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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
____________________________________________
FORM 10-Q
____________________________________________
(Mark One)
xQUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
or
oTRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ___________________ to ___________________
Commission File Number: 001-39100
____________________________________________
Progyny, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
____________________________________________
Delaware27-2220139
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1359 Broadway
New York, New York
10018
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(212) 888-3124
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
N/A
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
____________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock,
$0.0001 par value per share
PGNYThe Nasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
x
Accelerated filero
Non-accelerated fileroSmaller reporting companyo
Emerging growth companyo
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No x
As of April 30, 2024, the registrant had 95,220,688 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, outstanding.


Table of Contents
Page
2

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. We intend such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position; our ability to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, products, and technologies; our ability to achieve profitability on an annual basis and sustain such profitability; the sufficiency of our cash and cash equivalents and anticipated sources and uses of cash; our business strategies, plans, objectives and goals; our ability to acquire new clients and successfully engage new and existing clients; our ability to effectively manage our growth; our ability to compete effectively with existing competitors and new market entrants; the impact of recently adopted accounting pronouncements; our ability to attract and retain qualified employees and key personnel; the plans and objectives of management for future operations and capital expenditures; general economic and market trends; the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including variants, on our business, operations, and the markets and communities in which we and our clients, members and providers operate; and the potential impact of evolving laws and regulations, including any laws and regulations restricting reproductive rights. These statements are neither promises nor guarantees, but involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “seek,” “assume,” “future,” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. The forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are only predictions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and are subject to a number of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements, including the factors described under Part II, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Part I, Item 2. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
In addition, statements such as “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the filing date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.
You should read this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the documents that we reference in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise.
3

SUMMARY OF RISKS AFFECTING OUR BUSINESS
Below is a summary of the principal factors that make an investment in our common stock speculative or risky. This summary does not address all of the risks that we face. Additional discussion of the risks summarized in this risk factor summary, and other risks that we face, can be found under the heading “Risk Factors” in Part II, Item 1A. of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and should be carefully considered, together with other information in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and our other filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, before making an investment decision regarding our common stock.
We may fail to meet our publicly announced guidance or other expectations about our business and future results of operations, which would cause our stock price to decline.
The fertility market in which we participate is competitive, and if we do not continue to compete effectively, our results of operations could be harmed.
Unfavorable conditions in the global economy or our industry could limit our ability to grow our business and negatively affect our results of operations.
Our business depends on our ability to retain our existing clients and increase the adoption of our services within our client base. Any failure to do so would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our largest clients account for a significant portion of our revenue and a significant number of our clients are in the technology industry. The loss of one or more of these clients, changes to pricing terms with these clients or changes within the technology industry could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we are unable to attract new clients, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.
The COVID-19 pandemic, including variants and resurgences, has had and may continue to have, and similar health epidemics or pandemics could in the future have, an adverse impact on our business, operations, and the markets and communities in which we and our clients, members and providers operate.
A significant change in the level or the mix of the utilization of our solutions could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have a limited operating history with our current platform of solutions, which makes it difficult to predict our future results of operations.
Changes or developments in the health insurance markets in the United States, including passage and implementation of a law to create a single-payer or government-run health insurance program, could adversely harm our business and results of operations.
The health benefits industry may be subject to negative publicity, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If our information technology systems, or those of our provider clinics, specialty pharmacies or other vendors, lag, fail or suffer security breaches, we may incur a material disruption of our services or suffer a loss or inappropriate disclosure of confidential information, which could materially impact our business and the results of operations.
Our business depends on our ability to maintain our Center of Excellence network of high-quality fertility specialists and other healthcare providers. If we are unable to do so, our future growth would be limited and our business, financial condition and results of operations would be harmed.
Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with, and monitoring of, third parties, including channel partners and vendors, as well as insurance carriers.
4

If we fail to maintain an efficient pharmacy distribution network or if there is a disruption to our network of specialty pharmacies or their supply chains, our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer.
We operate in a highly regulated industry and must comply with a significant number of complex and evolving legal and regulatory requirements, as well as complex judicial mandates.
The healthcare regulatory and political framework is uncertain and evolving. Recent and future developments in the healthcare industry could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
GENERAL
Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q to the terms “Progyny,” “the Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to Progyny, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries.
“Progyny®” and our other registered and common law trade names, trademarks and service marks are the property of Progyny, Inc. Other trade names, trademarks and service marks used in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q may be referred to without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert their rights thereto.
We announce material information to the public through filings with the SEC, our investor relations website at investors.progyny.com, press releases, public conference calls, and webcasts to achieve broad, non-exclusionary distribution of information. We therefore encourage investors and others interested in Progyny to review the information disclosed through such channels. Any updates to the list of disclosure channels through which we will announce information will be posted on the investor relations page on our website.
5

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
PROGYNY, INC.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(Unaudited)
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
ASSETS  
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$114,959 $97,296 
Marketable securities256,872 273,791 
Accounts receivable, net of $50,054 and $46,636 of allowances at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
297,209 241,869 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets12,472 27,451 
Total current assets681,512 640,407 
Property and equipment, net10,234 10,213 
Operating lease right-of-use assets17,181 17,605 
Goodwill11,880 11,880 
Deferred tax assets70,269 73,120 
Other noncurrent assets3,228 3,395 
Total assets$794,304 $756,620 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY   
Current liabilities:  
Accounts payable$130,171 $125,426 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities75,748 60,524 
Total current liabilities 205,919 185,950 
Operating lease noncurrent liabilities16,781 17,241 
Total liabilities222,700 203,191 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 6)
STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY  
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 1,000,000,000 shares authorized; 96,839,393 and 96,348,522 shares issued; 96,115,816 and 96,348,522 shares outstanding at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
9 9 
Additional paid-in capital489,343 461,639 
Treasury stock, at cost, $0.0001 par value; 1,339,557 and 615,980 shares at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
(27,367)(1,009)
Accumulated earnings106,869 89,971 
Accumulated other comprehensive income2,750 2,819 
Total stockholders’ equity 571,604 553,429 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity $794,304 $756,620 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited consolidated financial statements.
6

PROGYNY, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Operations
(Unaudited)
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Revenue$278,078 $258,394 
Cost of services215,672 199,754 
Gross profit62,406 58,640 
Operating expenses:  
Sales and marketing15,454 14,282 
General and administrative28,429 29,347 
Total operating expenses43,883 43,629 
Income from operations18,523 15,011 
Other income, net:  
Other income, net3,360 498 
Interest income, net632 822 
Total other income, net3,992 1,320 
Income before income taxes22,515 16,331 
Provision (benefit) for income taxes5,617 (1,347)
Net income$16,898 $17,678 
Net income per share:  
Basic$0.18 $0.19 
Diluted$0.17 $0.18 
Weighted-average shares used in computing net income per share:  
Basic96,484,657 93,832,873 
Diluted101,052,933 100,166,008 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited consolidated financial statements.
7

PROGYNY, INC.
Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income
(Unaudited)
(in thousands)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Net income$16,898$17,678
Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax
Unrealized gains on marketable securities before reclassifications2,398725 
Reclassification of gains on the sale of marketable securities into net income(2,488)(502)
Net change on unrealized gains on marketable securities(90)223 
Foreign currency translation adjustments21 
Total other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax(69)223 
Total comprehensive income$16,829$17,901
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited consolidated financial statements.
8

PROGYNY, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity
(Unaudited)
(in thousands, except share amounts)
Common StockTreasury
Stock
Additional
Paid in
Capital
Accumulated
Earnings
Accumulated Other
Comprehensive
Income
Total
SharesAmount
For the three months ended March 31, 2024:
Balance at December 31, 202396,348,522 $9 $(1,009)$461,639 $89,971 $2,819 $553,429 
Issuance of employee equity awards, net of shares withheld490,871 — (3,502)— — (3,502)
Stock-based compensation— — — 31,206 — — 31,206 
Repurchase of common stock(723,577)— (26,358)— — — (26,358)
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax— —  — — (69)(69)
Net income— — — — 16,898 — 16,898 
Balance at March 31, 202496,115,816 $9 $(27,367)$489,343 $106,869 $2,750 $571,604 
For the three months ended March 31, 2023:
Balance at December 31, 202293,301,156 $9 $(1,009)$349,533 $27,934 $501 $376,968 
Issuance of employee equity awards, net of shares withheld1,018,059 — (1,415)— — (1,415)
Stock-based compensation— — — 30,947 — — 30,947 
Other comprehensive income, net of tax— —  — — 223 223 
Net income— — — — 17,678 — 17,678 
Balance at March 31, 202394,319,215 $9 $(1,009)$379,065 $45,612 $724 $424,401 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited consolidated financial statements.
9

PROGYNY, INC.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(Unaudited)
(in thousands)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
OPERATING ACTIVITIES 
Net income$16,898 $17,678 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Deferred tax expense (benefit)2,877 (1,347)
Non-cash interest income(190) 
Depreciation and amortization716 541 
Stock-based compensation expense31,052 30,808 
Bad debt expense4,772 5,244 
Realized gains on sale of marketable securities(3,395)(502)
Foreign currency exchange rate loss35  
Changes in operating assets and liabilities: 
Accounts receivable(60,118)(78,422)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets15,169 (1,456)
Accounts payable4,790 36,445 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities12,995 11,751 
Other noncurrent assets and liabilities131 221 
Net cash provided by operating activities25,732 20,961 
INVESTING ACTIVITIES
Purchase of property and equipment, net(850)(1,251)
Purchase of marketable securities(110,806)(23,435)
Sale of marketable securities131,000 40,813 
Net cash provided by investing activities19,344 16,127 
FINANCING ACTIVITIES
Repurchase of common stock(23,764) 
Proceeds from exercise of stock options962 1,675 
Payment of employee taxes related to equity awards(4,959)(3,815)
Proceeds from contributions to employee stock purchase plan350 294 
Net cash used in financing activities(27,411)(1,846)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents     (2) 
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents17,663 35,242 
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period97,296 120,078 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period$114,959 $155,320 
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION
Cash paid for income taxes, net of refunds received$(362)$(20)
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF NON-CASH INVESTING AND FINANCING ACTIVITIES
Additions of property and equipment, net included in accounts payable and accrued expenses$155 $201 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited consolidated financial statements.
10

PROGYNY, INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
1.Business and Basis of Presentation
Description of Business
Progyny, Inc. (together with its subsidiaries referred to as “Progyny” or the “Company”) was incorporated in the state of Delaware on April 3, 2008, and maintains its corporate headquarters in New York, NY.
Progyny is a provider of a fertility benefits solution and pharmacy benefits solution and operates and manages in one operating segment. The fertility benefits solution consists of a significant service that integrates: (1) the treatment services (“Smart Cycles”) that the Company has designed, (2) access to the Progyny network of high-quality fertility specialists that perform the Smart Cycle treatments and (3) active management of the selective network of high-quality provider clinics, real-time member eligibility and treatment authorization, member-facing digital tools and detailed quarterly reporting supported by the Company’s dedicated client success teams, and end to end comprehensive concierge member support provided by Progyny’s in-house staff of Patient Care Advocates (“PCAs”) (collectively, the “care management services”).
The Company enhanced its fertility benefits solution with the launch of Progyny Rx, its pharmacy benefits solution, effective January 1, 2018. Progyny Rx provides the Company's members with access to the medications needed during their fertility treatment. As part of this solution, the Company provides care management services, which include formulary plan design, simplified authorization, assistance with prescription fulfillment, and timely delivery of the medications by the Company’s network of specialty pharmacies, as well as medication administration training, pharmacy support services, and continuing PCA support. As a pharmacy benefits solution provider, Progyny manages the dispensing of pharmaceuticals through the Company’s specialty pharmacy contracts. The pharmacy benefits solution is only available as an add-on service to its fertility benefits solution.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying interim unaudited consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Progyny, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. The interim unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities Exchange Commission ("SEC") applicable to interim financial reporting. These interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a basis consistent with the annual consolidated financial statements and, in the opinion of management, include all adjustments necessary to fairly state the Company's financial position as of March 31, 2024, the results of the Company's operations for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 and the results of the Company's cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. Therefore, these unaudited consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and related footnotes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, filed with the SEC on February 29, 2024 (the “Annual Report on Form 10-K”).

The results for the three months ended March 31, 2024 are not necessarily indicative of the operating results expected for the year ending December 31, 2024 or any other future period. Additionally, the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic continues to evolve and due to the uncertainty of the pandemic, including variants, the Company's customers and members, provider network, specialty pharmacy partners, employees, suppliers, vendors, and other business partners may continue to be impacted in future periods. A resurgence of COVID-19 could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. The Company will continue to assess these potential impacts to its business and will make adjustments to its operations as necessary.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP generally requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of certain assets, liabilities, revenue, and expenses, and the related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Such estimates include, but are not limited to, the determination of accrued receivables related to revenue recognition, accrued claims payable, allowance for doubtful accounts, stock-based compensation expense, lease liabilities, and accounting for income taxes. Management bases its
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estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
2.Significant Accounting Policies
There have been no material changes in the Company’s significant accounting policies as compared to the significant accounting policies described in Note 2 of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to clients in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services.
The Company applies the following five-step model to recognize revenue from contracts with clients:
Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a client;
Identification of the performance obligations in the contract;
Determination of the transaction price;
Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
Recognition of revenue when, or as, a performance obligation is satisfied.
Progyny’s contracts typically have a stated term of three years and include contractual termination options after the first year, allowing the client to terminate the contract with 30 to 90 days’ notice.
Fertility Benefits Solution Revenue
Progyny primarily generates revenue through its fertility benefits solution, in which Progyny provides self-insured enterprise entities (“clients”) and their employees and partners (together, “members”) with fertility benefits. As part of the fertility benefits solution, Progyny provides access to effective and cost-efficient fertility treatments, referred to as Smart Cycles, as well as other related services. Smart Cycles are proprietary treatment bundles that include certain medical services available to members through Progyny’s proprietary, credentialed network of provider clinics. In addition to access to Progyny’s Smart Cycle treatment bundles and access to Progyny’s network of provider clinics, the fertility benefits solution includes other comprehensive services, which Progyny refers to as care management services, such as active management of the provider clinic network, real-time member eligibility and treatment authorization, member-facing digital tools throughout the Smart Cycle and detailed quarterly reporting all supported by client facing account management and end-to-end comprehensive member support provided by Progyny’s in house staff of PCAs.
The promises within Progyny’s fertility benefits contract with a client represent a single performance obligation because Progyny provides a significant service of integrating the Progyny designed Smart Cycles and access to the fertility treatment services provided by provider clinics with the other comprehensive services into the combined fertility benefits solution that the client contracted to receive. Progyny’s fertility benefits solution is a stand-ready obligation that is satisfied over the contract term.
Progyny’s contracts include the following sources of consideration, which are all variable: a per employee per month (“PEPM”) administration fee (in most, but not all contracts) and a fixed rate per Smart Cycle. The PEPM administration fee is allocated between the fertility benefits solution and the pharmacy benefits solution based on standalone selling price, estimated using an expected cost-plus margin method. The Company allocates the variable consideration related to the fixed rate per Smart Cycle to the distinct period during which the related services were performed as those fees relate specifically to the Company’s efforts to provide its fertility benefits solution to its clients in the period and represents the consideration the Company is entitled to for the fertility benefits services provided. As a result, the fixed rate per Smart Cycle is included in the transaction price and recognized in the period in which the Smart Cycle is provided to the member.
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Progyny’s contracts also include potential service level agreement refunds related to outcome-based service metrics. These service level refunds, which are determined based on results of a full plan year, if met, are based on a percentage of the PEPM fee paid by clients. The Company estimates the variable consideration related to the total PEPM administration fee, less estimated refunds related to service level agreements, and recognizes the amounts allocated to the fertility benefits solution ratably over the contract term. Progyny’s estimates of service level agreement refunds have not historically resulted in significant adjustments to the transaction price.
Clients are typically invoiced on a monthly basis for the PEPM administration fee. Progyny invoices its clients and members for their respective portions of the fixed rate per Smart Cycle bundle when all treatment services within a Smart Cycle are completed by the provider clinic. Once an invoice is issued, payment terms are typically between 30 to 60 days.
The Company assesses whether it is the principal or the agent for each arrangement with a client, since fertility treatment services are provided by a third party—the provider clinics. The Company is the principal in its arrangements with clients and therefore presents revenue gross of the amounts paid to the provider clinics because Progyny controls the specified service (the fertility benefits solution) before it is transferred to the client. Progyny integrates the fertility treatment services provided by the provider clinics into the overall fertility benefits solution that the client contracted to receive. In addition, Progyny defines the scope of the potential services to be performed by the provider clinics and monitors the performance of the provider clinics. Furthermore, Progyny is primarily responsible for fulfilling the promise to the client and has discretion in setting the pricing, as Progyny separately negotiates agreements with the provider clinics, which establish pricing for each treatment service. Pricing of services from provider clinics is independent from the fees charged to clients.
Pharmacy Benefits Solution Revenue
For clients that have the fertility benefits solution, Progyny offers, as an add-on, its pharmacy benefits solution, which is a separate, fully integrated pharmacy benefit. As part of the pharmacy benefits solution, Progyny provides care management services, which include Progyny’s formulary plan design, prescription fulfillment, simplified authorization and timely delivery of the medications used during treatment through Progyny’s network of specialty pharmacies, and clinical services consisting of member assessments, UnPack It calls, telephone support, online education, medication administration training, pharmacy support services and continuing PCA support.
The pharmacy-related promises represent a single performance obligation because Progyny provides a significant service of integrating the formulary plan design, prescription fulfillment, clinical services and PCA support into the combined pharmacy benefits solution that the client contracted to receive. The pharmacy benefits solution is a stand-ready obligation that is satisfied over the contract term.
Progyny’s contracts include the following sources of consideration, all of which are variable: a PEPM administration fee (in most, but not all contracts) and a fixed fee per fertility drug. As described above, the PEPM administration fee, less estimated refunds related to service level agreements, is allocated to the pharmacy benefits solution and recognized ratably over the contract term. The Company allocates the variable consideration related to the fixed fee per fertility drug to the distinct period during which the related services were performed, as those fees relate specifically to the Company’s efforts to provide its pharmacy benefits solution to clients in the period and represents the consideration the Company is entitled to for the pharmacy benefits services provided. As a result, the fixed fee per fertility drug is included in the transaction price and recognized in the period in which the Company is entitled to consideration from a client, which is when a prescription is filled and delivered to the members.
As stated above, clients are invoiced on a monthly basis for the PEPM administration fee. Progyny invoices the client and the member for their respective portions of the fixed fee per fertility drug, when the prescription services are completed by the specialty pharmacies. Once an invoice is issued, payment terms are typically between 30 to 60 days.
The Company assesses whether it is the principal or the agent for each arrangement with a client, as prescription fulfillment and clinical services are provided by a third party—the specialty pharmacies. The Company is the principal in its arrangements with clients, and therefore presents revenue gross of the amounts paid to the specialty pharmacies. Progyny controls the specified service (the pharmacy benefits solution) before it is transferred to the client. Progyny integrates the prescription fulfillment and clinical services provided by the pharmacies and PCAs into the overall pharmacy benefits solution that the client contracted to receive. In addition, Progyny defines the scope of the potential services to be performed by the specialty pharmacies and monitors the performance of the specialty pharmacies. Furthermore, Progyny is
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primarily responsible for fulfilling the promise to the client and has discretion in setting the pricing, as Progyny separately negotiates agreements with pharmacies, which establish pricing for each drug. Pricing of fertility drugs is independent from the fees charged to clients.
The Company does not disclose the transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations because all of the transaction price is variable and is allocated to the distinct periods to which the services relate, as discussed above. The remaining contract term is typically less than one year, due to the client’s contractual termination options. There were no material contract asset or contract liability balances as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
Accrued Receivables and Accrued Claims Payable
Accrued receivables are estimated based on historical experience for those fertility benefits services provided but for which a claim has not been received from the provider clinic at the end of the reporting period, which includes assumptions regarding the lag between authorization date and service date as well as estimates for changes and cancellations of services. At the same time, cost of services and accrued claims payables are estimated based on the amount to be paid to the provider clinic and expected gross margin on fertility benefits services. Estimates are adjusted to actual at the time of billing. Adjustments to original estimates have not been material.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, accrued receivables were $76.5 million and $45.8 million, respectively. Accrued receivables are included within accounts receivable in the consolidated balance sheet.
Accrued claims payable of $49.6 million and $30.3 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively, are included within accrued expenses and other current liabilities in the consolidated balance sheet. Claims payable are generally paid within 30 days based on contractual terms.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, unbilled receivables, which represent claims received and approved but unbilled at the end of the reporting period, were $64.9 million and $45.1 million, respectively. Unbilled receivables are typically billed to clients within 30 days of the approved claim based on the contractual billing schedule agreed upon with the client. Unbilled receivables are included in accounts receivable in the consolidated balance sheet.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
The accounts receivable balance primarily includes amounts due from clients and members. The Company estimates the allowance for doubtful accounts based on the lifetime expected credit losses for the client and member receivable pools, respectively. Under this current expected credit losses model, the Company determines the allowance for doubtful accounts based on factors such as the age of the receivable balance, historical experience, current economic conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts of future economic conditions. An allowance for credit losses is applied at the time the asset is recognized. Expected credit losses are recorded as general and administrative expenses on the consolidated statements of operations. The following table provides a summary of the activity in this allowance (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
Balance at
Beginning
of Period
Charged
to Costs
and Expenses
Write-offs
Balance
at End
of Period
Allowance for doubtful accounts$46,636$4,772$(1,354)$50,054
Cost of Services
Fertility Benefits Services
Fertility benefits services costs include: (1) fees paid to provider clinics within the Company’s network, labs and anesthesiologists; (2) costs incurred (including salaries, bonuses, benefits, stock-based compensation expense, other related costs, and an allocation of the Company's general overhead, depreciation and amortization) for those employees associated with care management service functions: Provider Account Management, PCA, Provider Relations and Claims Processing teams; and (3) related information technology support costs. Contracts with provider clinics are typically for a term of one to two years.
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Pharmacy Benefits Services
Pharmacy benefits services costs include: (1) the fees for prescription drugs dispensed and clinical services provided during the reporting period by specialty pharmacy partners; (2) costs incurred (including salaries, bonuses, benefits, stock-based compensation expense, other related costs, and an allocation of the Company's general overhead, depreciation and amortization) for those employees associated with care management service functions: PCA, Provider Relations and Claims Processing teams; and (3) related information technology support costs. Contracts with the specialty pharmacies are typically for a term of one year.
In the specialty pharmacy contracts, the contractual fees of prescription drugs sold includes the cost of the prescription drugs purchased and shipped to members by the Company’s specialty mail service dispensing pharmacies, net of any volume-related or other discounts.
Vendor Rebates
The Company receives a rebate on formulations purchased and dispensed by the Company’s specialty pharmacies. The Company’s contractual arrangements with pharmacy program partners provide for the Company to receive a discount (or rebate) from established list prices paid subsequent to dispensing when products are purchased indirectly from a pharmacy program partner (such as through a specialty pharmacy). These rebates are recognized as a reduction of cost of services when prescriptions are dispensed and are generally estimated and billed to manufacturers within 20 days after the end of each month. The effect of adjustments resulting from the reconciliation of rebates recognized to the amounts billed and collected has not been material to the Company’s results of operations.
Accounting Pronouncements Issued but Not Yet Adopted
In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures. The standard is intended to provide a better understanding of an entity's overall performance and business activities through improved disclosure about an entity's reportable segments, including more detailed information about reportable segment expenses. The new standard will be effective for the Company for the fiscal year beginning January 1, 2024 and for interim periods within the fiscal year beginning January 1, 2025. While the new standard requires additional footnote disclosure, the Company currently does not expect the adoption of the new standard to have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures. The standard is intended to enhance the transparency and decision usefulness of income tax disclosures primarily through changes to the rate reconciliation and income taxes paid information. The new standard will be effective for the Company for the fiscal year beginning January 1, 2025. While the new standard requires further disaggregation of the income tax footnote, the Company currently does not expect the adoption of the new standard to have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.
3.Revenue
Disaggregated revenue
The following table disaggregates revenue by service (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Fertility benefits services revenue$169,769 $157,145 
Pharmacy benefits services revenue108,309 101,249 
Total revenue$278,078 $258,394 
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4.Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The fair value of financial instruments is determined based on assumptions that market participants would use when pricing an asset or liability at the balance sheet date. Certain assets are categorized based on the following fair value hierarchy of market participant assumptions:
Level 1 — Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 — Inputs, other than quoted prices in active markets, that are observable either directly or indirectly.
Level 3 — Prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value of the asset or liability and supported by little or no market activity.
The Company uses observable market data when available, and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs when determining fair value.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the Company had $84.0 million and $35.2 million, respectively, in financial assets held in money market accounts and $256.9 million and $273.8 million, respectively, held in marketable securities, including U.S. treasury bills. All were classified as Level 1 in the fair value hierarchy. The Company measured these assets at fair value. The Company classified these assets as Level 1 because the values of these assets are determined using unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the Company did not have any assets or liabilities classified as Level 2 or Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy.
5.Leases
In September 2019, the Company’s sublease agreement for the 25,212 square foot office in its corporate headquarters commenced in New York, NY and is scheduled to expire in May 2029. Pursuant to the sublease, the Company is obligated to pay the base rent of approximately $1.3 million per annum through the end of the fifth lease year and approximately $1.4 million per annum thereafter through the expiration date.
In February 2023, the Company's lease agreement for the additional 24,099 square foot office in its corporate offices commenced in New York, NY and is expected to expire in the fourth quarter of 2035. In accordance with ASC 842, the Company recorded right-of-use assets and lease liabilities of $12.2 million and $12.1 million, respectively. Pursuant to the lease, the Company is obligated to pay the base rent of approximately $1.4 million per annum beginning in April 2024 through the end of the fifth lease year and approximately $1.5 million per annum thereafter through the expiration date.
The Company recognizes lease expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Lease expense for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was $0.6 million and $0.4 million, respectively.
Cash outflows from operating activities attributable to the operating leases for each of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was $0.3 million.
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Information related to the Company's leases is as follows (in thousands):
Balance Sheet LocationMarch 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Operating Leases
Right-of-use assetOperating lease right-of-use assets$17,181$17,605
Short-term lease liabilitiesAccrued expenses and other current liabilities$2,508$2,149
Long-term lease liabilitiesOperating lease noncurrent liabilities$16,781$17,241
Other information
Weighted-average remaining lease term, operating lease9.4 years9.6 years
Weighted-average discount rate, operating lease4.60%4.60%
Future minimum facility lease payments related to the Company's operating lease liabilities as of March 31, 2024 were as follows (in thousands):
Year Ending December 31:Operating Lease Payments as of March 31, 2024
2024$1,928
20252,793
20262,793
20272,793
20282,793
Thereafter10,848
Total undiscounted lease payments$23,948
Less: imputed interest4,659
Present value of lease liabilities$19,289
Less: current portion of operating lease liabilities 2,508
Operating lease noncurrent liabilities$16,781
February 2022 Lease Agreement
As noted above, the Company commenced its lease for the 24,099 square foot office in its corporate offices in New York, NY in February 2023, pursuant to a lease agreement entered into by the Company in February 2022. The lease agreement also provides for additional space in the Company's corporate offices, including an additional 21,262 square foot office and continued occupancy of the 25,212 square foot office after the expiration of the current sublease. For the 21,262 square foot office, the lease commencement date, which is when the premises will become available to the Company for use, is currently expected to be in the fourth quarter of 2024. The Company is obligated to pay the base rent of approximately $1.3 million starting in the fourth quarter of 2025 for five years and approximately $1.4 million per year thereafter through the fourth quarter of 2035, the expected expiration date. For the current 25,212 square foot office, the Company is obligated to pay the base rent of approximately $1.6 million per year beginning in June 2029, which is the lease commencement, through the fourth quarter of 2035, the expected expiration date.
6.Commitments and Contingencies
The Company records accruals for loss contingencies when it is probable that a liability will be incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. If the Company determines that a loss is reasonably possible, the Company discloses the matter, and the amount or range of the possible loss, if estimable, in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
From time to time, the Company is involved in certain claims and litigation arising in the normal course of business. The Company is not aware of any legal proceedings or claims, that the Company believes will have, individually or in the aggregate, a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.
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7.Stockholders’ Equity
Share Repurchase Program
In February 2024, the Company’s Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $100 million in shares of common stock. Repurchases may be made in the form of open market repurchases, including through plans complying with Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act, depending on stock price, market conditions, and other factors, as determined by the Company. There can be no assurance as to the number of shares to be repurchased by the Company.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company repurchased a total of 723,577 shares of common stock under the share repurchase program for a total cost of $26.4 million, inclusive of excise taxes and trading fees, or an average price per share of $36.27.
Stock-based Compensation Expense
The following table summarizes stock-based compensation expense, which was included in the statements of operations as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Cost of services$9,033 $8,214 
Sales and marketing7,503 6,568 
General and administrative14,516 16,026 
Total stock-based compensation expense$31,052 $30,808 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income

Accumulated other comprehensive income consisted of the following (in thousands):

Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
Unrealized gains on marketable securitiesForeign currency translation adjustmentsTotal
Balance at December 31, 2023$2,829 $(10)$2,819 
Other comprehensive income before reclassifications, net of tax(1)
2,398212,419
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income, net of tax(2)
(2,488)(2,488)
Net current period other comprehensive (loss) income(90)21(69)
Balance at March 31, 2024$2,739 $11 $2,750 

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Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
Unrealized gains on marketable securitiesForeign currency translation adjustmentsTotal
Balance at December 31, 2022$496 $5 $501 
Other comprehensive income before reclassifications, net of tax(1)
725725
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income, net of tax(2)
(502)(502)
Net current period other comprehensive (loss) income223223
Balance at March 31, 2023$719 $5 $724 
________________________________
(1) Represents unrealized gains of $3.3 million, net of tax expense of $0.9 million, for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and unrealized gains of $0.7 million, net of tax expense of $0, for the three months ended March 31, 2023.
(2) The effects on net income of amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income were as follows (in thousands):

Details about Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income ComponentThree Months Ended
March 31,
Affected Line Item in Statement of Operations
20242023
Gains on marketable securities3,395 502 Other income, net
3,395 502 Income before income taxes
907  Provision (benefit) for income taxes
2,488 502 Net income
8.Income Taxes
For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company calculated its year-to-date provision for income taxes by applying the estimated annual effective tax rate to the year-to-date profit from operations before income taxes and adjusts the provision for income taxes for discrete tax items recorded in the period. The Company updates its estimate of its annual effective tax rate at the end of each quarterly period. The estimate takes into account annual forecasted income before income taxes and any significant permanent tax items. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company recorded a provision for income taxes of $5.6 million, primarily driven by the Company's operating profit, partially offset by equity compensation activity that occurred during the period. During the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company recorded a benefit for income taxes of $1.3 million, primarily due to equity compensation activity that occurred during the period.
9.Net Income Per Share
Basic net income per share is calculated by dividing the net income by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period.
Diluted net income per share is computed by dividing the diluted net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period, including potential dilutive common shares assuming dilutive effect of outstanding common stock options, restricted stock units, common stock warrants, and shares issuable under the employee stock purchase plan. In periods when the Company has incurred a net loss, diluted net loss per share is the same as basic net loss per share because dilutive common shares are not assumed to have been issued if their effect is anti-dilutive. A reconciliation of net income and the number of shares in the calculation of basic and diluted net income per share is as follows (in thousands, except share and per share amounts):
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Three Months Ended
March 31
20242023
Basic net income per common share:
Numerator:
Net income $16,898$17,678
Denominator:
Weighted-average shares used in computing basic net income per share96,484,65793,832,873
Basic net income per share $0.18$0.19
Diluted net income per common share:
Numerator:
Net income$16,898$17,678
Denominator:
Weighted-average shares used in computing basic net income per share96,484,65793,832,873
Effect of dilutive securities
  Options to purchase common stock3,922,7575,592,045
  Shares issuable under ESPP809559
  Warrants to purchase common stock291,643535,807
  Restricted stock units 353,067204,724
Total effect of dilutive securities4,568,2766,333,135
Weighted-average shares used in computing diluted net income per share101,052,933100,166,008
Diluted net income per share $0.17$0.18
The following weighted-average outstanding shares of potentially dilutive securities were excluded from the computation of diluted income per share for the period presented because including them would have been antidilutive:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Options to purchase common stock12,631,50511,897,587
Restricted stock units814,2811,603,800
Total 13,445,78613,501,387
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ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, filed with the SEC on February 29, 2024. In addition to historical financial information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates, and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below and those discussed in the section titled “Risk Factors” under Part II, Item 1A. of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Overview
We believe in a world where everyone can realize dreams of family and ideal health. Our mission is to empower healthier, supported journeys through transformative fertility, family building and women's health benefits. Through our differentiated approach to benefits plan design, patient education and support and active network management, our clients’ employees are able to pursue the most effective treatment across life's milestones from the best physicians and achieve optimal outcomes.
Progyny is a leading benefits management company specializing in fertility and family building benefits solutions in the United States. Our clients include many of the nation’s most prominent employers across a broad array of industries. We launched our fertility benefits solution in 2016 with our first five employer clients, and we have grown our current base of clients to over 450 with at least 1,000 covered lives. We currently provide coverage to approximately 6.4 million employees and their partners (known in our industry as covered lives), whom we refer to as our members. We have achieved this growth by demonstrating that our purpose-built, data-driven and disruptive platform consistently delivers superior clinical outcomes in a cost-efficient manner while driving exceptional client and member satisfaction. We have retained substantially all of our clients since inception, and our member satisfaction over that same time period is evidenced by our industry-leading Net Promoter Score, or NPS, of +80 for our fertility benefits solution and +80 for our integrated pharmacy benefits solution, Progyny Rx as of December 31, 2023. Our members experience healthier pregnancies and superior rates of pregnancy and live births, as well as reduced rates of miscarriages and multiple births, saving valuable time and money and limiting personal and professional disruption.
OutcomeNational Averages for All Provider ClinicsProgyny In-Network Provider Clinic
Averages
for All Patients
Progyny In-Network Provider Clinic
Averages
for Progyny Members Only(3)
Live birth rate per attempted retrieval(2)
35.5 %37.4 %44.4 %
Single embryo transfer rate(1)
75.5 %77.8 %93.9 %
Pregnancy rate per IVF transfer(1)
53.8 %55.2 %62.8 %
Miscarriage rate(1)
18.4 %18.2 %15.8 %
Live birth rate per transfer(2)
41.6 %42.6 %52.9 %
IVF multiples rate(2)
6.9 %6.2 %1.9 %
________________________________
(1)Calculated based on the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology, or SART, 2020 National Summary Report, finalized in 2023.
(2)Calculated based on CDC, 2021 National Summary and Clinic Data Sets, published in 2023.
(3)Calculated based on the 12-month period ended December 31, 2022.
Fertility Benefits Solution. Our fertility benefits solution includes providing members with access to effective and cost-efficient fertility treatments through our Smart Cycle plan design. Smart Cycles are proprietary treatment bundles designed by us to include those medical services available to our members through our selective network of high-quality fertility specialists. Medical services under our Smart Cycles include everything needed for a comprehensive fertility treatment cycle, including all necessary diagnostic testing and access to the latest technology (such as, in the case of in
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vitro fertilization, or IVF, preimplantation genetic testing). We currently offer 20 different Smart Cycle treatment bundles, which may be used in various combinations depending on the member’s need. Each Smart Cycle treatment bundle has a separate unit value (i.e., some have fractional values and some have whole values). Our clients contract to purchase a cumulative Smart Cycle unit value per eligible member. These can range from one to an unlimited unit value. Members, in consultation with their PCAs can choose their preferred provider clinics within our network and utilize the specific Smart Cycle treatment bundles necessary for the treatment pathway they determine throughout their fertility journey.
In addition, we provide care management services as part of our fertility benefits solution, which include active management of our selective network of high-quality fertility specialists, real-time member eligibility and treatment authorization, member-facing digital solutions, detailed quarterly reporting for our clients supported by our dedicated client success teams and end-to-end comprehensive concierge member support provided by our in-house staff of PCAs. Clients can also add adoption and surrogacy reimbursement programs as part of this solution.
Pharmacy Benefits Solution. We went live with our integrated pharmacy benefits solution in 2018. Progyny Rx can only be purchased by clients that purchase our fertility benefits solution. Progyny Rx provides our members with access to the medications needed during their fertility treatment. As part of this solution, we provide care management services, which include our formulary plan design, simplified authorization, assistance with prescription fulfillment and timely delivery of the medications by our network of specialty pharmacies, as well as medication administration training, pharmacy support services and continuing PCA support.
Our Clients. We currently serve over 450 employers with at least 1,000 covered lives in the United States across more than 40 industries. Our current clients, who are industry leaders across both high-growth and mature industries and who range in size from approximately 1,000 to 600,000 employees, represent approximately 6.4 million covered lives.
Revenue Model
Our clients primarily contract with us to provide our fertility benefits solution and, where added on by our clients, our Progyny Rx solution. Our revenue has both a utilization-based component and a population-based component, as follows:
Utilization Component. Clients pay us for the fertility benefits and Progyny Rx solutions utilized by their employees. With respect to the fertility benefits solution, we bill clients for Smart Cycles in accordance with our bundled case rates, which vary by the type of fertility service rendered and clinic location. Case rates include all third-party fertility specialists, anesthesiology and laboratory services, as well as all of our care management services. With respect to Progyny Rx, we bill the client for the fertility medication dispensed to their employees in connection with the authorized fertility treatments. Medication fees also include our formulary management, drug utilization review and cost containment services and other care management services.
Population-Based Component. Clients who purchase our fertility benefits solution also typically pay us a per employee per month fee, or PEPM fee, which is population-based. This allows us to provide access to our PCAs for fertility and family building education and guidance and other digital tools to all of our members, regardless of whether they ultimately pursue fertility treatment. PEPM fees represented 2% and 1% of our total revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
Our revenue in a given year is determined by the level and mix of the utilization of our fertility benefits and Progyny Rx solutions by our members as well as the number of members enrolled in our clients’ benefits plans. Each year, we contract with new clients for our fertility benefits solution and, where added by the client, our Progyny Rx solution. Given that the majority of our clients contract with us for a January 1st benefits plan start date, our sales cycle follows the conventional healthcare benefits cycle, which largely concludes by the end of October of the prior year to allow for benefits education and annual open enrollment to occur in November. For some clients that are considering a start date later in the year, the sales cycle can extend through the next year.
Similarly, for existing clients, any changes in plan designs are typically elected by the end of October so that clients can inform their employees of the benefits during the open enrollment period ahead of a January 1st plan year start.
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Key Operational and Business Metrics
In addition to the measures presented in our consolidated financial statements, we use the following key operational and business metrics to evaluate our business, measure our performance, develop financial forecasts, and make strategic decisions.
Member and Client Base. Our addressable market is primarily large self-insured employers as well as labor populations under the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 (also known as the Taft-Hartley Act) and federal government populations. There are approximately 8,000 employers in the United States who have a minimum of 1,000 employees, who together with Taft-Hartley labor populations and federal government populations, represent approximately 106 million potential covered lives in total. Our current member base of approximately 6.4 million covered lives represents a mid-single digit percent of our total market opportunity. We intend to continue to drive new client acquisition by investing significantly in sales and marketing to engage, educate and drive awareness of the unmet need around fertility solutions among benefits executives. We also increase brand awareness and adoption with employers by leveraging our strong relationships with benefits consultants. In particular, we are focused on expanding the number of clients with more than 2,500 covered lives. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we served 451 and 392 clients, respectively, representing 6,381,000 and 5,418,000 members, respectively.
Importantly, as we have continued to grow, we have meaningfully diversified our client base across more than 40 different industries currently from just two industries when we launched our fertility benefits solution in 2016. We are expanding our client base within each industry and have an industry-specific strategy that enables us to most effectively target our addressable market. Because our clients within an industry compete with each other for employees, we believe our solutions are increasingly viewed as an important way for them to differentiate from, or remain competitive with, one another. Additionally, we believe that our expanding presence has resulted in a heightened awareness of the need to offer fertility benefits and has informed the market of the value we provide to our clients and our members, which we believe also helps facilitate growth. In addition, we are continuously utilizing our established client relationships to evaluate other potential fertility solutions that could benefit our members and simultaneously drive growth. Our ability to attract new clients will depend on a number of factors, including the effectiveness and pricing of our solutions, offerings of our competitors, the effectiveness of our marketing efforts to drive awareness and the demand for fertility benefits solutions overall. We define a client as an organization for which we have an active contract in the period indicated. We count each organization we contract with as a single client including divisions, segments or subsidiaries of larger organizations to the extent we contract separately with them.
As of March 31,As of December 31,
20242023
Client Tier (Members)ClientsMembersClientsMembers
Up to 2,500124 242,000 112217,000 
2,501 - 10,000212 1,116,000 180934,000 
10,001 - 50,00092 1,849,000 791,588,000 
Greater than 50,00023 3,174,000 212,679,000 
Total4516,381,0003925,418,000 
Benefits Utilization. A key driver of our revenue is the number of members we serve and the rate at which they utilize their fertility benefits. As our client base has grown, our membership has grown from approximately 110,000 members in 2016 when we launched our fertility benefits solution to approximately 6.4 million members as of March 31, 2024.
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The following table highlights the number of assisted reproductive treatment, or ART, cycles performed for Progyny members and the member utilization rates for each of the periods presented:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Assisted Reproductive Treatment (ART) Cycles(1)
14,80213,171
Utilization - All Members(2)
0.53%0.54%
Utilization - Female Only(2)
0.46%0.48%
Average Members (3)
6,350,0005,335,000
________________________________
(1)Represents the number of ART cycles performed, including IVF with a fresh embryo transfer, IVF freeze all cycles/embryo banking, frozen embryo transfers and egg freezing.
(2)Represents the member utilization rate for all services, including but not limited to, ART cycles, initial consultations, IUIs and genetic testing. The utilization rate for all members includes all unique members (female and male) who utilize the benefit during that period while the utilization rate for female only includes only unique females who utilize the benefit during that period. For the purposes of calculating utilization rates in any given period, the results reflect the number of unique members utilizing the benefit for that period. Individual periods cannot be combined as member treatments may span multiple periods.
(3)Includes approximately 300,000 members from a single client who are not reflected in utilization as a result of the client's chosen benefit design.
Impact of COVID-19 on our Business
The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted various markets around the world, including the United States. Restrictions related to COVID-19, including variants, and our responses to them significantly impacted and may continue to impact how our members use our services, access our providers, and how our employees work and provide services to our clients and members, resulting in an impact on our revenue. To the extent that the markets we serve experience increased cases of COVID-19, including variants, state or local governments may reinstitute measures to control its spread, which could again negatively impact our members’ access to care, which could in turn impact our business. We will continue to evaluate the nature and extent of these potential impacts to our business, results of operations and liquidity.
For additional information on the various risks posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, please refer to Part II, Item 1A. "Risk Factors" included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
Revenue includes fertility benefits solution revenue, pharmacy benefits solution revenue and PEPM fees.
Fertility Benefits Solution Revenue
Fertility benefits solution revenue primarily represents utilization of our fertility benefits solution. Our client contracts are typically for a three-year term and pricing for this solution is established for each Smart Cycle treatment bundle, based in part on when the client first became a client and the number of members covered under the solution. Fertility benefits solution revenue includes amounts we receive directly from members, including deductibles, co-insurance and co-payments associated with the treatments under the fertility benefits solution. Revenue is recognized based on the negotiated price with our clients and includes the portion to be paid directly by the member. Revenue is recognized when Smart Cycle services are completed for a member. Revenue is also accrued for authorized Smart Cycle services rendered based on member appointments scheduled with a fertility specialist in our network but for which no claim has yet been reported, net of expected changes and cancellations of services.
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Pharmacy Benefits Solution Revenue
Pharmacy benefits solution revenue primarily represents utilization of Progyny Rx. For clients who contract for the fertility benefits solution, we offer an add-on, separate, fully integrated pharmacy benefits solution designed by us. Progyny Rx provides our members with access to our formulary plan design, simplified authorization, prescription fulfillment and timely delivery of the medications used during treatment through our network of specialty pharmacies, as well as provides our members with medication administration training and other pharmacy support services. Prescription drugs are dispensed by our contracted mail order specialty pharmacies. Revenue related to the dispensing of prescription drugs by the specialty pharmacies in our network includes the prescription fees negotiated with our clients, including the portion that we collect directly from members (deductibles, co-insurance and co-payments). The contractual fees agreed to with our clients are inclusive of the cost of the prescription drug from our specialty providers, less any applicable discounts (or rebates), as well as the related clinical and care management services. Revenue from these arrangements is recognized when the drugs are dispensed. This solution was introduced in the marketplace in the third quarter of 2017 and went live with a select number of clients on January 1, 2018.
Per Employee Per Month (PEPM) Fee
Clients who purchase our fertility benefits solution also pay us a population based PEPM fee, which provides access to our PCAs for fertility and family building education and guidance and other digital tools for all of our covered members, regardless of whether or not they ultimately pursue fertility treatment. We earn a PEPM fee for the majority of our clients. Revenue from the PEPM fee is billed and recognized monthly based upon the contractual fee and the number of employees at that specific client for that month.
Cost of Services
Our cost of services has three primary components: (1) fertility benefits services; (2) pharmacy benefits services; and (3) vendor rebates.
Fertility Benefits Services
Fertility benefits services costs include: (1) fees paid to provider clinics within our network, labs and anesthesiologists; (2) costs incurred (including salaries, bonuses, benefits, stock-based compensation expense, other related costs, and an allocation of our general overhead, depreciation and amortization) for those employees associated with our care management service functions: Provider Account Management, PCA, Provider Relations and Claims Processing teams; and (3) related information technology support costs. Our contracts with provider clinics are typically for a term of one to two years.
Pharmacy Benefits Services
Pharmacy benefits services costs include: (1) the fees for prescription drugs dispensed and clinical services provided during the reporting period by our specialty pharmacy partners; (2) costs incurred (including salaries, bonuses, benefits, stock-based compensation expense, other related costs, and an allocation of our general overhead, depreciation and amortization) for those employees associated with our care management service functions: PCA, Provider Relations and Claims Processing teams; and (3) related information technology support costs. Contracts with the specialty pharmacies are typically for a term of one year.
Vendor Rebates
We receive a rebate on certain medications purchased by our specialty pharmacies. Our contractual arrangements with pharmacy program partners provide for us to receive a rebate from established list prices, which is paid subsequent to dispensing. These rebates are recorded as a reduction to cost of services when prescriptions are dispensed.
Gross Profit and Gross Margin
Gross profit is total revenue less total cost of services. Gross margin is gross profit expressed as a percentage of total revenue. We expect that gross profit and gross margin will continue to be affected by various factors, including the geographic location where treatments are performed, as well as pricing with each of our clients, provider clinics, labs, specialty pharmacies and pharmaceutical companies, all of which are negotiated separately, have different contracting start
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and end dates and durations which are not coterminous with each other. Additionally, staffing levels and the related personnel costs, including stock-based compensation expense, and other costs necessary to deliver our care management services will continue to grow as we continue to add clients and their associated members.
Operating Expenses
Our operating expenses consist of sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses.
Sales and Marketing Expense
Sales and marketing expense consists primarily of employee related costs, including salaries, bonuses, commissions, benefits, stock-based compensation expense, other related costs, and an allocation of our general overhead, depreciation and amortization for those employees associated with sales and marketing. These expenses also include third-party consulting services, advertising, marketing, promotional events, and brand awareness activities. We expect sales and marketing expense to continue to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest and grow our business.
General and Administrative Expense
General and administrative expense consists primarily of employee related costs, including salaries, bonuses, benefits, stock-based compensation expense, other related costs, and an allocation of our general overhead, depreciation and amortization for those employees associated with general and administrative services such as executive, legal, human resources, information technology, accounting, and finance. These expenses also include third-party consulting services and facilities costs. We anticipate that we will incur additional general and administrative expenses on an ongoing basis to support the growth of our business.
Other Income, Net
Other income, net primarily includes interest income and expense as well as investment income and losses.
Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes
We are subject to income taxes in the United States. Income tax expense consists of taxes currently payable and changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities calculated according to local tax rules. Deferred income taxes are recorded for the expected tax consequences of temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and amounts recognized for income tax purposes. As of each reporting date, management considers new evidence, both positive and negative, that could affect its view of the future realization of deferred tax assets. We believe there is sufficient positive evidence to conclude that it is more likely than not that the net deferred tax assets are realizable.
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Results of Operations
The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods presented and as a percentage of revenue for those periods:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
(in thousands)
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:
Revenue$278,078 $258,394 
Cost of services(1)
215,672 199,754 
Gross profit62,406 58,640 
Operating expenses:  
Sales and marketing(1)
15,454 14,282 
General and administrative(1)
28,429 29,347 
Total operating expenses43,883 43,629 
Income from operations18,523 15,011 
Other income, net3,992 1,320 
Income before income taxes22,515 16,331 
Provision (benefit) for income taxes5,617 (1,347)
Net income$16,898 $17,678 
________________________________
(1)Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Cost of services$9,033 $8,214 
Sales and marketing7,503 6,568 
General and administrative14,516 16,026 
Total stock‑based compensation expense$31,052 $30,808 
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Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Consolidated Statements of Operations Data, as a percentage of revenue:
Revenue100.0 %100.0 %
Cost of services77.6 %77.3 %
Gross profit22.4 %22.7 %
Operating expenses:
Sales and marketing5.6 %5.5 %
General and administrative10.2 %11.4 %
Total operating expenses15.8 %16.9 %
Income from operations6.7 %5.8 %
Other income, net1.4 %0.5 %
Income before income taxes8.1 %6.3 %
Provision (benefit) for income taxes2.0 %(0.5)%
Net income6.1 %6.8 %
Note: percentages shown in the table may not foot due to rounding.
Non-GAAP Financial Measure – Adjusted EBITDA
Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental financial measure that is not required by, or presented in accordance with, U.S. GAAP. We believe that Adjusted EBITDA, when taken together with our U.S. GAAP financial results, provides meaningful supplemental information regarding our operating performance and facilitates internal comparisons of our historical operating performance on a more consistent basis by excluding certain items that may not be indicative of our business, results of operations or outlook. In particular, we believe that the use of Adjusted EBITDA is helpful to our investors as it is a measure used by management in assessing the health of our business, determining incentive compensation, evaluating our operating performance, and for internal planning and forecasting purposes.
Adjusted EBITDA is presented for supplemental informational purposes only, has limitations as an analytical tool and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for financial information presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Some of the limitations of Adjusted EBITDA include: (1) it does not properly reflect capital commitments to be paid in the future; (2) although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the underlying assets may need to be replaced and Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect these capital expenditures; (3) it does not consider the impact of stock-based compensation expense; (4) it does not reflect other non-operating income and expenses, including other income, net and interest income, net; and (5) it does not reflect tax payments that may represent a reduction in cash available to us. In addition, our Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies because they may not calculate Adjusted EBITDA in the same manner as we calculate the measure, limiting its usefulness as a comparative measure. Because of these limitations, when evaluating our performance, you should consider Adjusted EBITDA alongside other financial performance measures, including our net income, gross margin, and other U.S. GAAP results.
We calculate Adjusted EBITDA as net income, adjusted to exclude depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation expense, other income, net, interest income, net, and provision (benefit) for income taxes. The following
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table presents a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net income, the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with U.S. GAAP, for each of the periods indicated:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
(in thousands)
Net income$16,898 $17,678 
Add:
Depreciation and amortization716 541 
Stock‑based compensation expense31,052 30,808 
Other income, net(3,360)(498)
Interest income, net(632)(822)
Provision (benefit) for income taxes5,617 (1,347)
Adjusted EBITDA$50,291 $46,360 
Comparison of Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 and 2023
Revenue
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023% Change
(dollars in thousands)
Revenue$278,078 $258,394 %
Revenue increased by $19.7 million, or 8%, for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023. This increase is primarily due to a $12.6 million, or 8%, increase in revenue from our fertility benefits solution and a $7.1 million, or 7%, increase in revenue from our Progyny Rx solution. The increases in revenue from our fertility benefits solution and our Progyny Rx solution were primarily due to the increase in the number of clients and covered lives.
Cost of Services
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023% Change
(dollars in thousands)
Cost of services$215,672 $199,754 %
Cost of services increased by $15.9 million, or 8%, for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023, primarily due to an increase in medical treatment and pharmacy prescription costs associated with fertility treatment delivered. This increase in cost of services was also attributable to an increase in personnel-related costs primarily due to incremental headcount as well as a $0.8 million increase in stock-based compensation expense.
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Gross Profit and Gross Margin
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023% Change
(dollars in thousands)
Gross profit$62,406 $58,640 %
Gross margin22.4 %22.7 %
Gross profit increased by $3.8 million, or 6%, for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023.
Gross margin decreased 30 basis points for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023, primarily due to an increase in personnel-related costs, largely offset by the ongoing efficiencies realized in the delivery of our care management services.
Operating Expenses
Sales and Marketing Expense
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023% Change
(dollars in thousands)
Sales and marketing$15,454 $14,282 %
Sales and marketing expense increased by $1.2 million, or 8%, for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023. This increase was primarily due to a $1.0 million increase in personnel-related costs attributable to an increase in stock-based compensation expense, as well as a $0.2 million increase in other related sales and marketing expenses.
General and Administrative Expense
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023% Change
(dollars in thousands)
General and administrative$28,429 $29,347 (3) %
General and administrative expense decreased by $0.9 million, or 3%, for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023. This decrease was primarily due to a $0.5 million decrease in bad debt expense, as well as a $0.4 million decrease in other related general and administrative expenses.
Other Income, Net
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023% Change
(dollars in thousands)
Other income, net$3,992 $1,320 202 %
Other income, net increased by $2.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the three months ended March 31, 2023, primarily due to an increase in investment income.
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Provision (Benefit) for Income Taxes
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023% Change
(dollars in thousands)
Provision (benefit) for income taxes $5,617 ($1,347)(517) %
For the three months ended March 31, 2024, we recorded a provision for income taxes of $5.6 million, as compared to a benefit for income taxes of $1.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023, primarily due to higher operating profit as well as a decrease in tax benefits for equity compensation, including discrete tax benefits, in the current year period.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of March 31, 2024, we had $115.0 million of cash and cash equivalents and $256.9 million of marketable securities. Since inception, we have financed our operations primarily through sales of our solutions and the net proceeds we have received from sales of equity securities, including our initial public offering. Our cash and cash equivalents and working capital are affected by the timing of payments to third party providers and collections from clients and have increased as our revenue has increased. In particular, during the ramp up and onboarding of new clients who typically begin their benefits plan year as of January 1st, our accounts receivable has historically increased more than our accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities in the early part of each calendar year. Historically, these timing impacts have reversed throughout the remainder of the fiscal year. Accordingly, our working capital, and its impact on cash flow from operations, can fluctuate materially from period to period.
We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, including the proceeds from our marketable securities, and cash flow from operations will be sufficient to support our working capital and capital expenditure requirements for at least the next 12 months. We also expect these sources of existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund our long-term contractual obligations and capital needs. However, this is subject, to a certain extent, to general economic, financial, competitive, regulatory, and other factors that are beyond our control. Moreover, our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including sales of our solutions and client renewals, the timing and the amount of cash received from clients, the expansion of our sales and marketing activities, and the continued market adoption of our solutions.
Other than the prior impact on our revenue growth and the related cash flows resulting from the various restrictions on activities due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as of March 31, 2024, our sources and uses of cash were not otherwise significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and, to date based on the information currently available to us, we have not identified and do not expect any material liquidity deficiencies as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. For additional information on the various risks posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, please refer to Part II, Item 1A. "Risk Factors" included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
We may, in the future, enter into arrangements to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, products, and technologies. We may be required to seek additional equity or debt financing. In the event that we require additional financing, we may not be able to raise such financing on terms acceptable to us or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital or generate cash flows necessary to expand our operations and invest in continued innovation, we may not be able to compete successfully, which would harm our business, operations and financial condition.
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The following table summarizes our cash flows from operations for the periods presented:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
(in thousands)
Cash provided by operating activities$25,732 $20,961 
Cash provided by investing activities19,344 16,127 
Cash used in financing activities(27,411)(1,846)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents(2)— 
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents$17,663 $35,242 
Operating Activities
Net cash provided by operating activities was $25.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, primarily consisting of net income of $16.9 million adjusted for certain items, which include $31.1 million of stock-based compensation expense, $4.8 million of bad debt expense, $3.4 million of realized gains on the sale of marketable securities, $2.9 million of deferred tax expense, $0.7 million of depreciation and amortization, and $0.2 million of non-cash interest income. Changes in operating assets and liabilities resulted in cash used in operating activities from increases in accounts receivable of $60.1 million, partially offset by cash provided by operating activities from increases in accrued expenses and other current liabilities of $13.0 million, accounts payable of $4.8 million, and other noncurrent assets and liabilities of $0.1 million and decreases in prepaid expenses and other current assets of $15.2 million. These changes were a result of the impact of revenue growth and our operating results as well as the timing of cash collections and payments to third parties.
Net cash provided by operating activities was $21.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023, primarily consisting of net income of $17.7 million adjusted for certain items, which include $30.8 million of stock-based compensation expense, $5.2 million of bad debt expense, $1.3 million of deferred tax benefit, $0.5 million of depreciation and amortization, and $0.5 million of realized gains on the sale of marketable securities. Changes in operating assets and liabilities resulted in cash used in operating activities from increases in accounts receivable of $78.4 million and prepaid expenses and other current assets of $1.5 million, partially offset by cash provided by operating activities from increases in accounts payable of $36.4 million, accrued expenses and other current liabilities of $11.8 million, and other noncurrent assets and liabilities of $0.2 million. These changes were a result of the impact of revenue growth and our operating results as well as the timing of cash collections and payments to third parties.
Investing Activities
Net cash provided by investing activities was $19.3 million and $16.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, which primarily consisted of net proceeds from marketable securities of $20.2 million and $17.4 million, respectively. The remainder of the activity for each of the three months ended March 31, 2024 and March 31, 2023 consisted of purchases of computers, software, including capitalized software development costs, and leasehold improvements.
Financing Activities
Net cash used in financing activities was $27.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, consisting of repurchases of $23.8 million of common stock under the share repurchase program and payments of $5.0 million for employee taxes related to equity awards, partially offset by $1.0 million in proceeds from stock option exercises and $0.4 million in proceeds from contributions to our employee stock purchase plan.
Net cash used in financing activities was $1.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2023, consisting of payments of $3.8 million for employee taxes related to equity awards, partially offset by $1.7 million in proceeds from stock option exercises and $0.3 million in proceeds from contributions to our employee stock purchase plan.


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Share Repurchase Program
In February 2024, our Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $100 million in shares of common stock. Repurchases may be made in the form of open market repurchases, including through plans complying with Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act, depending on stock price, market conditions, and other factors, as determined by the Company. There can be no assurance as to the number of shares to be repurchased by us.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we repurchased a total of 723,577 shares of common stock under the share repurchase program for a total cost of $26.4 million, inclusive of excise taxes and trading fees, or an average price per share of $36.27. To date, we repurchased a total of 2,033,139 shares of common stock under the share repurchase program for a total cost of $70.0 million.
Operating Lease Commitments
In September 2019, we commenced a sublease agreement for our corporate offices in New York, New York. The sublease is for a 25,212 square foot office and will expire in May 2029. Pursuant to the sublease, we will pay the base rent of approximately $1.3 million per year through the end of the fifth lease year and approximately $1.4 million per year thereafter through the expiration date.
In February 2022, we entered into a lease agreement for additional space in our corporate offices in New York, New York, consisting of a 24,099 square foot office and a 21,262 square foot office, and also for continued occupancy of the 25,212 square foot office after the expiration of the current sublease. For the 24,099 square foot office, we will pay the base rent of approximately $1.4 million per year starting in April 2024 for five years and approximately $1.5 million per year thereafter through the fourth quarter of 2035, the expected expiration date. For the 21,262 square foot office, we will pay the base rent of approximately $1.3 million starting in the fourth quarter of 2025 for five years and approximately $1.4 million per year thereafter through the fourth quarter of 2035, the expected expiration date. For our current 25,212 square foot office, we will pay the base rent of approximately $1.6 million per year beginning in June 2029 through the fourth quarter of 2035, the expected expiration date.
Critical Accounting Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosures. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Actual results may differ from these estimates. To the extent that there are material differences between these estimates and our actual results, our future financial statements will be affected.
We believe that the assumptions and estimates associated with our accrued receivables related to revenue recognition, accrued claims payable, stock-based compensation expense, and accounting for income taxes have the greatest potential impact on our financial statements. Therefore, we consider these to be our critical accounting estimates.
For additional information about our critical accounting policies and estimates, see the disclosure included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K as well as "Financial Statements (Unaudited) — Note 1 – Business and Basis of Presentation" and "Financial Statements (Unaudited) — Note 2 – Significant Accounting Policies" in the notes to the unaudited consolidated financial statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. There have been no material changes to the Company’s critical accounting policies and estimates since our Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
For a full discussion of recently adopted accounting pronouncements, see "Financial Statements (Unaudited) —Note 2 – Significant Accounting Policies", to the consolidated financial statements included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
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ITEM 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are exposed to market risks in the ordinary course of our business. Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. Our market risk exposure is primarily the result of fluctuations in interest rates.
Interest Rate Risk
Interest rate risk is highly sensitive due to many factors, including U.S. monetary and tax policies, U.S. and international economic factors and other factors beyond our control.
At March 31, 2024, we had cash and cash equivalents of $115.0 million and marketable securities of $256.9 million. Interest-earning instruments carry a degree of interest rate risk. We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes and have not used any derivative financial instruments to manage our interest rate risk exposure. Our investments are exposed to market risk due to a fluctuation in interest rates, which may affect our interest income and the fair market value of our investments. A hypothetical 10% change in interest rates would not result in a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Inflation Rate Risk
While it is difficult to accurately measure the impact of inflation on our results of operations and financial condition, we do not believe that inflation has had a material effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Nonetheless, if our costs were to become subject to significant inflationary pressures, we may not be able to fully offset such higher costs through price increases. Our inability or failure to do so could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Limitations on Effectiveness of Controls and Procedures
The Company maintains disclosure controls and procedures (as that term is defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act) that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in the Company’s reports under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures. In designing and evaluating our disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In addition, the design of disclosure controls and procedures must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints, and that management is required to apply judgment in evaluating the benefits of possible controls and procedures relative to their costs.
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Our management, with the participation of our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, has evaluated, as of the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures (as that term is defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act). Based on this evaluation, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level as of March 31, 2024.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as that term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that occurred during the quarter ended March 31, 2024 that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
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PART II – OTHER INFORMATION
ITEM 1. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
See Part I, Item 1 “Financial Statements (Unaudited) — Note 6 — Commitments and Contingencies.”
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider all of the information contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including the sections titled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and Part I, Item 2. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our unaudited consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Any of the following risks could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, the actual outcome of matters as to which forward-looking statements are made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, which would cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could also be harmed by risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently do not believe are material.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
We may fail to meet our publicly announced guidance or other expectations about our business and future results of operations, which would cause our stock price to decline.
We have provided and may continue to provide guidance about our business and future results of operations. On May 9, 2024, we issued guidance for the second quarter of 2024 and full year 2024. This guidance, which consists of forward-looking statements, is qualified by, and subject to, such assumptions, estimates and expectations as of the date such guidance is given and may be revised at a later time, solely in our discretion, as we learn more information. Such forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. In developing this guidance, our management must make certain assumptions and judgments, including but not limited to, our business strategy, plans, goals, expectations concerning our market position, future operations and other financial and operating information, as well as the impact of events outside of our control (such as macroeconomic conditions) the COVID-19 pandemic or shortages of fertility medications that are or were at this time inherently difficult to predict. While the guidance may be presented with numerical specificity, it is necessarily speculative in nature. Accordingly, our guidance is only an estimate of what management believes is realizable as of the date of release of such guidance. Furthermore, analysts and investors may develop and publish their own projections of our business, which may form a consensus about our future performance. Our actual business results may vary significantly from such guidance or that consensus due to a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control, and which could adversely affect our business and future results of operations. Furthermore, if we make downward revisions of our previously announced guidance, or if our publicly announced guidance of our future results of operations fails to meet expectations of securities analysts, investors or other interested parties, the price of our common stock would decline.
The fertility market in which we participate is competitive, and if we do not continue to compete effectively, our results of operations could be harmed.
The market for our solutions is competitive and is likely to attract increased competition, which could make it hard for us to succeed. We compete on the basis of several factors, including the comprehensiveness of our benefits solutions and the Smart Cycle (our unique approach to benefits plan design which ensures that members always have coverage for a full treatment cycle as their access to treatment is not limited by a dollar maximum that could be exhausted mid-treatment), superior clinical outcomes, access for all employee groups (including LGBTQ+ and single mothers by choice), equitable access to care across geographies, quality of the member experience and comprehensive member support, access to our selective Center of Excellence (our proprietary, credentialed network of high-quality fertility specialists), data reporting and sharing and access to an integrated pharmacy solution. While we do not believe any single competitor offers a similarly robust and integrated fertility and family building benefits solution as to what we provide, there are alternative solutions in the market such as the health insurance companies that are able to provide fertility benefits management services as part of their overall administration of a company's health plan and that are our primary competition. In addition, other competitors include specialty fertility-focused solutions owned or sponsored by the health insurance companies to provide more comprehensive support to fertility patients than their general medical coverage
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provides, such as case management or educational support, and the venture capital or private equity-backed companies that focus on maternity and reproductive health services more broadly, or who provide fertility-specific benefits solutions.
As we market our solutions to potential clients that currently utilize other vendors to manage their employees’ fertility benefits, we may fail to convince their internal stakeholders that our offerings and our model are superior to their current solutions. Some of our competitors are more established, benefit from greater brand recognition and have substantially greater financial, technical and marketing resources. Our competitors may seek to develop or integrate solutions and services that may become more efficient or appealing to our existing and potential clients. For example, fertility-focused pharmacy benefits managers, or PBMs, could emerge that would compete with Progyny Rx. In addition, we believe one of our key competitive advantages is our purpose-built, data-driven platform. While we do not believe any competitors have developed a similarly robust data collection, analysis and reporting process at this time, current or future competitors may be successful in doing so in the future.
In addition, as the fertility benefits field gains more attention, more competitors may be drawn into the market. We also could be adversely affected if we fail to identify or effectively respond to changes in market dynamics. As a result of any of these factors, we may not be able to continue to compete successfully against our current or future competitors, and this competition could result in the failure of our platform to continue to maintain market acceptance, which would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Many healthcare industry participants are consolidating to create larger and more integrated healthcare delivery systems with greater market power and we expect regulatory and economic conditions to result in additional consolidation in the healthcare industry. Additionally, financial investors are acquiring fertility practices and this may accelerate consolidation within the industry. Although comprehensive, our solution is a standalone fertility benefit. Clients may prefer a single healthcare solution, which could adversely affect our ability to retain existing clients or grow our client base. In addition, we work with partner organizations to market our benefit to potential clients. As consolidation accelerates, the economies of scale of our partners’ organizations may grow. If a partner experiences sizable growth following consolidation, it may determine that it no longer needs to rely on us and may reduce its demand for our services. Furthermore, as healthcare providers consolidate to create larger and more integrated healthcare delivery systems with greater market power, these providers may try to use their market power to negotiate fee increases for their services. Finally, consolidation may also result in the acquisition of our partners by competitors or development by our partners of products and services that compete with our products and services. Any of these potential results of consolidation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Unfavorable conditions in the global economy or our industry could limit our ability to grow our business and negatively affect our results of operations.
Market volatility and uncertainty related to general economic conditions remain widespread, making it very difficult for our clients and us to accurately forecast and plan future business activities. Negative conditions in the general economy in the United States and elsewhere, including conditions resulting from changes in gross domestic product growth, financial and credit market fluctuations, inflation, consumer confidence, international trade relations, geopolitical conflict, political turmoil, natural catastrophes, resurgences or outbreaks of contagious diseases or the worsening thereof, including the COVID-19 pandemic, warfare and terrorist attacks, could cause a decrease in business investments, including spending on employee benefits, and negatively affect the growth of our business. Economic conditions including inflation, interest rate fluctuations, changes in capital market conditions, disruptions in the banking industry and other parts of the financial services sector, and regulatory changes, such as the taxability of medical benefits like ours, may affect our ability to obtain necessary financing on acceptable terms.
Unfavorable changes in our industry, including reductions in general healthcare spending, or in the United States and global economy could have a negative effect on our and our clients’ and potential clients’ results of operations. This could result in the delay or cancellation by certain clients, including if purchases of our solution are perceived by clients and potential clients to be discretionary, if they experience a reduction in their employee headcounts, whether due to reductions in force or turnover, or are unable to grow employee headcounts or there are material defaults by members on past amounts due. An increase in the cost of obtaining fertility medication or general medical cost inflation could also negatively impact our results of operation. In addition, the increased pace of consolidation in the healthcare industry may result in competitors with greater market power. Many economists believe the global economy will likely experience a recessionary environment in the near future. The Federal Reserve’s efforts to tame inflation have led to, and may continue to lead to, increased interest rates. A significant escalation or expansion of economic disruption could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. We cannot predict the timing, strength, or duration of any economic slowdown, instability, or recovery, generally or within any particular industry, nor its impact on us or our clients.
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Our business depends on our ability to retain our existing clients and increase the adoption of our services within our client base. Any failure to do so would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As part of our growth strategy, we are focused on retaining and expanding our services within our existing client base. A client can expand the fertility benefits they offer to their employees in a number of ways, including by adding egg freezing or increasing the number of Smart Cycle units under their benefits plan (i.e., from two to three Smart Cycles per household). In addition, our fertility benefits solution clients can purchase our add-on Progyny Rx solution. We went live with Progyny Rx in 2018 and 91% of our current clients have now launched this solution, including approximately 98% of the clients we signed in 2023.
Factors that may affect our ability to retain our existing clients and sell additional solutions to them include, but are not limited to, the following:
the price, timeliness and outcomes of our solutions;
the availability, price, timeliness, outcome, performance and functionality of competing solutions;
our ability to maintain and appropriately expand our Center of Excellence network of high-quality fertility specialists;
our ability to offer complementary solutions and services that will enhance our comprehensive family building offering;
changes in healthcare laws, regulations or the enforcement of such laws and regulations, or trends;
any material increase in the unemployment rate;
global economic conditions and the business environment of our clients and, in particular, slowing growth or reduction in our clients’ headcount; and
consolidation of our clients, resulting in a change to their benefits program or a shift to one of our competitors.
Any of the above factors, alone or together, could negatively affect our ability to retain existing clients and sell additional solutions to them, which would have an adverse effect on our business, revenue growth and results of operations.
Our largest clients account for a significant portion of our revenue and a significant number of our clients are in the technology industry. The loss of one or more of these clients, changes to pricing terms with these clients or changes within the technology industry could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We currently serve over 450 employers with at least 1,000 covered lives in the United States across more than 40 industries. For the three months ended March 31, 2024, one of our clients accounted for 11% of our total revenue. For the three months ended March 31, 2023, one of our clients accounted for 13%, of our total revenue. No other clients accounted for more than 10% of our total revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. Engagement with these clients is generally covered through contracts that are multi-year in duration. These clients may terminate early or decline to renew their existing contracts with us upon expiration and any such termination or failure to renew could have a negative impact on our revenue and compromise our growth strategy. Our clients could also renegotiate pricing terms at the time of renewal, which could have a negative impact on our revenue. In addition, we generate a significant portion of our revenue from clients in the technology industry. Any of a variety of changes in that industry, including reductions in workforce or heightened employee attrition, changes in economic conditions, mergers or consolidations, reduced spending on benefits programs and other factors, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If we are unable to attract new clients, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.

To increase our revenue, we must continue to attract new clients. Our ability to do so depends in large part on the success of our sales and marketing efforts, and the success of attracting industry leaders in diversified sectors, which could prompt others in the same sectors to follow suit to remain competitive. Potential clients may seek out other options; therefore, we must demonstrate that our solutions are valuable and superior to alternatives. If we fail to provide high-quality solutions and convince clients of the benefits of our model and value proposition, we may not be able to attract new
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clients. The market for our solutions could decline or grow more slowly than we expect, including due to general economic conditions, and high unemployment rates, reductions in workforce or employee attrition, impacts related to outbreaks and resurgences of contagious diseases or worsening thereof, including the COVID-19 pandemic, a decrease in business investments, including spending on employee benefits, and other factors. If the markets for our solutions decline or grow more slowly than we expect, or if the number of clients that contract with us for our solutions declines or fails to increase as we expect, our financial results could be impacted. As the markets in which we participate mature, fertility solutions and services evolve and competitors begin to enter into the market and introduce differentiated solutions or services that are perceived to compete with our solutions, particularly if such competing solutions are adopted by an industry leader in a particular sector, our ability to sell our solutions could be impaired. As a result of these and other factors, we may be unable to attract new clients, which would have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic, including variants and resurgences, has had and may continue to have, and similar health epidemics or pandemics could in the future have, an adverse impact on our business, operations, and the markets and communities in which we and our clients, members and providers operate.
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve, with pockets of resurgence and the emergence of variant strains contributing to continued uncertainty about its scope, duration, severity, trajectory and lasting impact. The pandemic adversely impacted, and may continue to adversely impact, many aspects of our business. Our revenue growth in past periods was negatively impacted by COVID-19, including variants, and our revenue growth in future periods may continue to be adversely impacted by COVID-19.Our providers have delayed and may in the future delay new fertility cycles because they operate in areas acutely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Many of our members live in communities that have been acutely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and have delayed and may not want to continue or begin new fertility cycles during the pandemic, including due to resurgences in and the emergence of variant strains. Furthermore, as certain of our potential clients experience downturns or uncertainty in their own business operations and revenue because of the economic effects resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, they have and may continue to decrease their spending on health benefits, which may disproportionately impact fertility benefits, and delay or cancel implementation of fertility benefits. Each of these factors could affect member behavior, our utilization rates and the number of members enrolled in our clients’ benefit plans.
In addition to the direct and indirect impacts to our business, the economy may continue to be impacted as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, including any resurgences in infections, and actions taken in response to it. To the extent a weakened economy impacts clients’ or members’ ability or willingness to pay for our benefit, or our vendors’, including any pharmacy program partners’, ability to provide services to us, we could see our business and results of operations negatively impacted.

In addition, the pandemic has resulted in, and may continue to result in, significant disruption of global financial markets, which could reduce our ability to access capital and could negatively affect our liquidity in the future. Moreover, to the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business, financial condition and results of operations, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, including but not limited to, those related to our ability to expand our customer base and develop and expand our sales and marketing capabilities.

The global impact of COVID-19, due to variants and resurgences of infections, continues to evolve, and we will continue to monitor the situation closely. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or a similar health epidemic or pandemic is highly uncertain and subject to change; and will depend on numerous evolving factors that we may not be able to accurately predict, including without limitation: the trajectory, duration, scope, severity, and any resurgences of the COVID-19 pandemic; any mandates, in particular as new variants emerge; the public’s perception of the safety of the vaccines and other treatments and their willingness to take the vaccines or other treatments; the existence and prevalence of new variants of the virus; the continued impact on worldwide macroeconomic conditions, including interest rates, employment rates and consumer confidence; governmental, business, and individuals’ actions that have been, and continue to be, taken in response to the pandemic; the effect on our providers, clients and members; changes in demand for our services; our ability to sell and provide our services; the ability of our clients and members to pay for our services; the health of, and the effect on, our workforce; and the potential effects on our internal controls, including our internal control over financial reporting, as a result of changes in working environments for our employees and business partners. There is no guarantee that any future resurgences or future outbreaks of this or any other widespread epidemics or pandemics will not occur, or that the global economy will fully recover, either of which could seriously harm our business.
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A significant change in the level or the mix of the utilization of our solutions could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We do not control nor can we impact the level of utilization of our solutions or the mix of utilization of our solutions for each of our clients, in particular for newer clients. A significant reduction in the number of members using our solutions could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Factors that have and could continue to contribute to a reduction in the use of our solutions include: reductions in workforce by existing clients; general economic downturn that results in business failures and high unemployment rates; impacts related to outbreaks and resurgence of contagious diseases and/or the worsening thereof, including the COVID-19 pandemic; employers no longer offering comprehensive health coverage or offering alternative solutions such as coverage on a voluntary, employee-funded basis; labor shortages at our clinics; federal and state legal and/or regulatory changes; changes to taxability of medical benefits; failure to adapt and respond effectively to the changing medical landscape, changing laws, regulations and government enforcement priorities, changing client needs, requirements or preferences; premium increases and benefits changes; or negative publicity, through social media or otherwise and news coverage.
It is also difficult for us to predict the level or mix of utilization of our services at the member level nor do we have any control over the level or mix of utilization of our services. If the actual utilization of our services by members is significantly greater than budgeted, the client may be responsible for corresponding costs that exceed its planned expenditure. If we cannot help our clients accurately predict the level of utilization by their employees, our clients may turn to alternative solutions, and our business and profitability would be adversely impacted.
We have a limited operating history with our current platform of solutions, which makes it difficult to predict our future results of operations.
We went live with our fertility benefits solution in 2016 and Progyny Rx in 2018. As a result of our limited operating history with the current platform of solutions, as well as a limited amount of time serving a majority of our client base, our ability to accurately forecast our future results of operations is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to plan for and model future growth. Our historical revenue growth should not be considered indicative of our future performance. Further, in future periods, our revenue growth could slow or decline for a number of reasons, including slowing demand for our solutions and fertility benefits in general, change in utilization trends by our members, general economic slowdown, an increase in unemployment, an increase in competition, changes to healthcare trends and regulations, changes to science relating to the fertility market, a decrease in the growth of the fertility market, or our failure, for any reason, to continue to take advantage of growth opportunities. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties and our future revenue growth are incorrect or change, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations, and our business could suffer.
We have a history of operating losses and may not sustain profitability in the future.
We experienced net losses from 2015 to 2019. For example, our net loss was $8.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. While we have experienced significant revenue growth since 2016, achieved profitability starting in 2020 and currently project future profitability, we cannot guarantee whether we will obtain sufficient levels of sales to sustain our growth or maintain profitability in the future. We also expect our costs and expenses to increase in future periods, which could negatively affect our future results of operations if our revenue does not increase. In particular, we intend to continue to incrementally expand our sales and client success teams to educate potential clients and drive new client adoption, as well as enhance the scope of Progyny benefits within our existing client base. We also expect to incur additional costs as we introduce new solutions and services to enhance our comprehensive family building offering. We will also face increased compliance costs associated with our growth, and the expansion of our client base. In addition, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses related to being a public company. Our efforts to grow our business may be costlier than we expect, and we may not be able to increase our revenue enough to offset our increased operating expenses. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including the other risks described herein, and unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications and delays, and other unknown events. If we are unable to sustain profitability, the value of our business and common stock may significantly decrease.
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Changes or developments in the health insurance markets in the United States, including passage and implementation of a law to create a single-payer or government-run health insurance program, could adversely harm our business and results of operations.
Our business operates within the public and private sectors of the U.S. health insurance system, which are evolving quickly and subject to a changing regulatory environment, and our future financial performance will depend in part on growth in the market for private health insurance, as our solutions are integrated with health insurance plans offered by insurance carriers for our clients or our clients’ self-insured plans, as well as our ability to adapt to regulatory developments. Changes and developments in the health insurance system or pharmacy benefit management practices in the United States could reduce demand for our services and harm our business. For example, there has been an ongoing national debate relating to the health insurance system in the United States. Certain elected officials have introduced proposals that would create a new single-payer national health insurance program for all United States residents, replacing virtually all other sources of public and private insurance, to more incremental approaches, or creating a new public health insurance option that would compete with private insurers. Additionally, proposals to establish a single-payer or government-run healthcare system at the state level are regularly introduced, such as in New York and California. At the federal level, President Biden and Congress may consider other legislation and/or executive orders to change elements of the ACA. In June 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the most recent judicial challenge to the ACA brought by several states and ruled that the plaintiffs lacked standing to challenge the individual mandate provision, thus leaving the ACA in effect without ruling on the constitutionality of the individual mandate.
On January 28, 2021, President Biden issued an Executive Order that reiterates the policy of the Administration to protect and strengthen the ACA, making high-quality healthcare accessible and affordable to all Americans. The Executive Order directed federal agencies to examine agency actions to determine whether they are consistent with the Administration’s commitment regarding the ACA, and begin rulemaking to suspend, revise, or rescind any inconsistent actions. Areas of focus include policies or practices that may reduce affordability of coverage, present unnecessary barriers to coverage, or undermine protections for people with preexisting conditions. We continue to evaluate the effect that the ACA and its possible modifications, repeal and replacement may have on our business. We cannot predict the timing or impact of any future rulemaking, court decisions or other changes in the law.
In the event that laws, regulations or rules that eliminate or reduce private sources of health insurance or require such benefits to be taxable are adopted, the subsequent impact on the insurance carriers and/or self-insured plans may in turn adversely impact our ability to accurately forecast future results and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The health benefits industry may be subject to negative publicity, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The health benefits industry may be subject to negative publicity, which can arise from, among other things, increases in premium rates, industry consolidation, cost of care initiatives, drug prices and the ongoing debate over the ACA. In addition, negative publicity may result in increased regulation and legislative review of industry practices, which may further increase our costs of doing business and adversely affect our profitability. For example, PBM programs and drug rebates have been criticized as leading to a lack of transparency about the true cost of a drug, and certain members of Congress as well as HHS’s Office of Inspector General, or OIG, have proposed regulatory changes that could potentially affect our business and operations. Negative public perception or publicity of the health benefits industry in general, the insurance carriers with whom we integrate our solutions, our self-insured employer clients, or us could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If our information technology systems, or those of our provider clinics, specialty pharmacies or other vendors lag, fail or suffer security breaches, we may incur a material disruption of our services or suffer a loss or inappropriate disclosure of confidential information, which could materially impact our business and the results of operations.
Our business is increasingly dependent on critical, complex and interdependent information technology systems, including cloud-based systems, to support business processes as well as internal and external communications. Our success therefore is dependent in part on our ability to secure, integrate, develop, redesign and enhance our (or contract with vendors to provide) information technology systems that support our business strategy initiatives and processes in a compliant, secure, and cost and resource efficient manner. If we or our provider clinics, specialty pharmacies or other vendors have an issue with our or their respective information technology systems, it may result in a disruption to our operations or downstream disruption to our relationships with our clients or our selective network of high-quality fertility
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specialists. Additionally, if we choose to in source any of the services currently handled by a third party, it may result in technological or operational disruptions.
In the current environment, there are numerous and evolving risks to cybersecurity and privacy, including criminal hackers, hacktivists, state-sponsored intrusions, industrial espionage, employee malfeasance and human or technological error. High-profile security breaches at other companies and in government agencies have increased in recent years. There is the possibility of targeted cyberattacks by foreign countries or entities that could impact United States government and private companies’ technological infrastructures, some of which we utilize to provide our services. The healthcare industry has seen a shift to an accelerated use of digital and technological platforms, especially due to the COVID-19 pandemic, including its variants. As a result of such shift, there have been and may continue to be more targeted cybersecurity attacks and threats on us, our vendors, provider clinics and specialty pharmacies. Despite the implementation of security measures, including steps designed to secure our technology infrastructure and sensitive data, we can provide no assurance that our current information technology system or any updates or upgrades thereto, the current or future information technology systems of our provider clinics, specialty pharmacies or other vendors, are fully protected against malicious intrusion, malware, computer viruses, unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war, telecommunication and electrical failures, information or data theft or other similar risks. Furthermore, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to, or to sabotage, systems change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures. We may also experience security breaches that may remain undetected for an extended period. Even if identified, we may be unable to adequately investigate or remediate incidents or breaches due to attackers increasingly using tools and techniques that are designed to circumvent controls, to avoid detection, and to remove or obfuscate forensic evidence.
We have experienced in the past and expect to continue to experience actual and attempted cyber-attacks of our information technology systems, such as through email phishing scams, spoofing attempts and malicious attachments. Although none of these actual or attempted cyber-attacks has had a material adverse impact on our operations or financial condition, we cannot guarantee that such incidents will not have such an impact in the future. In addition, to the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss or inappropriate disclosure of confidential information, we could incur liability. We have access to sensitive information relating to members, our employees and our business partners in the ordinary course of our business. Any failure or perceived failure by us, or our third-party contractors on our behalf, to comply with local and foreign laws regarding privacy and data security, as well as contractual commitments in this respect, may result in governmental enforcement claims, fines, or litigation, which could have an adverse effect on our reputation and business. If a significant data breach occurred, our reputation could be materially and adversely affected, confidence among our clients and members may be diminished, or we may be subject to legal claims, any of which may contribute to the loss of customers and have a material adverse effect on us. We maintain cyber liability insurance; however, this insurance may not be sufficient to cover the financial, legal, business or reputational losses that may result from an interruption or breach of our systems. To the extent such disruptions or uncertainties result in the theft, destruction, loss or misappropriation or release of our confidential data or our intellectual property, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. See “Risks Related to Government Regulation - We operate in a highly regulated industry and must comply with a significant number of complex and evolving legal and regulatory requirements,
as well as complex judicial mandates - Data Protection and Breaches.”
If we fail to offer high-quality support, our reputation could suffer.
Our clients rely on our client success personnel and our members rely on our PCAs to resolve issues and realize the full benefits that our solutions and services provide. High-quality support is also important for the renewal and expansion of our services to existing clients. The importance of our support functions will increase as we expand our business and pursue new clients. If we do not help our clients quickly resolve issues and provide effective ongoing support, our ability to maintain and expand our offerings to existing and new clients could suffer, and our reputation with existing or potential clients could suffer. Further, to the extent that we are unsuccessful in hiring, training and retaining adequate PCAs and client success personnel, our ability to provide adequate and timely support to our members and clients would be negatively impacted, and our members’ and clients’ satisfaction with our solutions and services would be adversely affected.
Our marketing efforts depend significantly on our ability to receive positive references from our existing clients, channel partners and benefit consultants.
Our marketing efforts depend significantly on our ability to call on our current clients, channel partners and benefit consultants to provide positive references to new and potential clients. Given our limited number of long-term clients, the loss or dissatisfaction of any client, channel partnership or benefit consulting relationship could substantially
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harm our brand and reputation, inhibit the market adoption of our offering and impair our ability to attract new clients and maintain existing clients. Any of these consequences could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Failure to effectively develop and expand our marketing and sales capabilities could harm our ability to increase our client base and achieve broader market acceptance of solutions we provide.
Our ability to increase our client base and achieve broader market acceptance of solutions we provide will depend to a significant extent on our ability to expand our marketing and sales capabilities. We plan to continue expanding our direct sales force and to dedicate significant resources to sales and marketing programs, including direct sales, inside sales, targeted direct marketing, advertising, digital marketing, e-newsletter and conference sponsorships. All of these efforts will require us to invest significant financial and other resources. Our business and results of operations could be harmed if our sales and marketing efforts do not generate significant increases in revenue. We may not achieve anticipated revenue growth from expanding our sales and marketing efforts if we are unable to hire, develop, integrate and retain talented and effective sales personnel, if our new and existing sales personnel, on the whole, are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time, or if our sales and marketing programs are not effective.
Our future revenue may not grow at the rates they historically have, or at all.
We have experienced significant growth since the launch of our fertility benefits solution in 2016. Revenue and our client base may not grow at the same rates they historically have, or they may decline in the future. Our future growth will depend, in part, on our ability to:
continue to attract new clients and maintain existing clients;
price our solutions and services effectively so that we are able to attract new clients, expand sales to our existing clients and maintain profitability;
provide our clients and members with client support that meets their needs, including through dedicated PCAs;
maintain successful collection of member cost shares and other applicable receivable balances directly from members;
retain and maintain relationships with high-quality and respected fertility specialists;
attract and retain highly qualified personnel to support all clients and members;
maintain satisfactory relationships with insurance carriers; and
increase awareness of our brand and successfully compete with other companies.
We may not successfully accomplish all or any of these objectives, which may affect our future revenue, and which makes it difficult for us to forecast our future results of operations. In addition, if the assumptions that we use to plan our business are incorrect or change in reaction to changes in our market, it may be difficult for us to maintain profitability. You should not rely on our revenue for any prior quarterly or annual periods as any indication of our future revenue or revenue growth.
In addition, we expect to continue to expend substantial financial and other resources on:
sales and marketing;
our technology infrastructure, including systems architecture, scalability, availability, performance and security; and
general administration, including increased legal and accounting expenses associated with being a public company.
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These investments may not result in increased revenue growth in our business. If we are unable to increase our revenue at a rate sufficient to offset the expected increase in our costs, our business, financial position, and results of operations will be harmed, and we may not be able to maintain profitability over the long term. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen operating expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors that may result in losses in future periods.
If our revenue growth does not meet our expectations in future periods, we may not maintain profitability in the future, and our business, financial position and results of operations may be harmed.
If the estimates and assumptions we use to determine the size of the target markets for our services are inaccurate, our future growth rate may be impacted and our business would be harmed.
Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts, including those we have generated ourselves, are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate, including the risks described herein. Even if the markets in which we compete achieve the forecasted growth, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.
Our estimates of the market opportunity for our services are based on the assumption that the purpose-built, data-driven and disruptive fertility benefits platform with the Smart Cycle plan design we offer will be attractive to employers. Employers may pursue alternatives or may not see the value in providing enhanced fertility-related coverage and services to their employees. In addition, we believe we are helping to expand the size of the fertility market as we enhance demand and increase awareness for fertility benefits. If these assumptions prove inaccurate, or if the increase in awareness of fertility benefits attracts potential competitors to enter the market and results in greater competition, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Furthermore, the healthcare industry is rapidly evolving and the markets for fertility benefits management and the related fertility pharmacy benefits management are relatively immature. It is difficult to predict member utilization rates and demand for our solutions, the entry of competitive solutions or the future growth rate and size of the fertility market, and more specifically the fertility benefits management market and the pharmacy benefits management market. The expansion of the fertility market depends on a number of factors, including, but not limited to: the continued trend of individuals starting families later in life, increase in number of single mothers by choice, adoption of non-traditional paths to parenthood and continued de-stigmatization of infertility. Further, the expansion of the fertility benefits management market and the pharmacy benefits market both depend on a number of factors, including, but not limited to: the continued trends of a competitive workforce with employers competing for talent based on benefits that they provide and employers’ focus on benefits to attract and retain top talent.
Additionally, in June 2022 the U.S. Supreme Court in Dobbs v. Jackson Womens Health Organization reversed Roe v. Wade by holding that there is no constitutional right to abortion. Consequently, certain states have enacted or proposed restrictive abortion laws that may also implicate fertility procedures and travel reimbursement programs, which may decrease the demand for, or availability of, certain fertility services. Although President Biden issued executive orders and federal agencies have issued guidance intended to protect access to reproductive healthcare services, the enactment of certain state laws restricting abortion care and other changes in laws, or in interpretation of laws through court decisions, affecting fertility benefits may conflict with, and ultimately limit, the covered benefits offered by a company to its employees and the types of fertility treatment services available at provider clinics. We cannot predict the timing or impact of any future rulemaking, executive orders, court decisions or other changes in the law, or in how such laws, once enacted, would be interpreted and enforced.
If fertility benefits management or pharmacy benefits management do not continue to achieve market acceptance, or if there is a reduction in demand caused by a lack of client or member acceptance, a reduction in employers’ focus on enhancing benefits to employees, weakening economic conditions, data security or privacy concerns, governmental regulation, competing offerings or otherwise, the market for our solutions and services might not continue to develop or might develop more slowly than we expect, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any losses, costs or liabilities may not be covered by, or may exceed the coverage limits of, any or all applicable insurance policies.
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We may not be able to successfully manage our growth, and if we are not able to grow efficiently, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed.
As usage of our solutions grows, we will need to devote additional resources to improving and maintaining our infrastructure. In addition, we will need to appropriately scale our internal business systems and our client success and member services personnel to serve our growing client base. Any failure of or delay in these efforts could result in reduced client and member satisfaction, resulting in decreased sales to new clients and lower renewal and utilization rates by existing clients, which could hurt our revenue growth and our reputation. Even if we are successful in these efforts, they will require the dedication of management time and attention. We could also face inefficiencies or service disruptions as a result of our efforts to scale our internal infrastructure. We cannot be sure that the expansion and improvements to our internal infrastructure will be effectively implemented on a timely basis, and such failures could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business experiences seasonality, which may cause fluctuations in our sales and results of operations.
Our business experiences moderate seasonality in revenue with a slightly higher proportion of revenue during the second half of the year as compared to the first half. Given that the majority of our clients contract with us for a January 1st benefits plan start date and that the average cost of treatments earlier in the overall treatment process is somewhat lower than the average cost as treatment progresses, our revenue from treatment services tends to grow as the year continues, particularly for new clients. In addition, as with most medical benefits plans, members will typically seek to maximize the use of their benefits once they have reached their annual deductible and/or annual out-of-pocket maximums, thereby increasing treatments in the latter part of the year. We expect that this seasonality will continue to affect our revenue and results of operations in the future as we continue to target larger enterprise clients.
In addition, the seasonality of our businesses could create cash flow management risks if we do not adequately anticipate and plan for periods of comparatively decreased cash flow, which could negatively impact our ability to execute on our strategy, which in turn could harm our results of operations. Accordingly, our results for any particular quarter may vary for a number of reasons, and we caution investors to evaluate our quarterly results in light of these factors.
If our new solutions and services are not adopted by our clients or members, or if we fail to innovate and develop new offerings that are adopted by our clients, our revenue and results of operations may be adversely affected.
To date, we have derived a substantial majority of our revenue from sales of our fertility benefits and Progyny Rx solutions. As we operate in an evolving industry and new markets, our long-term results of operations and continued growth will depend on our ability to successfully develop and market new successful solutions and services to our clients. If our existing clients and members do not value and/or are not willing to make additional payments for such new solutions or services, it could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we are unable to predict clients’ or members’ preferences, if the markets in which we participate change, including in response to government regulation, or if we are unable to modify our solutions and services on a timely basis, we may lose clients. Our results of operations would also suffer if our innovations are not responsive to the needs of our members, appropriately timed with market opportunity or effectively brought to market.
If we fail to adapt and respond effectively to the changing medical landscape, changing laws, regulations and government enforcement priorities, changing client needs, requirements or preferences, our offerings may become less competitive.
The market in which we compete is subject to a changing medical landscape and changing laws, regulations and government enforcement priorities, as well as changing client needs, requirements and preferences. The success of our business will depend, in part, on our ability to adapt and respond effectively to these changes on a timely basis. Our business strategy may not effectively respond to these changes, and we may fail to recognize and position ourselves to capitalize on market opportunities. We may not have sufficient advance notice and resources to develop and effectively implement an alternative strategy. There may be scientific or clinical changes that require us to change our solutions or that make our solutions, including the Smart Cycles, less competitive in the marketplace. If there are sensitivities to our model or our existing competitors and new entrants create new disruptive business models and/or develop new solutions that clients and members prefer to our solutions, we may lose clients and members, and our results of operations, cash flows and/or prospects may be adversely affected. The future performance of our business will depend in large part on our ability to design and implement market appropriate strategic initiatives, some of which will occur over several years in a dynamic industry. If these initiatives do not achieve their objectives, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
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If we fail to maintain and enhance our brand, our ability to expand our client base will be impaired and our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.
We believe that maintaining and enhancing the Progyny brand is important to support the marketing and sale of our existing and future solutions to new clients and expand sales of our solutions to existing clients. We also believe that the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition in our market increases. Successfully maintaining and enhancing our brand will depend largely on the effectiveness of our marketing efforts, our ability to provide reliable services that continue to meet the needs of our clients at competitive prices, our ability to maintain our clients’ trust, our ability to continue to develop new solutions, and our ability to successfully differentiate our platform from competitive solutions and services. Our brand promotion activities may not generate client awareness or yield increased revenue, and even if they do, any increased revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.
If we fail to retain and motivate members of our management team or other key employees, or fail to attract additional qualified personnel to support our operations, our business and future growth prospects could be harmed.
Our success and future growth depend largely upon the continued services of our management team and our other key employees, and on our ability to continue to identify, attract, develop, integrate and retain them. From time to time, there are changes in our executive management team or other key employees. Our executive officers and other key employees are employed on an at-will basis, which means that these personnel could terminate their employment with us at any time. The loss of one or more of our executive officers or other key employees, or the failure by our executive team to effectively work with our employees and lead our company could in the future harm our business.
In addition, to execute our growth plan, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel. Competition for these personnel is intense, especially for experienced sales and client success personnel. There is no guarantee we will be able to attract such personnel or that competition among potential employers will not result in us being required to offer increased salaries or other benefits. From time to time, we have experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have. If we hire employees from competitors or other companies, their former employers may attempt to assert that these employees or we have breached their legal obligations, resulting in a diversion of our time and resources. In addition, prospective and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived value of our equity awards declines, experiences significant volatility, or increases such that prospective employees believe there is limited upside to the value of our equity awards, it may adversely affect our ability to recruit and retain key employees. Additionally, our performance also depends in part on the successful integration of newly hired executive officers or other key employees into their roles. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be harmed. Further, if members of our management and other key personnel in critical functions across our organization are unable to perform their duties or have limited availability, we may not be able to execute on our business strategy and/or our operations may be negatively impacted.
If we cannot maintain our company culture as we grow, our success and our business and competitive position may be harmed.
We believe our culture has been a key contributor to our success to date and that the critical nature of the mission we are pursuing promotes a sense of greater purpose and fulfillment in our employees. We have invested substantial time and resources in building our culture, and any failure to preserve our culture could negatively affect our ability to retain and recruit personnel, which is critical to our growth, and to effectively focus on and pursue our corporate objectives. As we grow and develop the infrastructure of a public company, we may find it difficult to maintain these important aspects of our culture. If we fail to maintain our company culture, our business and competitive position may be harmed.
Any litigation against us could be costly and time-consuming to defend and could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We have in the past and may in the future become subject to legal proceedings and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business, such as claims brought by our clients or vendors in connection with commercial disputes or employment claims made by our current or former employees. We are unable to predict the outcome of any legal proceedings. Such proceedings might result in substantial costs, regardless of the outcome, and may divert management’s attention and resources, which might seriously harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Insurance
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might not cover litigation claims, might not provide sufficient payments to cover all the costs to resolve one or more such claims, and might not continue to be available on terms acceptable to us. A claim brought against us that is uninsured or underinsured could result in unanticipated costs, potentially harming our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Relationships with Third Parties
Our business depends on our ability to maintain our Center of Excellence network of high-quality fertility specialists and other healthcare providers. If we are unable to do so, our future growth would be limited and our business, financial condition and results of operations would be harmed.
Our success is dependent upon our continued ability to maintain a selective Center of Excellence, our proprietary, credentialed network of high-quality fertility specialists. Fertility specialists and our other network providers could refuse to contract with us, demand higher payments or take other actions that could result in higher medical costs, less attractive service for our members or difficulty meeting regulatory or accreditation requirements. Identifying high-quality fertility specialists and other healthcare providers, credentialing and negotiating contracts with them and evaluating, monitoring and maintaining our network, requires significant time and resources. Our network provider arrangements generally may be terminated or not renewed by either party without cause upon prior written notice. We cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to continue to renew our existing contracts or enter into new contracts on a timely basis or under favorable terms enabling us to service our members profitably. If we are not successful in maintaining our relationships with top fertility specialists, these fertility specialists may refuse to renew their contracts with us, and potential competitors may be effective in onboarding these or other high-quality fertility specialists to create a similarly high-quality network. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on the provision of services to our members and our operations.
There may be additional shifts in the fertility specialty provider space as the fertility market matures, and high-quality fertility specialists may become more demanding in re-negotiating to remain in our network. Our ability to develop and maintain satisfactory relationships with high-quality fertility specialists and other healthcare providers also may be negatively impacted by other factors not associated with us, such as legal and regulatory changes, including changes in government enforcement priorities, impacting providers or consolidation activity among hospitals, physician groups and healthcare providers. In addition, in some markets and geographies, certain organizations of physicians or healthcare providers, such as practice management companies (which group together physician practices for administrative efficiency and marketing leverage), accountable care organizations, clinically integrated networks, independent practice associations, and other organizational structures that physicians and other healthcare providers choose may change the way in which these providers do business with us, and may change the competitive landscape. Such organizations or groups of healthcare providers may compete directly with us, which could adversely affect our operations, and our results of operations, financial position, and cash flows by impacting our relationships with these providers or affecting the way that we price our products and estimate our costs, which might require us to incur costs to change our operations. Healthcare providers in our network may consolidate or merge into other groups or healthcare systems, resulting in a reduction of providers in our network and in the competitive environment. In addition, if these providers refuse to contract with us, use their market position to negotiate contracts unfavorable to us or place us at a competitive disadvantage, our ability to market our solutions or to be profitable in those areas could be materially and adversely affected.
From time to time, our network providers may assert, or threaten to assert, claims seeking to terminate our contractual arrangements. If enough provider agreements were terminated, such terminations could adversely impact the adequacy of our network to service our members, and may put us at risk of non-compliance with applicable federal and state laws. If we are unable to retain our current provider contract terms or enter into new provider contracts timely or on favorable terms, our profitability may be harmed. In addition, from time to time, we may in the future be subject to class action or other lawsuits by healthcare providers with respect to claims payment procedures, reimbursement policies, network participation, or similar matters. In addition, regardless of whether any such lawsuits brought against us are successful or have merit, they will be time-consuming and costly, and could have an adverse impact on our reputation. As a result, under such circumstances, we may be unable to operate our business effectively.
In addition, the perceived value of our solutions and our reputation may be negatively impacted if the services provided by one or more of our fertility specialists or another network healthcare provider are not satisfactory to our members, including as a result of provider error that could result in litigation. For example, if a provider within our network experiences an issue with their cryopreservation techniques or releases sensitive information of our members, it could result in us incurring substantial additional expenses, expose us to public scrutiny, adversely affect our brand and reputation, expose us to litigation and/or regulatory action, and otherwise make our operations vulnerable. Further, if a
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fertility specialist provides services that result in less than favorable outcomes, this could cause us to fail to meet our contractually guaranteed specified service metrics, and we could be obligated to provide the client with a fee reduction. The failure to maintain our selective network of high-quality fertility specialists and other healthcare providers or the failure of those providers to meet and exceed our members’ expectations, may result in a loss of or inability to grow or maintain our client base, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our growth depends in part on the success of our strategic relationships with, and monitoring of, third parties, including channel partners and vendors, as well as insurance carriers.
In order to grow our business, we anticipate that we will continue to depend on our relationships with third parties, including channel partners, vendors and insurance carriers among others. As the fertility management market and our client base grow, if we do not successfully maintain our relationships with insurance carriers, they may make integration more difficult or expensive, such as implementing an onerous fee structure in exchange for our ability to continue to integrate our solutions with their platforms. If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our relationships with third parties, our ability to compete in the marketplace or to grow our revenue could be impaired and our results of operations may suffer.
In addition, our arrangements with these third parties may expose us to public scrutiny, adversely affect our brand and reputation, expose us to litigation and/or regulatory action, or otherwise make our operations vulnerable if we fail to adequately monitor their performance or if they fail to meet their contractual obligations to us or to comply with applicable laws or regulations.
If we fail to maintain an efficient pharmacy distribution network or if there is a disruption to our network of specialty pharmacies or their supply chains, our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer.
The timely delivery of fertility prescriptions is essential for fertility treatments. If prescriptions are delivered late or become unavailable, it may result in postponement of a member’s treatment cycle and member dissatisfaction with our solutions. We believe that our ability to maintain and grow the adoption of Progyny Rx is highly dependent on our success in maintaining an efficient pharmacy distribution network and our record of on-time delivery. The specialty pharmacies in our network could refuse to contract with us, demand higher drug pricing or take other actions that could result in higher medical costs or less attractive services for our members.
Specialty pharmacies could face supply chain issues or regulatory delays impacting the availability or distribution of certain fertility prescriptions requiring drug substitutions that could result in higher medical costs or negatively impact our revenues, rebates and results of operations. We do not control the pricing strategies or supply chains of our specialty pharmacy partners, each of whom may be impacted by general economic considerations, including inflation and other independent considerations and drivers that are outside our control, and each of whom has the ability to set or impact market price for different prescription medications. We also cannot provide any assurance that we will be able to continue to renew our existing contracts, maintain our current negotiated pricing or discounts, or enter into new contracts on a timely basis or under favorable terms enabling us to service our members profitably. If we are not successful in maintaining our relationships with the specialty pharmacies in our network, are otherwise unable to maintain an efficient pharmacy distribution network, or if a significant disruption thereto should occur, it may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. From time to time, we experience supply chain disruptions, and we may in the future experience material supply chain changes and disruptions that impact the production and availability of medications relied on by Progyny members, which could negatively impact our revenue and results of operations.
If we lose our relationship with one or more key pharmacy program partners, or if the rebates provided by pharmacy program partners decline, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We maintain contractual relationships with select pharmacy program partners, which provide us with access to limited distribution specialty pharmaceutical rebates for drugs we purchase. While we have contractual relationships with such pharmacy program partners, they in turn often negotiate complex and multi-party pricing structures with other industry participants, and we have no control over the policies and strategies implemented in negotiating these pricing structures. Such structures may set or significantly impact market prices for prescription drugs we purchase and associated rebates for such drugs. Pharmacy program partners generally direct medication pricing by setting medication list prices and offering rebates and/or discounts for their medications. Various market considerations—such as the number of competitor medications, the availability of fertility medications and alternative treatment options, and negotiated rates among industry participants—impact the list prices for medications. Our ability to obtain and maintain specialty pharmaceutical rebates, our relative bargaining power, the value of any such rebates and our ability to generate revenue are directly affected by the
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pricing structures in place among the various industry participants, and changes in medication pricing and in the general pricing structures, whether due to regulatory requirements, competitive pressures or otherwise, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, the consolidation of pharmaceutical manufacturers, the shortages of drugs provided by such manufacturers, the termination or material alteration of our contractual relationships, or our failure to renew such contracts on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our marketing efforts depend on our ability to maintain our relationships with benefits consultants.
We sell our solutions through our sales organization and, in many cases, we leverage our relationships with top benefits consultants to establish relationships with potential clients. Our sales team has broad experience in health benefits management and extensive pre-existing long-term relationships with industry participants and benefits executives at large employers. If we fail to maintain our relationships with the benefits consultants, our marketing efforts, business and profitability would be adversely impacted.
We are exposed to credit risk from our members.
We collect co-payments, co-insurance and deductibles directly from members. We do not require collateral for such receivables. Our failure to collect a significant portion of the amount due on such receivables directly from members could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Government Regulation
We operate in a highly regulated industry and must comply with a significant number of evolving legal and regulatory requirements, as well as complex judicial mandates.
We have attempted to structure our operations to comply with laws, regulations and other requirements applicable to us directly and to our clients and vendors, but there can be no assurance that our operations will not be challenged or impacted by regulatory authorities or enforcement initiatives. We have been, and in the future may become, involved in governmental investigations, audits, reviews and assessments. Any determination by a court or agency that our corporate structure, solutions or services violate, or cause our clients or network partners to violate, applicable laws, regulations or other requirements could subject us or our clients to significant administrative, civil or criminal penalties. Such a determination also could require us to change or terminate portions of our business, disqualify us from serving clients in certain states, or clients that do business with government entities, or cause us to refund some or all of our service fees or otherwise compensate our clients. In addition, failure to satisfy laws, regulations or other requirements could adversely affect demand for our solutions and could force us to expend significant capital, research and development and other resources to address the failure. Even an unsuccessful challenge by regulatory, judicial and other authorities or parties could be expensive and time-consuming, could result in loss of business, exposure to adverse publicity, and injury to our reputation and could adversely affect our ability to retain and attract clients. If we fail to comply with applicable laws, regulations and other requirements, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. Such non-compliance could also require significant investment to address and may prove costly. There are several additional federal and state statutes, regulations, guidance and contractual provisions related to or impacting the healthcare industry that may apply to our business activities directly or indirectly, including, but not limited to:
Licensing and Licensed Personnel. Many states have licensure or registration requirements for entities acting as a third-party administrator, or TPA, and/or PBMs. The scope of these laws differs from state to state, and the application of such laws to the activities of TPAs and/or PBMs is often unclear. Given the nature and scope of the solutions and services that we provide, we are required to maintain TPA and PBM licenses and registrations in certain jurisdictions and to ensure that such licenses and registrations are in good standing on an annual basis. We are licensed, have licensure applications pending before appropriate regulatory bodies, are exempt from licensure or registration, or believe that we are otherwise authorized under such laws in those states in which we provide our TPA and PBM services. These licenses require us to comply with the rules and regulations of the governmental bodies that issued such licenses, including maintaining certain solvency or bonds requirements. Our failure to comply with such rules and regulations could result in significant administrative penalties, the suspension of a license, or the loss of a license, all of which could negatively impact our business. Additionally, from time to time, legislation is considered that would purport to declare a PBM a fiduciary with respect to its clients. We cannot predict what effect, if any, such statutes, if enacted, may have on our business and financial results.
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Separately, states impose licensing requirements on insurers, risk-bearing entities, and insurance agents, as well as those entities that provide utilization review services. We do not believe that the nature of our services requires us to be licensed under applicable state law. We are unable to predict, however, how our services may be viewed by regulators over time, how these laws and regulations will be interpreted and enforced, or the full extent of their application. If a regulatory authority in any state determines that the nature of our business requires that we be licensed under applicable state laws, we may need to restructure our business to comply with any related requirements, such as maintaining adequate reserves, creating new compliance processes, hiring additional personnel to manage regulatory compliance, and paying additional regulatory fees or penalties, which could adversely affect our results of operation. Additionally, we may need to cease operations until we are able to obtain appropriate licensure, which may adversely affect our revenue for a period of time that we cannot estimate.
In addition, we employ PCAs to support and guide our members as part of our fertility benefits management services. The PCAs do not provide any licensed healthcare services, and in turn, are not licensed by any regulatory body to provide these services. We otherwise do not employ individuals to provide any healthcare services requiring licensure. If a professional board in any state determines that the services provided by our employed PCAs require a license to be provided, we may need to conduct additional training and credentialing, replace staff, obtain additional insurance, and pay increased salaries, which could adversely affect our results of operations. We may additionally need to suspend the PCA services we provide while our personnel obtain the necessary licensure, which may adversely affect our relationships with our clients and members and cause us to be in breach of our contracts.
HIPAA Privacy and Security Requirements. Regulations promulgated pursuant to HIPAA, as amended, and regulations promulgated thereunder, or collectively, HIPAA establish privacy and security standards that limit the use and disclosure of certain individually identifiable health information (known as “protected health information”) and require the implementation of administrative, physical and technological organizational safeguards to protect the privacy of protected health information and ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of electronic protected health information. The privacy regulations established under HIPAA also provide patients with rights related to understanding and controlling how their protected health information is used and disclosed. As a provider of services to entities subject to HIPAA, we are directly subject to certain provisions of the regulations as a “Business Associate.” When acting as a Business Associate under HIPAA, to the extent permitted by applicable privacy regulations and contracts and associated Business Associate Agreements with our clients, we are permitted to use and disclose protected health information to perform our services and for other limited purposes, but other uses and disclosures, such as marketing communications, require written authorization from the patient or must meet an exception specified under the privacy regulations. We also have downstream Business Associates, which provide us with services and are also subject to HIPAA regulations.
If we, or any of our downstream Business Associates, are unable to properly protect the privacy and security of protected health information entrusted to us, we could be found to have breached our contracts with our clients and be subject to investigation by HHS, Office for Civil Rights, or OCR. In the event OCR finds that we have failed to comply with applicable HIPAA privacy and security standards, we could face civil and criminal penalties. In addition, OCR performs compliance audits of Covered Entities and Business Associates in order to proactively enforce the HIPAA privacy and security standards. OCR has become an increasingly active regulator and has signaled its intention to continue this trend. OCR has the discretion to impose penalties and may require companies to enter into resolution agreements and corrective action plans which impose ongoing compliance requirements. OCR enforcement activity, or a third-party audit related to a HIPAA incident regarding us or a third-party vendor, can result in financial liability and reputational harm, and responses to such enforcement activity can consume significant internal resources. In addition to enforcement by OCR, state attorneys general are authorized to bring civil actions under either HIPAA or relevant state laws seeking either injunctions or damages in response to violations that threaten the privacy of state residents. Although we have implemented and maintain policies, processes and compliance program infrastructure to assist us in complying with these laws and regulations and our contractual obligations, we cannot provide assurance regarding how these laws and regulations will be interpreted, enforced or applied to our operations. In addition to the risks associated with enforcement activities and potential contractual liabilities, our ongoing efforts to comply with evolving laws and regulations at the federal and state levels also might require us to make costly system purchases and/or modifications or otherwise divert significant resources to HIPAA compliance initiatives from time to time.
Other Privacy and Security Requirements. In addition to HIPAA, numerous other federal and state laws govern the collection, dissemination, use, access to and confidentiality of personal information, some of which may be
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applicable to our business. Certain federal and state laws protect types of personal information that may be viewed as particularly sensitive. For example, New York’s Public Health Law, Article 27-F protects information that could reveal confidential HIV-related information about an individual. In many cases, state laws are more restrictive than, and not preempted by, HIPAA, and may allow personal rights of action with respect to privacy or security breaches, as well as fines. State laws are contributing to increased enforcement activity and may also be subject to interpretation by various courts and other governmental authorities. Further, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, or CCPA, went into effect on January 1, 2020, which gives California residents certain rights to access and delete their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches, which has increased the likelihood and risks associated with data breach litigation. Further, the California Privacy Rights Act, or the CPRA, generally went into effect on January 1, 2023 and significantly amends the CCPA. It imposes additional data protection obligations on covered businesses, including additional consumer rights processes, limitations on data uses, new audit requirements for higher risk data, and opt outs for certain uses of sensitive data. It also creates a new California data protection agency authorized to issue substantive regulations and could result in increased privacy and information security enforcement. Additional compliance investment and potential business process changes may be required. Similar laws have passed in other states, and are continuing to be proposed at the state and federal level, reflecting a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the United States. The enactment of such laws could have potentially conflicting requirements that would make compliance challenging.
Certain of our solutions and services involve the transmission and storage of client and member data in various jurisdictions, which subjects the operation of those solutions and services to privacy or data protection laws and regulations in those jurisdictions. There can be no assurance that such requirements will not change or that we will not otherwise be subject to legal or regulatory actions. These laws and regulations are rapidly evolving and changing, and could have an adverse impact on our operations. These laws and regulations are subject to uncertainty in how they may be interpreted and enforced by government authorities and regulators. The costs of compliance with, and the other burdens imposed by, these and other laws or regulatory actions may increase our operational costs, prevent us from providing our solutions, and/or impact our ability to invest in or jointly develop our solutions. We also may face audits or investigations by one or more government agencies relating to our compliance with these laws and regulations. An adverse outcome under any such investigation or audit could result in fines, penalties, other liability, or could result in adverse publicity or a loss of reputation, and adversely affect our business. Any failure or perceived failure by us or by our solutions to comply with these laws and regulations may subject us to legal or regulatory actions, damage our reputation or adversely affect our ability to provide our solutions in the jurisdiction that has enacted the applicable law or regulation. Moreover, if these laws and regulations change, or are interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our policies and processes or the operation of our solutions, we may need to expend resources in order to change our business operations, policies and processes or the manner in which we provide our solutions. This could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Data Protection and Breaches. In recent years, there have been a number of well-publicized data breaches involving the improper dissemination of personal information of individuals both within and outside of the healthcare industry. Laws in all 50 states require businesses to provide notice to clients whose personally identifiable information has been disclosed as a result of a data breach. These laws are not consistent, and compliance in the event of a widespread data breach is costly. States are also constantly amending existing laws, requiring attention to frequently changing regulatory requirements. Most states require holders of personal information to maintain safeguards and take certain actions in response to a data breach, such as providing prompt notification of the breach to affected individuals or the state’s attorney general. In some states, these laws are limited to electronic data, but states increasingly are enacting or considering stricter and broader requirements.
Additionally, under HIPAA, Covered Entities must report breaches of unsecured protected health information to affected individuals without unreasonable delay, not to exceed 60 days following discovery of the breach by a Covered Entity or its agents. Notification also must be made to OCR and, in certain circumstances involving large breaches, to the media. Business Associates must report breaches of unsecured protected health information to Covered Entities within 60 days of discovery of the breach by the Business Associate or its agents or such shorter period as set forth in the applicable Business Associate Agreement. A non-permitted use or disclosure of protected health information is presumed to be a breach under HIPAA unless the Covered Entity or Business Associate establishes that there is a low probability the information has been compromised consistent with requirements enumerated in HIPAA.
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Despite our security management efforts with respect to physical and technological safeguards, employee training, vendor (and sub-vendor) controls and contractual relationships, our infrastructure, data or other operation centers and systems used in our business operations, including the internet and related systems of our vendors (including vendors to whom we outsource data hosting, storage and processing functions) are vulnerable to and, from time to time, may experience unauthorized access to data and/or breaches of confidential information due to a variety of causes. Techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to or compromise systems change frequently, are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex, and are often not detected until after an incident has occurred. As a result, we might not be able to anticipate these techniques, implement adequate preventive measures, or immediately detect a potential compromise. If our security measures, some of which are managed by third parties, or the security measures of our service providers or vendors, are breached or fail, it is possible that unauthorized or illegal access to or acquisition, disclosure, use or processing of personal information, confidential information, or other sensitive client, member, or employee data, including HIPAA-regulated protected health information, may occur. A security breach or failure could result from a variety of circumstances and events, including third-party action, human negligence or error, malfeasance, employee theft or misuse, phishing and other social engineering schemes, computer viruses, attacks by computer hackers, failures during the process of upgrading or replacing software, databases or components thereof, power outages, hardware failures, telecommunication failures, and catastrophic events.
If our security measures, or those of our service providers or vendors, were to be breached or fail, our reputation could be severely damaged, adversely affecting client or investor confidence. As a result, clients may curtail their use of or stop using our offering, and our business may suffer. In addition, we could face litigation, damages for contract breach, penalties and regulatory actions for violation of HIPAA and other laws or regulations applicable to data protection and significant costs for remediation and for measures to prevent future occurrences. In addition, any potential security breach could result in increased costs associated with liability for stolen assets or information, repairing system damage that may have been caused by such breaches, incentives offered to clients or other business partners in an effort to maintain the business relationships after a breach and implementing measures to prevent future occurrences, including organizational changes, deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, training employees and engaging third-party experts and consultants. Negative publicity may also result from real, threatened or perceived security breaches affecting us or our industry or clients, which could cause us to lose clients or partners and adversely affect our operations and future prospects. While we maintain cyber insurance covering certain security and privacy damages and claim expenses, we may not carry insurance or maintain coverage sufficient to compensate for all liability and such insurance may not be available for renewal on acceptable terms or at all, and in any event, insurance coverage would not address the reputational damage that could result from a security incident.
HIPAA Transaction and Identifier Standards. HIPAA and its implementing regulations mandate format and data content standards and provider identifier standards (known as the National Provider Identifier) that must be used in certain electronic transactions, such as claims, payment advice and eligibility inquiries. HHS has established standards that health plans must use for electronic fund transfers with providers, has established operating rules for certain transactions, and is in the process of establishing operating rules to promote uniformity in the implementation of the remaining types of covered transactions. The ACA also requires HHS to establish standards for health claims attachment transactions. HHS has modified the standards for electronic healthcare transactions (such as, eligibility, claims submission and payment and electronic remittance) from Version 4010/4010A to Version 5010. Further, HHS now requires the use of updated standard code sets for diagnoses and procedures known as the ICD-10 code sets. Enforcement of compliance with these standards falls under HHS and is carried out by CMS.
In the event new requirements are imposed, we will be required to modify our systems and processes to accommodate these changes. We will seek to modify our systems and processes as needed to prepare for and implement changes to the transaction standards, code sets operating rules and identifier requirements; however, we may not be successful in responding to these changes, and any responsive changes we make to our systems and processes may result in errors or otherwise negatively impact our service levels. In addition, the compliance dates for new or modified transaction standards, operating rules and identifiers may overlap, which may further burden our resources.
Fraud and Abuse Laws. Many of our clients, insurance carriers, and network healthcare providers are impacted directly and indirectly by certain fraud and abuse laws, including the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the Physician Self-Referral Law, commonly referred to as the Stark Law, and the False Claims Act, as well as their state
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equivalents. Because the solutions and services we provide are not reimbursed by government healthcare payors, such fraud and abuse laws generally do not directly apply to our business; however, some laws may be applicable to us. For example, certain states have anti-kickback and false claims laws that may be broader in scope than analogous federal laws and may apply to items and services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including private insurers, self-insured employers and on a cash basis by patients.
The laws, regulations and other requirements in this area are both broad and complex and judicial and regulatory interpretation can also be inconsistent. We review our practices with regulatory experts in an effort to comply with all applicable laws, regulatory and other requirements. However, we are unable to predict how these laws, regulations and other requirements will be interpreted or the full extent of their application, particularly to services that are not directly reimbursed by federal and state healthcare programs. Any determination by a federal or state regulatory authority that any of our activities or those of our clients or vendors violate any of these laws or regulations could subject us to significant administrative, civil or criminal penalties, damages, disgorgement, monetary fines or imprisonment, require us to enter into corporate integrity agreements or similar agreements with ongoing compliance obligations, disqualify us from providing services to clients that are, or do business with, government healthcare programs and/or have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Even an unsuccessful challenge by a regulatory authority of our activities could result in adverse publicity and could require a costly response from us.
State Corporate Practice and Fee-Splitting Prohibitions. There is a risk that regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions may find that our contractual relationships with our fertility specialists violate laws prohibiting the corporate practice of medicine and/or fee-splitting. These laws generally prohibit non-physician entities from practicing medicine, exercising control over physicians or engaging in certain practices such as fee-splitting with physicians. There can be no assurance that these laws will be interpreted in a manner consistent with our practices or that other laws or regulations will not be enacted in the future that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Regulatory authorities, state medical boards, state attorneys general and other parties, including our network physicians, may assert that we are engaged in the prohibited corporate practice of medicine, and/or that our arrangement with our network providers constitutes unlawful fee-splitting. If a state’s prohibition on corporate practice of medicine or fee-splitting law is interpreted in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices, we would be required to restructure or terminate our contractual relationship with our network providers to bring our activities into compliance with such laws, disciplinary action, penalties, damages, fines, and/or a loss of revenue, any of which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. State corporate practice of medicine doctrines and fee-splitting prohibitions also often impose penalties on physicians themselves for aiding the corporate practice of medicine or unlawful fee-splitting, which could discourage physicians from participating in our network of providers.
ERISA Regulation. The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, or ERISA, regulates certain aspects of employee health plans, including both insured and self-funded health plans sponsored by our clients, with which we have agreements to provide TPA services. As part of our agreements with a number of these clients, we offer PBM services through Progyny Rx. Because we believe the conduct of our business vis-à-vis these plans is not of a fiduciary nature, it is not generally subject to the fiduciary obligations of ERISA. However, there can be no assurance the United States Department of Labor, or the DOL, which is the agency that enforces ERISA, would not in the future assert that the fiduciary obligations imposed by ERISA apply to certain aspects of our operations or courts would not reach such a ruling in private ERISA litigation. ERISA also imposes civil and criminal liability on service providers to health plans subject to ERISA and certain other persons with relationships to such plans if certain forms of illegal or prohibited remuneration are made or received by such service providers or other persons. These provisions of ERISA are similar, but not identical, to the healthcare anti-kickback laws described above, although ERISA lacks the statutory and regulatory “safe harbor” exceptions incorporated into the healthcare anti-kickback laws. Like the healthcare anti-kickback laws, the corresponding provisions of ERISA are broadly written and their application to particular cases can be uncertain. ERISA plans are subject to certain rules, published by the DOL, including certain reporting requirements for direct and indirect compensation received by plan service providers. Separately, although ERISA generally preempts state laws that relate to ERISA plans, the recent Supreme Court ruling in Rutledge v. Pharm. Care Mgmt. Ass’n established that ERISA does not preempt all state laws imposing transparency or other requirements on PBMs.
Prompt Pay Laws. Certain states have laws regulating the amount of time that may elapse from when a third-party payor receives a claim for services rendered to when those services are paid. These “prompt pay” laws may
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impact us as well as our self-insured clients and insurance carriers. Under these “prompt pay” laws, we may be obligated to pay healthcare providers within established time periods, and such time periods may be shorter than existing contracted terms and/or via electronic transfer. In many states, we are deemed to be exempt from the prompt pay laws, however, we seek to comply with them in each state in which we do business to the extent applicable, and our efforts include the use of controls such as policies and processing systems that ensure we pay claims as quickly as possible and contract language related to timeframes permitted by applicable law. If we do not make payments to healthcare providers in a timely fashion consistent with prompt pay laws, we may be required to pay interest in addition to any amounts owed to such providers. In addition, our reputation may be harmed and our contractual obligations to certain clients may be breached, causing us to lose revenue or otherwise pay penalties under such contracts.
Network Adequacy and Access Requirements. Network adequacy and access laws require health plans to maintain a network of healthcare providers sufficient to deliver the benefits they contract to provide to their enrollees. In light of the increase in “narrow networks,” there has been a legislative push to ensure that commercial payors contract with a sufficient number of healthcare providers to create an “adequate network.” Additionally, a majority of states now have some form of legislation affecting our payor clients’ ability to limit access to a provider network or remove a provider from the network. Such legislation may require our clients to admit any healthcare provider, including any pharmacy provider willing to meet the plan’s price and other terms for network participation, “any willing provider” legislation or may provide that a provider may not be removed from a network except in compliance with certain procedures “due process” legislation. Further, to ensure network adequacy and quality, a network may seek to accredit its healthcare providers through any number of accrediting bodies, such as the National Committee for Quality Assurance, or NCQA, and the Utilization Review Accreditation Commission. We follow NCQA standards to credential the health providers with whom we contract to provide services within our network, and engage Council for Affordable Quality Healthcare to conduct provider credentialing where required. Should any of the states we operate in determine that our network of providers does not meet adequacy or access requirements, we may be subject to administrative penalties and other administrative actions, as well as private litigation. In addition, if we are unable to contract with a sufficient number of providers, we may become subject to administrative penalties or enforcement actions from state regulatory agencies, litigation from consumers, and may be in breach of certain contractual covenants with our partners.
Consumer Protection Laws. Federal and state consumer protection laws are being applied increasingly by the Federal Trade Commission, or FTC, Federal Communications Commission and states’ attorneys general to regulate the collection, use, storage and disclosure of personal or health information, through websites or otherwise, and to regulate the presentation of website content. Courts may also adopt the standards for fair information practices promulgated by the FTC, which concern consumer notice, choice, security and access. Consumer protection laws require us to publish statements to users of our services that describe how we handle personal information and choices consumers may have about the way we handle personal information. If such information that we publish is considered untrue, we may be subject to claims of unfair or deceptive trade practices, which could lead to significant liabilities and consequences, including costs of defending against litigation, settling claims and loss of willingness of current and future clients to work with us.
Restrictions on Communication. Communications with our members increasingly may be subject to and restricted by laws and regulations governing communications via telephone, fax, text, and email. We also use email and social media platforms as marketing tools. For example, we maintain social media accounts. As laws and regulations, including FTC enforcement, rapidly evolve to govern the use of these platforms and devices, the failure by us, our employees or third parties acting at our direction to abide by applicable laws and regulations in the use of these platforms and devices could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations or subject us to fines or other penalties.
The healthcare regulatory and political framework is uncertain and evolving. Recent and future developments in the healthcare industry could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
All of our revenue is derived from the healthcare industry, which is highly regulated and subject to changing political, legislative, regulatory and other influences. Healthcare laws and regulations are rapidly evolving and may change significantly in the future. For example, the ACA may affect the coverage and plan designs that are or will be provided by certain insurance carriers and certain of our clients with self-insured plans, taxability of benefits under such plans, as well as the overall reimbursement and drug pricing environment for healthcare providers. Since its enactment, there have been judicial, executive and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA as well as efforts to repeal or replace certain
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aspects of the ACA. On June 17, 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the most recent judicial challenge to the ACA brought by several states without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the ACA.
Other health reform efforts have been proposed by members of Congress, such as measures that would expand the role of government-sponsored coverage, including further reform to the ACA, which could have far-reaching implications for the healthcare industry if enacted. On January 28, 2021, President Biden issued an Executive Order directing federal agencies to examine all existing regulations, orders, guidance documents, policies and similar agency actions to determine if any such actions are inconsistent with the policy set forth in the Executive Order to protect and strengthen the ACA and make high-quality healthcare accessible and affordable for every American. Most recently, on August 16, 2022, President Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, or IRA, into law. The health reform measures included in the IRA largely focus on pharmaceutical manufacturers, but are likely to impact the reimbursement and drug pricing environment for healthcare providers and insurers more broadly in ways that cannot yet be fully determined.
As another example of recent healthcare legislative changes, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, or CAA, effective December 27, 2021, contains provisions impacting group health plans, including protections for plan participants from surprise medical bills and ensuring health plan price transparency. The CAA prohibits plans from entering into services agreements that directly or indirectly restrict the plans from disclosing provider-specific costs and quality of care information. It also requires disclosure by health insurance brokers and consultants to plan sponsors regarding reasonably expected direct and indirect compensation for referral of services to group health plans. Additionally, the CAA requires plans to submit reports to the DOL, HHS and IRS with certain information on pharmacy benefits and drug costs for participants and beneficiaries and the application of in-network rates to out of network services. The CAA also requires certain service providers for health plans to comply with certain ERISA fee disclosure rules.
In addition, effective January 1, 2022, the No Surprises Act (enacted as part of the CAA) provides protection against surprise medical bills by prohibiting plans and providers from balance billing patients for emergency care performed by out-of-network providers as well as non-emergency and ancillary services performed by out-of-network providers at in-network facilities, subject to certain notice and consent exceptions for non-emergency and ancillary services. The law also grants additional patient protections, including requiring providers to send a good faith estimate of the expected charges for furnishing items or services to an insured patient’s health plan (or directly to an uninsured patient) before such items or services are delivered (including items or services reasonably expected to be provided in conjunction with scheduled items or services or that are reasonably expected to be delivered by another provider). The No Surprises Act also provides a dispute resolution process in the event the actual charges for such items and services are substantially higher than the plan’s estimate, and will prohibit providers from charging patients an amount beyond the in-network cost sharing amount for services rendered by out-of-network providers, subject to certain exceptions. Several states have also enacted comprehensive balance billing or surprise billing laws and the CAA defers to existing state requirements with respect to state-established payment amounts. Such state laws vary in their approach, resulting in different impacts on the healthcare system as a whole.
We are unable to predict how other healthcare reform initiatives from new legislation, regulation, judicial action and/or executive action, including the CAA and No Surprises Act and state laws, will ultimately impact the healthcare industry and what the potential impact may be on our business and on our relationships with current and future clients, insurance carriers, and healthcare providers. Additionally, we cannot predict the timing or impact of any future rulemaking, court decisions or other changes in the law. If we are unable to comply with these laws or regulations or provide adequate assistance to our clients subject to these laws or regulations, it is reasonably possible that our business operations and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
We are subject to potential changes in laws, regulations, government enforcement priorities, public policy, state and federal judicial action, industry standards and other requirements, including with respect to Progyny Rx’s PBM practices, which create risks and challenges with respect to our compliance efforts and business strategies, or the business of our network partners, which may adversely affect our business.
The healthcare industry is highly regulated and subject to frequently changing laws, regulations, government enforcement priorities, public policies, industry standards and other requirements. Many healthcare laws and regulations are complex, and their application to specific solutions, services and relationships may not be clear. Because our clients are subject to various requirements, we may be impacted as a result of our contractual obligations even when we are not directly subject to such requirements. In particular, many existing healthcare laws and regulations, when enacted, did not anticipate the solutions and services that we provide, and these laws and regulations may be applied to our solutions and services in ways that we do not anticipate. The ACA, efforts to revise, expand or materially change the ACA, as well as the
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recently enacted IRA, and other federal and state efforts to reform or revise aspects of the healthcare industry or to revise or create additional legal and/or regulatory requirements could impact our operations, the use of our solutions and services, and our ability to market new solutions and services, or could create unexpected liabilities for us. We also may be impacted by laws, industry standards and other requirements that are not specific to the healthcare industry, such as consumer protection laws and payment card industry standards. These requirements may impact our operations and, if not followed, could result in fines, penalties and other liabilities and adverse publicity and injury to our reputation.
In recent years, there have been a number of reform efforts, including from federal and state legislatures as well as the HHS OIG, around PBM program pricing and transparency that could affect our business. Current PBM laws and regulations govern, and proposed legislation and regulations may govern and/or further restrict critical PBM practices, among other things, disclosure, receipt and retention of rebates and other payments received from pharmaceutical manufacturers or pharmacy program partners, contractual provisions between PBMs and their contracted payers and/or pharmacies, and registration or licensing of PBMs. For example, in 2019, the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives proposed a number of bills that would, among other things, require PBMs to submit information on their costs, fees and rebates, requiring 100% of the rebates to be passed on to consumers, and/or impose rebates on manufacturers that chose to increase their drug prices more rapidly than inflation. In June 2022, the FTC announced an inquiry regarding the role of PBMs and stated its intent to closely scrutinize the impact of PBM rebates and fees on patients and payers.
Further, the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Rutledge v. Pharm. Care Mgmt. Ass’n on December 10, 2020, which held that an Arkansas state law requiring PBMs to reimburse pharmacies at a price equal to or greater than the price pharmacies pay in purchasing medications from a wholesaler, was not preempted by the federal ERISA statute. The Supreme Court’s ruling solidifies the legality of state-level legislation regulating PBMs, which may encourage a new wave of legislation aimed at controlling prescription drug costs and providing pricing transparency. For example, effective June 1, 2022, New York enacted a law that establishes regulatory oversight of PBMs. Several states have proposed separate PBM bills, and at least 18 states have adopted PBM oversight laws. A number of these proposed laws would require PBMs to submit annual transparency reports or otherwise disclose contractual arrangements with health benefit plans or health insurance issuers, or allow regulators to conduct audits of PBM operations.
Additionally, certain quasi-regulatory organizations, including the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy and the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, have issued model regulations or may propose future model regulations concerning PBM operations. PBM credentialing organizations may also establish voluntary standards regarding PBM activities. While the model regulations and standards of these quasi-regulatory or credentialing organizations are not legal requirements, federal and state lawmakers may be influenced to adopt similar legislation and such model regulations and standards may also impact client expectations or requirements for PBM services. PBM operations may also be subject to federal and state fraud and abuse laws. Some states’ anti-kickback and false claims laws may be broader in scope than analogous federal laws and may apply to items and services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including private insurers, self-insured employers and on a cash basis by patients, and may be applicable to us.
Accordingly, it is reasonably possible that our business operations and our results of operations could be materially adversely affected by legislative, regulatory and public policy changes at the federal or state level, increased government involvement in drug reimbursement and pricing, and/or increased regulation of PBMs. Adoption of new laws, rules or regulations or changes in government enforcement priorities of, or new interpretations of, existing laws, rules or regulations relating to PBMs could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations with respect to Progyny Rx. Additionally, such legal and regulatory changes may adversely affect our ability to conduct business on commercially reasonable terms in states where PBM legislation is in effect and our ability to standardize Progyny Rx PBM products and services across state lines. Further, our failure to comply with these laws or regulations could result in material fines and/or sanctions and could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and/or cash flows.
We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal or civil liability and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
While we operate only in the United States, we remain subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, U.S. domestic anti-bribery laws, and other anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws in the countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws have been enforced aggressively in recent years and are interpreted broadly to generally prohibit companies, their employees and their third-party intermediaries from authorizing, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to recipients in the public or private sector. If we expand our business and sales outside the United States and to the public sector, we may engage with business partners and third-party intermediaries to market our services and to obtain for us the necessary permits, licenses, and other regulatory
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approvals. In addition, we or our third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We can be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, partners and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities.
Detecting, investigating, and resolving actual or alleged violations of anti-corruption laws can require a significant diversion of time, resources, and attention from senior management. In addition, noncompliance with anti-corruption, anti-bribery, or anti-money laundering laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, investigations, prosecution, enforcement actions, sanctions, settlements, fines, damages, other civil or criminal penalties or injunctions, suspension or debarment from contracting with certain persons, reputational harm, adverse media coverage, and other collateral consequences. If any subpoenas or investigations are launched, or governmental or other sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal proceeding, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed. In addition, responding to any action will likely result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and significant defense costs and other professional fees, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Any potential sales to government entities are subject to a number of challenges and risks.
We may sell our services or solutions to U.S. federal, state, and local government and agency clients. Sales to such entities are subject to a number of challenges and risks. Selling to such entities can be highly competitive, expensive, and time-consuming, often requiring significant upfront time and expense without any assurance that these efforts will generate a sale. Government contracting requirements may change and in doing so restrict our ability to sell into the government sector until we have attained the revised certification. Government demand and payment for our offerings is dependent on many factors outside our control, including general economic conditions, public sector budgetary constraints and funding authorizations, and general political priorities, with funding reductions or delays adversely affecting public sector demand for our offerings.
Further, governmental and highly regulated entities may demand contract terms that differ from our standard arrangements. Such entities may have statutory, contractual, or other legal rights to terminate contracts with us or our partners due to a default or for other reasons. Any such termination may adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.
Any failure to protect our intellectual property rights could impair our ability to protect our proprietary technology and our brand.
Our success depends in part on our ability to protect our brand and proprietary trade secret and confidential information, including unpatented know-how, technology and other proprietary information, and maintaining, defending and enforcing our intellectual property rights. We rely on our agreements with our clients, non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with employees and third parties, and our trademarks, trade secrets, and copyrights to protect our intellectual property rights. However, any of these parties may breach such agreements and disclose our proprietary information, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. There is no assurance that we will be able to obtain, maintain, defend and enforce our intellectual property rights, or that such intellectual property rights will not be challenged, narrowed, held unenforceable or circumvented. Therefore, these legal protections and precautions may not prevent infringement, misappropriation or other violations of our intellectual property. Any litigation and any infringement, misappropriation or other violations of our intellectual property could hinder our ability to market and sell our solutions, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, we would have no right to prevent them from using that technology or information to compete with us and our competitive position would be harmed.
Third parties may allege that our products and services, or the conduct of our business, infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate such third party’s intellectual property rights. Even if such claims are without merit, defending such claims would cause us to incur substantial expenses and could cause us to pay substantial damages or seek a costly license if we are found to be infringing, misappropriating, or otherwise violating a third party’s intellectual property rights. If we are unable to enter into a license on acceptable terms or at all, we could be forced to cease some aspect of our business operations or be forced to redesign our products or services so that we no longer infringe the third-party intellectual property rights, which may result in significant cost and delay to us, or which redesign could be technically infeasible.
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Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other legal proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses and could distract our employees and management from their normal responsibilities.
Moreover, although we try to ensure that our employees do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these employees have used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of third parties, including such individual’s former employer. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.
Furthermore, we currently own registered trademarks. In addition, any of our trademarks or trade names, whether registered or unregistered, may be challenged, opposed, infringed, cancelled, circumvented or declared generic, or determined to be infringing on other marks, as applicable. We may not be able to protect our rights to these trademarks and trade names, which we need to build name recognition by potential collaborators or clients in our markets of interest.
Acquisitions, strategic investments, partnerships, or alliances could be difficult to identify, pose integration challenges, divert the attention of management, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value, and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may in the future seek to acquire or invest in businesses, joint ventures, products and services, or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our platform, enhance our technical capabilities, or otherwise offer growth opportunities. In addition, Progyny seeks to continue to expand its offerings in preconception, maternity and postpartum, menopause and related offerings. Any such acquisition or investment may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable opportunities, whether or not the transactions are completed, and may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures. In particular, we may encounter difficulties assimilating or integrating the businesses, technologies, products and services, personnel or operations of the acquired companies, particularly if the key personnel of the acquired company choose not to work for us, they are operationally difficult to integrate, or we have difficulty retaining the clients of any acquired business due to changes in ownership, management or otherwise. These transactions may also disrupt our business, divert our resources, and require significant management attention that would otherwise be available for development of our existing business. Any such transactions that we are able to complete may not result in any synergies or other benefits we had expected to achieve, which could result in impairment charges that could be substantial. In addition, we may not be able to find and identify desirable acquisition targets or business opportunities or be successful in entering into an agreement with any particular strategic partner. These transactions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, if the resulting business from such a transaction fails to meet our expectations, or we fail to successfully integrate such businesses into our own, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected or we may be exposed to unknown risks or liabilities.
Changes in our effective tax rate or tax liabilities may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Our effective tax rate could be impacted due to several factors, including, but not limited to:
changes in the relative amounts of income before taxes in the various jurisdictions in which we operate that have differing statutory tax rates;
changes in tax laws, tax treaties, and regulations or the interpretation of them (such as the recent IRA, which, among other changes, introduced a 15% corporate minimum tax on certain United States corporations and a 1% excise tax on certain stock redemptions by United States corporations);
changes to our assessment about our ability to realize our deferred tax assets that are based on estimates of our future results, the prudence and feasibility of possible tax planning strategies, and the economic and political environments in which we do business;
the outcome of future tax audits, examinations, or administrative appeals;
limitations or adverse findings regarding our ability to do business in some jurisdictions; and
discrete impact tax items, including such items resulting from the amount and timing of equity exercises and our stock price.
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Any of these developments could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Certain U.S. state tax authorities may assert that we have a state nexus and seek to impose state and local taxes, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
We currently file state tax returns in certain states. There is a risk that certain state tax authorities, where we do not currently file a state tax return, could assert that we are liable for state and local taxes based upon income or gross receipts allocable to such states. States are becoming increasingly aggressive in asserting a nexus for state tax purposes. We could be subject to state and local taxation, including penalties and interest attributable to prior periods, if a state tax authority in which we do not currently file a state tax return successfully asserts that our activities give rise to a taxable nexus. Such tax assessments, penalties and interest may adversely affect our results of operations.
We may not be able to utilize a significant portion of our net operating loss or research tax credit carryforwards, which could adversely affect our profitability.
Under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, our ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards or other tax attributes in any taxable year may be limited if we experience an “ownership change.” A Section 382 “ownership change” generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of our stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. Future issuances of our stock could cause an “ownership change.” Any future ownership change, which could be outside of our control, could also have a material effect on the use of our net operating loss carryforwards or other tax attributes existing at the time of the ownership change, which could adversely affect our profitability.
Our reported financial results may be adversely affected by changes in accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.
Accounting principles generally accepted in the United States are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB, the SEC and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in accounting principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported results of operations and could affect the reporting of transactions already completed before the announcement of a change. The adoption of new or revised accounting principles may require us to make changes to our systems, processes and controls, which could have a significant effect on our reported financial results, cause unexpected financial reporting fluctuations, retroactively affect previously reported results or require us to make costly changes to our operational processes and accounting systems upon or following the adoption of these standards. See Note 2 – Significant Accounting Policies included in Part I, Item 1 of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for additional information on recently issued but not yet adopted accounting standards.
If our estimates or judgments relating to our critical accounting policies prove to be incorrect, our results of operations could be adversely affected.
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, or U.S. GAAP, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, as provided in Part I, Item 2. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates” of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The results of these estimates form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets, liabilities and equity, and the amount of revenue and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. We believe that the assumptions and estimates associated with our accrued receivables related to revenue recognition, accrued claims payable, stock-based compensation expense, and accounting for income taxes have the greatest potential impact on our consolidated financial statements, and therefore, we consider these to be our critical accounting policies and estimates. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if our assumptions change or if actual circumstances differ from those in our assumptions, which could cause our results of operations to fall below the expectations of securities analysts and investors, resulting in a decline in the market price of our common stock.
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Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Our stock price may be volatile, and the value of our common stock may decline.
As tenured investors look to monetize their positions, we have seen large blocks of shares enter the public market over a short period of time. The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile and may fluctuate or decline substantially as a result of this and a variety of factors, some of which are beyond our control, including, but not limited to:
high volume of direct sales into the market by large investors;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition or results of operations;
publications of research or other reports about us or our industry, including those which may contain inaccurate or misleading information, financial estimates about us, changes in recommendations or withdrawal of research coverage by securities analysts;
changes in the pricing of our solutions and services;
changes in our projected operating and financial results;
general economic, industry, and market conditions;
changes in laws or regulations applicable to our products and solutions;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant business developments, acquisitions, or new offerings;
rumors and market speculation involving us or other companies in our industry;
significant data breaches of our company, providers, vendors or pharmacies;
our involvement in litigation or threats of litigation against us;
future sales of our common stock by us or our stockholders;
changes in senior management or key personnel;
the trading volume of our common stock;
war, incidents of terrorism, or responses to these events; and
changes in the anticipated future size and growth rate of our market.
Broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political, regulatory, and market conditions, including those related to the COVID-19 pandemic, may also negatively impact the market price of our common stock. Fluctuations in our quarterly operating results and the price of our common stock may be particularly pronounced in the current economic environment, including due to the uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. These and other factors may cause the market price and demand for our common stock to fluctuate substantially, which may limit or prevent investors from readily selling their shares of common stock and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of our common stock. In the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their securities have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future, which could result in substantial expenses and divert our management’s attention.
An active trading market for our common stock may not be sustained.
An active public trading market for our common stock may not be sustained. The lack of an active market may impair your ability to sell your shares at the time you wish to sell them or at a price that you consider reasonable. The lack of an active market may also reduce the fair value of your shares. An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise
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capital to continue to fund operations by selling shares and may impair our ability to acquire other companies or technologies by using our shares as consideration.
We expect fluctuations in our financial results, making it difficult to project future results, and if we fail to meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors with respect to our results of operations, our stock price and the value of your investment could decline.
Our results of operations may fluctuate in the future due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control. As a result, our past results may not be indicative of our future performance. In addition to the other risks described herein, factors that may affect our results of operations include the following:
fluctuations in demand for or pricing of our solutions;
level and mix of utilization of our solutions by members;
our ability to attract new clients;
our ability to retain our existing clients;
client expansion rates;
changes in clients’ budgets and in the timing of their budget cycles and purchasing decisions;
our ability to control costs, including our operating expenses and healthcare costs;
the amount and timing of payment for operating expenses, particularly sales and marketing expenses;
the amount and timing of non-cash expenses, including stock-based compensation expense, goodwill impairments and other non-cash charges;
the amount and timing of costs associated with recruiting, training and integrating new employees and retaining and motivating existing employees;
general economic conditions, as well as economic conditions specifically affecting industries in which our clients participate, including those related to the COVID-19 pandemic;
the impact of new accounting pronouncements;
changes in the competitive dynamics of our market, including consolidation among competitors or clients; and
significant security breaches of, technical difficulties with, or interruptions to, the delivery and use of our solutions and services.
Any of these and other factors, or the cumulative effect of some of these factors, may cause our results of operations to vary significantly. For example, the long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic could result in adverse changes in our results of operations for an unknown period of time. If our quarterly results of operations fall below the expectations of investors and securities analysts who follow our stock, the price of our common stock could decline substantially, and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class action suits.
As a result of being a public company, we are obligated to develop and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting, and any failure to maintain the adequacy of this internal control may adversely affect investor confidence in our company and, as a result, the value of our common stock.
We are required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (Section 404), to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and our independent registered public accounting firm is required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. To maintain compliance with Section 404, we perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting in our
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Annual Report on Form 10-K filing for each year, as required by Section 404. Our existing management team has and will continue to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives, and we may need to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience to assist us in ongoing compliance with these requirements. Moreover, these rules and regulations have increased and will continue to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time consuming and costly.
During the evaluation and testing process of our internal control, if we identify one or more material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, we will be unable to certify that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. For example, in connection with our audit of the fiscal year 2018 consolidated financial statements, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified one material weakness in our controls related to the lack of review and oversight over financial reporting, which we determined we had remediated as of December 31, 2019. We cannot assure you that there will not be material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting in the future. Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition or results of operations. If we are unable to conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines that we have a material weakness or significant deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.
Future sales of our common stock in the public market could cause the market price of our common stock to decline.
Future sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market by us or our stockholders, or the perception that these sales might occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We are unable to predict the effect that such sales may have on the prevailing market price of our common stock.
We have registered all of the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of outstanding options or other equity awards we may grant in the future, for public resale under the Securities Act. Accordingly, these shares will be eligible for sale in the public market to the extent such options are exercised and restricted stock units are vested, in compliance with applicable securities laws.
Our issuance of additional capital stock in connection with financings, acquisitions, investments, our equity incentive plans or otherwise will dilute the ownership interests of all other stockholders.
We expect to issue additional capital stock in the future that will result in dilution to all other stockholders. We expect to grant equity awards to employees, directors and consultants under our equity incentive plans. We may also raise capital through equity financings in the future. As part of our business strategy, we may acquire or make investments in businesses, joint ventures, products and services, or technologies and issue equity securities to pay for any such acquisition or investment. Any such issuances of additional capital stock may cause stockholders to experience significant dilution of their ownership interests and the per share value of our common stock to decline.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research, or publish unfavorable or inaccurate research, about our business, the market price and trading volume of our common stock could decline.
The market price and trading volume of our common stock will be heavily influenced by the way analysts interpret our financial information and other disclosures. We do not have control over these analysts. If securities analysts or industry analysts cease coverage of us, our stock price would be negatively affected. If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, downgrade our common stock, or publish negative reports about our business, our stock price would likely decline and the trading volume of our common stock could decrease. We have experienced and may in the future experience analyst coverage reduction due to analysts leaving firms, changing firms or going on temporary leaves of absences. Such reduction in analyst coverage, even if temporary, could lead to volatility in our stock price.
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We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future and, as a result, your ability to achieve a return on your investment will depend on appreciation in the price of our common stock.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock, and we do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors. Accordingly, you may need to rely on sales of our common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on your investment.
We incur increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management is required to devote substantial time to compliance with our public company responsibilities and corporate governance practices.
As a public company, we have incurred and will continue to incur significant legal, accounting, and other expenses that we did not incur prior to our initial public offering. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of the Nasdaq Stock Market, or Nasdaq, and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies. Our management and other personnel devote a substantial amount of time to compliance with these requirements. Effective January 1, 2021, we became a “large accelerated filer” under SEC reporting rules and are required to file our annual report and quarterly reports more quickly than we previously had been required to file them, which may require us to dedicate additional resources to the timely filing of such reports. Moreover, these rules and regulations have increased and will continue to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time-consuming and costly. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we incur as a public company or the specific timing of such costs.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of our company more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and limit the market price of our common stock.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws include provisions that:
authorize our Board of Directors to issue, without further action by the stockholders, shares of undesignated preferred stock with terms, rights, and preferences determined by our Board of Directors that may be senior to our common stock;
require that any action to be taken by our stockholders be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent;
specify that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by our Board of Directors, the chairperson of our Board of Directors, or our chief executive officer;
establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our Board of Directors;
establish that our Board of Directors is divided into three classes, with each class serving three-year staggered terms;
prohibit cumulative voting in the election of directors;
provide that our directors may be removed for cause only upon the vote of at least 66 and 2/3% of our outstanding shares of voting stock;
provide that vacancies on our Board of Directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum; and
require the approval of our Board of Directors or the holders of at least 66 and 2/3% of our outstanding shares of voting stock to amend our amended and restated bylaws and certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.
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These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our Board of Directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, which generally, subject to certain exceptions, prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an “interested” stockholder. Any of the foregoing provisions could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock, and they could deter potential acquirers of our company, thereby reducing the likelihood that you would receive a premium for your shares of our common stock in an acquisition.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation designates the state courts in the State of Delaware or, if no state court located within the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal court for the District of Delaware, as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could discourage lawsuits against us or our directors, officers, or employees.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, any state court located within the State of Delaware, or if all such state courts lack jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) will be the sole and exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings under Delaware statutory or common law: (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (2) any action asserting a breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any current or former director, officer or other employee to us or our stockholders; (3) any action or proceeding asserting a claim against us or any of our current or former directors, officers or other employees arising out of or pursuant to any provisions of the DGCL, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, or our amended and restated bylaws; (4) any action or proceeding to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation or our amended and restated bylaws; (5) any action or proceeding as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; or (6) any action asserting a claim against us, or any of our directors, officers or other employees, that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine, in all cases to the fullest extent permitted by law and subject to the court’s having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants. For the avoidance of doubt, these choice of forum provisions will not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. In particular, Section 22 of the Securities Act creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all such Securities Act actions.
These choice of forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees and may discourage these types of lawsuits. A stockholder may, nevertheless, seek to bring a claim in a venue other than that designated in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation. In such instance we would expect to vigorously assert the validity and enforceability of the exclusive forum provisions, which may result in significant additional costs. Furthermore, if a court were to find the choice of forum provisions contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions.
Unstable market and economic conditions may impact our ability to obtain any necessary financing and adversely impact our business, financial condition and stock price.
The global economy, including financial and credit markets, has recently experienced volatility and uncertainty, including rising interest and inflation rates, declines in economic growth, and declines in global equity markets. If the equity and credit markets continue to deteriorate, or the United States enters a recession, it may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult to obtain in a timely manner or on favorable terms, more costly or more dilutive. As a result, our business, results of operations, and price of our common stock may be adversely affected.

Increased scrutiny and changing expectations from the SEC regarding environmental, social and governance practices and reporting could cause us to incur additional costs, devote additional resources and expose us to additional risks, which could adversely impact our reputation, or otherwise adversely impact our business.
Companies across all industries are facing increasing scrutiny related to their environmental, social and governance, or ESG, practices and reporting. The SEC and investors have focused increasingly on ESG practices and placed increasing importance on the implications and social cost of ESG reporting. With this increased focus and demand, public reporting regarding ESG practices is becoming more broadly expected. Expectations regarding voluntary ESG
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initiatives and disclosures may result in increased costs, changes in demand for certain offerings, enhanced compliance or disclosure obligations, or other adverse impacts to our business, financial condition or results of operations. We may provide information in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or our other filings with the SEC that are informed by various ESG standards and frameworks (including standards for the measurement of underlying data) and the interest of various stakeholders. Much of this information is subject to assumptions, estimates or third-party information that is still evolving and subject to change, and our disclosures based on any standards may change due to revisions in framework requirements, availability of information, changes in our business or applicable government policies, or other factors, some of which may be beyond our control. If our ESG practices and reporting do not meet or are viewed as not meeting SEC, investor or other industry or stakeholder expectations, which continue to evolve, our brand, reputation and investor retention may be negatively impacted. It is possible that stakeholders may not be satisfied with our ESG practices or the speed of their adoption. We could also incur additional costs and require additional resources to monitor, report, implement, enhance and comply with various ESG practices and standards. Also, our failure, or perceived failure to meet the standards included in any ESG disclosure could negatively impact our reputation, employee recruiting and retention, and the willingness of our customers and suppliers to do business with us.
ITEM 2. UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES AND USE OF PROCEEDS
Use of Proceeds
On October 29, 2019, in connection with our IPO, we issued and sold 6,700,000 shares of our common stock and certain of our selling stockholders offered and sold 4,800,000 shares of our common stock at a price to the public of $13.00 per share resulting in net proceeds to us of $77.6 million, after deducting the underwriting discount of $5.9 million and offering expenses of $3.6 million. All of the shares issued and sold in our IPO were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-233965), which was declared effective by the SEC on October 24, 2019. The net proceeds of $77.6 million from our IPO have been invested in investment grade, interest-bearing instruments. There has been no material change in the expected use of the net proceeds from our IPO as described in our final prospectus, filed with the SEC on October 25, 2019 pursuant to Rule 424(b) relating to our Registration Statement.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer
Net Settlement of Equity Awards
Our restricted stock units are subject to vesting and the underlying shares of common stock are issued when the restricted stock units vest.
In the first quarter of 2024, we withheld shares through net settlements (where the award holder receives the net of the shares vested, after surrendering a portion of the shares back to the Company for tax withholding) for certain restricted stock units that vested.
Share Repurchase Program
On February 29, 2024, the Company announced a share repurchase program of up to $100 million in shares of common stock. Repurchases may be in the form of open market repurchases, including through plans complying with Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act, depending on stock price, market conditions, and other factors, as determined by the Company. There can be no assurance as to the number of shares to be repurchased by the Company.
The following table provides a summary of share repurchase activity as well as shares surrendered back to the Company for tax withholding on restricted stock units that vested under our equity incentive plans during the three months ended March 31, 2024:
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Period
Total Number of Shares Repurchased (1)
Average Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsMaximum Dollar Amount of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Program
(in thousands)
January 1, 2024 through January 31, 202427,129$37.64$
February 1, 2024 through February 29, 202468,182$37.9934,154$98,750
March 1, 2024 through March 31, 2024729,124$36.25689,423$73,756
Total shares repurchased824,435$36.44723,577
(1)Includes share repurchases and shares withheld on net settlements of restricted stock units that vested under our equity incentive plans.
ITEM 3. DEFAULTS UPON SENIOR SECURITIES
None.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
ITEM 5. OTHER INFORMATION
a.On May 9, 2024, the Compensation Committee of the Company’s Board of Directors approved the Progyny, Inc. Executive Severance Plan (the “Severance Plan”) for employees at the level of executive vice president and above. The Severance Plan provides for the payment of severance and other benefits to eligible participants in the event of an involuntary termination of employment by the Company without cause or a resignation of employment by the participant for good reason.

With respect to each participant, the Severance Plan provides that, upon a qualifying termination, the participant will be eligible to receive (i) an amount equal to 12 months of base salary, payable in equal installments, (ii) a pro-rated amount of the participant’s annual bonus, payable in a lump sum, (iii) subsidized COBRA during the 12-month severance period, and (iv) any equity awards that are scheduled to vest during the 12-month period following the participant’s termination date will become vested (collectively, the “Severance Benefits”).

Upon a qualifying termination that occurs within one month prior to or the 12-month period immediately following a change of control, the participant will be eligible to receive (i) the Severance Benefits and (ii) accelerated vesting of 100% of their then-unvested equity awards. In addition, all cash amounts shall be paid in a single lump sum.

In the event that a participant’s employment is terminated due to death or disability, the participant will be eligible to receive only accelerated vesting of 100% of their then-unvested equity awards.

To the extent that a participant is eligible to receive greater severance benefits under an employment agreement currently in effect with the Company, such participant will receive the greater of (x) the benefits under the Severance Plan or (y) the benefits under such participant’s employment agreement.

A participant’s right to receive the severance payments and benefits is subject to their execution and non-revocation of a general release of claims in favor of the Company and their continued compliance with any applicable restrictive covenants.

The foregoing description of the Severance Plan is qualified in its entirety by reference to the complete text of the Severance Plan, a copy of which is filed as Exhibit 10.1 to this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and is incorporated herein by reference.
b.None.
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c.On January 26, 2024, Peter Anevski, our Chief Executive Officer, adopted a trading plan that is intended to satisfy the conditions under Rule 10b5-1(c) of the Exchange Act. Mr. Anevski’s trading plan is for the sale of up to 1,195,000 shares of the Company’s common stock in amounts and prices determined in accordance with a formula set forth in the plan. The plan terminates on the earlier of the date all shares under the plan are sold or April 30, 2025.
ITEM 6. EXHIBITS
Exhibit
Number
DescriptionFormFile No.ExhibitFiling
Date
Filed/Furnished
Herewith
10.1*
31.1*
31.2*
32.1**
32.2**
101.INSInline XBRL Instance Document*
101.SCHInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document*
101.CALInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document*
101.DEFInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document*
101.LABInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document*
101.PREInline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document*
104Cover Page Interactive Data File (formatted as Inline XBRL and contained in Exhibit 101)*
_____________________________
*    Filed herewith.
**    Furnished herewith.
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.
Progyny, Inc.
(Registrant)
Date: May 10, 2024
By:/s/ Peter Anevski
Peter Anevski