20-F 1 d664344d20f.htm FORM 20-F Form 20-F
falsePatria Investments Ltd0001825570FYCTA - Cumulative translation adjustmentThe Group is the lessee in lease agreements for which the underlying assets are the office spaces located in São Paulo, Grand Cayman, Montevideo, London and Santiago. Depreciation expense relating to these assets was recognized in 2021 for the amount of US$ 1,201 (US$ 1,026 and US$ 1,273 for 2020 and 2019), see note 20 and note 23.Short-term investments are liquid investment funds, with portfolios made of term deposits, equities, government bonds, and other short-term liquid securities.Deposits and guarantees on lease agreements are subject to reimbursement at the end of the lease contract period. Interest is not charged on these deposits.Prepaid expenses are composed mainly of IT services paid in advance, such as renewal of licenses and technical support services. These items will be recorded as administrative expenses in the year they are related to.IPO costs related to the Company’s Initial Public Offering (IPO), which was concluded on January 21, 2021. The December 31, 2020 amounts are costs allocated to the primary offering and have been transferred to equity as transaction costs upon IPO’s conclusion.The balance of US$ nil as of December 31, 2021 and US$ 47 as of December 31, 2020 represents the amount receivable from the Officer’s Fund related to reimbursable costs incurred by the Group. For more details, see note 30(b).Advances to suppliers are advances paid for services not yet received. The Company reviews such amounts and records the portion related to the period in the income statement on an accrual basis.The non-current balance is equal to management fees receivable of US$ 11 million from PBPE Fund IV in a single installment on December 31, 2023. No interest is charged and the impact of the adjustment to amortized cost using the effective interest rate method at the date of initial recognition is not material.An amount of US$ 33.5 million reflected under current balances is related to performance fees receivable determined in accordance with the investment funds offering documents, based on the expected value for which it is highly probable that a significant reversal will not subsequently occur. In addition, management fees of US$ 13 million from current year and US$ 22 million from prior years are related to management fees from PBPE Fund IV (Ontario), L.P. (“PBPE Fund IV”), which are due by December 31, 2022 noting that the receipt date was renegotiated based on the estimated date of realization of PBPE Fund IV’s investmentsPlacement agents refer to amounts capitalized relating to agreements with investment placement agents relating to fundraising. These assets are amortized based on the estimated duration of the respective investment funds. In case of an early liquidation of an investment fund, the amortization period is also adjusted. Contractual rights refer to the management of the Infrastructure GP II, Ltd. and Infrastructure III SLP, Ltd. investment funds. These rights were recorded as a result of the acquisition of control of the P2 Group on December 25, 2015 from Promon International Inc. The purchase agreement includes contingent consideration that will be paid to Promon International Inc. based on the performance of P2 Brasil Private Infrastructure General Partner II Ltd., expected to be settled in 2022 and only if the performance is achieved. As of the date of these financial statements, no amounts were due relating to these agreements. These intangible assets were recorded based on their respective fair values using estimates of expected future earnings on the acquisition date.Non-contractual customer relationships refer to client relationships of Moneda, acquired for the benefit of the Group through the business combination through rendering of ordinary business activities by Moneda entities.The Group recognized goodwill in the current year as disclosed above on the acquisition of Moneda (note 28). None of the goodwill recognized is deductible for tax purposes. No impairment losses on goodwill were recognized in the current year. All goodwill recognized relates to the Moneda business combination of which management has determined the recoverable amount of MAM I and MAM II based on value in use. Key assumptions to determine the value in use includes discounted cash flow calculations based on current and past performance forecasts and considering current market indicators listed below for the respective countries in which the entities operate. There were no changes to assumptions between acquisition date (December 1, 2021) and reporting date (December 31, 2021).The principal amount paid in 2021 and 2020 on leases was US$ 832 (US$ 26 to related party for lease commitments in Santiago) and US$ 893, respectively. Lease liabilities in Santiago with a related party include US$ 322 and US$ 2,093 for current and non-current lease liabilities respectively.Depreciation of right-of-use assets and interest on lease liabilities include amounts of US$ 35 and US$ 5 respectively related to leasing of office spaces from a related party in Santiago.Amounts reflect discounted future cash outflows to settle financial liabilities.Non-current balances are related to management fees receivable from fund PBPE Fund IV (Ontario), L.P. in a single installment on December 31, 2023. In addition, management fees of US$ 13 million from current year and US$ 22 million from prior years relate to management fees from PBPE Fund IV, which are due by December 31, 2022. Goodwill and any fair value adjustments to assets and liabilities allocated to Chile relates to the business combination transaction with Moneda for acquisition of MAM I by Patria Investments Latam S.A. as disclosed under note 28.Patria Latam Growth Management Ltd.: a subsidiary of Patria Investments Cayman Ltd, headquartered in the Cayman Islands and serves as manager of investment funds. These companies (note 5 (q) and note 5 (r)) acquired during 2020 and notes 5 (aa) to 5 (ee) established during 2021) did not have any operations and/or material assets and liabilities, and the acquisition amounts were not material. Therefore, the disclosure requirements were not applicable (IFRS 3 – Business Combinations).Patria SPAC LLC: a subsidiary of Patria Finance Ltd, headquartered in the Cayman Islands and serves as a holding company. Patria Latin American Opportunity Acquisition Corp.: a subsidiary of Patria SPAC LLC, headquartered in the Cayman Islands and serves as a holding company. Moneda Asset Management SpA (“MAM I”): a subsidiary of Patria Investments Latam S.A. acquired through business combination (note 28). It is an entity headquartered in Chile that serves as holding company of Moneda S.A. Administradora General de Fondos and Moneda Corredores de Bolsa Limitada.Moneda Corredores de Bolsa Limitada (“MCB”): a Chilean stockbroker and subsidiary of MAM I, headquartered in Chile and manages private client mandates.Moneda S.A. Administradora General de Fondos (“MAGF”): a subsidiary of MAM I, headquartered in Chile and serves as manager of investment funds. Moneda II SpA (“MAM II”): a subsidiary of the Company acquired through business combination (note 28). It is an entity headquartered in Chile that serves as a holding company of Moneda International Inc. and Moneda USA Inc.Moneda International Inc.: a subsidiary of MAM II, headquartered in the British Virgin Islands and serves as manager of investment funds. Moneda USA Inc.: an investment adviser subsidiary of MAM II, headquartered in the United States of America.Patria Finance Ltd.: headquartered in the Cayman Islands, Patria Finance Ltd. is responsible for managing investment funds and providing financial advisory services to clients around the world. It also provides accounting and finance support to the Group.Patria Brazilian Private Equity III, Ltd.: headquartered in the Cayman Islands, and serves as manager of investment funds.PBPE General Partner IV, Ltd. (formerly Patria Brazilian Private Equity General Partner IV, Ltd.): a subsidiary of Patria Finance Ltd, headquartered in the Cayman Islands, and serves as manager of investment funds. PBPE General Partner V, Ltd. (formerly Patria Brazilian Private Equity General Partner V, Ltd.): a subsidiary of Patria Finance Ltd, headquartered in the Cayman Islands and serves as manager of investment funds.Patria Brazilian Private Equity General Partner VI, Ltd.: headquartered in the Cayman Islands, and serves as manager of investment funds. Patria Brazil Real Estate Fund General Partner II Ltd.: headquartered in the Cayman Islands, serves as manager of investment funds. Patria Brazil Real Estate Fund General Partner III Ltd.: headquartered in the Cayman Islands, serves as manager of investment funds. Patria Brazil Retail Property Fund General Partner, Ltd.: headquartered in the Cayman Islands, and serves as manager of investment funds. Patria Investments UK Ltd.: headquartered in London (UK), and is engaged in the development of investor relations. Patria Investments US LLC: a subsidiary of Patria Investments UK Ltd. headquartered in Delaware (USA) and is engaged in the development of investor relations and marketing services and certain back-office services. Patria Investments Colombia S.A.S.: headquartered in Bogotá (Colombia) and is engaged in advisory services related to asset management of investment funds and investments in private equity and infrastructure areas and investor relations and marketing services. Building improvements are depreciated over 10 years or based on the duration of the lease, whichever is shorter. Other receivables from clients are unsettled trade receivables from brokerage activities for client transactions on an exchange that are entered into and recorded on the date of the transaction. The value of the client trades is payable or receivable until settlement of the transactions occur.PPE General Partner VII, Ltd.: a subsidiary of Patria Finance Ltd, headquartered in the Cayman Islands, serves as manager of investment funds. PI General Partner V Ltd. (formerly Patria Infrastructure Special Limited Partner V Ltd.): a subsidiary of Patria Finance Ltd, headquartered in the Cayman Islands, serves as manager of investment funds. Patria Constructivist Equity Fund General Partner II, Ltd.: a subsidiary of Patria Finance Ltd, headquartered in the Cayman Islands, serves as manager of investment funds. Patria Constructivist Equity Fund General Partner, Ltd.: a subsidiary of Patria Finance Ltd, headquartered in the Cayman Islands, serves as manager of investment funds. Platam Investments Brazil Ltda.: a subsidiary of Patria Investments Latam S.A. (formerly Zedra S.A.) headquartered in Brazil that provides advisory services. Patria Farmland General Partner, Ltd.: a subsidiary of Patria Finance Ltd, headquartered in the Cayman Islands, serves as manager of investment funds. Patria Investments Hong Kong, Ltd.: a subsidiary of Patria Investments UK Ltd. headquartered in Hong Kong, engaged in developing investor relations and marketing services. Patria Investments Chile SpA: headquartered in Chile, engaged in advisory services related to asset management of investment funds, investments in infrastructure, and investor relations and marketing services. Patria Investments Cayman Ltd.: headquartered in the Cayman Islands, serves as a holding company for the Group investing activities. Patria Investments Uruguay S.A. (formerly Improdem S.A.): acquired by Patria Investments Latam S.A. (formerly Zedra S.A.) in September 2020* and changed its name from Improdem S.A. to Patria Investments Uruguay S.A. in November 2020. It is a company headquartered in Uruguay providing advisory services related to asset management of investment funds and investor relations and marketing services. Patria Investments Latam S.A. (formerly Zedra S.A.): acquired in September 2020* and changed its name from Zedra S.A. to Patria Investments Latam S.A. in July 2021. It is a holding company headquartered in Uruguay. Pátria Companhia Securitizadora de Créditos Imobiliários: a subsidiary of Pátria Investimentos Ltda, headquartered in Brazil sold during July 2021, was engaged in the issuance and placement of Real Estate Receivables Certificates backed by real estate receivables and the trading and services related to the securitization of these receivables. Pátria Investimentos Ltda. (“PILTDA”): headquartered in Brazil and engaged in asset management, fund administration, consulting, and planning services related to asset management and the organization and performance of transactions in the commercial and corporate sectors. On September 28, 2020, PILTDA became the owner of Pátria Infraestrutura Gestão de Recursos Ltda (“PINFRA”) after receiving shares from Infrastructure GP II, Ltd. On September 30, 2020, PINFRA was merged into PILTDA to simplify the structure and consolidate the Group’s investments while optimizing costs and providing operational synergies. The Company had entered into a purchase agreement among Blackstone Pat Holdings IV, LLC (“Blackstone”), Patria Holdings Ltd, and PILTDA, as part of a corporate reorganization pursuant to which the 19.6% non-controlling interest in PILTDA held by Blackstone and the 29.4% non-controlling interest in PILTDA held by a related party of Patria Holdings Ltd (the “Related Party”) were reorganized as follows: (i) the direct interest held by Blackstone in PILTDA was contributed to the Company in exchange for three Class A common shares issued to Blackstone; and (ii) the direct interest held by the Related Party was redeemed in its entirety at par value for a promissory note, and Patria Holdings Ltd contributed the promissory note to the Company, in consideration for which the Company issued seven Class B common shares. This transaction was completed on June 1, 2021. Patria Infrastructure General Partner IV Ltd.: headquartered in the Cayman Islands, serves as manager of investment funds. Infrastructure III SLP Ltd. (formerly Patria Infrastructure General Partner III Ltd.): headquartered in the Cayman Islands, serves as manager of investment funds and provides financial advisory services. After a corporate restructuring completed in 2016, this entity became the successor entity to the P2 Group, a fund manager acquired in 2015. Infrastructure GP II, Ltd. (formerly Patria Infrastructure General Partner II Ltd.): headquartered in the Cayman Islands and serves as manager of investment funds. Infrastructure GP II, Ltd. was the major owner of Pátria Infraestrutura Gestão de Recursos Ltda. (“PINFRA”) until September 28, 2020 when it transferred its shares in PINFRA to Pátria Investimentos Ltda. PI Renewables General Partner, Ltd.: A subsidiary of Patria Finance Ltd, headquartered in the Cayman Islands. Patria Constructivist Equity Fund General Partner, Ltd.: a subsidiary of Patria Finance Ltd, headquartered in the Cayman Islands, serves as manager of investment funds. The majority of working capital assumed from MAM I and MAM II includes current trade accounts payables (suppliers) in addition to client funds payable and other current liabilities offset by short term investments, client funds on deposit and other current financial assets. 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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM
20-F
 
 
(Mark One)
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
    
    
    
    
For the transition period from
    
    
    
    
to
    
    
    
    
Commission file number: 001-39911
 
 
Patria Investments Limited
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
Not applicable
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
Cayman Islands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
18 Forum Lane, 3rd floor,
Camana Bay, PO Box 757,
KY1-9006
Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands
+1 345 640 4900
(Address of principal executive offices)
Marco Nicola D’Ippolito, Chief Financial Officer
Tel: +1 345 640 4900
18 Forum Lane, 3rd floor,
Camana Bay, PO Box 757,
KY1-9006
Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands
(Name, Telephone,
E-mail
and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Copies to:
Manuel Garciadiaz
Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP
450 Lexington Avenue
New York, NY 10017
Phone: (212)
450-4000
Fax: (212)
450-6858
 
 
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
Title of each class
 
Trading
Symbol
 
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Class A common shares, par value US$0.0001 per share
 
PAX
 
The Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
None
 
 
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
The number of outstanding shares as of December 31, 2021 was 54,247,500 Class A common shares and 92,945,430 Class B common shares.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes  ☐    No  ☒
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Note
– Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
(§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large Accelerated Filer
    
Accelerated Filer
   
Non-accelerated
Filer
 
        
Emerging growth company
 
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report:  
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
☐    U.S. GAAP
 
☒    International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
       
☐    Other
 
        by the International Accounting Standards Board
            
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.
☐  Item 17    ☐  Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule
12b-2
of the Exchange Act).
Yes  ☐    No  
 
 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
         Page  
     1  
     7  
     9  
     9  
A.
  Directors and Senior Management      9  
B.
  Advisers      9  
C.
  Auditors      9  
     9  
A.
  Offer Statistics      9  
B.
  Method and Expected Timetable      9  
     9  
A.
  [Reserved]      9  
B.
  Capitalization and Indebtedness      9  
C.
  Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds      9  
D.
  Risk Factors      9  
     66  
A.
  History and Development of the Company      66  
B.
  Business Overview      69  
C.
  Organizational Structure      104  
D.
  Property, Plants and Equipment      104  
     104  
     104  
A.
  Operating Results      105  
B.
  Liquidity and Capital Resources      122  
C.
  Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, etc.      124  
D.
  Trend Information      124  
E.
  Critical Accounting Estimates      124  
     124  
A.
  Directors and Senior Management      124  
B.
  Compensation      130  
C.
  Board Practices      131  
D.
  Employees      133  
E.
  Share Ownership      134  
     134  
A.
  Major Shareholders      134  
B.
  Related Party Transactions      137  
C.
  Interests of Experts and Counsel      140  
     140  
A.
  Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information      140  
B.
  Significant Changes      143  
     143  
A.
  Offering and Listing Details      143  
B.
  Plan of Distribution      144  
C.
  Markets      144  
D.
  Selling Shareholders      144  
E.
  Dilution      144  
F.
  Expenses of the Issue      144  
     144  
A.
  Share Capital      144  
B.
  Memorandum and Articles of Association      144  
C.
  Material Contracts      161  
D.
  Exchange controls      161  
E.
  Taxation      161  

F.
  Dividends and Paying Agents      165  
G.
  Statement by Experts      165  
H.
  Documents on Display      165  
I.
  Subsidiary Information      165  
     165  
     168  
A.
  Debt Securities      168  
B.
  Warrants and Rights      168  
C.
  Other Securities      168  
D.
  American Depositary Shares      168  
     169  
     169  
A.
  Defaults      169  
B.
  Arrears and Delinquencies      169  
     169  
A.
  Material Modifications to Instruments      169  
B.
  Material Modifications to Rights      169  
C.
  Withdrawal or Substitution of Assets      169  
D.
  Change in Trustees or Paying Agents      169  
E.
  Use of Proceeds      169  
     169  
A.
  Disclosure Controls and Procedures      169  
B.
  Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting      169  
C.
  Attestation Report of the Registered Public Accounting Firm      170  
D.
  Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting      170  
ITEM 16. [RESERVED]
     171  
     171  
ITEM 16B. CODE OF ETHICS
     171  
     171  
     172  
     172  
     172  
     172  
     173  
     173  
     174  
     174  
     174  
ITEM 19. EXHIBITS
     174  
    
F-1
 
 
ii

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION
All references to “U.S. dollars,” “dollars” or “$” are to the U.S. dollar. All references to “
real
,” “
reais
,” “Brazilian
real
,” “Brazilian
reais
,” or “R$” are to the Brazilian
real
, the official currency of Brazil. All references to “IFRS” are to International Financial Reporting Standards, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or the IASB.
Financial Statements
Patria was incorporated in Bermuda on July 6, 2007 as a limited liability exempted company and changed the jurisdiction of its incorporation to the Cayman Islands on October 12, 2020, registering by way of continuation as a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability duly registered with the Cayman Islands Registrar of Companies.
We maintain our books and records in U.S. dollars, the presentation currency for our financial statements and also our functional currency. See note 5 to our audited consolidated financial statements (as defined below), included elsewhere in this annual report, for more information about our and our subsidiaries functional currency. We prepare our annual consolidated financial statements December 31, 2021 and 2020 in accordance with IFRS, as issued by the IASB. Unless otherwise noted, our financial information presented herein for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 is stated in U.S. dollars, our reporting currency. The consolidated financial information of Patria contained in this annual report is derived from its audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the three years ended December 31, 2021, together with the notes thereto. All references herein to “our financial statements,” “our audited consolidated financial information,” and/or “our audited consolidated financial statements” are to Patria consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.
This financial information should be read in conjunction with “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and our consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, included elsewhere in this annual report.
Our fiscal year ends on December 31. References in this annual report to a fiscal year, such as “fiscal year 2021,” relate to our fiscal year ended on December 31 of that calendar year.
Corporate Events
On December 1, 2021, we completed our previously announced combination with Moneda Asset Management SpA, or Moneda, a leading asset manager headquartered in Chile. The transaction created a combined asset manager with US$23.8 billion in assets under management as of December 31, 2021, allowing us to solidify ourselves as one of the leading private equity, infrastructure and credit platforms in Latin America. As a result, we issued 11,045,430 Class B common shares to entities controlled by certain Moneda partners. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—A. History and Development of the Company—Our History—Combination with Moneda Asset Management” for additional information. Accordingly, our results of operations and financial condition for the historical periods discussed in this annual report prior to the acquisition of Moneda do not reflect or include the results of operations or any assets or liabilities of Moneda as well as certain critical accounting policies and estimates related to goodwill, intangible assets and purchase accounting related to the transaction. We began consolidating Moneda and its subsidiaries as from December 1, 2021, and, accordingly, our results of operations and financial condition in future periods may not necessarily be comparable to our results of operations and financial condition for historical periods, including those discussed in this annual report.
As of December 31, 2021, we had a total of 147,192,930 common shares issued and outstanding, and 81,900,000 of these shares are Class B common shares beneficially owned by Patria Holdings, 11,045,430 Class B common shares beneficially owned by entities controlled by certain Moneda partners and an aggregate of 54,247,500 of these shares are Class A common shares beneficially owned by our investors. See “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—A. Major Shareholders.”
 
1

The following chart shows our corporate structure and equity ownership as of December 31, 2021, after giving effect to our corporate reorganization and combination with Moneda. This chart is provided for illustrative purposes only and does not show all of the legal entities:
 
 
 
(1)
11,437,198 Class B common shares of the 81,900,000 Class B common shares beneficially owned by Patria Holdings Limited are held of record by SPV PHL, which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Patria Holdings Limited.
(2)
References to (A) stand for Class A common shares, (B) stand for Class B common shares, and (*) stand for voting power.
Special Note Regarding
Non-GAAP
Financial Measures
This annual report presents our Fee Related Earnings and Distributable Earnings information, which are
Non-GAAP
measures. A
Non-GAAP
financial measure is generally defined as one that purports to measure financial performance but excludes or includes amounts that would not be so adjusted in the most comparable IFRS measure.
Fee Related Earnings
Fee Related Earnings, or FRE, is a performance measure used to assess our ability to generate profits from revenues that are measured and received on a recurring basis. FRE is calculated as management, incentive, advisory and other ancillary fees, net of related taxes, less personnel and administrative expenses, adjusted for brand amortization, amortization of placement agents and rebate fees, excluding the impacts of equity-based compensation and nonrecurring expenses. FRE includes base compensation (salaries and wages) in fixed amounts and variable compensation in the form of discretionary cash bonuses, which are awarded based on each individual’s performance upon consideration of a number of qualitative and quantitative factors (comparing actual individual performance in influencing such factors with prior and anticipated performance), but which are not directly based upon revenues. Accordingly, there are no specific revenue amounts that relate to compensation components included in FRE. Incentive fees are realized performance-based fees earned by certain funds when the returns for such funds surpass the relevant benchmark over a specified time horizon. Such incentive fees are included in FRE because they represent a source of revenues that is measured and received on a recurring basis and is not dependent on realization events from the underlying investments, although the amount of incentive fees may fluctuate based on the performance of the funds relative to the relevant benchmark.
 
2

The table below presents more information on our FRE:
 
    
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
    
2021
   
2020
   
2019
   
Change
2021/2020
   
Change
2020/2019
 
    
(in US$ millions)
 
Revenue from management fees(1)
     144.7       112.9       104.9       31.8       8.0  
Revenue from incentive fees
     4.9       3.5       18.1       1.4       (14.6
Revenue from advisory and other ancillary fees
     0.7       2.5       1.0       (1.8     1.5  
Taxes on revenue—management fees
     (3.6     (3.1     (2.9     (0.5     (0.2
Taxes on revenue—incentive fees
     (0.2     (0.4     (2.1     0.2       1.7  
Taxes on revenue—advisory and other ancillary fees
     (0.1     (0.4     (0.1     0.3       (0.3
Personnel expenses(2)
     (79.8     (27.2     (36.9     (52.6     9.7  
Officers’ Fund—long-term benefit plan(3)
     2.2       0.4       (1.0     1.8       1.4  
Performance Share Plan(4)
     0.8       —         —         0.8       —    
Performance fee compensation(5)
     30.2       —         —         30.2       —    
Carry bonus provision
     0.9       —         —         0.9       —    
Deferred consideration on acquisition(6)
     2.0       —         —         2.0       —    
Administrative expenses
     (14.4     (14.6     (15.7     0.2       1.1  
Brand amortization(7)
     0.3       —         —         0.3       —    
Amortization of placement agents and rebate fees
     (2.5     (2.3     (2.3     (0.2     —    
Fee Related Earnings (FRE
)
  
 
86.0
 
 
 
71.3
 
 
 
63.0
 
 
 
14.7
 
 
 
8.3
 
 
(1)
Increase in management fee revenues from prior year mainly due to an increase in capital deployed by Private Equity Fund VI and management fees for December 2021 from Moneda acquisition.
(2)
Personnel expenses consist of (1) fixed compensation costs comprised of salaries and wages, (2) variable compensation costs comprised of partners’ compensation, rewards and bonuses and employee profit sharing, (3) social security contribution and payroll taxes and (4) other short- and long-term benefits. The increase is due mainly to the change in our compensation structure
post-IPO.
(3)
Personnel expenses have been adjusted to remove the Officer’s Fund tracking shares. This amount reflects the valuation change of such tracking shares in the period.
(4)
Personnel expenses have been adjusted to remove the impact from granting rights to the share-based incentive plan introduced. The amount reflects the equity recognized based on expected vesting criteria being met.
(5)
This expense refers to a carried interest share held by a related party (representing our senior managing directors and employees in Patria Brazilian Private Equity III, Ltd.) that gives it the right to up to 35% of the performance fees recognized from PBPE Fund III (Ontario), L.P. As of December 31, 2021, we had a payable balance of US$11.6 million.
(6)
Our acquisition of Moneda included US$58.7 million expected to be paid to former shareholders of Moneda in exchange for future services, which are payable in two installments due December 2, 2023 and December 2, 2024. This expense will be recognized as a compensation expense as the employees render services. For the year ended December 31, 2021, US$2.0 million was recognized as an expense in our income statement.
(7)
This amount refers to the amortization of intangibles (brands) associated with Patria’s acquisition of Moneda.
We believe FRE is useful to investors because it provides additional insight into the operating profitability of our business and our ability to cover direct base compensation and operating expenses from total fee revenues. FRE is derived from and reconciled to, but not equivalent to, its most directly comparable IFRS measure of income before income tax. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Operating
Results—Non-GAAP
Financial Measures and Reconciliations—Fee Related Earnings (FRE)” for our reconciliation of FRE.
Distributable Earnings
Distributable Earnings, or “DE,” is used to assess our performance and capabilities to distribute dividends to shareholders. DE is calculated as FRE deducted by current income tax expense, plus net realized performance fees, net financial income/(expenses), and other income/(expenses) adjusted for IPO related expenses and
non-recurring
transaction costs. DE is derived from and reconciled to, but not equivalent to, its most directly comparable IFRS measure of net income. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Operating
Results—Non-GAAP
Financial Measures and Reconciliations—Distributable Earnings (DE)” for our reconciliation of DE.
 
3

The following table presents more information on our DE:
 
    
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
    
2021
   
2020
   
2019
   
Change
2021/2020
   
Change
2020/2019
 
    
(in US$ millions)
 
Fee Related Earnings (FRE)
  
 
86.0
 
 
 
71.3
 
 
 
63.0
 
 
 
14.7
 
 
 
8.3
 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Revenue from performance fees
     89.3       —         4.8       89.3       (4.8
Taxes on revenue—performance fees
     (0.2     —         (0.5     (0.2     0.5  
Performance fee compensation
     (30.2     —         —         (30.2     —    
Carry bonus provision
     (0.9     —         —         (0.9     —    
Other income/(expenses)
     (12.5     (2.0     0.1       (10.5     (2.1
IPO expenses and
non-recurring
transaction costs
     11.8       2.1       —         9.7       2.1  
Net financial income/(expense)
     (0.3     (0.2     (0.2     (0.1     0.0  
Current income tax expense
     (1.7     (0.9     (3.8     (0.8     2.9  
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
Distributable Earnings (DE)
  
 
141.3
 
 
 
70.3
 
 
 
63.4
 
 
 
71.0
 
 
 
6.9
 
  
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
FRE and DE are measures of profitability and have certain limitations in that they do not take into consideration certain items included under IFRS. Such measures may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies and is not a measure of performance calculated in accordance with IFRS. FRE and DE should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for net income or other income data prepared in accordance with IFRS. The use of such measures without consideration of related IFRS measures is not adequate due to the adjustments described above. Our management compensates for these limitations by using FRE and DE as supplemental measures to IFRS results, to provide a more complete understanding of our performance as management measures it. A reconciliation of FRE and DE to their respective most directly comparable IFRS measure of income before income taxes provision can be found in “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Operating
Results—Non-GAAP
Financial Measures and Reconciliations.”
Certain Terms Used in this Annual Report as KPIs to Measure Operating Performance
Assets Under Management, or AUM, refers to the total capital funds managed by us
plus
the investments directly made by others in the invested companies when offered by us as
co-investments.
In general lines, our AUM equals the sum of (i) the fair value of the investments of each one of the funds and
co-investments;
and (ii) unfunded capital, which is the difference between committed and called capital. The Net Asset Value, or “NAV,” equals total assets minus total liabilities. Committed capital corresponds to the amount which investors have agreed to contribute to an investment fund. Called capital corresponds to the portion of the committed capital called by the fund to make investments or cover expenses, such as management fees.
Our AUM measure includes Assets Under Management for which we charge either nominal or zero fees and indicates the size of our business and products. Our definition of AUM is not based on any definition of Assets Under Management contained in our operating agreement or in any of our fund management agreements. Given the differences in the investment strategies and structures among other alternative investment managers, our calculation of AUM may differ from the calculations employed by other investment managers and, as a result, this measure may not be directly comparable to similar measures presented by other investment managers. We believe this measure is useful to stockholders as it provides additional insight into our capital raising activities and the growth of the Company itself, as it illustrates the evolution of our business in terms of size, or assets under management, products, by allowing us to see the AUM by product, and ability to generate revenues.
 
4

FEAUM means our Fee Earning AUM and is measured as the total capital managed by us on which we derive management fees at a given time. Management fees are based on “net asset value,” “adjusted cost of all unrealized portfolio investments,” “capital commitments,” or “invested capital” plus “reserved capital” (if applicable), each as defined in the applicable management agreement.
Performance Revenue Eligible AUM means the portion of our AUM on which performance fees or incentive fees could be earned if certain targets are met. All funds for which we are entitled to receive a performance fee allocation or incentive fee allocation are included in Performance Revenue Eligible AUM.
Our Net Accrued Performance Fees balance, as of the reporting date, reflects the amount Patria would receive as realized performance fees net of related compensation if all eligible funds were fully divested at their marks/valuations at the same reporting date.
Market Share and Other Information
This annual report contains data related to economic conditions in the market in which we operate. The information contained in this annual report concerning economic conditions is based on publicly available information from third-party sources that we believe to be reasonable. Market data and certain financial services industry forecast data used in this annual report were obtained from internal reports and studies, where appropriate, as well as estimates, market research, publicly available information (including information available from the United States Securities and Exchange Commission website) and financial services industry publications. We obtained the information included in this annual report relating to the industry in which we operate, as well as the estimates concerning market shares, through internal research, public information and publications on the financial services industry prepared by official public sources, such as the Brazilian Central Bank, the Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission (
Comissão de Valores Mobiliários
), or “CVM,” the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
)” the “IBGE,” the Brazilian Power Research Company (
Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica
), the Brazilian Association of Food Industries (
Associação Brasileira da Indústria de Alimentos
), the Bank for International Settlements, DERA/SEC, the Center for Advanced Studies on Applied Economics (
Centro de Estudos Avançados em Economia Aplicada
), or “CEPEA,” the Luiz de Queiroz Agriculture College (
Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
), or “ESALQ,” the Federal Reserve, the International Monetary Fund, the Brazilian Superintendence of Private Insurance (
Superintendência de Seguros Privados
), or “SUSEP,” the Organization for Economic
Co-operation
and Development, or “OECD,” the World Bank, as well as private sources, such as the Alternative Credit Council, the Brazilian stock exchange (
B3 S.A.—Brasil, Bolsa,
Balcão
), or “B3,” Bain & Company, Boston Consulting Group, or “BCG,” Brian & Company, CAIA Association, Cambridge Associates, Campden Wealth, the Economist Intelligence Unit, or “EIU,” Ernst & Young, or “EY,” the Financial Times newspaper, Greenhill, Hamilton Lane, ILOS—Logistics and Supply Chain Specialists, KPMG, McKinsey, Morningstar, Morgan Stanley, Oliver Wyman, Platform research, Preqin, PricewaterhouseCoopers, or “PwC,” Reuters, The Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index, or “BTI,” the Brazilian Private Equity and Venture Capital Association (
Associação Brasileira de Private Equity e Venture Capital
), or “ABVCAP,” the Brazilian Financial and Capital Markets Association (
Associação Brasileira das Entidades dos Mercados Financeiro e de Capitais
), or “ANBIMA,” the Brazilian Association of Pension Funds (
Associação Brasileira das Entidades Fechadas de Previdência Complementar
), or “ABRAPP,” the Brazilian Economic Institute of Fundação Getulio Vargas (
Instituto Brasileiro de Economia da Fundação Getulio Vargas
), or “FGV/IBRE,” among others.
Market data used throughout this annual report is based on management’s knowledge of the industry and the good faith estimates of management. All of management’s estimates presented are based on industry sources, including analyst reports and management’s knowledge. We also relied, to the extent available, upon management’s review of independent industry surveys and publications prepared by a number of sources and other publicly available information. We are responsible for all of the disclosure in this annual report, and we believe that each of the publications, studies and surveys used throughout this annual report are prepared by reputable sources and are generally reliable, though we have not independently verified market and industry data from third-party sources. None of the publications, reports or other published industry sources referred to in this annual report were commissioned by us or prepared at our request. We have not sought or obtained the consent of any of these sources to include such market data in this annual report. All of the market data used in this annual report involves a number of assumptions and limitations and therefore is inherently uncertain and imprecise, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. Projections, assumptions and estimates of our future performance and the future performance of the industry in which we operate are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors” in this annual report. These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in our estimates and beliefs and in the estimates prepared by independent parties.
 
5

Rounding
We have made rounding adjustments to some of the figures included in this annual report. Accordingly, numerical figures shown as totals in some tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the figures that preceded them.
 
6

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This annual report contains statements that constitute forward-looking statements. Many of the forward-looking statements contained in this annual report can be identified by the use of forward-looking words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “expect,” “should,” “plan,” “intend,” “estimate” and “potential,” among others.
Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places in this annual report and include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our intent, belief or current expectations. Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. Such statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, and actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements due to various factors, including, but not limited to, those identified under the section entitled “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors” in this annual report. These risks and uncertainties include factors relating to:
 
   
the impact of the
COVID-19
outbreak on general economic and business conditions in Brazil, Chile, Latin America and globally, and any restrictive measures imposed by governmental authorities in response to the outbreak;
 
   
our ability to implement, in a timely and efficient manner, any measure necessary to respond to, or reduce the impacts of the
COVID-19
outbreak on our business, operations, cash flow, prospects, liquidity and financial condition;
 
   
general economic, financial, political, demographic and business conditions in Latin America, as well as any other macroeconomic factors in the countries we may serve in the future and their impact on our business;
 
   
fluctuations in exchange rates, interest and inflation in Latin America and any other countries we may serve in the future;
 
   
our ability to find suitable assets for investment;
 
   
our ability to manage operations at our current size or manage growth effectively;
 
   
our ability to successfully expand in Latin America and other new markets;
 
   
the fact that we will rely on our operating subsidiaries to provide us with distributions to fund our operating activities, which could be limited by law, regulation or otherwise;
 
   
our ability to arrange financing and maintain sufficient levels of cash flow to implement our expansion plan;
 
   
our ability to adapt to technological changes in the financial services sector;
 
   
the availability of qualified personnel and the ability to retain such personnel;
 
   
our capitalization and our funds’ and portfolio companies’ level of indebtedness;
 
   
the interests of our controlling shareholders;
 
   
changes in the laws and regulations applicable to the private investment market in Brazil, Chile and in the other countries we operate;
 
   
risk associated with our international operations;
 
   
our ability to compete and conduct our business in the future;
 
7

   
changes in our businesses;
 
   
government interventions, resulting in changes in the economy, taxes, rates or regulatory environment;
 
   
our ability to effectively market and maintain a positive brand image;
 
   
the availability and effective operation of management information systems and other technology;
 
   
our ability to comply with applicable cybersecurity, privacy and data protection laws and regulations;
 
   
changes in client demands and preferences and technological advances, and our ability to innovate to respond to such changes;
 
   
our ability to attract and maintain the services of our senior management and key employees;
 
   
changes in labor, distribution and other operating costs;
 
   
our compliance with, and changes to, government laws, regulations and tax matters that currently apply to us;
 
   
other factors that may affect our financial condition, liquidity and results of operations; and
 
   
other risk factors discussed under “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors.”
Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update them in light of new information or future developments or to release publicly any revisions to these statements in order to reflect later events or circumstances or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.
 
8

PART I
ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
 
A.
Directors and Senior Management
Not applicable.
 
B.
Advisers
Not applicable.
 
C.
Auditors
Not applicable.
ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
 
A.
Offer Statistics
Not applicable.
 
B.
Method and Expected Timetable
Not applicable.
ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION
 
A.
[Reserved]
 
B.
Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
 
C.
Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
 
D.
Risk Factors
Summary of Risk Factors
An investment in our Class A common shares is subject to a number of risks, including risks relating to our business and industry, risks relating to Latin America and risks relating to our Class A common shares. The following list summarizes some, but not all, of these risks. Please read the information in the section entitled “Risk Factors” for a more thorough description of these and other risks.
Certain Factors Relating to Our Business and Industry
 
   
The global outbreak of the novel coronavirus, or
“COVID-19,”
has caused severe disruptions in Latin America and global economies and is adversely impacting, and may continue to adversely impact, our performance and results of operations. The global impact of the outbreak continues to rapidly evolve, and many countries have instituted quarantines, restrictions on travel, closed financial markets and/or restricted trading, and closed or limited hours of operations of
non-essential
businesses. Such actions are creating severe economic contraction and adversely impacting many industries.
 
9

   
Difficult market and geopolitical conditions can adversely affect our business in many ways, each of which could materially reduce our revenue, earnings and cash flow and adversely affect our financial prospects and condition. We may need to reduce our fixed costs and other expenses in order to maintain profitability, including by cutting back or eliminating the use of certain services or service providers, or terminating the employment of a significant number of our personnel that, in each case, could be important to our business and without which our operating results could be adversely affected.
 
   
A period of economic slowdown, which may be across one or more industries, sectors or geographies, could contribute to adverse operating performance for certain of our funds’ investments, which would adversely affect our operating results and cash flows. To the extent global markets enter a period of slower growth relative to recent years, such period of economic slowdown (which may be across one or more industries, sectors or geographies), may contribute to poor financial results at our funds’ portfolio companies, which may result in lower investment returns for our funds.
 
   
An increase in interest rates and other changes in the debt financing markets could negatively impact the ability of our funds and their portfolio companies to obtain attractive financing or refinancing and could increase the cost of such financing if it is obtained, which could lead to lower-yielding investments and potentially decrease our net income. If our funds are unable to obtain committed debt financing for potential acquisitions, can only obtain debt financing at an increased interest rate or on unfavorable terms or the ability to deduct corporate interest expense is substantially limited, our funds may face increased competition from strategic buyers of assets who may have an overall lower cost of capital or the ability to benefit from a higher amount of cost savings following an acquisition, or may have difficulty completing otherwise profitable acquisitions or may generate profits that are lower than would otherwise be the case, each of which could lead to a decrease in our revenues.
 
   
If we cannot make the necessary investments to keep pace with rapid developments and change in our industry, the use of our services could decline, reducing our revenues. The revenues that we earn are driven in part by the pace at which our funds make investments and the size of those investments, and a decline in the pace or the size of such investments may reduce our revenues. The market environment for private equity transactions, for example, recently has been and continues to be characterized by relatively high prices, which can make the deployment of capital more difficult.
 
   
Our revenue, earnings, net income and cash flow can all vary materially and be volatile from time to time, which may make it difficult for us to achieve steady earnings growth on a quarterly basis and may cause the price of our Class A common shares to decline. Achieving steady growth in net income and cash flow on a quarterly basis may be difficult, which could in turn lead to large adverse movements or general increased volatility in the price of our Class A common shares.
Certain Factors Relating to Latin America
 
   
Governments have a high degree of influence in Brazil, Chile and the other economies in which we operate. The effects of this influence and political and economic conditions in Brazil, Chile and other Latin American countries could harm us and the trading price of our Class A common shares. Recent economic and political instability in Brazil in general has led to a negative perception of the Brazilian economy and higher volatility in the Brazilian securities markets, which also may adversely affect us and our Class A common shares.
 
   
Developments and the perceptions of risks in other countries, including other emerging markets, the United States and Europe, may harm the economy of Brazil and the other countries in which we operate and the trading price of our Class A common shares. Crises and political instability in other emerging market countries, the United States, Europe or other countries, including increased international trade tensions and protectionist policies, could decrease investor demand for securities offered by companies with significant operations in Brazil, Chile and other Latin American countries, such as our Class A common shares.
 
   
The ongoing economic uncertainty and political instability in Brazil, including as a result of ongoing corruption investigations, may harm us and the price of our Class A common shares. Brazil’s political environment has historically influenced, and continues to influence, the performance of the country’s economy. Political crises have affected and continue to affect the confidence of investors and the general public, which have historically resulted in economic deceleration and heightened volatility in the securities offered by companies with significant operations in Brazil.
 
10

   
Inflation and government measures to curb inflation may adversely affect the economies and capital markets in some of the countries in which we operate, and as a result, harm our business and the trading price of our Class A common shares. In the past, high levels of inflation have adversely affected the economies and financial markets of some of the countries in which we operate, particularly Argentina and Brazil, and the abilities of their governments to create conditions that stimulate or maintain economic growth.
 
   
Exchange rate instability may have adverse effects on the Brazilian economy, our business and the trading price of our Class A common shares. The Brazilian government has implemented various economic plans and used various exchange rate policies, including sudden devaluations, periodic mini-devaluations (during which the frequency of adjustments has ranged from daily to monthly), exchange controls, dual exchange rate markets and a floating exchange rate system.
Certain Factors Relating to Our Class A Common Shares
 
   
Patria Holdings owns the majority of our issued and outstanding Class B common shares, which represents approximately 83.3% of the voting power of our issued share capital, and controls all matters requiring shareholder approval. Patria Holdings’ ownership and voting power limits your ability to influence corporate matters.
 
   
The dual class structure of our share capital has the effect of concentrating voting control with Patria Holdings; this will limit or preclude your ability to influence corporate matters. Due to the
ten-to-one
voting ratio between our Class B and Class A common shares, Patria Holdings, the beneficial owner of the majority of our Class B common shares, controls the voting power of our common shares and therefore will be able to control all matters submitted to our shareholders so long as the total number of the issued and outstanding Class B common shares is at least 10% of the total number of shares outstanding.
 
   
We are a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability. The rights of our shareholders, including with respect to fiduciary duties and corporate opportunities, may be different from the rights of shareholders governed by the laws of U.S. jurisdictions. In particular, as a matter of Cayman Islands law, directors of a Cayman Islands company owe fiduciary duties to the Company and, separately, a duty of care, diligence and skill to the Company.
Certain Factors Relating to Our Business and Industry
The global outbreak of the novel coronavirus, or
“COVID-19,”
has caused severe disruptions in Latin America and global economies and is adversely impacting, and may continue to adversely impact, our performance and results of operations.
The global outbreak of
COVID-19
has spread across Latin America. The World Health Organization has designated
COVID-19
as a pandemic, and numerous countries, including the United States, have declared national emergencies. The global impact of the outbreak continues to rapidly evolve, and many countries have instituted quarantines, restrictions on travel, closed financial markets and/or restricted trading, and closed or limited hours of operations of nonessential businesses. Such actions are creating severe economic contraction and adversely impacting many industries. The International Monetary Fund stated that it is very likely that this year the global economy will experience its worst recession since the Great Depression. While a number of countries, as well as certain states in the United States, have begun to lift the public health restrictions with a view to reopening their economies, recurring
COVID-19
outbreaks could lead to the
re-introduction
of such restrictions. Moreover, even where restrictions have been lifted, self-imposed social distancing and isolation measures may continue for a more prolonged period due to public fears in the absence of effective treatments or a vaccine. Accordingly, it remains to be seen how quickly economic activity will resume even in economies where public health restrictions are lifted. Brazil and Chile have also begun opening its borders, enabling foreigners that have already been vaccinated to enter the country. The vaccination programs have contributed to the slowing down of the spread of
COVID-19
and have enabled the Brazilian and Chilean economy to begin recovery. However, as new variants of the
COVID-19
virus spread throughout the world, the long-term ramifications of the
COVID-19
pandemic are highly uncertain, and it is hard to predict the duration of the pandemic and its effects on the global, Brazilian and Chilean economies and on our business.
 
11

The
COVID-19
pandemic has already impacted, and will continue to impact, our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and prospects materially. The pandemic is also exacerbating many of the risks described in this annual report. We expect, at least in the near term, to continue to experience a slowdown in capital raising, capital deployment and realization activity. Adverse impacts on our business as a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic include, but are not limited to:
 
   
Performance Revenues and Incentive Fees
. Our ability to realize value from our investments may be adversely impacted by decreased portfolio company revenues and earnings, lack of potential buyers with financial resources to pursue an acquisition, or limited access to the equity capital markets. Limited opportunities for realizing gains could also delay or eliminate receipt of performance revenues as preferred return thresholds become harder to achieve over time. Primarily as a result of the negative impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic on our portfolio companies due to the depreciation of the
real
against the U.S. dollar, our net accrued performance fee balance, which measures our current total expectation of cash inflow from performance fee related to our operational funds by the end of each period, decreased from US$292 million as of December 31, 2019 to US$276 million as of December 31, 2020. As of December 31, 2021 our net accrued performance fee balance was US$348 million.
 
   
Management Fees
. The
COVID-19
pandemic is slowing our anticipated capital raising pace for new or successor funds, which may result in delayed or decreased management fees. In addition, in light of the recent decline in public equity markets and other components of their investment portfolios, fund investors may become restricted by their asset allocation policies to invest in new or successor funds that we provide. As described above, we may also experience a decline in the pace of our investments and, if our funds are unable to deploy capital at a pace that is sufficient to offset the pace of our realizations, our fee revenues could decrease.
 
   
Investment Performance
. Some of our investments are in industries that are materially impacted by
COVID-19
and related public health restrictions. If the disruptions caused by
COVID-19
continue, the businesses of impacted portfolio companies could suffer materially, which would decrease the value of our funds’ investments, most of which are in local currency, which were severely depreciated with the pandemic. Furthermore, such negative market conditions could potentially result in a portfolio company entering bankruptcy proceedings, thereby potentially resulting in a complete loss of the fund’s investment in such portfolio company and a significant negative impact to the investment fund’s performance and consequently to our operating results and cash flow, as well as to our reputation.
 
   
Liquidity
. Our portfolio companies are also facing or may face in the future increased credit and liquidity risk due to volatility in financial markets, reduced revenue streams, and limited access or higher cost of financing, which may result in potential impairment of our or our funds’ equity investments. Changes in the debt financing markets are impacting, or, if the volatility in financial market continues, may in the future impact, the ability of our portfolio companies to meet their respective financial obligations. In addition, borrowers of loans, notes and other credit instruments in our credit funds’ portfolios may be unable to meet their principal or interest payment obligations or satisfy financial covenants, and tenants leasing real estate properties owned by our funds may not be able to pay rents in a timely manner or at all, or request a discount in rent payments or renegotiation of terms of lease agreements, resulting in a decrease in value of our funds’ credit and real estate investments and lower than expected return. In addition, for variable rate instruments, lower reference rates resulting from lower interest rates in response to
COVID-19
could lead to lower interest income for our credit funds. Further, dislocation and contraction of short-term liquidity in the credit markets has impacted, and if sustained will likely continue to impact, the value of credit assets held by our real estate debt and credit funds, such funds’ ability to sell assets at attractive prices or in a timely manner in order to avoid losses and the likelihood of margin calls. In addition, a sudden contraction of liquidity in the credit markets, including as a result of overwhelming desire for liquidity on the part of market participants, is likely to exacerbate the likelihood of forced sales of assets and margins calls, which would result in further declines in the value of assets.
 
12

   
Operational Risks
. An extended period of remote working by our employees could introduce operational risks, including heightened cybersecurity risk. Remote working environments may be less secure and more susceptible to hacking attacks, including phishing and social engineering attempts that seek to exploit the
COVID-19
pandemic. In addition, third-party service providers on whom we have become increasingly reliant for certain aspects of our business, including for the administration of certain funds, as well as for certain information systems and technology could be impacted by an inability to perform due to
COVID-19
restrictions or by failures of, or attacks on, their information systems and technology.
 
   
Employee-Related Risks
.
COVID-19
presents a significant threat to our employees’ well-being. Our key employees or executive officers may become sick or otherwise unable to perform their duties for an extended period of time. In addition, extended public health restrictions and remote working arrangements may impact employee morale and productivity. In addition to any potential impact of such extended illness on our operations, we may be exposed to the risk of litigation by our employees against us for, among other things, failure to take adequate steps to protect their well-being, particularly in the event they become sick after a return to the office. The negative impact on net accrued performance that occurred as a result of
COVID-19
pandemic on portfolio companies and the depreciation of the
real
against the U.S. dollar could have a negative impact on employee motivation and retention.
The
COVID-19
pandemic is expected to have a significant effect on demand across industries in 2022 (as was the case in 2021 and 2020), given the emergence of novel strains and variants across the world as well as continuing difficulties in the rollout of vaccination programs worldwide. Business operations across Asia, Europe and the United States have been and continue to be affected by factory disruptions and closures, quarantined workers and shortages of components, with a direct impact on the availability of goods and services. Moreover, new variants of the virus have emerged against which existing vaccines and acquired immunity may not be effective. Restrictions will likely remain in place, suppressing activity, if the contagion does not subside. These disruptions to global supply chains could impact businesses generally and weaken demand from consumers of our portfolio companies. The effects cannot be foreseen and weak macroeconomic conditions are expected to continue in 2022.
Difficult market and geopolitical conditions can adversely affect our business in many ways, each of which could materially reduce our revenue, earnings and cash flow and adversely affect our financial prospects and condition.
Our business is materially affected by financial market and economic conditions and events throughout the world—particularly in Brazil, Chile and other Latin American countries—that are outside our control. We may not be able to or may choose not to manage our exposure to these conditions and/or events. Such conditions and/or events can adversely affect our business in many ways, including by reducing the ability of our funds to raise or deploy capital, reducing the value or performance of the investments made by our funds and making it more difficult to fund opportunities for our funds to exist and realize value from existing investment. This could in turn materially reduce our revenue, earnings and cash flow and adversely affect our financial prospects and condition. In addition, in the face of a difficult market or economic environment, we may need to reduce our fixed costs and other expenses in order to maintain profitability, including by cutting back or eliminating the use of certain services or service providers, or terminating the employment of a significant number of our personnel that, in each case, could be important to our business and without which our operating results could be adversely affected. A failure to manage or reduce our costs and other expenses within a time frame sufficient to match any decrease in profitability would adversely affect our operating performance.
Turmoil in the global financial markets can provoke significant volatility of equity and debt securities prices, such as a result of the recent
COVID-19
pandemic. This can have a material and rapid impact on our
mark-to-market
valuations, particularly with respect to our public holdings and credit investments. As publicly traded equity securities may represent a proportion of the assets of many of our carry funds, stock market volatility, including a sharp decline in the stock market, such as the one experienced in the fourth quarter of 2018 and the one experienced in early 2020, may adversely affect our results, including our revenues and net income. In addition, our public equity holdings have at times been concentrated in a few positions, thereby making our unrealized
mark-to-market
valuations particularly sensitive to sharp changes in the price of any of these positions. Further, although the equity markets are not the only means by which we exit investments, should we experience another period of challenging equity markets, our funds may experience increased difficulty in realizing value from investments.
 
 
13

Geopolitical concerns and other global events, including, without limitation, trade conflict, national and international political circumstances (including wars, terrorist acts or security operations) and pandemics, such as the recent
COVID-19
pandemic, or other severe public health events, have contributed and may continue to contribute to volatility in global equity and debt markets. 2021 was a year of significant geopolitical concerns, including, among other things, continued trade tensions, most notably between China and the U.S., resulting from the implementation of tariffs by the U.S. and retaliatory tariffs by other countries on the U.S., continued tensions with North Korea over its ballistic missile testing and nuclear programs, ongoing hostilities in the Middle East and the possibility of their escalation, political tension and uncertainty in Latin America, continued uncertainty regarding the U.K.’s withdrawal from the European Union and impeachment proceedings of President Trump in the United States. Such concerns have contributed and may continue to contribute to volatility in global equity and debt markets.
Chile has considerable economic ties with China, the United States and Europe. In 2021, approximately 38.2% of Chile’s exports went to China, mainly copper. China’s economy has grown at a strong pace in recent times, but a slowdown in economic activity in China may affect Chile’s GDP and export growth as well as the price of copper, which is Chile’s main export. Chile exported approximately 15.9% of total exports to the United States and 11.7% to Europe in 2021. Chile was also recently involved in international litigation with Bolivia regarding maritime borders. We cannot assure you that crises and political uncertainty in other Latin American countries will not have an adverse effect on Chile, the price of our securities or our business.
The outbreak of the novel coronavirus in many countries continues to adversely impact global commercial activity and has contributed to significant volatility in financial markets. The global impact of the outbreak has been rapidly evolving, and, as cases of the virus have continued to be identified in additional countries, many countries have reacted by instituting quarantines and restrictions on travel. Such actions continue to create disruption in global supply chains, and adversely impact a number of industries, such as transportation, hospitality and entertainment. The outbreak could have a continued adverse impact on economic and market conditions and trigger a period of global economic slowdown. The rapid development and fluidity of this situation preclude any prediction as to the ultimate adverse impact of the novel coronavirus. Nevertheless, the novel coronavirus presents material uncertainty and risk with respect to our and our funds’ performance and financial results.
In addition to the factors described above, other factors described herein may affect market, economic and geopolitical conditions, and thereby adversely affect our business include, without limitation:
 
   
economic slowdown in Brazil, Chile and internationally;
 
   
changes in interest rates and/or a lack of availability of credit in Brazil, Chile and internationally;
 
   
commodity price volatility;
 
   
foreign exchange volatility;
 
   
public health crises, such as the ongoing
COVID-19
pandemic; and
 
   
changes in law and/or regulation, and uncertainty regarding government and regulatory policy.
 
14

A period of economic slowdown, which may be across one or more industries, sectors or geographies, could contribute to adverse operating performance for certain of our funds’ investments, which would adversely affect our operating results and cash flows.
We have experienced buoyant markets and positive economic conditions in certain markets. Although such conditions have increasingly made it more difficult and competitive to find suitable capital deployment opportunities for our funds, they may also contribute to positive operating performance at our funds’ portfolio companies. To the extent global markets enter a period of slower growth relative to recent years, such period of economic slowdown (which may be across one or more industries, sectors or geographies), may contribute to poor financial results at our funds’ portfolio companies, which may result in lower investment returns for our funds. For example, periods of economic weakness have in the past and may in the future contribute to a decline in commodity prices and/or volatility in the oil and natural gas markets, each of which would have an adverse effect on our energy investments. The performance of our funds’ portfolio companies would also likely be negatively impacted if pressure on wages and other inputs increasingly pressure profit margins. To the extent the performance of those portfolio companies (as well as valuation multiples) does not improve, our funds may sell those assets at values that are less than we projected or even a loss, thereby significantly affecting those investment funds’ performance. In addition, as the governing agreements of our funds contain only limited requirements regarding diversification of fund investments (by, for example, sector or geographic region), during periods of economic slowdown in certain sectors or regions, the impact on our funds may be exacerbated by concentration of investments in such sector or region. As a result, our ability to raise new funds, as well as our operating results and cash flows could be adversely affected.
In addition, during periods of weakness, our funds’ portfolio companies may also have difficulty expanding their businesses and operations or meeting their debt service obligations or other expenses as they become due, including expenses payable to us. Furthermore, such negative market conditions could potentially result in a portfolio company entering bankruptcy proceedings, thereby potentially resulting in a complete loss of the fund’s investment in such portfolio company and a significant negative impact to the investment fund’s performance and consequently to our operating results and cash flow, as well as to our reputation. In addition, negative market conditions would also increase the risk of default with respect to investments held by our funds that have significant debt investments, such as our credit-focused funds.
The ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine may have repercussions on the world’s geopolitical and economic scenarios.
The ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine has provoked strong reactions from the United States, the U.K., the EU and various other countries around the world, including from the members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or “NATO.” Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine beginning on February 24, 2022, the United States, the U.K., the EU and other countries announced broad economic sanctions against Russia, including financial measures such as freezing Russia’s central bank assets, limiting its ability to access its dollar reserves, the U.S., the EU and the U.K. have also banned people and businesses from dealings with the Russian central bank, its finance ministry and its wealth funds, selected Russian banks will also be removed from Swift messaging system, which enables the smooth transfer of money across borders. Other sanctions by the U.K. include major Russian banks from the U.K. financial system, stopping them from accessing sterling and clearing payments, preventing major Russian companies and the country from raising finances or borrowing money on the U.K. markets, and establishing limits on deposits Russians can make at U.K. banks. The U.S., the EU and the U.K. adopted personal measures, such as sanctions on individuals with close ties to Mr. Putin, and placed visa restrictions on several oligarchs, as well as their family members and close associates, and froze their assets.
While the precise effect of the ongoing armed conflict and these sanctions on the Russian and global economies remains uncertain, should tensions continue to increase, markets may face continued volatility as well as economic and security consequences including, but not limited to, supply shortages of different kinds, increases in prices of commodities, including piped gas, oil and agricultural goods, among others. Given that Russia and Ukraine are among the largest grain exporters in the world, impacts on financial markets, inflation, interest rates, unemployment and other matters could affect the global economy that is currently recovering from the effects of the
COVID-19
pandemic. Particularly, these effects could result in increased inflation in Brazil and in measures by the Brazilian government to contain inflation, such as raising the basic interest rate, which could materially impact the cost of debt and third-party capital for financing and investing activities across industries.
Other potential consequences include, but are not limited to, growth in the number of popular uprisings in the region, increased political discontent, especially in the regions most affected by the conflict or economic sanctions, an increase in cyberterrorism activities and attacks, exodus to regions close to the areas of conflict and an increase in the number of refugees fleeing across Europe, among other unforeseen social and humanitarian effects.
 
15

As a company that operates globally, the adverse effects—global or localized—of the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, and/or economic sanctions and import and/or export controls to be imposed on the Russian government by the United States, the U.K., the EU or others, could materially affect our operations, expansion plans, and ultimately our results.
We may, in our sole discretion, decrease the percentage or amount of fees paid by the funds directly or indirectly to us, or even fully waive the payment of such fees for a determined period of time or until the maturity of our funds. If we determine to decrease or waive such fees or otherwise alter our current fee structure, our profit margins and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our profit margins and net income are dependent in significant part on our ability to maintain current fee levels for the products and services that our asset managers offer, and in particular, on our funds’ receipt of asset and performance-based fees, which may vary substantially from year to year. There has been a trend toward lower fees in many segments of the asset management industry, there is fee pressure in many portions of the active equity and fixed income industry, driven in part by inflows into
low-fee
passive asset management products, and we face continued market pressure with respect to fee levels for many products. In addition, in the ordinary course of our business, we may, in our sole discretion, decrease the percentage or amount of fees paid by our funds directly or indirectly to us, and may also fully waive the payment of such fees, or limit total expenses, on certain products or services for a determined period of time or until the maturity of our funds, to manage fund expenses, or for other reasons, and to help retain or increase managed assets. Although we have no obligation to modify any of our fees with respect to our existing funds, we have experienced and may continue to experience pressure to do so. More recently, institutional investors have been increasing pressure to reduce management and investment fees charged by external managers, whether through direct reductions, deferrals, rebates or other means. In addition, we may be asked by investors to waive or defer fees for various reasons, including during economic downturns or as a result of poor performance of our funds. No assurances can be given that we will be able to maintain our current fee structure. Competition could lead to our asset managers reducing the fees that they charge their clients for products and services. See “—The asset management business is subject to substantial and increasingly intense competition.” In addition, our asset managers may be required to reduce their fee levels, or restructure the fees they charge, because of, among other things, regulatory initiatives or proceedings that are either industry-wide or specifically targeted, or court decisions. A reduction in the fees that our asset managers charge for their products and services will reduce our revenues and could reduce our net income. These factors also could inhibit our ability to increase fees for certain products.
Our AUM can generate very different revenues per dollar of managed assets based on factors such as the type of asset managed (alternative assets and equity assets generally produce greater revenues than fixed income assets), the type of client (institutional clients generally pay lower fees than other clients), the type of asset management product or service provided and the fee schedule of the asset manager providing the service. A shift in the mix of our AUM from higher revenue-generating assets to lower revenue-generating assets may result in a decrease in our revenues even if our aggregate level of AUM remains unchanged or increases. Products that use fee structures based on investment performance may also vary significantly from period to period, depending on the investment performance of the particular product. No assurances can be given that our funds will be able to maintain current fee structures or levels. A decrease in our revenues, without a commensurate reduction in expenses, will reduce our net income.
An increase in interest rates and other changes in the debt financing markets could negatively impact the ability of our funds and their portfolio companies to obtain attractive financing or refinancing and could increase the cost of such financing if it is obtained, which could lead to lower-yielding investments and potentially decrease our net income.
Our business and the businesses of the companies in which we invest are materially affected by changes in interest rates and other changes affecting the debt financing markets throughout the world. A period of sharply rising interest rates could create downward pressure on the price of real estate, increase the cost and availability of debt financing for the transactions our funds pursue and decrease the value of fixed-rate debt investments made by our funds, each of which may have an adverse impact on our business. In addition, a significant contraction or weakening in the market for debt financing or other adverse change relating to the terms of debt financing (such as, for example, higher equity requirements and/or more restrictive covenants), particularly in the area of acquisition financings for private equity and real estate transactions, could have a material adverse impact on our business. For example, a portion of the indebtedness used to finance certain fund investments often includes high-yield debt securities issued in the capital markets. Availability of capital from the high-yield debt markets is subject to significant volatility as well as to sharp changes in interest rates, and there may be times when our funds or their portfolio companies might not be able to access those markets at attractive rates, or at all, when completing an investment. For example, in late 2018 the global credit markets experienced a contraction in the availability of credit, which temporarily impacted the ability to obtain attractive debt financing transactions.
 
 
16

If our funds are unable to obtain committed debt financing for potential acquisitions, can only obtain debt financing at an increased interest rate or on unfavorable terms or if the ability to deduct corporate interest expense is substantially limited, our funds may face increased competition from strategic buyers of assets who may have an overall lower cost of capital or the ability to benefit from a higher amount of cost savings following an acquisition, or may have difficulty completing otherwise profitable acquisitions or may generate profits that are lower than would otherwise be the case, each of which could lead to a decrease in our revenues. In addition, rising interest rates, coupled with periods of significant equity and credit market volatility may potentially make it more difficult for us to find attractive opportunities for our funds to exit and realize value from their existing investments.
Our funds’ portfolio companies also regularly utilize the corporate debt markets in order to obtain financing for their operations. To the extent monetary policy, tax or other regulatory changes or difficult credit markets render such financing difficult to obtain, more expensive or otherwise less attractive, this may also negatively impact the financial results of those portfolio companies and, therefore, the investment returns on our funds. In addition, to the extent that market conditions and/or tax or other regulatory changes make it difficult or impossible to refinance debt that is maturing in the near term, some of our funds’ portfolio companies may be unable to repay such debt at maturity and may be forced to sell assets, undergo a recapitalization or seek bankruptcy protection.
If we cannot make the necessary investments to keep pace with rapid developments and change in our industry, the use of our services could decline, reducing our revenues.
The revenues that we earn are driven in part by the pace at which our funds make investments and the size of those investments, and a decline in the pace or the size of such investments may reduce our revenues. The market environment for private equity transactions, for example, recently has been and continues to be characterized by relatively high prices, which can make the deployment of capital more difficult. In addition, many other factors could cause a decline in the pace of investment, including the inability of our investment professionals to identify attractive investment opportunities, increasing competition for such opportunities from international and local competitors, among other potential acquirers, decreased availability of capital on attractive terms and our failure to consummate identified investment opportunities because of business, regulatory or legal complexities or uncertainty and adverse developments in the Latin American or global economy or financial markets. If we cannot make the necessary investments to keep pace with rapid developments and change in our industry, the use of our services could decline, reducing our revenues. In addition, if our funds are unable to deploy capital at a pace that is sufficient to offset the pace of realizations, our fee revenues could decrease.
Our revenue, earnings, net income and cash flow can all vary materially and be volatile from time to time, which may make it difficult for us to achieve steady earnings growth on a quarterly basis and may cause the price of our Class A common shares to decline.
Our revenue, net income and cash flow can all vary materially due to our reliance on performance revenues. We may experience fluctuations in our results, including our revenue and net income, from quarter to quarter due to a number of other factors, including timing of realizations, changes in the valuations of our funds’ investments, changes in the amount of distributions, dividends or interest paid in respect of investments, changes in our operating expenses, the degree to which we encounter competition and general economic and market conditions. Achieving steady growth in net income and cash flow on a quarterly basis may be difficult, which could in turn lead to large adverse movements or general increased volatility in the price of our Class A common shares. We also do not provide any guidance regarding our expected quarterly and annual operating results. The lack of guidance may affect the expectations of public market analysts and could cause increased volatility in our Class A common shares price.
 
17

It takes a substantial period of time to identify attractive investment opportunities, to raise all the funds needed to make an investment and then to realize the cash value (or other proceeds) of an investment through a sale, public offering, recapitalization or other exit. Even if an investment proves to be profitable, it may be a number of years before any profits can be realized in cash (or other proceeds). We cannot predict when, or if, any realization of investments will occur, and therefore our cash flows from performance allocations may be difficult to predict.
The mark-to-market
valuations of investments made by our funds are subject to volatility driven by economic and market conditions. Economic and market conditions may also negatively impact our realization opportunities. The valuations of and realization opportunities for investments made by our funds could also be subject to high volatility as a result of uncertainty regarding governmental policy with respect to, among other things, tax, financial services regulation, international trade, immigration, healthcare, labor, infrastructure and energy.
Adverse economic and market conditions may adversely affect the amount of cash generated by our businesses, and in turn, our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders.
If the global economy and conditions in the financing markets worsen, our fund investment performance could suffer, resulting in, for example, the payment of less or no performance allocations to us. Poor investment performance could lead to a loss of assets under management and a decline in revenues. This could materially and adversely affect the amount of cash we have on hand, including for, among other purposes, the payment of dividends to our shareholders. Having less cash on hand could in turn require us to rely on other sources of cash (such as the capital markets, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms) for the above purposes. Furthermore, during adverse economic and market conditions, our funds or their portfolio companies might not be able to renew all or part of their indebtedness under existing financing arrangements, or find alternate financing on commercially reasonable terms. As a result, their uses of cash may exceed their sources of cash, thereby potentially affecting their liquidity position and ability to pay dividends, which could adversely affect our results of operations and in turn, our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders.
We depend on our key senior managing directors, and the loss of their services would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We depend on the efforts, skill, reputations and business contacts of our key senior managing directors, the information and deal flow they generate during the normal course of their activities and the synergies among the diverse fields of expertise and knowledge held by our professionals. Accordingly, our success will depend on the continued service of these individuals, who are not obligated to remain employed with us. Some key senior managing directors have left the firm in the past and others may do so in the future, and we cannot predict the impact that the departure of any key senior managing director will have on our ability to achieve our investment objectives. For example, the governing agreements of many of our funds, such as limited partnership agreements and private placement memoranda, generally provide investors with the ability to terminate the investment period in the event that certain “key persons” in the fund do not provide the specified time commitment to the fund or our firm ceases to control the general partner. The loss of the services of any key senior managing directors could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, net income and cash flows and could harm our ability to maintain or grow assets under management in existing funds or raise additional funds in the future. We have historically relied in part on the interests of these professionals in the investment funds’ performance fees and incentive fees to discourage them from leaving the firm. The negative impact on net accrued performance that occurred as a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic on portfolio companies and the depreciation of the
real
against the U.S. dollar could have a negative impact on employee motivation and retention. Therefore, to the extent our investment funds perform poorly, thereby reducing the potential for performance fees and incentive fees, their interests in performance fees and incentive fees become less valuable to them and become less effective as incentives for them to continue to be employed at Patria.
Our senior managing directors and other key personnel possess substantial experience and expertise and have strong business relationships with investors in our funds, clients and other members of the business community. As a result, the loss of these personnel could jeopardize our relationships with investors in our funds, our clients and members of the business community and result in the reduction of assets under management or fewer investment opportunities.
 
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The asset management business is subject to substantial and increasingly intense competition.
The asset management business is increasingly subject to intense competition from a variety of local and international players, based on a variety of factors, including investment performance, the quality of service provided to clients, investor liquidity and willingness to invest, fund terms (including fees), brand recognition and business reputation. Furthermore, client attrition could cause our revenues to decline and the degradation of the quality of the products and services we offer, including support services, could adversely impact our ability to attract and retain clients and partners. Our asset management business competes with a number of private equity funds, specialized investment funds, hedge funds, funds of hedge funds and other sponsors’ managing pools of capital, as well as corporate buyers, traditional asset managers, commercial banks, investment banks and other financial institutions (including sovereign wealth funds), and we expect that competition will continue to increase. For example, certain traditional asset managers have developed their own private equity platforms and are marketing other asset allocation strategies as alternatives to fund investments. Additionally, developments in financial technology, or fintech, such as distributed ledger technology, or blockchain, have the potential to disrupt the financial industry and change the way financial institutions, as well as asset managers, do business. A number of factors serve to increase our competitive risks:
 
   
a number of our competitors in some of our businesses may have greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources and more personnel than we do;
 
   
some of our funds may not perform as well as competitors’ funds or other available investment products;
 
   
several of our competitors have significant amounts of capital, and many of them have similar investment objectives to ours, which may create additional competition for investment opportunities and may reduce the size and duration of pricing inefficiencies that many alternative investment strategies seek to exploit;
 
   
some of our competitors, particularly strategic competitors, may have a lower cost of capital, which may be exacerbated to the extent by any changes to applicable tax laws that may come into effect (including with respect to the deductibility of interest expense);
 
   
some of our competitors may have access to funding sources that are not available to us, which may create competitive disadvantages for us with respect to investment opportunities;
 
   
some of our competitors may be subject to less regulation and accordingly may have more flexibility to undertake and execute certain businesses or investments than we can and/or bear less compliance expense than we do;
 
   
some of our competitors may have more flexibility than us in raising certain types of investment funds under the investment management contracts they have negotiated with their investors;
 
   
some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances, different risk assessments or lower return thresholds, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and to bid more aggressively than us for investments that we want to make;
 
   
some of our competitors may be more successful than us in the development and implementation of new technology to address investor demand for product and strategy innovation;
 
   
there are relatively few barriers to entry impeding new alternative asset fund management firms, and the successful efforts of new entrants into our various businesses, including former “star” portfolio managers at large diversified financial institutions as well as such institutions themselves, is expected to continue to result in increased competition;
 
   
some of our competitors may have better expertise or be regarded by investors as having better expertise in a specific asset class or geographic region than we do;
 
19

   
our competitors that are corporate buyers may be able to achieve synergistic cost savings in respect of an investment, which may provide them with a competitive advantage in bidding for an investment;
 
   
some investors may prefer to invest with an investment manager that is not publicly traded or is smaller with only one or two investment products that it manages; and
 
   
other industry participants will from time to time seek to recruit our investment professionals and other employees away from us.
We may lose investment opportunities in the future if we do not match investment prices, structures and terms offered by competitors. Alternatively, we may experience decreased rates of return and increased risks of loss if we match investment prices, structures and terms offered by competitors. Moreover, if we are forced to compete with other alternative asset managers on the basis of price, we may not be able to maintain our current fund fee and performance fee terms. There is a risk that fees and performance fees in the alternative investment management industry will decline, without regard to the historical performance of a manager. Fee or performance fees income reductions on existing or future funds, without corresponding decreases in our cost structure, would adversely affect our revenues and profitability. In addition, the attractiveness of our investment funds relative to investments in other investment products could decrease depending on economic conditions. This competitive pressure could adversely affect our ability to make successful investments and limit our ability to raise future investment funds, either of which would adversely impact our business, revenue, results of operations and cash flow.
Our organizational documents do not limit our ability to enter into new lines of businesses, and we may expand into new investment strategies, geographic markets and businesses, each of which may result in additional risks and uncertainties in our businesses.
Our plan, to the extent that market conditions permit, is to continue to grow our investment businesses and expand into new investment strategies, geographic markets and businesses. Our organizational documents do not limit us to investment management businesses. Accordingly, we have pursued and may continue to pursue growth through acquisitions of asset managers and other investment management companies, acquisitions of critical business partners, or other strategic initiatives. To the extent we make strategic investments or acquisitions, undertake other strategic initiatives or enter into a new line of business, we will face numerous risks and uncertainties, including risks associated with (1) the required investment of capital and other resources, (2) the possibility that we have insufficient expertise to engage in such activities profitably or without incurring inappropriate amounts of risk, (3) the diversion of management’s attention from our core businesses, (4) assumption of liabilities in any acquired business, (5) the disruption of our ongoing businesses, (6) the increasing demands on or issues related to the combining or integrating operational and management systems and controls, (7) compliance with additional regulatory requirements and (8) the broadening of our geographic footprint, including the risks associated with conducting operations in several jurisdictions.
Entry into certain lines of business may subject us to new laws and regulations with which we are not familiar, or from which we are currently exempt, and may lead to increased litigation, including tax and regulatory risk. For example, we have increasingly undertaken business initiatives to offer credit funds, constructivist funds (investment in public equity applying the private equity modus operandi) funds and publicly-traded real estate funds (known in Brazil as a
Fundo de Investimento Imobiliário
, or “FII”) and to increase the number and type of investment products we offer to family offices and high net worth individuals. These activities have and will continue to impose additional compliance burdens on us and could also subject us to enhanced regulatory scrutiny and expose us to greater reputation and litigation risks. In addition, if a new business generates insufficient revenues or if we are unable to efficiently manage our expanded operations or to successfully overcome the challenges we may face in expanding into new geographic regions in Latin America, our results of operations will be adversely affected. Our strategic initiatives may include, among other things, initiatives seeking to expand our and our portfolio companies’ management capabilities, which require a robust legal and compliance framework, and entry into joint ventures, which may require us to be dependent on, and subject us to liability, losses or reputational damage relating to, systems, controls and personnel that are not under our control.
 
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We may not be successful in expanding our operations in Latin America, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We currently operate and may operate in the future in regions and countries in Latin America where we have little or no experience, and we may not be able to expand our investment activities in these markets successfully. As we expand our operations into Latin American markets, including new geographies, we may have difficulty adapting to unknown circumstances and conditions. We may seek to expand our operations in Latin America, including new geographies, through acquisitions of asset managers and other investment management companies in the region, which may be financed using a portion of the proceeds of our initial public offering or through other sources of financing. In order to remain competitive, we must be proactive and prepared to implement necessary resources when growth opportunities present themselves, whether as a result of a business acquisition or rapidly increasing business activities in particular markets or regions. Local regulatory environments may vary widely in terms of scope, adequacy and sophistication. We may also encounter other risks of doing business in Latin America, including: (1) difficulties and costs associated with complying with a variety of complex domestic and foreign laws, regulations and treaties; (2) changes in legislative or regulatory requirements; (3) price and currency exchange controls; (4) political instability, including nationalization and expropriation; (5) trade restrictions, including timing delays associated with customs procedures, tariffs and import or export licensing requirements; (6) taxes; and (7) difficulties in enforcing our intellectual property rights. We cannot assure you that the political, fiscal or legal regimes in the countries in which we operate or expect to operate, will not increase our compliance costs or otherwise adversely affect our geographic expansion efforts, which may harm our results of operations or financial conditions. See “—We expect to continue to make investments in companies that are based in Latin America, which may expose us to additional risks not typically associated with investing in companies that are based in the United States.” No assurance can be provided that we will be able to obtain capital resources to fund our expansion strategy on acceptable terms or at all. If we are not successful in implementing or funding our expansion strategy, our business, financial results and the market price for our Class A common shares may be adversely affected.
If we are unable to consummate or successfully integrate additional development opportunities, acquisitions or joint ventures, we may not be able to implement our growth strategy successfully.
Our growth strategy is based, in part, on the selective development or acquisition of asset management portfolios, businesses or other businesses complementary to our business where we think we can add substantial value or generate substantial returns in Brazil, Chile and in certain countries of Latin America. The success of this strategy will depend on, among other things: (1) the availability of suitable opportunities, (2) the level of competition from other companies that may have greater financial resources, (3) our ability to value potential development or acquisition opportunities accurately and negotiate acceptable terms for those opportunities, (4) our ability to obtain requisite approvals and licenses from the relevant governmental authorities and to comply with applicable laws and regulations without incurring undue costs and delays and (5) our ability to identify and enter into mutually beneficial relationships with venture partners. Moreover, even if we are able to identify and successfully complete an acquisition, we may encounter unexpected difficulties or incur unexpected costs associated with integrating and overseeing the operations of the new businesses. If we are not successful in implementing our growth strategy, our business, financial results and the market price for our Class A common shares may be adversely affected.
Changes in relevant tax laws, regulations or treaties or an adverse interpretation of these items by tax authorities could adversely impact our effective tax rate and tax liability.
Our effective tax rate and tax liability is based on the application of current income and revenues tax laws, regulations and treaties. These laws, regulations and treaties are complex, and the manner which they apply to us and to the funds and other investment vehicles we manage is sometimes open to interpretation. Furthermore, applicable tax authorities may have differing interpretations and guidance with respect to certain tax matters specific to the industry in which we operate (including multi-jurisdictional aspects). Significant management judgment is required in determining our provision for income taxes, our deferred tax assets and liabilities and any valuation allowance recorded against our net deferred tax assets. Although management believes its application of current laws, regulations and treaties to be correct and sustainable upon examination by the tax authorities, the tax authorities could challenge our interpretation resulting in additional tax liability or adjustment to our income and revenues tax provision that could increase our effective tax burden.
 
21

Nonresident investors may enjoy certain tax benefits for investing in private equity funds in Brazil (under Brazilian Law No. 11,312/06) that may not be maintained if changes in tax rules occur or an adverse interpretation of such laws by tax authorities and/or courts prevails. In recent years, the Brazilian Federal Revenue Service has been reviewing its interpretation and questioning the commonly used investment structures utilized for private equity investments in Brazil by nonresident investors and, in certain cases, has initiated tax claims related to the alleged failure to withhold income taxes due to the
non-compliance
with requirements of the tax benefits. If the law establishing such tax benefits is not maintained or an adverse interpretation by tax authorities and/or courts regarding such benefits prevails, our
after-tax
returns could be adversely affected, which might affect our ability to raise capital, capital return and consequently affect our prospects and results of operations.
There can be no assurance that we will not be a passive foreign investment company, or “PFIC,” for any taxable year, which could subject United States investors in our Class A common shares to significant adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences.
Under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the “Code,” we will be a PFIC for any taxable year in which either (1) 75% or more of our gross income consists of “passive income,” or (2) 50% or more of the average quarterly value of our assets consists of assets that produce, or are held for the production of, “passive income.” For this purpose, subject to certain exceptions, passive income includes interest, dividends, rents, gains from the sale or exchange of property that gives rise to such income, gains from the sale of partnership interests and gains from transactions in commodities. We do not believe we were a PFIC for our 2021 taxable year. However, there can be no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service, or the “IRS” will agree with our conclusion. Moreover, our PFIC status is a factual determination that is made on an annual basis. Whether we will be a PFIC in 2022 or in any future year is uncertain because, among other things, our PFIC status depends on the composition of our income and assets and the market value of our assets from time to time (which may be determined, in part, by reference to the market price of our Class A common shares). In addition, it is uncertain whether certain types of income we derive are characterized as passive income for purposes of determining our PFIC status. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC for any taxable year.
If we were a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder (as defined in “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Holders”) held our Class A common shares (assuming such U.S. Holder has not made and maintained a timely election described under “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Holders”), gain recognized by the U.S. Holder on a sale or other disposition (including certain pledges) of the Class A common shares would be allocated ratably over the U.S. Holder’s holding period for the Class A common shares. The amounts allocated to the taxable year of the sale or other disposition and to any year before we became a PFIC would be taxed as ordinary income. The amount allocated to each other taxable year would be subject to tax at the highest rate in effect for individuals or corporations, as appropriate, for that taxable year, and an interest charge would be imposed on the tax on such amounts. Further, to the extent that any distributions received by a U.S. Holder on its Class A common shares during a taxable year exceed 125% of the average of the annual distributions on such Class A common shares received during the preceding three years or the U.S. Holder’s holding period, whichever is shorter, those distributions would be subject to taxation in the same manner as gain. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors concerning our potential PFIC status and the potential application of the PFIC rules.
Cybersecurity risks could result in the loss of data, interruptions in our business, damage to our reputation, and subject us to regulatory actions and/or lawsuits, increased costs and financial losses, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our operations are highly dependent on our information systems and technology and we rely heavily on our financial, accounting, communications and other data processing systems. Our systems may fail to operate properly or become disabled as a result of tampering or a breach of our network security systems or otherwise. In addition, our systems face ongoing cybersecurity threats and attacks. Attacks on our systems could involve, and in some instances have in the past involved, attempts intended to obtain unauthorized access to our proprietary information, destroy data or disable, degrade or sabotage our systems, or divert or otherwise steal funds, including through the introduction of computer viruses, “phishing” attempts and other forms of social engineering. Cyberattacks and other security threats could originate from a wide variety of external sources, including cyber criminals, nation state hackers, hacktivists and other outside parties. Cyberattacks and other security threats could also originate from the malicious or accidental acts of insiders, such as employees.
 
22

There has been an increase in the frequency and sophistication of the cyber and security threats we face, with attacks ranging from those common to businesses generally to those that are more advanced and persistent, which may target us because, as an alternative asset management firm, we hold a significant amount of confidential and sensitive information about our investors, our portfolio companies and potential investments. As a result, we may face a heightened risk of a security breach or disruption with respect to this information. There can be no assurance that measures we take to ensure the integrity of our systems will provide protection, especially because cyberattack techniques change frequently or are not recognized until successful. If our systems are compromised, do not operate properly or are disabled, or if we fail to provide the appropriate regulatory or other notifications in a timely manner, we could suffer financial loss, a disruption of our businesses, liability to our investment funds and fund investors, regulatory intervention or reputational damage. The costs related to cyber or other security threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified by other means.
In addition, we could also suffer losses in connection with updates to, or the failure to timely update, our information systems and technology. In addition, we have become increasingly reliant on third-party service providers for certain aspects of our business, including for the administration of certain funds, as well as for certain key market information and data, information systems, technology, processing and supporting functions, including cloud-based services. These third-party service providers could also face ongoing cyber security threats and compromises of their systems and as a result, unauthorized individuals could gain, and in some past instances have gained, access to certain confidential data.
Cybersecurity has become a top priority for regulators around the world. Many jurisdictions in which we operate have laws and regulations relating to data privacy, cybersecurity and protection of personal information, including, as examples the General Data Protection Regulation, or “GDPR,” in the European Union that went into effect in May 2018 and the Brazilian Data Protection Act (
Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados
), or “LGPD,” that went into effect in September 2020. See “—Rapidly developing and changing global privacy laws and regulations could increase compliance costs and subject us to enforcement risks and reputational damage.” Some jurisdictions have also enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals and government agencies of data security breaches involving certain types of personal data.
Breaches in security, whether malicious in nature or through inadvertent transmittal or other loss of data, could potentially jeopardize our employees’ or our fund investors’ or counterparties’ confidential, proprietary and other information processed and stored in, and transmitted through, our computer systems and networks, or otherwise cause interruptions or malfunctions in our employees’, our fund investors’, our counterparties’ or third-parties’ business and operations, which could result in significant financial losses, increased costs, liability to our fund investors and other counterparties, regulatory intervention and reputational damage. Furthermore, if we fail to comply with the relevant laws and regulations or fail to provide the appropriate regulatory or other notifications of breach in a timely matter, it could result in regulatory investigations and penalties, which could lead to negative publicity and reputational harm and may cause our fund investors and clients to lose confidence in the effectiveness of our security measures.
Our portfolio companies also rely on data processing systems and the secure processing, storage and transmission of information, including payment and health information. A disruption or compromise of these systems could have a material adverse effect on the value of these businesses. Our funds may invest in strategic assets having a national or regional profile or in infrastructure, the nature of which could expose them to a greater risk of being subject to a terrorist attack or security breach than other assets or businesses, or to restrictions to the circulation of products or services arising from epidemics, such as the recent
COVID-19
pandemic. Such an event may have material adverse consequences on our investment or assets of the same type or may require portfolio companies to increase preventative security measures or expand insurance coverage.
Finally, our technology, data and intellectual property and the technology, data and intellectual property of our portfolio companies are also subject to a heightened risk of theft or compromise given that we and our portfolio companies engage in operations in Latin America, in particular in jurisdictions that do not have comparable levels of protection of proprietary information and assets such as intellectual property, trademarks, trade secrets,
know-how
and customer information and records, as compared to the United States. In addition, we and our portfolio companies may be required to compromise protections or forego rights to technology, data and intellectual property in order to operate in or access markets in certain jurisdictions. Any such direct or indirect compromise of these assets could have a material adverse impact on us and our portfolio companies.
 
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We may not be able to successfully manage our intellectual property and may be subject to infringement claims.
We rely on a combination of contractual rights, trademarks, trade secrets, copyrights, domain names and software to establish and protect our business. Third parties may challenge, invalidate, circumvent, infringe or misappropriate our intellectual property, including at the administrative or judicial level, or such intellectual property may not be sufficient to permit us to take advantage of current market trends or otherwise to provide competitive advantages, which could result in costly redesign efforts, the discontinuance of certain service offerings or other competitive and operational harm. Others, including our competitors, may independently develop similar technology, duplicate our services or design around our intellectual property, and in such cases, we could not assert our intellectual property rights against such parties.
Further, our contractual arrangements may not effectively prevent disclosure of our confidential information or provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of our confidential information. We may have to litigate to enforce or determine the scope and enforceability of our intellectual property rights, trade secrets and
know-how,
which is expensive, could cause a diversion of resources and may not prove successful. It is not possible to guarantee that
non-disclosure
and confidentiality agreements, or invention assignment agreements, have been concluded with all parties who may have or have had access to our trade secrets or proprietary information, or who have otherwise participated in the development of our intellectual property assets. Also, because of the rapid pace of technological change in our industry, aspects of our business and our services rely on technologies developed or licensed by third parties, and we may not be able to obtain or continue to obtain licenses and technologies from these third parties on reasonable terms or at all. The loss of intellectual property protection, the inability to obtain third-party intellectual property or delay or refusal by relevant regulatory authorities to approve pending intellectual property registration applications could harm our business and ability to compete. With respect to trademarks, loss of rights may result from term expirations, owner abandonment and forfeiture or cancellation proceedings before the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office (
Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial)
, or the “INPI” or authorities in other relevant jurisdictions. In addition, if we lose rights over registered trademarks, we would not be entitled to use such trademarks on an exclusive basis and, therefore, third parties would be able to use similar or identical trademarks to identify their products or services, as well as claim that our use of such marks infringes their intellectual property rights, which could adversely affect our business.
Rapidly developing and changing global privacy laws and regulations could increase compliance costs and subject us to enforcement risks and reputational damage.
We and our portfolio companies are subject to various risks and costs associated with the collection, processing, storage and transmission of personally identifiable information, or “PII,” and other sensitive and confidential information. This data is wide ranging and relates to our investors, employees, contractors and other counterparties and third parties. Our compliance obligations include those relating to the Cayman Islands Data Protection Act and Brazilian laws such as the LGPD, a comprehensive personal data protection law establishing general principles and obligations that applies across multiple economic sectors and contractual relationships and Brazilian bank secrecy laws, as well as obligations relating to data collection and privacy laws in jurisdictions in which we operate, including, for example, the GDPR in Europe, Dubai, and the Hong Kong Personal Data (Privacy) Ordinance.
The LGPD applies to individuals or legal entities, private or government entities, who process or collect personal data in Brazil or, further, when the processing activities have the purpose of offering or supplying goods or services to data subjects located in Brazil. The LGPD established detailed rules for processing personal data, which include the collection, use, transfer and storage of personal data and affects all economic sectors, including the relationship between clients and suppliers of goods and services, employees and employers and other relationships in which personal data is collected, whether in a digital or physical environment. Based on the LGPD, all processing agents/legal entities are required to adapt their data processing activities to comply with this new environment.
As of the LGPD effective date (i.e. September 2020), all processing agents/legal entities are required to adapt their data processing activities to comply with this new environment. We have implemented changes with respect to our policies and procedures designed to ensure our compliance with the relevant requirements under the LGPD.
 
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The penalties and fines for violations of the LGPD include: (1) warnings, with the imposition of a deadline for the adoption of corrective measures; (2) a daily fine, up to a maximum amount of R$50.0 million per violation; (3) the restriction of access to the personal data to which the violation relates up to a
six-month
period, that can be extended for the same period, until the processing activities are compliant with the regulation, and in case of repetition of the violation, temporary block and/or deletion of the related personal data, and/or partial or complete prohibition of processing activities; (4) a fine of up to 2% of gross sales of the company or a group of companies in the maximum amount of R$50.0 million per violation; and (5) the mandatory public disclosure of the infraction after it is duly evaluated and its occurrence confirmed. Any additional privacy laws or regulations enacted or approved in Brazil or in other jurisdictions in which we operate could seriously harm our business, financial condition or results of operations. Pursuant to the LGPD, security breaches that may result in significant risk or damage to personal data must be reported to the National Data Protection Authority (
Autoridade Nacional de Proteção de Dados
), or “ANPD,” the data protection regulatory body, within a reasonable time period. The notice to the ANPD must include: (a) a description of the nature of the personal data affected by the breach; (b) the affected data subjects; (c) the technical and security measures adopted; (d) the risks related to the breach; (e) the reasons for any delays in reporting the breach, if applicable; and (f) the measures adopted to revert or mitigate the effects of the damage caused by the breach. Moreover, the ANPD could establish other obligations related to data protection that are not described above.
Global laws relating to foreign data collection and privacy are rapidly increasing in the scale and depth of their requirements, and are also often extra-territorial in nature. In addition, a wide range of regulators are seeking to enforce these laws across regions and borders. Furthermore, we frequently have privacy compliance requirements as a result of our contractual obligations with counterparties. These legal and contractual obligations heighten our privacy obligations in the ordinary course of conducting our business in Brazil, Chile and internationally.
While we have taken various measures and made significant efforts and investment to ensure that our policies, processes and systems are both robust and in compliance with these obligations, our potential liability remains, particularly given the continued and rapid development of privacy laws and regulations around the world, and increased enforcement action. Any inability, or perceived inability, by us or our portfolio companies to adequately address privacy concerns, or comply with applicable laws, regulations, policies, industry standards and guidance, contractual obligations, or other legal obligations, even if unfounded, could result in significant regulatory and third-party liability, increased costs, disruption of our and our portfolio companies’ business and operations, and a loss of client (including investor) confidence and other reputational damage. Furthermore, as new privacy-related laws and regulations are implemented, the time and resources needed for us and our portfolio companies to comply with such laws and regulations continue to increase and become a significant compliance work stream.
Our operations are highly dependent on the information system and technology infrastructure that supports our business and on a number of external service providers for certain key market information and data, technology, processing and supporting functions.
We depend on our offices in George Town, Cayman Islands, São Paulo, Brazil and Santiago, Chile, where most of our personnel are located, for the continued operation of our business. A disaster or a disruption in the infrastructure that supports our businesses, as a result of a cybersecurity incident or otherwise, including a disruption involving electronic communications or other services used by us or third parties with whom we conduct business, or directly affecting our headquarters, could have a material adverse impact on our ability to continue to operate our business without interruption. Our disaster recovery and business continuity programs may not be sufficient to mitigate the harm that may result from such a disaster or disruption. In addition, insurance and other safeguards may not be sufficient to cover all claims and might only partially reimburse us for our losses, if at all.
Our operations are highly dependent on our information systems and technology and, we rely heavily on our financial, accounting, communications and other data processing systems, each of which may require update and enhancement as we grow our business. Our information systems and technology may not continue to be able to accommodate our growth, and the cost of maintaining such systems may increase from its current level. Such a failure to adapt to or accommodate growth, or an increase in costs related to such information systems, could have a material adverse effect on us.
 
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In addition, we have become increasingly reliant on third-party service providers for certain aspects of our business, including for the administration of certain funds, as well as for key market information and data, technology, processing and supporting functions, including cloud-based services. In addition to the fact that these third-party service providers could also face ongoing cyber security threats and compromises of their systems, we generally have less control over the delivery of such third-party services, and as a result, we may face disruptions to our ability to operate a business as a result of interruptions of such services. Any interruption or deterioration in the performance of these third parties or failures or compromises of their information systems and technology could impair the operations of us and our funds and adversely affect our reputation and businesses. See “—Cybersecurity risks could result in the loss of data, interruptions in our business, damage to our reputation, and subject us to regulatory actions and/or lawsuits, increased costs and financial losses, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations” and “—Rapidly developing and changing global privacy laws and regulations could increase compliance costs and subject us to enforcement risks and reputational damage.”
Extensive regulation of our businesses affects our activities and creates the potential for significant liabilities and penalties. The possibility of increased regulatory focus could result in additional burdens on our business.
Our business is subject to extensive regulation, including periodic examinations, by governmental agencies and self-regulatory organizations in the jurisdictions in which we operate around the world. These authorities have regulatory powers dealing with many aspects of financial services, including the authority to grant, and in specific circumstances to cancel, permissions to carry on particular activities. Many of these regulators, including Brazilian and foreign government agencies and self-regulatory organizations are also empowered to conduct investigations and administrative proceedings that can result in fines, suspensions of personnel, changes in policies, procedures or disclosure or other sanctions, including the issuance of
cease-and-desist orders,
the suspension or expulsion of an investment adviser from registration or memberships or the commencement of a civil or criminal lawsuit against us or our personnel.
Moreover, the financial services industry in recent years has been the subject of heightened scrutiny, and U.S. and Brazilian regulators have specifically focused on private equity. In that connection, in recent years the SEC’s stated examination priorities have included, among other things, private equity firms’ disclosure and collection of fees and allocation of expenses, their marketing and valuation practices, allocation of investment opportunities, prevention of insider trading, and policies and procedures with respect to conflicts of interest and compliance measures customized to the actual circumstances. We regularly are subject to requests for information and informal or formal investigations by the Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission (
Comissão de Valores Mobiliários
), or “CVM,” and other regulatory authorities related to the other jurisdictions in which we operate, as well as the Brazilian internal revenue service (
Receita Federal do Brasil
) and other tax revenue agencies, as well as self-regulating authorities, such as the Brazilian Financial and Capital Markets Association (
Associação Brasileira das Entidades dos Mercados Financeiro e de Capitais
), or “ANBIMA” and the Brazilian Private Equity and Venture Capital Association (
Associação Brasileira de Private Equity e Venture Capital
), or ABVCAP, with which we routinely cooperate, and which have included review of historical practices that were previously examined. Such investigations have previously and may in the future result in deficiency letters, penalties and other sanctions.
We are currently subject to a comprehensive regulatory regime and the ongoing requirements related to our registration as asset managers and administrators in Brazil with the CVM as well as in Chile with (1) the Financial Markets Commission (
Comisión Para el Mercado Financiero
)
,
or “CMF,” both for Moneda S.A. Administradora General de Fondos and Moneda Corredores de Bolsa Ltda.; (2) the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, for Moneda USA, Inc. and (3) the Financial Services Commission of the British Virgin Islands, for Moneda International Inc. We have also obtained our registration as a distributor of certain securities with the CVM, which may result in additional liability and operational requirements. There is significant uncertainty regarding the allocation of responsibilities and functions performed by asset managers, administrators and distributors under Brazilian law and related rules and regulations.
Actions and initiatives by the CVM, the CMF or other regulators can have an adverse effect on our financial results, including as a result of the imposition of a sanction, a limitation on our or our personnel’s activities, or changing our historic practices. Even if an investigation or proceeding did not result in a sanction or the sanction imposed against us or our personnel by a regulator were small in monetary amount, the adverse publicity relating to the investigation, proceeding or imposition of these sanctions could harm our reputation and cause us to lose existing clients or fail to gain new clients.
 
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We are exposed to certain risks that are particular to investing in emerging and other markets.
In maintaining significant investment exposure, in Brazil and Chile, as well as other emerging markets in Latin America, we are subject to political, economic, legal, operational and other risks that are inherent to operating and investing in these countries. These risks range from difficulties in settling transactions in emerging markets due to possible nationalization, expropriation, price controls and other restrictive governmental actions. We also face the risk that exchange controls or similar restrictions imposed by foreign governmental authorities may restrict our ability to convert local currency received or held by us in their countries into U.S. dollars or other currencies, or to take those dollars or other currencies out of those countries.
Furthermore, in 2019, Chile was shaken by widespread protests against economic and social inequality, which resulted in months of marches and episodes of street violence. In December 2021, Gabriel Boric was elected Chile’s new president, defeating José Antonio Kast, in an election marked by political polarization. Boric’s government plan includes aspects such as increasing taxes on the richest population and large companies, ending the current pension system, and creating a universal fund to finance public and private health. It is difficult to assess the impact that the changes to the Chilean political scenario, as well as other Latin American countries, will have on their respective economies and, as a result, on our future operations and financial results. Such political decisions will result in a binding referendum scheduled to take place later in 2022. If social security is significantly reshaped, this may have an impact in the Pension funds, which represent a significant portion of some of the funds managed by Moneda.
Political developments in Latin America, including government deadlock, political instability and civil strife could impact our operations and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We rely on complex exemptions from statutes in conducting our asset management activities.
We regularly rely on exemptions from various requirements of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the “Securities Act,” the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the “Exchange Act,” the U.S. Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, or the “Investment Company Act,” the Commodity Exchange Act and the U.S. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, in conducting our asset management activities. These exemptions are sometimes highly complex and may in certain circumstances depend on compliance by third parties whom we do not control. If for any reason these exemptions were to become unavailable to us, we could become subject to regulatory action or third-party claims and our business could be materially and adversely affected. For example, the “bad actor” disqualification provisions of Rule 506 of Regulation D under the Securities Act ban an issuer from offering or selling securities pursuant to the safe harbor rule in Rule 506 if the issuer or any other “covered person” is the subject of a criminal, regulatory or court order or other “disqualifying event” under the rule which has not been waived. The definition of “covered person” includes an issuer’s directors, general partners, managing members and executive officers; affiliates who are also issuing securities in the offering; beneficial owners of 20% or more of the issuer’s outstanding equity securities; and promoters and persons compensated for soliciting investors in the offering. Accordingly, our ability to rely on Rule 506 to offer or sell securities would be impaired if we or any “covered person” is the subject of a disqualifying event under the rule and we are unable to obtain a waiver. The requirements imposed by our regulators are designed primarily to ensure the integrity of the financial markets and to protect investors in our investment funds and are not designed to protect the holders of our Class A common shares. Consequently, these regulations often serve to limit our activities and impose burdensome compliance requirements.
We are subject to increasing scrutiny from certain investors with respect to the societal and environmental impact of investments made by our funds, which may constrain capital deployment opportunities for our funds and adversely impact our ability to raise capital from such investors.
In recent years, certain investors, including public pension funds, have placed increasing importance on the negative impacts of investments made by the private equity and other funds to which they commit capital, including with respect to ESG matters. Certain investors have also demonstrated increased activism with respect to existing investments, including by urging asset managers to take certain actions that could adversely impact the value of an investment, or refrain from taking certain actions that could improve the value of an investment. At times, investors have conditioned future capital commitments on the taking or refraining from taking of such actions. Increased focus and activism related to ESG and similar matters may constrain our capital deployment opportunities, and the demands of certain investors, including public pension funds, may further limit the types of investments that are available to our funds. In addition, investors, including public pension funds, which represent an important portion of our funds’ investor bases, may decide to withdraw previously committed capital from our funds (where such withdrawal is permitted) or to not commit capital to future fundraises as a result of their assessment of our approach to and consideration of the social cost of investments made by our funds. To the extent our access to capital from investors, including public pension funds, is impaired, we may not be able to maintain or increase the size of our funds or raise sufficient capital for new funds, which may adversely impact our revenues.
 
 
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In addition, ESG matters have been the subject of increased focus by certain regulators in the EU. For example, the European Commission has proposed legislative reforms, which include, without limitation: (1) Regulation 2019/2088 regarding the introduction of transparency and disclosure obligations for investors, funds and asset managers in relation to ESG factors, for which most rules are proposed to take effect beginning on March 10, 2021 and (2) a proposed regulation regarding the introduction
of EU-wide
taxonomy of environmentally sustainable activities, which is proposed to take effect in a staggered approach beginning on December 31, 2021. As a result of these legislative initiatives, we may be required to provide additional disclosure to investors in our funds with respect to ESG matters.
We are subject to substantial litigation risks and may face significant liabilities and damage to our professional reputation as a result of litigation allegations and negative publicity.
In recent years, the volume of claims and amount of damages claimed in litigation and regulatory proceedings against the financial services industry in general have been increasing and are generally expected to continue to increase in the future. The investment decisions we make in our asset management business and the activities of our investment professionals on behalf of portfolio companies may subject the companies, funds and us to the risk of third-party litigation arising from investor dissatisfaction with the performance of those investment funds, alleged conflicts of interest, the suitability or manner of distribution of our products, the activities of our funds’ portfolio companies, including labor, tax, criminal and environmental claims related thereto, as well as a variety of other litigation claims.
In addition, Brazilian authorities and/or courts may, in some cases, apply legal doctrines such as piercing the corporate veil or enact legal statutes that impose joint and several liability or secondary liability, holding controlling shareholders and other companies of an economic group jointly liable for labor, social security, consumer related and environmental obligations, even in the absence of fraudulent conduct. Accordingly, our portfolio companies and our funds may be subject to judicial and administrative proceedings related to debts, contingencies or liabilities related to our portfolio companies as a whole, and we may ultimately be liable for those debts, contingencies and liabilities if we do not successfully defend ourselves in such proceedings.
The costs and effects of pending and future litigation, investigations or similar matters, or adverse facts and developments related thereto, could materially affect our business, financial position and results of operations. From time to time we, our funds and our funds’ public portfolio companies may be subject to securities class action lawsuits by shareholders, as well as class action lawsuits that challenge our acquisition transactions and/or attempt to enjoin them.
In addition, to the extent investors in our investment funds suffer losses resulting from fraud, gross negligence, willful misconduct or other similar misconduct, investors may have remedies against us, our investment funds, our senior managing directors or our affiliates under the relevant securities laws. While the general partners and investment advisers to our investment funds, including their directors, officers, other employees and affiliates, are generally indemnified to the fullest extent permitted by law with respect to their conduct in connection with the management of the business and affairs of our investment funds, such indemnity does not extend to actions determined to have involved fraud, gross negligence, willful misconduct or other similar misconduct.
The activities of our capital markets services business may also subject us to the risk of liabilities to our clients and third parties, including our clients’ shareholders, under securities or other laws in connection with transactions in which we participate.
 
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If any private lawsuits or regulatory actions were brought against us and resulted in a finding of substantial legal liability, it could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations or cause significant reputational harm to us, which could seriously harm our business. We depend to a large extent on our business relationships and our reputation for integrity and high-caliber professional services to attract and retain investors and to pursue investment opportunities for our funds. As a result, allegations of improper conduct by private litigants, regulators, or employees, whether the ultimate outcome is favorable or unfavorable to us, as well as negative publicity and press speculation about us, our investment activities, our lines of business or distribution channels, our workplace environment, or the private equity industry in general, whether or not valid, may harm our reputation, which may be more damaging to our business than to other types of businesses.
Further, disputes might arise in relation to the business activities of certain of our portfolio companies or the performance of the service providers thereunder. To the extent that any client of our portfolio companies or their service providers disagrees with us on the quality of the products or services, terms and conditions of the payment or other provisions of such services, we may face claims, disputes, litigation or other proceedings initiated by such clients against us. We may incur substantial expenses and require significant attention of management in defending against these claims, regardless of their merit. We could also face damage to our reputation as a result of such claims, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially and adversely affected.
We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering and sanctions laws and regulations in Brazil, Chile, the United States and in the various countries in which we operate. Violations of any such laws or regulations could have a material adverse impact on our reputation and results of operations and financial condition.
We operate in jurisdictions that have a high risk of corruption and we are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery anti-money laundering and sanctions laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the Brazilian Federal Law No. 12,846/2013, or the “Clean Company Act,” the Brazilian Federal Law No. 9,613/1998, the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, or the “FCPA,” and the Bribery Act 2010 of the United Kingdom, or the “Bribery Act,” as well as the Chilean Laws No. 19,913 and No. 20,393, and the Chilean Criminal Code. Each of the Clean Company Act, the FCPA and the Bribery Act imposes liability against companies who engage in bribery of government officials, either directly or through intermediaries. We have a compliance program that is designed to manage the risks of doing business in light of these new and existing legal and regulatory requirements. If we, our direct or indirect shareholders, directors, officers, employees and other third-parties are not in compliance with anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering and sanctions laws and regulations we may be subject to criminal liability, administrative and civil lawsuits, significant fines and penalties, forfeiture of significant assets, as well as reputational harm to us or to our portfolio companies.
The military actions undertaken by Russian military forces against Ukraine in February 2022 resulted in the imposition of financial and economic sanctions by the European Union, the U.S., the United Kingdom and other countries and organizations against officials, individuals, regions, and industries due to the Russian-Ukrainian War. Such sanctions, together with any additional measure that may be adopted in connection with this situation, may, in various ways, constrain Russian- and Ukrainian-related transactions. Our ability to engage in activity with certain consumer and institutional businesses in Russia and Ukraine or involving certain Russian or Ukrainian businesses and customers would be dependent in part upon whether such engagement is restricted under any current or expected U.S., EU, U.K. or other countries sanctions and laws. Our ability to engage would be further impaired in the event other countries’ were to become involved in the conflict and, as result, be subjected to sanctions or similar restrictions.
Violations of anti-corruption, export control and sanctions laws and regulations are punishable by civil penalties, including fines, denial of export privileges, injunctions, asset seizures, debarment from government contracts and revocations or restrictions of licenses, as well as criminal fines and imprisonment. There can be no assurance that all of our employees, consultants, agents or other associated persons will not take actions in violation of these laws and regulations, and that our procedures will effectively prevent us from violating these regulations in every transaction in which we may engage or provide a defense to any alleged violation. In particular, we may be held liable for the actions that our local strategic partners take inside or outside of the United States, even though our partners may not be subject to these laws. Such a violation, even if our policies prohibit it, could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition.
 
 
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Regulators may increase enforcement of these obligations, which may require us to adjust our compliance and anti-money laundering programs, including the procedures we use to verify the identity of our clients and to monitor our transactions. Regulators may reexamine the transaction volume thresholds at which we must obtain and keep applicable records, verify identities of customers, and report any change in such thresholds to the applicable regulatory authorities, which could result in increased costs in order to comply with these legal and regulatory requirements. Costs associated with fines or enforcement actions, changes in compliance requirements, or limitations on our ability to grow could harm our business, and any new requirements or changes to existing requirements could impose significant costs, result in delays to planned products or services improvements, make it more difficult to obtain new clients and reduce the attractiveness of our products and services. As a result, allegations of improper conduct as well as negative publicity and press speculation about us or our investment advisor or investment management companies, as well as portfolio companies, or the private equity industry in general, whether or not valid, may harm our reputation, which may be more damaging to our business than to other types of businesses.
In Uruguay, as a portfolio manager, Patria Investments Uruguay S.A. is subject to the Anti-Money Laundering Regulations of Uruguay, or the “Uruguay AML Regime.” The Uruguay AML Regime requires entities to maintain and enforce policies and procedures for the prevention and reporting of suspicious transactions, as well as know-your-client procedures.
Misconduct of our employees, consultants or subcontractors could harm us by impairing our ability to attract and retain clients and subjecting us to significant legal liability and reputational harm. Fraud and other deceptive practices or other misconduct at our funds’ portfolio companies could similarly subject us to liability and reputational damage and also harm performance.
Our employees, consultants and subcontractors could engage in misconduct that adversely affects our business. We are subject to a number of obligations and standards arising from our asset management business and our authority over the assets managed by our asset management business. The violation of these obligations and standards by any of our employees, consultants and subcontractors would adversely affect our clients and us. Our business often requires that we deal with confidential matters of great significance to companies in which we may invest. If our employees, consultants and subcontractors were to improperly use or disclose confidential information, we could suffer serious harm to our reputation, financial position and current and future business relationships. Detecting or deterring employee misconduct is not always possible, and the extensive precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in all cases. If one of our employees, consultants and subcontractors were to engage in misconduct or were to be accused of such misconduct, our business and our reputation could be adversely affected.
In recent years, regulatory authorities across various jurisdictions, such as Brazil the United States and the United Kingdom, among others, have increasingly focused on enhancing and enforcing anti-bribery laws, such as the Clean Company Act, FCPA and the Bribery Act. While we have developed and implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure strict compliance by us and our personnel with such laws, such policies and procedures may not be effective in all instances to prevent violations. Any determination that we have violated the Clean Company Act, the FCPA, the anti-bribery laws or other applicable anti-corruption laws could subject us to, among other things, civil and criminal penalties or material fines, profit disgorgement, injunctions on future conduct, securities litigation and a general loss of investor confidence, any one of which could adversely affect our business prospects, financial position or the market value of our Class A common shares.
In addition, we may also be adversely affected if there is misconduct by personnel of portfolio companies in which our funds invest. For example, financial fraud or other deceptive practices at our funds’ portfolio companies, or failures by personnel at our funds’ portfolio companies to comply with anti-bribery, trade sanctions, anti-harassment or other legal and regulatory requirements, could subject us to, among other things, civil and criminal penalties or material fines, profit disgorgement, injunctions on future conduct and securities litigation, and could also cause significant reputational and business harm to us. Such misconduct may undermine our due diligence efforts with respect to such portfolio companies and could negatively affect the valuations of the investments by our funds in such portfolio companies. In addition, we may face an increased risk of such misconduct resulting from our emphasis in making investments in Latin America.
 
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Poor performance of our investment funds would cause a decline in our revenue, income and cash flow, may obligate us to repay performance allocations previously paid to us, and could adversely affect our ability to raise capital for future investment funds.
In the event that any of our investment funds were to perform poorly, our revenue, income and cash flow would decline because the value of our assets under management would decrease, which would result in a reduction in management fees, and our investment returns would decrease, resulting in a reduction in the performance allocations and incentive fees we earn. Moreover, we could experience losses on our investments of our own principal as a result of poor investment performance by our investment funds. Furthermore, if, as a result of poor performance of later investments in a carry fund’s life, the fund does not achieve certain investment returns for the fund over its life, we will be obligated to repay the amount by which performance allocations that were previously distributed to us exceed the amount to which the relevant general partner is ultimately entitled.
Poor performance of our investment funds could make it more difficult for us to raise new capital. Investors in funds might decline to invest in future investment funds we raise and investors in hedge funds or other investment funds might withdraw their investments as a result of poor performance of the investment funds in which they are invested. Investors and potential investors in our funds continually assess our investment funds’ performance, and our ability to raise capital for existing and future investment funds and avoid excessive redemption levels will depend on our investment funds’ continued satisfactory performance. Accordingly, poor fund performance may deter future investment in our funds and thereby decrease the capital invested in our funds and ultimately, our management fee revenue. Alternatively, in the face of poor fund performance, investors could demand lower fees or fee concessions for existing or future funds which would likewise decrease our revenue.
Our asset management business depends in large part on our ability to raise capital from third-party investors. A failure to raise capital from third-party investors on attractive fee terms or at all, would impact our ability to collect management fees or deploy such capital into investments and potentially collect performance allocations, which would materially reduce our revenue and cash flow and adversely affect our financial condition.
Our ability to raise capital from third-party investors depends on a number of factors, including certain factors that are outside our control. Certain factors, such as the performance of the stock market and the asset allocation rules or investment policies to which such third-party investors are subject, could inhibit or restrict the ability of third-party investors to make investments in our investment funds or the asset classes in which our investment funds invest. In addition, volatility in the valuations of investments, has in the past and may in the future affect our ability to raise capital from third-party investors. To the extent periods of volatility are coupled with a lack of realizations from investors’ existing private equity, infrastructure, credit and real estate portfolios, such investors may be left with disproportionately outsized remaining commitments to a number of investment funds, which significantly limits such investors’ ability to make new commitments to third-party managed investment funds such as those managed by us.
Our ability to raise new funds could similarly be hampered if the general appeal of private equity and other alternative investments were to decline. An investment in a limited partner interest in a private equity fund is more illiquid and the returns on such investment may be more volatile than an investment in securities for which there is a more active and transparent market. In periods of positive markets and low volatility, for example, investors may favor passive investment strategies such as index funds over our actively managed investment vehicles. Alternative investments could also fall into disfavor as a result of concerns about liquidity and short-term performance. Such concerns could be exhibited, in particular, by public pension funds, which have historically been among the largest investors in alternative assets. Many public pension funds are significantly underfunded and their funding problems have been, and may in the future be, exacerbated by an economic downturn and/or governmental policies or measures. Concerns with liquidity could cause such public pension funds to reevaluate the appropriateness of alternative investments. Although a number of investors, including certain public pension funds, have increased their allocations to the alternative investments asset class in recent years, there is no assurance that this will continue or that our ability to raise capital from investors will not be hampered.
 
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Moreover, certain institutional investors are demonstrating a preference
to in-source
their own investment professionals and to make direct investments in alternative assets without the assistance of private equity advisers like us. Such institutional investors may become our competitors and could cease to be our clients. As some existing investors cease or significantly curtail making commitments to alternative investment funds, we may need to identify and attract new investors in order to maintain or increase the size of our investment funds. There are no assurances that we can find or secure commitments from those new investors or that the fee terms of the commitments from such new investors will be consistent with the fees historically paid to us by our investors. If economic conditions were to deteriorate or if we are unable to find new investors, we might raise less than our desired amount for a given fund. Further, as we seek to expand into other asset classes, we may be unable to raise a sufficient amount of capital to adequately support such businesses. A failure to successfully raise capital could materially reduce our revenue and cash flow and adversely affect our financial condition.
In connection with raising new funds or making further investments in existing funds, we negotiate terms for such funds and investments with existing and potential investors. The outcome of such negotiations could result in our agreement to terms that are materially less favorable to us than for prior funds we have managed or funds managed by our competitors, including with respect to management fees, incentive fees and/or performance fees, which could have an adverse impact on our revenues. Such terms could also restrict our ability to raise investment funds with investment objectives or strategies that compete with existing funds, add additional expenses and obligations for us in managing the fund or increase our potential liabilities, all of which could ultimately reduce our revenues. In addition, certain institutional investors, including sovereign wealth funds and public pension funds, have demonstrated an increased preference for alternatives to the traditional investment fund structure, such as managed accounts, smaller funds
and co-investment
vehicles. There can be no assurance that such alternatives will be as profitable for us as the traditional investment fund structure, or as to the impact such a trend could have on the cost of our operations or profitability if we were to implement these alternative investment structures. In addition, certain institutional investors have publicly criticized certain fund fee and expense structures, including management fees and transaction and advisory fees. Although we have no obligation to modify any of our fees with respect to our existing funds, we may experience pressure to do so in our funds. For example, we have confronted and expect to continue to confront requests from a variety of investors and groups representing investors to decrease fees, which could result in a reduction in the fees and performance allocations and incentive fees we earn.
Interest rates on our and our portfolio companies’ outstanding financial instruments might be subject to change based on regulatory developments, which could adversely affect our revenue, expenses and the value of those financial instruments.
LIBOR and certain other floating rate benchmark indices, including, without limitation, the Euro Interbank Offered Rate, Tokyo Interbank Offered Rate, Hong Kong Interbank Offered Rate and Singapore Interbank Offered Rate, or collectively, “IBORs” are the subject of recent national, international and regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. On March 5, 2021, these reforms and other pressures caused the ICE Benchmark Administration, or the “IBA,” the administrator of LIBOR, to announce the cessation of publication of certain types of LIBOR after December 31, 2021 with the cessation of the publication of remaining types of LIBOR after June 30, 2023. The United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, or the “FCA,” which regulates LIBOR, separately announced that the IBA had notified the FCA of its intent to cease providing all LIBOR settings. While the FCA stated that, subject to the establishment of the new proposed powers, it would consult on the issue of requiring the IBA to produce certain LIBOR tenors on a synthetic basis, it confirmed that all 35 LIBOR settings will either cease to be provided by any administrator or will no longer be representative as of the dates published by the IBA. Regulators, industry groups and certain committees, such as the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, or “ARRC,” have, among other things, published recommended fallback language for LIBOR-linked financial instruments, identified recommended alternatives for certain LIBOR rates, such as the Secured Overnight Financing Rate, or “SOFR,” as the recommended alternative to U.S. Dollar LIBOR, and proposed implementations of the recommended alternatives in floating rate financial instruments.
 
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It is currently unknown the extent to which these recommendations and proposals will be broadly accepted, whether they will continue to evolve, and what the effect of their implementation may be on the markets for floating-rate financial instruments. At this time, it is not possible to predict the effect that these developments or any discontinuance, modification or other reforms may have on LIBOR, other benchmarks or floating-rate debt instruments, including our floating-rate debt. Any such discontinuance, modification, alternative reference rates or other reforms may materially adversely affect market rates of interest and the value of securities and other financial arrangements. These uncertainties, proposals and actions to resolve them, and their ultimate resolution also could negatively impact our funding costs, loan and other asset values, asset-liability management strategies, and other aspects of our business and financial results. As a result, interest rates on financial instruments tied to IBOR rates, including those where we or our funds are exposed as lender or borrower, as well as the revenue and expenses associated with those financial instruments, may be adversely affected. No assurance can be provided that the uncertainties around the transition from LIBOR or their resolution will not adversely affect such financial instruments.
In addition, meaningful time and effort is required to transition to the use of new benchmark rates, including with respect to the negotiation and implementation of any necessary changes to existing contractual arrangements and the implementation of changes to our systems and processes. We are actively evaluating the operational and other impacts of such changes and managing transition efforts accordingly.
Certain policies and procedures implemented to mitigate potential conflicts of interest and address certain regulatory requirements may reduce the synergies across our various businesses.
Because of our various lines of asset management businesses, we may be subject to certain conflicts of interest and subject to greater regulatory oversight and more legal and contractual restrictions than that to which we would otherwise be subject if we had just one line of business. For example, we may cause funds that we manage in different lines of business to purchase different classes of securities in the same portfolio company, such as if one of our credit funds acquired a debt security issued by the same company in which one of our private equity funds owns common equity securities, or we may cause funds that we manage in different lines of business to purchase securities in the same portfolio company, such as if one of our constructivist equity funds acquired an equity security issued by the same company in which one of our private equity funds owns equity securities. A direct conflict of interest could arise between the debt holders and the equity holders or among funds that we manage in different lines of business, if such a company were to develop insolvency concerns, and we would have to carefully manage that conflict. To mitigate these conflicts and address regulatory, legal and contractual requirements across our various businesses, we have implemented certain policies and procedures (for example, information walls) that may reduce the positive synergies that we cultivate across these businesses for purposes of identifying and managing attractive investments. For example, we may come into possession of material nonpublic information with respect to issuers in which we may be considering making an investment or issuers in which our affiliates may hold an interest. As a consequence of such policies and procedures, we may be precluded from providing such information or other ideas to our other lines of business that might be of benefit to them.
Our failure to deal appropriately with conflicts of interest in our investment business could damage our reputation and adversely affect our businesses.
As we have expanded and as we continue to expand the number and scope of our businesses, we increasingly confront potential conflicts of interest relating to our funds’ investment activities. Investment manager conflicts of interest continue to be a significant area of focus for regulators and the media. Because of our size and the variety of businesses and investment strategies that we pursue, we may face a higher degree of scrutiny compared with investment managers that are smaller or focus on fewer asset classes. Certain of our funds may have overlapping investment objectives, including funds that have different fee structures and/or investment strategies that are more narrowly focused, and potential conflicts may arise with respect to allocation of investment opportunities among those funds to the extent the fund documents do not mandate a specific investment allocation. For example, we may allocate an investment opportunity that is appropriate for two or more investment funds in a manner that excludes one or more funds or results in a disproportionate allocation based on factors or criteria that we determine, such as the sourcing of the transaction, the specific nature of the investment or the size and type of the investment, among other factors.
We may also decide to provide a
co-investment
opportunity to certain investors in lieu of allocating a piece of the investment to our funds. In addition, the challenge of allocating investment opportunities to certain funds may be exacerbated as we expand our business to include more lines of business, including more public vehicles. Allocating investment opportunities appropriately frequently involves significant and subjective judgments. The risk that fund investors could challenge allocation decisions as inconsistent with our obligations under applicable law, governing fund agreements or our own policies cannot be eliminated. In addition, the perception of noncompliance with such requirements or policies could harm our reputation with fund investors.
 
 
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We may also cause different funds to invest in a single portfolio company, for example, where the fund that made an initial investment no longer has capital available to invest. We may also cause different funds that we manage to purchase different classes of securities in the same portfolio company. A decision to acquire material nonpublic information about a company while pursuing an investment opportunity for a particular fund gives rise to a potential conflict of interest when it results in our having to restrict the ability of other funds to take any action. Our affiliates may be service providers or counterparties to our funds or portfolio companies and receive fees or other compensation for services that are not shared with our fund investors. In such instances, we may be incentivized to cause our funds or portfolio companies to purchase such services from our affiliates rather than an unaffiliated service provider despite the fact that a third-party service provider could potentially provide higher-quality services or offer them at a lower cost. In addition, conflicts of interest may exist in the valuation of our investments and regarding decisions about the allocation of specific investment
and co-investment
opportunities among us, our funds and our affiliates, as well as the allocation of fees and expenses among us, our funds and their portfolio companies, and our affiliates. Lastly, in certain, infrequent instances we may purchase an investment alongside one of our investment funds or sell an investment to one of our investment funds and conflicts may arise in respect of the allocation, pricing and timing of such investments and the ultimate disposition of such investments. A failure to appropriately deal with these, among other, conflicts, could negatively impact our reputation and ability to raise additional funds or result in potential litigation or regulatory action against us.
Conflicts of interest may arise in our allocation
of co-investment
opportunities.
Potential conflicts will arise with respect to our decisions regarding how to allocate
co-investment
opportunities among investors and the terms of any such
co-investments.
As a general matter, our allocation
of co-investment
opportunities is within our discretion and there can be no assurance
that co-investment
opportunities of any particular type or amount will become available to any of our investors. We may take into account a variety of factors and considerations we deem relevant in allocating
co-investment opportunities,
including, without limitation, whether a
potential co-investor
has expressed an interest in
evaluating co-investment
opportunities, our assessment of a potential
co-investor’s
ability to invest an amount of capital that fits the needs of the investment and our assessment of a potential
co-investor’s
ability to commit to a
co-investment
opportunity within the required time frame of the particular transaction.
The investment advisers of our funds may have an incentive to provide potential
co-investment opportunities
to certain investors in lieu of others and/or in lieu of an allocation to our funds (including, for example, as part of an investor’s overall strategic relationship with us) if such allocations are expected to generate relatively greater fees or performance allocations to us than would arise if such
co-investment
opportunities were allocated otherwise.
Co-investment
arrangements may be structured through one or more of our investment vehicles, and in such circumstances
co-investors
will generally bear the costs and expenses thereof (which may lead to conflicts of interest regarding the allocation of costs and expenses between such
co-investors
and investors in our funds). The terms of any such existing and
future co-investment
vehicles may differ materially, and in some instances may be more favorable to us, than the terms of certain of our funds or
prior co-investment
vehicles, and such different terms may create an incentive for us to allocate a greater or lesser percentage of an investment opportunity to such
co-investment
vehicles. There can be no assurance that any conflicts of interest will be resolved in favor of any particular investment funds or investors (including any
applicable co-investors).
Valuation methodologies for certain assets in our funds can be subject to significant subjectivity and the fair value of assets established pursuant to such methodologies may never be realized, which could result in significant losses for our funds and the reduction of performance revenues.
Our investment funds make investments in illiquid investments or financial instruments for which there is little, if any, market activity. We determine the value of such investments and financial instruments based on the fair value of such investments. The fair value of such investments and financial instruments is generally determined using a primary methodology and corroborated by a secondary methodology. Methodologies are used on a consistent basis and described in the investment funds’ valuation policies.
The determination of fair value using these methodologies takes into consideration a range of factors including, but not limited to, the price at which the investment was acquired, the nature of the investment, local market conditions, trading values on public exchanges for comparable securities, current and projected operating performance and financing transactions subsequent to the acquisition of the investment. These valuation methodologies involve a significant degree of management judgment. For example, as to investments that we share with another sponsor, we may apply a different valuation methodology than the other sponsor does or derive a different value than the other sponsor has derived on the same investment. These differences might cause some investors to question our valuations.
 
 
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Because there is significant uncertainty in the valuation of, or in the stability of the value of, illiquid investments, the fair values of such investments as reflected in an investment fund’s net asset value do not necessarily reflect the prices that would actually be obtained by us on behalf of the investment fund when such investments are realized. Realizations at values significantly lower than the values at which investments have been reflected in prior fund net asset values would result in reduced gains or losses for the applicable fund, a decline in certain asset management fees and the reduction in potential performance allocations and incentive fees. Changes in values of investments from quarter to quarter may result in volatility in our investment funds’ net asset value, our investment in, or fees from, those funds and the results of operations and cash flow that we report from period to period. Further, a situation where asset values turn out to be materially different than values reflected in prior fund net asset values could cause investors to lose confidence in us, which would in turn result in difficulty in raising additional funds or redemptions from our hedge funds.
We may use borrowings to finance our business, exposing us to risks.
We may use borrowings to finance our business operations in the future. Although we do not have any outstanding indebtedness as of the date of this annual report, we may enter in the future into facility agreements, issue notes, or enter into other financing arrangements, each of which could result in higher costs. We may also issue equity, which would dilute existing shareholders. Further, we may choose to repay any future borrowings using cash on hand, cash provided by our continuing operations or cash from the sale of our assets, each of which could reduce the amount of cash available to facilitate the growth and expansion of our businesses and pay dividends to our shareholders and operating expenses and other obligations as they arise. In order to obtain any future borrowings, we depend on the willingness and ability of financial institutions such as global banks to extend credit to us on favorable terms, and on our ability to access the debt and equity capital markets, which can be volatile. There is no guarantee that such financial institutions will extend credit to us or that we will be able to access the capital markets to obtain borrowings.
The historical returns attributable to our funds should not be considered as indicative of the future results of our funds or of our future results or of any returns expected on an investment in Class A common shares.
The historical and potential future returns of the investment funds that we manage are not directly linked to returns on our Class A common shares. Therefore, any continued positive performance of the investment funds that we manage will not necessarily result in positive returns on an investment in our Class A common shares. However, poor performance of the investment funds that we manage would cause a decline in our revenue from such investment funds, and would therefore have a negative effect on our performance and in all likelihood the returns on an investment in our Class A common shares.
Moreover, with respect to the historical returns of our investment funds:
 
   
we may create new funds in the future that reflect a different asset mix and different investment strategies, as well as a varied geographic and industry exposure as compared to our present funds, and any such new funds could have different returns from our existing or previous funds;
 
   
despite periods of volatility, market conditions have been largely favorable in recent years, which has helped to generate positive performance, particularly in our private equity, infrastructure, credit and real estate businesses, but there can be no assurance that such conditions will repeat or that our current or future investment funds will avail themselves of comparable market conditions;
 
35

   
the rates of returns of our carry funds reflect unrealized gains as of the applicable measurement date that may never be realized, which may adversely affect the ultimate value realized from those funds’ investments;
 
   
competition for investment opportunities resulting from, among other things, the increased amount of capital invested in alternative investment funds continues to increase;
 
   
our investment funds’ returns in some years benefited from investment opportunities and general market conditions that may not repeat themselves, our current or future investment funds might not be able to avail themselves of comparable investment opportunities or market conditions, and the circumstances under which our current or future funds may make future investments may differ significantly from those conditions prevailing in the past;
 
   
newly established funds may generate lower returns during the period in which they initially deploy their capital; and
 
   
the rates of return reflect our historical cost structure, which may vary in the future due to various factors elsewhere in this annual report and other factors beyond our control, including changes in laws.
The future internal rate of return for any current or future fund may vary considerably from the historical internal rate of return generated by any particular fund, or for our funds as a whole. In addition, future returns will be affected by the applicable risks described elsewhere in annual report, including risks of the industries and businesses in which a particular fund invests.
The due diligence process that we undertake in connection with investments by our investment funds may not reveal all facts and issues that may be relevant in connection with an investment.
When evaluating a potential business or asset for investment, we conduct due diligence that we deem reasonable and appropriate based on the facts and circumstances applicable to such investment. When conducting due diligence, we may be required to evaluate important and complex issues, including but not limited to those related to business, financial, credit risk, tax, accounting, ESG, legal and regulatory and macroeconomic trends. With respect to ESG, the nature and scope of our diligence will vary based on the investment, but may include a review of, among other things: air and water pollution, diversity, employee health and safety, accounting standards and bribery and corruption. Outside consultants, legal advisers, accountants and investment banks may be involved in the due diligence process in varying degrees depending on the type of investment. The due diligence investigation that we will carry out with respect to any investment opportunity may not reveal or highlight all relevant facts (including fraud) or risks that may be necessary or helpful in evaluating such investment opportunity and we may not identify or foresee future developments that could have a material adverse effect on an investment, including, for example, potential factors, such as technological disruption of a specific company or asset, or an entire industry. Further, some matters covered by our diligence, such as ESG, are continuously evolving and we may not accurately or fully anticipate such evolution. In addition, when conducting due diligence on investments, including with respect to investments made by our funds, we rely on the resources available to us and information supplied by third parties, including information provided by the target of the investment. The information we receive from third parties may not be accurate or complete and therefore we may not have all the relevant facts and information necessary to properly assess and monitor our funds’ investment.
 
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We expect to continue to make investments in companies that are based in Latin America, which may expose us to additional risks not typically associated with investing in companies that are based in the United States.
Our investment funds generally invest their assets in the equity, debt, loans or other securities of issuers located in Latin America, including in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Argentina. Investments in
non-U.S.
securities involve certain factors not typically associated with investing in U.S. securities, including risks relating to:
 
   
currency exchange matters, including fluctuations in currency exchange rates and costs associated with conversion of investment principal and income from one currency into another;
 
   
less developed or efficient financial markets than in the United States, which may lead to potential price volatility and relative illiquidity;
 
   
the absence of uniform accounting, auditing and financial reporting standards, practices and disclosure requirements and less government supervision and regulation;
 
   
changes in laws or clarifications to existing laws that could impact our tax treaty positions, which could adversely impact the returns on our investments;
 
   
a less developed legal or regulatory environment, differences in the legal and regulatory environment or enhanced legal and regulatory compliance;
 
   
heightened exposure to corruption risk in
non-U.S.
markets;
 
   
political hostility to investments by foreign or private equity investors;
 
   
reliance on a more limited number of commodity inputs, service providers and/or distribution mechanisms;
 
   
higher rates of inflation;
 
   
higher transaction costs;
 
   
difficulty in enforcing contractual obligations;
 
   
fewer investor protections and less publicly available information in respect of companies in
non-U.S.
markets;
 
   
certain economic and political risks, including potential exchange control regulations and restrictions on
non-U.S.
investments and repatriation of profits on investments or of capital invested, the risks of political, economic or social instability, the possibility of expropriation or confiscatory taxation and adverse economic and political developments; and
 
   
the possible imposition of
non-U.S.
taxes or withholding on income and gains recognized with respect to such securities.
There can be no assurance that adverse developments with respect to such risks will not adversely affect our assets that are held in certain countries or the returns from these assets. See “—Inflation and government measures to curb inflation may adversely affect the economies and capital markets in some of the countries in which we operate, and as a result, harm our business and the trading price of our Class A common shares.”
 
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Our asset management activities primarily involve investments in relatively high-risk, illiquid assets, and we may fail to realize any profits from these activities for a considerable period of time or lose some or all of our principal investments.
Our investment funds primarily invest in securities that are not publicly traded. In many cases, our investment funds may be prohibited by contract or by applicable securities laws from selling such securities or a period of time. Our investment funds will generally not be able to sell these securities publicly unless their sale is registered under applicable securities laws, or unless an exemption from such registration is available. The ability of many of our investment funds, particularly our private equity funds, to dispose of investments is heavily dependent on the public equity markets. For example, the ability to realize any value from an investment may depend upon the ability to complete an initial public offering of the portfolio company in which such investment is held. Even if the securities are publicly traded, large holdings of securities can often be disposed of only over a substantial length of time, exposing the investment returns to risks of downward movement in market prices during the intended disposition period. Moreover, because the investment strategy of many of our funds, particularly our private equity, infrastructure, credit and real estate funds, often entails our having representation on our funds’ public portfolio company boards, our funds may be restricted in their ability to effect such sales during certain time periods. Accordingly, under certain conditions, our investment funds may be forced to either sell securities at lower prices than they had expected to realize or defer—potentially for a considerable period of time—sales that they had planned to make. We have made and expect to continue to make significant principal investments in our current and future investment funds. Contributing capital to these investment funds is risky, and we may lose some or the entire principal amount of our investments.
We may pursue large or otherwise complex investments, which involve enhanced business, regulatory, legal, environmental and other risks.
A number of our funds, including our real estate, infrastructure, credit and private equity funds, have invested and intend to continue to invest in large transactions or transactions that otherwise have substantial business, regulatory or legal complexity. In addition, as we raise new funds, such funds’ mandates may include investing in such transactions. Such investments involve enhanced risks. For example, larger or otherwise complex transactions may be more difficult, expensive and time-consuming to finance and execute. In addition, managing or realizing value from such investments may be more difficult as a result of, among other things, a limited universe of potential acquirers. In addition, larger or otherwise complex transactions may entail a higher level of scrutiny by regulators, labor unions and other third parties, as well as a greater risk of unknown and/or contingent liabilities. Any of these factors could increase the risk that our larger or more complex investments could be less successful and in turn harm the performance of our funds.
Larger transactions may be structured as “consortium transactions” due to the size of the investment and the amount of capital required to be invested. A consortium transaction involves an equity investment in which two or more investors serve together or collectively as equity sponsors. Consortium transactions generally entail a reduced level of control by us over the investment because governance rights must be shared with the other investors. Accordingly, we may not be able to control decisions relating to the investment, including decisions relating to the management and operation of the Company and the timing and nature of any exit, which could result in the risks described in “—Our investment funds may make investments in companies that we do not control.” In addition, the consequences to our investment funds of an unsuccessful larger investment could be more severe given the size of the investment.
Our investment funds may make investments in companies that we do not control.
Investments by certain of our investment funds may include debt instruments and equity securities of companies that we do not control. Such investments will be subject to the risk that the Company in which the investment is made may make business, financial or management decisions with which we do not agree or that the majority stakeholders or the management of the Company may take risks or otherwise act in a manner that does not serve our interests. In addition, to the extent we hold only a minority equity interest in a company, we may lack affirmative control rights, which may diminish our ability to influence the Company’s affairs in a manner intended to enhance the value of our investment in the Company, including with respect to the form and timing of an exit. If any of the foregoing were to occur, the values of investments by our investment funds could decrease and our financial condition, results of operations and cash flow could suffer as a result.
 
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Our investments in prospective portfolio companies may be risky, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
We are guided in our strategic efforts by our investment focus, which is to acquire control or joint control equity investments in medium to large Latin American companies that require change. Overleveraged, distressed, underperforming or small regional or family-owned situations will also be considered. Such businesses will be subject to increased exposure to adverse economic factors such as a significant rise in local interest rates, a severe downturn in the relevant country’s economy or deterioration in the condition of such portfolio company or its industry. In the event that such portfolio company is unable to generate sufficient cash flow to meet principal and interest payments on its indebtedness, the value of our equity investment in such portfolio company could be significantly reduced or even eliminated. Unfavorable economic conditions also could increase our funding costs, limit our access to the capital markets or result in a decision by lenders not to extend credit to us. These events could prevent us from increasing investments and harm our operating results.
An investment strategy focused primarily on privately held companies presents certain challenges, including the lack of available information about these companies, a dependence on the talents and efforts of only a few key portfolio company personnel and a greater vulnerability to economic downturns.
Generally, little public information exists about privately held companies, and we will be required to rely on the ability of our investment professionals to obtain adequate information to evaluate the potential returns from investing in these companies. If we are unable to uncover all material information about these companies, we may not make a fully informed investment decision, and we may lose money on our investments. Also, privately held companies frequently have less diverse product lines and smaller market presence than larger competitors. These factors could affect our investment returns.
In addition, while it is not our intended investment focus, we may in the future purchase interests in companies that we do not control, including joint ventures and minority interests in such companies. Such purchases would be subject to risk we could not control.
Investments by our investment funds will in many cases rank junior to investments made by others.
In most cases, the companies in which our investment funds invest will have indebtedness or equity securities, or may be permitted to incur indebtedness or to issue equity securities, that rank senior to our investment. By their terms, such instruments may provide that their holders are entitled to receive payments of dividends, interest or principal on or before the dates on which payments are to be made in respect of our investment. Also, in the event of insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or bankruptcy of a company in which an investment is made, holders of securities ranking senior to our investment would typically be entitled to receive payment in full before distributions could be made in respect of our investment. After repaying senior security holders, the Company may not have any remaining assets to use for repaying amounts owed in respect of our investment. To the extent that any assets remain, holders of claims that rank equally with our investment would be entitled to share on an equal and ratable basis in distributions that are made out of those assets. Also, during periods of financial distress or following an insolvency, the ability of our investment funds to influence a company’s affairs and to take actions to protect their investments may be substantially less than that of the senior creditors.
Investors in our open-ended funds may redeem their investments in these funds. In addition, the investment management agreements that may be offered by us related to separately managed accounts may permit the investor to terminate our management of such account on short notice. Lastly, investors in our other investment funds have the right to cause these investment funds to be dissolved. Any of these events would lead to a decrease in our revenues, which could be substantial.
Investors in certain of our credit and public equities funds may generally redeem their investments on a periodic basis subject to the applicable fund’s specific redemption provisions. In a declining market some of these funds may experience declines in value, and the pace of redemptions and consequent reduction in our assets under management could accelerate. Such declines in value may be both provoked and exacerbated by margin calls and forced selling of assets. To the extent appropriate and permissible under a fund’s constituent documents, we may limit or suspend redemptions during a redemption period, which may have a reputational impact on us. The decrease in revenues that would result from significant redemptions in such funds could have a material adverse effect on our business, revenues, net income and cash flows.
 
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We currently manage a portion of investor assets through separately managed accounts whereby we may earn management and/or incentive fees, and we intend to continue to seek additional separately managed account mandates. The investment management agreements we enter into in connection with managing separately managed accounts on behalf of certain clients may be terminated by such clients.
The governing agreements of many of our investment funds provide that, subject to certain conditions, third party investors in those funds have the right to remove the general partner of the fund or to accelerate the termination date of the investment fund without cause by a specified percentage vote, resulting in a reduction in management fees we would earn from such investment funds and a significant reduction in the amounts of performance allocations and incentive fees from those funds. Performance allocations and incentive fees could be significantly reduced as a result of our inability to maximize the value of investments by an investment fund during the liquidation process or in the event of the triggering of a “clawback” obligation. In addition, the governing agreements of most of our investment funds, such as limited partnership agreements and private placement memoranda, provide that in the event certain “key persons” in our investment funds do not meet specified time commitments with regard to managing the fund, then investors in certain funds have the right to vote to terminate the investment period by a specified percentage vote in accordance with specified procedures or accelerate the withdrawal of their capital on
an investor-by-investor
basis, or the fund’s investment period will automatically terminate and a specified percentage vote of investors is required to restart it. In addition to having a significant negative impact on our revenue, net income and cash flow, the occurrence of such an event with respect to any of our investment funds would likely result in significant reputational damage to us.
Third-party investors in our investment funds with commitment-based structures may not satisfy their contractual obligation to fund capital calls when requested by us, which could adversely affect a fund’s operations and performance.
Investors in all of our funds make capital commitments to those funds that we are entitled to call from those investors at any time during prescribed periods. We depend on investors fulfilling their commitments when we call capital from them in order for those funds to consummate investments and otherwise pay their obligations (for example, management fees) when due. A default by an investor may also limit a fund’s availability to incur borrowings and avail itself of what would otherwise have been available credit. We have not had investors fail to honor capital calls to any meaningful extent. Any investor that did not fund a capital call would generally be subject to several possible penalties, including having a significant amount of its existing investment forfeited in that fund. However, the impact of the forfeiture penalty is directly correlated to the amount of capital previously invested by the investor in the fund and if an investor has invested little or no capital, for instance, early in the life of the fund, then the forfeiture penalty may not be as meaningful. Third-party investors in private equity, infrastructure, credit and real estate funds typically use distributions from prior investments to meet future capital calls. In cases where valuations of investors’ existing investments fall and the pace of distributions slows, investors may be unable to make new commitments to third-party managed investment funds such as those advised by us. If investors were to fail to satisfy a significant amount of capital calls for any particular fund or funds, the operation and performance of those funds could be materially and adversely affected.
Risk management activities may adversely affect the return on our funds’ investments.
When managing our exposure to market risks, we may (on our own behalf or on behalf of our funds) from time to time determine to use forward contracts, options, swaps, caps, collars and floors or pursue other strategies or use other forms of derivative instruments to limit our exposure to changes in the relative values of investments that may result from market developments, including changes in prevailing interest rates, currency exchange rates and commodity prices. We are exposed to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and we may enter into derivatives transactions to manage our exposure to exchange rate risk