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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __________ to __________
Commission file number 0-24206
PENN Entertainment, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Pennsylvania 23-2234473
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
825 Berkshire Blvd., Suite 200
Wyomissing, Pennsylvania 19610
(Address of principal executive officers) (Zip Code)

(610) 373-2400
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per sharePENNThe NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☑ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.


Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No
As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $3.5 billion. Such aggregate market value was computed by reference to the closing price of the common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on June 30, 2023. As of February 19, 2024, the number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding was 152,422,514 (including 622,366 shares of a subsidiary of registrant which are exchangeable into registrant’s common stock).

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive 2024 proxy statement, anticipated to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.



PENN ENTERTAINMENT, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page



SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements are included throughout the document, including within “Item 1A. Risk Factors,” and relate to the business strategy, prospects and financial position of PENN Entertainment, Inc., together with its subsidiaries (“PENN,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us”). These statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “expects,” “believes,” “estimates,” “projects,” “intends,” “plans,” “goal,” “seeks,” “may,” “will,” “should,” or “anticipates” or the negative or other variations of these or similar words, or by discussions of future events, strategies or risks and uncertainties. Specifically, forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding: the Company’s anticipated share repurchases; the Company’s expectations of future results of operations and financial conditions, the assumptions provided regarding the guidance, including the scale and timing of the Company’s product and technology investments; the Company’s expectations regarding results, and the impact of competition, in retail/mobile/online sportsbooks, iCasino, social gaming, and retail operations; the Company’s development and launch of its Interactive segment’s products in new jurisdictions and enhancements to existing Interactive segment products, including the content for the ESPN BET and theScore Bet; the benefits of the Sportsbook Agreement between the Company and ESPN; the Company’s expectations regarding its Sportsbook Agreement with ESPN and the future success of its products; the Company’s expectations with respect to the integration and synergies related to the Company’s integration of theScore and the continued growth and monetization of the Company’s media business; the Company’s expectations with respect to the ongoing introduction and the potential benefits of the cashless, cardless and contactless (3C’s) technology; the Company’s development projects, including the prospective development projects; the Company’s ability to obtain financing for the development projects on attractive terms; the timing, cost and expected impact of planned capital expenditures on the Company’s results of operations; and the actions of regulatory, legislative, executive or judicial decisions at the federal, state, provincial or local level with regard to our business and the impact of any such actions.
Such statements are all subject to risks, uncertainties and changes in circumstances that could significantly affect the Company’s future financial results and business. Accordingly, the Company cautions that forward-looking statements contained herein are qualified by important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those reflected by such statements. Such factors include: the effects of economic and market conditions that could reduce discretionary spending, our ability to effectively compete in the global entertainment, sports content, and gaming industries, our ability to successfully acquire and integrate new properties and operations, our ability to maintain our gaming licenses and concessions and comply with applicable gaming law, win rates, changes in laws, including increased tax rates, regulations or accounting standards, third-party relations and approvals, risks associated with the collection and retention of data about our customers, employees, suppliers and business partners, and additional factors discussed in “Risk Factors.” In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events and circumstances discussed in this Form 10-K may not occur and actual results could differ materially from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K are based on information available to us as of the date hereof, such information may be limited or incomplete, and we assume no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes contained in this Form 10-K.





PART I
ITEM 1.BUSINESS
Overview
PENN Entertainment, Inc., together with its subsidiaries (“PENN,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us”), is North America’s leading provider of integrated entertainment, sports content, and casino gaming experiences. As of December 31, 2023, PENN operated 43 properties in 20 states, online sports betting in 18 jurisdictions and iCasino in five jurisdictions, under a portfolio of well-recognized brands including Hollywood Casino®, L’Auberge®, ESPN BET™, and theScore Bet Sportsbook and Casino®. In August 2023, PENN entered into a transformative, exclusive long-term strategic alliance with ESPN, Inc. and ESPN Enterprises, Inc. (together, “ESPN”) relating to online sports betting within the United States. PENN’s ability to leverage the leading sports media brands in the United States (ESPN) and Canada (theScore) will position us to significantly expand our digital footprint and efficiently grow our customer ecosystem. This highly differentiated strategy, which is focused on organic cross-sell opportunities, is reinforced by our market-leading retail casinos, sports media assets, and technology, including a proprietary state-of-the-art, fully integrated digital sports and iCasino betting platform and an in-house iCasino content studio. PENN’s portfolio is further bolstered by our industry-leading PENN PlayTM customer loyalty program, which offers our over 29 million members a unique set of rewards and experiences across business channels.
Reportable Segments
We have five reportable segments: Northeast, South, West, Midwest, and Interactive. Our gaming and racing properties are grouped by geographic location, and each is viewed as an operating segment with the exception of our two properties in Jackpot, Nevada, which are viewed as one operating segment. We consider our combined Video Gaming Terminal (“VGT”) operations, by state, to be separate operating segments. Interactive includes all of our online sports betting, online casino/iCasino, and social gaming (collectively referred to as “online gaming”) operations, management of retail sports betting, media, and the operating results of Barstool Sports, Inc. (“Barstool” or “Barstool Sports”) subsequent to the Barstool Acquisition on February 17, 2023 and prior to the Barstool divestiture on August 8, 2023 (as defined and discussed in Note 6, “Acquisitions and Dispositions” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements). See Note 18, “Segment Information” and Note 12, “Leases” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further segment and lease structure information, respectively.
Retail Operations
As of December 31, 2023, we owned, managed, or had ownership interests in 43 gaming and racing properties in 20 states. In addition, we offer live sports betting at our properties in 13 states.
Operating Properties
The table below summarizes certain features of the properties owned, operated, or managed by us as of December 31, 2023, by reportable segment (all area and capacity metrics are approximate):
LocationReal Estate Assets Lease or Ownership StructureType of FacilityGaming Square FootageGaming Machines
Table Games (1)
Hotel Rooms
Northeast segment
Ameristar East Chicago (2)
East Chicago, INPinnacle Master LeaseDockside gaming64,0001,10143288
Hollywood Casino Bangor
Bangor, MEAR PENN Master LeaseLand-based gaming/racing31,75066614152
Hollywood Casino at Charles Town Races (2)
Charles Town, WVAR PENN Master LeaseLand-based gaming/racing115,0001,91364153
Hollywood Casino Columbus (2)(3)
Columbus, OH2023 Master LeaseLand-based gaming180,5001,67620
Hollywood Casino at Greektown (2)
Detroit, MIGreektown LeaseLand-based gaming100,0002,16263400
Hollywood Casino Lawrenceburg (2)(4)
Lawrenceburg, INAR PENN Master LeaseDockside gaming149,5001,29547463
Hollywood Casino Morgantown (2)(5)
Morgantown, PAMorgantown LeaseLand-based gaming81,00071726
Hollywood Casino at PENN National Race Course (2)
Grantville, PAAR PENN Master LeaseLand-based gaming/racing94,3711,75054
Hollywood Casino Perryville (2)(3)
Perryville, MD2023 Master LeaseLand-based gaming34,50075417
Hollywood Casino at The Meadows (2)(3)
Washington, PA2023 Master LeaseLand-based gaming/racing125,0001,96291
Hollywood Casino Toledo (2)(3)
Toledo, OH2023 Master LeaseLand-based gaming135,0001,76046
Hollywood Casino York (2)
York, PAOperating Lease (not with REIT Landlord)Land-based gaming80,00060833
Hollywood Gaming at Dayton Raceway (2)
Dayton, OHAR PENN Master LeaseLand-based gaming/racing40,7001,033
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Hollywood Gaming at Mahoning Valley Race Course (2)
Youngstown, OHAR PENN Master LeaseLand-based gaming/racing54,0001,032
Marquee by PENN (6)
PennsylvaniaN/ALand-based gamingN/A150
Plainridge Park Casino (2)
Plainville, MAPinnacle Master LeaseLand-based gaming/racing50,225934
South segment
1st Jackpot Casino (2)
Tunica, MSAR PENN Master LeaseDockside gaming46,5356879
Ameristar Vicksburg (2)
Vicksburg, MSPinnacle Master LeaseDockside gaming70,92693725148
Boomtown Biloxi (2)
Biloxi, MSAR PENN Master LeaseDockside gaming34,50056222
Boomtown Bossier City (2)
Bossier City, LAPinnacle Master LeaseDockside gaming30,00064412187
Boomtown New Orleans (2)
New Orleans, LAPinnacle Master LeaseDockside gaming30,00080326150
Hollywood Casino Gulf Coast (2)
Bay St. Louis, MSAR PENN Master LeaseLand-based gaming51,00076628291
Hollywood Casino Tunica (2)
Tunica, MSAR PENN Master LeaseDockside gaming54,00078110494
L’Auberge Baton Rouge (2)
Baton Rouge, LAPinnacle Master LeaseDockside gaming71,50096254205
L’Auberge Lake Charles (2)
Lake Charles, LAPinnacle Master LeaseDockside gaming71,2001,25085995
Margaritaville Resort Casino (2)
Bossier City, LAMargaritaville LeaseDockside gaming30,00095650395
West segment
Ameristar Black Hawk (2)
Black Hawk, COPinnacle Master LeaseLand-based gaming56,00088339536
Cactus Petes and Horseshu (2)
Jackpot, NVPinnacle Master LeaseLand-based gaming29,00064214416
M Resort Spa Casino (2)(3)
Henderson, NV2023 Master LeaseLand-based gaming96,00095937390
Zia Park CasinoHobbs, NMAR PENN Master LeaseLand-based gaming/racing18,000713154
Midwest segment
Ameristar Council Bluffs (2)(7)
Council Bluffs, IAPinnacle Master LeaseDockside gaming35,0001,29520444
Argosy Casino Alton (2)(8)
Alton, ILAR PENN Master LeaseDockside gaming23,0005039
Argosy Casino RiversideRiverside, MOAR PENN Master LeaseDockside gaming56,0001,09837258
Hollywood Casino Aurora (2)(3)
Aurora, IL2023 Master LeaseDockside gaming53,00083127
Hollywood Casino Joliet (2)(3)
Joliet, IL2023 Master LeaseDockside gaming50,00095226100
Hollywood Casino at Kansas Speedway (2)(9)
Kansas City, KSOwned - joint ventureLand-based gaming95,0001,55335
Hollywood Casino St. LouisMaryland Heights, MOAR PENN Master LeaseDockside gaming120,0001,54645502
Prairie State Gaming (6)
IllinoisN/ALand-based gamingN/A2,338
River City CasinoSt. Louis, MOPinnacle Master LeaseDockside gaming90,0001,62044200
Other
Freehold Raceway (10)
Freehold, NJOwned - joint ventureStandardbred racing
Retama Park Racetrack (11)
Selma, TXNone - ManagedThoroughbred racing
Sam Houston Race ParkHouston, TXOwnedThoroughbred racing
Sanford-Orlando Kennel Club (12)
Longwood, FLOwnedSimulcasting/restaurant
Valley Race Park (13)
Harlingen, TXOwnedGreyhound racing
2,546,20742,7941,1727,321
(1)Excludes poker tables.
(2)Property offers a sportsbook for live sports betting.
(3)Property transferred to 2023 Master Lease (as defined in Note 12, “Leases,” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements), effective January 1, 2023.
(4)Includes 168 rooms at our hotel and event center located less than a mile from the gaming facility.
(5)Upon termination of the Morgantown Lease, ownership of the constructed building and all tenant improvements will transfer from the Company to Gaming & Leisure Properties, Inc.
(6)VGT route operations.
(7)Includes 284 rooms operated by a third-party and located on land leased by us and subleased to such third-party.
(8)The riverboat is owned by us and not subject to the AR PENN Master Lease.
(9)Pursuant to a joint venture with NASCAR Holdings LLC.
(10)Pursuant to a joint venture with Greenwood Limited Jersey, Inc., a subsidiary of Greenwood Racing, Inc.
(11)Pursuant to a management contract with Retama Development Corporation.
(12)Simulcast racing operations.
(13)In March 2020 Valley Race Park closed due to COVID-19 and remains non-operational.
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Northeast Segment
Ameristar East Chicago is located less than 25 miles from downtown Chicago, Illinois and offers guests a gaming and entertainment experience in the Chicago metropolitan area. In addition to gaming amenities, the property features a full-service hotel, a sportsbook for live sports betting, a fitness center, dining venues, and a lounge.
Hollywood Casino Bangor is located less than five miles from the Bangor airport in Maine. The property features slot machines, table games, a hotel with 5,100 square feet of meeting and multipurpose space, and dining and entertainment options. Bangor Raceway, which is adjacent to the property, is located at historic Bass Park and includes a one-half mile standardbred racetrack and a 12,000 square foot grandstand capable of seating 3,500 patrons.
Hollywood Casino at Charles Town Races is located within approximately an hour drive of the Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, D.C. markets. In addition to a hotel, slot machines, table games, and poker tables, the property includes a sportsbook for live sports betting, as well as a variety of dining options. The complex also features live thoroughbred racing at a three-quarters mile all-weather lighted thoroughbred racetrack with a 3,000-seat grandstand and simulcast wagering.
Hollywood Casino Columbus is a Hollywood-themed casino located in Columbus, Ohio. It features slot machines, table games, poker tables, and a sportsbook for live sports betting, as well as multiple food and beverage outlets, and an entertainment lounge.
Hollywood Casino at Greektown is located in the Greektown district of Detroit, Michigan, and is one of four casino hotels in the Detroit-Windsor area. In addition to slot machines, table games, poker tables, and a sportsbook for live sports betting, the property features a 30-story hotel, several food and beverage options from casual to fine dining, as well as 10,000 square feet of convention and banquet space.
Hollywood Casino Lawrenceburg is a Hollywood-themed casino riverboat located along the Ohio River in Lawrenceburg, Indiana, approximately 15 miles west of Cincinnati, Ohio. In addition to slot machines, table games, and poker tables, the riverboat features a sportsbook for live sports betting, as well as a variety of dining options. The hotel and event center, located within one mile from the casino, includes 18,000 square feet of multipurpose space and 19,500 square feet of ballroom and meeting space.
Hollywood Casino Morgantown is located less than an hour drive west of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The property features an outdoor gaming and entertainment area, a sportsbook for live sports betting, slot machines, table games, and multiple food and beverage outlets.
Hollywood Casino at PENN National Race Course is located 15 miles northeast of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. This gaming facility also includes a variety of dining and entertainment options, as well as a sportsbook for live sports betting and a viewing area for live racing. The property includes a one-mile all-weather lighted thoroughbred racetrack and a seven-eighths mile turf track.
Hollywood Casino Perryville is a Hollywood-themed casino located near the Susquehanna River in Perryville, Maryland, approximately 45 miles east of Baltimore, Maryland. It features slot machines, table games, poker tables, and a sportsbook for live sports betting, as well as a variety of dining options.
Hollywood Casino at The Meadows is located in Washington, Pennsylvania, approximately 25 miles south of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In addition to gaming amenities, the property offers a sportsbook for live sports betting, several dining options, as well as an event and banquet center, a simulcast betting parlor, a five-eighths mile harness racetrack and a bowling alley.
Hollywood Casino Toledo is a Hollywood-themed casino, located on the bank of the Maumee River in Toledo, Ohio. The property features slot machines, table games, poker tables, and a sportsbook for live sports betting, as well as multiple food and beverage outlets and an entertainment lounge.
Hollywood Casino York is a casino located within the York Galleria Mall, approximately an hour drive north of Baltimore, Maryland. It features slot machines, table games, and a sportsbook for live sports betting, as well as casual dining options.
Hollywood Gaming at Dayton Raceway is a Hollywood-themed casino and raceway located in Dayton, Ohio. It features video lottery terminals, a five-eighths mile standardbred racetrack, a sportsbook for live sports betting, as well as various restaurants and bars, amongst other amenities.
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Hollywood Gaming at Mahoning Valley Race Course is a Hollywood-themed casino and raceway located in Youngstown, Ohio featuring video lottery terminals and a one-mile thoroughbred racetrack. The property also includes a sportsbook for live sports betting, various restaurants, and bars amongst other amenities.
Marquee by PENN is our licensed VGT route operator with a network of 28 truck stop establishments in Pennsylvania.
Plainridge Park Casino is located 20 miles southwest of the Boston beltway just off interstate 95 in Plainville, Massachusetts. In addition to gaming offerings and a sportsbook for live sports betting, Plainridge Park Casino features various restaurants and bars along with a five-eighths mile live harness racing facility with a two-story clubhouse for simulcast operations, special events, and live racing viewing.
South Segment
1st Jackpot Casino is the closest Tunica-area casino to downtown Memphis, Tennessee. It features slot machines, table games, a café, a sportsbook for live betting, and a live entertainment venue.
Ameristar Vicksburg, which is the largest dockside casino in central Mississippi, is located along the Mississippi River approximately 45 miles west of Mississippi’s largest city, Jackson. In addition to gaming amenities, the property features a hotel, multiple dining and bar facilities, 1,800 square feet of meeting and event space, a sportsbook for live sports betting, and an RV park.
Boomtown Biloxi, located in Biloxi Mississippi, offers slot machines, table games, poker tables, and a sportsbook for live sports betting, as well as two distinct dining options. The property also includes a recreational vehicle park and a 3,600 square foot event center and board room.
Boomtown Bossier City features a hotel adjoining a dockside riverboat casino located less than one mile from the Louisiana Boardwalk. The property offers a sportsbook for live sports betting, a variety of dining options from a high-end steakhouse to casual dining restaurants, and 1,500 square feet of meeting and conference space.
Boomtown New Orleans is located in the West Bank area across the Mississippi River, approximately 15 minutes from the French Quarter of New Orleans, Louisiana. In addition to gaming amenities and a sportsbook for live sports betting, the property also features a five-story hotel, several restaurants, and over 14,000 square feet of meeting and conference space.
Hollywood Casino Gulf Coast is located in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi and features slot machines, table games, poker tables, and a sportsbook for live sports betting. The property also features a golf course, various dining options, an RV park, and a marina amongst other amenities. The waterfront hotel includes a 10,000 square foot ballroom and six separate meeting rooms offering more than 13,000 square feet of meeting space.
Hollywood Casino Tunica is a Hollywood-themed casino located less than 10 miles from Tunica County River Park. In addition to gaming offerings, it features a sportsbook for live sports betting, a hotel, a 123-space recreational vehicle park, various dining and bar options, and banquet and meeting facilities.
L’Auberge Baton Rouge is located approximately ten miles southeast of downtown Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The property features a 12-story hotel, slots, table games, poker, a sportsbook for live sports betting, a variety of dining choices, and 13,000 square feet of meeting and event space.
L’Auberge Lake Charles offers one of the closest full-scale casino hotel facilities to Houston, Texas, as well as to the Austin, Texas and San Antonio, Texas metropolitan areas. The location is approximately 140 miles from Houston and approximately 300 miles and 335 miles from Austin and San Antonio, respectively. In addition to gaming amenities and a sportsbook for live sports betting, the property features several dining outlets, a golf course, a full-service spa, and more than 26,000 square feet of meeting and event space.
Margaritaville Resort Casino is one of the premier gaming, lodging, dining, and entertainment experiences in Northern Louisiana. The property provides an island-style theme and includes gaming amenities, a sportsbook for live sports betting, a 15,000 square foot 1,000-seat theater, and 9,500 square feet of meeting space.
West Segment
Ameristar Black Hawk is located in the center of the Black Hawk gaming district, approximately 40 miles west of Denver, Colorado. The resort features slot machines, table games, and a sportsbook for live sports betting. In addition to gaming
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amenities, the resort features a hotel, a full-service day spa, several dining outlets, a live entertainment bar, and 15,000 square feet of meeting and event space.
Cactus Petes and Horseshu (collectively, “the Jackpot Properties”) are located just south of the Idaho border in Jackpot, Nevada. The Jackpot Properties collectively feature two hotels, several dining options, a 4,000 seat amphitheater, a showroom, a live entertainment lounge, a sportsbook for live sports betting, and meeting and event facilities.
M Resort Spa Casino, located approximately ten miles from the Las Vegas strip in Henderson, Nevada, is situated at the southeast corner of Las Vegas Boulevard and St. Rose Parkway. The resort features slot machines, table games, and a sportsbook for live sports betting, as well as a hotel and a variety of dining and bar options. The property also features more than 60,000 square feet of meeting and conference space, a spa and fitness center, and a 100,000 square foot event center.
Zia Park Casino is located in Hobbs, New Mexico, and features slot machines, a hotel, restaurants, a one-mile quarter horse/thoroughbred racetrack with live racing from September to December, and a year-round simulcast parlor.
Midwest Segment
Ameristar Council Bluffs is located across the Missouri River from Omaha, Nebraska and includes the largest riverboat in Iowa. In addition to gaming amenities, the property also features a hotel, a fitness center, several dining facilities, a sports bar featuring a sportsbook with live sports betting, and 5,000 square feet of convention and meeting space.
Argosy Casino Alton is located on the Mississippi River in Alton, Illinois, approximately 20 miles northeast of downtown St. Louis, Missouri. Argosy Casino Alton is a three-deck riverboat featuring slot machines, table games, and a sportsbook for live betting. Argosy Casino Alton includes an entertainment pavilion and features a deli, a sportsbook viewing lounge and a 475-seat main showroom.
Argosy Casino Riverside is located on the Missouri River, approximately five miles from downtown Kansas City. In addition to gaming amenities, this Mediterranean-themed property features a nine-story hotel, a spa, an entertainment facility featuring various food and beverage areas, a VIP lounge and a sports/entertainment lounge and 19,000 square feet of banquet/conference facilities.
Hollywood Casino Aurora is located in Aurora, Illinois, the second largest city in Illinois, approximately 35 miles west of Chicago. This single-level dockside casino offers guests gaming amenities, including a poker room and a sportsbook for live sports betting, and features multiple dining and bar options.
Hollywood Casino Joliet is located on the Des Plaines River in Joliet, Illinois, approximately 40 miles southwest of Chicago. The complex includes a barge-based casino which provides guests with two levels of gaming experience, as well as a land-based pavilion with several dining and entertainment options. In addition, the property includes a sportsbook for live sports betting, a hotel, 4,600 square feet of meeting space, and an 80-space RV park.
Hollywood Casino at Kansas Speedway, our 50% joint venture with NASCAR, is located in Kansas City, Kansas. It features slot machines, table games, poker tables, and a sportsbook for live sports betting, and offers a variety of dining and entertainment facilities and a meeting room.
Hollywood Casino St. Louis is located adjacent to the Missouri River directly off I-70 and approximately 22 miles northwest of downtown St. Louis, Missouri. The facility features slot machines, table games, poker tables, a hotel, and a variety of dining and entertainment venues.
Prairie State Gaming is our licensed VGT route operator in Illinois across a network of over 423 bar and/or retail gaming establishments in seven distinct geographic areas throughout Illinois.
River City Casino is located in the St. Louis, Missouri metropolitan area, just south of the confluence of the Mississippi River and the River des Peres in the south St. Louis community of Lemay, Missouri. River City Casino features a hotel, multiple dining outlets, an entertainment lounge, and over 10,000 square feet of conference space.
Interactive Operations
PENN Interactive operates our online gaming portfolio which includes: (i) ESPN BET, an online sportsbook operating in select U.S. jurisdictions; (ii) Hollywood Casino, an iCasino operating in select U.S. jurisdictions within the ESPN BET website and mobile application; (iii) theScore Bet, an online sportsbook and iCasino operating in Ontario, Canada; and (iv) PENN Game Studios, our in-house iCasino and social gaming content studio. ESPN BET, Hollywood Casino, and theScore Bet
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leverage PENN’s proprietary, state-of-the-art player account management and online gaming platform. In addition, PENN Interactive also operates our digital sports media business, theScore (defined below). As of the issuance date of this report, PENN Interactive operates online sportsbooks in 18 jurisdictions and iCasino in five jurisdictions throughout the U.S. and Canada.
Previously, PENN Interactive’s online gaming business included Barstool Sportsbook & Casino (“Barstool Sportsbook”), an online sportsbook and casino. On November 14, 2023, the Barstool Sportsbook brand was discontinued with PENN Interactive re-launching its U.S. online sportsbook product as ESPN BET and its U.S. iCasino product as Hollywood Casino.
In addition, PENN Interactive supports operations for retail sportsbooks across the Company’s portfolio of casinos, including, as of December 31, 2023, 30 retail sportsbooks located at the Company’s properties in Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. As of January 2023, PENN Interactive also began providing retail sportsbook management services to select casino operators outside our Company’s portfolio.
Further, through PENN’s portfolio of properties, PENN Interactive has entered into multi-year agreements with other gaming operators for online sports betting and iCasino market access in several states. Pursuant to these agreements, as of December 31, 2023, such online sports betting and online casino operators have operations in Indiana, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.
theScore. On October 19, 2021, we completed the acquisition of Score Media and Gaming, Inc. (“theScore”) for a purchase price of approximately $2.1 billion. The acquisition provided us with the technology, resources, and audience reach to accelerate our media and sports betting strategy across North America.
Barstool. PENN Entertainment, Inc., through a wholly-owned subsidiary, held a 36% equity interest in Barstool. Under this strategic relationship, Barstool exclusively promoted the Company’s sports betting and iCasino products, including the Barstool Sportsbook website and mobile application, as well as our retail gaming and racing properties to its national audience, and granted us the sole right to utilize the Barstool brand for all of our online and retail sports betting and iCasino products. On February 17, 2023, we completed the acquisition of all of the outstanding shares of common stock of Barstool not already owned by us for a cash consideration of approximately $315.3 million and the issuance of 2,442,809 shares of our common stock to certain former stockholders of Barstool. Upon the completion of the Barstool Acquisition, Barstool became an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of PENN.
In connection with PENN’s decision to rebrand our online sports betting business from Barstool Sportsbook to ESPN BET, we entered into a stock purchase agreement with David Portnoy on August 8, 2023 (the “Barstool SPA”). Pursuant to the Barstool SPA, PENN sold 100% of the outstanding shares of Barstool to David Portnoy in exchange for nominal cash consideration (one dollar) and certain non-compete and other restrictive covenants.
Other
Freehold Raceway. Through our joint venture in Pennwood Racing, Inc. (“Pennwood”), we own 50% of Freehold Raceway. The property features a one-half mile standardbred racetrack and a 118,000 square foot grandstand. In addition, through our Pennwood joint venture, we own 50% of a leased off-track wagering (“OTW”) facility in Toms River, New Jersey, and operate another OTW facility, which we constructed, in Gloucester Township, New Jersey.
Retama Park Racetrack. We have a management contract with Retama Development Corporation, a local government corporation of the City of Selma, Texas, to manage the day-to-day operations of Retama Park Racetrack. In addition, we own 1.0% of the equity of Retama Nominal Holder, LLC, which holds a nominal interest in the racing license used to operate Retama Park Racetrack. Additionally, we own a 75.5% interest in Pinnacle Retama Partners, LLC, which owns the contingent gaming rights that may arise if gaming under the existing racing license becomes legal in Texas in the future.
Sam Houston Race Park and Valley Race Park. Sam Houston Race Park, which is located 15 miles northwest from downtown Houston, Texas along Beltway 8, hosts thoroughbred and quarter horse racing and offers daily simulcast operations, as well as hosts various special events, private parties, and meetings throughout the year. Valley Race Park is a 91,000 square foot property that previously conducted greyhound racing and simulcasting. Valley Race Park has not been open since March 2020. We acquired the remaining 50% of these properties, as well as a license for a racetrack in Manor, Texas, just outside of Austin, on August 1, 2021.
Sanford-Orlando Kennel Club. The facility and parking lot area is owned by the Company and operates a restaurant and offers year-round simulcast operations.
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Triple Net Leases
The majority of the real estate assets (i.e., land and buildings) used in our operations are subject to triple net master leases, the most significant of which are with Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. (Nasdaq: GLPI) (“GLPI”), a real estate investment trust (“REIT”), and include the AR PENN Master Lease, 2023 Master Lease, PENN Master Lease (prior to January 1, 2023), and Pinnacle Master Lease (as such terms are defined below and collectively referred to as the “Master Leases”). As of December 31, 2023, in addition to the Master Leases, three individual gaming facilities used in our operations are subject to individual triple net leases. Under triple net leases, in addition to lease payments for the real estate assets, the Company is required to pay the following, among other things: (i) all facility maintenance; (ii) all insurance required in connection with the leased properties and the business conducted on the leased properties; (iii) taxes levied on or with respect to the leased properties (other than taxes on the income of the lessor); (iv) all tenant capital improvements; and (v) all utilities and other services necessary or appropriate for the leased properties and the business conducted on the leased properties.
The following summaries of the Master Leases are qualified in their entirety by reference to either the AR PENN Master Lease, the 2023 Master Lease, PENN Master Lease (prior to January 1, 2023), or the Pinnacle Master Lease, as applicable, all of which are incorporated by reference in the exhibits to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
AR PENN Master Lease
Prior to the effective date of the AR PENN Master Lease (as defined and discussed below), the Company leased real estate assets associated with 19 of the gaming facilities used in its operations via a triple net master lease with GLPI (the “PENN Master Lease”), which became effective November 1, 2013. The PENN Master Lease had an initial term of 15 years with four subsequent five-year renewal periods on the same terms and conditions, exercisable at the Company’s option.
On February 21, 2023, the Company and GLPI entered into an agreement to amend and restate the PENN Master Lease (the “AR PENN Master Lease”), effective January 1, 2023, to (i) remove the land and buildings for Hollywood Casino Aurora (“Aurora”), Hollywood Casino Joliet (“Joliet”), Hollywood Casino Columbus (“Columbus”), Hollywood Casino Toledo (“Toledo”) and the M Resort Spa Casino (“M Resort”), and (ii) make associated adjustments to the rent after which the initial rent in the AR PENN Master Lease was reset to $284.1 million, consisting of $208.2 million of building base rent, $43.0 million of land base rent and $32.9 million of percentage rent (as such terms are defined in the AR PENN Master Lease). Subsequent to the execution of the AR PENN Master Lease, the lease contains real estate assets associated with 14 of the Company’s gaming facilities used in its operations. The current term of the AR PENN Master Lease expires on October 31, 2033 and thereafter contains three renewal terms of five years each on the same terms and conditions, exercisable at the Company’s option. The AR PENN Master Lease along with the 2023 Master Lease (as defined and discussed below) are cross-defaulted, cross-collateralized, and coterminous, and subject to a parent guarantee. See Note 12, “Leases” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.
2023 Master Lease
Concurrent with the execution of the AR PENN Master Lease, the Company and GLPI entered into a new triple net master lease (the “2023 Master Lease”), effective January 1, 2023, specific to the property associated with Aurora, Joliet, Columbus, Toledo, M Resort, Hollywood Casino at The Meadows (“Meadows”), and Hollywood Casino Perryville (“Perryville”) and a master development agreement (the “Master Development Agreement”). The 2023 Master Lease has an initial term through October 31, 2033 with three subsequent five-year renewal periods on the same terms and conditions, exercisable at the Company’s option. The 2023 Master Lease terminated the individual triple net leases associated with Meadows and Perryville. The 2023 Master Lease and AR PENN Master Lease are cross-defaulted, cross-collateralized, and coterminous, and subject to a parent guarantee. See Note 12, “Leases” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.
Pinnacle Master Lease
In connection with the acquisition of Pinnacle Entertainment, Inc. (“Pinnacle”), on October 15, 2018, the Company assumed a triple net master lease with GLPI (the “Pinnacle Master Lease”), originally effective April 28, 2016, pursuant to which the Company leases real estate assets associated with 12 of the gaming facilities used in its operations. Upon assumption of the Pinnacle Master Lease, as amended, there were 7.5 years remaining of the initial ten-year term, with five subsequent, five-year renewal periods, on the same terms and conditions, exercisable at the Company’s option. Furthermore, in conjunction with the acquisition of Pinnacle, GLPI acquired the real estate assets associated with Plainridge Park Casino and leased back such assets to the Company pursuant to an amendment to the Pinnacle Master Lease. See Note 12, “Leases” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.
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Other triple net leases with REIT landlords
The Company has a triple net lease with GLPI for the land underlying the Hollywood Casino Morgantown property. Prior to the execution of the 2023 Master Lease, the Company also had triple net leases with GLPI for the real estate assets associated with the Meadows and Perryville properties. Prior to the sale of PENN’s outstanding equity interest in Tropicana Las Vegas Hotel and Casino, Inc. (“Tropicana”) on September 26, 2022, the Company had a triple net lease with GLPI for the real estate assets associated with the Tropicana property. See Note 12, “Leases” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.
The Company has triple net leases with VICI Properties, Inc. (NYSE: VICI) (“VICI”) for the real estate assets associated with the Margaritaville Resort Casino and Hollywood Casino at Greektown properties. See Note 12, “Leases” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.
Trademarks
We own a number of trademarks and service marks registered or pending registration with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”), the Canadian Intellectual Property Office (“CIPO”), and/or other intellectual property organizations in the European Union, the United Kingdom, and other countries around the world, including but not limited to, “Ameristar®,” “Argosy®,” “Boomtown®,” “Hollywood Casino®,” “Hollywood Gaming®,” “L’Auberge®,” “M Resort®,” and “PENN PlayTM” among other trademarks. Upon completion of the acquisition of theScore in October 2021, we acquired theScore’s registered trademarks and service marks, including but not limited to, “theScore®,” “theScore Bet®,” and “theScore esports®” among other trademarks. We believe that our rights to our trademarks are well-established and have competitive value to our properties and businesses. We also have a number of trademark applications pending with the USPTO, CIP, and the World Intellectual Property Organization.
Among others, we have a licensing agreement with a third-party to use the “Margaritaville” trademark in connection with the operations of Margaritaville in Bossier City, Louisiana. As of August 8, 2023, we have a licensing agreement with ESPN, Inc. to use the “ESPN BET™” and related trademarks in connection with the operations of our online sports betting products within the United States.
Competition
The gaming, media, and entertainment industries are characterized by an increasingly high degree of competition among a large number of participants. We compete with a variety of gaming operations, including casinos and hotel casinos of varying quality and size and other gaming options such as state and province-sponsored internet lotteries, sweepstakes, charitable gaming, video gaming terminals at bars, restaurants, taverns and truck stops, illegal slot machines and skill games, fantasy sports and third-party internet or mobile-based gaming platforms, including both legal and illegal iCasino and sports betting operations. More generally, both our retail and interactive gaming operations face competition from all manner of leisure and entertainment activities, including shopping, athletic events, television and movies, concerts, and travel. Competition is discussed in further detail within “Item 1A. Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and a discussion of the impact of competition on our results of operations, and cash flows is included within “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Seasonality
Our operations are subject to seasonality, including seasonality based on the weather in the region in which the properties operate and the travel habits of visitors. Business at our properties can also fluctuate due to specific holidays or other significant events, particularly when a holiday falls in a different quarter than the prior year, city-wide conventions, large sporting events or concerts, or visits by our premium players. We also believe that any seasonality, holiday, or other significant event may affect our various properties or regions differently. We may also experience seasonality with retail and online sports betting which coincides with certain sporting events, as well as seasons of professional sports teams.
Government Regulation and Gaming Issues
The gaming and racing industries are highly regulated, and we must maintain our licenses and pay gaming taxes to continue our operations. Our online gaming operations and each of our properties are subject to extensive regulation under the laws, rules, and regulations of the jurisdictions where we operate. These laws, rules, and regulations generally concern the responsibility, financial stability, and character of the owners, managers, and persons with financial interests in the gaming operations. Violations of laws or regulations in one jurisdiction could result in disciplinary action in other jurisdictions. For a
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more detailed description of the statutes and regulations to which we are subject, see Exhibit 99.1, “Description of Government Regulations” to this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Our businesses are subject to various international, federal, state, provincial, and local laws and regulations in addition to gaming regulations. These laws and regulations include, but are not limited to, restrictions and conditions concerning alcoholic beverages, environmental matters, employees, health care, currency transactions, taxation, zoning and building codes, data privacy, anti-money laundering, and marketing and advertising. Such laws and regulations could change or could be interpreted differently in the future, or new laws and regulations could be enacted. Material changes, new laws or regulations, or material differences in interpretations by courts or governmental authorities could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Employees and Human Capital Resources
The Company’s key human capital management objectives are to attract, retain, and develop diverse and high-quality talent. Our commitment to an equal-opportunity and respectful workplace characterized by both diversity and inclusion, in which everyone feels valued, respected, and supported, is a factor driving our success. Our talent and development programs are designed to develop, support and maintain talent succession pipelines in preparation for key roles and leadership positions; recognize, reward and support our team members through competitive pay and wellness programs; enhance the Company’s philanthropic culture by encouraging participation and championing programs in the communities in which we work and live; and invest in technology and resources to provide our team members with the most efficient tools to perform their jobs.
Some of the key programs and initiatives developed to attract, develop, engage, and retain diverse and high-quality talent include:
Executive and High Potential Talent Review Process to include team members who completed an internal development program
LEAP Program (Leadership Excellence at PENN, intern program)
Emerging Leader Program
Early Career Leadership Academy (0 to 2 years experience leading others) and Mid-Career Leadership Academy (over 3 years experience leading others)
Cohort Programs (Gaming, Hospitality, Human Resources)
PENN Women
Learning Central, a catalog of self-paced development opportunities covering a wide range of topics
Diversity and Veteran Recruitment Initiatives
AwardCo Recognition Program and Property Engagement Committees

Through the dedicated efforts of our corporate, interactive, and property leadership teams, our charitable Foundation and the PENN Diversity Council, we launched or expanded a number of initiatives in 2023 focused on improving the lives of our team members, their families, and those in need in our communities.
In 2023, our diversity training initiatives continued with the roll out of Level Two for all leaders of people, approximately 3,700 people across the Company. The training was broken into two separate sessions:
Session I: Building and Developing a Diverse Workforce
Session II: Sexual Harassment and Respectful Workplace

The Board of Directors and Senior Leadership Team set a goal of 90% participation by December 31, 2023. As of December 31, 2023, 99% completed Session I and 97% completed Session II. Survey results were strong with an average of 97% replying favorably to applying new knowledge and 9.3/10 would recommend the training.
Highlights from last year’s efforts include the expansion of our $4 million STEM Scholarship Fund and internship program which now has six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the program. Our commitment continued in dedicating more than $4 million to fund STEM scholarships with HBCUs in states where we operate, as well as creating internship opportunities at the Company. This year, 31% of our LEAP interns were from an HBCU and 72% were diverse and/or female.
In addition, we piloted a structured mentoring program in October for approximately 200 team members. Participants include Emerging Leader graduates, high potential talent, new leaders, and executives. As of December 31, 2023, there are 154 established partnerships logging just over 300 hours of mentoring activities. In 2024, we aim to scale the program. We also continued our annual $1 Million Diversity Scholarship Program for the children of team members. In 2023, there were 52
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recipients with 57% of them being first generation college bound students. The application process for the 2024-2025 school year will kick-off in early 2024.
As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 23,333 full-time and part-time employees. We had 35 collective bargaining agreements covering approximately 4,180 active employees. Twelve collective bargaining agreements are scheduled to expire in 2024. Although we believe that we have good employee relations, there can be no assurance that we will be able to extend or enter into replacement agreements. If we are able to extend or enter into replacement agreements, there can be no assurance as to whether the terms will be on comparable terms to the existing agreements.
ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS
You should be aware that the occurrence of any of the events described in this section and elsewhere in this report or in any other of our filings with the SEC could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. In evaluating us, you should consider carefully, among other things, the risks described below.
Summary of Risk Factors
The following is a summary of the principal risks that could adversely affect our business, operations, and financial results.
Risks Related to Our Business, Industry and Market Conditions
Our business is sensitive to reductions in discretionary consumer spending because of downturns in the economy and other factors outside of our control.
Intense competition exists in the gaming, media, and entertainment industries, and we expect competition to continue to intensify.
Our results of operations may fluctuate due to seasonality and other factors and, therefore, our periodic operating results will not be guarantees of future performance.
Shareholder activists could cause a disruption to our business.

Risks Related to Our Operations
We have certain retail properties that generate a significant percentage of our revenues and our ability to meet our operating and debt service requirements is dependent, in part, upon the continued success of these properties.
A significant portion of our cash flow from operations is used to make interest payments and rent payments under our debt and lease agreements.
We may require additional capital to support our growth plans, and such capital may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all.
Most of our facilities are leased and could experience risks associated with leased property.
We are subject to risks and costs related to climate change regulations and greenhouse gas effects.
Investors’ and other stakeholders’ expectations of our performance relating to environmental, social, and governance factors may impose additional costs and expose us to new risks.
Our management agreements and/or leases with third parties and local governments may not be renewed.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete effectively or generate sufficient returns on our recently expanded sports betting and iCasino operations, including ESPN BET.
Our operations and their success are largely dependent on the skill and experience of management and key personnel.
Our business is dependent on our ability to attract and retain talented team members.
We face risks related to collective bargaining activity and strikes.
We face the risk of fraud, theft, and cheating.
We rely on, among other things, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, confidentiality procedures, and contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property rights and we may be unable to protect or may not be successful in protecting our intellectual property rights.
Our commercial success depends upon us avoiding the infringement of intellectual property rights owned by others.
Our technology contains third-party open source software components.
We may face disruption and other difficulties in integrating and managing acquired operations or other initiatives we have recently acquired, may develop, or may acquire in the future.
We lease facilities that are located in areas that experience extreme weather conditions, which may increase in frequency and severity as a result of climate change.
We rely on third parties to provide services that are essential to the operation of our online sports betting and iCasino business, including geolocation, identity and age verification, payment processing, and sports data.
Our growth will depend, in part, on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties.
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We are reliant on our partnership with ESPN, and our failure to maintain that relationship could negatively impact our business, reputation, and strategic goals.
The growth of our Interactive segment will depend on our ability to attract and retain users and require investments in our online offerings, technology, and strategic marketing initiatives.
Participation in the sports betting industry exposes us to trading, liability management, and pricing risk.
We follow the sports betting industry practice of restricting and managing betting limits at the individual customer level based on individual customer profiles and risk level to the enterprise; however, there is no guarantee that gaming regulatory authorities will allow operators such as us to place limits at the individual customer level.
We extend credit to a portion of our customers who wager at our retail properties, and we may not be able to collect gaming receivables from our credit customers.
The success, including win or hold rates, of existing or future retail, sports betting, and iCasino products depends on a variety of factors and is not completely controlled by us.
We face a number of challenges prior to opening new or upgraded gaming properties, launching iCasinos and sports betting in new jurisdictions, or launching new iCasino or sports betting offerings.

Risks Related to our Information Systems and Technology
If our third-party mobile application distribution platforms or service providers do not perform adequately or terminate their relationships with us, our costs may increase.
If internet and other technology-based service providers experience service interruptions, our ability to conduct our business may be impaired.
We rely on third party cloud infrastructure services to deliver our offerings to users.
Our information technology and other systems are subject to cybersecurity risk, including misappropriation of employee information, customer information or other breaches of information security.

Legal and Regulatory Risk Factors
We are or may become involved in legal proceedings and no assurance can be provided as to the outcome of these matters.
We face extensive regulation from gaming regulatory authorities.
We are subject to certain federal, state, provincial, and other regulations.
State and local smoking restrictions have and may continue to negatively affect our business.
Changes to consumer privacy laws could adversely affect our ability to market our products effectively and may require us to change our business practices or expend significant amounts on compliance with such laws.
We are subject to environmental laws and potential exposure to environmental liabilities.
We may experience material increases to our taxes or the adoption of new taxes or the authorization of new or increased forms of gaming.

The summary risk factors described above should be read together with the text of the full risk factors below and in the other information set forth in this Annual Report, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, as well as in other documents that we file with the SEC. If any such risks and uncertainties actually occur, our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. The risks summarized above or described in full below are not the only risks that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Business, Industry, and Market Conditions
Our business is sensitive to reductions in discretionary consumer spending because of downturns in the economy and other factors outside of our control.
Our business is particularly sensitive to downturns in the economy and the associated impact on discretionary spending on leisure activities. As a regional operator, our in-person customers are predominately local, so we compete for more day-to-day discretionary spending as compared with destination spending. Decreases in discretionary consumer spending or consumer preferences brought about by factors such as perceived or actual general economic conditions, effects of declines in consumer confidence in the economy, any future employment or credit crisis, the impact of high and prolonged inflation, particularly with respect to housing, energy, and food costs, the increased cost of travel, decreased disposable consumer income and wealth, fears of war and future acts of terrorism, or widespread illnesses or epidemics can have a material adverse effect on discretionary spending and other areas of economic behavior that directly impact the gaming and entertainment industries in general and
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could further reduce customer demand for the products and amenities that we offer, which may negatively impact our revenues and operating cash flow.
The closing of our properties due to the COVID-19 pandemic caused significant disruptions to our ability to generate revenues, profitability, and cash flows and had a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. While all our properties are currently open, there remains continuing logistical challenges faced by the entire gaming industry resulting from COVID-19-related labor shortages and supply chain disruptions. Future disruptions, as well as significant negative economic trends, due to the COVID-19 pandemic or other widespread illnesses or epidemics, may adversely impact our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations.
Intense competition exists in the gaming, media, and entertainment industries, and we expect competition to continue to intensify.
The gaming, media, and entertainment industries are characterized by an increasingly high degree of competition among a large number of participants. We compete with a variety of gaming operations, including casinos and hotel casinos of varying quality and size and other gaming options such as state and province-sponsored internet lotteries, sweepstakes, charitable gaming, video gaming terminals at bars, restaurants, taverns and truck stops, illegal slot machines and skill games, fantasy sports and third-party internet or mobile-based gaming platforms, including both legal and illegal iCasino and sports betting operations. More generally, both our retail and interactive gaming operations face competition from all manner of leisure and entertainment activities, including shopping, athletic events, television and movies, concerts, and travel.
We and our competitors have invested in expanding existing facilities, developing new facilities, and acquiring established facilities in existing markets. This expansion of existing casino entertainment properties, the increase in the number of properties and aggressive marketing strategies by many of our competitors have increased competition in many markets in which we compete, and this intense competition can be expected to continue. As competing properties and new markets open, our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations may be negatively impacted.
Increased competition may require us to make substantial capital expenditures to maintain and enhance the competitive positions of our properties, including making expenditures to increase the attractiveness and add to the appeal of our facilities, increasing the manner and frequency in which we refresh, refurbish or replace fixtures, equipment and gaming offerings. After satisfying our obligations under our outstanding indebtedness and Triple Net Leases (as defined below), there can be no assurance that we will have sufficient funds to undertake these expenditures or that we will be able to obtain sufficient financing to fund such expenditures. If we are unable to make such expenditures, our competitive position could be materially adversely affected.
Similarly, there is intense competition among iCasino and online sports betting providers. Such competitors may spend more money and time on developing and testing products and services, undertake more extensive marketing campaigns, adopt more aggressive pricing or promotional policies or otherwise develop more commercially successful products or services than ours, which could negatively impact our business. There has also been considerable consolidation among competitors in the interactive gaming sectors and such consolidation and future consolidation could result in the formation of larger competitors with increased financial resources and altered cost structures, which may enable them to offer more competitive products, gain a larger market share, expand offerings, and broaden their geographic scope of operations. If we are not able to maintain or improve our market share, or if our offerings do not continue to be popular, our Interactive segment’s business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations could suffer.
Our results of operations may fluctuate due to seasonality and other factors and, therefore, our periodic operating results will not be guarantees of future performance.
Our online sportsbook, retail sportsbook, and core retail business operations may fluctuate due to seasonal trends and other factors. A majority of our current sports betting revenue occurs in the fourth quarter. This seasonality may cause decreases in our future revenues during the applicable off-seasons. In addition, certain individuals or teams advancing or failing to advance and their scores and other results within specific tournaments, games or events may impact our financial performance. Our retail gaming operations are also subject to seasonality, including seasonality based on the weather in the markets in which they operate, specific holidays, or other significant events.
The operations of our properties are subject to disruptions or reduced patronage as a result of severe weather conditions, natural disasters, acts or threats of terrorism, concerns about widespread illnesses or epidemics, including COVID-19, and other casualty events, such as hurricanes or tornados. We maintain significant property insurance, including business interruption coverage, for these types of casualty events; however, if any such events occur, there can be no assurances that we will be fully or promptly compensated, if at all, for losses at any of our properties in the event of future inclement weather or casualty events
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or from the closings of our properties due to widespread illnesses or epidemics. In addition, the occurrence of such an event may adversely impact general economic or other conditions in the areas in which our properties are located or from which they draw their patrons, and our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Shareholder activists could cause a disruption to our business.
An activist investor has indicated disagreement with our strategic direction and capital allocation policies and may seek representation on our Board of Directors. Our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected and may result in, among other things: (a) increased operating costs, including increased legal expenses, insurance, administrative expenses and associated costs incurred in connection with director election contests; (b) uncertainties as to our future direction, which could result in the loss of potential business opportunities and could make it more difficult to attract, retain, or motivate qualified personnel, and strain relationships with investors and customers; and (c) reduction or delay in our ability to effectively execute our current business strategy and to implement new strategies.
Risks Related to our Operations
We generate a material percentage of our revenues from certain geographic regions and our ability to meet our operating and debt service requirements is dependent, in part, upon the continued success of these regions.
For the year ended December 31, 2023, we generated 13.8%, 13.6%, and 9.7% of our revenues from our retail properties within the states of Louisiana, Ohio, and Missouri, respectively. As a result, we are subject to a greater degree of risk than a gaming company with more regional diversification as our results will be dependent on the regional economies and competitive landscapes in these specific markets. Our ability to meet our operating and debt service requirements is thus dependent, in part, upon the continued success of our properties in these key regions. The risks to which we have a greater degree of exposure include changes in local economic and competitive conditions; changes in local and state governmental laws and regulations, including gaming laws and regulations, and the way in which those laws and regulations are applied; natural and other disasters, including the potential effects of climate change such as severe storms, hurricanes, typhoons, rising sea levels, severe drought, or the outbreak of infectious diseases; an increase in the cost of maintaining our properties in these areas; a decline in the number of visitors to locations in such regions; and a decrease in gaming and non-gaming activities at our properties in such regions. Any of these factors could negatively affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and ability to generate sufficient cash flow to meet our operating and debt service requirements.
A significant portion of our cash flow from operations is used to make interest payments and rent payments under our debt and lease agreements.
As of December 31, 2023, we had indebtedness of $2.8 billion, including $1.5 billion outstanding under our Amended Credit Facilities. We are also required to utilize a significant portion of our cash flow from operations to make our rent payments, which were $937.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, pursuant to and subject to the terms and conditions of our Master Leases and Morgantown Lease, each with GLPI, and our Margaritaville Lease and Greektown Lease with VICI (as defined previously, collectively, our “Triple Net Leases”). As a result of these commitments under our Triple Net Leases, our ability to fund our own operations or development projects, raise capital, make acquisitions and otherwise respond to competitive and economic changes may be adversely affected. Further, our obligations under the Triple Net Leases may make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our indebtedness and to obtain additional indebtedness and restrict our ability to raise capital, make acquisitions, divestitures, and engage in other significant transactions. Any of the aforementioned factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
There is no assurance that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available to us under our Amended Credit Facilities in amounts sufficient to enable us to fund our liquidity needs, including with respect to our indebtedness and rent payments. Our variable rate borrowings expose us to interest rate volatility, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly. We also may incur indebtedness related to properties we develop or acquire in the future prior to generating cash flow from those properties. If those properties do not provide us with cash flow to service that indebtedness, we will need to rely on cash flow from our other properties, which would increase our leverage. In addition, if we consummate significant acquisitions in the future, our cash requirements may increase significantly.
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We may require additional capital to support our growth plans, and such capital may not be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all.
We may finance some of our current and future expansion, development and renovation projects and acquisitions with cash flow from operations, borrowings under our Amended Credit Facilities and equity or debt financings. For more information regarding our future development projects, see “Recent Acquisitions, Development Projects and Other” in the Executive Overview within our Management’s Discussion and Analysis. If we are unable to finance our current or future projects, we could have to seek alternative financing. Depending on credit market conditions, including the current high interest rate environment, alternative sources of funds may not be sufficient to finance our expansion, development and/or renovation, or such other financing may not be available on acceptable terms, in a timely manner or at all. In addition, our existing indebtedness contains restrictions on our ability to incur additional indebtedness. If we are unable to secure additional financing, we could be forced to limit or suspend expansion, development and renovation projects and acquisitions, which may adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
The capacity under our Amended Revolving Credit Facility is $1.0 billion, of which $978.3 million is available as of December 31, 2023. Our Amended Revolving Credit Facility expires in 2027. There is no certainty that our lenders will continue to remain solvent or fund their respective obligations under our Amended Credit Facilities. Events involving limited liquidity, defaults, non-performance or other adverse developments that affect financial institutions, transactional counterparties or other companies in the financial services industry or the financial services industry generally, or concerns or rumors about any events of these kinds or other similar risks, have in the past and may in the future lead to market-wide liquidity problems. Although we assess our banking and customer relationships as we believe necessary or appropriate, our access to funding sources and other credit arrangements in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our current and projected future business operations could be significantly impaired by factors that affect us, the financial services industry or economy in general.
Most of our facilities are leased and could experience risks associated with leased property.
We lease 36 of the facilities we operate pursuant to the Triple Net Leases. Termination of the PENN Master Lease, the 2023 Master Lease, Pinnacle Master Lease, or Morgantown Lease could result in a default under our debt agreements and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Moreover, as a lessee, we do not completely control the land and improvements underlying our operations, and our landlords under the Triple Net Leases could take certain actions to disrupt our rights in the facilities leased under the Triple Net Leases that are beyond our control. In addition, should some of our leased facilities prove to be unprofitable, we could remain obligated for lease payments and other obligations under the Triple Net Leases even if we decide to withdraw from those locations. Further, there can also be no assurance that we will be able to comply with our obligations under the Triple Net Leases in the future or that our landlords will be able to comply with their obligations under the Triple Net Leases with us.
We are subject to risks and costs related to climate change regulations and greenhouse gas effects.
There is a growing consensus that greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions continue to alter the composition of the global atmosphere in ways that are affecting, and are expected to continue affecting, the global climate. We may become subject to legislation and regulation regarding climate change, and compliance with any new rules could be difficult, burdensome, and costly. Concerned parties, such as legislators and regulators, stockholders, and nongovernmental organizations, as well as companies in many business sectors, are considering ways to reduce GHG emissions. Many states have announced or adopted programs to stabilize and reduce GHG emissions and, in the past, federal legislation has been proposed in Congress. If such legislation is enacted, we could incur increased energy, environmental and other costs, and capital expenditures to comply with the limitations. Unless and until legislation is enacted and its terms are known, we cannot reasonably or reliably estimate its impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or ability to compete. Further, regulation of GHG emissions may limit our customers’ ability to travel to our properties (e.g. as a result of increased fuel costs or restrictions on transport-related emissions).
Investors’ and other stakeholders’ expectations of our performance relating to environmental, social, and governance factors may impose additional costs and expose us to new risks.
There is an increasing focus from certain investors, customers, partners, employees, other stakeholders, governments, and regulators concerning environmental, social, and governance matters (“ESG”). For example, various policymakers, such as the SEC and the State of California, have adopted, or are considering adopting rules or laws to require companies to provide significantly expanded climate-related disclosures, which may require us to incur significant additional costs to comply, including the implementation of significant additional internal controls processes and procedures regarding matters that have not been subject to such controls in the past, and impose increased oversight obligations on our management and board of directors. Additionally, some investors may use these non-financial performance factors to guide their investment strategies
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and, in some cases, may choose not to invest in us if they believe our policies and actions relating to ESG are inadequate. We may face reputational damage in the event that we do not meet the ESG standards set by various constituencies.
As ESG best practices and reporting standards continue to develop, we may incur increasing costs related to ESG monitoring and reporting and compliance with ESG initiatives. We publish an annual Corporate Social Responsibility Report, which highlights, among other things, our climate change mitigation activities and how we are supporting our workforce, including our diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging efforts. Our disclosures on these matters, or a failure to meet evolving stakeholder expectations for ESG practices and reporting, may potentially harm our reputation and customer relationships.
Furthermore, if our competitors’ ESG performance is perceived to be better than ours, potential or current investors may elect to invest with our competitors instead. In addition, in the event that we communicate certain initiatives or goals regarding ESG matters, we could fail, or be perceived to fail, in our achievement of such initiatives or goals, or we could be criticized for the scope of such initiatives or goals. If we fail to satisfy the expectations of investors, customers, employees, and other stakeholders, or our initiatives are not executed as planned, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects could be adversely affected.
Our management agreements and/or leases with third parties and local governments may not be renewed or the terms of a renewal may require significant fees or capital expenditure commitments.
Our operations in several jurisdictions depend on land leases and/or management and development agreements with third parties and local governments. If we, or if GLPI or VICI, in the case of leases pursuant to which we are the sub-lessee, are unable to renew these leases and agreements on satisfactory terms as they expire or if disputes arise regarding the terms of these agreements, our business may be disrupted and, in the event of disruptions in multiple jurisdictions, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. We may also be required to pay higher fees and/or incur additional capital expenditures to renew management agreements with third parties and local governments in our existing jurisdictions, or incur higher fees and/or capital expenditures than forecasted in connection with new management agreements with third parties and local governments as we expand into new jurisdictions.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete effectively or generate sufficient returns on our recently expanded sports betting and iCasino operations, including the launch of ESPN BET.
Certain of the jurisdictions in which we operate have legalized intra-state sports wagering and have established extensive state licensing and regulatory requirements governing any such intra-state sports wagering. As of December 31, 2023, we have launched the ESPN BET app in 17 states, and we expect to launch our ESPN BET app in additional states throughout 2024. Our sports betting and iCasino operations compete, and will continue to compete, in a rapidly evolving and highly competitive market against an increasing number of competitors.
Additionally, and as described in more detail below, we have entered into agreements with other online sports betting and iCasino operators and may enter into additional agreements with strategic partners and other third-party vendors to provide market access in certain jurisdictions. In addition, there can be no assurance that the ESPN BET audience will engage in sports betting and iCasino products to the extent that we expect. Further, the success of our proposed sports betting and iCasino operations is dependent on a number of additional factors, many of which are beyond our control, including the ultimate tax rates and license fees charged by jurisdictions across the United States and Canada; our ability to gain market share in a new market; the timeliness and the technological and popular viability of our products; our ability to compete with new entrants in the market; changes in consumer demographics and public tastes and preferences; cancellations and delays in sporting seasons and sporting matches as a result of events such as player strikes or lockouts; and the availability and popularity of other forms of entertainment. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete effectively or that our expansion will be successful and generate sufficient returns on our investment.
Our operations and their success are largely dependent on the skill and experience of management and key personnel.
Our success and our competitive position, related to our retail operations, sports betting and iCasino operations, and media businesses, are largely dependent upon, among other things, the efforts and skills of our senior executives and management team. Although we enter into employment agreements with certain of our senior executives and key personnel, we cannot assure you that we will be able to retain our existing senior executive and management personnel or attract additional qualified senior executive and management personnel.
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Our business is dependent on our ability to attract and retain talented team members.
We compete with other companies both within and outside of our industry for talented personnel. If we cannot recruit, train, develop, and retain skilled and experienced personnel to our corporate, retail operations, sports betting and iCasino, and media businesses, we could experience increased employee turnover, decreased guest or user satisfaction, low morale, inefficiency, or internal control failures. Insufficient numbers of talented team members could also limit our ability to grow and expand our businesses. A shortage of frontline and skilled labor could also result in higher wages that would increase our labor costs, which could reduce our profits. Additionally, the increased ability of employees to work from home or in other remote work arrangements has impacted, and may continue to impact, our ability to attract and retain talented personnel.
Qualified individuals are in high demand, particularly in the technology and media industries, and we may incur significant costs to attract them. We may use equity awards to attract talented employees, influencers and media personalities. If the value of our common stock declines significantly and remains depressed, that may prevent us from recruiting and retaining qualified talent. Our ability to attract, retain, and motivate employees, influencers and media personalities may also be adversely affected by stock price volatility.
We face risks related to collective bargaining activity and strikes.
As of December 31, 2023, approximately 25% of team members at our properties are currently covered by collective bargaining agreements. Numerous collective bargaining agreements are typically subject to negotiation each year, and our ability in the past to resolve such negotiations does not mean that we will be able to resolve future negotiations without strikes, disruptions, or on terms that we consider reasonable. If relationships with our organized associates or the unions that represent them become adverse, then the properties we operate could experience labor disruptions such as strikes, lockouts, boycotts, and public demonstrations. Labor disputes and disruptions have in the past, and could in the future, result in adverse publicity and negatively affect operations and revenues at affected properties.
In addition, labor regulation and the negotiation of new or existing collective bargaining agreements could lead to higher wage and benefit costs, changes in work rules that raise operating expenses and legal costs, and could impose limitations on our ability or the ability of our third-party property owners to take cost saving measures during economic downturns.
Given the large number of employees, labor unions are making a concerted effort to recruit more employees in the gaming industry, and we have experienced attempts by labor organizations to organize certain of our non-union employees. We cannot provide any assurance that we will not experience additional and successful union activity in the future. The impact of this union activity is undetermined and could negatively impact our results of operations. Increased unionization of our workforce, new labor legislation or changes in regulations could disrupt our operations, reduce our profitability or interfere with the ability of our management to focus on executing our business strategies.
We face the risk of fraud, theft, and cheating.
We face the risk that gaming customers may attempt or commit fraud or theft or cheat in order to increase winnings. Such acts of fraud, theft, or cheating could involve the use of counterfeit chips or other tactics, possibly in collusion with our employees. Internal acts of cheating could also be conducted by employees through collusion with dealers, surveillance staff, floor managers, or other casino or gaming area staff. Additionally, we also face the risk that customers may attempt or commit fraud or theft with respect to our non-gaming offerings or against other customers. Such risks include stolen credit or charge cards or cash, falsified checks, theft of retail inventory and purchased goods, and unpaid or counterfeit receipts. Failure to discover such acts or schemes in a timely manner may result in losses in our operations. In the event of the occurrence of any such issues with our existing technology or product offerings, substantial resources and management attention may be diverted from other projects to correct these issues, which may delay other projects and the achievement of our strategic objectives. Negative publicity related to such acts or schemes could have an adverse effect on our reputation, potentially causing a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
We rely on, among other things, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, confidentiality procedures, and contractual provisions to protect our intellectual property rights and we may be unable to protect or may not be successful in protecting our intellectual property rights.
Our commercial success depends upon our ability to develop new or improved technologies and products, and to successfully obtain or acquire proprietary or statutory protection for our intellectual property rights.
We rely on, among other things, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, confidentiality procedures, and contractual provisions to protect our proprietary rights. While we enter license, confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements with our
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employees and vendors, consultants, users, potential users, and others to attempt to limit access to and distribution of proprietary and confidential information, it is possible that:
some or all of our confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements will not be honored;
third parties will independently develop equivalent technology or misappropriate our technology or designs;
disputes will arise with our strategic partners, users or others concerning the ownership of intellectual property;
unauthorized disclosure or use of our intellectual property, including source code, know-how or trade secrets will occur; or
contractual provisions may not be enforceable.

There can be no assurance that we will be successful in protecting our intellectual property rights or that we will become aware of third-party infringements that might be occurring. Inability to protect our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our prospects, business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our commercial success depends upon us avoiding the infringement of intellectual property rights owned by others.
The industries in which we compete have many participants that own, or claim to own, intellectual property, including participants that have been issued patents and may have filed patent applications or may obtain additional patents and proprietary rights for technologies similar to those used by us in our products. Some of these patents may grant very broad protection to the third-party owners thereof. Patents can be issued very rapidly and there is often a great deal of secrecy surrounding pending patent applications. We cannot determine with certainty whether any existing third-party patents or the issuance of any new third-party patents would require us to alter our technologies, pay for licenses, challenge the validity or enforceability of the patents, or cease certain activities. Third parties may assert intellectual property infringement claims against us and against our partners and/or suppliers. We may be subject to these types of claims either directly or indirectly through indemnities assuming liability for these claims that we may provide to certain partners. There can be no assurance that our attempts to negotiate favorable intellectual property indemnities in favor of us with our suppliers for infringement of third-party intellectual property rights will be successful or that a supplier’s indemnity will cover all damages and losses suffered by us and our partners and other suppliers due to infringing products, or that we can secure a license, modification or replacement of a supplier’s products with non-infringing products that may otherwise mitigate such damages and losses.
Some of our competitors have, or are affiliated with companies that have, substantially greater resources than us, and these competitors may be able to sustain the costs of complex intellectual property infringement litigation to a greater degree and for longer periods of time than us. Regardless of whether third-party claims of infringement against us have any merit, these claims could:
adversely affect our relationships with our customers and vendors;
be time-consuming to evaluate and defend;
result in costly litigation;
result in negative publicity for us;
divert our management’s attention and resources;
cause product and software delivery delays or stoppages;
subject us to significant liabilities;
require us to enter into costly royalty or licensing agreements;
require us to develop possible workaround solutions that may be costly and disruptive to implement; or
require us to cease certain activities or to cease distributing our products and delivering our services in certain markets.

In addition to being liable for potentially substantial damages relating to a patent or other intellectual property following an infringement action against us, we may be prohibited from developing or commercializing certain technologies or products unless we obtain a license from the holder of the patent or other applicable intellectual property rights, or purchase these rights. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain any such license or purchase the patent on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If we do not obtain such a license, our prospects, business, operating results, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected, and we could be required to cease related business operations in some markets and restructure our business to focus on continuing operations in other markets.
Our technology contains third-party open source software components.
Our technology contains software modules licensed to us under “open source” licenses from third-party sources. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial or proprietary software, as open source licensors generally do not provide support, warranties, indemnification or other contractual protections regarding
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infringement claims or the quality of the code. In addition, the public availability of such software may make it easier for others to compromise our technology.
Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make the source code of our software, in which the open source software modules are used or incorporated into, publicly available for third parties to create modifications or derivative works, or grant other licenses to our intellectual property for free. These types of open source licenses are commonly known as “copyleft” licenses. If we combine our proprietary software with open source software subject to copyleft licenses, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary software to the public. This would allow our competitors to create similar offerings with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of our competitive advantages. Alternatively, to avoid the public release of the affected portions of our source code, we could be required to expend substantial time and resources to re-engineer some or all of our software or remove such copyleft software.
Although we monitor our use of open source software to avoid subjecting our technology to licensing conditions we do not intend, the law surrounding the use of open source software and open source licenses is in a state of evolution and the legal ramifications of such use remain uncertain in the U.S. and other countries. There is a risk that these open source licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated and undesirable conditions or restrictions on our ability to provide or distribute our technology. From time to time, there have been claims challenging the ownership of open source software against companies that incorporate open source software into their solutions. As a result, we could be subject to lawsuits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software.
Moreover, while we have processes for controlling our use of open source software in our technology, there is no assurance that such processes will be effective. If we are held to have breached or failed to fully comply with all the terms and conditions of an open source software license, we could face infringement or other liability, or be required to seek costly licenses from third parties to continue providing our offerings on terms that are not economically feasible, to re-engineer our technology, to discontinue or delay the provision of our offerings if re-engineering could not be accomplished on a timely basis or to make generally available, in source code form, our proprietary code, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We may face disruption and other difficulties in integrating and managing acquired operations or other initiatives we have recently acquired, may develop, or may acquire in the future.
We could face significant challenges in managing and integrating our expanded or combined operations and any other properties or operations we may develop or acquire, particularly in new competitive markets or business lines, including our recently launched ESPN BET sportsbook app. The integration and management of more significant operations that we develop or acquire, such as our recent launch of the ESPN BET sportsbook app may temporarily divert attention from our day-to-day business. In addition, development and integration of new information technology systems that may be required is costly and time-consuming. The process of integrating operations that we may acquire also could interrupt the activities of those businesses, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. In addition, the development of new operations may involve regulatory, legal, and competitive risks, and, as it relates to property acquisitions, construction, and local opposition risks, as well as the risks attendant to partnership deals on these development opportunities. In particular, local opposition can delay or increase the anticipated cost of a project, and, in projects where we team up with a joint venture partner or licensing partner, if we cannot reach agreement with such partners, or if our relationships otherwise deteriorate, we could face significant increased costs and delays. Finally, given the competitive nature of these types of limited license opportunities, litigation is possible.
We cannot assure you that we will be able to manage the combined operations that we develop or acquire effectively or realize any of the anticipated benefits of our acquisitions or development projects. We also cannot assure you that if acquisitions are completed, that the acquired businesses will generate returns consistent with our expectations.
Our ability to achieve our objectives in connection with any acquisition we may consummate may be highly dependent on, among other things, our ability to retain the senior level management teams of such acquisition candidates. If, for any reason, we are unable to retain these management teams following such acquisitions or if we fail to attract new capable executives, our operations after consummation of such acquisitions could be materially adversely affected.
The occurrence of some or all of the above-described events could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
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We lease facilities that are located in areas that experience extreme weather conditions, which may increase in frequency and severity as a result of climate change.
We have been and may continue to be adversely impacted by increases in the frequency, duration, and severity of extreme weather events and changes in precipitation and temperature which may be increasing consequences of climate change. Extreme weather conditions may interrupt our operations and reduce the number of customers who visit our facilities in the affected areas. Our properties in Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania are at risk of experiencing extreme weather conditions, including snowstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes and/or flooding. In the past, adverse weather conditions, potentially exacerbated by climate change, have interrupted our operations, damaged property, and reduced the number of customers who visit our facilities in an affected area. For example, we have experienced interrupted operations and property damage due to hurricanes in the areas around the Gulf of Mexico and due to certain snowstorms in the Midwest and Northeast. If any of our properties are damaged or there is a prolonged disruption at any of our properties due to natural disasters or other catastrophic weather events, our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Although a majority of our repair, clean-up, and lost business expenses have been covered by insurance in the past, there is no assurance that, given the increasing burdens on insurance companies from extreme weather events, we will be able to continue to obtain adequate insurance against these types of losses, or that our insurers in the future will be in a position to satisfy our claims. In addition, the costs of insurance against these types of events have increased in recent years. For example, the Company’s cost of insurance premiums on an annual basis was approximately $29.6 million in 2023 as compared to $25.4 million in 2022.
Additionally, our retail casino gaming, sports betting, and iCasino operations rely heavily on technology services and an uninterrupted supply of electrical power. Any unscheduled disruption in our technology services or interruption in the supply of electrical power as a result of extreme weather, or otherwise, could result in an immediate, and possibly substantial, loss of revenues due to a shutdown of our retail casino gaming (including slot machines and security systems), sports betting, and iCasino operations.
We rely on third parties to provide services that are essential to the operation of our online sports betting and iCasino business, including geolocation, identity and age verification, payment processing, and sports data.
We rely on third parties to provide services that are essential to the operation of our online gaming business, including geolocation, identity and age verification, payment processing, and sports data systems to ensure we comply with laws and regulations, processing deposits and withdrawals made by our online users and providing information regarding schedules, results, performance, and outcomes of sporting events to determine when and how bets are settled. The software, systems and services provided by our third-party providers may not meet our expectations, contain errors or weaknesses, be compromised or experience outages. A failure of such third-party systems to perform effectively, or any service interruption to those systems, could adversely affect our business by preventing users from accessing our online platform, delaying payment or resulting in errors in settling bets, which could give rise to regulatory issues relating to the operation of our business. By way of example, incorrect or misleading geolocation and identity verification data with respect to current or potential users received from third-party service providers may result in us inadvertently allowing access to our offerings to individuals who are not permitted to access them or otherwise inadvertently denying access to individuals who are permitted to access them. Also, errors or failures by our payment processors and sports data providers could result in a failure to timely and accurately process payments to and from users or errors in settling bets. Any such errors or failures could result in violations of applicable regulatory requirements and adversely affect our reputation and our ability to attract and retain our online users. Furthermore, negative publicity related to any of our third-party partners could adversely affect our reputation and brand, and could potentially lead to increased regulatory or litigation exposure.
Additionally, we rely on third-party suppliers to provide gaming equipment, semiconductor chips and other supplies for our business. Supply chain delays or disruptions could impact our ability to obtain these supplies from our key suppliers on acceptable terms or at all. Any suspension or delay in our suppliers’ ability to provide us adequate equipment or supplies, or in our ability to procure equipment or supplies from other sources in a timely manner or at all, could impair our ability to meet customer demand and therefore could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations.
In addition, if any of our third-party service providers terminates its relationship with us, is unable to maintain necessary regulatory approvals, or refuses to renew its agreement with us on commercially reasonable terms, we would have to find alternate service providers. We cannot be certain that we would be able to secure favorable terms from alternative service providers that are critical to the operation of our business or enter into alternative arrangements in a timely manner. Our digital
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business, results of operations, and prospects would be adversely impacted by our inability to or delay in securing replacement services that are sufficient to support our online business or are on comparable terms.
Our growth will depend, in part, on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties.
We rely on relationships with sports leagues and teams, professional athletes and athlete organizations, advertisers, casinos, and other third parties, including those affiliated with ESPN, in order to attract users to our properties and online offerings, including ESPN BET. These relationships, along with providers of online services, search engines, social media, directories and other websites and e-commerce businesses, direct consumers to our offerings. In addition, many of the parties with whom we have advertising arrangements provide advertising services to other companies, including other gaming products with whom we compete. While we believe there are other third parties that could drive users to our offerings, adding or transitioning to them may disrupt our business and increase our costs. In the event that any of our existing relationships or our future relationships fails to provide services to us in accordance with the terms of our arrangement, or at all, and we are not able to find suitable alternatives, this could impact our ability to attract consumers cost effectively and harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
Additionally, under the sports betting and iCasino laws of certain jurisdictions, sports betting and iCasinos are limited to a finite number of retail operators, such as casinos, tribes or tracks, who own a “skin” or “skins” under that jurisdiction’s law. A “skin” is a legally authorized license from a gaming regulatory authority to offer sports betting or iCasino services provided by such a retail operator. The “skin” provides a market access opportunity for mobile operators to operate in the jurisdiction pending licensure and other required approvals by the jurisdiction’s gaming regulatory authority. In some of the jurisdictions in which we offer sports betting and iCasino, we currently rely on a casino, tribe, or track in order to get a “skin.” If we cannot establish, renew or manage these relationships, our market access rights could terminate, and we would not be allowed to operate in those jurisdictions until we enter into new ones. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We are reliant on our partnership with ESPN, and our failure to maintain that relationship could negatively impact our business, reputation and strategic goals.
On August 8, 2023, we entered into the Sportsbook Agreement with ESPN, which provides for a long-term strategic relationship between PENN and the ESPN relating to online sports betting in the United States. Pursuant to the Sportsbook Agreement, PENN rebranded the existing Barstool Sportsbook across all online platforms in the United States as ESPN BET (the “Sportsbook”) and oversees daily operations of the Sportsbook. The Sportsbook Agreement provides PENN with an exclusive license to use the ESPN BET trademark in the United States in connection with the Sportsbook. In addition, pursuant to the Sportsbook Agreement, ESPN provides certain marketing, content integration and promotional services. The Sportsbook Agreement generally will expire in 2033, unless the parties agree to an additional ten year extension; however, the Sportsbook Agreement may be terminated by ESPN prior to 2033 under certain circumstances, including if the Sportsbook’s market access is not at least a specified percentage of the total market access by the online sportsbook operator with the most expansive market access. Any termination or loss of exclusivity of our exclusive license would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The growth of our Interactive segment will depend on our ability to attract and retain users and require investments in our online offerings, technology, and strategic marketing initiatives.
Our ability to achieve revenue growth in the future in our Interactive segment (inclusive of ESPN BET, theScore Bet sports betting and iCasino app, and Hollywood iCasino) will depend, in large part, upon our ability to attract new users to our offerings, retain existing users and reactivate inactive users in a cost-effective manner. Achieving growth in our community of users may require us to increasingly engage in sophisticated and costly sales and marketing and promotional efforts, which may not make sense in terms of return on investment. We cannot be sure that our investments in technology, products, service offerings and marketing initiatives will be successful or generate the return on investment that we expect. If new or existing competitors offer more attractive offerings or engage in marketing initiatives that are better received by customers, we may lose users or users may decrease their spending on our offerings.
We have used and expect to continue to use a variety of free and paid marketing channels, in combination with compelling offers and exciting games to achieve our objectives. For paid marketing, we may leverage a broad array of advertising channels, including television, radio, sports teams, social media influencers (brand ambassadors), social media platforms, such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Snapchat, affiliates and paid and organic search, and other digital channels, such as mobile display. If the search engines on which we rely modify their algorithms, change their terms around online betting, if links to our apps or websites are not displayed prominently in online search results, if fewer users click through to the Apple App Store and Google Play Store or our websites, if our other digital marketing campaigns are not effective, or if the costs of attracting users
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using any of our current methods significantly increase, then our ability to efficiently attract new users could be reduced, our revenue could decline and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.
In addition, our ability to increase the number of users of our offerings will depend on continued user adoption of the ESPN BET, theScore Bet apps, and online gaming in general. Growth in the online gaming industries and the level of demand for and market acceptance of our product offerings will be subject to a high degree of uncertainty. We cannot assure that consumer adoption of our product offerings will continue or exceed current growth rates, or that the industry will achieve more widespread acceptance.
Additionally, as technological or regulatory standards change and we modify our platforms to comply with those standards, we may need users to take certain actions to continue playing, such as performing age verification checks or accepting new terms and conditions. Users may stop using our product offerings at any time, including if the quality of the user experience on our platforms, including our support capabilities in the event of a problem, does not meet their expectations or keep pace with the quality of the customer experience generally offered by competitive offerings.
Participation in the sports betting industry exposes us to trading, liability management, and pricing risk.
Our fixed-odds betting products involve betting where winnings are paid on the basis of the stake placed and the odds quoted. Odds are determined with the objective of providing an average return to us over a large number of events. However, there can be significant variation in gross win percentage event-by-event and day-by-day. We have systems and controls that seek to reduce the risk of daily losses occurring on a gross-win basis, but there can be no assurance that these will be effective in reducing our exposure, and consequently our exposure to this risk in the future. As a result, in the short term, there is less certainty of generating a positive gross win, and we may experience (and we have from time to time experienced) significant losses with respect to individual events or betting outcomes, in particular if large individual bets are placed on an event or betting outcome or series of events or betting outcomes. Odds compilers and risk managers are capable of human error, thus even allowing for the fact that a number of betting products are subject to capped pay-outs, significant volatility can occur. In addition, it is possible that there may be such a high volume of trading during any particular period that even automated systems would be unable to address and eradicate all risks. Any significant losses on a gross-win basis could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, if a jurisdiction where we hold or wish to apply for a license imposes a high turnover tax for betting (as opposed to a gross-win tax), this too would impact profitability, particularly with high value/low margin bets, and likewise have a material adverse effect on our business.
We follow the sports betting industry practice of restricting and managing betting limits at the individual customer level based on individual customer profiles and enterprise risk; however, there is no guarantee that gaming regulatory authorities will allow operators such as us to place limits at the individual customer level.
Similar to a credit card company managing individual risk on the customer level through credit limits, it is customary for sports betting operators to manage customer-betting limits at the individual level to manage enterprise risk levels. We believe this practice is beneficial overall, because if it were not possible, the betting options would be restricted globally and limits available to customers would be much lower to insulate overall risk due to the existence of a very small segment of highly sophisticated syndicates and algorithmic bettors, or bettors looking to take advantage of site errors and omissions. We believe the majority of operators balance taking reasonable action from all customers against the risk of individual customers significantly harming the business viability. We cannot guarantee that all jurisdictions will allow us to execute limits at the individual customer level, or at our sole discretion, which may in turn impact our ability to manage sports betting risk.
We extend credit to a portion of our customers who wager at our retail properties, and we may not be able to collect gaming receivables from our credit customers.
We conduct our gaming activities on a credit and cash basis at many of our properties, in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Any such credit we extend is unsecured. Table games players typically are extended more credit than slot players, and high-stakes players typically are extended more credit than customers who tend to wager lower amounts. High-end gaming is more volatile than other forms of gaming, and variances in win-loss results attributable to high-end gaming may have a significant positive or negative impact on cash flow and earnings in a particular period. We extend credit to those customers whose level of play and financial resources warrant, in the opinion of management, an extension of credit. These large receivables could have a significant impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations if deemed uncollectible. Gaming debts evidenced by a credit instrument, including what is commonly referred to as a “marker,” and judgments on gaming debts are enforceable under the current laws of the jurisdictions in which we allow play on a credit basis, and judgments on gaming debts in such jurisdictions are enforceable in all U.S. states under the Full Faith and Credit Clause of the U.S. Constitution; however, other jurisdictions may determine that enforcement of gaming debts is against public policy. Although courts of some foreign nations will enforce gaming debts directly and the assets in the U.S. of foreign debtors may be
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reached to satisfy a judgment, judgments on gaming debts from U.S. courts are not binding on the courts of many foreign nations.
The success, including win or hold rates, of existing or future retail, sports betting, and iCasino products depends on a variety of factors and is not completely controlled by us.
The retail and online gaming industries are characterized by an element of chance. Accordingly, we employ theoretical win rates to estimate what a certain type of gaming device, table game, sports bet or iCasino game (“Gaming Offerings”), on average, will win or lose in the long run. Net win is impacted by variations in the hold percentage (the ratio of net win to total amount wagered), or actual outcome, in Gaming Offerings. We use the hold percentage as an indicator of the performance of the Gaming Offering against its expected outcome. Although each Gaming Offering generally performs within a defined statistical range of outcomes, actual outcomes may vary for any given period. In addition to the element of chance, win rates (hold percentages) may also (depending on the game involved) be affected by the spread of limits and factors that are beyond our control, such as a user’s skill, experience, and behavior, the mix of games played, the financial resources of users, the volume of bets placed and the amount of time spent playing. As a result of the variability in these factors, the actual win rates on our Gaming Offerings may differ from the theoretical win rates we have estimated and could result in the user’s winnings exceeding those anticipated. For example, in the past, certain VIP patrons have placed bets that resulted in large payouts and negatively impacted our results of operations. Similar events caused by the variability of win rates (hold rates) have the potential to negatively impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
Our success also depends in part on our ability to anticipate and satisfy user preferences in a timely manner. As we operate in a dynamic environment characterized by rapidly changing industry and legal standards, our products will be subject to changing consumer preferences that cannot be predicted with certainty. We will need to continually introduce new offerings and identify future product offerings that complement our existing technology, respond to our users’ needs and improve and enhance our existing technology to maintain or increase our user engagement and growth of our business. We may not be able to compete effectively unless our product selection keeps up with trends in the retail and digital sports entertainment, sports betting, and gaming industries in which we compete, or trends in new gaming products.
We face a number of challenges prior to opening new or upgraded gaming properties, launching iCasinos and sports betting in new jurisdictions, or launching new iCasino or sports betting offerings.

No assurance can be given that, when we endeavor to open new or upgraded retail gaming properties, expand sports betting or iCasinos in new jurisdictions, or launch new sports betting or iCasino offerings, the expected timetables for opening or expanding such properties or offerings will be met in light of the uncertainties inherent in the development of the regulatory framework, construction and/or development, the licensing process, legislative action and litigation. In addition, as we seek to launch sports betting or iCasino offerings in additional jurisdictions, we will need to hire additional qualified employees, such as software engineers, IT professionals, product managers and compliance personnel. Given the significant competition in this area for qualified candidates, we may be unable to hire qualified candidates. Delays in opening new or upgraded properties or offerings, or expanding offerings in new jurisdictions, could lead to increased costs and delays in receiving anticipated revenues with respect to such properties or offerings and could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
Risks Related to our Information Systems and Technology
If our third-party mobile application distribution platforms or service providers do not perform adequately or terminate their relationships with us, our costs may increase.
Our success depends in part on our relationships with other third-party service providers. We rely upon third-party distribution platforms, including the Apple App Store and Google Play store, for distribution of our entertainment, media, and mobile sports betting and iCasino applications. As such, the promotion, distribution, and operation of our mobile applications are subject to the respective distribution platforms’ standard terms and policies, which are very broad and subject to frequent changes and interpretation. If Apple or Google choose to de-list any of our mobile applications due to what they perceive to be objectionable content or violation of Apple or Google rules or codes of conduct, it could have a material negative impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Further, the success of our Interactive segment depends in part on our relationships with other third-party service providers for hosting, content delivery, load balancing and protection against distributed denial-of-service attacks. If those providers do not perform adequately or terminate their relationship with us, our users may experience issues or interruptions with their experiences. We also rely on other software and services supplied by third parties, such as communications and internal software, and our business may be adversely affected to the extent such software and services do not meet our expectations,
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contain errors or vulnerabilities, are compromised or experience outages. Further, any negative publicity related to any of our third-party partners could adversely affect our reputation and brand.
We incorporate technology from third parties throughout our business. We cannot be certain that our licensors are not infringing the intellectual property rights of others or that the suppliers and licensors have sufficient rights to the technology in all jurisdictions in which we may operate. Some of our license agreements may be terminated by our licensors for convenience. If we are unable to obtain or maintain rights to any of this technology because of intellectual property infringement claims brought by third parties against our suppliers and licensors or against us, or if we are unable to continue to obtain the technology or enter into new agreements on commercially reasonable terms, our ability to develop our offerings could be severely limited and our business could be harmed.
Additionally, if we are unable to obtain necessary technology from third parties, we may be forced to acquire or develop alternate technology, which may require significant time and effort and may be of lower quality or performance standards. This would limit and delay our ability to provide new or competitive offerings and increase our costs. If alternate technology cannot be obtained or developed, we may not be able to offer certain functionality as part of our offerings, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
If internet and other technology-based service providers experience service interruptions, our ability to conduct our business may be impaired.
As described in more detail below, a substantial portion of our technological and network infrastructure is provided by third parties, including internet service providers and other technology-based service providers. We require technology-based service providers to implement cyber-attack-resilient systems and processes. However, if internet service providers experience service interruptions, because of cyber-attacks, or due to an event causing an unusually high volume of internet use (such as a pandemic or public health emergency), communications over the internet may be interrupted and impair our ability to conduct our business. Internet service providers and other technology-based service providers may in the future roll out upgraded or new mobile or other telecommunications services, such as 5G or 6G services, which may not be successful and thus may impact the ability of our users to access our offerings in a timely fashion or at all. In addition, our ability to process transactions, both at our retail properties and online, depends on point-of-sale, payment processing, payment network and database systems. To prepare for system problems, we continuously seek to strengthen and enhance our current facilities and the capabilities of our system infrastructure and support. Nevertheless, there can be no assurance that these systems will continue to be able to meet the demand placed on us by our customers and the continued growth of the internet, the overall sports betting, and iCasino industry. Any difficulties these providers face, including the potential of certain network traffic receiving priority over other traffic (i.e., lack of net neutrality), may adversely affect our business, and we exercise little control over these providers, which increases our vulnerability to problems with the services they provide. Any system failure as a result of reliance on third parties, such as hosting, network, software or hardware failure, or as a result of cyber-attacks, could cause a loss of our users’ property or personal information, or a delay or interruption in our online services and products and e-commerce services, including our ability to handle existing or increased traffic. Any such failure could result in a loss of anticipated revenue, interruptions to our offerings, cause us to incur significant legal, remediation and notification costs, degrade the customer experience, and cause users to lose confidence in our offerings, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
We rely on third party cloud infrastructure services to deliver our offerings to users.
We currently host our online sports betting and iCasino offerings and support our operations using third-party providers of cloud infrastructure services. We do not, and will not, have control over the operations of the facilities or infrastructure of the third-party service providers that we use. Such third party’s facilities are vulnerable to damage or interruption from natural disasters, cybersecurity attacks, terrorist attacks, power outages and similar events or acts of misconduct. Our technology’s continuing and uninterrupted performance will be critical to our success and is dependent on the use of third-party cloud infrastructure services. We have experienced, and we expect that in the future we will experience interruptions, delays, and outages in service and availability from these third-party service providers from time to time due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, website hosting disruptions and capacity constraints. In addition, any changes in these third parties’ service levels may adversely affect our ability to meet the requirements of our users. Since our technology’s continuing and uninterrupted performance is critical to our success, sustained or repeated system failures would reduce the attractiveness of our offerings. It may become increasingly difficult to maintain and improve our performance, especially during peak usage times, as we expand and the usage of our offerings increases.
Any of the above circumstances or events may harm our reputation and brand, reduce the availability or usage of our technology, lead to a significant loss of revenue, increase our costs and impair our ability to attract new users, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
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Our information technology and other systems are subject to cybersecurity risk, including misappropriation of employee information, customer information, or other breaches of information security.
We increasingly rely on information technology and other systems (particularly as our Interactive segment grows), including our own systems and those of service providers and third parties, to manage our business and employee data and maintain and transmit customers’ personal and financial information, payment settlements, payment funds transmissions, mailing lists, and reservations information. Our collection of such data is subject to extensive regulation by private groups, such as the payment card industry, as well as governmental authorities, including gaming regulatory authorities. Privacy regulations continue to evolve, and we have taken, and will continue to take, steps to comply by implementing processes designed to safeguard the confidential and personal information of our business, employees, and customers. In addition, our security measures are reviewed and evaluated regularly. However, our information and processes and those of our service providers and other third parties, including our contractors and contractors of our service providers and vendors, are subject to the ever-changing threat of compromised security, in the form of a risk of potential breach, system failure, computer virus, or unauthorized or fraudulent use by customers, company employees, company contractors and other third parties including employees and contractors of third-party vendors. In recognition of these heightened risks, our Board of Directors and Audit Committee receive regular presentations and reports on material cybersecurity risks which might impact us. See Item 1C. Cybersecurity of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional detail regarding the programs, policies, and procedures we have in place to identify, prevent and detect any breaches, viruses, or other forms of unauthorized access. The steps we take to deter and mitigate the risks of attacks may not be successful, and any resulting compromise or loss of data or systems could adversely impact operations or regulatory compliance and could result in remedial expenses, fines, litigation, disclosures, and loss of reputation, potentially impacting our financial results. Further, as cyber-attacks continue to evolve, we may incur significant costs in our attempts to modify or enhance our protective measures or investigate or remediate any actual or perceived vulnerability. Increased instances of cyber-attacks may also have a negative reputational impact on us and our properties that may result in a loss of customer confidence and, as a result, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
We have experienced attempts by unauthorized third parties to damage, exploit, disrupt or gain access to our networks, our products and services, consumer information, and our supporting infrastructure. While to date none of these incidents has had a material impact on us, we expect to continue to be targeted in the future. Any failure to prevent or mitigate security breaches or cyber risk could result in interruptions to the services we provide, degrade the user experience, and cause our users to lose confidence in our products and services. The unauthorized access, acquisition or disclosure of consumer information could compel us to comply with disparate breach notification laws and otherwise subject us to proceedings by governmental entities, including gaming regulatory authorities, or others, and substantial legal and financial liability. This could harm our business and reputation, disrupt our relationships with partners and diminish our competitive position.
Legal and Regulatory Risk Factors
We are or may become involved in legal proceedings, and no assurance can be provided as to the outcome of these matters.
From time to time, we are defendants in various lawsuits relating to matters incidental to our business. The nature of our business subjects us to the risk of lawsuits filed by customers, past and present employees, competitors, business partners, and others in the ordinary course of business (particularly in the case of class actions). As with all litigation, no assurance can be provided as to the outcome of these matters and, in general, litigation can be expensive and time consuming. We may not be successful in these lawsuits, and, especially with increasing class action claims in our industry, litigation could result in costs, settlements, or damages that could significantly impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
We face extensive regulation from gaming regulatory authorities.
As owners and managers of retail casino gaming, iCasino, sports betting, video lottery, VGTs, and pari-mutuel wagering operations, we are subject to extensive state, provincial and local regulation. These gaming regulatory authorities have broad discretion, and may, for any reason set forth in the applicable legislation, rules and regulations, limit, condition, suspend, fail to renew or revoke a license or registration to conduct gaming operations or prevent us from owning the securities of any of our gaming subsidiaries or prevent another person from owning an equity interest in us. Gaming regulatory authorities have input into our operations, for instance, our hours of operation, the location or relocation of any of our properties, numbers and types of slot machines and table games, and the types of sports events or casino games we may offer as part of our sports betting and iCasino operations. Gaming regulatory authorities may not have extensive experience in the digital media industry, which may present unique challenges in regulating our business. Regulators may also levy substantial fines or penalties against us or our subsidiaries for violations of gaming laws or regulations, or against the people involved in violating such gaming laws or
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regulations, and/or seize our assets or the assets of our subsidiaries. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
Regulations governing the conduct of gaming activities and the obligations of gaming companies in any jurisdiction in which we have or in the future may have gaming operations are subject to change and could impose additional operating, financial, competitive or other burdens on the way we conduct our business. In particular, certain areas of law governing new gaming activities, such as the federal, state, and provincial laws applicable to retail casino gaming, online casinos, and sports betting, are new or developing in light of emerging technologies. No assurance can be provided that government agencies will interpret or enforce new or developing areas of law consistently, predictably, or favorably. Moreover, legislation or regulation to prohibit, limit, or add burdens to increase taxes on our business may be introduced in the future in jurisdictions where gaming has been legalized. In addition, from time to time, legislators and special interest groups have proposed legislation that would expand, restrict, or prevent gaming operations or which may otherwise adversely impact our operations in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Any expansion of gaming or restriction on or prohibition of our gaming operations or enactment of other adverse regulatory changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.
Certain public and private issuances of securities and other transactions that we are party to also require the approval of some gaming regulatory authorities. We have demonstrated suitability to obtain and have obtained all governmental licenses, registrations, permits, and approvals necessary for our existing gaming and pari-mutuel properties and sports betting and iCasino operations. There can be no assurance that we will be able to retain and renew those existing licenses or demonstrate suitability to obtain any new licenses, registrations, permits, or approvals. In addition, the loss of a license, registration, permit or approval in one jurisdiction could trigger the loss of a license, registration, permit or approval or affect our eligibility for a license, registration, permit or approval in another jurisdiction. As we expand our gaming operations in our existing jurisdictions or to new jurisdictions, we may have to meet additional suitability requirements and obtain additional licenses, registrations, permits and approvals from gaming regulatory authorities in these jurisdictions. The approval process can be time-consuming and costly, and we cannot be sure that we will be successful. Furthermore, this risk is particularly pertinent to our sports betting and iCasino initiatives because regulations in this area are not as fully developed or established.
Gaming regulatory authorities generally can require that any record holder or beneficial owner of our securities file an application for a license or similar finding of suitability. If a gaming regulatory authority requires a record holder or beneficial owner of our securities to file a suitability application, the owner must generally apply for a finding of suitability within 30 days or at an earlier time prescribed by the gaming regulatory authority. The gaming regulatory authority also has the power to investigate such an owner’s suitability and the owner must pay all costs of the investigation. If the owner is found unsuitable or fails to apply when required to do so, then the owner may be required by law to dispose of our securities.
Our directors, officers, key employees, joint venture partners, and vendors must also meet approval standards of certain gaming regulatory authorities. If gaming regulatory authorities were to find a person occupying any such position unsuitable, we may be required to sever our relationship with that person, joint venture partner or vendor. Gaming regulatory authorities may also conduct investigations into the conduct or associations of our directors, officers, key employees, joint venture partners or vendors to ensure compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and standards.
We are subject to certain federal, state, provincial and other regulations.
We are subject to certain federal, state, provincial, and local laws, regulations and ordinances that apply to businesses generally. The Bank Secrecy Act, enforced by the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (“FinCEN”) of the U.S. Treasury Department, requires us to report currency transactions in excess of $10,000 occurring within a gaming day, including identification of the guest by name and social security number, to the IRS. This regulation also requires us to report certain suspicious activity, including any transaction that exceeds $5,000 that we know, suspect or have reason to believe involves funds from illegal activity or is designed to evade federal regulations or reporting requirements and to verify sources of funds, in response to which we have implemented Know Your Customer processes. Periodic audits by the IRS and our internal audit department assess compliance with the Bank Secrecy Act, and substantial penalties can be imposed against us if we fail to comply with this regulation. In recent years the U.S. Treasury Department has increased its focus on Bank Secrecy Act compliance throughout the gaming industry, and public comments by FinCEN suggest that casinos should obtain information on each customer’s sources of income. This could impact our ability to attract and retain casino guests. Further, since we deal with significant amounts of cash in our operations, we are subject to various reporting and anti-money laundering regulations. Any violation of anti-money laundering laws or regulations, or any accusations of money laundering or regulatory investigations into possible money laundering activities, by any of our properties, online gaming operations, employees, partners, affiliates, or customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
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The riverboats on which we operate must also comply with certain federal and state laws and regulations with respect to boat design, on-board facilities, equipment, personnel, and safety. In addition, we are required to have third parties periodically inspect and certify all of our casino barges for stability and single compartment flooding integrity. The casino barges on which we operate also must meet local fire safety standards. We would incur additional costs if any of the gaming facilities on which we operate were not in compliance with one or more of these regulations.
We are also subject to a variety of other federal, state, and local laws and regulations, including those relating to zoning, construction, land use, employment, marketing, and advertising and the production, sale, and service of alcoholic beverages. If we are not in compliance with these laws and regulations or we are subject to a substantial penalty, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
State and local smoking restrictions have and may continue to negatively affect our business.
Legislation in various forms to ban or substantially curtail indoor tobacco smoking in public places has been enacted or introduced in many states and local jurisdictions, including several of the jurisdictions in which we operate. We believe the smoking restrictions have significantly impacted business volumes. If additional smoking restrictions are enacted within jurisdictions where we operate or seek to do business, our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be adversely affected.
Changes to consumer privacy laws could adversely affect our ability to market our products effectively and may require us to change our business practices or expend significant amounts on compliance with such laws.
We rely on a variety of direct marketing techniques, including email marketing, online advertising, and postal mailings in our business. Any further restrictions in laws such as the CAN-SPAM Act, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, the Do-Not-Call-Implementation Act, applicable Federal Communications Commission telemarketing rules (including the declaratory ruling affirming the blocking of unwanted robocalls), the FTC Privacy Rule, Safeguards Rule, Consumer Report Information Disposal Rule, Telemarketing Sales Rule, Canada’s Anti-Spam Law and various U.S. state and Canadian provincial laws, or new federal, state or provincial laws on marketing and solicitation or international privacy, e-privacy, and anti-spam laws that govern these activities could adversely affect the continuing effectiveness of email, online advertising, and postal mailing techniques and could force further changes in our marketing strategy. If this occurs, we may not be able to develop adequate alternative marketing strategies, which could impact the amount and timing of our sales of certain products.
Further, certain of our products and services depend on the ability to use non-public personal, financial transaction, and or other information relating to patrons, which we may collect and or obtain from travel service providers or other companies with whom we have substantial relationships. To the extent that we collect, control, or process such information, federal, state, provincial and foreign privacy laws and regulations, including without limitation the California Consumer Privacy Act (including the amended California Privacy Rights Act), the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation, Ontario, Canada’s Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, and Canada’s Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, require us to make disclosures regarding our privacy and information sharing practices, safeguard and protect the privacy of such information, and, in some cases, provide patrons the opportunity to “opt out” of the use of their information for certain purposes, any of which could limit our ability to leverage existing and future databases of information which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
We must comply with federal, state, provincial, and foreign requirements regarding notice and consent to obtain, use, share, transmit and store such information, including providing the opportunity and mechanisms to “opt out” from certain uses in some jurisdictions. Furthermore, we may face conflicting obligations arising from the potential concurrent application of laws of multiple jurisdictions. In the event that we are not able to reconcile such obligations, we may be required to change business practices or face liability or sanction.
To the extent that we fail to comply with applicable consumer protection and data privacy laws, we may become subject to actions by regulatory authorities and/or individuals (including private right of action in some jurisdictions), which may result in the payment of fines or the imposition of other monetary or non-monetary penalties.
We are subject to environmental laws and potential exposure to environmental liabilities.
We are subject to various federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations that govern our operations, including emissions and discharges into the environment, and the handling and disposal of hazardous and non-hazardous substances and wastes. Failure to comply with such laws and regulations could result in costs for corrective action, penalties or the imposition of other liabilities or restrictions. From time to time, we have incurred and are incurring costs and obligations for correcting environmental noncompliance matters. The extent of such potential conditions cannot be determined definitively. To date, none
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of these matters have had a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows; however, there can be no assurance that such matters will not have such an effect in the future.
We also are subject to laws and regulations that impose liability and clean-up responsibility for releases of other hazardous substances into the environment. Under certain of these laws and regulations, a current or previous owner or operator of the property may be liable for the costs of remediating contaminated soil or groundwater on or from its property, without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or caused, the contamination, as well as incur liability to third parties impacted by such contamination. The presence of contamination, or failure to remediate it properly, may adversely affect our ability to use, sell or rent property. Under our contractual arrangements under the Triple Net Leases, we will generally be responsible for both past and future environmental liabilities associated with our gaming operations, notwithstanding ownership of the underlying real property having been transferred. Furthermore, we are aware that there is or may have been soil or groundwater or other contamination at certain of our properties resulting from current or former operations. These environmental conditions may require remediation in isolated areas. The extent of such potential conditions cannot be determined definitely, and may result in additional expense in the event that additional or currently unknown conditions are detected.
We may experience material increases to our taxes or the adoption of new taxes or the authorization of new or increased forms of gaming.
We believe that the prospect of generating incremental revenue is one of the primary reasons that jurisdictions permit or expand legalized gaming. As a result, gaming companies are typically subject to revenue-based taxes and fees in addition to normal federal, state, provincial and local income taxes, and such taxes and fees are subject to increase at any time. We pay substantial taxes and fees with respect to our operations, and changes to taxes and fees in our existing jurisdictions could have a material impact on our profitability. From time-to-time, federal, state, provincial, and local legislators and officials have proposed changes in tax laws, or in the administration of such laws, affecting the gaming industry. Worsening economic conditions could intensify the efforts of state, provincial, and local governments to raise revenues through increases in gaming taxes, property taxes and/or by authorizing additional gaming properties each subject to payment of a new license fee. It is not possible to determine with certainty the likelihood of changes in such laws or in the administration of such laws. Such changes, if adopted, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
Available Information
We maintain a website at www.pennentertainment.com that includes more information about us. The contents of our website are not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our electronic filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) (including all Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to these reports), including the exhibits, are available free of charge through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with, or furnish them to, the SEC. Our filings are also available through a database maintained by the SEC at www.sec.gov.
ITEM 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 1C.CYBERSECURITY
Cybersecurity represents a critical component of the Company’s overall approach to risk management. The Company’s cybersecurity policies, standards, and practices are fully integrated into the Company’s enterprise risk management (“ERM”) approach, and cybersecurity risks are among the core enterprise risks that are subject to oversight by the Company’s Board of Directors (the “Board”). The Company’s cybersecurity policies, standards, and practices follow recognized frameworks established by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the International Organization for Standardization, and other applicable industry standards. The Company generally approaches cybersecurity threats through a cross-functional, multilayered approach, with the specific goals of: (i) identifying, preventing, and mitigating cybersecurity threats to the Company; (ii) preserving the confidentiality, security, and availability of the information that we collect and store to use in our business; (iii) protecting the Company’s intellectual property; (iv) maintaining the confidence of our customers, clients, and business partners; and (v) providing appropriate public disclosure of cybersecurity risks, and incidents when required.
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Risk Management and Strategy
Consistent with overall ERM policies and practices, the Company’s cybersecurity program focuses on the following areas:
Vigilance: The Company maintains a global presence, with cybersecurity threat operations functioning 24/7 with the specific goal of identifying, preventing, and mitigating cybersecurity threats and responding to cybersecurity incidents in accordance with our established incident response and recovery plans.
Systems Safeguards: The Company deploys systems safeguards that are designed to protect the Company’s information systems from cybersecurity threats, including firewalls, intrusion prevention and detection systems, anti-malware functionality and access controls, which are evaluated and improved through ongoing vulnerability assessments and cybersecurity threat intelligence.
Collaboration: The Company utilizes collaboration mechanisms established with public and private entities, including intelligence and enforcement agencies, industry groups and third-party service providers, to identify, assess and respond to cybersecurity risks.
Third-Party Risk Management: The Company maintains a comprehensive, risk-based approach to identifying and overseeing cybersecurity risks presented by third parties, including vendors, service providers, and other external users of the Company’s systems, as well as the systems of third parties that could adversely impact our business in the event of a cybersecurity incident affecting those third-party systems.
Training: The Company provides training for personnel regarding cybersecurity threats, which reinforces the Company’s information security policies, standards, and practices. This training includes certain periodic and mandatory training for Company personnel regarding cybersecurity threats as well as the handling and processing of payment cards. All periodic and mandatory training is scaled to reflect the roles, responsibilities and information systems access of applicable personnel.
Incident Response and Recovery Planning: The Company has established and maintains comprehensive incident response and recovery plans that address the Company’s response to a cybersecurity incident and the recovery from a cybersecurity incident, and such plans are tested and evaluated on a regular basis.
Communication, Coordination and Disclosure: The Company utilizes a cross-functional approach to address the risk from cybersecurity threats, involving management personnel from the Company’s technology, operations, legal, accounting, risk management, internal audit, and other key business functions, as well as the members of the Board and the Audit Committee of the Board in an ongoing dialogue regarding cybersecurity threats and incidents, while also implementing controls and procedures for the escalation of cybersecurity incidents pursuant to established thresholds so that decisions regarding the disclosure and reporting of such incidents can be made by management in a timely manner.
Governance: The Board’s oversight of cybersecurity risk management is supported by the Audit Committee, which regularly interacts with the Company’s ERM function, the Company’s Chief Information Officer, other members of management, and relevant management committees and councils, including the Company’s Cyber Security Committee.
A key part of the Company’s strategy for managing risks from cybersecurity threats is the ongoing assessment and testing of the Company’s processes and practices through auditing, assessments, tabletop exercises, threat modeling, vulnerability testing, and other exercises focused on evaluating the effectiveness of our cybersecurity measures. The Company engages third parties to perform assessments on our cybersecurity measures, including information security maturity assessments, audits, and independent reviews of our information security control environment and operating effectiveness. The results of such assessments, audits, and reviews are reported to the Company’s Cyber Security Committee, and when appropriate, the Audit Committee, and the Board, and the Company adjusts its cybersecurity policies, standards, processes, and practices at least annually, or more frequently as necessary, based on the information provided by the assessments, audits, and reviews.
Governance
The Company’s Cyber Security Committee, in coordination with the Board and Audit Committee, oversees the management of risks from cybersecurity threats, including the policies, standards, processes, and practices that the Company’s Chief Information Officer and its Vice President of Information Security, in coordination with the Company’s Cyber Security Committee, develop and implement to address risks from cybersecurity threats. The Board and the Audit Committee each receive regular presentations and reports on cybersecurity risks, which address a wide range of topics including, for example, recent developments, evolving standards, vulnerability assessments, third-party and independent reviews, the threat environment, technological trends, and information security considerations arising with respect to the Company’s peers and third parties. The Board and the Audit Committee are also informed of any cybersecurity incident that meets established reporting thresholds, as well as ongoing updates regarding such incident until it has been addressed. At least once each quarter,
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the Board discusses the Company’s approach to cybersecurity risk management with the Company’s Chief Information Officer, and at least annually, or more frequently as necessary, the Company’s Chief Information Officer meets with the Audit Committee to discuss cybersecurity risk management.
The Company’s Chief Information Officer and its Vice President of Information Security are members of the Company’s management that are principally responsible for overseeing the Company’s cybersecurity risk management program, in partnership with other business leaders across the Company. The Company’s Chief Information Officer serves as Chair of the Company’s Cyber Security Committee and works in coordination with the other members of the Cyber Security Committee, which includes our Vice President of Information Security, EVP, Operations, EVP, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Compliance Officer, and VP, Legal – Intellectual Property and Privacy, who also serves as the Company’s Privacy Compliance Officer and Data Protection Officer.
The Company’s Chief Information Officer has served in various roles in information technology and information security for over 27 years, including serving in technology leadership roles such as Chief Information Officer, Senior Director of Commercial Technologies, Senior Director of Corporate Systems, Senior Director of Business Intelligence and Analytics, and Quality Assurance leadership roles for large public companies. The Company’s Chief Information Officer was also a Client Director for the Department of Army/Department of Defense for a large public research and advisory services firm and holds a B.A. in Economics from Miami University and an MBA in Information Technology from The University of Maryland.
The Company’s Vice President of Information Security has served in various roles in information technology and information security for over 25 years, including serving as Vice President of Information Security and Product Security Officer for large public companies. In addition, the Company’s Vice President of Information Security has previously held roles including Security Risk Assessor, Security Policy Development, and Security Architect. The Company’s Vice President of Information Security has also contributed to the development and review of various security-related publications including the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the International Organization for Standardization, and the Cloud Security Alliance, has served in numerous roles on various cybersecurity-related advisory boards, and holds a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Fairleigh Dickinson University.
The Company’s Chief Information Officer and Vice President of Information Security, in coordination with the Company’s Cyber Security Committee, work collaboratively across the Company to implement a program designed to protect the Company’s information systems from cybersecurity threats and to promptly respond to any cybersecurity incidents in accordance with the Company’s Security Incident Response Plan. To facilitate the success of this program, multidisciplinary teams throughout the Company are deployed to address cybersecurity threats and to respond to cybersecurity incidents in accordance with the Company’s incident response and recovery plans. Through the ongoing communications from these teams, the Chief Information Officer, the Vice President of Information Security, and the Company’s Cyber Security Committee monitor the prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents in real time, and report such incidents to the Audit Committee when appropriate.
We do not currently believe cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous cybersecurity incidents, have materially affected or are reasonably likely to affect the Company, including its business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition; however, we could experience a cybersecurity incident that materially affects us in the future. See Item 1A. Risk Factors, “Risks Related to our Information Systems and Technology” for additional discussion of cybersecurity risks to our business.
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ITEM 2.PROPERTIES
As detailed in Item 1. Business, “Operating Properties,” the majority of our facilities are subject to leases of the underlying real estate assets, which, among other things, includes the land underlying the facility and the buildings used in the operations of the casino and the hotel, if applicable. The following describes the principal real estate associated with our properties by reportable segment (all area metrics are approximate):
LocationDescription of Owned Real PropertyAcreage of LandDescription of Leased Real PropertyAcreage of Land
Northeast segment
Ameristar East ChicagoEast Chicago, INLand, buildings, boat22
Hollywood Casino BangorBangor, MELand, racetrack, buildings44
Hollywood Casino at Charles Town RacesCharles Town, WVLand, racetrack, buildings299
Hollywood Casino ColumbusColumbus, OHLand, buildings116
Hollywood Casino at GreektownDetroit, MILand, buildings8
Hollywood Casino LawrenceburgLawrenceburg, INLand, buildings3Land, buildings, boat105
Hollywood Casino MorgantownMorgantown, PABuildingLand36
Hollywood Casino at PENN National Race CourseGrantville, PA
Land (1), racetrack, buildings
574
Hollywood Casino PerryvillePerryville, MDLand, buildings36
Hollywood Casino at The MeadowsWashington, PALand, racetrack, buildings156
Hollywood Casino ToledoToledo, OHLand, buildings42
Hollywood Casino YorkYork, PABuilding
Hollywood Gaming at Dayton RacewayDayton, OHLand, racetrack, buildings120
Hollywood Gaming at Mahoning Valley Race CourseYoungstown, OHLand, racetrack, buildings193
Plainridge Park CasinoPlainville, MALand, racetrack, buildings88
South segment
1st Jackpot Casino
Tunica, MS
Land (2), buildings, boat
136
Ameristar VicksburgVicksburg, MSLand, buildings, boat74
Boomtown BiloxiBiloxi, MS
Land (3), buildings, boat
26
Boomtown Bossier CityBossier City, LALand, buildings, boat22
Boomtown New OrleansNew Orleans, LALand, buildings, boat54
Hollywood Casino Gulf CoastBay St. Louis, MSLand, buildings579
Hollywood Casino TunicaTunica, MSLand, buildings, boat70
L’Auberge Baton RougeBaton Rouge, LAUndeveloped land417Land, buildings, barge99
L’Auberge Lake CharlesLake Charles, LAUndeveloped land54Land, buildings, barge235
Margaritaville Resort CasinoBossier City, LALand, buildings, barge34
West segment
Ameristar Black HawkBlack Hawk, COLand, buildings104
Cactus Petes and HorseshuJackpot, NVLand, buildings80
M ResortHenderson, NVLand, buildings84
Zia Park CasinoHobbs, NMLand, racetrack, buildings317
Midwest segment
Ameristar Council BluffsCouncil Bluffs, IALand, buildings, boat59
Argosy Casino AltonAlton, ILBoatLand, buildings4
Argosy Casino RiversideRiverside, MO
Land (4), buildings, barge
45
Hollywood Casino AuroraAurora, ILLand, buildings, barge2
Hollywood Casino JolietJoliet, ILLand, buildings, barge276
Hollywood Casino at Kansas SpeedwayKansas City, KSLand, buildings101
Hollywood Casino St. LouisMaryland Heights, MOLand, buildings, barge221
River City CasinoSt. Louis, MO
Land (5), buildings, barge
83
Other
Freehold RacewayFreehold, NJLand, racetrack, buildings51
Cherry Hill, NJUndeveloped land10
Retama Park Racetrack (6)
Selma, TXUndeveloped land
Sam Houston Race ParkHouston, TXLand, racetrack, buildings168
Sanford-Orlando Kennel Club (7)
Longwood, FLLand, building2
Valley Race ParkHarlingen, TXLand, racetrack, buildings71
8774,443
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(1)Of which, 393 acres is undeveloped land surrounding Hollywood Casino at PENN National Race Course.
(2)Of which, 53 acres is wetlands.
(3)Of which, 3 acres is subject to the PENN Master Lease.
(4)Of which, 38 acres is subject to the PENN Master Lease.
(5)Of which, 24 acres is land surrounding River City Casino reserved for community and recreational facilities.
(6)The land, racetrack, and buildings used in the operations of Retama Park Racetrack are owned by the City of Selma, Texas.
(7)Simulcast racing operations.

We lease office and warehouse space in various locations outside of our operating properties, including 93,117 square feet of office space in Las Vegas, Nevada of which 86,542 is currently subleased and 6,575 is office space; 41,016 square feet of executive office and warehouse space in Wyomissing, Pennsylvania; 81,929 square feet of office space in Toronto, Ontario; 32,212 square feet of office space in Cherry Hill, New Jersey; 29,609 square feet of office space in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 22,049 square feet of office space in Hoboken, New Jersey; 3,150 square feet of office space in Greenfield, Massachusetts; 6,847 square feet of office space in San Francisco, California which the entirety of is currently subleased; 4,016 square feet of office space in Gibraltar, and 10,000 square feet of warehouse space in Aurora, Illinois.

Our interests in the owned real property listed above (with the exception of the land, buildings, and racetracks, used in the operations of Hollywood Casino at Kansas Speedway, Freehold Raceway, Retama Park Racetrack, and Hollywood Casino Morgantown, as well as the interests in the leased real property listed above) collateralize our obligations under our Amended Credit Facilities (as defined in the “Liquidity and Capital Resources” section of “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” below).

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The Company is subject to various legal and administrative proceedings relating to personal injuries, employment matters, commercial transactions, development agreements and other matters arising in the ordinary course of business. Although the Company maintains what it believes to be adequate insurance coverage to mitigate the risk of loss pertaining to covered matters, legal and administrative proceedings can be costly, time-consuming and unpredictable. The Company does not believe that the final outcome of these matters will have a material adverse effect on its results of operations, financial position or cash flows.

ITEM 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

PART II

ITEM 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Ticker Symbol and Holders of Record
Our common stock is quoted on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “PENN.” As of February 19, 2024, there were 1,525 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividends
Since our initial public offering of common stock in May 1994, we have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We intend to retain all of our earnings to finance the development of our business, and thus, do not anticipate paying cash dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. Payment of any cash dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon, among other things, our future earnings, operations and capital requirements, our general financial condition and general business conditions. In addition, our Amended Credit Facilities and senior unsecured notes limit, among other things, our ability to pay dividends. Future financing arrangements may also prohibit the payment of dividends under certain conditions.
Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities
We have not sold any equity securities during the year ended December 31, 2023 that were not previously disclosed in a quarterly report on Form 10-Q or a current report on Form 8-K that was filed during the year.
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On February 17, 2023, the Company issued 2,442,809 shares of our common stock in conjunction with the Barstool Acquisition (as defined and described in Note 7, “Investments in and Advances to Unconsolidated Affiliates” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements). The issuances were exempt from registration pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act.
Purchases of Equity Securities
On February 1, 2022, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $750.0 million of our common stock from time to time on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions (the “February 2022 Authorization”). The repurchase authorization expires on January 31, 2025. On December 6, 2022, our Board of Directors authorized an additional $750.0 million program for such repurchases, which expires on December 31, 2025 (the “December 2022 Authorization”). The Company utilized the capacity under the February 2022 Authorization prior to effecting any repurchases under the December 2022 Authorization. Stock repurchases, if any, will be funded using our available liquidity. The timing and amount of stock repurchases, if any, will depend on a variety of factors, including but not limited to, market conditions and corporate and regulatory considerations. As of December 31, 2023, we have repurchased a total of 5,438,221 shares of our common stock at an average price of $27.54.
We did not repurchase any shares of our common stock during the fourth quarter of the year ended December 31, 2023. As of December 31, 2023, the remaining availability under our December 2022 Authorization was $749.5 million.
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Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the cumulative total shareholder return for the Company's Common Stock since December 31, 2018 to the total returns of the S&P 500 Index and the Russell 3000 Casino and Gambling Index. The comparative returns shown in the graph assumes the investment of $100 in the Company’s Common Stock, the S&P 500 Index, and the Russell 3000 Casino and Gambling Index on December 31, 2018.
3284
Period Ending December 31,
Index201820192020202120222023
PENN Entertainment, Inc.$100.00 $135.74 $458.68 $275.36 $157.73 $138.18 
S&P 500$100.00 $131.49 $155.68 $200.37 $164.08 $207.21 
Russell 3000 Casino and Gambling Index$100.00 $144.53 $162.37 $160.01 $119.75 $150.70 
A.Cumulative total return assumes reinvestment of all dividends paid during the measurement period.
B.The Company has not paid any cash dividends on its Common Stock during this period.
C.The index is reweighted daily using the market capitalization on the previous trading day.
D.If the last day of the applicable year is not a trading day, the preceding trading day is used.
E.Historical returns are not indicative of future returns.
ITEM 6.RESERVED
ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and capital resources should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by, our Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto, included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. This management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations includes discussion as of and for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to December 31, 2022. Discussion of our financial condition and results of operations as of and for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to December 31, 2021 can be found in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 23, 2023.

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EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW
Our Business
PENN Entertainment, Inc., together with its subsidiaries (“PENN,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us”), is North America’s leading provider of integrated entertainment, sports content, and casino gaming experiences. As of December 31, 2023, PENN operated 43 properties in 20 states, online sports betting in 18 jurisdictions and iCasino in five jurisdictions, under a portfolio of well-recognized brands including Hollywood Casino®, L’Auberge®, ESPN BET™, and theScore Bet Sportsbook and Casino®. In August 2023, PENN entered into a transformative, exclusive long-term strategic alliance with ESPN, Inc. and ESPN Enterprises, Inc. (together, “ESPN”) relating to online sports betting within the United States. PENN’s ability to leverage the leading sports media brands in the United States (ESPN) and Canada (theScore) will position us to significantly expand our digital footprint and efficiently grow our customer ecosystem. This highly differentiated strategy, which is focused on organic cross-sell opportunities, is reinforced by our market-leading retail casinos, sports media assets, and technology, including a proprietary state-of-the-art, fully integrated digital sports and iCasino betting platform and an in-house iCasino content studio. PENN’s portfolio is further bolstered by our industry-leading PENN PlayTM customer loyalty program, which offers our over 29 million members a unique set of rewards and experiences across business channels.
The majority of the real estate assets (i.e., land and buildings) used in our operations are subject to triple net master leases; the most significant of which are with Gaming and Leisure Properties, Inc. (Nasdaq: GLPI) (“GLPI”), a real estate investment trust (“REIT”), and include the AR PENN Master Lease, 2023 Master Lease, PENN Master Lease (prior to January 1, 2023), and Pinnacle Master Lease (as such terms are defined in Note 12, “Leases” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements and collectively referred to as the “Master Leases”).
Recent Acquisitions, Development Projects and Other
On February 17, 2023, we acquired the remaining 64% of the outstanding shares of Barstool Sports, Inc. (“Barstool”) common stock not already owned by us for a consideration of approximately $405.5 million, which is inclusive of cash and common stock issuance, repayment of Barstool indebtedness of $23.8 million, transaction expenses, and other purchase price adjustments in accordance with GAAP (the “Barstool Acquisition”). Prior to the acquisition, we held a 36% ownership interest, which was accounted for under the equity method. At the closing of the Barstool Acquisition, we obtained 100% of the Barstool common stock and determined the fair value of Barstool to be $660.0 million based on market participant assumptions and Barstool became an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of PENN. See Note 6, “Acquisitions and Dispositions,” Note 7, “Investments in and Advances to Unconsolidated Affiliates,” and Note 15, “Stockholders’ Equity” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion.
On August 8, 2023, PENN entered into a Sportsbook Agreement (the “Sportsbook Agreement”) with ESPN, which provides for a long-term strategic relationship between PENN and ESPN relating to online sports betting in the United States. Pursuant to the Sportsbook Agreement, PENN rebranded the existing Barstool Sportsbook across all online platforms in the United States as ESPN BET (the “Sportsbook”) and oversees daily operations of the Sportsbook. The Sportsbook will be deeply integrated within the broader ESPN editorial, content, digital product, and sports programming ecosystem, with access to ESPN’s industry leading audience and database. In addition to the Sportsbook Agreement, on August 8, 2023, PENN and ESPN, Inc. entered into an Investment Agreement (the “Investment Agreement”) providing for the issuance to ESPN, Inc. of certain warrants to purchase shares of PENN common stock, and setting forth certain other governance rights of ESPN, Inc., as discussed in Note 13, “Commitments and Contingencies” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In connection with PENN’s decision to rebrand our online sports betting business from Barstool Sportsbook to ESPN BET pursuant to the Sportsbook Agreement as discussed above, PENN concurrently entered into a stock purchase agreement with David Portnoy (the “Barstool SPA”) pursuant to which PENN sold 100% of the outstanding shares of Barstool to David Portnoy in exchange for nominal cash consideration (one dollar) and certain non-compete and other restrictive covenants. Pursuant to the Barstool SPA, PENN has the right to receive 50% of the gross proceeds received by David Portnoy in any subsequent sale or other monetization event of Barstool. In connection with the Barstool SPA, we recognized a pre-tax loss on disposal of $923.2 million (inclusive of $714.8 million in goodwill and intangible assets write-offs and a $70.0 million indemnification liability) during the third quarter of 2023. See Note 6, “Acquisitions and Dispositions” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements. For information on the tax-related impacts from the Barstool transaction, see Note 14, “Income Taxes” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
On February 21, 2023, as described in Note 12, “Leases” in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements, the Company and GLPI entered into an agreement to amend and restate the PENN Master Lease (the “AR PENN Master Lease”), effective January 1, 2023, to (i) remove the land and buildings for Hollywood Casino Aurora (“Aurora”), Hollywood Casino Joliet (“Joliet”), Hollywood Casino Columbus (“Columbus”), Hollywood Casino Toledo (“Toledo”), and the M Resort Spa
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Casino (“M Resort”), and (ii) make associated adjustments to the rent after which the initial rent in the AR PENN Master Lease was reset to $284.1 million, consisting of $208.2 million of building base rent, $43.0 million of land base rent and $32.9 million of percentage rent (as such terms are defined in the AR PENN Master Lease). Subsequent to the execution of the AR PENN Master Lease, the lease contains real estate assets associated with 14 of the Company’s gaming facilities used in its operations. The current term of the AR PENN Master Lease expires on October 31, 2033 and thereafter contains three renewal terms of five years each on the same terms and conditions, exercisable at the Company’s option.
Concurrent with the execution of the AR PENN Master Lease, the Company and GLPI entered into a new master lease (the “2023 Master Lease”), effective January 1, 2023, specific to the properties associated with Aurora, Joliet, Columbus, Toledo, M Resort, Hollywood Casino at The Meadows (“Meadows”) and Hollywood Casino Perryville (“Perryville”) and a master development agreement (the “Master Development Agreement”). The 2023 Master Lease has an initial term through October 31, 2033 with three subsequent five-year renewal periods on the same terms and conditions, exercisable at the Company’s option. The 2023 Master Lease terminated the individual triple net leases associated with Meadows and Perryville. The 2023 Master Lease and AR PENN Master Lease are cross-defaulted, cross-collateralized, and coterminous, and subject to a parent guarantee.
The 2023 Master Lease includes a base rent (the “2023 Master Lease Base Rent”) equal to $232.2 million and the Master Development Agreement contains additional rent (together with the 2023 Master Lease Base Rent, the “2023 Master Lease Rent”) equal to (i) 7.75% of any project funding received by PENN from GLPI for an anticipated relocation of PENN’s riverboat casino and related developments with respect to Aurora (the “Aurora Project”) and (ii) a percentage, based on the then-current GLPI stock price, of any project funding received by PENN from GLPI for certain anticipated development projects with respect to Joliet, Columbus, and M Resort (the “Other Development Projects”). The Master Development Agreement provides that GLPI will fund up to $225 million for the Aurora Project and, upon PENN’s request, up to $350 million in the aggregate for the Other Development Projects, in accordance with certain terms and conditions set forth in the Master Development Agreement. These funding obligations of GLPI expire on January 1, 2026. The Master Development Agreement provides that PENN may elect not to proceed with a development project prior to GLPI’s commencement of any equity or debt offering or credit facility draw intended to fund such a project or after such time in certain instances, provided that GLPI will be reimbursed for all costs and expenses incurred in connection with such discontinued project. The Aurora Project and the Other Development Projects are all subject to necessary regulatory and other government approvals.
We believe that our portfolio of assets provides us with the benefit of geographically-diversified cash flow from operations. We expect to continue to expand our gaming operations through the implementation and execution of a disciplined capital expenditure program at our existing properties, the pursuit of strategic acquisitions and investments, and the development of new gaming properties. In addition, the acquisition of Score Media and Gaming, Inc. (“theScore”) and our Sportsbook Agreement with ESPN reflects our strategy to continue evolving from the nation’s largest regional gaming operator to a best-in-class omni-channel provider of retail gaming, iCasino, and sports betting entertainment.
Operating and Competitive Environment
Most of our properties operate in mature, competitive markets. We expect the majority of our future growth to come from our online sports betting and iCasino businesses; improvements, expansions, or relocations of our existing properties; entrance into new jurisdictions; expansions of gaming in existing jurisdictions; and strategic investments and acquisitions; and cross-sell opportunities between our retail gaming, online sports betting, and iCasino businesses. Our portfolio is comprised largely of well-maintained regional gaming facilities, which has allowed us to develop what we believe to be a solid base for future growth opportunities.
We continuously adjust operations, offerings, and cost structures to reflect changing economic conditions, as well as consumer demand and behaviors. We also continue to focus on revenue and cost synergies from recent acquisitions, technology enhancements, and providing customers with additional gaming and entertainment experiences through our differentiated omni-channel strategy. We seek to grow our customer database and PENN PlayTM loyalty program through our online sports betting and iCasino businesses, the development of new properties, the expansion of existing properties and other business lines, and through partnerships with third-party partners, such as Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings Ltd., Live Nation Entertainment, Inc., and Choice Hotels International, Inc. In addition, strategic acquisitions (e.g. theScore) and strategic relationships (e.g. our Sportsbook Agreement with ESPN), allow us to acquire new customers, expand our player database, and provide additional revenue streams, all in furtherance of our omnichannel strategy.
The gaming, media, and entertainment industries are characterized by an increasingly high degree of competition among a large number of participants. We compete with a variety of gaming operations, including casinos and hotel casinos of varying quality and size and other gaming options such as state and province-sponsored internet lotteries, sweepstakes, charitable gaming, video gaming terminals at bars, restaurants, taverns and truck stops, illegal slot machines and skill games, fantasy