (2) new marking, packing and classification requirements for dangerous goods, and (3) new mandatory training requirements. Amendments that took effect on January 1, 2020, also reflect the latest material from the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, including (1) new provisions regarding IMO type 9 tank, (2) new abbreviations for segregation groups, and (3) special provisions for carriage of lithium batteries and of vehicles powered by flammable liquid or gas. Additional amendments, which came into force on June 1, 2022, include (1) addition of a definition of dosage rate, (2) additions to the list of high consequence dangerous goods, (3) new provisions for medical/clinical waste, (4) addition of various ISO standards for gas cylinders, (5) a new handling code, and (6) changes to stowage and segregation provisions.

The IMO has also adopted the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (“STCW”). As of February 2017, all seafarers are required to meet the STCW standards and be in possession of a valid STCW certificate. Flag states that have ratified SOLAS and STCW generally employ the classification societies, which have incorporated SOLAS and STCW requirements into their class rules, to undertake surveys to confirm compliance.

The IMO's Maritime Safety Committee and MEPC, respectively, each adopted relevant parts of the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Water (the “Polar Code”). The Polar Code, which entered into force on January 1, 2017, covers design, construction, equipment, operational, training, search and rescue as well as environmental protection matters relevant to ships operating in the waters surrounding the two poles. It also includes mandatory measures regarding safety and pollution
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prevention as well as recommendatory provisions. The Polar Code applies to new ships constructed after January 1, 2017, and after January 1, 2018, ships constructed before January 1, 2017 are required to meet the relevant requirements by the earlier of their first intermediate or renewal survey.

Furthermore, recent action by the IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee and United States agencies indicates that cybersecurity regulations for the maritime industry are likely to be further developed in the near future in an attempt to combat cybersecurity threats. By IMO resolution, administrations are encouraged to ensure that cyber-risk management systems are incorporated by ship-owners and managers by their first annual Document of Compliance audit after January 1, 2021. In February 2021, the U.S. Coast Guard published guidance on addressing cyber risks in a vessel’s safety management system. This might cause companies to create additional procedures for monitoring cybersecurity, which could require additional expenses and/or capital expenditures. The impact of future regulations is hard to predict at this time.

In June 2022, SOLAS also set out new amendments that took effect on January 1, 2024, which include new requirements for: (1) the design for safe mooring operations, (2) the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (“GMDSS”), (3) watertight integrity, (4) watertight doors on cargo ships, (5) fault-isolation of fire detection systems, (6) life-saving appliances, and (7) safety of ships using LNG as fuel. These new requirements may impact the cost of our operations.
  
Pollution Control and Liability Requirements
 
The IMO has negotiated international conventions that impose liability for pollution in international waters and the territorial waters of the signatories to such conventions. For example, the IMO adopted an International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (the “BWM Convention”) in 2004. The BWM Convention entered into force on September 8, 2017. The BWM Convention requires ships to manage their ballast water to remove, render harmless, or avoid the uptake or discharge of new or invasive aquatic organisms and pathogens within ballast water and sediments. The BWM Convention’s implementing regulations call for a phased introduction of mandatory ballast water exchange requirements, to be replaced in time with mandatory concentration limits, and require all ships to carry a ballast water record book and an international ballast water management certificate.

On December 4, 2013, the IMO Assembly passed a resolution revising the application dates of the BWM Convention so that the dates are triggered by the entry into force date and not the dates originally in the BWM Convention. This, in effect, makes all vessels delivered before the entry into force date “existing vessels” and allows for the installation of ballast water management systems on such vessels at the first International Oil Pollution Prevention (IOPP) renewal survey following entry into force of the convention. The MEPC adopted updated guidelines for approval of ballast water management systems (G8) at MEPC 70. At MEPC 71, the schedule regarding the BWM Convention’s implementation dates was also discussed and amendments were introduced to extend the date existing vessels are subject to certain ballast water standards. Those changes were adopted at MEPC 72. Ships over 400 gross tons generally must comply with a “D-1 standard,” requiring the exchange of ballast water only in open seas and away from coastal waters. The “D-2 standard” specifies the maximum amount of viable organisms allowed to be discharged, and compliance dates vary depending on the IOPP renewal dates. Depending on the date of the IOPP renewal survey, existing vessels must comply with the D-2 standard on or after September 8, 2019. For most ships, compliance with the D-2 standard will involve installing on-board systems to treat ballast water and eliminate unwanted organisms. Ballast water management systems, which include systems that make use of chemical, biocides, organisms or biological mechanisms, or which alter the chemical or physical characteristics of the ballast water, must be approved in accordance with IMO Guidelines (Regulation D-3). As of October 13, 2019, MEPC 72’s amendments to the BWM Convention took effect, making the Code for Approval of Ballast Water Management Systems, which governs assessment of ballast water management systems, mandatory rather than permissive, and formalized an implementation schedule for the D-2 standard. Under these amendments, all ships must meet the D-2 standard by September 8, 2024. Costs of compliance with these regulations may be substantial. Additionally, in November 2020, MEPC 75 adopted amendments to the BWM Convention which would require a commissioning test of the ballast water management system for the initial survey or when performing an additional survey for retrofits. This analysis will not apply to ships that already have an installed BWM system certified under the BWM Convention. These amendments entered into force on June 1, 2022. In December 2022, MEPC 79 agreed that it should be permitted to use ballast tanks for temporary storage of treated sewage and grey water. MEPC 79 also established that ships are expected to return to D-2 compliance after experiencing challenging uptake water and bypassing a BWM system should only be used as a last resort. In July 2023, MEPC 80 approved a plan for a comprehensive review of the BWM Convention over the next three years and the corresponding development of a package of amendments to the Convention. MEPC 80 also adopted further amendments relating to Appendix II of the BWM Convention concerning the form of the Ballast Water Record Book, which are expected to enter into force in February 2025. A protocol for ballast water compliance monitoring devices and unified interpretation of the form of the BWM Convention certificate were also adopted.

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Once mid-ocean exchange ballast water treatment requirements become mandatory under the BWM Convention, the cost of compliance could increase for ocean carriers and may have a material effect on our operations. However, many countries already regulate the discharge of ballast water carried by vessels from country to country to prevent the introduction of invasive and harmful species via such discharges. The U.S., for example, requires vessels entering its waters from another country to conduct mid-ocean ballast exchange, or undertake some alternate measure, and to comply with certain reporting requirements. The system specification requirements for trading in the U.S. have been formalized and we have been installing ballast water treatment systems on our vessels as their special survey deadlines come due. These ballast water treatment systems range in cost from $0.5 million to $0.7 million each, primarily dependent on the size of the vessel. Refer to “Capital Expenditures” section for further information.

The IMO adopted the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage of 1969, as amended by different Protocols in 1976, 1984, and 1992, and amended in 2000 (the “CLC”). Under the CLC and depending on whether the country in which the damage results is a party to the 1992 Protocol to the CLC, a vessel’s registered owner may be strictly liable for pollution damage caused in the territorial waters of a contracting state by discharge of persistent oil, subject to certain exceptions. The 1992 Protocol changed certain limits on liability expressed using the International Monetary Fund currency unit, the Special Drawing Rights. The limits on liability have since been amended so that the compensation limits on liability were raised. The right to limit liability is forfeited under the CLC where the spill is caused by the shipowner’s actual fault and under the 1992 Protocol where the spill is caused by the shipowner’s intentional or reckless act or omission where the shipowner knew pollution damage would probably result. The CLC requires ships over 2,000 tons covered by it to maintain insurance covering the liability of the owner in a sum equivalent to an owner’s liability for a single incident. We have protection and indemnity insurance for environmental incidents. P&I Clubs in the International Group issue the required Bunkers Convention “Blue Cards” to enable signatory states to issue certificates. All of our vessels are in possession of a CLC State issued certificate attesting that the required insurance coverage is in force.

The IMO also adopted the International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage (the “Bunker Convention”) to impose strict liability on ship owners (including the registered owner, bareboat charterer, manager or operator) for pollution damage in jurisdictional waters of ratifying states caused by discharges of bunker fuel. The Bunker Convention requires registered owners of ships over 1,000 gross tons to maintain insurance for pollution damage in an amount equal to the limits of liability under the applicable national or international limitation regime (but not exceeding the amount calculated in accordance with the LLMC). With respect to non-ratifying states, liability for spills or releases of oil carried as fuel in ship’s bunkers typically is determined by the national or other domestic laws in the jurisdiction where the events or damages occur.

Ships are required to maintain a certificate attesting that they maintain adequate insurance to cover an incident. In jurisdictions, such as the United States where the CLC or the Bunker Convention has not been adopted, various legislative schemes or common law govern, and liability is imposed either on the basis of fault or on a strict-liability basis.

Anti-Fouling Requirements

In 2001, the IMO adopted the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, or the “Anti-fouling Convention.” The Anti-fouling Convention, which entered into force on September 17, 2008, prohibits the use of organotin compound coatings to prevent the attachment of mollusks and other sea life to the hulls of vessels. The exteriors of vessels constructed prior to January 1, 2003 that have not been in drydock must, as of September 17, 2008, either not contain the prohibited compounds or have coatings applied to the vessel exterior that act as a barrier to the leaching of the prohibited compounds. Vessels of over 400 gross tons engaged in international voyages will also be required to undergo an initial survey before the vessel is put into service or before an International Anti-fouling System Certificate, or the “IAFS Certificate,” is issued for the first time; and subsequent surveys when the anti-fouling systems are altered or replaced. Vessels of 24 meters in length or more but less than 400 gross tonnage engaged in international voyages will have to carry a Declaration on Anti-fouling Systems signed by the owner or authorized agent.

In November 2020, MEPC 75 approved draft amendments to the Anti-fouling Convention to prohibit anti-fouling systems containing cybutryne, which would apply to ships from January 1, 2023, or, for ships already bearing such an anti-fouling system, at the next scheduled renewal of the system after that date, but no later than 60 months following the last application to the ship of such a system. In addition, the IAFS Certificate has been updated to address compliance options for anti-fouling systems to address cybutryne. Ships which are affected by this ban on cybutryne must receive an updated IAFS Certificate no later than two years after the entry into force of these amendments. Ships which are not affected (i.e. with anti-fouling systems which do not contain cybutryne) must receive an updated IAFS Certificate at the next Anti-fouling application to the vessel. These amendments were formally adopted at MEPC 76 in June 2021, and entered into force on January 1, 2023.

We have obtained Anti-fouling System Certificates for all of our vessels that are subject to the Anti-fouling Convention.
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Compliance Enforcement
 
Noncompliance with the ISM Code or other IMO regulations may subject the ship owner or bareboat charterer to increased liability, may lead to decreases in available insurance coverage for affected vessels and may result in the denial of access to, or detention in, some ports. The USCG and European Union authorities have indicated that vessels not in compliance with the ISM Code by applicable deadlines will be prohibited from trading in U.S. and European Union ports, respectively. As of the date of this report, each of our vessels is ISM Code certified. However, there can be no assurance that such certificates will be maintained in the future. The IMO continues to review and introduce new regulations. It is impossible to predict what additional regulations, if any, may be passed by the IMO and what effect, if any, such regulations might have on our operations.

International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters
 
The IMO in November 2014 adopted the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (the “Polar Code”), and related amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (“SOLAS”) to make it mandatory.

The Polar Code is mandatory under both SOLAS and MARPOL because it contains both safety and environment related provisions. The MEPC adopted the Polar Code and associated MARPOL amendments in May 2015.
 
The U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
 
The Oil Pollution Act of 1990, ("OPA"), established an extensive regulatory and liability regime for the protection and cleanup of the environment from oil spills. OPA affects all “owners and operators” whose vessels trade with the United States, its territories and possessions or whose vessels operate in United States waters, which includes the United States’ territorial sea and its 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone around the United States. The United States has also enacted the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, or CERCLA, which applies to the discharge of hazardous substances other than oil, whether on land or at sea. OPA and CERCLA both define “owner and operator” in the case of a vessel as any person owning, operating or chartering by demise, the vessel. Both OPA and CERCLA impact the Company’s operations.

Under OPA, vessel owners and operators are “responsible parties” and are jointly, severally and strictly liable (unless the spill results solely from the act or omission of a third party, an act of God or an act of war) for all containment and clean-up costs and other damages arising from discharges or threatened discharges of oil from their vessels. OPA defines these other damages broadly to include:
 
injury to, destruction or loss of, or loss of use of, natural resources and related assessment costs;

injury to, or economic losses resulting from, the destruction of real and personal property;

net loss of taxes, royalties, rents, fees or net profit revenues resulting from injury, destruction or loss of real or personal property, or natural resources;

loss of subsistence use of natural resources that are injured, destroyed or lost;

lost profits or impairment of earning capacity due to injury, destruction or loss of real or personal property or natural resources; and

net cost of increased or additional public services necessitated by removal activities following a discharge of oil, such as protection from fire, safety or health hazards, and loss of subsistence use of natural resources.

OPA contains statutory caps on liability and damages; such caps do not apply to direct cleanup costs. Effective December 31, 2015, the U.S. Coast Guard adjusted the limits of OPA liability for non-tank vessels (e.g. drybulk) to the greater of $1,200 per gross ton or $997,100 (subject to periodic adjustment for inflation). Effective March 23, 2023, the new adjusted limits of OPA liability for non-tank vessels, edible oil tank vessels, and any oil spill response vessels, to the greater of $1,300 per gross ton or $1,076,000 (subject to periodic adjustment for inflation). These limits of liability do not apply if an incident was proximately caused by the violation of an applicable U.S. federal safety, construction or operating regulation by a responsible party (or its agent, employee or a person acting pursuant to a contractual relationship), or a responsible party’s gross negligence or willful misconduct. The limitation on liability similarly does not apply if the responsible party fails or refuses to (i) report the incident where the responsibility party knows or has reason to know of the incident; (ii) reasonably cooperate and assist as requested in
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connection with oil removal activities; or (iii) without sufficient cause, comply with an order issued under the Federal Water Pollution Act (Section 311 (c), (e)) or the Intervention on the High Seas Act.
 
CERCLA contains a similar liability regime whereby owners and operators of vessels are liable for cleanup, removal and remedial costs, as well as damages for injury to, or destruction or loss of, natural resources, including the reasonable costs associated with assessing same, and health assessments or health effects studies. There is no liability if the discharge of a hazardous substance results solely from the act or omission of a third party, an act of God or an act of war. Liability under CERCLA is limited to the greater of $300 per gross ton or $5.0 million for vessels carrying a hazardous substance as cargo and the greater of $300 per gross ton or $500,000 for any other vessel. These limits do not apply (rendering the responsible person liable for the total cost of response and damages) if the release or threat of release of a hazardous substance resulted from willful misconduct or negligence, or the primary cause of the release was a violation of applicable safety, construction or operating standards or regulations. The limitation on liability also does not apply if the responsible person fails or refused to provide all reasonable cooperation and assistance as requested in connection with response activities where the vessel is subject to OPA.
 
OPA and CERCLA both require owners and operators of vessels to establish and maintain with the U.S. Coast Guard evidence of financial responsibility sufficient to meet the maximum amount of liability to which the particular responsible person may be subject. Vessel owners and operators may satisfy their financial responsibility obligations by providing a proof of insurance, a surety bond, qualification as a self-insurer or a guarantee.
 
Incidents such as the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico may result in additional regulatory initiatives or statutes, including the raising of liability caps under OPA (which were raised on December 31, 2015). Compliance with any new requirements of OPA may substantially impact the Company’s cost of operations or require it to incur additional expenses to comply with any new regulatory initiatives or statutes. Additional legislation or regulations applicable to the operation of its vessels that may be implemented in the future could adversely affect its business.
 
The Company currently maintains pollution liability coverage insurance in the amount of $1.0 billion per incident for each of the Company’s vessels. If the damages from a catastrophic spill were to exceed the Company’s insurance coverage it could have an adverse effect on its business and results of operation.
 
OPA specifically permits individual states to impose their own liability regimes with regard to oil pollution incidents occurring within their boundaries, provided they accept, at a minimum, the levels of liability established under OPA and some states have enacted legislation providing for unlimited liability for oil spills. In some cases, states which have enacted such legislation have not yet issued implementing regulations defining vessel owners’ responsibilities under these laws. The Company intends to comply with all applicable state regulations in the ports where its vessels call. The Company believes that it is in substantial compliance with all applicable existing state requirements. In addition, the Company intends to comply with all future applicable state regulations in the ports where its vessels call.
 
Other United States Environmental Initiatives
 
The U.S. Clean Water Act, or CWA, prohibits the discharge of oil, hazardous substances and ballast water in U.S. navigable waters unless authorized by a duly-issued permit or exemption, and imposes strict liability in the form of penalties for any unauthorized discharges. The CWA also imposes substantial liability for the costs of removal, remediation and damages, and complements the remedies available under OPA and CERCLA. Furthermore, many U.S. states that border a navigable waterway have enacted environmental pollution laws that impose strict liability on a person for removal costs and damages resulting from a discharge of oil or a release of a hazardous substance. These laws may be more stringent than U.S. federal law.
 
The EPA and the USCG have also enacted rules relating to ballast water discharge, compliance with which requires the installation of equipment on our vessels to treat ballast water before it is discharged or the implementation of other port facility disposal arrangements or procedures at potentially substantial costs, and/or otherwise restrict our vessels from entering U.S. Waters. The EPA will regulate these ballast water discharges and other discharges incidental to the normal operation of certain vessels within United States waters pursuant to the Vessel Incidental Discharge Act (“VIDA”), which was signed into law on December 4, 2018 and replaces the 2013 Vessel General Permit (“VGP”) program (which authorizes discharges incidental to operations of commercial vessels and contains numeric ballast water discharge limits for most vessels to reduce the risk of invasive species in U.S. waters, stringent requirements for exhaust gas scrubbers, and requirements for the use of environmentally acceptable lubricants) and current Coast Guard ballast water management regulations adopted under the U.S. National Invasive Species Act (“NISA”), such as mid-ocean ballast exchange programs and installation of approved USCG technology for all vessels equipped with ballast water tanks bound for U.S. ports or entering U.S. waters. VIDA establishes a new framework for the regulation of vessel incidental discharges under Clean Water Act (CWA), requires the EPA to develop
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performance standards for those discharges within two years of enactment, and requires the U.S. Coast Guard to develop implementation, compliance, and enforcement regulations within two years of EPA’s promulgation of standards. Under VIDA, all provisions of the 2013 VGP and USCG regulations regarding ballast water treatment remain in force and effect until the EPA and U.S. Coast Guard regulations are finalized. Non-military, non-recreational vessels greater than 79 feet in length must continue to comply with the requirements of the VGP, including submission of a Notice of Intent (“NOI”) or retention of a PARI form and submission of annual reports. We have submitted NOIs for our vessels where required. On October 26, 2020, the EPA published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Vessel Incidental Discharge National Standards of Performance under
VIDA. Within two years after the EPA publishes its final Vessel Incidental Discharge National Standards of Performance, the U.S. Coast Guard must develop corresponding implementation, compliance and enforcement regulations regarding ballast water. Compliance with the EPA, U.S. Coast Guard and state regulations could require the installation of ballast water treatment equipment on our vessels or the implementation of other port facility disposal procedures at potentially substantial cost, or may otherwise restrict our vessels from entering U.S. waters. 

European Union Regulations
 
In October 2009, the European Union amended a directive to impose criminal sanctions for illicit ship-source discharges of polluting substances, including minor discharges, if committed with intent, recklessly or with serious negligence and the discharges individually or in the aggregate result in deterioration of the quality of water. Aiding and abetting the discharge of a polluting substance may also lead to criminal penalties. The directive applies to all types of vessels, irrespective of their flag, but certain exceptions apply to warships or where human safety or that of the ship is in danger. Criminal liability for pollution may result in substantial penalties or fines and increased civil liability claims. Regulation (EU) 2015/757 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2015 (amending EU Directive 2009/16/EC) governs the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon dioxide emissions from maritime transport, and, subject to some exclusions, requires companies with ships over 5,000 gross tonnage to monitor and report carbon dioxide emissions annually, which may cause us to incur additional expenses.

The European Union has adopted several regulations and directives requiring, among other things, more frequent inspections of high-risk ships, as determined by type, age, and flag as well as the number of times the ship has been detained. The European Union also adopted and extended a ban on substandard ships and enacted a minimum ban period and a definitive ban for repeated offenses. The regulations also provided the European Union with greater authority and control over classification societies, by imposing more requirements on classification societies and providing for fines or penalty payments for organizations that failed to comply. Furthermore, the EU has implemented regulations requiring vessels to use reduced sulfur content fuel for their main and auxiliary engines. The EU Directive 2005/33/EC (amending Directive 1999/32/EC) introduced requirements parallel to those in Annex VI relating to the sulfur content of marine fuels. In addition, the EU imposed a 0.1% maximum sulfur requirement for fuel used by ships at berth in the Baltic, the North Sea and the English Channel (the so-called “SOx-Emission Control Area”). As of January 2020, EU member states must also ensure that ships in all EU waters, except the SOx-Emission Control Area, use fuels with a 0.5% maximum sulfur content.

On September 15, 2020, the European Parliament voted to include greenhouse gas emissions from the maritime sector in the European Union’s carbon market, the EU Emissions Trading System (“EU ETS”) as part of its “Fit-for-55” legislation to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030 as compared to 1990 levels. On July 14, 2021, the European Parliament formally proposed its plan, which would involve gradually including the maritime sector from 2023 and phasing the sector in over a three-year period. This will require shipowners to buy permits to cover these emissions. The Environment Council adopted a general approach on the proposal in June 2022. On December 18, 2022, the Environmental Council and European Parliament agreed to include maritime shipping emissions within the scope of the EU ETS on a gradual introduction of obligations for shipping companies to surrender allowances equivalent to a portion of their carbon emissions: 40% for verified emissions from 2024, 70% for 2025 and 100% for 2026. Most large vessels will be included in the scope of the EU ETS from the start. Big offshore vessels of 5,000 gross tonnage and above will be included in the 'MRV' on the monitoring, reporting and verification of CO2 emissions from maritime transport regulation from 2025 and in the EU ETS from 2027. General cargo vessels and off-shore vessels between 400-5,000 gross tonnage will be included in the MRV regulation from 2025 and their inclusion in EU ETS will be reviewed in 2026. Furthermore, starting from January 1, 2026, the ETS regulations will expand to include emissions of two additional greenhouse gases: nitrous oxide and methane. Compliance with the Maritime EU ETS will result in additional compliance and administration costs to properly incorporate the provisions of the Directive into our business routines. Additional EU regulations which are part of the EU’s "Fit-for-55," could also affect our financial position in terms of compliance and administration costs when they take effect.

Additionally, on July 25, 2023, the European Council of the European Union adopted the Maritime Fuel Regulation under the FuelEU Initiative of its “Fit-for-55” package which sets limitations on the acceptable yearly greenhouse gas intensity of the energy used by covered vessels. Among other things, the Maritime Fuel Regulation requires that greenhouse gas emissions
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from covered vessels are reduced by 2% starting January 1, 2025, with additional reductions contemplated every five years (up to 80% from January 1, 2050).
 
Greenhouse Gas Regulation
 
Our industry currently is heavily dependent on the consumption of fossil fuels, which has been linked by certain experts to greenhouse gas emissions and the warming of the global climate system. We are committed to working to reduce our carbon footprint, including by transitioning to low-carbon fuels while continuing to deliver for our customers. Our governance, strategy, risk management and performance monitoring efforts with respect to managing this challenge continue to evolve.

Currently, the emissions of greenhouse gases from international shipping are not subject to the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which entered into force in 2005 and pursuant to which adopting countries have been required to implement national programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with targets extended through 2020. International negotiations are continuing with respect to a successor to the Kyoto Protocol, and restrictions on shipping emissions may be included in any new treaty. In December 2009, more than 27 nations, including the U.S. and China, signed the Copenhagen Accord, which includes a non-binding commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris resulted in the Paris Agreement, which entered into force on November 4, 2016 and does not directly limit greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The U.S. initially entered into the agreement, but on June 1, 2017, former U.S. President Trump announced that the United States intended to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, and the withdrawal became effective on November 4, 2020. On January 20, 2021, U.S. President Biden signed an executive order to rejoin the Paris Agreement, which the U.S. officially rejoined on February 19, 2021.

At MEPC 70 and MEPC 71, a draft outline of the structure of the initial strategy for developing a comprehensive IMO strategy on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from ships was approved. In accordance with this roadmap, in April 2018, nations at the MEPC 72 adopted an initial strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The initial strategy identifies “levels of ambition” to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, including (1) decreasing the carbon intensity from ships through implementation of further phases of the EEDI for new ships; (2) reducing carbon dioxide emissions per transport work, as an average across international shipping, by at least 40% by 2030, pursuing efforts towards 70% by 2050, compared to 2008 emission levels; and (3) reducing the total annual greenhouse emissions by at least 50% by 2050 compared to 2008 while pursuing efforts towards phasing them out entirely. The initial strategy notes that technological innovation, alternative fuels and/or energy sources for international shipping will be integral to achieve the overall ambition. These regulations could cause us to incur additional substantial expenses. At MEPC 77, the Member States agreed to initiate the revision of the Initial IMO Strategy on Reduction of GHG emissions from ships, recognizing the need to strengthen the ambition during the revision process. In July 2023, MEPC 80 adopted a revised strategy, which includes an enhanced common ambition to reach net-zero greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping around or close to 2050, a commitment to ensure an uptake of alternative zero and near-zero greenhouse gas fuels by 2030, as well as i). reducing the total annual greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping by at least 20%, striving for 30%, by 2030, compared to 2008; and ii). reducing the total annual greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping by at least 70%, striving for 80%, by 2040, compared to 2008. At MEPC 80, the IMO also announced its intention to develop and approve mid-term greenhouse gas reduction measures by Spring 2025, with entry into force of those measures in 2027. These measures include (1) a goal-based marine fuel standard regulating the phased reduction of the marine fuel's GHG intensity, and (2) a global carbon pricing mechanism.

The EU made a unilateral commitment to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions from its member states from 20% of 1990 levels by 2020. The EU also committed to reduce its emissions by 20% under the Kyoto Protocol’s second period from 2013 to 2020. Starting in January 2018, large ships over 5,000 gross tonnage calling at EU ports are required to collect and publish data on carbon dioxide emissions and other information. Under the European Climate Law, the EU committed to reduce its net greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030 through its “Fit-for-55” legislation package. As part of this initiative, regulations relating to the inclusion of greenhouse gas emissions from the maritime sector in the European Union’s carbon market, EU ETS, are also forthcoming.

In the United States, the EPA issued a finding that greenhouse gases endanger the public health and safety, adopted regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions from certain mobile sources, and proposed regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions from large stationary sources. However, in March 2017, former U.S. President Trump signed an executive order to review and possibly eliminate the EPA’s plan to cut greenhouse gas emissions, and in August 2019, the Administration announced plans to weaken regulations for methane emissions. Further, on August 13, 2020, the EPA released rules rolling back standards to control methane and volatile organic compound emissions from new oil and gas facilities. However, U.S. President Biden recently directed the EPA to publish a proposed rule suspending, revising, or rescinding certain of these rules. On November 2, 2021, the EPA issued a proposed rule under the CAA designed to reduce methane emissions from oil and gas sources. The proposed rule would reduce 41 million tons of methane emissions between 2023 and 2035 and cut methane emissions in the oil
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and gas sector by approximately 74 percent compared to emissions from this sector in 2005. EPA issued a supplemental proposed rule in November 2022 to include additional methane reduction measures. On December 2, 2023, the Biden Administration announced the final rule that includes updated and strengthened standards for methane and other air pollutants from new, modified, and reconstructed sources, as well as Emissions Guidelines to assist states in developing plans to limit methane emissions from existing sources. These new regulations could potentially affect our operations.

Any passage of climate control legislation or other regulatory initiatives by the IMO, the EU, the U.S. or other countries where we operate, or any treaty adopted at the international level to succeed the Kyoto Protocol or Paris Agreement, that restricts emissions of greenhouse gases could require us to make significant financial expenditures which we cannot predict with certainty at this time. Even in the absence of climate control legislation, our business may be indirectly affected to the extent that climate change may result in sea level changes or certain weather events.

International Labor Organization

The International Labour Organization (the “ILO”) is a specialized agency of the UN that has adopted the Maritime Labor Convention 2006 (“MLC 2006”). A Maritime Labor Certificate and a Declaration of Maritime Labor Compliance is required to ensure compliance with the MLC 2006 for all ships that are 500 gross tonnage or over and are either engaged in international voyages or flying the flag of a Member and operating from a port, or between ports, in another country. We believe that all of our vessels are in substantial compliance with and are certified to meet MLC 2006.

Vessel Security Regulations
 
Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States, there have been a variety of initiatives intended to enhance vessel security such as the U.S. Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (“MTSA”). To implement certain portions of the MTSA, the USCG issued regulations requiring the implementation of certain security requirements aboard vessels operating in waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and at certain ports and facilities, some of which are regulated by the EPA.

Similarly, Chapter XI-2 of the SOLAS Convention imposes detailed security obligations on vessels and port authorities and mandates compliance with the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (“the ISPS Code”). The ISPS Code is designed to enhance the security of ports and ships against terrorism. To trade internationally, a vessel must attain an International Ship Security Certificate (“ISSC”) from a recognized security organization approved by the vessel’s flag state. Ships operating without a valid certificate may be detained, expelled from, or refused entry at port until they obtain an ISSC. The various requirements, some of which are found in the SOLAS Convention, include, for example, on-board installation of automatic identification systems to provide a means for the automatic transmission of safety-related information from among similarly equipped ships and shore stations, including information on a ship’s identity, position, course, speed and navigational status; on-board installation of ship security alert systems, which do not sound on the vessel but only alert the authorities on shore; the development of vessel security plans; ship identification number to be permanently marked on a vessel’s hull; a continuous synopsis record kept onboard showing a vessel's history including the name of the ship, the state whose flag the ship is entitled to fly, the date on which the ship was registered with that state, the ship's identification number, the port at which the ship is registered and the name of the registered owner(s) and their registered address; and compliance with flag state security certification requirements.

The USCG regulations, intended to align with international maritime security standards, exempt non-U.S. vessels from MTSA vessel security measures, provided such vessels have on board a valid ISSC that attests to the vessel’s compliance with the SOLAS Convention security requirements and the ISPS Code. Future security measures could have a significant financial impact on us. We intend to comply with the various security measures addressed by MTSA, the SOLAS Convention and the ISPS Code.

The cost of vessel security measures has also been affected by the escalation in the frequency of acts of piracy against ships, notably off the coast of Somalia, including the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea area, as well as off the coast of Western Africa. Substantial loss of revenue and other costs may be incurred as a result of detention of a vessel or additional security measures, and the risk of uninsured losses could significantly affect our business. Costs are incurred in taking additional security measures in accordance with Best Management Practices to Deter Piracy, notably those contained in the BMP5 industry standard.


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Inspection by Classification Societies
 
Every oceangoing vessel must be “classed” by a classification society. The classification society certifies that the vessel is “in class,” signifying that the vessel has been built and maintained in accordance with the rules of the classification society and complies with applicable rules and regulations of the vessel's country of registry and the international conventions of which that country is a member. In addition, where surveys are required by international conventions and corresponding laws and ordinances of a flag state, the classification society will undertake them on application or by official order, acting on behalf of the authorities concerned.
 
The classification society also undertakes, as requested, other surveys that may be required by the vessel's flag state. These surveys are subject to agreements made with the vessel owner and/or to the regulations of the country concerned.
 
For maintenance of the class certification, annual, intermediate and special surveys of hull and machinery, including the electrical plant, and any special equipment, are required to be performed as follows:
 
Annual Surveys: For seagoing ships, annual surveys are conducted within three months, before or after each anniversary of the class period indicated in the certificate.

Intermediate Surveys: Extended surveys are referred to as intermediate surveys and are typically conducted two and one-half years after commissioning, and two and one-half years after each class renewal. Intermediate surveys are to be carried out at or between the occasion of the second or third annual survey.

Class Renewal Surveys: Class renewal surveys, also known as special surveys, are carried out at the intervals indicated by the character of classification for the hull. At the special survey, the vessel is thoroughly examined, including audio-gauging to determine the thickness of the steel structures. If the steel thickness is found to be less than class requirements, the classification society would prescribe steel renewals which require drydocking of the vessel. The classification society may grant a one-year grace period for completion of the special survey. Substantial costs may be incurred for steel renewal in order to pass a special survey if the vessel experiences excessive wear and tear. In lieu of the special survey every four or five years, depending on whether a grace period was granted, a shipowner has the option of arranging with the classification society for the vessel’s hull or machinery to be on a continuous survey cycle, in which case every part of the vessel would be surveyed on a continuous five-year cycle. This process is referred to as continuous class renewal.

All areas subject to survey, as defined by the classification society, are required to be surveyed at least once per class period unless shorter intervals between surveys are prescribed elsewhere. The period between two subsequent surveys of each area must not exceed five years.
 
Most vessels undergo regulatory inspection of the underwater parts every 30 to 36 months. If any defects are found, the classification surveyor will issue a recommendation which must be rectified by the ship owner within prescribed time limits.

The Company expects to perform two special surveys in 2024 at an aggregate total cost of approximately $2.0 million. The Company expects to perform four intermediate surveys in 2024 at an aggregate total cost of approximately $0.3 million. The Company estimates that offhire related to the surveys and related repair work is ten to twenty days per vessel, depending on the size and condition of the vessel.
 
Most insurance underwriters make it a condition for insurance coverage that a vessel be certified as “in class” by a classification society which is a member of the International Association of Classification Societies. All of the Company’s vessels are certified by Det Norske Veritas, Nippon Kaiji Kiokai or Bureau Veritas. All new and second-hand vessels that the Company purchases must be certified prior to delivery under its standard purchase contracts, referred to as the memorandum of agreement or ship building contracts. Certification of second-hand vessels must be verified by a Class Maintenance Certificate issued within 72 hours prior to delivery. If the vessel is not certified on the date of closing, the Company has the option to cancel the agreement on the basis of Seller’s default, and not take delivery of the vessel.
 
Risk of Loss and Insurance
 
General
 
The operation of any dry bulk vessel includes risks such as mechanical failure, collision, property loss, cargo loss or damage, and business interruption due to political circumstances in foreign countries, hostilities and labor strikes. In addition, there is an inherent possibility of marine disaster, including oil spills (e.g. fuel oil) and other environmental incidents, and the liabilities
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arising from owning and operating vessels in international trade. OPA, which imposes virtually unlimited liability for certain oil pollution accidents upon owners, operators and demise charterers of vessels trading in the United States exclusive economic zone, has made liability insurance more expensive for ship owners and operators trading in the U.S. market.
 
The Company maintains hull and machinery insurance, war risks insurance, protection and indemnity cover and freight, demurrage and defense cover for its owned fleet at amounts it believes address the normal risks of its operations. The Company may not be able to maintain this level of coverage throughout a vessel’s useful life. Furthermore, while the Company believes that its current insurance coverage is adequate, not all risks can be insured, and there can be no guarantee that any specific claim will be paid, or that the Company will always be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable rates.
 
Hull & Machinery and War Risks Insurance
 
The Company maintains marine hull and machinery and war risks insurances, which cover the risk of actual or constructive total loss, for all of its vessels. Vessels are insured for their fair market value, at a minimum, with a deductible of $100,000 per vessel per incident.

Protection and Indemnity Insurance
 
Protection and indemnity insurance is a form of mutual indemnity insurance provided by mutual protection and indemnity associations, or P&I Associations, which insure the Company’s third party liabilities in connection with its shipping activities. This includes third-party liability and other related expenses resulting from the injury, illness or death of crew, passengers and other third parties, the loss or damage to cargo, claims arising from collisions with other vessels, damage to other third-party property, pollution arising from oil or other substances and salvage, towing and other related costs, including wreck removal. Subject to the “capping” discussed below, the Company’s coverage, except for pollution, is unlimited.
 
The Company’s current protection and indemnity insurance coverage for pollution is $1.0 billion per vessel per incident. The thirteen P&I Associations that comprise the International Group insure approximately 90% of the world’s commercial tonnage and have entered into a pooling agreement to reinsure each association’s liabilities. As a member of a P&I Association, which is a member of the International Group, the Company is subject to calls payable to the associations based on the group’s claim records as well as the claim records of all other members of the individual associations and members of the pool of P&I Associations comprising the International Group.

Exchange Controls
 
The Company is an exempted company organized under the Bermuda Companies Act. The Bermuda Companies Act differs in some material respects from laws generally applicable to United States companies and their stockholders. However, a general permission issued by the Bermuda Monetary Authority, ("BMA"), results in the Company’s common shares being freely transferable among persons who are residents and non-residents of Bermuda. Each shareholder, whether a resident or non-resident of Bermuda, is entitled to one vote for each share of stock held by the shareholder.
 
Although the Company is incorporated in Bermuda, the Company is classified as a non-resident of Bermuda for exchange control purposes by the BMA. Other than transferring Bermuda Dollars out of Bermuda, there are no restrictions on its ability to transfer funds into and out of Bermuda or to pay dividends in currency other than Bermuda Dollars to U.S. residents (or other non-residents of Bermuda) who are holders of its common shares.
 
In accordance with Bermuda law, share certificates may be issued only in the names of corporations, individuals or legal persons. In the case of an applicant acting in a special capacity (for example, as an executor or trustee), certificates may, at the request of the applicant, record the capacity in which the applicant is acting. Notwithstanding the recording of any such special capacity, the Company is not bound to investigate or incur any responsibility in respect of the proper administration of any such estate or trust.
 
The Company will take no notice of any trust applicable to any of its shares or other securities whether or not the Company had notice of such trust.

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INDUSTRY AND MARKET CONDITIONS
 
Market Overview
 
Ocean going vessels represent the most efficient and often the only means of transporting large volumes of dry cargo over long distances. Dry bulk cargo includes both major and minor commodities such as coal, iron ore, grain, bauxite, cement clinker, and limestone. Dry bulk trade is influenced by the underlying demand for the dry bulk commodities which in turn is influenced by the level of global economic activity.
 
The world’s fleet of vessels dedicated to carrying dry bulk cargoes is traditionally divided into six major categories, based on a vessel’s cargo carrying capacity. These categories are: Handysize, Supramax, Ultramax, Panamax, Capesize and Very Large Ore Carrier. Certain routes and geographies are less accessible to certain vessel sizes. For example, Panamax and Supramax vessels are the main dry bulk vessel types deployed in the Baltic due to draft restrictions.
 
Dry bulk vessels are employed through a number of different chartering options. The most common are time charters, spot charters, and voyage charters. Historically, charter rates have been volatile as they are driven by the underlying balance between vessel supply and demand. Ice class vessels, when operating in ice-bound areas, usually command a rate premium to conventional trades.
 
Dry Bulk Shipping — the Main Participants
 
In the dry bulk shipping industry there are multiple functions, with individual parties carrying out one or more of such functions. In general, the principal functions within dry bulk shipping are as follows:
 
Ship Owner or Registered Owner — Generally, this is an entity retaining the legal title of ownership over a vessel.

Ship Operator — Generally, this is an entity seeking to generate profit either through the chartering of ships (owned or chartered-in) to others, or from the transportation of cargoes. Entities focusing on the transportation of cargoes may engage in chartering of ships to other entities, but those companies focusing on chartering ships to other entities rarely act to carry cargoes for customers.

Shipmanager/Commercial Manager — This is an entity designated to be responsible for the day to day commercial management of the ship and the best contact for the ship regarding commercial matters, including post fixture responsibilities, such as laytime, demurrage, insurance and charter clauses. These companies undertake the activities of ship operators but, unlike a ship operator, they do not own or charter-in the vessels at their own risk.

Technical Manager — This is an entity specifically responsible for the technical operation and technical superintendence of a ship. This company may also be responsible for hiring, training and supervising ship officers and crew, and for all aspects of the day to day operation of the fleet, including repair work, spare parts inventory, re-engineering, surveys and dry-docking.

Cargo Owner — This is normally a producer (e.g., a miner), consumer (e.g., a steel mill) or trading house who requires transportation of cargo by a cargo focused ship operator.

The Company participates in each of these capacities with the exception of cargo owner, although at rare opportunistic times the Company may purchase cargo for resale after completion of a voyage.

The Freight Market
 
Dry bulk vessels are employed in the market through a number of different chartering options. The general terms typically found in these types of contracts are described below.
 
Time Charter. A charter under which the vessel owner or operator is paid charterhire on a per-day basis for a specified period of time. Typically, the shipowner receives semi-monthly charterhire payments on a U.S. dollar-per-day basis and is responsible for providing the crew and paying vessel operating expenses, while the charterer is responsible for paying the voyage expenses and additional voyage insurance. The ship owner is also responsible for the vessel’s intermediate and special survey (heavy mandatory maintenance) costs. Under time charters, including trip charters, the charterer pays all voyage expenses including port, canal and bunker (fuel) costs.

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Trip Charter. A time charter for a trip to carry a specific cargo from a load port to a discharge port at a set daily rate.

Voyage Charter. A charter to carry a specific amount and type of cargo on a load-port to discharge-port basis, subject to various cargo handling terms. Most of these charters are of a single voyage nature, as trading patterns do not encourage round trip voyage trading. The ship operator receives payment based on a price per ton of cargo loaded on board the vessel. The ship operator is responsible for the payment of all voyage expenses, as well as the costs of owning or hiring the vessel.

Contract of Affreightment. A contract of affreightment, or COA, relates to the carriage of multiple cargoes over the same route and enables the service provider to nominate different vessels to perform the individual voyages. Essentially, it constitutes a series of voyage charters to carry a specified amount of cargo during the term of the CoA, which usually spans a number of months or years. Freight normally is agreed on a U.S. dollar-per-ton carried basis with bunker cost escalation or de-escalation adjustments.

Bareboat Charter. A bareboat charter involves the use of a vessel, usually over longer periods of time (several years). In this case, all voyage expenses and vessel operating expenses, including maintenance, crewing and insurance, are paid for by the charterer. The owner of the vessel receives monthly charterhire payments on a U.S. dollar per day basis and is responsible only for the payment of capital costs related to the vessel. A bareboat charter is also known as a “demise charter” or a “time charter by demise.”

The Company primarily employs its vessels under voyage charters together with COAs and time charters.

Rates

In the time charter (period) market, rates vary depending on the length of the charter period and vessel specific factors such as age, speed, size and fuel consumption. In the voyage charter market, rates are influenced by cargo size, commodity, port dues, bunker prices, and canal transit fees, as well as delivery and redelivery regions. In general, a larger cargo size is quoted at a lower rate per ton than a smaller cargo size. Routes with costly ports or canals generally command higher rates. Voyages loading from a port where vessels usually discharge cargo, or discharging at a port where vessels usually load cargo, are generally quoted at lower rates. These voyages are known as “backhaul” voyages.

In some cases, charters will include an additional payment known as a ballast bonus. A ballast bonus is a lump sum payment made to a shipowner or operator (by the charterer) as compensation for delivering a ship in a particular loading region of the world. For a ship to enter a loading region, an empty (ballast) leg may be required because there are no inbound cargoes. The ballast bonus should reflect the cost of the empty ballast in terms of time and fuel. A typical fixture that involves a ballast bonus might be expressed as “freight hire of $10,000 per day, plus a ballast bonus of $100,000 lump sum”.
 
Within the dry bulk shipping industry, the freight rate indices issued by the Baltic Exchange in London are the references most likely to be monitored. These references are based on actual charter hire rates under charters entered into by market participants as well as daily assessments provided to the Baltic Exchange by a panel of major shipbrokers. The Baltic Exchange, an independent organization comprised of shipbrokers, shipping companies and other shipping players, provides daily independent shipping market information and has created freight rate indices reflecting the average freight rates for the major bulk vessel trading routes. The Baltic Dry Index ("BDI"), is a composite of the Capesize, Panamax and Supramax timecharter averages. It is considered a proxy for dry bulk shipping stocks as well as a general shipping market bellwether.
 
Dry Bulk Trades Requiring Ice Class Tonnage
 
Ice class vessels are required to serve ports accessed by routes crossing seasonal or year-round ice-covered oceans, lakes, seas or rivers. Ice class vessels are mainly deployed in the Baltic Sea, the Northern Sea Route (NSR) and the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway. These regions have experienced strong trade growth in dry bulk cargoes, driven in particular by increased mining activities supported by strong commodity demand in Asia, decreased level of ice, and technology advancement in shipping. The Company's ice class vessels also serve a long term customers requirement in the Canadian Arctic.

TAXATION

U.S. Taxation

The following discussion is based upon the provisions of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, existing and proposed U.S. Treasury Department regulations, or the Treasury Regulations, administrative rulings and
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pronouncements and judicial decisions, all as of the date of this annual report. Unless otherwise noted, references to the “Company” include the Company’s Subsidiaries. This discussion assumes that we do not have an office or other fixed place of business in the United States.

Taxation of the Company’s Shipping Income: In General

The Company anticipates that it will derive a significant portion of its gross income from the use and operation of vessels in international commerce and that this income will principally consist of freights from the transportation of cargoes, hire or lease from time or voyage charters and the performance of services directly related thereto, which the Company refers to as “shipping income”. Shipping income that is attributable to transportation that begins or ends, but that does not both begin and end, in the United States will be considered to be 50% derived from sources within the United States. Shipping income attributable to transportation that both begins and ends in the United States will be considered to be 100% derived from sources within the United States. The Company is not permitted by law to engage in transportation that gives rise to 100% U.S. source income.
Shipping income attributable to transportation exclusively between non-U.S. ports will be considered to be 100% derived from sources outside the United States. Shipping income derived from sources outside the United States will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax.

Based upon the Company’s anticipated shipping operations, the Company’s vessels will operate in various parts of the world, including to or from U.S. ports. Unless exempt from U.S. federal income taxation under Section 883 of the Code, the Company will be subject to U.S. federal income taxation, in the manner discussed below, to the extent its shipping income is considered derived from sources within the United States.

Application of Section 883 of the Code

Under the relevant provisions of Section 883 of the Code, or Section 883, the Company will be exempt from U.S. federal income taxation on its U.S. source shipping income if:

(i) It is organized in a “qualified foreign country,” which is one that grants an equivalent exemption from tax to corporations organized in the United States in respect of the shipping income for which exemption is being claimed under Section 883, and which the Company refers to as the Country of Organization Requirement; and
(ii) It can satisfy any one of the following two stock ownership requirements for more than half the days during the taxable year:

the Company’s stock is “primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market” located in the United States or a “qualified foreign country,” which the Company refers to as the Publicly-Traded Test; or

more than 50% of the Company’s stock, in terms of value, is beneficially owned by any combination of one or more individuals who are residents of a “qualified foreign country” or foreign corporations that satisfy the Country of Organization Requirement and the Publicly-Traded Test, which the Company refers to as the 50% Ownership Test.

The U.S. Treasury Department has recognized Bermuda, the country of incorporation of the Company and certain of its subsidiaries, as a “qualified foreign country”. In addition, the U.S. Treasury Department has recognized Denmark, Canada, Greece, the Marshall Islands, Singapore, British Virgin Islands and Cyprus, the countries of incorporation of certain of the Company’s vessel-owning subsidiaries, as “qualified foreign countries”. Accordingly, the Company and its vessel-owning subsidiaries satisfy the Country of Organization Requirement. Therefore, the Company’s eligibility to qualify for exemption under Section 883 is wholly dependent upon being able to satisfy one of the stock ownership requirements.

As discussed below, for the 2023 taxable year we believe the Company satisfied the Publicly-Traded Test, since on more than half the days in the taxable year we believe the Company’s common shares were primarily and regularly traded on Nasdaq, an established securities market in the United States.

As to the Publicly-Traded Test, the Treasury Regulations under Section 883 provide, in pertinent part, that stock of a foreign corporation will be considered to be “primarily traded” on an established securities market in a country if the number of shares of each class of stock that is traded during any taxable year on all established securities markets in that country exceeds the number of shares in each such class that is traded during that year on established securities markets in any other single country.
The Publicly-Traded Test also requires our common shares be “regularly traded” on an established securities market. Under the Treasury Regulations, our common shares are considered to be “regularly traded” on an established securities market if shares representing more than 50% of our outstanding common shares, by both total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote and total value, are listed on the market, referred to as the “listing threshold”. The Treasury Regulations further
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require that with respect to each class of stock relied upon to meet the listing threshold (i) such class of stock is traded on the market, other than in minimal quantities, on at least 60 days during the taxable year or 1/6 of the days in a short taxable year, which is referred to as the “trading frequency test”, and (ii) the aggregate number of shares of such class of stock traded on such market during the taxable year is at least 10% of the average number of shares of such class of stock outstanding during such year (as appropriately adjusted in the case of a short taxable year), which is referred to as the “trading volume test”. Even if we do not satisfy both the trading frequency and trading volume tests, the Treasury Regulations provide that the trading frequency and trading volume tests will be deemed satisfied if our common shares are traded on an established securities market in the United States and such stock is regularly quoted by dealers making a market in our common shares, such the Nasdaq Capital Market, on which our common shares are listed.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, our common shares will not be considered to be regularly traded on an established securities market for any taxable year in which 50% or more of the vote and value of the outstanding common shares are owned, actually or constructively under certain stock attribution rules, on more than half the days during the taxable year by persons who each own 5% or more of the value of our common shares, which we refer to as the 5 Percent Override Rule.

In order to determine the persons who actually or constructively own 5% or more of our common shares, or 5% Shareholders, we are permitted to rely on those persons that are identified on Schedule 13G and Schedule 13D filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission as having a 5% or more beneficial interest in our common shares. In addition, an investment company identified on a Schedule 13G or Schedule 13D filing which is registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, will not be treated as a 5% Shareholder for such purposes.

For our 2023 taxable year, we do not believe that we were subject to the 5 Percent Override Rule and, therefore, we believe that we satisfied the Publicly-Traded Test. There are, however, factual circumstances beyond our control that could cause the Company to lose the benefit of the Section 883 exemption and thereby become subject to U.S. federal income tax on its U.S. source shipping income. There is, therefore, a risk that the Company could no longer qualify for exemption under Section 883 for a particular taxable year if 5% Shareholders were to own 50% or more of the outstanding common shares of the Company on more than half the days during the taxable year. Due to the factual nature of the issues involved, there can be no assurances as to the tax-exempt status of the Company or any of its subsidiaries.

In the event the 5 Percent Override Rule is triggered, the 5 Percent Override Rule will nevertheless not apply if we can establish that among the closely-held group of 5% Shareholders, there are sufficient 5% Shareholders that are considered to be “qualified shareholders” for purposes of Section 883 to preclude non-qualified 5% Shareholders in the closely-held group from owning 50% or more of our common shares for more than half the number of days during the taxable year.

In any year that the 5 Percent Override Rule is triggered with respect to us, we are eligible for the exemption from tax under Section 883 only if we can nevertheless satisfy the Publicly-Traded Test (which requires, among other things, showing that the exception to the 5 Percent Override Rule applies) or if we can satisfy the 50% Ownership Test. In either case, certain substantiation and reporting requirements regarding the identity of our shareholders must be satisfied in order to qualify for the Section 883 exemption. These requirements are onerous and there is no assurance that we would be able to satisfy them.

Taxation in Absence of the Section 883 Exemption To the extent the benefits of Section 883 are unavailable with respect to any item of U.S. source income, the Company’s U.S. source shipping income, to the extent not considered to be “effectively connected” with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business, as described below, would be subject to a 4% tax imposed by Section 887 of the Code on a gross basis, without the benefit of deductions, which we refer to as the “4% gross basis tax regime”. Since, under the sourcing rules described above, no more than 50% of the Company’s shipping income would be treated as being derived from U.S. sources, the maximum effective rate of U.S. federal income tax on the Company’s shipping income, to the extent not considered to be “effectively connected” with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business, would never exceed 2% under the 4% gross basis tax regime.

To the extent the benefits of the Section 883 exemption are unavailable and our U.S. source shipping income is considered to be “effectively connected” with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business, as described below, any such “effectively connected” U.S. source shipping income, net of applicable deductions, would be subject to the U.S. federal corporate income tax imposed at rate of 21%. In addition, we may be subject to the 30% “branch profits” tax on earnings “effectively connected” with the conduct of such U.S. trade or business, as determined after allowance for certain adjustments, and on certain interest paid or deemed paid attributable to the conduct of such U.S. trade or business. Our U.S. source shipping income would be considered “effectively connected” with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business only if:

we have, or are considered to have, a fixed place of business in the United States involved in the earning of U.S. source shipping income; and
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substantially all of our U.S. source shipping income were attributable to regularly scheduled transportation, such as the operation of a vessel that followed a published schedule with repeated sailings at regular intervals between the same points for voyages that begin or end in the United States, or, in the case of income from the chartering of a vessel, were attributable to a fixed place of business in the United States.

We do not have, nor will we permit circumstances that would result in having, any vessel sailing to or from the United States on a regularly scheduled basis. Based on the foregoing and on the expected mode of our shipping operations and other activities, we believe that none of our U.S. source shipping income is or will be “effectively connected” with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business.

Gain on Sale of Vessels

Regardless of whether we qualify for exemption under Section 883, we will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxation with respect to gain realized on a sale of a vessel, provided the sale is considered to occur outside of the United States under U.S. federal income tax principles. In general, a sale of a vessel will be considered to occur outside of the United States for this purpose if title to the vessel, and risk of loss with respect to the vessel, pass to the buyer outside of the United States. It is expected that any sale of a vessel by us will be considered to occur outside of the United States.

Taxation of U.S. Holders

The following is a discussion of the material U.S. federal income tax considerations relevant to an investment decision by a U.S. Holder, as defined below, with respect to our common shares. This discussion does not purport to deal with the tax consequences of owning our common shares to all categories of investors, some of which may be subject to special rules. You are encouraged to consult your own tax advisors concerning the overall tax consequences arising in your own particular situation under U.S. federal, state, local or foreign law of the ownership of our common shares.

As used herein, the term U.S. Holder means a beneficial owner of our common shares that (i) is a U.S. citizen or resident, a U.S. corporation or other U.S. entity taxable as a corporation, an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source, or a trust if (a) a court within the United States is able to exercise primary jurisdiction over the administration of the trust and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (b) the trust has in effect a valid election to be treated as a United States person for U.S. federal income tax purposes, (ii) owns our common shares as a capital asset, generally, for investment purposes, and (iii) owns less than 10% of our common shares for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

If a partnership holds our common shares, the tax treatment of a partner will generally depend upon the status of the partner and upon the activities of the partnership. If you are a partner in a partnership holding our common shares, you are encouraged to consult your own tax advisor regarding this issue.

Distributions

Subject to the discussion below of passive foreign investment companies, or PFICs, any distributions made by us with respect to our common shares to a U.S. Holder will generally constitute dividends, which may be taxable as ordinary income or “qualified dividend income” as described in more detail below, to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. Distributions in excess of our earnings and profits will be treated first as a nontaxable return of capital to the extent of the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in his common shares on a dollar-for-dollar basis and thereafter as capital gain. Because we are not a U.S. corporation, U.S. Holders that are corporations will generally not be entitled to claim a dividends-received deduction with respect to any distributions they receive from us.

Dividends paid on our common shares to a U.S. Holder who is an individual, trust or estate, which we refer to as a U.S. Individual Holder, will generally be treated as “qualified dividend income” that is taxable to such U.S. Individual Holders at preferential tax rates provided that (1) the common shares are readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States (such as the Nasdaq Capital Market, on which our common shares are listed); (2) we are not a PFIC for the taxable year during which the dividend is paid or the immediately preceding taxable year (see discussion below); and (3) the U.S. Individual Holder has owned the common shares for more than 60 days in the 121-day period beginning 60 days before the date on which the common shares become ex-dividend.

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There is no assurance that any dividends paid on our common shares will be eligible for these preferential rates in the hands of a U.S. Individual Holder. Any dividends paid by the Company which are not eligible for these preferential rates will be taxed as ordinary income to a U.S. Individual Holder.

Sale, Exchange or other Disposition of Common Shares

Assuming we do not constitute a PFIC for any taxable year, a U.S. Holder generally will recognize taxable gain or loss upon a sale, exchange or other disposition of our common shares in an amount equal to the difference between the amount realized by the U.S. Holder from such sale, exchange or other disposition and the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in such common shares. Such gain or loss will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder’s holding period in the common shares is greater than one year at the time of the sale, exchange or other disposition. Otherwise, it will be treated as short-term capital gain or loss. A U.S. Holder’s ability to deduct capital losses is subject to certain limitations.

Passive Foreign Investment Company Status and Significant Tax Consequences

Special U.S. federal income tax rules apply to a U.S. Holder that holds stock in a foreign corporation classified as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, we will be treated as a PFIC with respect to a U.S. Holder if, for any taxable year in which such holder held our common shares, either at least 75% of our gross income for such taxable year consists of “passive income” (e.g., dividends, interest, capital gains and rents derived other than in the active conduct of a rental business), or at least 50% of the average value of the assets held by the corporation during such taxable year produce, or are held for the production of, “passive income”. For purposes of determining whether we are a PFIC, we will be treated as earning and owning our proportionate share of the income and assets, respectively, of any of our subsidiary corporations in which we own at least 25% of the value of the subsidiary’s stock. Income earned, or deemed earned, by us in connection with the performance of services would not constitute passive income. By contrast, rental income would generally constitute “passive income” unless we were treated under specific rules as deriving our rental income in the active conduct of a trade or business.

Although there is no legal authority directly on point, we believe that, for purposes of determining whether we are a PFIC, the gross income we derive or are deemed to derive from the time chartering activities of our wholly-owned subsidiaries more likely than not constitutes services income, rather than rental income. Correspondingly, we believe that such income does not constitute “passive income”, and the assets that we or our wholly-owned subsidiaries own and operate in connection with the production of such income, in particular, the vessels, do not constitute passive assets for purposes of determining whether we are a PFIC. We believe there is substantial legal authority supporting our position consisting of case law and Internal Revenue Service, or IRS, pronouncements concerning the characterization of income derived from time charters and voyage charters as services income for other tax purposes. This position is principally based upon the positions that our time charter income will constitute services income, rather than rental income for other tax purposes. Based on our current and anticipated chartering activities, we do not believe that we will be treated as a PFIC for the current or future taxable years, although no assurance can be given in this regard. We intend to take the position that we were not treated as a PFIC for our 2023 taxable year.

We note that there is no direct legal authority under the PFIC rules addressing our current and proposed method of operation. In addition, although we intend to conduct our affairs in a manner to avoid being classified as a PFIC with respect to any taxable year, we cannot assure you that the nature of our operations will not change in the future. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the IRS or a court of law will accept our position, and there is a significant risk that the IRS or a court of law could determine that we are a PFIC.

As discussed more fully below, if we were to be treated as a PFIC for any taxable year, a U.S. Holder would be subject to different taxation rules depending on whether the U.S. Holder makes an election to treat us as a “Qualified Electing Fund”, which election we refer to as a QEF Election. As an alternative to making a QEF election, a U.S. Holder should be able to make a “mark-to-market” election with respect to our common shares, as discussed below, and which election we refer to as a Mark-to-Market Election.

Taxation of U.S. Holders Making a Timely QEF Election

If we were to be treated as a PFIC for any taxable year and a U.S. Holder makes a timely QEF Election, which U.S. Holder we refer to as an Electing Holder, the Electing Holder must report each year for U.S. federal income tax purposes its pro rata share of our ordinary earnings and our net capital gain, if any, for our taxable year that ends with or within the taxable year of the Electing Holder, regardless of whether or not distributions were received from us by the Electing Holder. The Electing Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the common shares will be increased to reflect taxed but undistributed earnings and profits. Distributions of earnings and profits that had been previously taxed will result in a corresponding reduction in the adjusted tax basis in the common shares and will not be taxed again once distributed. A U.S. Holder would make a QEF Election with respect to any
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taxable year that we are a PFIC by filing one copy of IRS Form 8621 with its U.S. federal income tax return. To make a QEF Election, a U.S. Holder must receive annually certain tax information from us. There can be no assurances that we will be able to provide such information annually. An Electing Holder would generally recognize capital gain or loss on the sale, exchange or other disposition of our common shares.

Taxation of U.S. Holders Making a Mark-to-Market Election

Alternatively, if we were to be treated as a PFIC for any taxable year and, as we anticipate, our common shares are treated as “marketable stock”, a U.S. Holder would be permitted to make a Mark-to-Market Election with respect to our common shares, provided the U.S. Holder completes and files IRS Form 8621 in accordance with the relevant instructions and related Treasury Regulations. If that election is made, the U.S. Holder generally would include as ordinary income in each taxable year the excess, if any, of the fair market value of the common shares at the end of the taxable year over such holder’s adjusted tax basis in the common shares. The U.S. Holder would also be permitted an ordinary loss in respect of the excess, if any, of the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the common shares over its fair market value at the end of the taxable year, but only to the extent of the net amount previously included in income as a result of the Mark-to-Market Election. A U.S. Holder’s tax basis in its common shares would be adjusted to reflect any such income or loss amount. Gain realized on the sale, exchange or other disposition of our common shares would be treated as ordinary income, and any loss realized on the sale, exchange or other disposition of the common shares would be treated as ordinary loss to the extent that such loss does not exceed the net mark-to-market gains previously included in income by the U.S. Holder.

Taxation of U.S. Holders Not Making a Timely QEF or Mark-to-Market Election

Finally, if we were to be treated as a PFIC for any taxable year, a U.S. Holder who does not make either a QEF Election or a Mark-to-Market Election for that year, whom we refer to as a Non-Electing Holder, would be subject to special rules with respect to (1) any excess distribution (i.e., the portion of any distributions received by the Non-Electing Holder on our common shares in a taxable year in excess of 125% of the average annual distributions received by the Non-Electing Holder in the three preceding taxable years, or, if shorter, the Non-Electing Holder’s holding period for the common shares), and (2) any gain realized on the sale, exchange or other disposition of our common shares. Under these special rules:

the excess distribution or gain would be allocated ratably over the Non-Electing Holders’ aggregate holding period for the common shares;

the amount allocated to the current taxable year and any taxable years before the Company became a PFIC would be taxed as ordinary income; and

the amount allocated to each of the other taxable years would be subject to tax at the highest rate of tax in effect for the applicable class of taxpayer for that year, and an interest charge for the deemed deferral benefit would be imposed with respect to the resulting tax attributable to each such other taxable year.

These penalties would not apply to a pension or profit-sharing trust or other tax-exempt organization that did not borrow funds or otherwise utilize leverage in connection with its acquisition of our common shares. If we were a PFIC, and a Non-Electing Holder who is an individual died while owning our common shares, such holder’s successor generally would not receive a step-up in tax basis with respect to such common shares.

Taxation of Non-U.S. Holders

A beneficial owner of common shares (other than a partnership) that is not a U.S. Holder is referred to herein as a Non-U.S. Holder.

Dividends on Common Shares

Non-U.S. Holders generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax on dividends received from us with respect to our common shares, unless that dividend is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States. If the Non-U.S. Holder is entitled to the benefits of a U.S. income tax treaty with respect to those dividends, that income is taxable, or taxable at the full rate, only if it is attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the Non-U.S. Holder in the United States.

Sale, Exchange or Other Disposition of Common Shares

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Non-U.S. Holders generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income or withholding tax on any gain realized upon the sale, exchange or other disposition of our common shares, unless:

the gain is effectively connected with the Non-U.S. Holder’s conduct of a trade or business in the United States (and, if the Non-U.S. Holder is entitled to the benefits of an income tax treaty with respect to that gain, that gain is attributable to a permanent establishment maintained by the Non-U.S. Holder in the United States); or

the Non-U.S. Holder is an individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more during the taxable year of disposition and other conditions are met.

If the Non-U.S. Holder is engaged in a U.S. trade or business for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the income from the common shares, including dividends and the gain from the sale, exchange or other disposition of the common shares, that is effectively connected with the conduct of that trade or business will generally be subject to regular U.S. federal income tax in the same manner as discussed in the previous section relating to the taxation of U.S. Holders. In addition, if you are a corporate Non-U.S. Holder, your earnings and profits that are attributable to the effectively connected income, subject to certain adjustments, may be subject to an additional branch profits tax at a rate of 30%, or at a lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty.

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting

In general, dividend payments, or other taxable distributions, made within the United States to you will be subject to information reporting requirements. Such payments will also be subject to “backup withholding” if you are a non-corporate U.S. Holder and you:

fail to provide an accurate taxpayer identification number;
are notified by the IRS that you have failed to report all interest or dividends required to be shown on your
U.S. federal income tax returns; or
in certain circumstances, fail to comply with applicable certification requirements.
Non-U.S. Holders may be required to establish their exemption from information reporting and backup
withholding by certifying their status on an applicable IRS Form W-8.

If you are a Non-U.S. Holder and you sell your common shares to or through a U.S. office of a broker, the payment of the proceeds is subject to both U.S. backup withholding and information reporting unless you certify that you are a non-U.S. person, under penalties of perjury, or otherwise establish an exemption. If you sell your common shares through a non-U.S. office of a non-U.S. broker and the sales proceeds are paid to you outside the United States, then information reporting and backup withholding generally will not apply to that payment. However, U.S. information reporting, but not backup withholding, will apply to a payment of sales proceeds, including a payment made to you outside the United States, if you sell your common shares through a non-U.S. office of a broker that is a U.S. person or has some other contacts with the United States. Such information reporting requirements will not apply, however, if the broker has documentary evidence that you are a non-U.S. person and certain other conditions are met, or you otherwise establish an exemption.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Rather, you generally may obtain a refund of any amounts withheld under backup withholding rules that exceed your income tax liability by filing a refund claim with the IRS.

Other U.S. Information Reporting Obligations

Individuals who are U.S. Holders (and to the extent specified in applicable Treasury regulations, certain individuals who are Non-U.S. Holders and certain U.S. entities) who hold “specified foreign financial assets” (as defined in Section 6038D of the Code) are required to file IRS Form 8938 with information relating to the asset for each taxable year in which the aggregate value of all such assets exceeds $75,000 at any time during the taxable year or $50,000 on the last day of the taxable year (or such higher dollar amount as prescribed by applicable Treasury regulations). Specified foreign financial assets would include, among other assets, our common shares, unless the shares are held through an account maintained with a U.S. financial institution. Substantial penalties apply to any failure to timely file IRS Form 8938, unless the failure is shown to be due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect. Additionally, in the event an individual U.S. Holder (and to the extent specified in applicable Treasury regulations, an individual Non-U.S. Holder or a U.S. entity) that is required to file IRS Form 8938 does not file such form, the statute of limitations on the assessment and collection of U.S. federal income taxes of such holder for the related tax year may not close until three years after the date that the required information is filed. U.S. Holders (including U.S. entities) and Non-U.S. Holders are encouraged to consult their own tax advisors regarding their reporting obligations under this legislation.
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Changes in Global Tax Laws

Long-standing international tax initiatives that determine each country’s jurisdiction to tax cross-border international trade and profits are evolving as a result of, among other things, initiatives such as the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directives, as well as the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting reporting requirements, mandated and/or recommended by the EU, G8, G20 and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, including the imposition of a minimum global effective tax rate for multinational businesses regardless of the jurisdiction of operation and where profits are generated (Pillar Two). As these and other tax laws and related regulations change (including changes in the interpretation, approach and guidance of tax authorities), our financial results could be materially impacted. Given the unpredictability of these possible changes and their potential interdependency, it is difficult to assess whether the overall effect of such potential tax changes would be cumulatively positive or negative for our earnings and cash flow, but such changes could adversely affect our financial results.

On December 12, 2022, the European Union member states agreed to implement the OECD’s Pillar Two global corporate minimum tax rate of 15% on companies with revenues of at least €750 million effective from 2024. Various countries have either adopted implementing legislation or are in the process of drafting such legislation. Any new tax law in a jurisdiction where we conduct business or pay tax could have a negative effect on our company.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

An investment in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should consider carefully the material risks described below, which we believe represent the material risks related to our business and our securities, together with the other information contained in this Form 10-K, before making a decision to invest in our securities. This Form 10-K also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. In connection with such forward looking statements, you should also carefully review the cautionary statements referred to under “Special Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements.” Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements as a result of specific factors, including the risks described below.

Summary of Risk Factors

The cyclical and volatile nature of the seaborne drybulk transportation industry may lead to significant decreases in charter and freight rates, which may have an adverse effect on our revenues, earnings and profitability and our ability to comply with our loan covenants.
Further increases in interest rates could adversely affect our cash flow and financial condition.
Any change in drybulk carrier capacity in the future may result in lower charter and freight rates which, in turn, will adversely affect our profitability.
The continuing conflict in Ukraine and the Middle East and resulting sanctions by the United States, European Union and other countries have adversely impact global economic conditions and contribute to inflation and volatility in commodity prices.
The market values of our owned vessels may decrease, which could limit the amount of funds that we can borrow or cause us to breach certain covenants in our credit facilities and we may incur impairment or a loss if we sell vessels following a decline in their market value.
The state of the global financial markets and economic conditions may adversely impact our ability to obtain additional financing on acceptable terms and otherwise negatively impact our business.
Changes in the economic and political environment in China and policies adopted by the government to regulate its economy may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our financial results and operations may be adversely affected by the continuing impacts of the outbreak of COVID-19, and other epidemic and pandemic diseases and continuing governmental responses in certain jurisdictions, including China.
Our revenues are subject to seasonal fluctuations, which could affect our operating results and our ability to pay dividends, if any, in the future.
If our vessels call on ports located in countries or territories or carry cargo that is the subject of sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S., the European Union, the United Nations, or other governmental authorities, it could lead to monetary fines or penalties and may adversely affect our reputation and the market for our securities.
We are subject to complex laws and regulations, including environmental regulations that can adversely affect the cost, manner or feasibility of doing business.
Changes in fuel prices, that may result from increased oil prices, may adversely affect our profitability.
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In the highly competitive international shipping industry, we may not be able to compete successfully for chartered-in vessels or for vessel employment and, as a result, we may be unable to charter-in vessels at reasonable rates or employ our vessels profitably.
Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders and other market participants with respect to our Environmental, Social and Governance (“ESG”) policies may impose additional costs on us or expose us to additional risks.
We depend upon a few significant customers for a large part of our revenues and cash flow, and the loss of one or more of these customers could adversely affect our financial performance.
We are subject to certain risks with counterparties on contracts and the failure of such counterparties to meet their obligations could cause us to suffer losses or otherwise adversely affect our business and ability to comply with covenants in our loan agreements, which could impose operating and financial restrictions on us.
Obligations associated with being a public company require significant company resources and management attention, and we incur increased costs as a result of being a public company.
Because we purchase and operate secondhand vessels, we may be exposed to increased operating costs which could adversely affect our earnings and, as our fleet ages, the risks associated with older vessels could adversely affect our ability to obtain profitable charters.
Our ability to obtain additional debt financing, or to refinance existing indebtedness, may be dependent on the performance and length of our charter contracts and the creditworthiness of our contract counterparties.
We depend on our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer and other key employees, and the loss of their services would have a material adverse effect on our business, results and financial condition.
Exposure to currency exchange rate fluctuations will result in fluctuations in our cash flows and operating results.
United States tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company,” which could have adverse United States federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders.
We rely on our information systems to conduct our business, and failure to protect these systems against security breaches could adversely affect our business and results of operations, including on our vessels. Additionally, if these systems fail or become unavailable for any significant period of time, our business could be harmed.
Volatility in the broader securities markets and trading volume of our common shares could adversely impact the trading price of our common shares.
Because we are a foreign corporation, you may not have the same rights that a shareholder in a U.S. corporation may have, and it may not be possible for our investors to enforce U.S. judgments against us.

Risks Relating to our Industry

The seaborne drybulk transportation industry is cyclical and volatile, and this may lead to reductions in our charter hire rates, vessel values and results of operations.

The international seaborne drybulk transportation industry is cyclical and volatile, and a lengthy downturn in the drybulk charter market could severely affect the entire drybulk shipping industry. The degree of charter and freight rate volatility for vessels has varied widely and is due to various factors, including changing crude oil prices, economic activity in the largest economies, including China, a strong U.S. Dollar and the associated weakening of other world currencies and the supply of available tonnage. A worsening of current global economic conditions may cause dry bulk charter rates to decline and thereby adversely affect our ability to charter or re-charter our vessels and any renewal or replacement charters that we enter into, may not be sufficient to allow us to operate our vessels profitably. In addition, the conflict in Ukraine has continued disrupting energy production grain exports and trade patterns, including shipping in the Black Sea and elsewhere, and its impact on such markets remains uncertain. Fluctuations in charter hire rates result from changes in the supply of and demand for vessel capacity and changes in the supply of and demand for energy resources, commodities, semi-finished and finished consumer and industrial products internationally carried at sea. If we enter into a charter when charter hire rates are low, our revenues and earnings will be adversely affected. In addition, a decline in charter hire rates is likely to cause the market value of our vessels to decline. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully charter our vessels in the future or renew our existing charters at rates sufficient to allow us to operate our business profitably, meet our obligations or pay dividends to our shareholders. The factors affecting the supply and demand for vessels are outside of our control, and the nature, timing and degree of changes in industry conditions are unpredictable.

Although our operating fleet is primarily chartered-in on a short-term basis and lower charter rates result in lower charter hire costs, changes in charter and freight rates in the drybulk market affect vessel values and earnings on our owned fleet, and may affect our cash flows, liquidity and ability to comply with the financial covenants in our loan agreements. An extended downturn in the drybulk carrier market may have adverse consequences. The value of our common shares could be substantially reduced under these circumstances.

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We employ our vessels under a mix of voyage charters and time charters and COA’s which typically extend for varying lengths of time, from one month to ten years. As a result, we are exposed to changes in market rates for drybulk carriers and such changes may affect our earnings and the value of our owned drybulk carriers at any given time. A COA relates to the carriage of multiple cargoes over the same route and enables the COA holder to nominate different vessels to perform individual voyages. We may not be able to successfully employ our vessels in the future or renew existing contracts at rates sufficient to allow us to meet our obligations. We are also exposed to volatility in the market rates we pay to charter-in vessels. Fluctuations in charter and freight rates result from changes in the supply of and demand for vessel capacity and changes in the demand for seaborne carriage of commodities. Because the factors affecting the supply of and demand for vessels are outside of our control and are unpredictable, the nature, timing, direction and degree of changes in industry conditions are also unpredictable.

Factors that influence demand for vessel capacity include:

supply of and demand for energy resources, commodities, semi-finished and finished consumer and industrial products;
changes in the exploration or production of energy resources, commodities, semi-finished and finished consumer and industrial products;
the location of regional and global exploration, production and manufacturing facilities;
the location of consuming regions for energy resources, commodities, semi-finished and finished consumer and industrial products;
the globalization of production and manufacturing;
global and regional economic and political conditions, including armed conflicts, terrorist activities, sanctions, embargoes and strikes;
natural disasters and other disruptions in international trade;
disruptions and developments in international trade;
changes in seaborne and other transportation patterns, including the distance cargo is transported by sea;
environmental and other regulatory developments;
currency exchange rates;
international sanctions, embargoes, import and export restrictions, nationalizations, piracy, terrorist attacks and armed conflicts, including the ongoing Ukrainian-Russian and Israeli-Hamas conflicts;
economic slowdowns caused by public health pandemics;
bunker (fuel) prices; and
weather.

Demand for our vessels is dependent upon economic growth in the world’s economies, seasonal and regional changes in demand, changes in the capacity of the global drybulk fleet and the sources and supply of drybulk cargo transported by sea. Although the current newbuilding orderbook (as a percentage of the on-the-water fleet) is at a historically low level, a pickup in new ordering could increase global capacity and there can be no assurance that economic growth will continue in order to absorb this higher supply. Adverse economic, political, social or other developments could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results.

The factors that influence the supply of vessel capacity include:

the number and size of newbuilding orders and deliveries;
port and canal congestion, including as the result of restrictions or reductions in the capacity of the Panama and Suez Canals due to environmental or geopolitical factors,
bunker prices;
the scrapping rate of older vessels;
vessel casualties;
speed of vessels being operated;
the number of vessels that are out of service, namely those that are laid-up, dry-docked, awaiting repairs or otherwise not available for hire;
availability of financing for new vessels;
changes in national or international regulations that may effectively cause reductions in the carrying capacity of vessels or early obsolescence of tonnage; and
changes in environmental and other regulations that may limit the useful lives of vessels or requires technological developments not yet perfected for commercialization.

Furthermore, the conflict in Ukraine combined with inflationary pressures and/or supply chain disruptions across most major economies have negatively impacted certain of the countries in which we operate in and may lead to a global economic
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slowdown, which might in turn adversely affect demand for our vessels. In particular, the conflict in Ukraine and related sanctions measures imposed against Russia has continued to disrupt energy production and trade patterns, including shipping in the Black Sea and elsewhere, and has impacted the price of certain dry bulk goods, such as grain, as well as energy and fuel prices. Notably, various jurisdictions have imposed sanctions against Russia directly targeting the maritime transport of goods originating from Russia, such as of oil products and agricultural commodities such as potash. Such measures, and the response of targeted jurisdictions to them, have disrupted trade patterns of certain of the goods which we transport and have correspondingly impacted charter rates for the transport of such goods.

The ongoing conflict between Israel and Hamas, which commenced in October 2023, has resulted in a surge in acts of piracy and assaults on vessels in the Red Sea. According to reports from the U.S. military, three commercial vessels have been targeted in international waters in the southern Red Sea. Yemen's Houthi group has claimed responsibility for drone and missile strikes on two vessels near the Cape of Good Hope in southern Africa. These incidents have significantly extended the duration and expenses of voyages from east to west. While we cannot currently determine the immediate consequences of this conflict, the continued occurrence of attacks or piracy attempts, as well as the response from the United States, Great Britain, and other governments, or the continued diversion of vessels from the Suez Canal, may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and operational outcomes.

In addition to the prevailing and anticipated charter and freight rates, factors that affect the rate of newbuilding, scrapping and laying-up include newbuilding prices, secondhand vessel values in relation to scrap prices, costs of bunker fuels and other operating costs, costs associated with classification society surveys, normal maintenance and insurance coverage, the efficiency and age profile of the existing drybulk fleet in the market and government and industry regulation of maritime transportation practices, particularly environmental protection laws and regulations. These factors influencing the supply of and demand for shipping capacity are outside of our control, and we may not be able to correctly assess the nature, timing and degree of changes in industry conditions.

We anticipate that the future demand for our drybulk carriers and our logistics services will be dependent upon economic growth in world economies and its associated industrial production, seasonal and regional changes in demand, changes in the capacity of the global drybulk carrier fleet and the sources and supply of drybulk cargoes to be transported by sea.

Global economic conditions may continue to negatively impact the drybulk shipping industry.

Major market disruptions and adverse changes in market conditions and regulatory climate in China, the United States, the European Union and worldwide may adversely affect our business or impair our ability to borrow amounts under credit facilities or any future financial arrangements.

Chinese dry bulk imports have accounted for the majority of global dry bulk transportation growth annually over the last decade. Accordingly, our financial condition and results of operations, as well as our future prospects, would likely be hindered by an economic downturn in any of these countries or geographic regions. In recent years China and India have been among the world’s fastest growing economies in terms of gross domestic product, and any economic slowdown in the Asia Pacific region particularly in China or India may adversely affect demand for seaborne transportation of our products and our results of operations. Moreover, any deterioration in the economy of the United States or the European Union, may further adversely affect economic growth in Asia.

Economic growth is uncertain but any slowdown, including due to supply-chain disruption, high energy process and the surge in inflation and related actions by central banks and geopolitical conditions, could result in a significant risk of recession in many parts of the world in the near term. In particular, an adverse change in economic conditions affecting China, Japan, India or Southeast Asia generally could have a negative effect on the drybulk market.

Variable rate indebtedness could subject us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.

Our credit facilities use variable interest rates and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase and we are unable to effectively hedge our interest rate risk, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness would increase even if the amount borrowed remained the same, and our profitability and cash available for servicing our indebtedness would decrease.

We may be adversely affected by developments in the SOFR market, changes in the methods by which SOFR is determined or the use of alternative reference rates.

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In 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority announced that it intended to phase out LIBOR, and in 2021, it announced that all LIBOR settings will either cease to be provided by any administrator or no longer be representative immediately after December 31, 2021, in the case of one-week and two-month U.S. Dollar settings, and immediately after June 30, 2023, in the case of the remaining U.S. Dollar settings. The Federal Reserve also has advised banks to cease entering into new contracts that use U.S. Dollar LIBOR as a reference rate. The Alternative Refinance Rate Committee, a committee convened by the Federal Reserve that includes major market participants, has identified SOFR, an index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements, backed by U.S. Treasury securities, as its preferred alternative rate for LIBOR in the U.S.

Although SOFR appears to be the preferred replacement rate for U.S. Dollar LIBOR and has been adopted as the benchmark interest rate for our debt arrangements, it is unclear if other benchmarks may emerge. The consequences of these developments cannot be entirely predicted, and there can be no assurance that they will not result in financial market disruptions, significant increases in benchmark interest rates, substantially higher financing costs or a shortage of available debt financing, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations, and our ability to pay dividends.

Our business is affected by macroeconomic conditions, including rising inflation, interest rates, market volatility, economic uncertainty, and supply chain constraints.

Various macroeconomic factors could adversely affect our business and the results of our operations and financial condition, including changes in inflation, interest rates and overall economic conditions and uncertainties such as those resulting from the current and future conditions in the global financial markets. For instance, inflation has negatively impacted us by increasing our labor costs, through higher wages and higher interest rates, and operating costs. Supply chain constraints have led to higher inflation, which if sustained could have a negative impact on our operations. If inflation or interest rates were to significantly increase, our business operations may be negatively affected. Interest rates, the liquidity of the credit markets and the volatility of the capital markets could also affect the operation of our business and our ability to raise capital on favorable terms, or at all, in order to fund our operations.

The invasion of Ukraine by Russia and resulting sanctions by the United States, European Union and other countries have contributed to inflation, market disruptions and increased volatility in commodity prices in the United States and a slowdown in global economic growth.

On February 24, 2022, a full-scale military invasion of Ukraine by Russian troops was reported. In response to the attacks on Ukraine, sanctions and other penalties have been levied by the United States, European Union, and other countries and additional sanctions and penalties have been proposed. The invasion by Russia and resulting sanctions have had a broad range of adverse impacts on global business and financial markets some of which have had and may continue to have adverse impacts on our business. These include increased inflation, significant market disruptions and increased volatility in commodity prices such as corn, oil and natural gas. Although the duration and extent of the ongoing military conflict is highly unpredictable, and the magnitude of the potential economic impact is currently unknown, Russian military actions and resulting sanctions could have a negative effect on our financial condition and operating results.

The ongoing conflict between Russia in Ukraine has developed into a war, posing an increasing risk for global economic growth. Major economic sanctions against Russia are having a considerable impact on oil and gas prices, given the dependence of the EU on oil and gas exports out of Russia combined with limited spare capacity of such commodities globally. Energy prices have increased significantly, leading to major inflationary pressures in the major developed countries that rely heavily on oil and gas exports out of Russia. In addition, the combined Russia/Ukraine region account for approximately one quarter of global grain production, one of the main cargoes transported by dry bulk vessels, while coal and iron ore exports out of the region have also been reduced. The above factors can have a material negative impact on demand for dry bulk transportation, while slower economic growth could also negatively affect demand for dry bulk commodities in the rest of the world, leading to lower dry bulk freight rates.

The recent conflict between Russia and Ukraine is having a profound impact on global commodities prices including grain and coal, two of the most important commodities for dry bulk shipping. Given the importance of the region in export volumes for both grains and coal, a prolonged stoppage could lead to significantly lower freight rates and thus a decline in freight futures prices. Although coal supplies could potentially be sourced from elsewhere partly mitigating the negative impact of the lost volumes, global grain production capacity is limited, and thus the impact of the lost volumes could not be easily mitigated. In addition, the recent geopolitical turmoil has led to an increase in government protectionism when it comes to commodities, and if such a trend continues, it could lead to lower bulk commodities trading globally over the long term. The impact of such a scenario on dry bulk shipping will be negative, leading to lower spot rates and as a result lower freight futures prices.

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Any change in drybulk carrier capacity in the future may result in lower charter and freight rates which, in turn, will adversely affect our profitability.

The global drybulk fleet has increased significantly over the past 10 years as a result of the large number of newbuilding orders placed throughout this period. Scrapping of older ships has helped curtail some of this new supply growth, but it has not been enough to materially offset the large net growth in the fleet. Supply growth momentum has slowed significantly in recent years as less and less newbuilding orders have been placed.

The market values of our owned vessels may decrease, which could limit the amount of funds that we can borrow or cause us to breach certain covenants in our credit facilities and we may incur impairment or a loss if we sell vessels following a decline in their market value.

The fair market values of our owned dry bulk vessels have generally experienced high volatility, and you should expect the market values of our vessels to fluctuate depending on a number of factors including:

prevailing level of charter and freight rates;
general economic and market conditions affecting the shipping industry;
the balance between the supply of and demand for ships of a certain type;
competition from other shipping companies;
types and sizes of vessels;
supply of and demand for vessels;
the availability and cost of other modes of transportation;
cost of newbuildings;
shipyard capacity;
governmental and other regulations, including those that may limit the useful life of vessels;
the prevailing level of charter rates;
the need to upgrade secondhand and previously owned vessels as a result of environmental, safety, regulatory or charterer requirements; and
technological advances.

In addition, as vessels grow older, they generally decline in value. If the market values of our owned vessels decrease, we may not be in compliance with certain covenants in our credit facilities secured by mortgages on our drybulk vessels unless we provide additional collateral or prepay a portion of the loan to a level where we are again in compliance with our loan covenants. We were in compliance with all covenants for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.

If we sell one or more of our vessels at a time when vessel prices have fallen and before we have recorded an impairment adjustment to our consolidated financial statements, the sale proceeds may be less than the vessel’s carrying amount, resulting in a loss and a reduction in earnings. Conversely, if vessel values are elevated at a time when we wish to acquire additional vessels, the cost of acquisition may increase and this could adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition.

The carrying amounts of vessels held and used by us are reviewed for potential impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of a particular vessel may not be fully recoverable. In such instances, an impairment charge would be recognized if the estimate of the undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the vessel and its eventual disposition is less than the vessel’s carrying amount. This assessment is made at the asset group level which represents the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of other groups of assets. The asset groups are defined by vessel size and classification.

The current state of the global financial markets and economic conditions may adversely impact our ability to obtain additional financing on acceptable terms and otherwise negatively impact our business.

Global financial markets can be volatile and contraction in available credit may occur as economic conditions change. In recent years, operating businesses in the global economy have faced weakening demand for goods and services, deteriorating international liquidity conditions, and declining markets which lead to a general decline in the willingness of banks and other financial institutions to extend credit, particularly in the shipping industry. As the shipping industry is highly dependent on the availability of credit to finance and expand operations, it may be negatively affected by such changes and volatility.

Also, as a result of concerns about the stability of financial markets generally, and the solvency of counterparties specifically, the cost of obtaining money from the credit markets may increase if lenders increase interest rates, enact tighter lending
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standards, refuse to refinance existing debt at all or on terms similar to current debt, and reduce, or cease to provide funding to borrowers. Due to these factors, additional financing may not be available to the extent required, on acceptable terms or at all. If additional financing is not available when needed, or is available only on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to expand or meet our obligations as they come due or we may be unable to enhance our existing business, complete additional vessel acquisitions or otherwise take advantage of business opportunities as they arise.

Credit markets in the United States and Europe have in the past experienced significant contraction, deleveraging and reduced liquidity, and there is a risk that the U.S. federal government and state governments and European authorities continue to implement a broad variety of governmental action and/or new regulation of the financial markets. Global financial markets and economic conditions have been, and continue to be, disrupted and volatile. We face risks attendant to changes in economic environments, changes in interest rates, and instability in the banking and securities markets around the world, among other factors which may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition and may cause the price of our common shares to decline.

As of December 31, 2023, we had total outstanding indebtedness of $ 100.3 million under our various credit facilities and a further $167.7 million of finance lease obligations.

World events could affect our operations and financial results.

Past terrorist attacks, as well as the threat of future terrorist attacks around the world, continue to cause uncertainty in the world’s financial markets and may affect our business, operating results and financial condition. Continuing conflicts, instability and other recent developments in Ukraine, the Middle East and elsewhere, and the presence and continuing military actions of U.S. or other armed forces in these regions may lead to additional acts of terrorism and armed conflict around the world, which may contribute to further economic instability in the global financial markets. Any of these occurrences could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We face risks attendant to changes in economic and regulatory conditions around the world.

We face risks attendant to changes in economic environments, changes in interest rates, increasing inflation and the resulting monetary policies of central governments, instability in the banking and securities markets and trade regulations around the world, among other factors. Major market disruptions and adverse changes in market conditions and regulatory climate in China, the United States and worldwide may adversely affect our business or impair our ability to borrow amounts under any future financial arrangements.

Chinese dry bulk imports have accounted for the majority of global dry bulk transportation growth annually over the last decade. Accordingly, our financial condition and results of operations, as well as our future prospects, would likely be hindered by an economic downturn in any of these countries or geographic regions. In recent years China and India have been among the world’s fastest growing economies in terms of gross domestic product, and any economic slowdown in the Asia Pacific region particularly in China or India may adversely affect demand for seaborne transportation of our products and our results of operations. Moreover, any deterioration in the economy of the United States or the European Union, may further adversely affect economic growth in Asia.

Economic growth is uncertain but any slowdown, including due to supply-chain disruption, the recent surge in inflation and related actions by central banks and geopolitical conditions, with a significant risk of recession in many parts of the world in the near term. In particular, an adverse change in economic conditions affecting China, Japan, India or Southeast Asia generally could have a negative effect on the drybulk market. While global economic activity levels, led by China, generally stabilized towards the last quarter of 2023, the outlook for China and the rest of the world remains uncertain and dependent on inflation and present geopolitical instability, including the continuing trade tensions between the United States and China, which could derail recovery from impacts of COVID-19 and the ongoing conflicts between Ukraine and Russia and Israel and Hamas.

Changes in the economic and political environment in China and policies adopted by the government to regulate its economy may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Chinese economy differs from the economies of western countries in such respects as structure, government involvement, level of development, growth rate, capital reinvestment, allocation of resources, bank regulation, currency and monetary policy, rate of inflation and balance of payments position. Prior to 1978, the Chinese economy was a “planned economy”. Since 1978, increasing emphasis has been placed on the utilization of market forces in the development of the Chinese economy. Annual and five-year State Plans are adopted by the Chinese government in connection with the development of the economy. Although state-owned enterprises still account for a substantial portion of the Chinese industrial output, in general, the Chinese
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government is reducing the level of direct control that it exercises over the economy through State Plans and other measures. There is an increasing level of freedom and autonomy in areas such as allocation of resources, production, pricing and management and a gradual shift in emphasis to a “market economy” and enterprise reform. Limited price reforms were undertaken with the result that prices for certain commodities are principally determined by market forces. In addition, economic reforms may include reforms to the banking and credit sector and may produce a shift away from the export-driven growth model that has characterized the Chinese economy over the past few decades. Many of the reforms are unprecedented or experimental and may be subject to revision, change or abolition based upon the outcome of such experiments. The level of imports to and exports from China could be adversely affected by the failure to continue market reforms or changes to existing pro-export economic policies. The level of imports to and exports from China may also be adversely affected by changes in political, economic and social conditions (including a slowing of economic growth) or other relevant policies of the Chinese government, such as changes in laws, regulations or export and import restrictions, internal political instability, changes in currency policies, changes in trade policies and territorial or trade disputes. A decrease in the level of imports to and exports from China could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

In recent years, China and the United States have implemented certain increasingly protective trade measures with continuing trade tensions, including significant tariff increases, between these countries. Although the United States and China successfully reached an interim trade deal in January 2020 that de-escalated the trade tensions with both sides rolling back tariffs, the extent to which the trade deal will be successfully implemented is unpredictable. A decrease in the level of imports to and exports from China could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

In addition, in September 2020 President Xi Jinping committed his country to achieving carbon neutrality by 2060 at the UN General Assembly, despite that carbon emissions are currently a prominent part of China’s economic and industrial structure as it relies heavily on nonrenewable energy sources, generally lacks energy efficiency, and has a rapidly growing energy demand. Depending on how China attempts to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060, including through the reduction in the use of coal, an overall increase in the use of nonrenewable energy as part of the energy consumption mix and through other means and any reduction in the demand for coal and related products could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows and results of operations.

We may not be able to obtain financing on acceptable terms, which may negatively impact our planned growth.

As a result of concerns about the stability of financial markets generally and the solvency of counterparties specifically, the ability to obtain money from the credit markets has become more difficult as many lenders have increased interest rates, enacted tighter lending standards, refused to refinance existing debt at all or on terms similar to current debt and reduced, and in some cases ceased, to provide funding to borrowers. Due to these factors, we cannot be certain that financing will be available if needed and to the extent required, on acceptable terms. If financing is not available when needed, or is available only on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to enhance our existing business, complete additional vessel acquisitions or otherwise take advantage of business opportunities as they arise.

Acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels could adversely affect our business.

Acts of piracy have historically affected ocean-going vessels trading in regions of the world such as the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and in the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia and, in particular, the Gulf of Guinea region off Nigeria, which experienced increased incidents of piracy in recent years. Sea piracy incidents continue to occur, increasingly in the Sulu Sea and the Gulf of Guinea, with drybulk vessels particularly vulnerable to such attacks. In the past, political conflicts have also resulted in attacks on vessels, mining of waterways and other efforts to disrupt international shipping particularly in the Arabian Gulf region and most recently in the Black Sea in connection with the ongoing Ukraine-Russia conflict and in the Red Sea in connection with Israeli-Hamas conflict. Commercial vessels have been attacked in international waters in the southern Red Sea, according to statements by the U.S. military, with Yemen’s Houthi group claiming drone and missile attacks on two Israeli vessels in the area, in response to the ongoing conflict in the region. The perception that our vessels are a potential piracy or terrorist target could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Further, if these piracy attacks occur in regions in which our vessels are deployed that insurers characterize as “war risk” zones or by the Joint War Committee as “war and strikes” listed areas, premiums payable for such coverage could increase significantly and such insurance coverage may be more difficult to obtain, if available at all. In addition, crew costs, including costs that may be incurred to the extent we employ on-board security guards, could increase in such circumstances. We may not be adequately insured to cover losses from these incidents, which could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, detention hijacking as a result of an act of piracy against our vessels, or an increase in cost, or unavailability of insurance for our vessels, could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition, and
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this may result in loss of revenues, increased costs and decreased cash flows to our customers, which could impair their ability to make payments to us under our charters.

Our operations outside the United States expose us to global risks, such as political instability, terrorist attacks, international hostilities and global public health concerns, which may affect the seaborne transportation industry and adversely affect our business.

We conduct most of our operations outside of the United States, and our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition and ability to pay dividends, if any, in the future may be adversely affected by changing economic, political and government conditions in the countries and regions where our vessels are employed or registered. Moreover, we operate in a sector of the economy that is likely to be adversely impacted by the effects of political conflicts, including the current political instability in Ukraine, in the Middle East and the South China Sea region and other geographic countries and areas, geopolitical events such as terrorist or other attacks, and war (or threatened war) or international hostilities, such as those between the United States and Iran or North Korea. Terrorist attacks as well as the frequent incidents of terrorism in the Middle East, and the continuing response of the United States and others to these attacks, as well as the threat of future terrorist attacks around the world, continues to cause uncertainty in the world's financial markets and may affect our business, operating results and financial condition. As a result of the above, insurers have increased premiums and reduced or restricted coverage for losses caused by terrorist acts generally. These uncertainties could also adversely affect our ability to obtain additional financing on terms acceptable to us or at all. Any of these occurrences could have a material adverse impact on our operating results, revenues and costs.

Further, governments may turn and have turned to trade barriers to protect their domestic industries against foreign imports, thereby depressing shipping demand. In particular, beginning in February of 2022, President Biden and several European leaders also announced various economic sanctions against Russia in connection with the aforementioned conflicts in the Ukraine region, which have continued to expand over the past two years and which may adversely impact our business. The Russian Foreign Harmful Activities Sanctions program includes prohibitions on the import of certain Russian energy products into the United States, including crude oil, petroleum, petroleum fuels, oils, liquefied natural gas and coal, as well as prohibitions on all new investments in Russia by U.S. persons, among other restrictions. Furthermore, the United States has also prohibited a variety of specified services related to the maritime transport of Russian Federation origin crude oil and petroleum products, including trading/commodities brokering, financing, shipping, insurance (including reinsurance and protection and indemnity), flagging, and customs brokering. These prohibitions took effect on December 5, 2022 with respect to the maritime transport of crude oil and on February 5, 2023 with respect to the maritime transport of other petroleum products. An exception exists to permit such services when the price of the seaborne Russian oil does not exceed the relevant price cap; but implementation of this price exception relies on a recordkeeping and attestation process that allows each party in the supply chain of seaborne Russian oil to demonstrate or confirm that oil has been purchased at or below the price cap. Violations of the price cap policy or the risk that information, documentation, or attestations provided by parties in the supply chain are later determined to be false may pose additional risks adversely affecting our business. Our business could also be adversely impacted by trade tariffs, trade embargoes or other economic sanctions that limit trading activities by the United States or other countries against countries in the Middle East, Asia or elsewhere as a result of terrorist attacks, hostilities or diplomatic or political pressures.

In the past, political instability has also resulted in attacks on vessels, mining of waterways and other efforts to disrupt international shipping, particularly in the Arabian Gulf region. Acts of terrorism and piracy have also affected vessels trading in regions such as the South China Sea and the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia.

In addition, public health threats, such as COVID-19, influenza and other highly communicable diseases or viruses, outbreaks of which have from time to time occurred in various parts of the world in which we operate, including China, could adversely impact our operations, the timing of completion of scheduled dry-dockings and ballast water treatment system installation projects, as well as the operations of our customers.

Any of these occurrences could have a material adverse impact on our future performance, results of operations, cash flows and financial position.

Outbreaks of epidemic and pandemic diseases and governmental responses thereto could adversely affect our business, financial performance, and our results of operations, including the ability to obtain charters and financing.

Our operations are subject to risks related to pandemics, epidemics or other infectious disease outbreaks and government responses thereto. COVID-19, which was initially declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020
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and was declared no longer a global health emergency on May 5, 2023, negatively affected economic conditions, supply chains, labor markets, and demand for certain shipped goods.

The extent to which our business, results of operations and financial condition may be negatively affected by the COVID-19 pandemic or future pandemics, epidemics or other outbreaks of infectious diseases is highly uncertain and will depend on numerous evolving factors that we cannot predict, including, but not limited to (i) the duration and severity of the infectious disease outbreak; (ii) the imposition of restrictive measures to combat the outbreak and slow disease transmission; (iii) the introduction of financial support measures to reduce the impact of the outbreak on the economy; (iv) volatility in the demand for and price of oil and gas; (v) shortages or reductions in the supply of essential goods, services or labor; and (vi) fluctuations in general economic or financial conditions tied to the outbreak, such as a sharp increase in interest rates or reduction in the availability of credit. We cannot predict the effect that an outbreak of a new COVID-19 variant or strain, or any future infectious disease outbreak, pandemic or epidemic may have on our business, results of operations and financial condition, which could be material and adverse.

Our revenues are subject to seasonal fluctuations, which could affect our operating results and our ability to pay dividends, if any, in the future.

We operate our drybulk vessels in markets that have historically exhibited seasonal variations in demand and, as a result, in charter and freight rates. This seasonality may result in quarter-to-quarter volatility in our operating results, which could affect our ability to pay dividends, if any, in the future. The drybulk carrier market is typically stronger in the fall and winter months due to demand increases arising from agricultural harvest and increased coal demand in preparation for winter in the Northern Hemisphere. In addition, unpredictable weather patterns in these months tend to disrupt vessel scheduling and supplies of certain commodities. This seasonality may adversely affect our operating results and our ability to pay dividends, if any, in the future.

Risks associated with operating ocean-going vessels could affect our business and reputation, which could adversely affect our revenues and the price of our common shares.

The operation of ocean-going vessels carries inherent risks. These risks include the possibility of:

a marine accident or disaster;
environmental accidents and pollution;
cargo and property losses or damage;
damage to the environment, including through spillage of fuel, lubricants or other chemicals and substances used in operations;
business interruptions caused by mechanical failure, human error, war, terrorism, political action in various countries, labor strikes or adverse weather conditions; and
piracy.

These hazards may result in death or injury to persons, loss of revenues or property, the payment of ransoms, environmental damage, higher insurance rates, damage to our customer relationships and market disruptions, delay or rerouting, any of which may subject us to litigation. As a result, we could be exposed to substantial liabilities not recoverable under our insurances. Further, the involvement of our vessels in an environmental disaster may harm our reputation as a safe and reliable vessel owner and operator. Any of these circumstances or events could increase our costs or lower our revenues.

If our vessels suffer damage, they may need to be repaired at a drydocking facility. The costs of drydock repairs are unpredictable and may be substantial. We may have to pay drydocking costs that our insurance does not cover at all or in full. The loss of revenues while these vessels are being repaired and repositioned, as well as the actual cost of these repairs, may adversely affect our business and financial condition. In addition, space at drydocking facilities is sometimes limited and not all drydocking facilities are conveniently located. We may be unable to find space at a suitable drydocking facility or our vessels may be forced to travel to a drydocking facility that is not conveniently located relative to our vessels' positions. The loss of earnings while these vessels are forced to wait for space or to travel to more distant drydocking facilities may adversely affect our business and financial condition.

The operation of drybulk carriers entails certain unique operational risks.

The operation of certain ship types, such as drybulk carriers, has certain unique risks. With a drybulk carrier, the cargo itself and its interaction with the ship can be a risk factor. By their nature, drybulk cargoes are often heavy, dense, easily shifted, and react badly to water exposure. In addition, drybulk carriers are often subjected to battering treatment during unloading
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operations with grabs, jackhammers (to pry encrusted cargoes out of the hold), and small bulldozers. This treatment may cause damage to the vessel. Vessels damaged due to treatment during unloading procedures may be more susceptible to breach at sea. Furthermore, any defects or flaws in the design of a drybulk carrier may contribute to vessel damage. Hull breaches in drybulk carriers may lead to the flooding of the vessels holds. If a drybulk carrier suffers flooding in its holds, the bulk cargo may become so dense and waterlogged that its pressure may buckle the vessel's bulkheads, leading to the loss of the vessel. If we are unable to adequately maintain our vessels, we may be unable to prevent these events. Any of these circumstances or events could negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to pay dividends, if any, in the future. In addition, the loss of any of our vessels could harm our reputation as a safe and reliable vessel owner and operator.

If our vessels call on ports located in countries or territories that are the subject of sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S., the European Union, the United Nations, or other governmental authorities, it could lead to monetary fines or other penalties and may adversely affect our reputation and the market for our securities.

Although no vessels owned or operated by us have called on ports located in countries or territories that are the subject of country-wide or territory-wide sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S. government or other governmental authorities (“Sanctioned Jurisdictions”) in violation of applicable sanctions or embargo laws, and we endeavor to take precautions designed to mitigate such risk, it is possible that, in the future, our vessels may call on ports located in Sanctioned Jurisdictions on our charterers’ instructions and/or without our consent. If such activities result in a violation of sanctions or embargo laws, we could be subject to monetary fines, penalties, or other sanctions, and our reputation and the market for our common shares could be adversely affected.

The applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations vary in their application, as they do not all apply to the same covered persons or proscribe the same activities, and such sanctions and embargo laws and regulations may be amended or expanded over time. Current or future counterparties of ours may be affiliated with persons or entities that are or may be in the future the subject of sanctions or embargoes imposed by the U.S., the EU, and/or other international bodies. If we determine that such sanctions require us to terminate existing or future contracts to which we, or our subsidiaries, are party or if we are found to be in violation of such applicable sanctions, our results of operations may be adversely affected or we may suffer reputational harm. The Company, or its respective counterparty, have cancelled certain voyages due to countries around the world imposing sanctions against Russia over its invasion of Ukraine. The Company might be subject to litigation regarding canceled voyages. Although the current market remains strong, and the Company expects to deploy vessels on other voyage and time charter arrangements, the rates achieved may not be at the same levels as the cancelled voyages.

As a result of Russia’s actions in Ukraine and the war between Israel and Hamas, the U.S., EU and United Kingdom, together with numerous other countries, have imposed significant economic sanctions which may adversely affect our ability to operate in the region and also restrict parties whose cargo we may carry. Sanctions against Russia have also placed significant prohibitions on the maritime transportation of seaborne Russian oil, the importation of certain Russian energy products and other goods, and new investments in the Russian Federation. These sanctions further limit the scope of permissible operations and cargo we may carry.

Although we believe that we have been in compliance with all applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations, and intend to maintain such compliance, there can be no assurance that we will be in compliance in the future, particularly as the scope of certain laws may be unclear and may be subject to changing interpretations. Any such violation could result in fines, penalties or other sanctions that could negatively impact our ability to access U.S. capital markets and conduct our business, and could result in some investors deciding, or being required, to divest their interest, or not to invest, in us. In addition, certain institutional investors may have investment policies or restrictions that prevent them from holding securities of companies that have contracts with countries identified by the U.S. government as state sponsors of terrorism. The determination by these investors not to invest in, or to divest from, our securities may adversely affect the price at which our securities trade. Additionally, some investors may decide to divest their interest, or not to invest, in our company simply because we do business with companies that do business in sanctioned countries or territories. Moreover, our charterers may violate applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations as a result of actions that do not involve us or our vessels, and those violations could in turn negatively affect our reputation. In addition, our reputation and the market for our securities may be adversely affected if we engage in certain other activities, such as lawfully entering into charters with individuals or entities that are not controlled by the governments of countries or territories that are the subject of certain U.S. sanctions or embargo laws, or engaging in operations associated with those countries or territories pursuant to contracts with third parties that are unrelated to those countries or territories or entities controlled by their governments. Investor perception of the value of our common shares may be adversely affected by the consequences of war, the effects of terrorism, civil unrest and governmental actions in the countries or territories that we operate in.

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We are subject to international safety regulations and the failure to comply with these regulations may subject us to increased liability, may adversely affect our insurance coverage and may result in a denial of access to, or detention in, certain ports.

The operation of our vessels is affected by the requirements set forth in the United Nations’ International Maritime Organization’s International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and Pollution Prevention, or ISM Code. The ISM Code requires ship owners and ship managers to develop and maintain an extensive “Safety Management System” that includes the adoption of a safety and environmental protection policy setting forth instructions and procedures for safe operation for dealing with emergencies. The failure of a shipowner to comply with the ISM Code may subject it to increased liability, may invalidate existing insurance or decrease available insurance coverage for the affected vessels and may result in a denial of access to, or detention in, certain ports. Each of the vessels owned or operated by us is ISM Code-certified.

In addition, vessel classification societies impose significant safety and other requirements on our vessels. In complying with current and future environmental requirements, vessel owners and operators may incur significant additional costs for maintenance and inspection requirements, in developing contingency arrangements for potential spills and in obtaining insurance coverage. Government regulation of vessels, particularly in the areas of safety and environmental protection requirements, can be expected to become stricter in the future and may require us to incur significant capital expenditures to keep our vessels in compliance.

On July 14, 2021, the European Commission formally proposed its plan to gradually include the maritime sector in the EU Emissions Trading System (“EU ETS”) from 2024 by phasing the sector into the EU ETS requirements over a three-year period. Effective January 1, 2024, the scope of ETS has been expanded to include maritime transport emissions, with a two-year phase-in period. This will require shipowners to buy permits to cover greenhouse gas emissions and is expected to affect our vessels from January 1, 2024. The European Commission’s plan will permit vessel owners to pass the costs of compliance with the EU ETS onto charterers for vessel emissions during on-hire periods. If we are unable to pass on these additional costs to our customers during on-hire periods, this could have a material adverse effect on our financial position. During off-hire periods, we will need to develop a strategy for purchasing EU ETS allocations at favorable rates. If we are unable to obtain favorable rates or are unable to implement adequate processes to manage the purchasing and surrendering of EU ETS allocations, it could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position.

We are subject to complex laws and regulations, including environmental regulations that can adversely affect the cost, manner or feasibility of doing business.

Our operations are subject to numerous laws and regulations in the form of international conventions and treaties, national, state and local laws and national and international regulations in force in the jurisdictions in which our vessels operate or are registered, which can significantly affect the ownership cost and operation of our vessels. These requirements include, but are not limited to, European Union Regulations, the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships of 1975, the International Maritime Organization, or IMO, International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution of 1973, the IMO International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea of 1974, the International Convention on Load Lines of 1966, the U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990, or OPA, the U.S. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, or CERCLA, the U.S. Clean Air Act, U.S. Clean Water Act, the U.S. Marine Transportation Security Act of 2002 and the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters.

Compliance with such laws, regulations and standards, where applicable, may require installation of costly equipment or operational changes and may affect the resale value or useful lives of our vessels. We may also incur additional costs in order to comply with other existing and future regulatory obligations, including, but not limited to, costs relating to air emissions including greenhouse gases, the management of ballast waters, maintenance and inspection, development and implementation of emergency procedures and insurance coverage or other financial assurance of our ability to address pollution incidents. These costs could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition. A failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations may result in administrative and civil penalties, criminal sanctions or the suspension or termination of our operations. Environmental laws often impose strict liability for remediation of spills and releases of oil and hazardous substances, which could subject us to liability without regard to whether we were negligent or at fault.

We are required to satisfy insurance and financial responsibility requirements for potential oil (including marine fuel) spills and other pollution incidents. Although we have arranged insurance to cover certain environmental risks, there can be no assurance that such insurance will be sufficient to cover all such risks or that any claims will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends.

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Regulations relating to ballast water discharge may adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

The UN International Maritime Organization has imposed updated guidelines for ballast water management systems specifying the maximum amount of viable organisms allowed to be discharged from a vessel’s ballast water. Depending on the date of the IOPP renewal survey, existing vessels constructed before September 8, 2017 must comply with the updated D-2 standard on or after September 8, 2019. For most vessels, compliance with the D-2 standard will involve installing on-board systems to treat ballast water and eliminate unwanted organisms. Ships constructed on or after September 8, 2017 are to comply with the D-2 standards on or after September 8, 2017 and the costs of compliance may be substantial and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

Furthermore, United States regulations are currently changing. Although the 2013 Vessel General Permit (“VGP”) program and U.S. National Invasive Species Act (“NISA”) are currently in effect to regulate ballast discharge, exchange and installation, the Vessel Incidental Discharge Act (“VIDA”), which was signed into law on December 4, 2018, requires that the EPA develop national standards of performance for approximately 30 discharges, similar to those found in the VGP within two years. On October 26, 2020, the EPA published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Vessel Incidental Discharge National Standards of Performance under VIDA. On October 18, 2023, the EPA published a supplemental notice of the proposed rule sharing new ballast water data received from the U.S. Coast Guard (“USCG”) and providing clarification on the proposed rule. The public comment period for the proposed rule ended on December 18, 2023. Once EPA finalizes the rule (possibly by Fall 2024), USCG must develop corresponding implementation, compliance and enforcement regulations regarding ballast water within two years. The new regulations could require the installation of new equipment, which may cause us to incur substantial costs.

Increased inspection procedures and tighter import and export controls could increase costs and disrupt our business.

International shipping is subject to various security and customs inspections and related procedures in countries of origin, destination and trans-shipment points. Inspection procedures may result in the seizure of the contents of our vessels, delays in the loading, offloading or delivery of our vessels and the levying of customs duties, fines or other penalties against us.

It is possible that changes to inspection procedures could impose additional financial and legal obligations on us. Changes to inspection procedures could also impose additional costs and obligations on our customers and may, in certain cases, render the shipment of certain types of cargo uneconomical or impractical. Any such changes or developments may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Maritime claimants could arrest one or more of our vessels, which could interrupt our cash flow.

Crew members, suppliers of goods and services to a vessel, shippers of cargo and other parties may be entitled to a maritime lien against a vessel for unsatisfied debts, claims or damages. In many jurisdictions, a claimant may seek to obtain security for its claim by arresting a vessel through foreclosure proceedings. The arrest or attachment of one or more of our vessels could interrupt our cash flow and require us to pay large sums of money to have the arrest or attachment lifted. In addition, in some jurisdictions, such as South Africa, under the “sister ship” theory of liability, a claimant may arrest both the vessel which is subject to the claimant's maritime lien and any “associated” vessel, which is any vessel owned or controlled by the same owner. Claimants could attempt to assert “sister ship” liability against a vessel in our fleet for claims relating to another of our vessels.

Governments could requisition our vessels during a period of war or emergency, resulting in a loss of earnings.

A government could requisition one or more of our vessels for title or for hire. Requisition for title occurs when a government takes control of a vessel and becomes her owner, while requisition for hire occurs when a government takes control of a vessel and effectively becomes her charterer at dictated charter rates. Generally, requisitions occur during periods of war or emergency, although governments may elect to requisition vessels in other circumstances. Although we would be entitled to compensation in the event of a requisition of one or more of our vessels, the amount and timing of payment would be uncertain. Government requisition of one or more of our vessels may negatively impact our revenues and reduce the amount of dividends, if any, in the future.

Changes in fuel prices may adversely affect profits.

Fuel, or bunkers, is typically the largest expense of our operating business and therefore, changes in the price of fuel may adversely affect our profitability. When we operate vessels under COAs or voyage charters, we are responsible for all voyage costs, including bunkers. The price and supply of fuel can be unpredictable and fluctuates based on events outside our control, including geopolitical developments, supply and demand for oil and gas, actions by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPEC, and other oil and gas producers, war and unrest in oil producing countries and regions, regional
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production patterns and environmental concerns. Furthermore, fuel may become significantly more expensive in the future, which may reduce our profitability.

We continually monitor the market volatility associated with bunker prices and seek to hedge our exposure to changes in the price of marine fuels with our bunker hedging program. Please see “The Company’s Management and Discussion Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risks - Fuel Swap Contracts.”

In the highly competitive international shipping industry, we may not be able to compete successfully for chartered-in vessels or for vessel employment and, as a result, we may be unable to charter-in vessels at reasonable rates or employ our vessels profitably.

We charter-in and employ vessels in a highly competitive market that is capital intensive and highly fragmented. Competition arises primarily from other vessel owners and operators, some of whom have substantially greater resources than we do. Competition for seaborne transportation of drybulk cargo by sea is intense and depends on the charter or freight rate and on the location, size, age, condition and acceptability of a vessel and its operators. Due to the highly fragmented market, competitors with greater resources are able to operate larger fleets and may be able to offer lower charter or freight rates and higher quality vessels than we are able to offer. If we are unable to successfully compete with other drybulk shipping operators, we may be unable to retain customers or attract new customers, which would have an adverse impact on our results of operations.

Labor interruptions could disrupt our business.

Our vessels are manned by masters, officers and crews that are contracted by our technical managers. If not resolved in a timely and cost-effective manner, industrial action or other labor unrest could prevent or hinder our operations from being carried out normally and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, and on our ability to pay dividends.

Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders and other market participants with respect to our Environmental, Social and Governance ("ESG") policies may impose additional costs on us or expose us to additional risks.

Companies across all industries are facing increasing scrutiny relating to their ESG policies. Investor advocacy groups, certain institutional investors, investment funds, lenders and other market participants are increasingly focused on ESG practices and in recent years have placed increasing importance on the implications and social cost of their investments.

In February 2021, the Acting Chair of the SEC issued a statement directing the Division of Corporation Finance to enhance its focus on climate-related disclosure in public company filings and in March 2021 the SEC announced the creation of a Climate and ESG Task Force in the Division of Enforcement (the “Task Force”). The Task Force’s goal is to develop initiatives to proactively identify ESG-related misconduct consistent with increased investor reliance on climate and ESG-related disclosure and investment. To implement the Task Force’s purpose, the SEC has taken several enforcement actions, with the first enforcement action taking place in May 2022, and proposed new rules. On March 21, 2022, the SEC proposed that all public companies are to include extensive climate-related information in their SEC filings. On May 25, 2022, SEC proposed a second set of rules aiming to curb the practice of "greenwashing" (i.e., making unfounded claims about one's ESG efforts) and would add proposed amendments to rules and reporting forms that apply to registered investment companies and advisers, advisers exempt from registration, and business development companies.

The increased focus and activism related to ESG and similar matters may hinder access to capital, as investors and lenders may decide to reallocate capital or to not commit capital as a result of their assessment of a company’s ESG practices. Companies which do not adapt to or comply with investor, lender or other industry shareholder expectations and standards, which are evolving, or which are perceived to have not responded appropriately to the growing concern for ESG issues, regardless of whether there is a legal requirement to do so, may suffer from reputational damage and the business, financial condition, and/or stock price of such a company could be materially and adversely affected.

We may face increasing pressures from investors, lenders and other market participants, who are increasingly focused on climate change, to prioritize sustainable energy practices, reduce our carbon footprint and promote sustainability. As a result, we may be required to implement more stringent ESG procedures or standards so that our existing and future investors and lenders remain invested in us and make further investments in us, especially given the highly focused and specific trade of drybulk transportation in which we are engaged. If we do not meet these standards, our business and/or our ability to access capital could be harmed.

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These limitations in both the debt and equity capital markets may affect our ability to grow as our plans for growth may include accessing the equity and debt capital markets. If those markets are unavailable, or if we are unable to access alternative means of financing on acceptable terms, or at all, we may be unable to implement our business strategy, which would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and impair our ability to service our indebtedness. Further, it is likely that we will incur additional costs and require additional resources to monitor, report and comply with wide ranging ESG requirements. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

Our insurance may not be adequate to cover our losses that may result from our operations due to the inherent operational risks of the seaborne transportation industry.

We carry insurance to protect us against most of the accident-related risks involved in the conduct of our business, including marine hull and machinery insurance, protection and indemnity insurance, which include pollution risks, crew insurance and war risks insurance. However, we may not be adequately insured to cover all of our potential losses, which could have a material adverse effect on us. Additionally, our insurers may refuse to pay particular claims, and our insurance may be voidable by the insurers if we take, or fail to take, certain action, such as failing to maintain certification of our vessels with the applicable maritime regulatory organizations. Any significant uninsured or under-insured loss or liability could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and our ability to pay dividends. In addition, we may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage at reasonable rates in the future during adverse insurance market conditions.

In addition, we do not carry loss-of-hire insurance, which covers the loss of revenues during extended vessel off-hire periods, such as those that occur during an unscheduled drydocking due to damage to the vessel from accidents. Accordingly, any loss of a vessel or extended vessel off-hire, due to an accident or otherwise, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to pay dividends.

The logistics industry has its own set of risks, including infrastructure issues, operational efficiencies, lack of digital culture and training, labor relations and operational costs. We may not be able to provide logistics solutions to our customers in the face of obstacles created as a result of one of these factors.

The Company has dedicated resources to developing logistics solutions for our customers. These solutions may depend on infrastructure quality and improvement, the ability to hire qualified personnel, the ability to coordinate operations, development of digital integration and collaboration with suppliers and customers, and the ability to contain costs. If we are unable to facilitate these solutions due to any of these factors, we will not be able to continue developing such solutions.

Failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act could result in fines, criminal penalties, charter terminations and an adverse effect on our business.

We may operate in a number of countries throughout the world, including countries known to have a reputation for corruption. We are committed to doing business in accordance with applicable anti-corruption laws and have adopted a code of business conduct and ethics which is consistent and in full compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended (the “FCPA”). We are subject, however, to the risk that we, our affiliated entities or our or their respective officers, directors, employees and agents may take actions determined to be in violation of such anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA. Any such violation could result in substantial fines, sanctions, civil and/or criminal penalties and curtailment of operations in certain jurisdictions, and might adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. In addition, actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation and ability to do business. Furthermore, detecting, investigating and resolving actual or alleged violations is expensive and can consume significant time and attention of our senior management.

Risks Relating to Our Company

Our business strategy includes chartering-in vessels, and we may not be able to charter-in suitable vessels.

Our business strategy depends, in large part, on our ability to charter-in vessels. If we are not able to find suitable vessels to charter-in, or to charter-in vessels at what we deem to be a reasonable rate, we may not be able to operate profitably or perform our contractual obligations. As a result, we may need to adjust our business strategy, and we may experience material adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if we charter-in a vessel and shipping rates subsequently decrease, or we are unable to secure employment for such a vessel, our obligation under the charter may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

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We depend upon a few significant customers for a large part of our revenues and cash flow, and the loss of one or more of these customers could adversely affect our financial performance.

We expect to derive a significant part of our revenue and cash flow from a relatively small number of repeat customers. For the year ended December 31, 2023, two customers accounted for more than 10% of total revenue and all of our top ten customers, representing 57% of total revenue, are repeat customers. If one or more of our significant customers is unable to perform under one or more charters or COAs and we are not able to find a replacement charter or COA; or if a customer exercises certain rights to terminate the charter or COA, we could suffer a loss of revenues that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash available for distribution as dividends to our shareholders.

We could lose a customer or the benefits of a charter or COA if, among other things:

the customer fails to make charter payments because of its financial inability, disagreements with us or otherwise; or
the customer terminates the charter because we do not perform in accordance with such charter and do not cure such failures within a specified period.

If we lose a key customer, we may be unable to obtain replacement charters or COAs on comparable terms or at all. The loss of any of our customers, COAs, charters or vessels, or a decline in payments under our agreements, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders.

We are a holding company, and depend on the ability of our subsidiaries, through which we operate our business, to distribute funds to us in order to satisfy our financial obligations or to make dividend payments.

We are a holding company, and our subsidiaries conduct all of our operations and own all of our operating assets. The equity interests in our vessel-owning subsidiaries represent a significant portion of our operating assets. As a result, our ability to satisfy our financial obligations and to pay dividends to our shareholders depends on the ability of our subsidiaries to generate profits available for distribution to us and, to the extent that they are unable to generate profits, we will be unable to pay dividends to our shareholders.

We are subject to certain risks with counterparties on contracts and the failure of such counterparties to meet their obligations could cause us to suffer losses or otherwise adversely affect our business and ability to comply with covenants in our loan agreements.

We enter into various contracts that are material to the operation of our business, including COAs, time charters and voyage charters under which we employ our vessels, and charter agreements under which we charter-in vessels. We also enter into loan agreements and hedging agreements, such as bunker swap agreements and forward freight agreements, or FFAs. Such agreements subject us to counterparty risks. The ability and willingness of each of our counterparties to perform its obligations under a contract with us will depend on a number of factors that are beyond our control, including, among other things, general economic conditions, the condition of the drybulk shipping industry, the overall financial condition of our counterparty, prevailing prices for drybulk cargoes, rates received for specific types of vessels and voyages, and various expenses. In addition, in depressed market conditions, our customers may no longer need us to carry a cargo that is currently under contract or may be able to obtain carriage at a lower rate. If our customers fail to meet their obligations to us or attempt to renegotiate our agreements, it may be difficult to secure suitable substitute employment for the vessel, and any new charter arrangements we secure may be at lower rates or, if our counterparties fail to deliver a vessel we have agreed to charter-in, or if a counterparty otherwise fails to honor its obligations to us under a contract, we could sustain significant losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, ability to pay dividends to holders of our common shares in the amounts anticipated or at all and compliance with covenants in our secured loan agreements.

Charterers are sensitive to the commodity markets and may be impacted by market forces affecting commodities and/or uncertain industry conditions. In depressed market conditions, charterers may have incentive to renegotiate their charters or default on their obligations under charters. Should a charterer in the future fail to honor its obligations under agreements with us, it may be difficult to secure substitute employment for such vessel, and any new charter arrangements we secure on the spot market or on charters may be at lower rates, depending on the then existing charter rate levels, compared to the rates currently being charged for our vessels. In addition, if the charterer of a vessel in our fleet that is used as collateral under one or more of our loan agreements defaults on its charter obligations to us, such default may constitute an event of default under our loan agreements, which may allow the bank to exercise remedies under our loan agreements.

Although we assess the creditworthiness of our counterparties, a prolonged period of difficult industry conditions could lead to changes in a counterparty’s liquidity and increase our exposure to credit risk and bad debts. In addition, we may offer extended
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payment terms to our customers in order to secure contracts, which may lead to more frequent collection issues and adversely affect our financial results and liquidity.

Additionally, we are subject to certain risks as a result of using our vessels as collateral. If we are in breach of financial covenants contained in our loan agreements, we may not be successful in obtaining waivers and amendments. If our indebtedness is accelerated, it may be difficult in the current financing environment for us to refinance our debt or obtain additional financing and we could lose our vessels if our lenders foreclose on their liens.

We may be unable to comply with covenants in our credit facilities or any financial obligations that impose operating and financial restrictions on us.

Our credit facilities and finance leases, which are secured by mortgages on our vessels, impose certain operating and financial restrictions on us, mainly to ensure that the market value of the mortgaged vessel under the applicable credit facility does not fall below a certain percentage of the outstanding amount of the loan, which we refer to as the collateral maintenance or loan to value ratio. In addition, certain of our credit facilities include other financial covenants, which require us to, among other things, maintain:

a consolidated leverage ratio of not more than 200%;
a consolidated debt service coverage ratio of not less than 120%;
Minimum consolidated net worth of $45 million plus, with respect to any vessel purchased or leased by the Guarantor or its subsidiaries, for so long as such vessels are legally or economically owned, 25% of the purchase price or (finance) lease amount of such vessels;
consolidated minimum liquidity of not less than $18 million.

In general, the operating restrictions that are contained in our credit facilities may prohibit or otherwise limit our ability to, among other things:

effect changes in management of our vessels;
sell or dispose of any of our assets, including our vessels;
declare and pay dividends;
incur additional indebtedness;
mortgage our vessels; and
incur and pay management fees or commissions.

Non-compliance with any of our financial covenants or operating restrictions contained in our credit facilities may constitute an event of default under our credit facilities, which, unless cured within the grace period set forth under the applicable credit facility, if applicable, or waived or modified by our lenders, provides our lenders with the right to, among other things, require us to post additional collateral, enhance our equity and liquidity, increase our interest payments, pay down our indebtedness to a level where we are in compliance, sell vessels in our fleet, reclassify our indebtedness as current liabilities, accelerate our indebtedness, or foreclose their liens on our vessels and the other assets securing the credit facilities, which would impair our ability to continue to conduct our business. As of December 31, 2023, we are in compliance with covenants contained in our debt agreements. Please read “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources - Borrowing Activities.”

Furthermore, certain of our credit facilities contain a cross-default provision that may be triggered by a default under one of our other credit facilities. A cross-default provision means that a default on one loan would result in a default on certain other loans. Because of the presence of cross-default provisions in certain of our credit facilities, the refusal of any one lender under our credit facilities to grant or extend a waiver could result in certain of our indebtedness being accelerated. If our secured indebtedness is accelerated in full or in part, it would be very difficult in the current financing environment for us to refinance our debt or obtain additional financing and we could lose our vessels and other assets securing our credit facilities if our lenders foreclose their liens, which would adversely affect our ability to conduct our business.

We may be unable to effectively manage our growth strategy.

One of our principal business strategies is to continue to expand capacity and flexibility by increasing our owned fleet as we secure additional demand for our services. Our growth strategy will depend upon a number of factors, some of which may not be within our control. These factors include our ability to:

enter into new contracts for the transportation of cargoes;
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develop customized logistics solutions within targeted dry bulk trades;
locate and acquire suitable vessels for acquisitions at attractive prices;
obtain required financing for our existing and new operations;
integrate any acquired vessels successfully with our existing operations, including obtaining any approvals and qualifications necessary to operate vessels that we acquire;
enhance our customer base;
hire, train and retain qualified personnel and crew to manage and operate our growing business and fleet;
identify additional new markets; and
improve our operating, financial and accounting systems and controls.

We may undertake future financings to finance our growth. Our failure to effectively identify, purchase, develop and integrate any vessels could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The number of employees that perform services for us and our current operating and financial systems may not be adequate as we implement our plan to expand the size of our fleet, and we may not be able to effectively hire more employees or adequately improve those systems. Finally, acquisitions may require additional equity issuances or debt issuances (with amortization payments), both of which could lower our available cash. If any such events occur, our financial condition may be adversely affected.

Growing any business presents numerous risks such as difficulty in obtaining additional qualified personnel and managing relationships with customers and suppliers. The expansion of our fleet may impose significant additional responsibilities on our management and staff, and may necessitate that we increase the number of personnel. We cannot give any assurance that we will be successful in executing our growth plans or that we will not incur significant expenses and losses in connection with our future growth.

Investment in forward freight agreements and other derivative instruments could result in losses.

We manage our market exposure using forward freight agreements, or FFAs, and other derivative instruments, such as bunker hedging contracts. FFAs are cash-settled derivative contracts based on future freight delivery rates and other derivative instruments. FFAs may be used to hedge exposure to the changing rates by providing for the purchase or sale of a contracted charter rate along a specified route or combination of routes and over a specified period of time. Upon settlement, if the contracted charter rate is less than the settlement rate, the seller of the FFA is required to pay the buyer an amount equal to the difference between the contracted rate and the settlement rate, multiplied by the number of days in the specified period. Conversely, if the contracted rate is greater than the settlement rate, the buyer is required to pay the seller the settlement sum. If we take positions in FFAs and do not correctly anticipate rate movements for the specified vessel route or routes and relevant time period or our assumptions regarding the relative relationships of certain vessels’ earnings, routes and other factors relevant to the FFA markets are incorrect, we could suffer losses in settling or terminating our FFAs. In addition, we normally do not designate our FFAs for special hedge accounting and, as such, our use of such derivatives may lead to material fluctuations in our results of operations.

We also seek to manage our exposure to volatility in the market price of bunkers by entering into bunker hedging contracts. There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully limit our risks, leaving us exposed to unprofitable contracts and we may suffer significant losses from these hedging activities.

Our long-term COAs, single charter bookings and time-charter agreements may result in significant fluctuations in our quarterly results, which may adversely affect our liquidity, as well as our ability to satisfy our financial obligations.

As part of our business strategy, we enter into long-term COAs, single charter bookings and time-charter agreements. We evaluate entering into long-term positions based on the expected return over the full term of the contract. However, long-term contracts that we believe provide attractive returns over their full term may produce losses over portions of the contract period. We may be required to provide additional margin collateral in connection with FFA positions that are settled through clearinghouses, depending upon movements in the FFA markets. These interim losses, fluctuations in our quarterly results or incremental collateral requirements may adversely affect our financial liquidity, as well as our ability to satisfy our financial obligations.

We depend on COAs, which could require us to operate at unfavorable rates for a certain amount of time or subject us to other operating risks.

A significant portion of our revenues are derived from COAs. While COAs provide a relatively stable and predictable source of revenue, they typically fix the rate we are paid for our drybulk shipping services. Once we have entered into a COA, if we have not correctly anticipated vessel rates, location and availability for our owned or chartered-in fleet to fulfill the COA, we could
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suffer losses. Moreover, factors beyond our control may cause a COA to become unprofitable. Nevertheless, we would be obligated to continue to perform for the term of the COA. In addition, factors beyond our control, such as vessel availability, port delays, changes in government or industry rules or regulation, industrial actions or acts of terrorism or war, could affect our ability to perform our obligations under our COAs, which could result in breach of contract or other claims by our COA counterparties. Any of these occurrences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations and financial condition.

We are a “smaller reporting company” and an "accelerated filer" and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to smaller reporting companies will make our common shares less attractive to investors.

We are a “smaller reporting company,” as defined in the Securities Act of 1934, and may choose to rely on scaled disclosure requirements available to smaller reporting companies. On June 28, 2018, the Commission adopted amendments to the definition of “smaller reporting company” that became effective on September 10, 2018. Under the new definition, generally, a company qualifies as a “smaller reporting company” if it has public float of less than $250 million; or it has less than $100 million in annual revenues and no public float or public float of less than $700 million.

The scaled disclosure requirements for smaller reporting companies permit us to include less extensive narrative disclosure than required of other reporting companies, particularly in the description of executive compensation and to provide audited financial statements for two fiscal years, in contrast to other reporting companies, which must provide audited financial statements for three fiscal years.

Investors may find our common shares and the price of our common shares less attractive because we rely, or may rely, on these exemptions. If some investors find our common shares less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common shares and the price of our common shares may be more volatile.

Obligations associated with being a public company require significant company resources and management attention, and we incur increased costs as a result of being a public company.

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and the rules and regulations of the SEC, including Sarbanes-Oxley, and requirements of the NASDAQ Global Select Market. These requirements and rules may place a strain on our systems and resources. For example, the Exchange Act requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition and Sarbanes-Oxley requires that we document and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. These reporting and other obligations place significant demands on our management, administrative, operational and accounting resources and we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses as a result. The expenses incurred by public companies, generally, for reporting and corporate governance purposes have been increasing and the costs we incur for such purposes may strain our resources. We may implement additional financial and management controls and procedures, reporting and business intelligence systems, create or outsource an internal audit function, or hire additional accounting and finance staff. If we are unable to accomplish these objectives in a timely and effective fashion, our ability to comply with the financial reporting requirements and other rules that apply to reporting companies could be impaired. In addition, our limited management resources may exacerbate the difficulties in complying with these reporting and other requirements while focusing on executing our business strategy. Our incremental general and administrative expenses as a publicly traded corporation include costs associated with preparing reports to shareholders, tax returns, investor relations, registrar and transfer agent’s fees, incremental director and officer liability insurance costs and director compensation. Any failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, liquidity, results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, if we are unable to satisfy our obligations as a public company, we could be subject to delisting of our common shares, fines, sanctions and other regulatory action.

A failure to pass inspection by classification societies could result in vessels being unemployable until they pass inspection, resulting in a loss of revenues from such vessels for that period.

The hull and machinery of every commercial vessel must be classed by a classification society authorized by its country of registry. The classification society certifies that a vessel is safe and seaworthy in accordance with the applicable rules and regulations of the country of registry of the vessel and the United Nations Safety of Life at Sea Convention. Our owned fleet is currently enrolled with DNV GL Group (DNV), and Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (NK).

A vessel must undergo annual surveys, intermediate surveys and special surveys. In lieu of a special survey, a vessel’s machinery may be on a continuous survey cycle, under which the machinery would be surveyed periodically over a five-year
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period. Our vessels are on special survey cycles for hull inspection and continuous survey cycles for machinery inspection. Every vessel must undergo regulatory surveys of its underwater parts every 30 to 60 months.

If a vessel fails any annual survey, intermediate survey or special survey, the vessel may be unable to trade between ports and, therefore, would be unemployable, potentially causing a negative impact on our revenues due to the loss of revenues from such vessel until it was able to trade again.

Because we purchase and operate secondhand vessels, we may be exposed to increased operating costs which could adversely affect our earnings and, as our fleet ages, the risks associated with older vessels could adversely affect our ability to obtain profitable charters.

As part of our current business strategy to increase our owned fleet, we may acquire new and secondhand vessels. While we rigorously inspect previously owned or secondhand vessels prior to purchase, this does not provide us with the same knowledge about their condition and cost of any required (or anticipated) repairs that we would have had if these vessels had been built for and operated exclusively by us. Accordingly, we may not discover defects or other problems with secondhand vessels prior to purchasing or chartering-in, or may incur costs to terminate a purchase agreement. Any such hidden defects or problems may require us to put a vessel into drydock, which would reduce our fleet utilization and increase our operating costs. If a hidden defect or problem is not detected, it may result in accidents or other incidents for which we may become liable to third parties.

In general, the costs to maintain a vessel in good operating condition increase with the age of the vessel. Older vessels are typically less fuel-efficient than more recently constructed vessels due to improvements in engine technology. Cargo insurance rates increase with the age of a vessel, making older vessels less desirable to charterers.

Furthermore, governmental regulations, safety or other equipment standards related to the age of vessels may require expenditures for alterations, or the addition of new equipment and may restrict the type of activities in which the vessel may engage. As our vessels age, market conditions may not justify those expenditures or enable us to operate our vessels profitably during the remainder of their useful lives.

Unless we set aside reserves or are able to borrow funds for vessel replacement, we will be unable to replace the vessels in our fleet at the end of their useful lives.

We estimate the useful life of our vessels to be 25 or 30 years from the date of initial delivery from the shipyard. The remaining estimated useful lives of our vessels range from 11 to 23 years, depending on the age and type of vessel. The average age of our owned drybulk carriers at the time of this filing is approximately 10 years. A portion of our cash flows and income are dependent on the revenues earned by employing our vessels. If we are unable to replace the vessels in our fleet at the end of their useful lives, our business, results of operations, financial condition and ability to pay dividends could be materially and adversely affected. We currently do not maintain reserves for vessel replacements. We intend to finance vessel replacements from internally generated cash flow, borrowings under our credit facilities or additional equity or debt offerings.

Our ability to obtain additional debt financing, or to refinance existing indebtedness, may be dependent on the performance and length of our COAs and charters, and the creditworthiness of our contract counterparties.

The performance and length of our COAs and charters and the actual or perceived credit quality of our contract counterparties, and any defaults by them, may materially affect our ability to obtain the additional capital resources required to purchase additional vessels or may significantly increase our costs of obtaining such capital. Our inability to obtain additional financing on acceptable terms or at all may materially affect our results of operations and our ability to implement our business strategy.

We have and may continue to partially finance the acquisition of vessels with borrowings drawn under credit facilities or finance lease obligations. While we may refinance amounts drawn under our credit facilities with the net proceeds of future debt and equity offerings, we cannot assure you that we will be able to do so at interest rates and on terms that are acceptable to us or at all. If we are not able to refinance these amounts with the net proceeds of debt and equity offerings at an interest rate or on terms acceptable to us or at all, we will have to dedicate a larger portion of our cash flow from operations to pay the principal and interest of this indebtedness. If we are not able to satisfy these obligations, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans or sell vessels. The actual or perceived credit quality of our contract counterparties, any defaults by them and the market value of our fleet, among other things, may materially affect our ability to obtain alternative financing. In addition, debt service payments under our credit facilities, finance lease obligations or alternative financing may limit funds otherwise available for working capital, capital expenditures, the payment of dividends and other purposes. If we are unable to meet our debt obligations, or if we otherwise default under our credit facilities or alternative financing arrangements, our lenders could declare the debt, together with accrued interest and fees, to be immediately due and payable and foreclose on our fleet, which
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could result in the acceleration of other indebtedness that we may have at such time and the commencement of similar foreclosure proceedings by other lenders.

We depend on our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer and other key employees, and the loss of their services would have a material adverse effect on our business, results and financial condition.

We depend on the efforts, knowledge, skill, reputations and business contacts of our Chief Executive Officer, Mark Filanowski, our Chief Financial Officer, Gianni Del Signore, our Chief Operating Officer, Mads Boye Petersen and other key employees. Accordingly, our success will depend on the continued service of these individuals. We do not have employment agreements with our executive officers or employees. We may experience departures of senior executive officers and other key employees, and we cannot predict the impact that any of their departures would have on our ability to achieve our financial objectives. The loss of the services of any of them could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Exposure to currency exchange rate fluctuations will result in fluctuations in our cash flows and operating results.

We may generate our revenues and incur some of our operating expenses and general and administrative expenses in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. This difference could lead to fluctuations in our revenues and vessel operating expenses, which would affect our financial results. Expenses incurred in foreign currencies increase when the value of the U.S. dollar falls, which would reduce our profitability. Our operating results could suffer as a result.

We may be subject to litigation, arbitration and other proceedings that could have an adverse effect on our business

We may be, from time to time, involved in various litigation matters arising in the ordinary course of business, or otherwise. These matters may include, among other things, contract disputes, personal injury claims, environmental matters, governmental claims for taxes or duties, securities, or maritime matters. The potential costs to resolve any claim or other litigation matter, or a combination of these, may have a material adverse effect on us because of potential negative outcomes, the costs associated with asserting our claims or defending such lawsuits, and the diversion of management's attention to these matters.

United States tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company,” which could have adverse United States federal income tax consequences to U.S. holders

A foreign corporation will be treated as a “passive foreign investment company,” or a PFIC, for United States federal income tax purposes if either (1) at least 75% of its gross income for any taxable year consists of certain types of “passive income” or (2) at least 50% of the average value of the corporation's assets produce or are held for the production of those types of “passive income.” For purposes of these tests, “passive income” includes dividends, interest, and gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and rents and royalties other than rents and royalties which are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business. For purposes of these tests, income derived from the performance of services does not constitute “passive income.” United States shareholders of a PFIC are subject to a disadvantageous United States federal income tax regime with respect to the income derived by the PFIC, the distributions they receive from the PFIC and the gain, if any, they derive from the sale or other disposition of their shares in the PFIC.

Based on our proposed method of operation, we do not expect that we will be a PFIC with respect to any taxable year. In this regard, we intend to treat the gross income we derive or are deemed to derive from our time chartering activities as services income, rather than rental income. Accordingly, we believe that our income from our time chartering activities does not constitute “passive income,” and the assets that we own and operate in connection with the production of that income do not constitute assets that produce, or are held for the production of, passive income for purposes of determining whether the Company is a PFIC.

There is, however, no direct legal authority under the PFIC rules addressing our proposed characterization of income for United States federal income tax purposes. Accordingly, in the absence of any legal authority specifically relating to the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the “Code,” provisions governing PFICs, the IRS or a court could disagree with our position. Moreover, although we intend to conduct our operations in such a manner as to avoid being classified as a PFIC, there can be no assurance that we would not constitute a PFIC for any future taxable year if there were to be changes in the nature and extent of our operations.

If the IRS were to find that we are or have been a PFIC for any taxable year, our United States shareholders will face adverse United States tax consequences. Under the PFIC rules, unless those shareholders make an election available under the Code (which election could itself have adverse consequences for such shareholders, such shareholders would be liable to pay United
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States federal income tax at the then prevailing income tax rates on ordinary income plus interest upon excess distributions and upon any gain from the disposition of our common shares, as if the excess distribution or gain had been recognized ratably over the shareholder’s holding period of our common shares.

Based on our current and expected composition of assets and income, it is not anticipated that we will be treated as a PFIC. Actual PFIC status for any taxable year, however, will not be determinable until after the end of such taxable year. Accordingly, there can be no assurances regarding our status as a PFIC for the current taxable year or any future taxable year. United States Shareholders are urged to consult with their own tax advisors regarding the possible application of the PFIC rules.

We may have to pay tax on United States source income, which would reduce our earnings.

Under sections 863(c)(3) and 887(a) of the Code, 50% of the gross shipping income of a vessel owning or chartering corporation, such as ourselves and our subsidiaries, that is attributable to transportation that begins or ends, but that does not both begin and end, in the United States may be subject to a 4% United States federal income tax without allowance for deduction, unless that corporation qualifies for exemption from tax under section 883 of the Code and the applicable Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder.

If we or our subsidiaries are not entitled to exemption under section 883 for any taxable year, we or our subsidiaries could be subject for those years to an effective 2% United States federal income tax on the shipping income these companies derive during the year that are attributable to the transport of cargoes to or from the United States. The imposition of this taxation would have a negative effect on our business and would result in decreased earnings available for distribution to our shareholders.

Changes in tax laws and unanticipated tax liabilities could materially and adversely affect the taxes we pay, results of operations and financial results.

We are subject to income and other taxes in the United States and foreign jurisdictions, and our results of operations and financial results may be affected by tax and other initiatives around the world. For instance, there is a high level of uncertainty in today’s tax environment stemming from global initiatives put forth by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (“OECD”) two-pillar base erosion and profit shifting project. In October 2021, members of the OECD put forth two proposals: (i) Pillar One reallocates profit to the market jurisdictions where sales arise versus physical presence; and (ii) Pillar Two compels multinational corporations with €750 million or more in annual revenue to pay a global minimum tax of 15% on income received in each country in which they operate. The reforms aim to level the playing field between countries by discouraging them from reducing their corporate income taxes to attract foreign business investment. Over 140 countries agreed to enact the two-pillar solution to address the challenges arising from the digitalization of the economy and, in 2024, these guidelines were declared effective and must now be enacted by those OECD member countries. It is possible that these guidelines, including the global minimum corporate tax rate measure of 15%, could increase the burden and costs of our tax compliance, the amount of taxes we incur in those jurisdictions and our global effective tax rate, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and financial results.

Information technology failures and data security breaches, including as a result of cybersecurity attacks, could negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition, subject us to increased operating costs, and expose us to litigation.

We rely on our computer systems and network infrastructure across our operations, including on our vessels. The safety and security of our vessels and efficient operation of our business, including processing, transmitting and storing electronic and financial information, are dependent on computer hardware and software systems. Our vessels rely on information systems for a significant part of their operations, including navigation, provision of services, propulsion, machinery management, power control, communications and cargo management. Despite our implementation of security and back-up measures, all of our technology systems are vulnerable to damage, disability or failures due to physical theft, fire, power loss, telecommunications failure, operational error, or other catastrophic events. Our technology systems are also subject to cybersecurity attacks including malware, other malicious software, phishing email attacks, attempts to gain unauthorized access to our data, the unauthorized release, corruption or loss of our data, loss or damage to our data delivery systems, and other electronic security breaches. In addition, as we continue to grow the volume of transactions in our businesses, our existing IT systems infrastructure, applications and related functionality may be unable to effectively support a larger scale operation, which can cause the information being processed to be unreliable and impact our decision-making or damage our reputation with customers.

Despite our efforts to ensure the integrity of our systems and prevent future cybersecurity attacks, it is possible that our business, financial and other systems could be compromised, especially because such attacks can originate from a wide variety
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of sources including persons involved in organized crime or associated with external service providers. Those parties may also attempt to fraudulently induce employees, customers or other users of our systems to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our data or use electronic means to induce the company to enter into fraudulent transactions. A successful cyber-attack could materially disrupt our operations, including the safety of our vessel operations. Past and future occurrences of such attacks could damage our reputation and our ability to conduct our business, impact our credit and risk exposure decisions, cause us to lose customers or revenues, subject us to litigation and require us to incur significant expense to address and remediate or otherwise resolve these issues, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Further, data protection laws apply to us in certain countries in which we do business. Specifically, the EU General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which was applicable beginning May 2018, increases penalties up to a maximum of 4% of global annual turnover for breach of the regulation. The GDPR requires mandatory breach notification, the standard for which is also followed outside the EU (particularly in Asia). Non-compliance with data protection laws could expose us to regulatory investigations, which could result in fines and penalties. In addition to imposing fines, regulators may also issue orders to stop processing personal data, which could disrupt operations. We could also be subject to litigation from persons or corporations allegedly affected by data protection violations. Violation of data protection laws is a criminal offense in some countries, and individuals can be imprisoned or fined. Any violation of these laws or harm to our reputation could have a material adverse effect on our earnings, cash flows and financial condition.

Moreover, our risk of cyber-attack and other sources of security breaches and incidents may be elevated as a result of the ongoing conflicts between Russia and Ukraine and the Israel-Hamas conflict. To the extent such attacks have collateral effects on global critical infrastructure or financial institutions, such developments could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. At this time, it is difficult to assess the likelihood of such threat and any potential impact.

Further, in July 2023, the SEC adopted amendments to its rules on cybersecurity risk management, strategy, governance, and incident disclosure. The amendments require us to report material cybersecurity incidents involving our information systems and periodic reporting regarding our policies and procedures to identify and manage cybersecurity risks, amongst other disclosures.

Risks Related To Our Common Shares

Future sales of our common shares could cause the market price of our common shares to decline.

The market price of our common shares could decline due to sales of a large number of shares in the market, including sales of shares by our large shareholders, or the perception that these sales could occur. These sales could also make it more difficult or impossible for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and price that we deem appropriate to raise funds through future offerings of common shares.

We may need to raise additional capital in the future, which may not be available on favorable terms or at all or which may dilute our common shares or adversely affect its market price.

We may require additional capital to expand our business and increase revenues, add liquidity in response to negative economic conditions, meet unexpected liquidity needs caused by industry volatility or uncertainty and reduce our outstanding indebtedness under our existing facilities. To the extent that our existing capital and borrowing capabilities are insufficient to meet these requirements and cover any losses, we will need to raise additional funds through debt or equity financings, including offerings of our common shares, securities convertible into our common shares, or rights to acquire our common shares, or curtail our growth and reduce our assets or restructure arrangements with existing security holders. Any equity or debt financing, or additional borrowings, if available at all, may be on terms that are not favorable to us. Equity financings could result in dilution to our shareholders, as described further below, and the securities issued in future financings may have rights, preferences and privileges that are senior to those of our common shares. If our need for capital arises because of significant losses, the occurrence of these losses may make it more difficult for us to raise the necessary capital. If we cannot raise funds on acceptable terms if and when needed, we may not be able to take advantage of future opportunities, grow our business or respond to competitive pressures or unanticipated requirements.

Future issuances of our common shares could dilute our shareholders’ interests in our company.

We may, from time to time, issue additional common shares to support our growth strategy, reduce debt or provide us with capital for other purposes that our Board of Directors believes to be in our best interest. To the extent that an existing shareholder does not purchase additional shares that we issue, that shareholder’s interest in our company will be diluted, which
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means that its percentage of ownership in our company will be reduced. Following such a reduction, that shareholder’s common shares would represent a smaller percentage of the vote in our Board of Directors’ elections and other shareholder decisions.

Volatility in the market price and trading volume of our common shares could adversely impact the trading price of our common shares.

The stock market in recent years has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of companies like us. These broad market factors may materially reduce the market price of our common shares, regardless of our operating performance. The market price of our common shares, which has experienced significant price fluctuations in the past twelve months, could continue to fluctuate significantly for many reasons, including in response to the risks described herein or for reasons unrelated to our operations, such as reports by industry analysts, investor perceptions or negative announcements by our competitors or suppliers regarding their own performance, as well as industry conditions and general financial, economic and political instability.

Classified Board of Directors.

Our Board of Directors is divided into three classes serving staggered, three-year terms. This classified board provision could discourage a third party from making a tender offer for our shares or attempting to obtain control of us. It could also delay shareholders who do not agree with the policies of our Board of Directors from removing a majority of our Board of Directors for up to two years.

We are incorporated in Bermuda and it may not be possible for our investors to enforce U.S. judgments against us.

We are incorporated in Bermuda and substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States. In addition, one of our directors is a non-resident of the United States, and all or a substantial portion of such director’s assets are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for U.S. investors to serve process within the United States, upon us or our directors and executive officers, or to enforce a judgment against us for civil liabilities in United States courts.

In addition, you should not assume that courts in the countries in which we are incorporated or where our assets are located would enforce judgments of United States courts obtained in actions against us based upon the civil liability provisions of applicable United States federal and state securities laws or would enforce, in original actions, liabilities against us based on those laws.

Because we are a foreign corporation, you may not have the same rights that a shareholder in a U.S. corporation may have.

We are a Bermuda exempted company. Our memorandum of association and bye-laws and the Companies Act, 1981 of Bermuda, or the Companies Act, govern our affairs. The Companies Act does not as clearly establish your rights and the fiduciary responsibilities of our directors as do statutes and judicial precedent in some United States jurisdictions. Therefore, you may have more difficulty in protecting your interests as a shareholder in the face of actions by the management, directors or controlling shareholders than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a United States jurisdiction. There is a statutory remedy under Section 111 of the Companies Act which provides that a shareholder may seek redress in the courts as long as such shareholder can establish that our affairs are being conducted, or have been conducted, in a manner oppressive or prejudicial to the interests of some part of the shareholders, including such shareholder. However, you may not have the same rights that a shareholder in a United States corporation may have.




ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
 
Not applicable.
 
ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

Our Board of Directors oversees our risk management process, including risks from cybersecurity threats. Our Board of Directors reviews strategic risk exposure, and members of our management are responsible for addressing the material risks we face on a day-to-day basis. Our Board of Directors administers its cybersecurity risk oversight function directly as a whole as well as through our Audit Committee. Our Board and our Audit Committee receive updates from time to time from our management as appropriate on cybersecurity.
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Our Chief Financial Officer and our Information Technology department are primarily responsible to assess and manage material risks from cybersecurity threats and oversee key cybersecurity policies and processes. They are informed about policies and processes to monitor the prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents. Our Global IT Director has 20 years of experience in the design, implementation, and support of information technology infrastructures.

Network and information systems and other technologies play an important role in our business activities. We also obtain certain confidential, proprietary and personal information about our charterers, personnel, and vendors. To protect our data, we have employed cybersecurity protocols which are designed to work in tandem with internal controls to safeguard our information technology environment. Our information technology infrastructure is designed with commercial flexibility, data integrity, and safety in mind. We utilize a layered approach of systems and policies intended to provide a secure operating environment and promote business continuity. Our hardware and software systems are equipped with technology intended to offer access and intrusion protection, software and communications systems protections, and mitigate cybersecurity threats.

We have established policies and processes for assessing, identifying, and managing material risk from cybersecurity threats, and have integrated these processes into our overall risk management systems and processes. We routinely assess material risks from cybersecurity threats, including any potential unauthorized occurrence on or conducted through our information systems that may result in adverse effects on the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of our information systems or any information maintained in them.

We utilize industry standard software packages such as RSA and Cisco Firepower to secure our networks. We conduct regular risk assessments to identify cybersecurity threats. These risk assessments include identifying reasonably foreseeable potential internal and external risks, the likelihood of occurrence and any potential damage that could result from such risks, and the sufficiency of existing policies, procedures, systems, controls, and other safeguards in place to manage such risks. As part of our risk management process, we may engage third party experts to help identify and assess risks from cybersecurity threats. For example, we perform penetration tests, data recovery testing, security audits and risk assessments throughout the year. We hold online cybersecurity training for our employees. Our risk management process also encompasses cybersecurity risks associated with our use of third-party service providers. Following these risk assessments, we design, implement, and maintain safeguards intended to minimize the identified risks; address any identified gaps in existing safeguards; update existing safeguards as necessary; and monitor the effectiveness of our safeguards.

While we develop and maintain protocols, controls, and systems, that seek to prevent cybersecurity incidents from occurring, we must constantly monitor and update these protocols, controls, and systems in the face of sophisticated and rapidly evolving attempts to overcome them. The occurrence of cybersecurity incidents could cause a variety of material adverse impacts on our business, although no such incident has had any such impact to date. For additional information regarding whether any risks from cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous cybersecurity incidents, have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect our company, including our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition, please refer to Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in this report, including the risk factor entitled “Security breaches and other disruptions to our information technology infrastructure could interfere with our operations and expose us to liability.” and Item 1, “Business – Environmental and Other Regulations - Safety Management System Requirements” in this report.

 ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Phoenix Bulk Carriers (US) LLC, the administrative agent for the Company, maintains office space at 109 Long Wharf, Newport, Rhode Island 02840. The building is owned by 109 Long Wharf LLC (“Long Wharf”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company since September 1, 2014. Long Wharf was previously owned by certain of the Company’s Executive Officers and Directors. The Company leases office space in Copenhagen, Athens, Singapore and Port Everglades.  

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
We have not been involved in any legal proceedings which we believe are likely to have, or have had a significant effect on our business, financial position, results of operations or cash flows, nor are we aware of any proceedings that are pending or threatened which we believe are likely to have a significant effect on our business, financial position, results of operations or liquidity. From time to time, we may be subject to legal proceedings and claims in the ordinary course of business, principally personal injury and property casualty claims. We expect that these claims would be covered by insurance, subject to customary deductibles. Those claims, even if lacking merit, could result in the expenditure of significant financial and managerial resources. 

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
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Not applicable.
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PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
Market Information
 
Our common shares have been traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol PANL since our common shares began public trading on October 3, 2014.The Company's internet address is www.pangaeals.com.

Holders of Record
 
As of the close of business on March 14, 2024, there were approximately 14 stockholders of record of our common stock. The actual number of stockholders is greater than this number of record holders, and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners, but whose shares are held in street name by brokers and other nominees. This number of holders of record also does not include stockholders whose shares may be held in trust by other entities.
 
Dividends 

Under our By-laws, our board of directors may declare dividends or distributions out of contributed surplus and may also pay interim dividends to be paid in cash, shares of the Company’s stock or any combination thereof. Our board of directors’ objective is to generate competitive returns for our shareholders. Any dividends declared will be in the sole discretion of the board of directors and will depend upon earnings, restrictions in our debt agreements described later in this prospectus, market prospects, current capital expenditure programs and investment opportunities, the provisions of Bermuda law affecting the payment of distributions to shareholders and other factors. Under Bermuda law, the board of directors has no discretion to declare or pay a dividend if there are reasonable grounds for believing that the Company is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due or the realizable value of the Company’s assets would thereby be less than its liabilities.
 
In addition, since we are a holding company with no material assets other than the shares of our subsidiaries through which we conduct our operations, our ability to pay dividends will depend on our subsidiaries’ distributing to us their earnings and cash flows. The Company paid a quarterly cash dividend ranging from $0.035 to $0.10 per common share commencing in May 2019. We cannot assure you that we will be able to pay regular quarterly dividends, and our ability to pay dividends will be subject to the limitations set forth above and in the section of this Form 10-K titled “Risk Factors.” The Company has dividends payable of $1.1 million at December 31, 2023. On February 15, 2024, the Company's Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.10 per common share, to be paid on March 15, 2024, to all shareholders of record as of March 1, 2024.

Use of Proceeds
 
Not applicable
 
Purchases of Equity Securities by Issuer and Affiliates
 
Not applicable

Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plan
 
See Part III, Item 12 for information regarding securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plan.

 ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
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(in thousands, except shipping days data)
As of and for the years ended December 31,
 20232022
Selected Data from the Consolidated Statements of Income 
Voyage revenue$468,581 $640,034 
Charter revenue23,716 59,673 
Terminal & stevedore revenue6,971 — 
Total revenue499,268 699,707 
Voyage expense227,435 262,089 
Charter hire expense111,034 222,332 
Vessel operating expenses55,784 56,859 
Terminal Expenses5,809 — 
Total cost of transportation and service revenue400,061 541,280 
Vessel depreciation and amortization29,339 29,377 
Gross Profit69,868 129,050 
Other operating expenses23,512 20,216 
Loss on impairment of vessels 3,008 
Loss on sale of vessels1,739 318 
Income from operations44,617 105,508 
Total other expense, net(16,079)(20,000)
Net income28,538 85,508 
Income attributable to noncontrolling interests(2,214)(6,016)
Net income attributable to Pangaea Logistics Solutions Ltd.$26,323 $79,490 
Net income from continuing operations per common share information
Basic income per share$0.59 $1.79 
Diluted income per share$0.58 $1.76 
Weighted-average common shares Outstanding - basic44,774 44,399 
Weighted-average common shares Outstanding - diluted45,475 45,060 
Cash dividends declared per share$0.40 $0.30 
Adjusted EBITDA (1)
79,724 140,898 
Shipping Days (2)
Voyage days14,922 15,237 
Time charter days1,789 2,478 
Total shipping days16,711 17,715 
TCE Rates ($/day)
$15,849 $24,434 
Selected Data from the Consolidated Balance Sheets  
Cash and cash equivalents$99,038 $128,385 
Total assets$705,180 $748,241 
Total secured debt, including obligations under finance leases$264,435 $299,481 
Total shareholders' equity$370,196 $368,722 
Selected Data from the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows  
Net cash provided by operating activities$53,787 $134,801 
Net cash used in investing activities$(15,982)$(28,509)
Net cash used in by financing activities$(67,152)$(34,117)

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Amounts in the table above have been calculated based on unrounded numbers. Accordingly, certain amounts may not appear to recalculate due to the effect of rounding.

(1)Adjusted EBITDA represents operating earnings before interest expense, interest income, income taxes, depreciation and amortization, loss on sale of vessels, share-based compensation and other non-operating income and/or expense, and other non-recurring items, if any. Adjusted EBITDA is included because it is used by management and certain investors to measure operating performance and is also reviewed periodically as a measure of financial performance by Pangaea's Board of Directors. Adjusted EBITDA is not an item recognized by the generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP, and should not be considered as an alternative to net income, operating income, or any other indicator of a company's operating performance required by U.S. GAAP. Pangaea’s definition of Adjusted EBITDA used here may not be comparable to the definition of EBITDA used by other companies.

(2)Shipping days are defined as the aggregate number of days in a period during which its owned or chartered-in vessels are performing either a voyage charter (voyage days) or time charter (time charter days).

The reconciliation of gross profit to net transportation and service revenue and income from operations to Adjusted EBITDA is as follows:
(in thousands)Years Ended December 31,
20232022
Net Transportation and Service Revenue (3)
Gross Profit (4)
$69,868 $129,050 
Add:
Vessel Depreciation and Amortization29,339 29,377 
Net transportation and service revenue$99,207 $158,427 
Adjusted EBITDA
Net Income$28,538 $85,508 
Interest expense, net13,916 21,490 
Depreciation and amortization30,070 29,490 
EBITDA$72,524 $136,487 
Loss on sale of vessel1,739 318 
Loss on impairment of vessels 3,008 
Share-based compensation2,088 1,768 
Unrealized gain on derivative instruments, net2,925 (682)
Other non-recurring items448 — 
Adjusted EBITDA$79,724 $140,898 

Amounts in the table above have been calculated based on unrounded numbers. Accordingly, certain amounts may not appear to recalculate due to the effect of rounding.
 
(3)Net transportation and service revenue represents total revenue less the total direct costs of transportation and services, which includes charter hire, voyage and vessel operating expenses, and terminal & stevedore expenses. Net transportation and service revenue is included because it is used by management and certain investors to measure performance by comparison to other logistic service providers. Net transportation and service revenue is not an item recognized by the generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP, and should not be considered as an alternative to net income, operating income, or any other indicator of a company's operating performance required by U.S. GAAP. Pangaea’s definition of net transportation and service revenue used here may not be comparable to an operating measure used by other companies.

(4)Gross profit represents total revenue less total cost of transportation and service revenue and less vessel depreciation and amortization.




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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and footnotes thereto contained in this report.
 
Forward Looking Statements
 
All statements other than statements of historical fact included in this Form 10-K including, without limitation, statements under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” regarding our financial position, business strategy and the plans and objectives of management for future operations, are forward looking statements. When used in this Form 10-K, words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend” and similar expressions, as they relate to us or our management, identify forward looking statements. Such forward looking statements are based on the beliefs of management, as well as assumptions made by, and information currently available to, our management. Actual results could differ materially from those contemplated by the forward looking statements as a result of the risk factors and other factors detailed in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including the risk factors set forth in Part I, Item 1A, above. All subsequent written or oral forward looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are qualified in their entirety by this paragraph.
 
Overview 
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
As discussed in Note 3, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies," of our Financial Statements, which more fully describes our significant accounting policies, the preparation of consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires us to exercise judgment in the process of applying our accounting policies. It also requires that we make estimates and assumptions about future events that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. The accounting policies and estimates that we believe are most critical to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations are listed below. We believe these policies require the most difficult, subjective, and complex judgments in estimating the effect of inherent uncertainties.
 
Revenue Recognition: Revenues are generated from time charters and voyage charters. Time charter revenues are recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the respective time charter agreements as service is provided. Voyage revenues represent revenues earned by the Company, principally from providing transportation services under voyage charters. A voyage charter involves the carriage of a specific amount and type of cargo on a load port to discharge port basis, subject to various cargo handling terms. Under a voyage charter, the service revenues are earned and recognized ratably over the duration of the voyage. A contract is accounted for when it has approval and commitment from both parties, the rights and payment terms are identified, the contract has commercial substance and collectability of consideration is probable.
 
Estimated losses under a voyage charter are provided for in full at the time such losses become probable. Demurrage, which is included in voyage revenues, represents payments by the charterer to the vessel owner when loading and discharging time exceed the stipulated time in the voyage charter. Demurrage is measured in accordance with the provisions of the respective charter agreements and the circumstances under which demurrage revenues arise. Demurrage revenue is included in the calculation of voyage revenue and recognized ratably over the duration of the voyage to which it pertains. Voyage revenue recognized is presented net of address commissions.

Charter revenues relate to a time charter arrangement under which the Company is paid to provide transportation services on a per day basis for a specified period of time. Revenues from time charters are earned and recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the charter, as the charters do not fall under the scope of ASC 606. Revenue is not earned when vessels are offhire.

Terminal & Stevedore Revenue. Terminal & Stevedore revenue is derived from inbound and outbound cargo handling services at ports which the Company operates in. Gross revenue is earned typically based on a per-unit rate for volumes handled.
 
Long-lived Assets Impairment Considerations: The carrying values of the Company’s vessels may not represent their fair market value or the amount that could be obtained by selling the vessel at any point in time because the market prices of second-hand vessels tend to fluctuate with changes in charter rates and the pricing of new vessels, which tend to be cyclical. The carrying value of each group of vessels classified as held and used are reviewed for potential impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of a particular group may not be fully recoverable. In such instances, an
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impairment charge would be recognized if the estimate of the undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the group and its eventual disposition is less than its carrying value. This assessment is made at the assets group level, which represents the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of other groups of assets. The asset groups established by the Company are defined by vessel size and major characteristic or trade.

The significant factors and assumptions used in the undiscounted projected net operating cash flow analysis include the Company’s estimate of future time charter equivalent "TCE" rates based on current rates under existing charters and contracts. When existing contracts expire, the Company uses an estimated TCE based on actual results and extends these rates out to the end of the vessel’s useful life. TCE rates can be highly volatile, may affect the fair value of the Company’s vessels and may have a significant impact on the Company’s ability to recover the carrying amount of its fleet. Accordingly, the volatility is contemplated in the undiscounted projected net operating cash flow by using a sensitivity analysis based on percent changes in the TCE rates. The Company prepares a series of scenarios in an attempt to capture the range of possible trends and outcomes. Projected net operating cash flows are net of brokerage and address commissions and assume no revenue on scheduled offhire days. The Company uses the current vessel operating expense budget, estimated costs of drydocking and historical general and administrative expenses as the basis for its expected outflows, and applies an inflation factor it considers appropriate. The net of these inflows and outflows, plus an estimated salvage value, constitutes the projected undiscounted future cash flows. If these projected cash flows do not exceed the carrying value of the asset group, an impairment charge would be calculated. Measurement of the impairment loss is based on the fair value of the asset as provided by third parties.

In both the first and fourth quarters of 2023, the Company identified triggering events associated with the sale of vessels, where the carrying value exceeded their fair value. On January 18, 2023, the Company entered into a memorandum of agreement to sell the m/v Bulk Newport for $8.9 million in net consideration after brokerage commissions, resulting in a recorded loss on sale of $1.2 million in the first quarter of 2023. Similarly, on October 17, 2023, the Company signed a memorandum of agreement to sell the m/v Bulk Trident for $9.5 million in net consideration after brokerage commissions, resulting in a loss on sale of $0.6 million in the fourth quarter of 2023.

The Company conducted an impairment analysis on each asset group and determined that the estimated undiscounted future cash flows exceeded their carrying amounts. Therefore, no additional loss on impairment was recognized. Also the Company concluded that no other triggering event had occurred during the remaining period of the 2023 which would require impairment testing.

During the first quarter of 2022, the Company determined that a triggering event occurred related to the sale of a vessel, as the carrying value exceeded its fair value. On April 20, 2022, the Company signed a memorandum of agreement to sell the m/v Bulk Pangaea for a total net consideration of $8.6 million after brokerage commissions. As a result, we recorded an impairment charge of $3.0 million in the first quarter of 2022. The impairment analysis did not indicate any impairment on the remaining fleet. Also the Company concluded that no triggering event had occurred during the remaining period of the 2022 which would require impairment testing.

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The table set forth below indicates the purchase price of the Company’s vessels and the net carrying amount of each vessel as of December 31, 2023.
 
(In thousands of U.S. dollars)
Vessel NameDate AcquiredSizeYear BuildPurchase PriceNet Carrying
Amount
m/v Bulk EnduranceJanuary 2017UMX - 1C2017$28,000 $21,859 
m/v Bulk DestinyJanuary 2017UMX - 1C201724,000 18,770 
m/v Bulk PrudenceJune 2023UMX201426,650 26,534 
m/v Bulk CourageousApril 2021UMX 201316,798 15,145 
m/v Nordic OasisJanuary 2016PMX-1A201632,600 24,854 
m/v Nordic OlympicFebruary 2015PMX-1A201532,600 23,306 
m/v Nordic OdinFebruary 2015PMX-1A201532,625 23,412 
m/v Nordic OshimaSeptember 2014PMX-1A201433,709 22,938 
m/v Nordic OrionApril 2012PMX-1A201132,363 19,790 
m/v Nordic OdysseyApril 2012PMX-1A201032,691 18,950 
m/v Bulk ValorJune 2021SMX201318,182 16,434 
m/v Bulk FriendshipSeptember 2019SMX201114,447 12,811 
m/v Bulk SachuestOctober 2022SMX201017,364 16,487 
m/v Bulk IndependenceMay 2019SMX200814,393 13,753 
m/v Bulk PrideDecember 2017SMX200814,023 11,194 
m/v Bulk FreedomJune 2017SMX20059,016 8,150 
m/v Bulk SpiritFebruary 2019SMX200913,000 12,970 
m/v Bulk Xaymaca August 2018PMX200614,010 11,624 
m/v Bulk ConcordFebruary 2022PMX200919,900 18,966 
m/v Bulk PromiseJuly 2021PMX201318,633 16,970 
m/v Nordic NuluujaakMay 2021Post Panamax 1A202138,424 36,088 
m/v Nordic QinnguaJune 2021Post Panamax 1A202138,471 36,019 
m/v Nordic SanngijuqSeptember 2021Post Panamax 1A202137,920 35,623 
m/v Nordic SikuNovember 2021Post Panamax 1A202137,935 36,010 
Miss Nora G. PearlNovember 2017Deck Barge19793,833 1,821 
Total  $601,586 $500,477 

 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements

On of January 1, 2023, we adopted ASU No. 2016-13, "Financial Instruments—Credit Losses" ("ASU 2016-13"). ASU 2016-13 amends the current financial instrument impairment model by requiring entities to use a forward-looking approach based on expected losses to estimate credit losses on certain types of financial instruments, including trade receivables. The adoption of the accounting standard did not have any material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-04, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting,” which provides optional expedients and exceptions for applying generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) to contracts, hedging relationships and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued because of reference rate reform. In January 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-01, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Scope,” which clarified that certain optional expedients and exceptions in Topic 848 apply to derivatives that are affected by the discounting transition due to reference rate reform. In December 2022, the FASB issued ASU No. 2022-06, "Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Deferral of the Sunset Date of Topic 848," which defers the sunset date of Topic 848 from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2024, after which entities will no longer be permitted to apply the relief under Topic 848. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that adopting this new accounting standard will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

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In November 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2023-07, Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures (“ASU 2023-07”), which amends the existing segment reporting guidance (ASC Topic 280 — Segment Reporting (“ASC 280”)) to improve reportable segment disclosure requirements, primarily through enhanced disclosures about significant segment expenses that are regularly provided to the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) and included within each reported measure of segment profit or loss, an amount for other segment items by reportable segment and a description of its composition, the title and position of the CODM and an explanation of how the CODM uses the reported measure(s) of segment profit or loss in assessing segment performance and deciding how to allocate resources. In addition, companies with a single reporting segment will have to provide all of the disclosures required by ASC 280, including the significant segment expense disclosures.
The amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of our pending adoption of this standard on its financial statement disclosures.

Important Financial and Operational Terms and Concepts
 
The Company uses a variety of financial and operational terms and concepts when analyzing its performance.

These include revenue recognition, deferred revenue, allowance for credit losses, vessels and depreciation and long-lived assets impairment considerations, as defined above as well as the following:
 
Voyage Expenses. The Company incurs expenses for voyage charters, including bunkers (fuel), port charges, canal tolls, brokerage commissions and cargo handling operations, which are expensed as incurred.
 
Charter Expenses. The Company charters in vessels to supplement its owned fleet to support its voyage charter operations. The Company hires vessels under time charters with third party vessel owners, and recognizes the charter hire payments as an expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the charter. Charter hire payments are typically made in advance, and the unrecognized portion is reflected as advance hire in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Under the time charters, the vessel owner is responsible for the vessel operating costs such as crews, maintenance and repairs, insurance, and stores.
 
Vessel Operating Expenses. Vessel operating expenses represent the cost to operate the Company’s owned vessels. Vessel operating expenses include crew hire and related costs, the cost of insurance, expenses relating to repairs and maintenance, the cost of spares and consumable stores, tonnage taxes, other miscellaneous expenses, and technical management fees. These expenses are recognized as incurred. Technical management services include day-to-day vessel operations, performing general vessel maintenance, ensuring regulatory and classification society compliance, arranging the hire of crew, and purchasing stores, supplies, and spare parts. 

Terminal & Stevedore Expenses. Terminal & Stevedore expenses represent the cost to provide the Company's cargo handling services. Terminal & Stevedore expenses include direct labor and related costs, the cost of insurance, expenses relating to repairs and maintenance of shore based equipment, trucking, and other direct miscellaneous expenses.

Fleet Data. The Company believes that the measures for analyzing future trends in its results of operations consist of the following:
 
Shipping days. The Company defines shipping days as the aggregate number of days in a period during which its owned or chartered-in vessels are performing either a voyage charter (voyage days) or a time charter (time charter days).
 
Daily vessel operating expenses. The Company defines daily vessel operating expenses as vessel operating expenses divided by ownership days for the period. Vessel operating expenses include crew hire and related costs, the cost of insurance, expenses relating to repairs and maintenance, the costs of spares and consumable stores, tonnage taxes, other miscellaneous expenses, and technical management fees.
 
Chartered in days. The Company defines chartered in days as the aggregate number of days in a period during which it chartered in vessels from third party vessel owners.
 
Time Charter Equivalent ‘‘TCE’’ rates. The Company defines TCE rates as total revenues less voyage expenses divided by the length of the voyage, which is consistent with industry standards. TCE rate is a common shipping industry performance measure used primarily to compare daily earnings generated by vessels on time charters with daily earnings generated by vessels on
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voyage charters, because rates for vessels on voyage charters are generally not expressed in per-day amounts while rates for vessels on time charters generally are expressed in per-day amounts.
 
Business Overview
 
The dry bulk sector of the transportation and logistics industry is cyclical and can be volatile due to changes in supply of vessels and demand for transportation of dry bulk commodities. After reaching levels not seen in over a decade in 2021, the dry bulk freight market remained strong in historical terms in the first half of 2022 before slowing down in the second half of the year due to decreased freight demand. This slowdown continued through the first quarter of 2023, with signs of improvement throughout the remainder of 2023. The Baltic Dry Index (“BDI”), a measure of dry bulk market performance, averaged 1,426 for 2023, compared to an average of 1,832 for 2022, down approximately 22%. More specifically, and reflecting the composition of the Company's fleet, the average published market rates for Supramax and Panamax vessels decreased approximately 43% from an average of $20,012 in 2022 to $11,391 in 2023. We have historically experienced fluctuations in our results of operations on a quarterly and annual basis due to the volatility of the dry bulk sector. We expect to experience continued fluctuations in our operating results in the foreseeable future due to a variety of factors, including cargo demand for vessels, supply of vessels, competition, and seasonality.

Effect of Inflation

High inflation in the United States and in many of the global economies where the Company operates has impacted vessel operating costs, including crew travel, transportation of equipment and spares, and drydocking costs. We expect crew payroll expenses to continue to increase over the near and medium future, and other inflated cost changes may make our vessel daily operating costs higher. Increases in the cost of fuel consumed on voyages are usually absorbed by cargo market rates passed on to customers or covered by fuel cost pass through under the terms of long-term contracts. Because interest rates on a large portion of the Company’s long-term debt, and finance leases is fixed or capped, the impact of higher interest rates on the Company’s earnings is limited.

TCE Performance

For the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company's TCE rates were down 35% to $15,849 from $24,434 for the year ended December 31, 2022, while the overall dry bulk market rates declined by approximately 43% for the year ended December 31, 2023. The Company's achieved TCE rate for the year ended December 31, 2023 outperformed the average of the Baltic Panamax and Supramax market indexes and exceeded the average market rates by approximately 39% due to its long-term contracts of affreightment, ("COAs"), its specialized fleet and its cargo-focused strategy.

2023 Highlights

Net income attributable to Pangaea Logistics Solutions Ltd. was $26.3 million for twelve months ended December 31, 2023 as compared to $79.5 million for the same period of 2022.
Diluted net income per share was $0.58 for twelve months ended December 31, 2023, as compared to $1.76 for the same period of 2022.
Time Charter Equivalent ("TCE") rates earned by Pangaea was $15,849 per day for twelve months ended December 31, 2023 and $24,434 per day for the same period of 2022.
Adjusted EBITDA was $79.7 million for twelve months ended December 31, 2023, as compared to $140.9 million for the same period of 2022.
At the end of the year, Pangaea had $99.0 million in cash, and cash equivalents.

Results of Operations
 
Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared to Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2022 
 
Revenues
 
Pangaea’s revenues are derived predominantly from voyage charters and time charters. Total revenue for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, was $499.3 million compared to $699.7 million, for the same period in 2022, a 29% decrease. The number of shipping days decreased 6% to 16,711 in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, from 17,715 for the same period in 2022. The revenue decrease was primarily due to a 35% decrease in the average TCE rate, which was $15,849 per day for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023, compared to $24,434 per day for the same period in 2022.
 
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Components of revenue are as follows:

Voyage revenues decreased by 27% for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 to $468.6 million from $640.0 million for the same period in 2022. The decrease in voyage revenues was primarily due to lower average TCE rates earned throughout 2023 due to declined market rates. The number of voyage days decreased 2% to 14,922 for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023 from 15,237 for the same period in 2022.
 
Charter revenues decreased to $23.7 million from $59.7 million, or 60%, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022. The decrease in charter revenues was due to a decrease in time charter days as well as a decrease in charter hire rates evidenced by the decrease in index rates for Panamax and Supramax vessels of approximately 43% compared to the same period of 2022. The time charter days were down 28% to 1,789 in the twelve months ended December 31, 2023 from 2,478 in the twelve months ended December 31, 2022. The time charter revenue per day was $13,258 for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023 compared to $24,078 for the same period of 2022. The optionality of our chartering strategy, in which the Company charters vessels in on short term periods with market available days during the charter period, allows the Company to selectively release excess ship days, if any, into the market under time charter arrangements.

Terminal & Stevedore revenues increased to $7.0 million, for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023, as a result of the company's acquisition of port and terminal operations in June 2023.

Voyage Expenses
 
Voyage expenses for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 were $227.4 million compared to $262.1 million for the year ended 2022, a decrease of approximately 13%. The decrease is primarily due to a decrease in bunker consumption expense of $40.7 million driven by a decrease in bunker fuel prices, partially offset by an increase in port charges and canal tolls of $2.3 million. Total costs of bunkers consumed decreased by 25% for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022. The port charges and canal tolls increased primarily due to an increase in the market cost of canal tolls over the period.

 Charter Hire Expenses
 
The Company charters in vessels, typically on short term basis, from other shipowners to supplement its owned fleet. Charter hire expenses paid to third party shipowners were $111.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $222.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, a 50% decrease. The decrease in charter hire expenses was primarily due to a decrease in market rates to charter-in vessels and a decrease in the number of chartered-in days from 8,971 days in the twelve months ended December 31, 2022 to 7,933 days for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023. Charter hire expenses on a per day basis were $13,996 for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023 and $24,783 for the same period in 2022. The average published market rates for Supramax and Panamax vessels decreased approximately 43% from an average of $20,012 in 2022 to $11,391 in the same period of 2023. The Company's flexible charter-in strategy allows it to supplement its owned fleet with short term chartered-in tonnage at prevailing market prices, when needed, to meet cargo demand.

Vessel Operating Expenses

Vessel operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2023 were $55.8 million, compared to $56.9 million for the same period in 2022, a decrease of approximately 2%. Ownership days for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 were 8,988 and 8,962, respectively. Excluding technical management fees, vessel operating expenses on a per day basis were $5,703 for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023 and $5,804 for the same period in 2022. Technical management fees were approximately $4.5 million and $4.8 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. The decrease in vessel operating expenses was also attributable a decrease in crew expenses due to a decrease in crewing costs, crew changes and expenses related to COVID-19 and the war in Ukraine in the prior year. The Company continues to face general inflationary pressures particularly impacting the cost of lubes, stores and spares.

Terminal & Stevedore Expenses

Terminal & Stevedore expenses increased to $5.8 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2023, as a result of the company's acquisition of port and terminal operations in June 2023.
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General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses increased from $20.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 to $22.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. The increase was primarily due to an increase in costs associated with the acquisition of port and terminal operations in June of 2023.

Depreciation and Amortization

We depreciate the cost of our vessels on a straight-line basis over the expected useful life of each vessel. Depreciation is based on the cost of the vessel less its estimated residual value. We estimate the useful life of our vessels ranging between 25 years to 30 year from the date of initial delivery from the shipyard to the original owner. We estimate the scrap rate to be $300/lwt to compute each vessel's residual value.

Depreciation and amortization expense increased $0.6 million or 2%. The increase was primarily due to the increase in ownership days to 8,988 days in 2023 from 8,962 days in 2022. The increase in ownership days is due to the acquisition of vessels, offset by vessel sales in the current year, which was part of a fleet renewal plan. The increase in depreciation and amortization expense was due to an increase in drydocking amortization. Three drydockings were completed in 2023 and four drydockings were completed in 2022.

Loss on sale of vessels
 
The Company recorded a loss of $1.7 million on the sale of the m/v Bulk Trident and m/v Bulk Newport in the year ended December 31, 2023. The Company recorded a loss of $0.3 million on the sale of the m/v Bulk Pangaea in the year ended December 31, 2022.

Impairment of vessels

During the twelve months ended December 31, 2022, the Company recorded $3.0 million of impairment of vessel assets. On April 20, 2022 the Company entered into an agreement to sell the Bulk Pangaea for $8.8 million, the sale was finalized and the vessel delivered to its new owner on June 23, 2022. No loss on impairment of vessels were recorded in the year ended December 31, 2023.

Unrealized (Loss) Gain on Derivative Instruments
 
The Company assesses risk associated with fluctuating future freight rates and bunker prices, when appropriate, actively hedges identified economic risk that may impact the operating income of long-term cargo contracts with forward freight agreements or bunker swaps. The usage of such derivatives can lead to fluctuations in the Company’s reported results from operations on a period-to-period basis. The Company recorded an unrealized loss on derivative instruments of $2.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2023 and an unrealized gain on derivative instruments of $0.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2022, respectively. Refer to Note 7 Margin Account, Derivative and Fair Value Measures to the consolidated financial statements for further information.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Liquidity and Cash Needs
 
The Company has historically financed its capital requirements with cash flow from operations, the issuance of common stock, proceeds from non-controlling interests, and proceeds from long-term debt and finance lease financing arrangements. The Company has used its capital primarily to fund operations, vessel acquisitions, and the repayment of debt and the associated interest expense. The Company may consider debt or additional equity financing alternatives from time to time. However, if market conditions deteriorate, the Company may be unable to raise additional debt or equity financing on acceptable terms or at all. As a result, the Company may be unable to pursue opportunities to expand its business.
 
At December 31, 2023 and 2022, the Company had working capital of $86.5 million and $130.3 million, respectively. The decrease in working capital was primarily driven by (i) $34.5 million of cash acquisitions, including the m/v Bulk Prudence and the port and terminal operation in June of 2023, (ii) $20.4 million reclassifications of long-term debt to current portion of long-term debt, and (iii) partially offset by proceeds from the sale of vessels and operating income generated during the twelve months ended December 31, 2023.
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Considerations made by management in assessing the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern are its ability to consistently generate positive cash flows from operations, which were approximately $53.8 million in 2023, and $134.8 million in 2022; its excess of cash and cash restricted by facility agents over the current portion of secured long-term debt and finance lease obligations, and its focus on contract employment (COAs). In addition, the Company has demonstrated its ability to adapt to changing market conditions by changing the chartered-in profile to meet its cargo commitments and react to volatile market rates. The Company believes that future operating cash flows together with cash on hand, availability of borrowings, and contributions from non-controlling interests will be sufficient to meet our future operating and capital expenditure cash requirements for the next 12 months and the foreseeable future. For more information on the results of operations, see Part II. ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS - Results of Operations.
 
The table below summarizes our primary sources and uses of cash for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. We have derived these summarized statements of cash flows from the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Amounts in the table below have been calculated based on unrounded numbers. Accordingly, certain amounts may not appear to recalculate due to the effect of rounding.

(in millions)20232022
Net cash provided by/(used in):
Operating activities:
Net income adjusted for non-cash items$65.0 $122.8 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net(11.2)12.0 
Operating activities53.8 134.8 
Investing activities(16.0)(28.5)
Financing activities(67.2)(34.1)
Net change$(29.3)$72.2 
 
Operating Activities  

Net cash provided by operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2023 was $53.8 million, compared to net cash provided by operating activities of $134.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2022. The cash flows from operating activities decreased compared to the same period in the prior year primarily due to the decrease in income from operations, and timing of customer receipts and supplier payments.
 
Investing Activities  

Net cash used in investing activities during the twelve months ended December 31, 2023 was $16.0 million compared to net cash used in investing activities was $28.5 million for the same period in 2022. During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company (i) paid $27.3 million for the purchase of one vessel and other vessel improvements and (ii) paid $7.2 million net, for cash acquisition of a port and terminal operation. This use of cash was partially offset by the proceeds from the sale of two vessels for $17.3 million. Net cash used in investing activities of $28.5 million in 2022 primarily consists of $35.7 million for vessel acquisitions partially offset by the proceeds from the sale of one vessel for $8.4 million.
 
Financing Activities  

Net cash used in financing activities in 2023 was $67.2 million compared to net cash used in financing activities of $34.1 million for the same period of 2022. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2023, the Company repaid $15.8 million of long term debt, and $20.2 million of finance leases. The Company also paid $18.1 million of common stock cash dividends and $10.4 million cash dividends to non-controlling interests.

Net cash used in financing activities was $34.1 million for 2022. During the twelve months ended December 31, 2022, the Company received $8.5 million in proceeds from long-term debt, $15.0 million in proceeds from finance leases. The Company repaid $15.4 million of long term debt, $15.8 million of finance leases and $5.0 million of other long term liabilities. The Company also paid $13.4 million of common stock cash dividends and $5.0 million cash dividends to non-controlling interests.

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Capital Expenditures
 
The Company’s capital expenditures relate to the purchase of vessels and interests in vessels, and to capital improvements to its vessels which are expected to enhance the revenue earning capabilities and safety of these vessels. The Company’s owned or partially owned and controlled fleet at December 31, 2023 includes: nine Panamax drybulk carriers (six of which are Ice-Class 1A); seven Supramax drybulk carriers, two Ultramax Ice-Class IC, two Ultramax and four Post Panamax Ice Class 1A drybulk vessels.
 
In addition to vessel acquisitions that the Company may undertake in future periods, its other major capital expenditures include funding its program of regularly scheduled drydockings necessary to make improvements to its vessels, as well as to comply with international shipping standards and environmental laws and regulations. This includes installation of BWTS required under new regulations, the cost of which will be $0.5 million to $0.7 million per vessel. The Company has some flexibility regarding the timing of drydocking, but the total cost is unpredictable. The Company expects to perform two special surveys in 2024 at an aggregate total cost of approximately $2.0 million. The Company expects to perform four intermediate surveys in 2024 at an aggregate total cost of approximately $0.3 million. The Company estimates that offhire related to the surveys and related repair work is ten to twenty days per vessel, depending on the size and condition of the vessel. Funding of these requirements is anticipated to be met with cash from operations. The Company anticipates that this process of recertification will require it to reposition these vessels from a discharge port to shipyard facilities, which will reduce the Company’s available days and operating days during that period.

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Borrowing Activities

Long-term debt consists of the following:  

December 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Interest Rate (%) (1)
Maturity Date
Bulk Nordic Odyssey (MI) Corp., Bulk Nordic Orion (MI) Corp. Senior Secured Term Loan Facility (2) (3)
12,512,080 14,395,409 2.95 %December 2027
Bulk Nordic Oshima (MI) Corp., Bulk Nordic Odin (MI) Corp., Bulk Nordic Olympic (MI) Corp., Bulk Nordic Oasis (MI) Corp. Secured Term Loan Facility (2) (3) (4)
39,800,000 44,600,000 3.38 %June 2027
The Amended Senior Facility - Dated May 13, 2019 (formerly The Amended Senior Facility - Dated December 21, 2017) (4)
Bulk Nordic Six Ltd. - Tranche A (2)
9,033,325 10,099,993 4.39 %May 2024
Bulk Nordic Six Ltd. - Tranche B
 2,070,000 — %Paid in full in January 10, 2023
Bulk Pride - Tranche C (2)
1,900,000 3,000,000 5.39 %May 2024
Bulk Independence - Tranche E (2)
9,500,000 10,500,000 3.54 %May 2024
Bulk Valor Corp. Loan and Security Agreement (2)
10,087,642 11,424,507 3.29 %June 2028
Bulk Promise Corp.(2)
9,685,334 11,069,630 5.45 %October 2027
Bulk Sachuest (2)
$7,733,094 $8,500,000 6.19 %October 2029
109 Long Wharf Commercial Term Loan 374,466 — %Paid in full in January 24, 2023
Total$