10-K 1 piii-20231231.htm 10-K piii-20231231
00018325112023FYFalsehttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Memberhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OperatingExpenseshttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OperatingExpensesP2YP2YP5Yhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherAssetsNoncurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherAssetsNoncurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#AccruedLiabilitiesCurrenthttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#AccruedLiabilitiesCurrenthttp://fasb.org/srt/2023#AffiliatedEntityMemberhttp://fasb.org/srt/2023#AffiliatedEntityMember00018325112023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:WarrantsExercisableForOneShareOfCommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-3100018325112023-06-30iso4217:USD0001832511us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2024-03-15xbrli:shares0001832511us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2024-03-1500018325112023-12-3100018325112022-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2023-12-31iso4217:USDxbrli:shares0001832511us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2022-12-310001832511piii:CapitatedRevenueMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:CapitatedRevenueMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:HealthCarePatientServiceMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:HealthCarePatientServiceMember2022-01-012022-12-3100018325112022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2021-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassBMember2021-12-310001832511us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-12-310001832511us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-3100018325112021-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassBMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassBMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2022-12-310001832511srt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustedBalanceMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassBMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMemberus-gaap:CommonClassBMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:NoncontrollingInterestMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonStockMemberus-gaap:CommonClassBMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-12-310001832511piii:CapitatedRevenueMemberus-gaap:ProductConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2023-01-012023-12-31xbrli:pure0001832511piii:CapitatedRevenueMemberus-gaap:ProductConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:HealthCareClinicalFeesInsuranceRevenueMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:HealthCareClinicalFeesInsuranceRevenueMemberus-gaap:ProductConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:HealthCareClinicalFeesInsuranceRevenueMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:HealthCareClinicalFeesInsuranceRevenueMemberus-gaap:ProductConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:HealthCareSharedRiskRevenueMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:HealthCareSharedRiskRevenueMemberus-gaap:ProductConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:HealthCareSharedRiskRevenueMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:HealthCareSharedRiskRevenueMemberus-gaap:ProductConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:HealthCareCareCoordinationManagementFeesMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:HealthCareCareCoordinationManagementFeesMemberus-gaap:ProductConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:HealthCareCareCoordinationManagementFeesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:HealthCareCareCoordinationManagementFeesMemberus-gaap:ProductConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:HealthCareIncentiveFeesMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:ProductConcentrationRiskMemberpiii:HealthCareIncentiveFeesMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:HealthCareIncentiveFeesMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:ProductConcentrationRiskMemberpiii:HealthCareIncentiveFeesMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:HealthCareOtherMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:HealthCareOtherMemberus-gaap:ProductConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:HealthCareOtherMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:HealthCareOtherMemberus-gaap:ProductConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:FourHealthPlanCustomerMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2023-01-012023-12-31piii:customer0001832511piii:FourHealthPlanCustomerMemberus-gaap:CustomerConcentrationRiskMemberus-gaap:SalesRevenueNetMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:CapitatedRevenueMember2023-12-31piii:plan0001832511piii:CapitatedRevenueMember2022-12-31piii:state0001832511srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:LeaseholdsAndLeaseholdImprovementsMember2023-12-310001832511srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:LeaseholdsAndLeaseholdImprovementsMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:VehiclesMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMember2023-12-310001832511piii:MedicalEquipmentMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:SoftwareAndSoftwareDevelopmentCostsMember2023-12-310001832511piii:MedicalPracticesAcquisitionMember2022-01-012022-12-31piii:business0001832511us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310001832511piii:PrivatePlacementWarrantsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:MeasurementInputPriceVolatilityMember2023-12-310001832511piii:PrivatePlacementWarrantsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:MeasurementInputPriceVolatilityMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:MeasurementInputRiskFreeInterestRateMemberpiii:PrivatePlacementWarrantsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:MeasurementInputRiskFreeInterestRateMemberpiii:PrivatePlacementWarrantsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:MeasurementInputExercisePriceMemberpiii:PrivatePlacementWarrantsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:MeasurementInputExercisePriceMemberpiii:PrivatePlacementWarrantsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-12-310001832511piii:PrivatePlacementWarrantsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:MeasurementInputExpectedTermMember2023-12-31utr:Y0001832511piii:PrivatePlacementWarrantsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:MeasurementInputExpectedTermMember2022-12-310001832511piii:PrivatePlacementWarrantsMember2022-12-310001832511piii:PrivatePlacementWarrantsMember2021-12-310001832511piii:PrivatePlacementWarrantsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:PrivatePlacementWarrantsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:PrivatePlacementWarrantsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:PrivatePlacementWarrantsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:PublicWarrantsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:PublicWarrantsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:ComputerEquipmentMember2022-12-310001832511piii:MedicalEquipmentMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:SoftwareDevelopmentMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:SoftwareDevelopmentMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:VehiclesMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:OtherCapitalizedPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:OtherCapitalizedPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2022-12-3100018325112022-04-012022-06-3000018325112022-10-012022-12-310001832511piii:MedicalLicensesMember2023-12-310001832511piii:MedicalLicensesMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:TrademarksMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:TrademarksMember2022-12-310001832511piii:ProviderContractsMember2023-12-310001832511piii:ProviderContractsMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:TransmissionServiceAgreementMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:TransmissionServiceAgreementMember2022-12-310001832511piii:PublicAndPrivatePlacementWarrantsMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:PublicAndPrivatePlacementWarrantsMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:PublicAndPrivatePlacementWarrantsMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2023-12-310001832511piii:PublicAndPrivatePlacementWarrantsMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2022-12-310001832511piii:VbcGrowthSpvLlcMemberpiii:VgsWarrantAgreementMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMemberpiii:UnsecuredPromissoryNoteMember2023-12-310001832511piii:VbcGrowthSpvLlcMemberpiii:VgsWarrantAgreementMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMemberpiii:UnsecuredPromissoryNoteMember2022-12-310001832511piii:VgsWarrantAgreementMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:MeasurementInputPriceVolatilityMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:MeasurementInputRiskFreeInterestRateMemberpiii:VgsWarrantAgreementMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:MeasurementInputExercisePriceMemberpiii:VgsWarrantAgreementMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310001832511piii:VgsWarrantAgreementMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:MeasurementInputExpectedTermMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberpiii:SecuritiesPurchaseAgreementMember2023-04-060001832511us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberpiii:PreFundedWarrantsMemberpiii:SecuritiesPurchaseAgreementMember2023-04-060001832511piii:RepurchasePromissoryNoteDueJune2026Member2023-12-310001832511piii:RepurchasePromissoryNoteDueJune2026Member2022-12-310001832511piii:TermLoanDueDecember2025Member2023-12-310001832511piii:TermLoanDueDecember2025Member2022-12-310001832511piii:VGSPromissoryNoteMember2023-12-310001832511piii:VGSPromissoryNoteMember2022-12-310001832511piii:RepurchasePromissoryNoteDueJune2026Member2019-06-300001832511piii:TermLoanDueDecember2025Member2020-11-300001832511piii:TermLoanDueDecember2025Member2020-11-012020-11-30piii:payment0001832511piii:TermLoanDueDecember2025Member2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:TermLoanDueDecember2025Membersrt:ScenarioForecastMember2024-01-012024-12-310001832511piii:TermLoanDueDecember2025Membersrt:ScenarioForecastMember2025-01-012025-12-310001832511piii:VGSPromissoryNoteMember2022-12-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:DomesticCountryMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-12-310001832511piii:PeriodOneMemberus-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-12-310001832511piii:PeriodTwoMemberus-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-12-310001832511piii:PeriodThreeMemberus-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-12-310001832511piii:PeriodFourMemberus-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMemberpiii:PeriodFiveMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMemberpiii:PeriodSixMember2023-12-310001832511piii:PeriodSevenMemberus-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2023-12-310001832511piii:TaxReceivableAgreementWithSellingEquityHoldersOfP3LlcMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:P3LlcMemberpiii:TaxReceivableAgreementWithSellingEquityHoldersOfP3LlcMember2023-12-310001832511piii:P3LlcMemberpiii:TaxReceivableAgreementWithSellingEquityHoldersOfP3LlcMember2022-12-310001832511piii:P3LlcMemberpiii:TaxReceivableAgreementWithSellingEquityHoldersOfP3LlcMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:P3LlcMemberpiii:TaxReceivableAgreementWithSellingEquityHoldersOfP3LlcMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:P3LlcMember2022-12-310001832511piii:P3LlcMember2023-12-31piii:vote0001832511piii:SecuritiesPurchaseAgreementMember2023-04-062023-04-060001832511piii:SecuritiesPurchaseAgreementMember2023-04-060001832511piii:EmployeesAndConsultantsMemberpiii:SecuritiesPurchaseAgreementMember2023-04-060001832511us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberpiii:SecuritiesPurchaseAgreementMember2023-04-062023-04-060001832511us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberpiii:PreFundedWarrantsMemberus-gaap:PrivatePlacementMember2023-04-062023-04-060001832511us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberpiii:PreFundedWarrantsMemberus-gaap:PrivatePlacementMember2023-04-0600018325112023-04-060001832511piii:ShelfRegistrationMember2023-11-092023-11-090001832511us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberpiii:ShelfRegistrationMember2023-11-090001832511us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberpiii:ShelfRegistrationMember2023-11-092023-11-090001832511piii:CommonUnitAwardsMember2022-12-310001832511piii:CommonUnitAwardsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:CommonUnitAwardsMember2023-12-310001832511piii:CommonUnitAwardsMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:CommonUnitAwardsMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511srt:MaximumMemberpiii:CommonUnitAwardsMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:IncentiveAwardPlan2021Member2021-12-310001832511piii:IncentiveAwardPlan2021Member2022-01-010001832511us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberpiii:IncentiveAwardPlan2021Member2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMemberpiii:IncentiveAwardPlan2021Member2021-01-012021-12-310001832511piii:OptionsTimeBasedMember2022-12-310001832511piii:OptionsTimeBasedMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:OptionsTimeBasedMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:OptionsTimeBasedMember2023-12-310001832511piii:OptionsPerformanceBasedMember2022-12-310001832511piii:OptionsPerformanceBasedMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:OptionsPerformanceBasedMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:OptionsPerformanceBasedMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:OptionsTimeBasedMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511srt:MaximumMemberpiii:OptionsTimeBasedMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMemberpiii:P3HealthPartnersInc2021IncentiveAwardPlanMember2023-08-012023-08-310001832511us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMemberpiii:P3HealthPartnersInc2021IncentiveAwardPlanMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberpiii:P3HealthPartnersInc2021IncentiveAwardPlanMember2023-08-310001832511us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMemberpiii:P3HealthPartnersInc2021IncentiveAwardPlanMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:WarrantMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:WarrantMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:RealEstateMember2023-01-012023-12-31piii:Option0001832511srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:RealEstateMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:RealEstateMember2023-12-310001832511srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:RealEstateMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:OperatingExpenseMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:OperatingExpenseMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:P3HealthGroupLlcMember2023-12-310001832511piii:P3HealthGroupLlcMember2022-12-310001832511piii:NonControllingInterestHoldersMemberpiii:P3HealthGroupLlcMember2023-12-310001832511piii:NonControllingInterestHoldersMemberpiii:P3HealthGroupLlcMember2022-12-310001832511piii:P3HealthGroupLlcMember2023-12-310001832511piii:P3HealthGroupLlcMember2022-12-310001832511piii:NonControllingInterestHoldersMemberus-gaap:CommonClassBMemberpiii:P3HealthPartnersInc.Member2023-12-310001832511piii:P3HealthGroupLlcMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:PrivatePlacementMember2023-01-012023-12-31piii:segment00018325112021-01-012021-12-310001832511piii:RenegotiationOfAgreementOfHealthPlanDueToDiscrepancyMember2022-12-310001832511piii:RenegotiationOfAgreementOfHealthPlanDueToDiscrepancyMember2023-12-310001832511piii:CapitatedRevenueMemberpiii:AtrioMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:CapitatedRevenueMemberpiii:AtrioMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:HealthCarePatientServiceMemberpiii:AtrioMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:HealthCarePatientServiceMemberpiii:AtrioMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:AtrioMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511piii:AtrioMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:AtrioMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2023-12-310001832511piii:AtrioMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2022-12-31piii:director0001832511us-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511piii:VbcGrowthSpvLlcMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2023-12-310001832511piii:VbcGrowthSpvLlcMemberus-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2022-12-310001832511us-gaap:PrimeRateMember2023-12-310001832511us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2023-01-012023-12-310001832511us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2022-01-012022-12-310001832511us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberpiii:VGS2PromissoryNoteMember2024-03-22piii:tranche0001832511us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberpiii:DebtFirstTrancheMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberpiii:VGS2PromissoryNoteMember2024-03-290001832511us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberpiii:DebtSecondTrancheMemberpiii:VGS2PromissoryNoteMember2024-03-290001832511us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberpiii:OptionOneMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberpiii:VGS2PromissoryNoteMember2024-03-220001832511us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberpiii:OptionOneMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberpiii:VGS2PromissoryNoteMember2024-06-302024-06-300001832511us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberpiii:VGS2PromissoryNoteMemberpiii:OptionTwoMember2024-06-302024-06-300001832511us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberpiii:VGS2PromissoryNoteMember2024-06-302024-06-300001832511us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberpiii:VGS2PromissoryNoteMemberpiii:PeriodOneMember2024-03-220001832511us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberpiii:PeriodTwoMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberpiii:VGS2PromissoryNoteMember2024-03-220001832511us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberpiii:PeriodThreeMemberpiii:VGS2PromissoryNoteMember2024-03-220001832511us-gaap:SubsequentEventMemberpiii:PeriodFourMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMemberpiii:VGS2PromissoryNoteMember2024-03-2200018325112023-10-012023-12-31

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
xANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
oTRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from           to
Commission file number: 001-40033
P3HP_Logo.jpg
P3 Health Partners Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware85-2992794
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
2370 Corporate Circle Suite 300 Henderson, Nevada
89074
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (702) 910-3950
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per sharePIII
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Warrants, each whole warrant exercisable for one
share of Class A common stock at an exercise price
of $11.50
PIIIWThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer o
Accelerated filer x
Non-accelerated filer o
Smaller reporting company x
Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. x
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. o
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o No x
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting and non-voting stock held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2023 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) based on the closing price on that date as reported by the Nasdaq Stock Market was approximately $116.9 million.
As of March 15, 2024, the registrant had 119,334,054 shares of Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 and 196,569,360 shares of Class V common stock, par value $0.0001 outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2024 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) within 120 days after December 31, 2023 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page


CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 (the “Form 10-K”) contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. We intend such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Form 10-K, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business and growth strategy, prospective products, research and development costs, future revenue, market opportunity, timing and likelihood of success, plans and objectives of management for future operations, our ability to raise additional capital and continue as a going concern, future results of anticipated products and prospects, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “would” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words.
The forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K are only predictions and are based largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Form 10-K and are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions, and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements, including those described under the sections in this Form 10-K in Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Part II, Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified and some of which are beyond our control, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise.
You should read this Form 10-K and the documents that we reference in this Form 10-K and have filed as exhibits hereto completely and with the understanding that our actual future results, performance and achievements may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.
Unless the context otherwise requires, “we,” “us,” “our,” “P3” and the “Company” refer to P3 Health Partners Inc. and its subsidiaries. “Foresight” refers to the Company prior to the closing of the Business Combinations (defined below), and “P3 LLC” refers to the surviving entity of the P3 Merger (defined below), which was renamed P3 Health Group, LLC.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 1

SUMMARY RISK FACTORS
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those described in Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K. You should carefully consider these risks and uncertainties when investing in our common stock. The principal risks and uncertainties affecting our business include the following:
Our ability to continue as a going concern.
Our need to raise additional capital to fund our existing operations or develop and commercialize new services or expand our operations.
We have a history of net losses. We expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future and we may never achieve or maintain profitability.
We may not be able to maintain compliance with our debt covenants in the future which could result in an event of default.
Our relatively limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter.
A significant portion of our assets consists of other intangible assets, the value of which may be reduced if we determine that those assets are impaired.
We rely on our management team and key employees and our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations could be harmed if we are unable to retain qualified personnel.
Our growth depends in part on our ability to identify and develop successful new geographies, physician partners, payors and patients. If we are not able to successfully execute upon our growth strategies, there may be material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
If growth in the number of patients and physician partners on our platform decreases, or the number of services that we are able to provide to physician partners and members decreases, due to legal, economic or business developments, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be harmed.
We primarily depend on reimbursement by third-party payors, as well as payments by individuals, which could lead to delays, uncertainties and disagreements regarding the timing and process of reimbursement, including any changes or reductions in Medicare reimbursement rates or rules.
The termination or non-renewal of the Medicare Advantage (“MA”) contracts held by the health plans with which we contract, or the termination or nonrenewal of our contracts with those plans, could have a material adverse effect on our revenue and our operations.
We are dependent on our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners and other providers to effectively manage the quality and cost of care and perform obligations under payor contracts.
Reductions in the quality ratings of the health plans we serve could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Developments affecting spending by the healthcare industry could adversely affect our business.
Our business and operations would suffer in the event of information technology system failures, security breaches, cyberattacks or other deficiencies in cybersecurity.
Actual or perceived failures to comply with applicable data protection, privacy and security laws, regulations, standards and other requirements could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 2

We conduct business in a heavily regulated industry and if we fail to adhere to all of the complex government laws and regulations that apply to our business, we could incur fines or penalties or be required to make changes to our operations or experience adverse publicity, any or all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, and reputation.
If our arrangements with our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners are found to constitute the improper rendering of medical services or fee splitting under applicable state laws, our business, financial condition and our ability to operate in those states could be adversely impacted.
We face inspections, reviews, audits and investigations under federal and state government programs and contracts. These audits could have adverse findings that may negatively affect our business, including our results of operations, liquidity, financial condition and reputation.
The impact on us of recent healthcare legislation and other changes in the healthcare industry and in healthcare spending is currently unknown, but may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our only significant asset is the ownership of a minority of the economic interest in P3 LLC, and such ownership may not be sufficient to generate the funds necessary to meet our financial obligations or to pay any dividends on our Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Class A common stock”).
We will be required to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement, dated as of December 3, 2021, by and among P3 LLC and the members of P3 LLC from time to time party thereto (the “Tax Receivable Agreement”) for certain tax benefits we may claim, and the amounts of such payments could be significant.
Foresight Sponsor Group, LLC (the “Sponsor”) and the Chicago Pacific Founders funds, and their respective affiliates and representatives, non-employee directors and other non-employee stockholders are not limited in their ability to compete with us, and the corporate opportunity provisions in our certificate of incorporation could enable such persons to benefit from corporate opportunities that might otherwise be available to us, which presents potential conflicts of interest.
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to establish and maintain effective internal controls in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or file our periodic reports in a timely manner, which may cause adverse effects on our business and may cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information and may lead to a decline in the price of our Class A common stock.
Other risks and uncertainties described in this Form 10-K, including those under Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 3

PART I
Item 1. Business.
Background
We were incorporated in Delaware as Foresight Acquisition Corp. (“Foresight”) on August 20, 2020. On December 3, 2021 (the “Closing Date”), we completed the Business Combinations (defined and discussed more fully below) with P3 Health Group Holdings, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company (“P3 Health Group Holdings”) and we changed our name to P3 Health Partners Inc. Following the Business Combinations, we are organized in an “Up-C” structure, in which P3 Health Partners Inc. is the sole manager of P3 Health Group, LLC and directly owns approximately 37.2% of P3 Health Group, LLC as of December 31, 2023. Substantially all of the Company’s assets are held and operations are conducted by P3 LLC and its subsidiaries, and the Company’s only assets are equity interests in P3 LLC.
Business Combinations
The Business Combinations were effected pursuant to (1) an agreement and plan of merger, dated as of May 25, 2021 (as amended, the “Merger Agreement”), by and among Foresight, P3 Health Group Holdings and Merger Sub, and (2) the transaction and combination agreement, dated as of May 25, 2021 (as amended, the “Transaction and Combination Agreement”), by and among Foresight, the Merger Corps, the Blockers, and the Blocker sellers (each term as defined in the Transaction and Combination Agreement), pursuant to which, among other things, P3 Health Group Holdings merged with and into Merger Sub (the “P3 Merger”), with Merger Sub as the surviving company, which was renamed P3 LLC, and the Merger Corps merged with and into the Blockers, with the Blockers as the surviving entities and wholly owned subsidiaries of Foresight (collectively, the “Business Combinations”).
Overview
P3 is a patient-centered and physician-led population health management company. We strive to offer superior care to those patients that we serve. Founded and led by physicians, P3 is a team of doctors, clinicians and healthcare professionals with a shared passion for delivering value-based care (“VBC”). We believe our leadership team’s more than 20 years of experience in VBC and population health management, combined with our strong payor relationships, large community-based physician networks and custom technology platform uniquely position us to empower physicians, align incentives for healthcare providers and payors and improve the clinical outcomes for the communities we serve.
As fellow healthcare professionals, we understand the challenges physicians face when providing VBC. We have leveraged that expertise to build our “P3 Care Model.” The key attributes that differentiate P3 include: 1) patient centricity, 2) physician leadership, and 3) our delegated/integrated care model. Tactically, we typically leverage the community’s existing healthcare infrastructure to build a strong network of local physicians. We primarily contract with local physicians to enter the P3 network using an affiliate model, rather than building and staffing our own clinics or acquiring individual practices. By doing so, we preserve the existing patient-physician relationship, allow physicians to maintain their independence and have a built-in patient panel on Day 1. We then align physician incentives and provide our team tools and technology to support our physician partners in a VBC system and care for the patients we have the honor and privilege to serve together. These affiliated physicians provided care to approximately 99% of our primary care physicians as of December 31, 2023. We augment these affiliate partnerships with employed Primary Care Physicians (“PCPs,”), P3 operated clinics, and wellness centers. Furthermore, unlike our peers, we offer a broad delegated care model in which we take on the responsibility to reshape the local healthcare market to provide high quality care for patients throughout the care continuum.
We operate in the $944 billion Medicare market, which covers approximately 66 million eligible lives as of October 2023. Our core focus is the MA market, which makes up approximately 51% of the overall Medicare market, or nearly 31 million Medicare eligible lives in 2023. Medicare beneficiaries may enroll in an MA plan, under which payors contract with the CMS to provide a defined range of healthcare services that are comparable to Medicare fee-for-service (“FFS”), which is also referred to as “traditional Medicare.”
In MA, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”) pays health plans a monthly sum per member to manage all health expenses of a participating member. Our platform focuses on Medicare Advantage and manages the needs of our members through subscription-like per-member-per-month (“PMPM”) arrangements with health plans or payors. From there, the economics of our care model are further impacted by our ability to drive total cost of care savings
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 4

and bend the cost curve. Our model allows us to “do well” while also “doing good.” We contract with health plans to provide capitated care services with respect to certain of their MA members. Our contracts with four health plans to provide capitated care services for their members collectively accounted for approximately 60% and 67% of our capitated revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
The U.S. healthcare system is ripe for change and disruption, and we believe that the P3 Care Model is distinctly situated to address several pain points, including:
Unsustainable and rising healthcare costs. The United States spent $4.5 trillion, representing 17.3% of GDP, on healthcare in 2022. National health expenditures are projected to grow 5.4% per year from 2022 to 2031, according to CMS. While representing only 17% of the United States population, the 65 and older age group accounted for 21% of all healthcare spending in 2022, with an average spend of approximately $13,000 per person. This segment is growing faster than the rest of the population and is projected to reach 22% of the United States population by 2050. Healthcare expenditures are particularly concentrated in this age group in large part due to the high rate of chronic conditions. Rising healthcare costs disproportionately impact low- and middle-income seniors, who often embrace Medicare Advantage plans. This is our area of focus given we believe we can have the greatest clinical and financial impact on this population. Improved care management of seniors is critical to reducing the rapid growth in U.S. healthcare spending.
Inadequate access to primary care and PCP shortages. The current FFS reimbursement model leads to relatively lower pay for PCPs as well as fewer quality touchpoints with patients. We believe that factors like these directly contribute to fewer physicians considering entering, or staying in, the field of primary care.
Sub-optimal quality of care and sub-optimal clinical outcomes.
PCP burnout and dissatisfaction. The traditional FFS model values quantity over quality, which has been shown to lead to physician burnout and jeopardizes the long-term sustainability of the independent primary care business model. According to a 2023 Physicians Foundation report, six in 10 physicians show signs of burnout, compared to four in 10 in 2018. In addition, as average reimbursement rates decline in an FFS model, physicians would need to continually increase the number of patients seen to sustain their practice.
Difficulty in maintaining PCP independence. Small physician practices deliver the majority of care in the U.S.—with 51.8% of physicians working in practices with 10 or fewer physicians, per a 2023 American Medical Association report. That report also found that 46.7% of PCPs worked in a practice that was wholly owned by physicians (e.g., private practice) representing a continued decline since 2020 (49.1%), the first year in which the share of physicians in private practice became a minority. In our experience, physicians who have chosen to work at smaller practices throughout their careers tend to do so because they value their independence. Given the increasingly significant financial and administrative burdens, these physicians are generally unable to maintain independence while effectively transitioning to a VBC model. We believe that allowing them to maintain their independence increases their engagement with population health management practices, which is key to transforming the healthcare system.
Limited collaboration between PCPs and payors. Over the years, we have seen that payors recognize the importance of PCPs in directing and managing total cost of care. Payors have attempted to increase their proximity to primary care physicians through acquisitions and investments in care delivery services and technologies. However, a payor’s ability to impact physician workflows continues to be structurally limited by the multi-payor nature of most physician practices. This makes it challenging for any single payor to achieve the level of integration we believe is needed to improve clinical engagement and effectively manage healthcare costs. We believe this creates significant opportunity for a platform to partner directly and create alignment between payors and physicians.
We aim to overcome these hurdles with a differentiated model that we believe is an attractive option for patients, physicians and payors. P3 honors the existing social and moral contract between patients and their PCPs, partnering with local physicians using an affiliate model. We risk-stratify our patients to help our physician partners prioritize care for those who need it the most. We also provide care teams to serve as an extension of the physician’s practice. These teams provide wraparound services to our patients and collaborate with the patients’ caregivers to ensure patients have the tools to successfully navigate their healthcare journey across the care continuum. We have made significant investments in technology to customize patient care management plans. Taken as a whole, our P3 Care Model helps facilitate enhanced
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 5

clinical outcomes for our key stakeholders, resulting in a 98% physician retention rate from 2018 through December 31, 2023.
We are led by one of the most experienced management teams in population health. Our executive team has a track record of more than 20 years in the healthcare industry. These years of experience have fostered strong relationships in the managed care, physician and payor segments. This is paired with a deep understanding of physicians, patients, technology, payments and branding. Lastly, the core of our care model is based on their collective years of experience in medical cost management. We believe these critical facets position our team to successfully navigate and enable the shift to patient-centric, physician-led, VBC.
We Deliver VBC to the Fastest Growing Market in Healthcare
A need for a new payment structure and an aging U.S. population
Historically, healthcare in the U.S. has been focused on reacting to acute events, which resulted in the development of the FFS payment model. The FFS model unintentionally incentivizes the volume of patients and services performed rather than the quality of services and care—resulting in a deprioritization of preventative services and overall health of the patient. Beyond sub-optimal clinical outcomes, FFS results in significant healthcare spend. As 10,000 seniors age into Medicare each day and prevalence of chronic conditions increases, the need for lower healthcare spend leads the push towards VBC and additional offerings such as Medicare Advantage.
VBC and Medicare Advantage
Medicare Advantage serves as an alternative to traditional Medicare. Medicare Advantage is an integrated plan that includes both Part A and Part B coverage. Most Medicare Advantage plans also offer Part D, vision, hearing, dental and other benefits. Typically, the out-of-pocket costs are lower for Medicare Advantage plans than traditional Medicare, but patients are limited to seeing physicians within the plan’s network and some coverage of certain specialty services may require PCPs’ referrals and plan authorizations.
Medicare Advantage has been well received since it was introduced, with penetration among Medicare beneficiaries increasing from 19% in 2007 to 51% in 2023 and is projected to increase to 62% by 2033. This trend reflects the understanding that Medicare Advantage plans are financially and clinically valuable to Medicare eligible patients.
Our Market Opportunity
We believe there is significant white space opportunity. As of December 31, 2023, we have contracted with 2,750 primary care physicians. This represents less than 1% of the total number of PCPs in the U.S. of approximately 520,000. The industry is primed for a platform like ours, which allows physicians to remain independent while accessing financial resources and infrastructure to support a VBC model.
We believe our total addressable market is represented by the approximately 66 million Americans (approximately 17% of the total population) who were enrolled in either traditional Medicare or Medicare Advantage nationally in 2023, which represented $944 billion of annual spend. Within this, we believe our core addressable market to be the Medicare Advantage market, specifically within moderate-to-highly populated Medicare Advantage eligible dense counties, which we define as having greater than 10,000 Medicare eligible lives. By multiplying these approximately 31 million Medicare Advantage members by an average $1,000 per member per month spend, we estimate this represents a core addressable market size of over $300 billion.
The P3 Care Model
Patient-Centric
Patient wellness, not sickness. The VBC model rewards superior clinical outcomes and value delivered to the patient. With this in mind, we built our model to consider the whole patient rather than individual illnesses as they arise. We work with our physician partners to develop a holistic view of a patient’s health over time to understand the most effective methods to empower their patients to actively participate in and better manage their health (e.g., medication adherence, complete understanding of potential impediments to receiving care).
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 6

Robust care teams. We staff dedicated care managers and care navigators to help ensure end-to-end patient care across the full continuum. Care navigators are responsible for day-to-day patient care (e.g., scheduling appointments, assisting with check-ins, etc.). Care managers, on the other hand, tend to have more medical responsibilities (e.g., reviewing patient charts, coordinating care with PCPs, ensuring appropriate documentation, etc.) and serve as a communication point across care teams. Together, they complement our network of physicians and enable the highest quality of care for our patients—ensuring they are being seen at the right time by the appropriate physician and all corresponding documentation and communication has been streamlined.
Personalized care. Using our proprietary technology platform for integrated data reporting, physicians can stratify their patient panels based on risk. Identifying patients who are high risk (or rising risk) helps prioritize those patients who may need to be seen more often or require additional resources to improve their health. Additionally, our tailored tech suite provides our physician partners with detailed insights to understand what is driving individual patient clinical outcomes and medical costs. Leveraging this data, we then collaborate with physicians to build individualized, longitudinal care plans, catered to the needs of individual patients.
Physician-Led
Collaborative and supportive partnerships. As former physicians, we have a deep understanding of the way in which physicians are trained. In our experience, most physicians not only understand the value of a VBC model, but also want to provide their patients with the highest quality care. However, the way in which most physicians today were trained caters to an FFS model. To support the VBC model, we provide training to physicians on best clinical practices based on nationally recognized care guidelines. As a result, we have seen physicians deliver cost saving, quality healthcare. Unlike some of our peers, we typically enter markets with our affiliate physician model and contract directly with physician groups or independent physicians to enter the P3 network rather than primarily building and staffing our own clinics or acquiring physician practices. By doing so, we preserve the existing patient-physician relationship and create a built-in patient panel on Day 1. Affiliate physicians retain their independence, while gaining access to P3’s teams, tools and technologies that are key to success in a VBC model. P3’s care teams become an extension of each physician’s office and support our collective patients to navigate the health care system, collaborate with caregivers, and enable a successful health care journey. All P3 affiliated physicians must pass an annual credentialing process and maintain compliance with all regulatory standards.
Aligned incentives. Our model properly aligns physicians’ incentives with clinical outcomes, designed so that patients receive the optimal care they deserve. To do this, we offer several types of incentive-based payments to our affiliated physicians. First, as physicians join our network, we continue to pay them on an FFS basis per visit, or structure a contract to offer a monthly, fixed, capitated payment for each patient paneled to their practice. Additionally, we provide quality incentive payments to our physician partners as they close quality gaps in care, enable patient access and improve documentation. Finally, as improved clinical outcomes result in reduced medical costs, we share the savings between P3 and our physician partners. These contracts were built with the physician in mind, which is reflected in our results—a 98% physician retention rate from 2018 through December 31, 2023. Aligning physician incentives with performance on growth, quality, patient disease documentation, and medical expense creates better economics within their practices.
Broad Delegated Care Model
Reshaping local healthcare. Our more than 20 years of experience in the population health management space has allowed us to build the capabilities to better control and manage the delivery of services across the full care continuum. Our team has the ability to take on additional services from our payor partners, including networking, credentialing, utilization management and claims processing. In order to take on these functions, our teams must pass regular delegation audits by CMS as well as our payor partners. By assuming responsibility for the patient’s entire care experience, we can tailor care provision and coordination to their individual needs. We take on this added burden, as it allows us to reshape the local healthcare market and accelerate the shift from a FFS model to a VBC model.
Delegated services. Through delegation, we can build local networks of physicians and specialists to meet the needs of our patients. By creating a captive network, we ensure that our network of physicians and specialists are properly educated on best clinical practices based on national recognized care guidelines. Furthermore, delegation allows us to align incentives across the full continuum, not just the PCP office. With additional tools like utilization management, we ensure that quality care is delivered in the appropriate care setting. To help with care delivery effectiveness, we perform concurrent reviews to manage acute and post-acute hospitals for length of stay and appropriateness. Finally, by taking on
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 7

responsibility for processing and paying claims, we are able to ensure the appropriate payment for the appropriate care. Ownership over claims creates value and helps to accelerate the reduction of unnecessary medical costs.
P3 Technology/Health Hub
The backbone of our P3 Care Model is our proprietary technology platform—P3 Technology/Health Hub—which enables physicians, care teams, patients and their family members to engage in the care journey. Our platform was purposefully built as a data and technology-enabled care ecosystem that drives preventive rather than reactive care.
P3 Technology/Health Hub integrates clinical and claims data from more than 250 disparate data points each month from payors, outpatient and inpatient facilities and other ancillary care settings. By using P3 Technology/Health Hub at the time of patient onboarding, we are able to assign patient risk levels using our proprietary risk stratification tool that leverages multiple parameters to prioritize patients who require additional resources. We continually collect data on patients from multiple sources so our care teams can proactively and dynamically deliver individualized care based on changes to a patient’s health profile. For example, within approximately 12 hours of a hospitalization—even out of state—our physician partners are notified and alerted to the patient’s clinical status. Our care managers also monitor patient care and provide physicians with insights to enable additional care across settings and locations. These factors create a positive feedback loop, whereby our technology accelerates clinical outcomes, improving strong performance, and further growing our business.
The P3 Technology/Health Hub is built on multiple products, including:
Provider Portal. This physician-facing product enables our physician partners to understand, care for and monitor their patients. Physicians can access a risk stratified patient list based on historical diagnoses, suspect diagnoses, ER visits, chronic comorbidities and socio-economic factors, among others. By using this, P3 is able to present physicians with care opportunities, Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (“HEDIS®”) gaps in care and drug substitution opportunities, which directly translate into stronger cost management. Analyzing the risk-stratified patient-level data helps physicians and office staff strategize patient scheduling to optimize their resources and work hours to meet the healthcare needs of the patients that need the most care. Provider Portal also generates additional possible conditions that the physicians can screen for during patient visits. This exercise gives physicians a longitudinal view of patients’ health and any potential medical conditions they may have developed since their last annual wellness visit. This represents an important opportunity for physicians to address the conditions which otherwise may have been missed during initial health reviews of the patient.
Provider Portal is also used by our internal certified coders to review and reconcile claims data with electronic medical record and charts data. This provides P3 an opportunity to capture dropped or missed codes documented in the patient’s medical record that were not properly converted during the initial submission of claims by our physician partner offices. This practice also ensures that the diagnosis data that is submitted to health plans is validated with appropriate supporting documentation for seamless acceptance by CMS for year-over-year risk calculation for our patients.
P3 Care Connect. P3 Care Connect is a comprehensive management tool used by P3 care management, utilization management and concurrent review teams. P3 Care Connect enables P3 care managers to provide concierge and individualized care for specific, high-risk and special needs populations. This capability allows our platform and its constituents to deliver highly impactful clinical programs aimed to reduce cost and improve clinical outcomes while optimizing efficiency. Care orchestration through a combination of program management, cohort building, care plan and assessment builders help our care managers build more intelligent care plans. P3 Care Connect allows our care and medical management teams to process prior authorizations, track P3 patient referrals within our network throughout the care continuum and manage a concurrent review for inpatient services through an automated platform that improves efficiency and auditability of existing business workflows. This tool also enables a streamlined communication between P3 and primary care physicians, specialists and other ancillary care physicians who are involved in the care of our patients.
Analytic Management Tools. Analytic Management Tools is a business intelligence platform that converts data into visualizations and real-time metrics to empower decision making at every level across the organization. It helps our administrative teams deliver a data driven approach for a better, more engaged physician experience and act as a support system to their practices.
This tool combines data management with data analysis to evaluate and transform complex data sets into meaningful, actionable information used to support effective strategic, tactical and operational insights. It also provides
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 8

comprehensive information that drives performance to improve clinical outcomes and quality of care and creates physician profiles and cost analysis to improve healthcare management. With an embedded Risk Adjustment engine, it allows the organization to determine the burden of illness for our patients while providing stratification clinical data to physicians.
Our Value Proposition
We believe that our P3 Care Model is effective, differentiated and represents a ‘win’ for all key stakeholders.
Patients
Our P3 Care Model of partnering with local physicians allows patients to maintain their relationship with their existing physicians. We believe this is key to delivering stronger clinical outcomes and support for our patients. Our model deploys care teams for each individual patient to assist in the continuity and coordination of care. This support allows for seamless interactions across multiple physicians and various care settings. Connectivity reduces the risk of unnecessary progression of disease or downstream care, which is evident in our results.
Physicians
We believe our model supports and empowers physicians, care teams, and practices in their transition from a traditional FFS model to a VBC model. Importantly, we enable physicians to implement VBC protocols while maintaining their independence. Additionally, our P3 Care Model leverages an innovative technology suite that provides physicians with the tools to drive better clinical outcomes. Enabling physicians to own much of this process also allows for improved personal satisfaction on their journey to VBC, resulting in our 98% physician retention rate from 2018 through December 31, 2023 on our network of approximately 2,750 physicians as of December 31, 2023.
Payors
Our model is differentiated in our ability to also partner directly with payors. We have a proven ability to manage medical costs and improve clinical outcomes of our lives under management on behalf of our payor partners. This is evidenced by the receipt of inbound partnership requests from payors to improve growth, quality and profitability in their markets. We believe there is a significant and growing demand from payors as they capitate risk and transition to VBC.
Competitive Differentiation
Broad delegated care model
Under our at-risk model, we are financially responsible for the medical costs associated with our attributed patients across the care continuum. Our broad delegated care model enables us to better manage and control critical aspects of care beyond the PCP office. By taking on additional, delegated services from our payor partners, including networking, credentialing, utilization management and claims processing, we can better control care delivery, align incentives across the care continuum, and ensure that quality care is delivered and paid for in the appropriate care setting.
Rapidly scalable, capital efficient model
We have demonstrated the rapid scalability of our model with organic average annual revenue growth of 84% from 2018 to 2023. This is in part due to the capital efficiency of our affiliate model and in part due to our ability to grow through multiple channels. Because we primarily partner with physicians and physician groups or payors, we do not need to build brick and mortar clinics or acquire practices to enter a new market; therefore, we require less upfront capital to enter a market and can take the time to establish a market presence and build patient recognition and familiarity as well as other relationships before investing significant funds. While many of our competitors employ the buy / build or joint-venture partnership model, our approach has a minimal “ramp-up” period and thus a faster expected near-term path to profitability. Furthermore, our ability to effectively leverage existing physician bases across the U.S. accelerates our speed to scale.
Highly experienced management team
Our management team has extensive experience in population health management, the MA space, and leading the transition to VBC throughout the United States.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 9

Our executive team has worked hard to build cultural alignment around our vision to transform healthcare. Our vision and values are designed to permeate throughout our organization and to be embraced by our employees and partners. Furthermore, our executive team has been thoughtful and strategic about fostering a culture of mentorship to pass on their extensive industry knowledge to future P3 leaders.
Virtuous growth cycle
Our model incentivizes all constituencies across the care spectrum to work together by aligning incentives directly based on growth, care quality, patient disease documentation, and medical expense improvements. Our model creates better physician economics within their practices. When all constituencies benefit, we all capture the meaningful value generated by the P3 Care Model by improving clinical outcomes and decreasing the cost of care. Our ability to drive savings allows us to continuously innovate, support our physician partners and engage patients on the P3 platform.
Our Growth Strategy
We intend to utilize our competitive strengths and capitalize on favorable industry trends to increase our footprint within our current markets and across new states and counties to ultimately increase the number of physicians and patients we serve.
Additional membership through current relationships. Recent data suggests that the number of Medicare-eligible patients and Medicare Advantage penetration rates will continue to increase in the upcoming years. We believe that this trend will translate into increased coverage by our current payor partners in our existing markets. As these new patients enroll in Medicare Advantage through our payors, they become attributed to our platform with little incremental cost to us.
Furthermore, we believe our physician partners will also increase their patient coverage as the number of available Medicare Advantage lives increases. We expect to be favorably positioned to benefit from this source of growth, bolstered by the sticky physician-patient relationship and our platform’s ability to assist our physician partners in more effectively managing healthcare quality, patient experience and cost.
Expansion in current markets. Based on our ability to provide a compelling value proposition for physicians looking to shift to value-based care while remaining independent, we believe there is significant opportunity to grow lives in our current markets in Arizona, California, Florida, Nevada, and Oregon. Additionally, we have the opportunity to expand our existing membership base through our payor partners’ presence in our current markets.
Expansion into adjacent markets. Once we establish a presence in a geography, we are then able to leverage our regional infrastructure and our relationships with payors as we expand into adjacent geographies. We are more easily able to deploy this ‘land and expand’ strategy once we have established the P3 brand in a particular market.
Expansion into new markets. We are constantly evaluating our pipeline of opportunities to continue growing our membership. Based on our analysis and experience to date, we have identified a list of target markets that we believe are ideal candidates for the P3 Care Model, whether across physicians or payors. We can facilitate this growth through new payor contracts, new network partnerships via joint ventures or expanding into a new market as part of an existing payor contract. We target entering three to five new markets each year based on this proven strategy.
Execute on accretive acquisitions. While our growth to date has been organic, we believe there are additional robust opportunities to acquire additional lives across both physicians and payors.
Competition
The healthcare industry is highly competitive and fragmented. Our primary competition remains the status quo, FFS environment that much of the healthcare system operates in today. We currently face competition in every aspect of our business, including in offering a favorable reimbursement structure for existing physician partners and attracting payors and physician partners who are not contracted with us, from a range of large- and medium-sized local and national companies that provide care under a variety of models that could attract patients, providers and payors. Our primary competitors in the population health management space include Oak Street Health, Cano Health and agilon health, in addition to numerous local provider networks, hospitals and health systems. Moreover, large, well-financed payors have in some cases developed their own managed care services tools and may provide these services to their physicians and patients at discounted prices or may seek to expand their relationships with additional competing physicians or physician
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 10

networks. Other organizations may also seek to apply specialized services or programs, including providing data analytics or disease-based programs, designed to enable physicians or payors to operate successfully under VBC arrangements. Our competitors typically vary by geography, and we may also encounter competition in the future from other new entrants. Our growth strategy and our business could be adversely affected if we are not able to continue to access existing geographies, successfully expand into new geographies or maintain or establish new relationships with payors and physician partners.
See the section titled “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—We operate in a competitive industry, and if we are not able to compete effectively, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be harmed.”
The principal competitive factors in our business include the nature and caliber of relationships with physicians; patient healthcare quality, outcomes and cost; the strength of relationships with payors; the quality of the physician experience; local geography leadership position; and the strength of the underlying economic model. We believe our platform, partnership and network model enables us to compete favorably.
Intellectual Property
We rely on a combination of trademark laws in the U.S. as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to protect our trade secrets, including proprietary technology, databases and our brand.
We have a federal trademark registration application for “P3 Health Partners” in the U.S. We also have filed other applications to protect names and marks that are meaningful to our business in the U.S. across various states and local jurisdictions, including for the use of the local brand created within each of our geographies, and will pursue additional trademark registrations to the extent we believe it would be beneficial and cost-effective.
We are the controller of a variety of registered domain names that include “p3hp” and similar variations.
We have developed proprietary technology and processes that support our operational programs and clinical insights, including our P3 Technology/Health Hub, which is a proprietary system that aids in the aggregation and analysis of third-party data we collect. Our internally developed technology is continuously refined to support the needs of our platform and partners. Although we do not currently hold a patent for P3 Technology/Health Hub, we have filed provisional patent applications relating to the P3 Technology/Health Hub, and we continue to regularly assess the most appropriate methods of protecting our intellectual property and may decide to pursue available protections in the future.
We maintain our intellectual property and confidential business information in a number of ways. For instance, we have a policy of requiring all employees and consultants to execute confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of an employment or consulting relationship with us. Our employee agreements also require relevant employees to assign to us all rights to any inventions made or conceived during their employment with us in accordance with applicable law. In addition, we have a policy of requiring individuals and entities with which we discuss potential business relationships to sign non-disclosure agreements. Lastly, our contracts with physicians include confidentiality and non-disclosure provisions.
We may be unable to obtain, maintain and enforce our intellectual property rights, and assertions by third parties that we violate their intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Human Capital
As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 400 full-time employees. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good. None of our employees are currently represented by a labor union or party to a collective bargaining agreement.
Our human capital resources objectives include sourcing, recruiting, developing, retaining, rewarding, recognizing and integrating our existing and prospective employees. We recognize that attracting, motivating and retaining skilled and purpose-driven talent from all backgrounds at all levels is vital to continuing our success. By improving employee retention and engagement, we also improve our ability to protect the long-term interests of our stakeholders and stockholders. We invest in our employees through what we consider to be high-quality benefits, various health and wellness initiatives, and
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 11

social events that bring our employees together to support the communities in which we live and work. We believe we offer competitive compensation packages and work to ensure fairness in internal compensation practices.
People join P3 because of our mission: to ensure providers and their patients get the healthcare they deserve. Together with our employees and physician partners, we have defined our core values as:
People: Our attitude is respecting and valuing everyone. Our community is strong and safe. We are “family” and we take care of each other with the same intensity as we take care of our patients.
Passion: Our heart is our patients. Our soul is our clinicians. Our strength is our people and culture.
Purpose: Our core is fixing health care. Our mindset is disciplined purposeful growth.
Our human capital efforts are supported by our dedicated human resources team. This team supports the business in identifying and recruiting top talent, supporting the onboarding of new hires through an employee orientation program, providing a structured approach to performance management that allows leaders and employees to collaborate to set organizational goals, chart plans, and assign targets such that it becomes a systematic process to achieving goals and objectives and having productive conversations about performance outcomes and career development. Our talent management framework is designed to help us meet the human capital and business needs within the organization. From identification of critical roles to succession planning and retention management practices, the team provides resources and tools, and leads the processes and experiences to help us successfully execute on our talent management strategy.
Our efforts to promote a positive employee experience and foster an inclusive culture are further supported and enhanced by local and national in-person and virtual events, including town halls, in-office celebrations and employee activity committees. We have also developed a taskforce that seeks to drive diversity and inclusion efforts, including employee focus groups to encourage participation across the organization.
Government Regulation
Regulatory Licensing and Certification
Many states, including Florida, require regulatory approval, including licensure and certification, before establishing certain types of clinics offering certain professional and ancillary services, including the services P3 offers. The operations of the P3 owned and managed clinics are subject to extensive federal, state and local regulation relating to, among other things, the adequacy of medical care, equipment, personnel, operating policies and procedures, and proof of financial ability to operate. Our ability to operate profitably will depend in part on the ability of P3 owned and managed clinics and its providers to obtain and maintain all necessary licenses and other approvals, and maintain updates to their enrollment in the Medicare and Medicaid programs, including the addition of new clinic locations, providers and other enrollment information. In addition, certain ancillary services such as the provision of diagnostic laboratory testing require additional state and federal licensure and regulatory oversight, including oversight by CMS, under Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (“CLIA”) which requires all clinical laboratories to meet certain quality assurance, quality control and personnel standards, and comparable state laboratory licensing authorities. Standards for testing under CLIA are based on the complexity of the tests performed by the laboratory, with tests classified as “high complexity,” “moderate complexity,” or “waived.” P3 owned and managed clinics hold CLIA Certificates of Waiver and perform certain CLIA-waived tests, which subjects such clinics to certain CLIA requirements. Sanctions for failure to comply with applicable state and federal licensing, certification and other regulatory requirements include suspension, revocation or limitation of the applicable authorization, significant fines and penalties and/or an inability to receive reimbursement from government healthcare programs and other third-party payors.
With respect to P3’s providers participating in its network, P3 providers must meet minimum requirements to apply for participation or continued participation with P3 through a credentialing process, including, without limitation, having a valid, current medical license and Drug Enforcement Administration registration, if required for the provider’s scope of practice, the absence of any debarment, suspension, exclusion or other restriction from receiving payments from any government or other third-party payor program, and clearing National Practitioner Data Bank of any reports and/or disciplinary actions. P3’s credentialing program is designed to meet CMS and the National Committee for Quality Assurance (“NCQA”) credentialing requirements as well as applicable federal and state laws. P3’s credentialing committee is comprised of a group of multispecialty providers with responsibilities for thoroughly reviewing each P3 provider’s qualifications and credentials. Providers are generally recredentialed every three years or more often if necessary, which is
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 12

consistent with industry guidelines. In addition, network providers are required under their participating provider agreements with P3 to have established an ongoing quality assurance program. Moreover, P3’s contracts may allow P3 to withhold compensation from time to time based upon the providers meeting certain quality metrics, including HEDIS quality measures and care coordination metrics.
State Corporate Practice of Medicine and Fee-Splitting Laws
Our arrangements with our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners are subject to various state laws, commonly referred to as corporate practice of medicine and fee-splitting laws, which are intended to prevent unlicensed persons from interfering with or influencing the physician’s professional judgment, and prohibiting the sharing of professional service fees with non-professional or business interests. These laws vary from state to state, including those where the Company does business, and are subject to broad interpretation and enforcement by state regulators. For example, the corporate practice of medicine prohibition in Nevada has only been established through attorney general opinions and there is no statutory or regulatory fee-splitting prohibition in the state. Arizona’s corporate practice of medicine was established under older case law, and more recent legislation suggests that the prohibition may not be strictly enforced in the state. Oregon prohibits the corporate practice of medicine but has an exception for professional corporations with majority physician ownership where a non-licensed person or entity may hold minority ownership interest in such professional corporation. Florida does not prohibit the corporate practice of medicine but has professional fee-splitting laws, which prohibit the sharing of professional fees based on referrals for professional services.
California’s corporate practice of medicine doctrine has been developed through statutes, case law and state attorney general opinions. The general prohibition on the corporate practice of medicine arises out of the California Business and Professions Code, which has been enforced through case law and attorney general opinions. In California, physicians and certain licensed professionals cannot be employed by non-professional corporations, except under limited exceptions which do not apply to the Company. Additionally, all clinical decisions and certain business or management decisions that result in control over a physician’s practice of medicine or a licensed professional’s clinical decisions must be made by a physician or licensed professional and not by an unlicensed person or entity. California also prohibits professional fee splitting arrangements, but management fees based on a percentage of gross revenue or similar arrangement that is commensurate with fair market value of services provided by the management company are generally permissible.
We believe we have structured our management services agreements with the our affiliated professional entities to comply with the corporate practice of medicine and fee-splitting laws of Nevada, and we expect to enter into similar agreements with affiliated professional entities in California and other states where we may operate in the future, where all clinical decisions and other business and management decisions that result in control over a physician’s practice of medicine or a licensed professional’s clinical decisions remain exclusively with the affiliated professional entities, their physician shareholders and the physicians and licensed professionals employed and contracted by such entities.
A determination of non-compliance against us and/or our affiliated professional entities or other physician partners based on the reinterpretation of existing laws or adoption of new laws could lead to adverse judicial or administrative action, civil or criminal penalties, receipt of cease-and-desist orders from state regulators, loss of provider licenses, and/or restructuring of these arrangements.
Healthcare Fraud and Abuse Laws
We are subject to a number of federal and state healthcare regulatory laws that restrict certain business practices in the healthcare industry. These laws include, but are not limited to, federal and state anti-kickback, false claims, self-referral and other healthcare fraud and abuse laws.
The federal Anti-Kickback Statute (“AKS”) prohibits, among other things, knowingly and willfully offering, paying, soliciting or receiving remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or kind, to induce or reward either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under federal and state healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation.
Several courts have interpreted the AKS’s intent requirement to mean that if any one purpose of an arrangement involving remuneration is to induce referrals of federal healthcare covered business, the AKS has been violated.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 13

The AKS includes statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors that protect certain arrangements. By way of example, the AKS safe harbor for value-based arrangements and the safe harbor for arrangements between managed care organizations and downstream contractors both require, among other things, that the arrangement does not induce a person or entity to reduce or limit medically necessary items or services furnished to any patient. Failure to meet the requirements of an applicable AKS safe harbor, however, does not render an arrangement illegal. Rather, the government may evaluate such arrangements on a case-by-case basis, taking into account all facts and circumstances, including the parties’ intent and the arrangement’s potential for abuse, and may be subject to greater scrutiny by enforcement agencies.
The Stark Law prohibits a physician who has a financial relationship, or who has an immediate family member who has a financial relationship, with entities providing designated health services (“DHS”) from referring Medicare and Medicaid patients to such entities for the furnishing of DHS, unless an exception applies. The Stark Law also prohibits the entity from billing for any such prohibited referral. Unlike the AKS, the Stark Law is violated if the financial arrangement does not meet an applicable exception, regardless of any intent by the parties to induce or reward referrals or the reasons for the financial relationship and the referral.
The federal False Claims Act (“FCA”) prohibits a person from knowingly presenting, or caused to be presented, a false or fraudulent request for payment from the federal government, or from making a false statement or using a false record to have a claim approved. A claim includes “any request or demand” for money or property presented to the United States government. Moreover, the government may assert that a claim including items and services resulting from a violation of the AKS or the Stark Law constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the civil FCA. Penalties for a violation of the FCA include fines for each false claim, plus up to three times the amount of damages caused by each false claim. Private individuals also have the ability to bring actions under these false claims laws in the name of the government alleging false and fraudulent claims presented to or paid by the government (or other violations of the statutes) and to share in any amounts paid by the entity to the government in fines or settlement. Such suits, known as qui tam actions, are pervasive in the healthcare industry.
Further, the Civil Monetary Penalties Statute authorizes the imposition of civil monetary penalties, assessments and exclusion against an individual or entity based on a variety of prohibited conduct, including, but not limited to offering remuneration to a federal health care program beneficiary that the individual or entity knows or should know is likely to influence the beneficiary to order or receive health care items or services from a particular provider. Moreover, in certain cases, providers who routinely waive copayments and deductibles for Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries can also be held liable under the AKS and civil FCA. One of the statutory exceptions to the prohibition is non-routine, unadvertised waivers of copayments or deductible amounts based on individualized determinations of financial need or exhaustion of reasonable collection efforts. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) Office of Inspector General emphasizes, however, that this exception should only be used occasionally to address special financial needs of a particular patient. Although this prohibition applies only to federal healthcare program beneficiaries, the routine waivers of copayments and deductibles offered to patients covered by commercial payors may implicate applicable state laws related to, among other things, unlawful schemes to defraud, excessive fees for services, tortious interference with patient contracts and statutory or common law fraud.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 (collectively, “HIPAA”), also established federal criminal statutes that prohibit, among other things, knowingly and willfully executing, or attempting to execute, a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including private third-party payors, and knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. Similar to the AKS, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation.
Several states in which we operate have also adopted similar fraud and abuse laws as described above. The scope of these laws and the interpretations of them vary from state to state and are enforced by state courts and regulatory authorities, each with broad discretion. Some state fraud and abuse laws apply to items or services reimbursed by any payor, including patients and commercial insurers, not just those reimbursed by a federally funded healthcare program.
Violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that apply may result in significant penalties, including, without limitation, administrative civil and criminal penalties, damages, disgorgement, fines, additional reporting requirements and compliance oversight obligations, in the event that a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement is required to resolve allegations of noncompliance with these laws, the curtailment or restructuring of operations, exclusion from participation in governmental healthcare programs and/or individual imprisonment.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 14

Healthcare Reform
In the United States, there have been, and we expect there will continue to be, a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the healthcare system, many of which are intended to contain or reduce healthcare costs. By way of example, in the United States, the Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (collectively, the “ACA”), substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private insurers. The ACA required, among other things, CMS to establish a Medicare shared savings program that promotes accountability and coordination of care through the creation of Accountable Care Organizations (“ACOs”). The Medicare shared savings program allows for providers, physicians and other designated health care professionals and suppliers to form ACOs and voluntarily work together to invest in infrastructure and redesign delivery processes to give coordinated high quality care to their Medicare patients, avoid unnecessary duplication of services and prevent medical errors. ACOs that achieve quality performance standards established by CMS are eligible to share in a portion of the Medicare program’s cost savings. ACO program methodologies and participation requirements are updated by CMS for each performance year and participants are expected to comply with such program requirements and required to report on performance after the close of the year. ACOs that fail to comply with such program requirements can face penalties or even termination of their participation in the Medicare shared savings program.
Since its enactment, there have been judicial, executive and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. On June 17, 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the most recent judicial challenge to the ACA without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the ACA. Prior to the Supreme Court’s decision, President Biden issued an executive order initiating a special enrollment period from February 15, 2021 through August 15, 2021 for purposes of obtaining health insurance coverage through the ACA marketplace. The executive order also instructed certain governmental agencies to review and reconsider their existing policies and rules that limit access to healthcare.
In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. These changes included aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers, which went into effect on April 1, 2013 and, due to subsequent legislative amendments to the statute, will remain in effect through the first six months of fiscal year 2032, with the exception of a temporary suspension from May 1, 2020 through March 31, 2022, unless additional Congressional action is taken. In addition, on January 2, 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, reduced Medicare payments to several providers, including hospitals, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years.
Additionally, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation continues to test an array of value-based alternative payment models, including the Global and Professional Direct Contracting Model to allow Direct Contracting Entities to negotiate directly with the government to manage traditional Medicare beneficiaries and share in the savings and risks generated from managing such beneficiaries. Although we currently do not participate in these pilot payment models, we may choose to do so in the future. Additional changes that may affect our business include the expansion of new programs such as Medicare payment for performance initiatives for physicians under the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, which first affected physician payment in 2019. At this time, it is unclear how the introduction of the Medicare quality payment program will impact overall physician reimbursement. In addition, there likely will continue to be regulatory proposals directed at containing or lowering the cost of healthcare, as government healthcare programs and other third-party payors transition from FFS to value-based reimbursement models, which can include risk-sharing, bundled payment and other innovative approaches. It is possible that the federal or state governments will implement additional reductions, increases, or changes in reimbursement in the future under government programs that may adversely affect us or increase the cost of providing our services. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue or attain growth, any of which could have a material impact on our business.
Further, healthcare providers and industry participants are also subject to a growing number of requirements intended to promote the interoperability and exchange of patient health information. For example, on April 5, 2021, healthcare providers and certain other entities became subject to information blocking restrictions pursuant to the Cures Act that prohibit practices that are likely to interfere with the access, exchange or use of electronic health information, except as required by law or specified by the HHS as a reasonable and necessary activity. Violations may result in penalties or other disincentives. It is unclear at this time what the costs of compliance with the new rules will be and what additional risks there may be to our business.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 15

Data Privacy and Security Laws
We are subject to a number of federal and state laws and regulations that govern the collection, use, disclosure, and protection of health-related and other personal information, including health information privacy and security laws, data breach notification laws, and consumer protection laws and regulations.
Failure to comply with these laws, where applicable, can result in the imposition of significant civil and/or criminal penalties and private litigation. Privacy and security laws, regulations, and other obligations are constantly evolving, may conflict with each other to complicate compliance efforts, and can result in investigations, proceedings, or actions that lead to significant civil and/or criminal penalties and restrictions on data processing.
Federal and State Insurance and Managed Care Laws
Regulation of downstream risk-sharing arrangements, including, but not limited to, at-risk and other value-based arrangements, varies significantly from state to state. Some states require downstream entities and risk-bearing entities to obtain an insurance license, a certificate of authority, or an equivalent authorization, in order to participate in downstream risk-sharing arrangements with payors. In some states, statutes, regulations and/or formal guidance explicitly address whether and in what manner the state regulates the transfer of risk by a payor to a downstream entity. However, the majority of states do not explicitly address the issue, and in such states, regulators may nonetheless interpret statutes and regulations to regulate such activity. If downstream risk-sharing arrangements are not regulated directly in a particular state, the state regulatory agency may nonetheless require oversight by the licensed payor as the party to such a downstream risk-sharing arrangement. Such oversight is accomplished via contract and may include the imposition of reserve requirements, as well as reporting obligations. Further, state regulatory stances regarding downstream risk-sharing arrangements can change rapidly and codified provisions may not keep pace with evolving risk-sharing mechanisms and other new value-based reimbursement models. Certain of the states where we currently operate or may choose to operate in the future regulate the operations and financial condition of risk bearing organizations like us and our affiliated providers. By way of example, P3 recently acquired Medcore HP, a licensed health plan under the Knox Keene Act, which subjects the entity to certain capital requirements, licensing or certification, governance controls, utilization review and grievance procedures, among others. While these regulations have not had a material impact on our business to date, as we continue to expand, for example, through acquisitions or otherwise, these rules may require additional resources and capitalization and add complexity to our business.
Seasonality
Our business experiences some variability depending upon the time of the year. While new patients are attributed to our platform throughout the year, we experience the largest portion of our at-risk membership growth during the first quarter. Operations in our new markets generally begin on January 1, at which time our payor partners attribute patients to our physician partners as our agreements with those payors in those geographies become effective. This coincides with the beginning of the Medicare program year, when plan enrollment selections made during the prior Annual Enrollment Period, which runs each year from October 15 to December 7, take effect.
In addition, in January of each year, CMS revises the risk adjustment factor for each patient based upon health conditions documented in the prior year, leading to an overall increase in per-member revenue. As the year progresses, our per-member revenue declines as new members join us typically with less complete or accurate documentation (and therefore lower risk-adjustment scores) and patient morbidity disproportionately impacts our higher-risk (and therefore greater revenue) members.
Medical costs will vary seasonally depending on a number of factors, including the weather and the number of calendar working days in a given period. Certain illnesses, such as the influenza virus, are far more prevalent during colder months of the year, which will result in an increase in medical expenses during these time periods. We therefore expect to see higher levels of per member medical costs in the first and fourth quarters.
Available Information
We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on August 20, 2020 under the name Foresight Acquisition Corp. Upon the closing of the Business Combinations, we changed our name to P3 Health Partners Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 2370 Corporate Circle, Suite 300, Henderson, NV 89074 and our telephone number is (702) 910-3950. Our website is www.p3hp.org. Under the investor relations page of the Company’s website,
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 16

ir.p3hp.org, we make available free of charge a variety of information for investors, including our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, Proxy Statements on Schedule 14A and any amendments to those materials filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file that material with or furnish it to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report we file with, or furnish to, the SEC.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Our business involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Form 10-K. The occurrence of any of the events described below could harm our business, operating results, financial condition, liquidity, or prospects. In any such event, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This Form 10-K also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” Our actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain important factors, including those set forth below.
Risks Related to Our Business and Financial Results
Our management has performed an analysis of our ability to continue as a going concern and has identified substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
As of December 31, 2023, we had $36.3 million in cash available to fund future operations. Without additional funding, management believes that our existing cash resources are not sufficient to support planned operations for at least the next year from the issuance of the consolidated financial statements contained elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Based on their assessment, our management has raised concerns about our ability to continue as a going concern. As substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern exists, our ability to finance our operations through the sale and issuance of debt or equity securities or through bank or other financing could be impaired. Our ability to continue as a going concern may depend on our ability to obtain additional capital. Management continues to explore raising additional capital through a combination of debt financing, other non-dilutive financing, and/or equity financing to supplement the Company’s capitalization and liquidity. Our ability to obtain financing on reasonable terms is subject to factors beyond the Company’s control, including general economic, political, and financial market conditions. The capital markets have in the past experienced, are currently experiencing, and may in the future experience, periods of upheaval that could impact the availability and cost of equity and debt financing and there can be no assurance that such financing will be available on terms commercially acceptable to the Company or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital or generate cash flows necessary to fund our operations, we may not be able to compete successfully and may need to scale back, discontinue, or cease certain operations, which would harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Operating History and Early Stage of Growth
We have a history of net losses. We expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future and we may never achieve or maintain profitability.
For the year ended December 31, 2023, we incurred net losses of $186.4 million. As of December 31, 2023, we had an accumulated deficit of $367.3 million. We expect to continue to incur net losses, comprehensive losses, and negative cash flows from operating activities in accordance with our operating plan. We expect that our operating expenses will continue to increase as we grow our business, build relationships with physician partners and payors, develop new services and comply with the requirements associated with being a public company. Since our inception, we have financed our operations primarily through cash we obtained as a result of the Business Combinations, private placements of equity securities, issuances of promissory notes, payments received from various payors and borrowings under the Term Loan Facility (as defined herein). We may not succeed in sufficiently increasing our revenue to offset these expenses. Consequently, we may not be able to achieve and maintain profitability for the current or any future fiscal year. We may never be able to generate sufficient revenue to achieve or sustain profitability and our recent and historical growth should not be considered indicative of our future performance.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 17

We may need to raise additional capital to fund our existing operations or develop and commercialize new services or expand our operations.
We may need to spend significant amounts to expand our existing operations, including expansion into new geographies, to improve our platform and to develop new services. Based upon management’s assessment of the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern as described above in the risk factor entitled “Our management has performed an analysis of our ability to continue as a going concern and has identified substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern,” we believe that our existing cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash may not be sufficient to fund our operating and capital needs for at least the next 12 months. We maintain the majority of our cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash in accounts with major U.S. financial institutions, and our deposits at these institutions, at times, may exceed insured limits. Market conditions can impact the viability of these institutions. In the event of failure of any of the financial institutions where we maintain our cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, there can be no assurance that we would be able to access uninsured funds in a timely manner or at all. Any inability to access or delay in accessing these funds could adversely affect our business and financial position.
Our expectation regarding the sufficiency of funds is based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our available capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Until such time, if ever, as we can generate sufficient revenue, we may finance our cash needs through a combination of equity offerings and debt financings or other sources. In addition, we may seek additional capital due to favorable market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe that we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans.
Our present and future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including:
our ability to achieve revenue growth;
our ability to effectively manage medical expense amounts;
the cost of expanding our operations, including our geographic scope, and our offerings, including our marketing efforts;
our rate of progress in launching, commercializing and establishing adoption of our services; and
the effect of competing technological and market developments.
To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, your ownership interest will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect your rights as a securityholder. For example, in April 2023, we sold an aggregate of approximately 69.2 million shares of our Class A common stock, warrants to purchase an aggregate of approximately 59.9 million shares of Class A common stock (the “Common Warrants”), and pre-funded warrants to purchase an aggregate of approximately 10.8 million shares of Class A common stock (the “Pre-Funded Warrants” and, together with the Common Warrants, the “Warrants”) in a private placement to certain purchasers, which included certain affiliated entities of Chicago Pacific Founders GP, L.P. (“CPF”) and our Chief Medical Officer and member of our board of directors. In addition, debt financing and preferred equity financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends and these forms of financing may have rights, preferences, and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. If we raise additional funds through collaborations, strategic alliances or marketing, distribution or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may be required to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, intellectual property, or future revenue streams or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us. Furthermore, any capital raising efforts may divert our management from their day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to advance development activities. If we are unable to raise additional funds when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate development efforts.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 18

Our business and the markets in which we operate are new and rapidly evolving, which makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter.
Our business and the markets in which we operate are new and rapidly evolving which make it difficult to evaluate and assess the success of our business to date, our future prospects and the risks and challenges that we may encounter. These risks and challenges include our ability to:
attract new members and partner physicians to our platform and position our platform as a convenient and accepted way to access and deliver healthcare;
retain our current members, affiliated professional entities and other physician partners and encourage them to continue to utilize our platform and services;
gain market acceptance of our services and products with members and physicians and maintain and expand such relationships;
comply with existing and new laws and regulations applicable to our business and in our industry;
anticipate and respond to changes in Medicare reimbursement rates and the markets in which we operate;
react to challenges from existing and new competitors;
maintain and enhance our reputation and brand;
effectively manage our growth and business operations, including new geographies;
forecast our revenue, which includes reimbursements, and budget for, and manage, our expenses, including our medical expense amounts, and capital expenditures;
hire and retain talented individuals at all levels of our organization;
maintain and improve the infrastructure underlying our platform, including our data protection, intellectual property and cybersecurity; and
successfully update our platform and services, including expanding our services into different healthcare products and services, develop and update our software, offerings and services to benefit our members.
If we fail to understand fully or adequately address the challenges that we are currently encountering or that we may encounter in the future, including those challenges described here and elsewhere in this “Risk Factors” section, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. If the risks and uncertainties that we plan for when operating our business are incorrect or change, or if we fail to manage these risks successfully, our results of operations could differ materially from our expectations and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Our relatively limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter.
We were established in 2017 and we are continuing to grow our marketing and management capabilities. Consequently, predictions about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history. If our growth strategy is not successful, we may not be able to continue to grow our revenue or operations. Our relatively limited operating history, evolving business and rapid growth make it difficult to evaluate our future prospects and the risks and challenges we may encounter, and we may not continue to grow at or near historical rates.
In addition, as a business with a limited operating history, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other known and unknown challenges. We are transitioning to a company capable of supporting commercialization, sales and marketing. We may not be successful in such a transition and, as a result, our business may be adversely affected.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 19

We may not be able to maintain compliance with our debt covenants in the future which could result in an event of default.
Our Term Loan Facility (as defined herein) with CRG Partners (the “Lender”), the VGS Promissory Note and the VGS 2 Promissory Note (each as defined herein) contain affirmative and negative covenants which, among other things, require us to maintain minimum liquidity and annual minimum revenue levels that increase over time and restrict P3 LLC’s ability and the ability of its subsidiaries from, among other things, incurring certain indebtedness and liens, and making certain restricted payments. If we breach these or other financial covenants and fail to secure a waiver or forbearance from the lenders, such breach or failure could result in an event of default and accelerate the repayment of the outstanding or the exercise of other rights or remedies that our lenders may have under applicable law. As of December 31, 2023, we were not in compliance with its Term Loan Facility and VGS Promissory Note covenants related to issuance of the 2023 financial statements with an audit opinion free of a “going concern” qualification. The Term Loan Facility and VGS Promissory Note lenders have granted us a waiver of the covenant under the Term Loan Facility related to the existence of a “going concern” qualification in the audit opinion for our audited financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023. We were in compliance with all other covenants under the Term Loan Facility and VGS Promissory Note as of December 31, 2023; however, there can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain compliance with these covenants in the future or that the lenders under the Term Loan Facility, VGS Promissory Note or the lenders of any future indebtedness we may incur will grant any such waiver or forbearance in the future.
We may not recognize the anticipated benefits of recent and future acquisitions and any such acquisitions could disrupt our operations and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The anticipated benefits of the Company’s Business Combinations, other acquisitions, and any future acquisitions may not be realized fully, or at all, and may take longer to realize than expected. Anticipated benefits of any acquisition may be affected by, among other things, competition and our ability to grow and manage growth profitably. Further, we may not be able to continue the operational success or successfully finance or integrate any businesses that we acquire. The integration of any acquisition may divert management’s time and resources from our core business and disrupt our operations or may result in conflicts with our business. Any acquisition may not be successful, may reduce our cash reserves, may negatively affect our earnings and financial performance and, to the extent financed with the proceeds of debt, may increase our indebtedness. We cannot ensure that any acquisition we make will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A significant portion of our assets consists of other intangible assets, the value of which may be reduced if we determine that those assets are impaired.
As of December 31, 2023, the net carrying value of other intangible assets represented $666.7 million, or 77% of our total assets. Indefinite-lived intangible assets are evaluated for impairment annually, or more frequently if circumstances indicate impairment may have occurred. Definite-lived intangible assets totaling $666.0 million are amortized over 10 years.
Due to the decrease in the share price over the second and fourth quarters of 2022, the Company recorded a significant goodwill impairment charge of $1,315.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2022. If future operating performance were to fall below current projections or if there are material changes to management’s assumptions, we could be required to recognize additional non-cash charges to operating earnings for other intangible asset impairment, which could be significant.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
COVID-19 has impacted, and may, along with future pandemics or epidemics, continue to impact, our operations and may materially and adversely affect our business and financial results.
There is continued uncertainty about the scope, duration, severity, trajectory, and lasting impact of COVID-19. We continue to monitor the impact of COVID-19 on our business. The extent to which COVID-19 or a new pandemic, epidemic, or outbreak of an infectious disease may directly or indirectly impact our operations and results of operations will depend on multiple factors, including, but not limited to the ultimate geographic spread of the disease, the duration and scope of the outbreak, the emergence of variants, the availability and efficacy of vaccines, and government, social, business and other actions that are taken in response to the pandemic or outbreak. We may be unable to properly anticipate or prepare for these events and, as a result, our business may be materially adversely impacted.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 20

Due to COVID-19 or another pandemic or public health emergency, we have not been able to and in the future may not be able to document the health conditions of our members as completely as we have in the past. Medicare pays capitation using a “risk adjustment model,” which compensates providers based on the health status (acuity) of each individual member. Payers with higher acuity members receive more, and those with lower acuity members receive less. Medicare requires that a patient’s health issues be documented annually regardless of the permanence of the underlying causes. Historically, this documentation was required to be completed during an in-person visit with a patient. As part of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”), Medicare is now allowing documentation for conditions identified during video visits with patients. However, given the disruption caused by COVID-19, it is unclear whether we will be able to document the health conditions of our members as comprehensively as we did before COVID-19, which may adversely impact our revenue in future periods.
Due to our recurring contracted revenue model, COVID-19 has not historically had a material impact on our revenue. Nearly 99% of our total revenue during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 is recurring, consisting of fixed per member per month capitation payments received from MA health plans. Because of the nature of capitation arrangements, the full impact of the COVID-19 may not be fully reflected in our results of operations and overall financial condition until future periods.
To the extent COVID-19 adversely affects our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, including but not limited to the fact that our platform and the other systems or networks used in our business may experience an increase in attempted cyberattacks or targeted intrusion, ransomware, and phishing campaigns seeking to take advantage of shifts to employees working remotely using their household or personal internet networks. The success of any of these unauthorized attempts could substantially impact our platform, the proprietary and other confidential data contained therein or otherwise stored or processed in our operations, and ultimately our business, including but not limited to increased expenses incurred to improve our security controls and to remediate security vulnerabilities.
We rely on our management team and key employees and our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations could be harmed if we are unable to retain qualified personnel.
Our success depends largely upon the continued services of key members of senior management and other key employees. Most key employees are at-will employees and therefore they may terminate employment with us at any time with no advance notice. We also rely on our leadership team in the areas of managed care, operations and general and administrative functions. From time to time, there may be changes in our management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives, which could disrupt our business. The replacement of one or more of our executive officers or other key employees would likely involve significant time and costs and may significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives. Our business would also be adversely affected if we fail to adequately plan for succession of our leadership or if we fail to effectively recruit, integrate, retain and develop key talent and/or align our talent with our business needs, in light of the current rapidly changing environment.
Competition for qualified personnel in our industry is intense due to the limited number of individuals who possess the required skills and experience. In particular, we face substantial competition for physicians and other healthcare providers. As a result, as we continue to grow and enter new geographies, it may be difficult for us to hire additional qualified personnel with the necessary skills. We continued to experience labor shortages in 2023. A number of factors have and may in the future adversely affect the labor force available to us or increase labor costs, including high employment levels, federal unemployment subsidies, increased wages offered by other employers, vaccine mandates and other government regulations. In addition, we have experienced high employee turnover and expect to continue to experience high employee turnover in the future. New hires require significant training and, in most cases, take significant time before such personnel achieve full productivity. New employees may not become as productive as we expect, and we may be unable to hire or retain sufficient numbers of qualified individuals. If our retention efforts are not successful or our employee turnover rate increases in the future, our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations will be harmed.
Finally, as job candidates often consider the value of the stock options or other equity instruments they are to receive in connection with their employment, the volatility in the price of our stock may adversely affect our ability to attract or retain highly skilled personnel. Further, the requirement to expense stock options and other equity instruments may discourage us from granting the size or type of stock option or equity awards that job candidates require to join our company. Failure to attract new personnel or failure to retain and motivate our current personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 21

Our growth depends in part on our ability to identify and develop successful new geographies, physician partners, payors and patients. If we are not able to successfully execute upon our growth strategies, there may be a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
Our business depends on our ability to identify and develop successful geographies and relationships with physician partners and payors, and to successfully execute upon our growth initiatives to increase the profitability of our physician partners. In order to pursue our strategy successfully, we must effectively implement our platform, partnership and network model, including identifying suitable candidates and successfully building relationships with and managing integration of new physician partners and payors. We contract with a limited number of affiliated professional entities and other physician partners and rely on such physicians within each geography. Our growth initiatives in our existing geographies depend, in part, on our physician partners’ ability to increase their capacity to service Medicare patients, and to effectively meet increased patient demand. Our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners may encounter difficulties in recruiting additional primary care physicians to their practices due to many factors, including significant competition in their geographies. Accordingly, the loss or dissatisfaction of any physician partners, our inability to recruit and integrate physician partners into our model, or the failure of our affiliated professional entities or other physician partners to recruit additional primary care physicians or manage and scale capacity to timely meet patient demand, could substantially harm our brand and reputation, impact our competitiveness, inhibit widespread adoption of our platform, partnership and network model and impair our ability to attract new physician partners and maintain existing physician partnerships, both in new geographies and in geographies in which we currently operate, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
Further, our growth strategy depends, in part, on securing and integrating new high-caliber physician partners and expanding into new geographies in which we have little or no operating experience. Integration and other risks can be more pronounced for larger and more complicated relationships or relationships outside of our core business space, or if multiple relationships are pursued simultaneously. Additionally, new geographies may be characterized by stakeholder preferences for, and experience with, rates of MA enrollment, MA reimbursement rates, payor concentration and rates of unnecessary variability in and utilization of medical care that differ from those in the geographies where our existing operations are located. Likewise, new geographies into which we seek to expand may have laws and regulations that differ from those applicable to our current operations. As an immature and rapidly growing company, we may be unfamiliar with the regulatory requirements in each geography that we enter, and we may be forced to incur significant expenditures to ensure compliance with requirements to which we are subject. If we are unable or unwilling to incur such costs, our growth in new geographies may be less successful than in our current geographies.
Further, our growth to date has increased the significant demands on our management, operational and financial systems, infrastructure and human and capital resources. We must continue to improve our existing systems for operational and financial management, including our reporting systems, procedures and controls. These improvements could require significant capital expenditures and place increasing demands on our management. We may not be successful in managing or expanding our operations or in maintaining adequate financial and operating systems and controls. If we do not successfully manage these processes, our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations could be harmed.
If growth in the number of patients and physician partners on our platform decreases, or the number of services that we are able to provide to physician partners and members decreases, due to legal, economic or business developments, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be harmed.
Substantially all of our total revenue relates to federal government healthcare programs. The policies and decisions made by the federal government regarding these programs have a substantial impact on our profitability. Additionally, our future results of operations depend, in part, on our ability to expand our services and offerings, including broadening our continuum of care. As we grow our member base, we will need to maintain and grow our network of providers. Certain of our providers are permitted to provide services on other platforms, and therefore, our success will be dependent on our ability to retain and recruit highly trained and licensed physicians and other providers to our platform.
There are sometimes wide variations in the established per member reimbursement rates as a result of, among other things, members’ risk status, acuity levels and age, plan benefit design and geography. As the composition of our membership base changes, due to programmatic, competitive, regulatory, benefit design, economic or other changes, there is a corresponding change to our premium revenue, costs and margins, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 22

Additional factors that could affect our ability to sell products and services include, but are not limited to:
price, performance and functionality of our solution;
availability, price, performance and functionality of competing solutions;
our ability to develop and sell complementary services;
stability, performance and security of our hosting infrastructure and hosting services; and
changes in healthcare laws, regulations or trends.
Any of these consequences could lower retention rate and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
If the estimates and assumptions we use to project the size, revenue or medical expense amounts of our target geographies are inaccurate or the cost of providing services exceeds the amounts received by us, our future growth prospects may be impacted, and we may generate losses or fail to attain financial performance targets.
We often do not have access to reliable historical data regarding the size, revenue or medical expense levels of our target geographies or potential physician partners. As a result, our market opportunity estimates and financial forecasts developed as we enter into a new geography, are subject to significant uncertainty, and are based on assumptions and estimates that may not prove to be accurate. The estimates and forecasts in this Form 10-K and our other public disclosures relating to the size and expected growth of the market for our services and the estimates of our market opportunity may prove to be inaccurate.
Principal assumptions relating to our market opportunity include estimates of the total number and average length of relationships between MA patients and their physicians, historical MA patient growth rates, amount of revenue and medical expenses associated with MA members expected to be attributed to our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners and historical experience that such physician partners have with a similar platform. Our opportunity is based on the assumption that our platform, partnership and network model will be more attractive to potential physician partners than competing options. However, potential physician partners may elect to pursue a different strategic option.
Changes in our anticipated ratio of medical expense to revenue can significantly impact our financial results. Accordingly, the failure to adequately predict and control medical costs and expenses could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Additionally, the medical expenses of patients may be outside of our affiliated providers’ control in the event that patients take certain actions that increase such expenses, such as unnecessary hospital visits. Numerous factors impact our ability to accurately estimate and control our medical expenses, many of which are not within our control. Factors that may cause medical expenses to exceed estimates include:
the health status of our members;
higher levels of hospitalization among our members;
higher than expected utilization of new or existing healthcare services or technologies;
an increase in the cost of healthcare services and supplies, whether as a result of inflation or otherwise;
changes to mandated benefits or other changes in healthcare laws, regulations and practices;
increased costs attributable to specialist physicians, hospitals and ancillary providers;
changes in the demographics of our members and medical trends;
contractual or claims disputes with providers, hospitals or other service providers within and outside a health plan’s network;
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 23

the occurrence of catastrophes, major epidemics or pandemics, including COVID-19 and any variants thereof, or acts of terrorism; and
the reduction of health plan premiums.
Additionally, fluctuations in the magnitude of the hospital and physician network, including the discontinuation of a hospital or specialty or ancillary physician’s participation in our payors’ provider network, could adversely impact our business, financial condition, cash flows, and results of operations. If we underestimate or do not correctly predict the cost of the care our affiliated providers furnish to patients, we might be underpaid for the care that must be provided to patients, which could have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
We primarily depend on reimbursement by third-party payors, as well as payments by individuals, which could lead to delays, uncertainties and disagreements regarding the timing and process of reimbursement, including any changes or reductions in Medicare reimbursement rates or rules.
The reimbursement process is complex and can involve lengthy delays. Although we recognize revenue when we provide services to patients, we may from time to time experience delays in receiving the associated capitation payments or, for patients on fee-for-service arrangements, the reimbursement for the service provided. In addition, third-party payors may disallow, in whole or in part, requests for reimbursement based on determinations that the patient is not eligible for coverage, certain amounts are not reimbursable under plan coverage, were for services provided that were not medically necessary, or additional supporting documentation is necessary. Third-party payors are also increasingly focused on controlling healthcare costs, and such efforts, including any revisions to reimbursement policies, may further reduce, complicate or delay our reimbursement claims. Further, the Medicare program and its reimbursement rates and rules, upon which many third-party payors base their reimbursement rate, are subject to frequent change. Each year, CMS issues a final rule to establish the MA benchmark payment rates for the following calendar year. Any reduction to MA reimbursement levels may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. Additionally, any delay or default by the government in making Medicare reimbursement payments could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Retroactive adjustments may change amounts realized from third-party payors. As described below, we are subject to audits by such payors, including governmental audits of our Medicare claims, and may be required to repay these payors if a finding is made that we were incorrectly reimbursed. Delays, uncertainties and disagreements regarding the reimbursement process may adversely affect accounts receivable, increase the overall costs of collection and cause us to incur additional borrowing and other costs related to resolving disagreements or uncertainties. For example, in July 2021, a discrepancy was identified in the service agreement with one of our health plans in the way the revenue of Medicare Part C and Medicare Part D was being calculated compared to the definitions of “revenue” under the service agreement. This discrepancy resulted in a contract dispute and a renegotiation of the service agreement. In January 2023, the renegotiation was settled and we reflected the known settlement of $5.0 million within health plan settlements payable on our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2022. The remaining settlement balance of $3.0 million is recorded within health plan settlements payable on our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2023. See Note 20 “Commitments and Contingencies” to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K for additional information on the impact of this discrepancy.
In addition, certain of our patients are covered under health plans that require the patient to cover a portion of their own healthcare expenses through the payment of copayments or deductibles. We may not be able to collect the full amounts due with respect to these payments that are the patient’s financial responsibility, or in those instances where physicians provide services to uninsured individuals. To the extent permitted by law, amounts not covered by third-party payors are the obligations of individual patients for which we may not receive whole or partial payment. Any increase in cost shifting from third-party payors to individual patients, including as a result of high deductible plans for patients, increases our collection costs and reduces overall collections, which we may not be able to offset with sufficient revenue.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the CMS, the federal agency responsible for administering the Medicare program, made several changes in the manner in which Medicare pays for telehealth visits, many of which relax previous requirements, including site requirements for both the providers and patients, telehealth modality requirements and others. State law applicable to telehealth, particularly licensure requirements, was also relaxed in many jurisdictions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unclear which, if any, of these changes will remain in place permanently and which will be rolled-back. If regulations change to restrict our ability to or prohibit us from delivering care through telehealth modalities, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 24

The termination or non-renewal of the Medicare Advantage contracts held by the health plans with which we contract, or the termination or nonrenewal of our contracts with those plans, could have a material adverse effect on our revenue and operations.
We contract with health plans to provide capitated care services with respect to certain of their MA members. Our operations are dependent on a concentrated number of payors with whom we contract to provide services to members. Our contracts with four health plans to provide capitated care services for their members collectively accounted for approximately 60% and 67% of our capitated revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. If a plan with which we contract for these services loses its MA contracts with CMS, receives reduced or insufficient government reimbursement under the MA program, decides to discontinue its MA and/or commercial plans, decides to contract with another company to provide capitated care services to its members, or decides to directly provide care, our contract with that plan could be at risk and we could lose revenue. In addition, certain of our contracts with health plans are terminable without cause. If any of these contracts were terminated, certain patients covered by such plans may choose to shift to another PCP within their health plan’s network. Moreover, our inability to maintain our agreements with health plans, in particular with key payors such as Centene Corporation, Atrio Health Plans, United Healthcare and Aetna, with respect to their MA members or to negotiate favorable terms for those agreements in the future, could result in the loss of patients and could have a material adverse effect on our profitability and business.
The healthcare industry has also experienced a trend of consolidation, resulting in fewer but larger payors that have significant bargaining power, given their market share. Payments from payors are the result of negotiated rates. These rates may decline based on renegotiations and larger payors having significant bargaining power to negotiate higher discounted fee arrangements with healthcare providers. As a result, payors increasingly are demanding discounted fee structures or the assumption by healthcare providers of all or a portion of the financial risk related to paying for care provided through capitation agreements.
We are dependent on our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners and other providers to effectively manage the quality and cost of care and perform obligations under payor contracts.
Our success depends upon our continued ability to collaborate with and expand a network of high-caliber affiliated professional entities and other physician partners who can provide high quality of care, improve clinical outcomes and effectively manage healthcare costs, which are key drivers of our profitability. Our physician partners could demand an increased payment arrangement or take other actions, or fail to take actions, that could result in higher medical costs, lower quality of care for our members, harm to our reputation or create difficulty meeting regulatory or other requirements. Likewise, our physician partners could take actions contrary to our instructions, requests, policies or objectives or applicable law, or could have economic or business interests or goals that are or become inconsistent with our own. Further, our physician partners may not engage with our platform to assist in improving overall quality of care and management of healthcare costs, which could produce results that are inconsistent with our estimates and financial models and negatively impact our growth.
In addition to receiving care from our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners, our members also receive care from an array of hospitals, specialists and ancillary providers who typically contract directly with our payors. We cannot guarantee the quality and efficiency of services from such providers, over which we have no control. Members who receive sub-optimal healthcare from such providers may be dissatisfied with our physician partners, which would have a negative impact on member satisfaction and retention. Any of these consequences could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We could also experience significant losses if the expenses incurred to deliver healthcare services to our attributed members exceed revenue we receive from payors in respect of our attributed members. Under a capitation contract, a payor typically prospectively pays periodic capitation payments representing a prospective budget from which its physician partnerships manage healthcare expenses on behalf of the population enrolled with that physician partnership. To manage total medical services expense, we rely on our affiliated professional entities’ and other physician partners’ ability to improve clinical outcomes, implement clinical initiatives to provide a better healthcare experience for our members and accurately and sufficiently document the risk profile of our members. While our contracts vary, generally, if the cost of medical care provided exceeds the corresponding capitation revenue we receive, we may realize operating deficits, which are typically not capped, and could lead to substantial losses.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 25

Reductions in the quality ratings of the health plans we serve could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
As a result of the Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (the “ACA”), the level of reimbursement each health plan receives from CMS is dependent, in part, upon the quality rating of the MA plan. Such ratings impact the percentage of any cost savings rebate and any bonuses earned by such health plan. Since a significant portion of our revenue is expected to be calculated as a percentage of CMS reimbursement received by these health plans with respect to our patients, reductions in the quality ratings of a health plan that we serve could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Given each health plan’s control of its plans and the many other providers that serve such plans, we believe that we will have limited ability to influence the overall quality rating of any such plan. The Bipartisan Budget Act, passed in February 2018, implemented certain changes to prevent artificial inflation of star ratings for MA plans offered by the same organization. In addition, CMS has terminated plans that have had a rating of less than three stars for three consecutive years, whereas MA plans with five stars are permitted to conduct enrollment throughout almost the entire year. Because low quality ratings can potentially lead to the termination of a plan that we serve, we may not be able to prevent the potential termination of a contracting plan or a shift of patients to other plans based upon quality issues which could, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We operate in a competitive industry, and if we are not able to compete effectively, our business, financial condition and results of operations will be harmed.
Our industry is competitive and we expect it to attract increased competition, which could make it difficult for us to succeed. We currently face competition in various aspects of our business, including in offering a favorable reimbursement structure for physician partners and potential physician partners and attracting payors and physician partners who are not contracted with us, from a range of companies that provide similar services under different care models that could attract patients, providers and payors, including hospitals, managed service organizations and provider networks and data analysis consultants. Further, individual physicians who are contracted within our network may affiliate with our competitors. Competition from hospitals, managed service organizations and provider networks and data analysis consultants, payors and other parties could result in payors changing the benefit structure that is offered to our members, which could negatively impact our profitability and market share.
Our primary competitors include Oak Street Health, Inc., Cano Health, Inc. and agilon health, inc., in addition to numerous local provider networks, hospitals and health systems. Moreover, large, well-financed payors have in some cases developed their own managed services tools and may provide these services to their physicians and patients at discounted prices, or may seek to expand their relationships with additional competing physicians or physician networks, including in geographic areas we serve. This may result in a more competitive environment and increased challenges to grow at the rates we have projected. We expect that competition will continue to increase as a result of consolidation in the healthcare industry and increased demand for its services.
Some of our competitors may have greater name recognition, particularly in local geographies, longer operating histories, superior products or services and significantly greater resources than we do. Further, our current or potential competitors may be acquired by or partner with third parties with greater resources than we have. As a result, our competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements and may have the ability to initiate or withstand substantial benefits structure and premium competition. In addition, current and potential competitors have established, and may in the future establish, cooperative relationships with providers of complementary services, technologies or services to increase the attractiveness of their services.
Accordingly, new competitors or alliances may emerge that have greater market share, a larger customer base, better data aggregation systems, greater marketing expertise, greater financial resources and larger marketing teams than we have, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage. Our competitors could also be better positioned to serve certain segments of the healthcare delivery industry, which could create additional pressure on the premiums that our payors are able to charge. If we are unable to successfully compete, our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 26

Our future growth and the profitability of our business will depend in large part upon the effectiveness and efficiency of our marketing efforts, and our ability to develop brand awareness cost-effectively.
Our business success depends on our ability to attract and retain members, which significantly depends on our marketing practices. Our future growth and profitability will depend in large part upon the effectiveness and efficiency of our marketing efforts, including our ability to:
create greater awareness of our brand;
identify the most effective and efficient levels of spending in each market, media and specific media vehicle;
determine the appropriate creative messages and media mix for advertising, marketing and promotional expenditures;
effectively manage marketing costs (including creative and media) to maintain acceptable consumer acquisition costs;
select the most effective markets, media and specific media vehicles in which to advertise; and
convert consumer inquiries into clients and members.
We believe that developing and maintaining widespread awareness of our brand in a cost-effective manner is critical to achieving widespread adoption of our services and attracting new clients and members. Our brand promotion activities may not generate consumer awareness or increase revenue, and even if they do, any increase in revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, or incur substantial expenses in doing so, we may fail to attract or retain members necessary to realize a sufficient return on our brand-building efforts or to achieve the widespread brand awareness that is critical for broad adoption of our brands.
Developments affecting spending by the healthcare industry could adversely affect our business.
The U.S. healthcare industry has changed significantly in recent years, and we expect that significant changes will continue to occur. General reductions in expenditures by healthcare industry participants could result from, among other things:
government regulations or private initiatives that affect the manner in which healthcare providers interact with patients, payors or other healthcare industry participants, including changes in pricing or means of delivery of healthcare products and services;
consolidation of healthcare industry participants;
reductions in government funding for healthcare; and
adverse changes in business or economic conditions affecting healthcare payors or providers or other healthcare industry participants.
Any of these changes in healthcare spending could adversely affect our revenue. Even if general expenditures by industry participants remain the same or increase, developments in the healthcare industry may result in reduced spending in some or all of the specific markets that we serve now or in the future. However, the timing and impact of developments in the healthcare industry are difficult to predict. We cannot assure you that the demand for our solutions and services will continue to exist at current levels or that we will have adequate technical, financial, and marketing resources to react to changes in the healthcare industry.
We and our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners may become subject to medical liability claims, which could cause us to incur significant expenses and may require us to pay significant damages if the claims are not covered by insurance.
Our overall business entails the risk of medical liability claims. Successful medical liability claims could result in substantial damage awards that exceed the limits of our and those affiliated professionals’ insurance coverage. We carry or
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 27

will carry professional liability insurance for the Company and each of our healthcare professionals. Additionally, all of the network providers that contract or will contract with us separately carry or will carry professional liability insurance for themselves and their healthcare professionals. Professional liability insurance is expensive and insurance premiums may increase significantly in the future, particularly as we expand our services. As a result, adequate professional liability insurance may not be available to us and our affiliated professionals in the future at acceptable costs or at all, which may negatively impact our and our affiliated professionals’ ability to provide services to members, and thereby adversely affect our overall business and operations.
Any claims made against us or our affiliated professionals that are not fully covered by insurance could be costly to defend against, result in substantial damage awards, and divert the attention of our management and our affiliated professional entities from our operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, any claims may adversely affect our business or reputation.
If we or our affiliated professional entities or other physician partners fail to comply with applicable data interoperability and information blocking rules, our consolidated results of operations could be adversely affected.
The 21st Century Cures Act (the “Cures Act”), which was passed and signed into law in December 2016, includes provisions related to data interoperability, information blocking and patient access. In March 2020, the HHS, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, (“ONC”), and CMS finalized and issued complementary rules that are intended to clarify provisions of the Cures Act regarding interoperability and information blocking, and include, among other things, requirements surrounding information blocking, changes to ONC’s health IT certification program and requirements that CMS regulated payors make relevant claims/care data and provider directory information available through standardized patient access and provider directory application programming interfaces that connect to provider electronic health record systems. The companion rules will transform the way in which healthcare providers, health IT developers, health information exchanges/health information networks (“HIEs/HINs”), and health plans share patient information, and create significant new requirements for healthcare industry participants. For example, the ONC rule, which went into effect on April 5, 2021, prohibits healthcare providers, health IT developers of certified health IT, and HIEs/HINs from engaging in practices that are likely to interfere with, prevent, materially discourage, or otherwise inhibit the access, exchange or use of electronic health information (“EHI”), also known as “information blocking.” To further support access and exchange of EHI, the ONC rule identifies eight “reasonable and necessary activities” as exceptions to information blocking activities, as long as specific conditions are met. In June 2023, the HHS Office of Inspector General (“OIG”) published its final rule implementing the statutory penalties for information blocking, which are up to $1 million per violation. Enforcement of information blocking penalties began on September 1, 2023. Further, in December 2023, ONC finalized its rule titled Health Data, Technology, and Interoperability: Certification Program Updates, Algorithm Transparency, and Information Sharing (“HTI-1 Final Rule”). Among other things, the HTI-1 Final Rule narrows the scope of entities that qualify as certified health IT developers, makes updates to its Health IT Certification Program requirements, a voluntary program for certifying health IT, and modifies the information blocking exceptions. Any failure to comply with these rules could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our business and operations would suffer in the event of information technology system failures, security breaches, cyberattacks or other deficiencies in cybersecurity.
Our information technology systems facilitate our ability to conduct our business. While we have disaster recovery systems and business continuity plans in place, any disruptions in our disaster recovery systems or the failure of these systems to operate as expected could, depending on the magnitude of the problem, adversely affect our operating results by limiting our capacity to effectively monitor and control our operations. Despite our implementation of a variety of security measures, our information technology systems could be subject to physical or electronic break-ins, and similar disruptions from unauthorized tampering or any weather-related disruptions where our headquarters is located. In addition, in the event that a significant number of our management personnel were unavailable in the event of a disaster, our ability to effectively conduct business could be adversely affected.
In the ordinary course of our business, we, our affiliated professional entities or other physician partners collect and store sensitive data, including personal information, protected health information (“PHI”), intellectual property and proprietary business information owned or controlled by us or our employees, members and other parties (collectively, “Confidential Information”). We manage and maintain our applications and data utilizing a combination of on-site systems and cloud-based data centers. We utilize external security and infrastructure vendors to provide and manage parts of our information technology systems, including our data centers. These applications and data encompass a wide variety of business-critical information, including research and development information, customer information, commercial
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 28

information and business and financial information. We face a number of risks with respect to the protection of this Confidential Information, including loss of access, inappropriate use or disclosure, unauthorized access, inappropriate modification and the risk of being unable to adequately monitor and audit and modify our controls over our Confidential Information. This risk extends to the third-party vendors and subcontractors we use to manage this sensitive data or otherwise process it on our behalf. A breach or failure of our or our third-party vendors’ or subcontractors’ network, hosted service providers or vendor systems could result from a variety of circumstances and events, including third-party action, employee negligence or error, malfeasance, malware (e.g., ransomware), misconfigurations, “bugs” or other vulnerabilities, computer viruses, cyberattacks by computer hackers such as denial-of-service and phishing attacks, failures during the process of upgrading or replacing software and databases, power outages, hardware failures, telecommunication failures, user errors, or catastrophic events. If these third-party vendors or subcontractors fail to protect their information technology systems and our Confidential Information, we may be vulnerable to disruptions in service and unauthorized access to our Confidential Information and we could incur liability and reputational damage.
The secure processing, storage, maintenance and transmission of information are vital to our operations and business strategy, and we devote significant resources to protecting such Confidential Information. Although we take reasonable measures to protect sensitive data from unauthorized access, use or disclosure, our information technology and infrastructure may still be vulnerable. We have in the past experienced, low-threat attacks by hackers or breaches due to employee error, malfeasance or other malicious or inadvertent disruptions. For example, in April 2023 we were the target of a type of wire transfer fraud known as business email compromise (“BEC”) scam. BEC scams involve using social engineering to cause employees to wire funds to the perpetrators in the mistaken belief that the requests were made by a company executive or established vendor. While this fraud did not cause material losses to us, it reflects that we, like any company, are always at risk of being targeted for a cyberattack.
Attacks upon information technology systems are increasing in their frequency, levels of persistence, sophistication and intensity, and are being conducted by sophisticated and organized groups and individuals with a wide range of motives and expertise. Furthermore, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to, or to sabotage, systems change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures against hacking, phishing, spoofing, BEC, employee error or manipulation, or other similar adverse events. We may also experience security breaches that may remain undetected for an extended period. Even if identified, we may be unable to adequately investigate or remediate incidents or breaches due to attackers increasingly using tools and techniques that are designed to circumvent controls, to avoid detection, and to remove or obfuscate forensic evidence.
Any such breach or interruption could compromise our networks and the Confidential Information stored there could be accessed by unauthorized parties, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Our information systems must also be continually updated, patched and upgraded to protect against known vulnerabilities. The volume of new vulnerabilities has increased markedly, as has the criticality of patches and other remedial measures. In addition to remediating newly identified vulnerabilities, previously identified vulnerabilities must also be continuously addressed. Accordingly, we are at risk that cyberattackers exploit these known vulnerabilities before they have been addressed.
If a cyberattack or security incident were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in legal claims or proceedings, and liability under federal or state laws that protect the privacy of personal information, and corresponding regulatory penalties. In addition, we could face criminal liability, damages for contract breach and incur significant costs for remedial measures to prevent future occurrences and mitigate past violations. Notice of breaches may be required to be made to affected individuals or other state or federal regulators, and for extensive breaches, notice may need to be made to the media or State Attorneys General. Such a notice could harm our reputation and our ability to compete. Although we maintain insurance covering certain security and privacy damages and claim expenses, we may not carry insurance or maintain coverage sufficient to compensate for all liability and in any event, insurance coverage would not address the reputational damage that could result from a security incident. Despite our implementation of security measures to prevent unauthorized access, our data is currently accessible through multiple channels, and there is no guarantee we can protect our data from breach. Unauthorized access, loss or dissemination could also disrupt our operations and damage our reputation, any of which could adversely affect our business.
Actual or perceived failures to comply with applicable data protection, privacy and security laws, regulations, standards and other requirements could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Numerous state and federal laws, regulations, standards and other legal obligations, including consumer protection laws and regulations, which govern the collection, dissemination, use, access to, confidentiality, security and processing of
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 29

personal information, including health-related information, could apply to our operations or the operations of our partners. For example, HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009, and regulations implemented thereunder (collectively, “HIPAA”), imposes privacy, security and breach notification obligations on certain healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, known as covered entities, as well as their business associates that perform certain services that involve creating, receiving, maintaining or transmitting individually identifiable health information for or on behalf of such covered entities, and their covered subcontractors. HIPAA requires covered entities, such as the affiliated professional entities or other physician partners, and business associates, such as us, to develop and maintain policies with respect to the protection of, use and disclosure of PHI, including the adoption of administrative, physical and technical safeguards to protect such information, and certain notification requirements in the event of a breach of unsecured PHI.
Additionally, under HIPAA, covered entities must report breaches of unsecured PHI to affected individuals without unreasonable delay, not to exceed 60 days following discovery of the breach by a covered entity or its agents. Notification also must be made to the HHS Office for Civil Rights and, in certain circumstances involving large breaches, to the media. Business associates must report breaches of unsecured PHI to covered entities within 60 days of discovery of the breach by the business associate or its agents. A non-permitted use or disclosure of PHI is presumed to be a breach under HIPAA unless the covered entity or business associate establishes that there is a low probability the information has been compromised consistent with requirements enumerated in HIPAA.
Entities that are found to be in violation of HIPAA as the result of a breach of unsecured PHI, a complaint about privacy practices or an audit by HHS may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative fines and penalties and/or additional reporting and oversight obligations if required to enter into a resolution agreement and corrective action plan with HHS to settle allegations of HIPAA non-compliance. HIPAA also authorizes state Attorneys General to file suit on behalf of their residents. Courts may award damages, costs and attorneys’ fees related to violations of HIPAA in such cases. While HIPAA does not create a private right of action allowing individuals to sue us in civil court for violations of HIPAA, its standards have been used as the basis for duty of care in state civil suits such as those for negligence or recklessness in the misuse or breach of PHI.
The Federal Trade Commission (the “FTC”) also has authority to initiate enforcement actions against entities that mislead customers about HIPAA compliance, make deceptive statements about privacy and data sharing in privacy policies, fail to limit third-party use of personal health information, fail to implement policies to protect personal health information or engage in other unfair practices that harm customers or that may violate Section 5(a) of the FTC Act. Even when HIPAA does not apply, according to the FTC, violating consumers’ privacy rights or failing to take appropriate steps to keep consumers’ personal information secure may constitute unfair and/or deceptive acts or practices in violation of Section 5(a) of the Federal Trade Commission Act. The FTC expects a company’s data security measures to be reasonable and appropriate in light of the sensitivity and volume of consumer information it holds, the size and complexity of its business, and the cost of available tools to improve security and reduce vulnerabilities. We expect even greater scrutiny by federal and state regulators, partners, and consumers of our collection, use and disclosure of health information. Additionally, federal and state consumer protection laws are increasingly being applied by FTC and states’ attorneys general to regulate the collection, use, storage, and disclosure of personal information, through websites or otherwise, and to regulate the presentation of website content.
Further, certain states have also adopted comparable privacy and security laws and regulations which govern the privacy, processing and protection of health-related and other personal information. Such laws and regulations will be subject to interpretation by various courts and other governmental authorities, thus creating potentially complex compliance issues for us and our future customers and strategic partners. For example, the state of Nevada enacted a law that went into force on October 1, 2019 and requires companies to honor consumers’ requests to no longer sell their data. Further, the California Consumer Privacy Act, as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act (collectively, the “CCPA”) requires covered businesses that process the personal information of California residents to, among other things: provide certain disclosures to California residents regarding the business’s collection, use, and disclosure of their personal information; receive and respond to requests from California residents to access, delete, and correct their personal information, or to opt out of certain disclosures of their personal information, and enter into specific contractual provisions with service providers that process California resident personal information on the business’s behalf. California’s Confidentiality of Medical Information Act (the “CMIA”) places restrictions on the use and disclosure of health information, including PHI, and other personal information, and can impose a significant compliance obligation. Violations of the CMIA can result in criminal, civil and administrative sanctions, and the CMIA also provides individuals a private right of action with respect to disclosures of their health information that violate CMIA. In the event that we are subject to
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 30

or affected by HIPAA, the CCPA, or other domestic privacy and data protection laws, any liability from failure to comply with the requirements of these laws could adversely affect our financial condition.
Washington State also enacted a broadly applicable law to protect the privacy of personal health information known as the “My Health My Data Act,” which generally requires affirmative consent for the collection, use, or sharing of any “consumer health data.” Consumer health data is defined to include personal information that is linked or reasonably linkable to a consumer and that identifies a consumer’s past, present, or future physical or mental health status; consumer health data also includes information that is derived or extrapolated from non-health information, such as algorithms and machine learning. Nevada has also passed a similar consumer health data law, and given the increased focus on the use of health data by entities that are not subject to HIPAA, additional states are expected to pass consumer health privacy laws.
Although we work to comply with applicable laws, regulations and standards, our contractual obligations and other legal obligations, these requirements are evolving and may be modified, interpreted and applied in an inconsistent manner from one jurisdiction to another, and may conflict with one another or other legal obligations with which we must comply. Any failure or perceived failure by us or our employees, representatives, contractors, consultants, collaborators, or other third parties to comply with such requirements or adequately address privacy and security concerns, even if unfounded, could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Legal proceedings in connection with the Business Combinations, the outcome of which is uncertain, could draw the attention of our management team away from the operation of our business.
Prior to execution of the definitive agreements for the Business Combinations, Hudson Vegas Investment SPV, LLC, (“Hudson”), one of our existing equity holders, asserted that it had an option to purchase additional equity interests in P3 Health Group Holdings, LLC (“Legacy P3”) in connection with the pending transaction with Foresight (the “Purchase Option”). We do not agree that the Purchase Option applies to the Business Combinations. On June 11, 2021, Hudson filed an action in the Delaware Court of Chancery (the “Hudson Action”), in which it challenged the Business Combinations. Specifically, Hudson purports to assert claims against Legacy P3, the members of the Legacy P3 Board of Managers, certain of the Legacy P3 officers and Chicago Pacific Founders Fund, L.P. (“CPF”), for breach of the Third Amended and Restated Limited Liability Company Agreement of Legacy P3, dated as of April 16, 2020 (the “Legacy P3 LLC Agreement”), (against Legacy P3 and CPF), breach of fiduciary duty (against certain of Legacy P3’s officers) and breach of alleged contractual standards of conduct (against the Legacy P3 Board of Managers) in connection with the process leading up to, and approval of, the Business Combinations. In the Hudson Action, Hudson sought to enjoin the consummation of the Business Combinations, and seeks a declaration that the Business Combinations violate its rights under the Legacy P3 LLC Agreement, a declaration that the members of the Legacy P3 Board of Managers and certain of Legacy P3’s officers breached their fiduciary duties, and money damages including attorneys’ fees.
See “Item 3. Legal Proceedings” for a description of the Hudson Class D Dispute proceedings.
Defending or settling this lawsuit could draw the attention of our management team away from the operation of our business and while we are indemnified by the P3 Equityholders for costs in connection with this lawsuit, it is possible that we could nonetheless incur financial losses if disputes arise with respect to the extent of the indemnification obligations.
Any future litigation against us could be costly and time-consuming to defend.
We may become subject, from time to time, to legal proceedings, federal and state audits, government investigations, and payor audits, investigations, overpayments, and claims that arise in the ordinary course of business such as claims brought by our clients in connection with commercial disputes or employment claims made by our current or former associates. Litigation and audits may result in substantial costs and may divert management’s attention and resources, which may substantially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. Insurance may not cover such claims, may not provide sufficient payments to cover all of the costs to resolve one or more such claims and may not continue to be available on terms acceptable to us. A claim brought against us that is uninsured or underinsured could result in unanticipated costs, thereby reducing our earnings and leading analysts or potential investors to reduce their expectations of our performance, which could reduce the market price of our Class A common stock or publicly traded warrants.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 31

Changes in U.S. tax laws, and the adoption of tax reform policies or changes in tax legislation or policies in jurisdictions outside of the United States, could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
We are subject to federal and state income and non-income taxes in the United States. Tax laws, regulations, and administrative practices in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change, with or without notice, due to economic, political, and other conditions, and significant judgment is required in evaluating and estimating these taxes.
Our effective tax rates could be affected by numerous factors, such as entry into new businesses and geographies, changes to our existing business and operations, acquisitions and investments and how they are financed, changes in our stock price, changes in our deferred tax assets and liabilities and their valuation, and changes in the relevant tax, accounting, and other laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles and interpretations. We are required to take positions regarding the interpretation of complex statutory and regulatory tax rules and on valuation matters that are subject to uncertainty, and tax authorities may challenge the positions that we take.
Our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly, which could adversely impact the value of our Class A common stock and publicly traded warrants.
Our quarterly results of operations, including our revenue, net loss and cash flows, has varied and may vary significantly in the future, and period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations may not be meaningful. Accordingly, our quarterly results should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Our quarterly financial results may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including, without limitation, the following:
our ability to maintain and grow the number of members on our platform;
the demand for and types of services that are offered on our platform by providers;
the timing of recognition of revenue, including possible delays in the recognition of revenue due to sometimes unpredictable implementation timelines;
the amount and timing of operating expenses related to the maintenance and expansion of our business, operations and infrastructure;
our ability to effectively manage the size and composition of our network of healthcare providers relative to the level of demand for services from our members and our clients’ members and patients;
our ability to respond to competitive developments, including pricing changes and the introduction of new products and services by our competitors;
client and member renewal rates and the timing and terms of client and member renewals;
changes to our pricing model;
our ability to introduce new features and services and enhance our existing platform and our ability to generate significant revenue from new features and services;
the impact of outages of our platform and associated reputational harm;
security or data privacy breaches and associated remediation costs;
the timing of expenses related to the development or acquisition of technologies or businesses; and
the COVID-19 pandemic or other pandemics.
Any fluctuation in our quarterly results may not accurately reflect the underlying performance of our business and could cause a decline in the trading price of our Class A common stock and publicly traded warrants.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 32

Our only significant asset is the ownership of a minority of the economic interest in P3 LLC, and such ownership may not be sufficient to generate the funds necessary to meet our financial obligations or to pay any dividends on our Class A common stock.
We have no direct operations and no significant assets other than the ownership of a minority of the economic interests in P3 LLC. As of December 31, 2023, we owned approximately 37.2% of the economic interests in P3 LLC. We depend on P3 LLC and its subsidiaries for distributions, loans and other payments to generate the funds necessary to meet our financial obligations, including to satisfy our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement, or to pay any dividends with respect to our Class A Common Stock. Legal and contractual restrictions in agreements governing the indebtedness of P3 LLC and its subsidiaries may limit our ability to obtain cash from P3 LLC. The earnings from, or other available assets of, P3 LLC and its subsidiaries may not be sufficient to enable us to satisfy our financial obligations, including our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement, or pay any dividends on our Class A common stock should we decide to do so. P3 LLC will be classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes and, as such, will generally not be subject to entity level U.S. federal income tax. Instead, taxable income will be allocated to holders of P3 LLC units, including us. As a result, we generally will incur taxes on our allocable share of any net taxable income generated by P3 LLC. Under the terms of the P3 LLC Amended and Restated Limited Liability Agreement (the “P3 LLC A&R LLC Agreement”), and the Tax Receivable Agreement, P3 LLC will be obligated to make tax distributions or payments to holders of its P3 LLC units, including us, except to the extent such distributions or payments would render P3 LLC insolvent or are otherwise prohibited by law or the terms of any credit facility. In addition to our tax payment obligations, we will also incur expenses related to our operations and our interests in P3 LLC, including costs and expenses of being a publicly traded company, all of which could be significant. To the extent that we require funds and P3 LLC or its subsidiaries are restricted from making distributions under applicable law or regulation or under the terms of their financing arrangements, or are otherwise unable to provide such funds, it could materially adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition, including our ability to pay our income taxes when due.
Our business could be adversely impacted by climate change, extreme weather conditions and natural disasters.
The intensifying effects of climate change present physical, liability, and transition risks with both macro and micro implications for companies and financial markets. There is increasing concern that a gradual increase in global average temperatures due to increased concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are causing significant changes in weather patterns around the globe and an increase in the frequency and severity of natural disasters. Changes in weather patterns and an increased frequency, intensity and duration of extreme weather events (such as floods, droughts, wildfires and severe storms), whether as a result of climate change or otherwise, could, among other things, disrupt our operations or damage or destroy our headquarters or owned or managed clinics, which may cause us to suffer losses and additional costs to maintain or resume operations, which could have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations. In addition, implementing changes to mitigate risks associated with such events may result in substantial short- and long-term additional operational expenses, which may materially affect our profitability.
Risks Related to Our Legal and Regulatory Environment
We conduct business in a heavily regulated industry and if we fail to adhere to all of the complex government laws and regulations that apply to our business, we could incur fines or penalties or be required to make changes to our operations or experience adverse publicity, any or all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, and reputation.
The U.S. healthcare industry is heavily regulated and closely scrutinized by federal, state and local governments. Comprehensive statutes and regulations govern the manner in which we provide and bill for services and collect reimbursement from governmental programs and private payors, our contractual relationships and arrangements with healthcare providers and vendors, our marketing activities and other aspects of our operations. Of particular importance are:
the federal Anti-Kickback Statute (the “AKS”), which prohibits the knowing and willful offer, payment, solicitation or receipt of any bribe, kickback, rebate or other remuneration for referring an individual, in return for ordering, leasing, purchasing or recommending or arranging for or to induce the referral of an individual or the ordering, purchasing or leasing of items or services covered, in whole or in part, by any federal healthcare program, such as Medicare and Medicaid. Although there are several statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting certain common activities from prosecution, the exceptions and safe harbors are drawn narrowly. By way of example, the AKS safe harbor for value-based arrangements requires,
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 33

among other things, that the arrangement does not induce a person or entity to reduce or limit medically necessary items or services furnished to any patient. Failure to meet the requirements of a safe harbor, however, does not render an arrangement illegal, although such arrangements may be subject to greater scrutiny by government authorities. Further, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it to have committed a violation;
the federal physician self-referral law (the “Stark Law”), which, subject to limited exceptions, prohibits physicians from referring Medicare or Medicaid patients to an entity for the provision of certain designated health services (“DHS”), if the physician or a member of such physician’s immediate family has a direct or indirect financial relationship (including an ownership interest or a compensation arrangement) with the entity, and prohibits the entity from billing Medicare or Medicaid for such DHS. Unlike the AKS, the Stark Law is violated if the financial arrangement does not meet an applicable exception, regardless of any intent by the parties to induce or reward referrals or the reasons for the financial relationship and the referral;
the federal False Claims Act (the “FCA”), which imposes civil and criminal liability on individuals or entities that knowingly submit false or fraudulent claims for payment to the government or knowingly make, or cause to be made, a false statement in order to have a false claim paid, including qui tam or whistleblower suits. There are many potential bases for liability under the FCA. The government has used the FCA to prosecute Medicare and other government healthcare program fraud; including alleged upcoding or improper coding of diagnosis codes under the risk-adjustment methodology, billing for services not provided, and providing care that is not medically necessary or that is substandard in quality. In addition, we could be held liable under the FCA if we are deemed to “cause” the submission of false or fraudulent claims by, for example, providing inaccurate billing, coding or risk adjustment information to our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners through Provider Portal and Analytic Management Tools, respectively. The government may also assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the AKS or Stark Law constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the FCA;
the Civil Monetary Penalties Statute, which prohibits, among other things, an individual or entity from offering remuneration to a federal healthcare program beneficiary that the individual or entity knows or should know is likely to influence the beneficiary to order or receive healthcare items or services from a particular provider;
the criminal healthcare fraud provisions of HIPAA and related rules that prohibit knowingly and willfully executing a scheme or artifice to defraud any healthcare benefit program or falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any material false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. Similar to the AKS, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it to have committed a violation;
reassignment of payment rules that prohibit certain types of billing and collection practices in connection with claims payable by the Medicare or Medicaid programs;
similar state law provisions pertaining to anti-kickback, self-referral and false claims issues, some of which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any payor, including patients and commercial insurers;
laws that regulate debt collection practices;
a provision of the Social Security Act that imposes criminal penalties on healthcare providers who fail to disclose, or refund known overpayments;
federal and state laws that prohibit providers from billing and receiving payment from Medicare and Medicaid for services unless the services are medically necessary, adequately and accurately documented, and billed using codes that accurately reflect the type and level of services rendered; and
federal and state laws pertaining to the provision of services by nurse practitioners and physician assistants in certain settings, physician supervision of those services, and reimbursement requirements that depend on the types of services provided and documented and relationships between physician supervisors and nurse practitioners and physician assistants.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 34

The laws and regulations in these areas are complex, changing and often subject to varying interpretations. As a result, there is no guarantee that a government authority will find that we or our affiliated professional entities or other physician partners are in compliance with all such laws and regulations that apply to our business. Further, because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that some of the business activities undertaken by us or our affiliated professional entities or other physician partners could be subject to challenge under one or more of these laws, including, without limitation, our patient assistance programs that waive or reduce the patient’s obligation to pay copayments, coinsurance or deductible amounts owed for the services we provide to them if they meet certain financial need criteria. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of such laws or any other governmental regulations that apply, we may be subject to significant penalties, including, without limitation, administrative, civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, the curtailment or restructuring of operations, integrity oversight and reporting obligations, exclusion from participation in federal and state healthcare programs and imprisonment. In addition, any action against us or our affiliated professional entities or other physician partners for violation of these laws or regulations, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses, divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business and result in adverse publicity, or otherwise experience a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, reputation as a result.
If any of our affiliated professional entities, other physician partners or owned or managed clinics lose their regulatory licenses, permits, accreditations and/or registrations, as applicable, or become ineligible to receive reimbursement under Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payors, there may be a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows, or results of operations.
The operations of our owned and managed clinics through our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners are subject to extensive federal, state and local regulation relating to, among other things, the adequacy of medical care, equipment, personnel, operating policies and procedures, fire prevention, rate-setting, compliance with building codes and environmental protection and proof of financial ability to operate. Our owned and managed clinics and affiliated professional entities and other physician partners are also subject to extensive laws and regulation relating to facility and professional licensure, conduct of operations, including financial relationships among healthcare providers, Medicare, Medicaid and state fraud and abuse and physician self-referrals, and maintaining updates to our affiliated professional entities’ and other physician partners’ enrollment in the Medicare and Medicaid programs, including the addition of new clinic locations, providers and other enrollment information. Our owned and managed clinics and affiliates professional entities are subject to periodic inspection by licensing authorities and accreditation organizations to assure their continued compliance with these various standards. There can be no assurance that these regulatory authorities will determine that all applicable requirements are fully met at any given time. Should any of our owned or managed clinics or affiliated professional entities be found to be noncompliant with these requirements, we could be assessed fines and penalties, could be required to refund reimbursement amounts or could lose our licensure or Medicare and/or Medicaid certification so that we or our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners are unable to receive reimbursement from such programs and possibly from other third-party payors, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations.
If our arrangements with our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners are found to constitute the improper rendering of medical services or fee splitting under applicable state laws, our business, financial condition and our ability to operate in those states could be adversely impacted.
Our contractual relationships with our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners may implicate certain state laws that generally prohibit non-professional entities from providing licensed medical services or exercising control over licensed physicians or other healthcare professionals (such activities generally referred to as the “corporate practice of medicine”) or engaging in certain practices such as fee-splitting with such licensed professionals. The interpretation and enforcement of these laws vary significantly from state to state. There can be no assurance that these laws will be interpreted in a manner consistent with our practices or that other laws or regulations will not be enacted in the future that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Regulatory authorities, state boards of medicine, state attorneys general and other parties may assert that, despite the agreements through which we operate, we are engaged in the provision of medical services and/or that our arrangements with our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners constitute unlawful fee-splitting. If a jurisdiction’s prohibition on the corporate practice of medicine or fee-splitting is interpreted in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices, we would be required to restructure or terminate our arrangements with our affiliated professional entities and other physician partners to bring our activities into compliance with such laws. A determination of non-compliance, or the termination of or failure to successfully restructure these relationships could result in disciplinary action, penalties,
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 35

damages, fines, and/or a loss of revenue, any of which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. State corporate practice and fee-splitting prohibitions also often impose penalties on healthcare professionals for aiding in the improper rendering of professional services, which could discourage physicians and other healthcare professionals from providing clinical services to members of the health plans with whom we contract.
We face inspections, reviews, audits and investigations under federal and state government programs and contracts. These audits could have adverse findings that may negatively affect our business, including our results of operations, liquidity, financial condition and reputation.
As a result of our participation in the Medicare and Medicaid programs, we are subject to various governmental inspections, reviews, audits and investigations to verify our compliance with these programs and applicable laws and regulations. Other third-party payors may also reserve the right to conduct audits. We also periodically conduct internal audits and reviews of our regulatory compliance. An adverse inspection, review, audit or investigation could result in:
refunding amounts we have been paid pursuant to the Medicare or Medicaid programs or from payors;
state or federal agencies imposing fines, penalties and other sanctions on us;
temporary suspension of payment for new patients to the facility or agency;
decertification or exclusion from participation in the Medicare or Medicaid programs or one or more payor networks;
self-disclosure of violations to applicable regulatory authorities;
damage to our reputation;
the revocation of a facility’s or agency’s license;
criminal penalties;
a corporate integrity agreement with HHS’s Office of Inspector General; and
loss of certain rights under, or termination of, our contracts with payors.
We have in the past and will likely in the future be required to refund amounts we have been paid and/or pay fines and penalties as a result of these inspections, reviews, audits and investigations. If adverse inspections, reviews, audits or investigations occur and any of the results noted above occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our business and operating results. Furthermore, the legal, document production and other costs associated with complying with these inspections, reviews, audits or investigations could be significant.
Our records and submissions to a health plan may contain inaccurate or unsupportable information regarding risk adjustment scores of members, which could cause us to overstate or understate our revenue and subject us to various penalties.
The claims and encounter records that we submit to health plans may impact data that support the Medicare Risk Adjustment Factor (“RAF”) scores attributable to members. These RAF scores determine, in part, the revenue to which the health plans and, in turn, we or our affiliated professional entities or other physician partners are entitled for the provision of medical care to such members. The data submitted to CMS by each health plan is based, in part, on medical charts and diagnosis codes that we prepare and submit to the health plans. Each health plan generally relies on us and our affiliated professional entities or other physician partners to appropriately document and support such RAF data in our medical records. Each health plan also relies on us and our affiliated professional entities or other physician partners to appropriately code claims for medical services provided to members. Erroneous claims and erroneous encounter records and submissions could result in inaccurate revenue and risk adjustment payments, which may be subject to correction or retroactive adjustment in later periods. This corrected or adjusted information may be reflected in financial statements for periods subsequent to the period in which the revenue was recorded. We might also need to refund a portion of the revenue that we received, which refund, depending on its magnitude, could damage our relationship with the applicable health plan and could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 36

Additionally, CMS audits MA plans for documentation to support RAF-related payments for members chosen at random. The MA plans ask providers to submit the underlying documentation for members that they serve. It is possible that claims associated with members with higher RAF scores could be subject to more scrutiny in a CMS or plan audit. There is a possibility that an MA plan may seek repayment from us should CMS make any payment adjustments to the MA plan as a result of its audits. The plans also may hold us liable for any penalties owed to CMS for inaccurate or unsupportable RAF scores provided by us or our affiliated professional entities or other physician partners. In addition, we could be liable for penalties to the government under the federal FCA, that include a monetary penalty adjusted for inflation on an annual basis for each false claim, plus up to three times the amount of damages caused by each false claim, which can be as much as the amounts received directly or indirectly from the government for each such false claim.
CMS has indicated that payment adjustments will not be limited to RAF scores for the specific MA enrollees for which errors are found but may also be extrapolated to the entire MA plan subject to a particular CMS contract. Based on a recent final rule issued by CMS in January 2023, although 2011 to 2017 plan years are still subject to audit, overpayments to MA plans that are identified as a result of a Risk Adjustment Data Validation (“RADV”), audit will only be subject to extrapolation for plan year 2018 and any subsequent plan year. In addition, CMS will not apply an adjustment factor, known as a FFS Adjuster, in RADV audits to account for potential differences in diagnostic coding between the MA program and Medicare FFS program. We are continuing to assess the potential impact this final rule may have on our business and operations.
On March 31, 2023, CMS issued its final 2024 Medicare Advantage Rate Announcement, which implements a three-year phase-in of certain changes to the methodology CMS will use to perform risk adjustment for plan years 2024 through 2026. Under the new risk adjustment model that was implemented in 2024, CMS has changed the manner by which over 2,000 diagnosis codes, across a range of disease and condition categories, are considered for purposes of patient risk scoring, with certain of these codes no longer impacting risk scoring. While the codes subject to changes represent only a fraction of the total number of conditions considered for purposes of risk adjustment, this change and any future changes to CMS’s risk adjustment methodology could impact the revenue we record from Medicare Advantage plans.
There can be no assurance that a health plan will not be randomly selected or targeted for review by CMS or that the outcome of such a review will not result in a material adjustment in our revenue and profitability, even if the information we submitted to the plan is accurate and supportable.
The impact on us of recent healthcare legislation and other changes in the healthcare industry and in healthcare spending is currently unknown, but may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The impact on us of healthcare reform legislation and other changes in the healthcare industry and in healthcare spending is currently unknown, but may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our revenue is dependent on the healthcare industry and could be affected by changes in healthcare spending, reimbursement and policy. The healthcare industry is subject to changing political, regulatory and other influences. By way of example, the ACA, which was enacted in 2010, made major changes in how healthcare is delivered and reimbursed, and it increased access to health insurance benefits to the uninsured and underinsured populations of the United States.
Since its enactment, there have been judicial, executive and Congressional challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. On June 17, 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the most recent judicial challenge to the ACA brought by several states without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the ACA.
Other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted since the ACA was enacted. These changes include aggregate reductions to Medicare payments to providers, which began in 2013 and will remain in effect through the first six months of fiscal year 2032, with the exception of a temporary suspension from May 1, 2020 through March 31, 2022, unless additional Congressional action is taken. In January 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, further reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers, including hospitals, imaging centers and cancer treatment centers, and increased the statute of limitations period for the government to recover overpayments to providers from three to five years. New laws may result in additional reductions in Medicare and other healthcare funding, which may materially adversely affect consumer demand and affordability for our products and services and, accordingly, the results of our financial operations. Additional changes that may affect our business include the expansion of new programs such as Medicare payment for performance initiatives for physicians under the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (“MACRA”), which first affected physician payment in 2019. At this time, it is unclear how the introduction of the Medicare quality payment program will impact overall physician reimbursement.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 37

Such changes in the regulatory environment may also result in changes to our payer mix that may affect our operations and revenue. In addition, certain provisions of the ACA authorize voluntary demonstration projects, which include the development of bundling payments for acute, inpatient hospital services, physician services and post-acute services for episodes of hospital care. Further, the ACA may adversely affect payors by increasing medical costs generally, which could have an effect on the industry and potentially impact our business and revenue as payors seek to offset these increases by reducing costs in other areas.
In addition, new legislative proposals to reform healthcare and government insurance programs, along with the trend toward managed healthcare in the United States, could result in reduced demand and prices for our services. We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments and other third-party payers will pay for healthcare products and services, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The evolving regulation of value-based reimbursement models may have a material adverse effect on our operations.
Regulation of downstream risk-sharing arrangements, including, but not limited to, global risk and other value-based arrangements, varies significantly from state to state. Some states require downstream entities and risk-bearing entities to obtain an insurance license, a certificate of authority, or an equivalent authorization, in order to participate in downstream risk-sharing arrangements with payors. In some states, statutes, regulations and/or formal guidance explicitly address whether and in what manner the state regulates the transfer of risk by a payor to a downstream entity. However, the majority of states do not explicitly address the issue, and in such states, regulators may nonetheless interpret statutes and regulations to regulate such activity. If downstream risk-sharing arrangements are not regulated directly in a particular state, the state regulatory agency may nonetheless require oversight by the licensed payor as the party to such a downstream risk-sharing arrangement. Such oversight is accomplished via contract and may include the imposition of reserve requirements, as well as reporting obligations. Further, state regulatory stances regarding downstream risk-sharing arrangements can change rapidly and codified provisions may not keep pace with evolving risk-sharing mechanisms and other new value-based reimbursement models. Certain of the states where we currently operate or may choose to operate in the future regulate the operations and financial condition of risk bearing organizations like us and our affiliated providers. These regulations can include capital requirements, licensing or certification, governance controls and other similar matters. As a result, new and existing laws, regulations or guidance could have a material adverse effect on our operations and could subject us to the risk of restructuring or terminating our arrangements with our affiliated professional entities or other physician partners, as well as the risk of regulatory enforcement, penalties and sanctions, if state and federal enforcement agencies disagree with our interpretation of these laws. While these regulations have not had a material impact on our business to date, as we continue to expand, these rules may require additional resources and capitalization and add complexity to our business.
Regulatory proposals directed at containing or lowering the cost of healthcare, including the Direct Contracting Model, and our participation, voluntary or otherwise, in such proposed models, could impact our business, financial condition, cash flows and operations.
The ACA also required CMS to establish a Medicare shared savings program that promotes accountability and coordination of care through the creation of ACOs. The Medicare shared savings program allows for providers, physicians and other designated healthcare professionals and suppliers to form ACOs and voluntarily work together to invest in infrastructure and redesign delivery processes to give coordinated high quality care to their Medicare patients, avoid unnecessary duplication of services and prevent medical errors. ACOs that achieve quality performance standards established by CMS are eligible to share in a portion of the Medicare program’s cost savings. We have an ACO in Arizona participating in the Medicare Shared Savings Plan (“MSSP”), and is subject to ACO program methodologies and participation requirements that are updated by CMS for each performance year. We and our affiliated providers as ACO participants are expected to comply with such program requirements and are required to report to CMS on performance after the close of the year. Failure to comply with such program requirements could subject us and our affiliated providers to significant penalties and, in some cases, termination from participating in MSSP.
Additionally, the CMS Innovation Center continues to test an array of value-based alternative payment models, including the Accountable Care Organization Realizing Equity, Access, and Community Health (“ACO REACH”) Model (formerly known as the Global and Professional Direct Contracting Model) to allow REACH ACOs to negotiate directly with the government to manage traditional Medicare beneficiaries and share in the savings and risks generated from managing such beneficiaries. Although we currently do not participate in these pilot payment models, we may choose to do so in the future. Additional changes that may affect our business include the expansion of new programs such as Medicare
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 38

payment for performance initiatives for physicians under the MACRA, which first affected physician payment in 2019. At this time, it is unclear how the introduction of the Medicare quality payment program will impact overall physician reimbursement. In addition, there likely will continue to be regulatory proposals directed at containing or lowering the cost of healthcare, as government healthcare programs and other third-party payors transition from FFS to value-based reimbursement models, which can include risk-sharing, bundled payment and other innovative approaches. It is possible that the federal or state governments will implement additional reductions, increases, or changes in reimbursement in the future under government programs that may adversely affect us or increase the cost of providing our services. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue or attain growth, any of which could have a material impact on our business.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to establish and maintain effective internal controls in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or file our periodic reports in a timely manner, which may cause adverse effects on our business and may cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information and may lead to a decline in the price of our Class A common stock.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We are required to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in our annual reports. This assessment must include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. As a result of no longer qualifying as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, we are also required to comply with, among other requirements, the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
Effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports in a timely manner. When evaluating our internal control over financial reporting, we have identified, and we may in the future identify additional, material weaknesses that we may not be able to remediate in a timely manner. In connection with the audits of our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019, 2020 and 2021, and, as previously reported, the restatement of our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we concluded that there were material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, which continued to exist as of December 31, 2023. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. These material weaknesses are specifically attributed to the following: (i) we did not have adequate policies and procedures or sufficient qualified resources with appropriate technical knowledge to maintain effective internal controls over the accounting related to significant accounts and related financial statement disclosures; (ii) we did not design and implement a sufficient risk assessment process to identify and assess risks impacting internal control over financial reporting; (iii) we had ineffective evaluation and determination as to whether the components of internal control were present and functioning; (iv) we did not design and implement effective information technology general controls in the areas of user access related to certain information technology systems that support our financial reporting process, (v) we did not maintain sufficient segregation of duties over the performance of control activities for financial close and reporting, including over the review of account reconciliations and journal entries; (vi) we did not design and maintain effective management review controls at a sufficient level of precision over all financial statement areas. This material weakness resulted in certain material corrections to the financial statements; and (vii) we did not design and maintain effective controls at a sufficient level of precision over the estimation of claims expense and payable including controls over the review of historical claims data, including the completeness and accuracy of data used to determine the financial statement amounts.
We have taken and are taking steps discussed under the heading “Remediation Activities” in Part II, Item 9A, “Controls and Procedures” to remediate these material weaknesses. However, we are still in the process of implementing these steps and cannot assure investors that these measures will significantly improve or remediate the material weaknesses described above. We have identified other deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that have not risen to the level of a material weakness, which we are in the process of remediating.
Our failure to successfully remediate the material weaknesses and to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could cause us to be unable to maintain compliance with securities law requirements
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 39

regarding timely filing of periodic reports, could expose us to an increased risk of financial reporting fraud and the misappropriation of assets, could result in errors or misstatements in our financial statements that could result in loss of investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and a decline in our stock price, and we could be subject to potential delisting from Nasdaq or to other regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions or investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities.
In addition, even if we remediate the material weaknesses, we will be required to expend significant time and resources to further improve our internal controls over financial reporting, including by further expanding our finance and accounting staff to meet the demands placed upon us as a public company, including the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If we fail to adequately staff our accounting and finance function to remediate our material weaknesses or fail to maintain adequate internal control over financial reporting, any new or recurring material weaknesses could prevent our management from concluding that our internal control over financial reporting is effective and impair our ability to prevent material misstatements in our financial statements, which could cause our business to suffer.
We cannot predict the impact our dual-class structure may have on the stock price of our Class A common stock.
We cannot predict whether our dual-class structure will result in a lower or more volatile market price of our Class A common stock or in adverse publicity or other adverse consequences. Certain investors, including large institutional investors, may prefer companies that do not have multiple share classes or may have investment guidelines that preclude them from investing in companies that have multiple share classes. In addition, certain index providers have previously implemented, and may in the future determine to implement, restrictions on including companies with multiple share classes in certain of their indices. For example, from July 2017 to April 2023, S&P Dow Jones excluded companies with multiple share classes from the S&P Composite 1500 (composed of the S&P 500, S&P MidCap 400 and S&P SmallCap 600). Indices have discretion to reassess and implement such policies with respect to multi-class differing voting right structures. Under any such policies, our dual-class capital structure would make us ineligible for inclusion in any of these indices. As a result, the market price of our Class A common stock could be materially adversely affected.
Delaware law and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain certain provisions, including anti-takeover provisions that limit the ability of stockholders to take certain actions and could delay or discourage takeover attempts that stockholders may consider favorable.
Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, and the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (“DGCL”), contain provisions that could have the effect of rendering more difficult, delaying, or preventing an acquisition that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. These provisions could also limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of Class A common stock, and therefore depress the trading price of Class A common stock. These provisions could also make it difficult for stockholders to take certain actions, including electing directors who are not nominated by the current members of our board of directors or taking other corporate actions, including effecting changes in our management. Among other things, the certificate of incorporation and the bylaws include provisions:
providing for a classified board of directors with staggered, three-year terms;
regarding the ability of the board of directors to issue shares of preferred stock, including “blank check” preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without stockholder approval, which could be used to significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquirer;
prohibiting cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates;
regarding the limitation of the liability of, and the indemnification of, directors and officers;
providing that certain transactions are not “corporate opportunities” and that, subject to certain exceptions, Foresight Sponsor Group, LLC, (the “Sponsor”) or the Chicago Pacific Founders funds or their respective affiliates and any of their respective principals, members, directors, partners, stockholders, officers, employees or other representatives, or any director or stockholder who is not employed by us or our subsidiaries, are not subject to the doctrine of corporate opportunity and such persons do not have any
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 40

fiduciary duty to refrain from engaging directly or indirectly in the same or similar business activities or lines of business as us or any of our subsidiaries;
regarding the ability of the board of directors to amend the bylaws, which may allow the board of directors to take additional actions to prevent an unsolicited takeover and inhibit the ability of an acquiror to amend the bylaws to facilitate an unsolicited takeover attempt; and
regarding advance notice procedures with which stockholders must comply to nominate candidates to the board of directors or to propose matters to be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting, which could preclude stockholders from bringing matters before annual or special meetings of stockholders and delay changes in the board of directors and also may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.
These provisions, alone or together, could delay or prevent hostile takeovers and changes in control or changes in our board of directors or management.
The Sponsor and the Chicago Pacific Founders funds, and their respective affiliates and representatives, non-employee directors and other non-employee stockholders are not limited in their ability to compete with us, and the corporate opportunity provisions in our certificate of incorporation could enable such persons to benefit from corporate opportunities that might otherwise be available to us, which presents potential conflicts of interest.
Our certificate of incorporation provides that subject to certain exceptions, the Sponsor and the Chicago Pacific Founders funds and their respective affiliates and any of their respective principals, members, directors, partners, stockholders, officers, employees or other representatives, or any director or stockholder who is not employed by us or our subsidiaries, would not be restricted from owning assets or engaging in businesses that compete directly or indirectly with us or any of our subsidiaries. In particular, subject to the limitations of applicable law and the certificate of incorporation, these persons may among other things:
engage in a corporate opportunity in the same or similar business activities or lines of business in which we or our affiliates have a reasonable expectancy interest or property right;
purchase, sell or otherwise engage in transactions involving securities or indebtedness of us or our affiliates, provided that such transactions do not violate our insider trading policies; and
otherwise compete with us.
One or more of these persons may become aware, from time to time, of certain business opportunities (such as acquisition opportunities) and may direct such opportunities to other businesses in which they have invested, in which case we may not become aware of or otherwise have the ability to pursue such opportunities. Further, such businesses may choose to compete with us for these opportunities, possibly causing these opportunities to not be available to us or causing them to be more expensive for us to pursue. As a result, our renunciation of our interest and expectancy in any business opportunity that may be from time to time be presented to such persons, could adversely impact our business or prospects if attractive business opportunities are procured by such parties for their own benefit rather than for ours.
The provision of our certificate of incorporation requiring exclusive forum in certain courts in the State of Delaware or the federal district courts of the United States for certain types of lawsuits may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.
Our certificate of incorporation requires, to the fullest extent permitted by law, that (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our company’s behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or stockholders to our company or our stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against our company arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or the certificate of incorporation or our bylaws or (iv) any action asserting a claim against our company governed by the internal affairs doctrine will have to be brought in a state court located within the State of Delaware (or if no state court of the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware), in all cases subject to the courts having personal jurisdiction over the indispensable parties named as defendants. The foregoing provision will not apply to claims seeking to enforce any liability or duty created by the Exchange Act.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 41

Additionally, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act.
Although we believe these exclusive forum provisions benefit our company by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law and federal securities laws in the types of lawsuits to which each applies, the exclusive forum provisions may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or any of our directors, officers or stockholders, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims. Further, in the event a court finds either exclusive forum provision contained in our certificate of incorporation to be unenforceable or inapplicable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.
An active, liquid trading market for our Class A common stock may not be sustained.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain an active trading market for our Class A common stock on Nasdaq or any other exchange in the future. If an active market for our Class A common stock is not maintained, or if we fail to satisfy the continued listing standards of Nasdaq for any reason and our Class A common stock is delisted, it may be difficult for our stockholders to sell their Class A common stock without depressing the market price for our Class A common stock, or at all. An inactive trading market may also impair our ability to both raise capital by selling shares of capital stock, attract and motivate employees through equity incentive awards and acquire other companies, products, or technologies by using shares of capital stock as consideration.
There may be sales of a substantial amount of our Class A common stock in future by our stockholders, and these sales could cause the price of our Class A common stock to fall.
As of December 31, 2023, there were approximately 116.6 million shares of Class A common stock outstanding and an additional approximately 196.6 million shares of Class V common stock, which are exchangeable, together with P3 LLC units, for an equivalent number of shares of Class A common stock. Our issued and outstanding shares of Class A common stock are freely transferable, except for any shares held by our “affiliates,” as that term is defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act. As of December 31, 2023, approximately 65.1% of the outstanding shares of Class A common stock (on an as-converted and as-exchanged basis) were held by entities affiliated with us and our executive officers and directors.
In addition, pursuant to the Amended and Restated Registration Rights Agreement, as further amended, that we entered into with certain of our stockholders, we are obligated to register the resale of shares of Class A common stock held by such stockholders and issuable upon the exercise or exchange of securities held by such stockholders. In addition, these stockholders are entitled to demand the registration of such shares of Class A common stock subject to certain minimum requirements and also have certain “piggyback” registration rights with respect to registration statements we file.
Upon effectiveness of any registration statement we file for the resale of shares held by such stockholders, and upon the expiration of the lock-up periods applicable to such stockholders, these stockholders may sell large amounts of our Class A common stock in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, which could have the effect of increasing the volatility in the share price of our Class A common stock or putting significant downward pressure on the price of our Class A common stock.
Sales of substantial amounts of our Class A common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales will occur, could adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock and make it difficult for us to raise funds through securities offerings in the future.
There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with the continued listing standards of Nasdaq.
If Nasdaq delists our securities from trading on its exchange for failure to meet the listing standards, we could face significant material adverse consequences including:
a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;
reduced liquidity for our securities;
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 42

a determination that our Class A common stock is a “penny stock,” which will require brokers trading in our Class A common stock to adhere to more stringent rules and possibly result in a reduced level of trading activity in the secondary trading market for our securities;
a limited amount of news and analyst coverage; and
a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.
For example, in each of May 2022 and August 2022, we received notifications from the listing qualifications department of Nasdaq indicating that as a result of our delinquency in the filing of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 and our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarterly periods ended March 31, 2022 and June 30, 2022, respectively, we were not in compliance with the requirements for continued listing under Listing Rule 5250(c)(1) (the “Listing Rule”), which requires listed companies to timely file all required periodic financial reports with the SEC. In October 2022, we regained compliance with the Listing Rule following the filing of our three delinquent periodic reports with the SEC; however, there is no assurance that we will remain in compliance with the listing requirements of Nasdaq in the future. We cannot guarantee that any actions we take to prevent future non-compliance or to regain compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements in the future will be successful.
Risks Related to Our Warrants
Our warrants may have an adverse effect on the market price of our Class A common stock.
Foresight issued 10.8 million warrants to purchase shares of our Class A common stock (the “Public Warrants”) as part of the units offered in its initial public offering and, simultaneously with the closing of its initial public offering, Foresight issued in a private placement an aggregate of 0.8 million units, including (i) an aggregate of 0.3 million private placement warrants, each exercisable to purchase one share of Class A common stock at $11.50 per share, subject to adjustment (the “Private Placement Warrants”), and (ii) an aggregate of 0.8 million shares of Class A common stock.
In addition, on December 13, 2022, in connection with our issuance of the VGS Promissory Note (see Note 11 “Debt” to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K), we issued to VGS warrants to purchase 0.4 million shares of Class A common stock.
Furthermore, in the March 2023 Private Placement (as defined herein), we issued Common Warrants to purchase an aggregate of 59.9 million shares of Class A common stock and Pre-Funded Warrants to purchase an aggregate of 10.8 million shares of Class A common stock.
To the extent such warrants are exercised, additional shares of our Class A common stock will be issued, which will result in dilution to our stockholders and increase the number of shares of Class A common stock eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market or the fact that such warrants may be exercised could adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock.
We may redeem your unexpired Public Warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to you, thereby making your Public Warrants worthless.
We have the ability to redeem outstanding Public Warrants at any time after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per Public Warrant if, among other things, the last reported sales price of our Class A common stock equals or exceeds $18.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to the date we send the notice of such redemption to the Public Warrant holders. If and when the Public Warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding Public Warrants could force you (i) to exercise your Public Warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so, (ii) to sell your Public Warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your Public Warrants or (iii) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding Public Warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your Public Warrants.
In addition, we may redeem your Public Warrants commencing 90 days after they become exercisable and prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.10 per Public Warrant if, among other things, the last reported sale price of our Class A
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 43

common stock equals or exceeds $10.00 per share (as adjusted for stock splits, stock dividends, reorganizations, recapitalizations and the like) on the trading day prior to the date on which we send the notice of redemption to the Public Warrant holders. In such a case, the holders will be able to exercise their Public Warrants for cash or on a cashless basis prior to redemption and receive that number of shares of Class A common stock determined based on the redemption date and the fair market value of our Class A common stock. The value received upon exercise of the Public Warrants (1) may be less than the value the holders would have received if they had exercised their Public Warrants at a later time where the underlying share price is higher and (2) may not compensate the holders for the value of the Public Warrants, including because the number of shares of Class A common stock received in connection with such an exercise is capped at 0.361 shares of Class A common stock per whole Public Warrant (subject to adjustment) irrespective of the remaining life of the Public Warrants.
None of the Private Placement Warrants will be redeemable by us so long as they are held by the Sponsor or its permitted transferees.
Certain of our warrants are accounted for as liabilities and the changes in value of these warrants could have a material effect on our financial results.
On April 12, 2021, the Acting Chief Accountant and Acting Director of the Division of Corporation Finance of the SEC published a statement on the SEC’s website indicating that the terms of the public and private warrants issued by many special purpose acquisition companies may need to be accounted for as liabilities, rather than as equity (the “SEC Warrant Accounting Statement”). As a result of the SEC Warrant Accounting Statement, Foresight, along with many other current and former special purpose acquisition companies, concluded that certain warrants should be presented as liabilities with subsequent fair value remeasurement and engaged a valuation firm to determine the fair market value of its warrants. Accordingly, Foresight reevaluated the accounting treatment of the Public Warrants to purchase 10.8 million shares of Class A common stock and Private Placement Warrants to purchase 0.3 million shares of Class A common stock, and determined to classify all of the warrants as derivative liabilities measured at fair value, with changes in fair value each period reported in earnings.
As a result, included on our consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2023 contained elsewhere in this Form 10-K are derivative liabilities related to embedded features contained within the warrants. Accounting Standards Codification 815, Derivatives and Hedging, provides for the remeasurement of the fair value of such derivatives at each balance sheet date, with a resulting non-cash gain or loss related to the change in the fair value being recognized in earnings in the statements of operations. As a result of the recurring fair value measurement, our financial statements and results of operations may fluctuate quarterly, based on factors, which are outside of its control. Due to the recurring fair value measurement, we expect that we will recognize non-cash gains or losses on our warrants each reporting period and that the amount of such gains or losses could be material.
Risks Related to the Tax Receivable Agreement
Our sole material asset is our interest in P3 LLC, and, accordingly, we depend on distributions from P3 LLC to pay our taxes and expenses, including payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement. P3 LLC’s ability to make such distributions may be subject to various limitations and restrictions.
We are a holding company and have no material assets other than our ownership in P3 LLC. As such, we have no independent means of generating revenue or cash flow, and our ability to pay taxes and operating expenses or declare and pay dividends in the future, if any, will be dependent upon the financial results and cash flows of P3 LLC and its subsidiaries, and distributions we receive from P3 LLC. There can be no assurance that P3 LLC and its subsidiaries will generate sufficient cash flow to distribute funds to us, or that applicable state law and contractual restrictions, including negative covenants in any debt agreements of P3 LLC or its subsidiaries, will permit such distributions. The credit agreement governing P3 LLC’s credit facilities restrict its ability to make distributions to the Company, and future debt instruments or other agreements may restrict the ability of P3 LLC to make distributions to the Company or of P3 LLC’s subsidiaries to make distributions to P3 LLC.
P3 LLC will continue to be treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes and, as such, generally will not be subject to any entity-level U.S. federal income tax. Instead, taxable income will be allocated to holders of P3 LLC Units, including us. Accordingly, we will incur income taxes on our allocable share of any net taxable income of P3 LLC. Under the terms of the P3 LLC A&R LLC Agreement, P3 LLC will be obligated, subject to various limitations and restrictions, including with respect to any debt agreements, to make tax distributions to holders of P3 LLC Units, including
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 44

us. In addition to tax expenses, we will also incur expenses related to our operations, including payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement, which could be substantial. We intend, as its sole manager, to cause P3 LLC to make cash distributions to the owners of P3 LLC Units in an amount sufficient to (i) fund all of such owners’ tax obligations in respect of taxable income allocated to such owners and (ii) cover our operating expenses, including payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement. However, P3 LLC’s ability to make such distributions may be subject to various limitations and restrictions, such as restrictions on distributions under contracts or agreements to which P3 LLC is then a party, including debt agreements, or any applicable law, or that would have the effect of rendering P3 LLC insolvent. If P3 LLC does not have sufficient funds to pay tax or other liabilities or to fund its operations, it may have to borrow funds, which could materially adversely affect its liquidity and financial condition and subject it to various restrictions imposed by any such lenders. To the extent that we are unable to make timely payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement for any reason, the unpaid amounts will be deferred and will accrue interest until paid. Our failure to make any payment required under the Tax Receivable Agreement (including any accrued and unpaid interest) within 90 calendar days of the date on which the payment is required to be made will constitute a material breach of a material obligation under the Tax Receivable Agreement, which will terminate the Tax Receivable Agreement and accelerate future payments thereunder, unless the applicable payment is not made because (i) P3 LLC is prohibited from making such payment under the terms of the Tax Receivable Agreement or the terms governing certain of its indebtedness or (ii) P3 LLC does not have, and despite using commercially reasonable efforts cannot obtain, sufficient funds to make such payment. In addition, if P3 LLC does not have sufficient funds to make distributions, its ability to declare and pay cash dividends will also be restricted or impaired.
Under the P3 LLC A&R LLC Agreement, P3 LLC will, from time to time, make distributions in cash to its equityholders (including us) pro rata, in amounts at least sufficient to cover the taxes on their allocable share of taxable income of P3 LLC. As a result of (i) potential differences in the amount of net taxable income allocable to us and to P3 LLC’s other equityholders, (ii) the lower tax rates currently applicable to corporations as opposed to individuals, and (iii) the favorable tax benefits that we anticipate from any purchase of P3 Existing Units in connection with the Business Combinations and future redemptions or exchanges by the P3 Equityholders of P3 LLC Units for Class A common stock or cash pursuant to the P3 LLC A&R LLC Agreement, tax distributions payable to us may be in amounts that exceed our actual tax liabilities with respect to the relevant taxable year, including our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement. Our board of directors will determine the appropriate uses for any excess cash so accumulated, which may include, among other uses, the payment of other expenses or dividends on our stock, although we will have no obligation to distribute such cash (or other available cash) to our stockholders. Except as otherwise determined by us as the sole manager of P3 LLC, no adjustments to the exchange ratio for P3 LLC Units and corresponding shares of our Class A common stock will be made as a result of any cash distribution by us or any retention of cash by us. To the extent we do not distribute such excess cash as dividends on our Class A common stock, we may take other actions with respect to such excess cash, for example, holding such excess cash or lending it (or a portion thereof) to P3 LLC, which may result in shares of our Class A common stock increasing in value relative to the value of P3 LLC Units. The holders of P3 LLC Units may benefit from any value attributable to such cash balances if they acquire shares of our Class A common stock in exchange for their P3 LLC Units, notwithstanding that such holders may previously have participated as holders of P3 LLC Units in distributions by P3 LLC that resulted in such excess cash balances.
We will be required to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement for certain tax benefits we may claim, and the amounts of such payments could be significant.
We are party to the Tax Receivable Agreement with certain of the P3 Equityholders and P3 LLC. The Tax Receivable Agreement generally provides for the payment by us to the P3 Equityholders of 85% of the income tax benefits, if any, that we actually realize (or are deemed to realize in certain circumstances) in periods after the closing as a result of: (i) increases in our proportionate share of the tax basis of P3 LLC’s assets resulting from Business Combinations, future redemptions or exchanges by the P3 Equityholders of P3 LLC Units for our Class A common stock or cash and certain distributions (or deemed distributions) by P3 LLC; and (ii) certain other tax benefits resulting from payments we make under the Tax Receivable Agreement. We will retain the benefit of the remaining 15% of these cash savings. The amount of the cash payments that we may be required to make under the Tax Receivable Agreement could be significant and is dependent upon significant future events and assumptions, including the timing of the exchanges of P3 LLC units, the price of our Class A common stock at the time of each exchange, the extent to which such exchanges are taxable transactions and the amount of the exchanging P3 Equityholder’s tax basis in its P3 LLC units at the time of the relevant exchange. The amount of such cash payments is also based on assumptions as to the amount and timing of taxable income we generate in the future, the U.S. federal income tax rate then applicable and the portion of our payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement that constitute interest or give rise to depreciable or amortizable tax basis. Moreover, payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement will be based on the tax reporting positions that we determine, which tax reporting positions are
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 45

subject to challenge by taxing authorities. We will be dependent on distributions from P3 LLC to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement, and we cannot guarantee that such distributions will be made in sufficient amounts or at the times needed to enable us to make our required payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement, or at all. Any payments made by us to the P3 Equityholders under the Tax Receivable Agreement will generally reduce the amount of overall cash flow that might have otherwise been available to us. The payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement are also not conditioned upon the P3 Equityholders maintaining a continued ownership interest in P3 LLC or us.
In certain cases, payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement may be accelerated and/or significantly exceed the actual benefits, if any, we realize in respect of the tax attributes subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement.
The Tax Receivable Agreement provides that if we breach any of our material obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement, if we undergo a change of control or if, at any time, we elect an early termination of the Tax Receivable Agreement, then the Tax Receivable Agreement will terminate and our obligations, or our successor’s obligations, to make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement would accelerate and become immediately due and payable. The amount due and payable in those circumstances is determined based on certain assumptions, including an assumption that we would have sufficient taxable income to fully utilize all potential future tax benefits that are subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement. We may need to incur debt to finance payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement to the extent our cash resources are insufficient to meet our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement as a result of timing discrepancies or otherwise.
As a result of the foregoing, (i) we could be required to make cash payments to the P3 Equityholders that are greater than the specified percentage of the actual benefits we ultimately realize in respect of the tax benefits that are subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement, and (ii) we would be required to make a cash payment equal to the present value of the anticipated future tax benefits that are the subject of the Tax Receivable Agreement, which payment may be made significantly in advance of the actual realization, if any, of such future tax benefits. In these situations, our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement could have a substantial negative impact on our liquidity and could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combination, or other changes of control due to the additional transaction costs a potential acquirer may attribute to satisfying such obligations. There can be no assurance that we will be able to finance our obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement.
We will not be reimbursed for any payments made to P3 Equityholders under the Tax Receivable Agreement in the event that any tax benefits are disallowed.
We will not be reimbursed for any cash payments previously made to the P3 Equityholders pursuant to the Tax Receivable Agreement if any tax benefits initially claimed by us are subsequently challenged by a taxing authority and are ultimately disallowed. Instead, any excess cash payments made by us to a P3 Equityholder will be netted against any future cash payments that we might otherwise be required to make under the terms of the Tax Receivable Agreement. However, a challenge to any tax benefits initially claimed by us may not arise for a number of years following the initial time of such payment or, even if challenged early, such excess cash payment may be greater than the amount of future cash payments that we might otherwise be required to make under the terms of the Tax Receivable Agreement and, as a result, there might not be future cash payments from which to net against. The applicable U.S. federal income tax rules are complex and factual in nature, and there can be no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service or a court will not disagree with our tax reporting positions. As a result, it is possible that we could make cash payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement that are substantially greater than our actual cash tax savings.
Certain of the P3 Equityholders may receive payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement, and their interests may conflict with yours.
The P3 Equityholders may receive payments from us under the Tax Receivable Agreement upon any redemption or exchange of their P3 LLC units, including the issuance of shares of our Class A common stock upon any such redemption or exchange. As a result, the interests of the P3 Equityholders may conflict with the interests of holders of our Class A common stock. For example, the P3 Equityholders may have different tax positions from us which could influence their decisions regarding whether and when to dispose of assets, whether and when to incur new or refinance existing indebtedness, especially in light of the existence of the Tax Receivable Agreement, and whether and when we should terminate the Tax Receivable Agreement and accelerate our obligations thereunder. In addition, the structuring of future transactions may take into consideration tax or other considerations of P3 Equityholders even in situations where no similar considerations are relevant to us.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 46

General Risk Factors
We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.
The market price of our securities may be volatile and, in the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their securities have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention from other business concerns, which could seriously harm its business.
Because we have no current plans to pay cash dividends on our Class A common stock for the foreseeable future, you may not receive any return on investment unless you sell your Class A common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.
We may retain future earnings, if any, for future operations, expansion and debt repayment and have no current plans to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to declare dividends may be limited by restrictive covenants contained in any existing or future indebtedness. As a result, you may not receive any return on an investment in our Class A common stock unless you sell your Class A common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.
The market price and trading volume of our Class A common stock and Public Warrants may be volatile and could decline significantly.
The trading price of our securities may fluctuate substantially and may be lower than the price at which you purchase such securities. There can be no assurance that the market price of Class A common stock and Public Warrants will not fluctuate widely or decline significantly in the future in response to a number of factors, including those described in this “Risk Factors” section, many of which are beyond our control and may not be related to our operating performance, and which may limit or prevent investors from readily selling their Class A common stock or Public Warrants and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of the Class A common stock or Public Warrants. These fluctuations could cause you to lose all or part of your investment.
Factors affecting the trading price of our securities may include:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;
changes in the market’s expectations about our operating results;
success of competitors;
our operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;
changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning us or the health population management industry in general;
operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;
our ability to market new and enhanced products on a timely basis;
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business;
our ability to meet compliance requirements;
commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving us;
changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 47

the volume of shares of our Class A common stock available for public sale;
any major change in our board of directors or management;
sales of substantial amounts of Class A common stock by our directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales have or could occur; and
general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations, public health crises, and acts of war or terrorism.
A loss of investor confidence in the market for retail stocks or the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to us could depress our stock price regardless of our business, prospects, financial condition or results of operations. A decline in the market price of our securities also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.
If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price and trading volume of our securities could decline.
The trading market for our securities depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not control these analysts, and the analysts who publish information about us may have relatively little experience with us or our industry, which could affect their ability to accurately forecast our results and could make it more likely that we fail to meet their estimates. If few or no securities or industry analysts cover us, the trading price for our securities would be negatively impacted. If one or more of the analysts who covers us downgrades our securities, publishes incorrect or unfavorable research about us, ceases coverage of us, or fails to publish reports on us regularly, demand for and visibility of our securities could decrease, which could cause the price or trading volumes of our securities to decline.
We will continue to incur significantly increased costs and devote substantial management time as a result of operating as a public company.
As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses. We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and are required to comply with the applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, as well as rules and regulations of the SEC and Nasdaq, including the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls, corporate governance requirements and required filings of annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and results of operations. Stockholder activism and the level of government intervention and regulatory reform may lead to substantial new regulations and disclosure obligations, which may lead to additional significant compliance costs and impact the manner in which we operate our business in ways we cannot currently anticipate. We expect that continued compliance with these requirements will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. In addition, we expect that our management and other personnel will need to continue to divert attention from operational and other business matters to devote substantial time to these public company requirements. In particular, we have incurred and expect to continue to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We have hired additional legal and accounting personnel and may in future need to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge and may need to establish an internal audit function.
Being a public company has also made it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. This could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified people to serve on our board of directors, board committees or as executive officers.
Our results of operations and financial condition are subject to management’s accounting judgments and estimates, as well as changes in accounting policies.
The preparation of our financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions affecting the reported amounts of our assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. If these estimates or assumptions are incorrect, it could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition. Generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S. are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, the American Institute of Certified Public
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 48

Accountants, the SEC, and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results, and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change.
Increased scrutiny of, and evolving expectations regarding, sustainability and environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) matters could increase our costs, harm our reputation and adversely impact our financial results.
We, as with other companies, are facing increasing scrutiny related to our ESG practices and disclosures from certain investors, capital providers, shareholder advocacy groups, other market participants, government entities, customers, and other stakeholder groups or third parties. For example, certain institutional and individual investors have requested various ESG-related information and disclosures as they increasingly incorporate ESG criteria in making investment and voting decisions. With this increased focus, public reporting regarding ESG practices is becoming more broadly expected, which could lead to increased scrutiny of our ESG practices or lack thereof. Such increased scrutiny may result in increased costs, increased risk of litigation or reputational damage relating to our ESG practices or performance, changes in demands for certain products, enhanced compliance or disclosure obligations, or other adverse impacts on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
While we may at times engage in voluntary initiatives (such as voluntary disclosures, certifications, or goals, among others), such initiatives may be costly and may not have the desired effect. For example, expectations around companies’ management of ESG matters continue to evolve rapidly, in many instances due to factors that are out of our control. In addition, we may commit to certain initiatives or goals and we may not ultimately be able to achieve such commitments or goals due to cost, technological constraints, or other factors that are within or outside of our control. Moreover, actions or statements that we may take based on expectations, assumptions, or third-party information that we currently believe to be reasonable may subsequently be determined to be erroneous or be subject to misinterpretation. Even if this is not the case, our current actions may subsequently be determined to be insufficient by various stakeholders. If our ESG practices and reporting do not meet investor, consumer, employee, regulator, or other stakeholder or third party expectations, which continue to evolve, our brand, reputation and customer retention may be negatively impacted, and we may be subject to investor or regulator engagement regarding such matters, even if they are currently voluntary. Certain market participants, including major institutional investors, use third-party benchmarks, ratings or scores to measure our ESG practices in making investment and voting decisions. Unfavorable ratings or scores of us or our industry may lead to negative investor sentiment and the diversion of investment to other companies or industries, which could have a negative impact on our stock price and our access to and cost of capital. As ESG best practices, reporting standards and disclosure requirements continue to develop, we may incur increasing costs related to ESG monitoring and reporting. In addition, new sustainability rules and regulations have been adopted and may continue to be introduced in various states and other jurisdictions. For example, we expect to be subject to the requirements of the State of California’s Climate Corporate Data Accountability Act and Climate Related Financial Risk Act as well as the SEC’s climate disclosure proposal, if finalized. Operating in more than one jurisdiction is likely to make our compliance with ESG and sustainability-related rules more complex and expensive, and potentially expose us to greater levels of legal risks associated with our compliance. Our failure to comply with any applicable rules or regulations could lead to penalties and adversely impact our reputation, customer attraction and retention, access to capital and employee retention. Such ESG matters may also impact our suppliers and customers, which may augment or cause additional impacts on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
Item 1C. Cybersecurity.
Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy
We have developed and implemented a cybersecurity risk management program intended to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our critical systems and information. Our cybersecurity risk management program includes a cybersecurity incident response plan.
We design and assess our program based on the HITRUST Common Security Framework. This does not imply that we meet any particular technical standards, specifications, or requirements, only that we use the HITRUST Common Security Framework as a guide to help us identify, assess, and manage cybersecurity risks relevant to our business.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 49

Our cybersecurity risk management program is integrated into our overall enterprise risk management program, and shares common methodologies, reporting channels and governance processes that apply across the enterprise risk management program to other legal, compliance, strategic, operational, and financial risk areas.
Our cybersecurity risk management program includes:
risk assessments designed to help identify material cybersecurity risks to our critical systems, information, products, services, and our broader enterprise IT environment;
a security team principally responsible for managing (1) our cybersecurity risk assessment processes, (2) our security controls, and (3) our response to cybersecurity incidents;
the use of external service providers, where appropriate, to assess, test or otherwise assist with aspects of our security controls;
cybersecurity awareness training of our employees, incident response personnel, and senior management;
a cybersecurity incident response plan that includes procedures for responding to cybersecurity incidents; and
a third-party risk management process for service providers, suppliers, and vendors that have access to our critical systems and information.
We have not identified risks from known cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any prior cybersecurity incidents, that have materially affected us, including our operations, business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. We face risks from cybersecurity threats that, if realized, are reasonably likely to materially affect us, including our operations, business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. See the section titled “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—Our business and operations would suffer in the event of information technology system failures, security breaches, cyberattacks or other deficiencies in cybersecurity.
Cybersecurity Governance
Our Board considers cybersecurity risk as part of its risk oversight function and has delegated to the Audit Committee (the “Committee”) oversight of cybersecurity and other information technology risks. The Committee oversees management’s implementation of our cybersecurity risk management program.
The Committee receives periodic reports from management on our cybersecurity risks. In addition, management updates the Committee, as necessary, regarding any material cybersecurity incidents, as well as any incidents with lesser impact potential.
The Committee reports to the full Board regarding its activities, including those related to cybersecurity. The full Board also receives briefings from management on our cyber risk management program. Board members receive presentations on cybersecurity topics from our Senior Vice President of Technology and Director of Information Systems Security or other internal security staff or external experts as part of the Board’s continuing education on topics that impact public companies.
Our management team, including, but not limited to, our Senior Vice President of Technology, Director of Information Systems Security, and Director of Information Systems Governance Risk and Compliance, is responsible for assessing and managing our material risks from cybersecurity threats. The team has primary responsibility for our overall cybersecurity risk management program and supervises both our internal cybersecurity personnel and our retained external cybersecurity consultants. Our management team’s experience spans over 20 years in all aspects of information technology including cybersecurity, IT operations (infrastructure engineering and architecture design), and IT governance audit compliance across industries such as energy, healthcare, pharmaceuticals, and finance.
Our management team supervises efforts to prevent, detect, mitigate, and remediate cybersecurity risks and incidents through various means, which may include briefings from internal security personnel; threat intelligence and other information obtained from governmental, public or private sources, including external consultants engaged by us; and alerts and reports produced by security tools deployed in the IT environment.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 50

Item 2. Properties.
As of December 31, 2023, our principal executive office is located in Henderson, NV, where we occupy facilities totaling approximately 35,000 square feet, primarily under a lease that expires in July 2030. We use this facility principally for corporate activities. We also lease offices in Tucson, AZ; Las Vegas, NV; Salem, OR; Stockton, CA; and the St. Petersburg/Tampa areas, FL. We believe that our facilities are adequate to meet our needs for the immediate future, and that, should it be needed, suitable additional space will be available to accommodate any such expansion of our operations.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
The Company is a party to various claims, legal and regulatory proceedings, lawsuits and administrative actions arising in the ordinary course of business and associated with the Business Combinations. The Company carries general and professional liability insurance coverage to mitigate the Company’s risk of potential loss in such cases. An accrual is established when a specific contingency is probable and estimable. The Company also faces contingencies that are reasonably possible to occur that cannot currently be estimated. The Company believes that disposition of these matters will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial position, net loss or cash flows. It is the Company’s policy to expense costs associated with loss contingencies, including any related legal fees, as they are incurred.
Books and Records Action
On April 19, 2021, two members of the P3 Board of Managers, Joseph Straus and Jonathan Bradburn, filed a lawsuit in the Delaware Court of Chancery captioned Straus et al v. P3 Health Group Holdings, LLC, C.A. No. 2021-0335-JTL (the “Books and Records Action”). In the Books and Records Action, Straus and Bradburn sought an order requiring P3 to produce certain books and records relating to the process leading up to, and the approval of, the Business Combinations. On May 21, 2021, P3 filed its answer to the complaint in the Books and Records Action. On May 9, 2023, the Books and Records Action was dismissed with prejudice.
Hudson Class D Dispute
On June 11, 2021, Hudson Vegas Investment SPV, LLC (“Hudson”), a holder of P3’s Class D Units, filed an action in the Delaware Court of Chancery captioned Hudson Vegas Investments SPV, LLC v. Chicago Pacific Founders Fund, L.P., et al., C.A. No. 2021-0518-JTL (the “Hudson Action”), in which it challenged the Business Combinations. Specifically, Hudson purports to assert claims against P3, certain managers that were on the P3 Board of Managers, certain of its officers, and Chicago Pacific Founders Fund, L.P. (“CPF”) for breach of P3’s then-existing LLC agreement (the “LLC Agreement”) (against P3 and CPF), breach of fiduciary duty (against certain of P3’s officers) and breach of contract claims related to the then-existing LLC Agreement (against the P3 Board of Managers) in connection with the process leading up to, and approval of, the Business Combinations. In the Hudson Action, Hudson sought to enjoin the consummation of the Business Combinations and seeks a declaration that the Business Combinations violate its rights under the P3 then-existing LLC Agreement, a declaration that certain managers on the P3 Board of Managers and certain of P3’s officers breached their fiduciary duties, and money damages including attorneys’ fees.
On June 13, 2021, P3 filed an action in the Delaware Court of Chancery captioned P3 Health Group Holdings, L.L.C. v. Hudson Vegas Investment SPV, LLC, C.A. No. 2021-0519-JTL (the “P3 Action”). In the P3 Action, P3 seeks: (i) a declaration that the Business Combinations do not violate Section 3.10 of P3’s Existing LLC Agreement; and (ii) reformation of a provision of P3’s Existing LLC Agreement. The P3 Action was consolidated with the Hudson Action. The combined cases are captioned In re P3 Health Group Holdings, L.L.C, C.A. No. 2021-0518-JTL.
On June 22, 2021, Hudson filed a motion for expedited proceedings in the Hudson Action in which it sought expedited discovery and a hearing on its motion for preliminary injunction to enjoin the consummation of the Business Combinations. The defendants in the Hudson Action determined not to oppose Hudson’s motion for expedited proceedings and engaged in expedited discovery in advance of a preliminary injunction hearing that took place September 9, 2021.
On September 14, 2021, the Court of Chancery issued an oral ruling denying Hudson’s motion for preliminary injunction due to the lack of probability of success on the merits or, with respect to the Section 5.10 of the then-existing P3 LLC Agreement (the “Purchase Option”) only, lack of a showing of irreparable harm based on the condition that the escrow described below be created. This ruling was made subject to the condition that Defendants memorialize their commitment to escrow, pending final resolution of this action, the consideration Hudson would be entitled to receive if it is
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 51

determined that the Purchase Option can be validly exercised, in a stipulation filed with the Court. On September 17, 2021, Defendants filed a stipulation and proposed order and the Court entered the Order regarding escrow which confirmed their commitment to do so and to cause the Payment Spreadsheet (as that term is defined in Section 2.01(f) of the Merger Agreement) to provide that such consideration will be directed to such escrow.
The former members of P3 (other than Hudson) have agreed to indemnify the Company and P3 LLC following the Closing, for any damages, including reasonable attorney’s fees, arising out of matters relating to the dispute with Hudson.
On December 27, 2021, Hudson filed a Motion for Leave to Amend the Verified Complaint. The proposed Amended Complaint contains certain of Hudson’s original claims and also adds additional claims, including bad faith breach of contract claims against certain of the former P3 Managers, an additional contractual claim against P3, and a tortious interference with contract claim against Foresight Acquisition Corp., Foresight Acquisition Corp. II, P3 Partners Inc., Sameer Mathur, and Greg Wasson. Defendants informed Hudson that they did not oppose the Motion for Leave to Amend the Verified Complaint, and on February 4, 2022, Hudson filed its Verified Amended Complaint.
From September 12, 2022 through November 7, 2022, the Court issued a series of Orders ruling on the Defendants’ Motions to Dismiss the Verified Amended Complaint. Such Orders provided for the dismissal with prejudice of, among other claims, (i) Hudson’s claim to a Purchase Option and (ii) part of Hudson’s claim to a priority right to cash distributed as a result of the transactions.
The Court granted in part and denied in part a motion to dismiss filed by Mr. Leisure, Mr. Kazarian, Mr. Abdou, Mr. Bacchus, Mr. Garrett, Mr. Price, Ms. Glisson, and Mr. Leavitt (the “Manager Defendants”) with respect to Hudson’s claim for bad faith breach of contract under a variety of theories. The Court also granted in part and denied in part the Manager Defendants’ motion, permitting Hudson’s bad faith breach of contract claim to proceed against the Manager Defendants on certain theories, but dismissing other theories, including that the Manager Defendants committed a bad faith breach of contract by failing to act in good faith to facilitate the Purchase Option.
On November 7, 2022, the Court issued an order denying in part and granting in part the motion to dismiss the breach of fiduciary claims against the officer Defendants, including Mr. Kazarian, Mr. Abdou, Mr. Bacchus, Ms. Glisson, and Ms. Puathasnanon. On November 9, 2022, the Court issued an order denying the motion to dismiss the claim against Mr. Mathur for tortious interference with Hudson’s contract rights. On June 21, 2023, the Court entered a scheduling order for the case, pursuant to which, a five day trial will commence on July 22, 2024. The parties are now currently engaged in discovery on Hudson’s surviving claims.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 52

PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Market Information
Our Class A common stock and warrants trade on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “PIII” and “PIIIW,” respectively. There is no trading market for shares of our Class V common stock.
Holders
As of March 15, 2024, there were 27 holders of record of our Class A common stock and 40 holders of Class V common stock. The actual number of holders of our Class A common stock is greater than the number of record holders and includes holders whose Class A common stock are held in street name by brokers and other nominees.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and future earnings, if any, for the operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination related to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors after considering our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors the board of directors deems relevant, and subject to the restrictions contained in any financing instruments. The terms of our existing Term Loan Facility (as defined below) preclude us from paying cash dividends without consent. Our ability to declare dividends may also be limited by restrictive covenants pursuant to any other future debt or equity financing agreements.
Stock Performance Graph
The following graph and related information provide a comparison of the cumulative total return for our Class A common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Healthcare Index between April 6, 2021 (the date our common stock commenced trading on Nasdaq) through December 31, 2023. All values assume an initial investment of $100 and reinvestment of any dividends. The comparisons are based on historical data and are not indicative of, nor intended to forecast, the future performance of our Class A common stock.
2147
The performance graph above and related information shall not be deemed to be “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities of that section or Sections 11 and 12(a)(2) of the Securities Act, and shall not be incorporated by reference into any registration statement or other document filed by us with the SEC, whether made before or after the date of this Form 10-K, regardless of any general incorporation language in such filing, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference to such filing.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 53

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
There was no unregistered sale of our equity securities during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, that were not otherwise disclosed in a Current Report on Form 8-K.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchaser
None.
Item 6. [Reserved]
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 54

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
The following discussion and analysis is intended to provide the reader with an understanding of our business, including an overview of our results of operations and liquidity and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements and involves numerous risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in any forward-looking statements as a result of many factors, including those set forth under “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any periods in the future.
Overview
P3 is a patient-centered and physician-led population health management company. We strive to offer superior care to all those in need. We believe that the misaligned incentives in the FFS healthcare payment model and the fragmentation between physicians and care teams has led to sub-optimal clinical outcomes, limited access, high spending and unnecessary variability in the quality of care. We believe that a platform such as ours, which helps to realign incentives and focuses on treating the full patient, is uniquely positioned to address these healthcare challenges.
We have leveraged the expertise of our management team’s more than 20 years of experience in population health management, to build our “P3 Care Model.” The key attributes that differentiate P3 include: 1) patient-focused model, 2) physician-led model, and 3) our broad delegated model. Our model operates by entering into arrangements with payors providing for monthly payments to manage the total healthcare needs of members attributed to our primary care physicians. In tandem, we enter into arrangements directly with existing physician groups or independent physicians in the community to join our VBC network. In our model, physicians are able to retain their independence and entrepreneurial spirit, while gaining access to the tools, teams and technologies that are key to success in a VBC model, all while sharing in the savings from successfully improving the quality of patient care and reducing costs.
We operate in the $944 billion Medicare market, which covers approximately 66 million eligible lives as of October 2023. Our core focus is the MA market, which makes up approximately 51% of the overall Medicare market, or nearly 31 million Medicare eligible lives in 2023. Medicare beneficiaries may enroll in an MA plan, under which payors contract with the CMS to provide a defined range of healthcare services that are comparable to Medicare FFS (which is also referred to as “traditional Medicare”).
We predominantly enter into capitated contracts with the nation’s largest health plans to provide holistic, comprehensive healthcare to MA members. Under the typical capitation arrangement, we are entitled to PMPM fees from payors to provide a defined range of healthcare services for MA health plan members attributed to our PCPs. These PMPM fees comprise our capitated revenue and are determined as a percent of the premium (“POP”) payors receive from CMS for these members. Our contracted recurring revenue model offers us highly predictable revenue, and rewards us for providing high-quality care rather than driving a high volume of services. In this capitated arrangement, our goals are well-aligned with payors and patients alike—the more we improve health outcomes, the more profitable we will be over time.
Under this capitated contract structure, we are generally responsible for all members’ medical costs across the care continuum, including, but not limited to emergency room and hospital visits, post-acute care admissions, prescription drugs, specialist physician spend, and primary care spend. Keeping members healthy is our primary objective. When they need medical care, delivery of the right care in the right setting can greatly impact outcomes. When our members need care outside of our network of PCPs, we utilize a number of tools including network management, utilization management and claims processing to ensure that the appropriate quality care is provided.
Our company was formed in 2017 and our first at-risk contract became effective on January 1, 2018. We have demonstrated an ability to rapidly scale, primarily entering markets with our affiliate physician model, and expanding to a PCP network of approximately 2,750 physicians, in 18 markets (counties) across five states in six full years of operations as of December 31, 2023. Our platform has enabled us to grow our revenue by an average of 84% annually from December 31, 2018 to December 31, 2023. As of December 31, 2023, our PCP network served approximately 108,900 at-risk members. We believe we have significant growth opportunities available to us across existing and new markets, with less than 1% of the 520,000 PCPs in the U.S. currently included in our physician network.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 55

Key Factors Affecting our Performance
Growing Medicare Advantage Membership on Our Platform
Membership and revenue are tied to the number of members attributed to our physician network by our payors. We believe we have multiple avenues to serve additional members, including through:
Growth in membership under our existing contracts and existing markets:
Patients who are attributed to our physician network who (a) age into Medicare and elect to enroll in MA or (b) elect to convert from Medicare FFS to MA.
Adding new contracts (either payor contracts or physician contracts) in existing markets.
Adding new contracts (either payor contracts or physician contracts) in adjacent and new markets.
Growing Existing Contract Membership
As new patients age-in to Medicare and enroll in MA through our payors, they become attributed to our network of physicians with little incremental cost to us.
In addition to age-ins, Medicare eligible patients can change their enrollment selections during select periods throughout the year. Our sales and marketing teams actively work with local community partners to connect with Medicare eligible patients and make them aware of their healthcare choices and the services that we offer with our VBC model, including greater access to their physicians and customized care plans catered to their needs. The ultimate effect of our marketing efforts is increased awareness of P3 and additional patients choosing us as their primary care provider. We believe that our marketing efforts also help to grow our payor partners’ membership base as we grow our own patient base and help educate patients about their choices on Medicare, further aligning our model with that of healthcare payors.
Growing Membership in Adjacent and New Markets
Our affiliate model allows us to quickly and efficiently enter into new and adjacent markets in two ways: (1) partnering with payors and (2) partnering with providers. Because our model honors the existing patient-provider relationship, we are able to deploy our care model around existing physicians in a given a market. By utilizing the local healthcare infrastructure, we can quickly build a network of PCPs to serve the healthcare needs of contracted members.
Our business development and managed care teams maintain an active pipeline of new partnership opportunities for both providers and payors. These potential opportunities are developed through significant inbound interest and the deep relationships our team has developed with their more than 20 years of experience in the VBC space and our proactive assessment of expansion markets. When choosing a market to enter, we make our decision on a county-by-county basis across the United States. We look at various factors including: (i) population size, (ii) payor participants and concentration, (iii) health system participants and concentration, and (iv) competitive landscape.
When entering a new market, we supplement the existing physician network with local market leadership teams and support infrastructure to drive the improvement in medical cost and quality. When entering an adjacent market, we are able to leverage the investments we previously made to have a faster impact on our expanded footprint. As of December 31, 2023, we operate in 18 markets, markets being counties, across five states.
Growing Membership in Existing Markets
Once established in a market, we have an opportunity to efficiently expand both our provider and payor contracts. Given the benefits PCPs experience from joining our P3 Care Model, which offers providers the teams, tools and technologies to better support their patient base, we often experience growth in our affiliate network after entering a market. Because of the benefits, we have also historically experienced high retention with our affiliate providers. From 2018 through December 31, 2023, we experienced a 98% physician retention rate in our affiliate provider network. By expanding our affiliate provider network and adding new physicians to the P3 network, we can quickly increase the number of contracted at-risk members under our existing health plan arrangements.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 56

Additionally, by expanding the number of contracted payors, we can leverage our existing infrastructure to quickly increase our share of patients within our physician network.
Growing Capitated Revenue Per Member
Medicare pays capitation using a risk adjusted model, which compensates payors based on the health status, or acuity, of each individual member. Payors with higher acuity members receive a higher payment and those with lower acuity members receive a lower payment. Moreover, some of our capitated revenue also includes adjustments for performance incentives or penalties based on the achievement of certain clinical quality metrics as contracted with payors. Given the prevalence of FFS arrangements, our patients often have historically not participated in a VBC model, and therefore their health conditions are poorly documented. Through the P3 Care Model, we determine and assess the health needs of our patients and create an individualized care plan consistent with those needs. We capture and document health conditions as a part of this process. We expect that our PMPM revenue will continue to improve the longer members participate in our care model as we better understand and assess their health status (acuity) and coordinate their medical care.
Effectively Managing Member Medical Expense
Our medical claims expense is our largest expense category, representing 86% of our total operating expenses for the year ended December 31, 2023. We manage our medical costs by improving our members access to healthcare. Our care model focuses on maintaining health and leveraging the primary care setting as a means of avoiding costly downstream healthcare costs, such as emergency department visits and acute hospital inpatient admissions. The power of our model is reflected in the relative performance of our network when compared to local FFS benchmarks.
Achieving Operating Efficiencies
As a result of our affiliate model and ability to leverage our existing local and national infrastructure, we generate operating efficiencies at both the market and enterprise level. Our local corporate, general and administrative expense, which includes our local leadership, care management teams and other operating costs to support our markets, are expected to decrease over time as a percentage of revenue as we add members to our existing contracts, grow membership with new payor and physician contracts, and our revenue subsequently increases. Our corporate general and administrative expenses at the enterprise level include resources and technology to support payor contracting, quality, data management, delegated services, finance and legal functions. While we expect our absolute investment in our enterprise resources to increase over time, we expect our investment will decrease as a percentage of revenue when we are able to leverage our infrastructure across a broader group of at-risk members. We expect our corporate, general and administrative expenses to increase in absolute dollars in the future as we continue to invest to support growth of our business, as well as due to the costs required to operate as a public company, including insurance coverage, investments in internal audit, investor relations and financial reporting functions, fees paid to the Nasdaq Stock Market, and increased legal and audit fees.
Impact of Seasonality
Our operational and financial results reflect some variability depending upon the time of year in which they are measured. This variability is most notable in the following areas:
At-Risk Member Growth. While new members are attributed to our platform throughout the year, we experience the largest portion of our at-risk member growth during the first quarter. Contracts with new payors typically begin on January 1, at which time new members become attributed to our network of physicians. Additionally, new members are attributed to our network on January 1, when plan enrollment selections made during the prior Annual Enrollment Period from October 15 through December 7 of the prior year take effect.
Revenue Per Member. Our revenue is based on percentage of premium we have negotiated with our payors as well as our ability to accurately and appropriately document the acuity of a member’s health status. We experience some seasonality with respect to our per member revenue as it will generally decline over the course of the year. In January of each year, CMS revises the risk adjustment factor for each patient based upon health conditions documented in the prior year, leading to an overall increase in per-patient revenue. As the year progresses, our per-patient revenue declines as new patients join us typically with less complete or accurate documentation (and therefore lower risk-adjustment scores) and patients with more severe acuity profiles (and, therefore, higher per member revenue rates) expire.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 57

Medical Costs. Medical expense is driven by utilization of healthcare services by our attributed membership. Medical expense will vary seasonally depending on a number of factors, including the weather and the number of business days. Certain illnesses, such as the influenza virus, are far more prevalent during colder months of the year, which will result in an increase in medical expenses during these time periods. We would therefore expect to see higher levels of per-member medical expense in the first and fourth quarters. Business days can also create year-over-year comparability issues if one year has a different number of business days compared to another.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Key Performance Metrics
We use certain financial measures, which are not calculated in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“GAAP”), as well as key performance metrics, to supplement our consolidated financial statements. The measures set forth below should not be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, financial information presented in compliance with GAAP, and non-GAAP financial measures and key performance metrics as used by us may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies. Our presentation of these measures should not be construed as an inference that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or non-recurring items. The presentation of non-GAAP financial measures and key performance metrics provides additional information to investors regarding our results of operations that our management believes is useful for identifying trends, analyzing and benchmarking the performance of our business.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Adjusted EBITDA
The key non-GAAP metric we utilize to measure our profitability and performance is Adjusted EBITDA. We present Adjusted EBITDA because we believe it helps investors understand underlying trends in our business and facilitates an understanding of our operating performance from period to period because it facilitates a comparison of our recurring core business operating results.
By definition, EBITDA consists of net income (loss) before interest, income taxes, depreciation, and amortization. We define Adjusted EBITDA as EBITDA, further adjusted to exclude the effect of certain supplemental adjustments, such as mark-to-market warrant gain/loss, premium deficiency reserves, equity-based compensation expense, and certain other items that we believe are not indicative of our core operating performance. Our definition of Adjusted EBITDA may not be the same as the definitions used in any of our debt agreements.
Adjusted EBITDA is not a measure of performance or liquidity calculated in accordance with GAAP. It is unaudited and should not be considered an alternative to, or more meaningful than, net income (loss) as an indicator of our operating performance. Uses of cash flows that are not reflected in Adjusted EBITDA include capital expenditures, interest payments, debt principal repayments, and other expenses defined above, which can be significant. As a result, Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as a measure of our liquidity.
Because of these limitations, Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for performance measures calculated in accordance with GAAP. We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using Adjusted EBITDA on a supplemental basis. You should review the reconciliation of net loss to Adjusted EBITDA set forth below and not rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 58

The following table sets forth a reconciliation of our net loss, the most directly comparable GAAP metric, to Adjusted EBITDA:
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
(in thousands)
Net loss$(186,426)$(1,561,557)
Interest expense, net15,985 11,404 
Depreciation and amortization expense86,675 87,289 
Provision for income taxes2,695 1,862 
Mark-to-market of stock warrants(433)(9,865)
Premium deficiency reserve(12,705)(11,461)
Equity-based compensation5,979 19,404 
Transaction and other related costs(1)
70 14,050 
Goodwill impairment— 1,314,952 
Other(2)
2,656 6,008 
Adjusted EBITDA loss$(85,504)$(127,914)
_____________________________________________
(1)Transaction and other related costs during the year ended December 31, 2023 consisted of legal fees incurred related to acquisition-related litigation and during the year ended December 31, 2022 consisted of accounting, legal, and advisory fees related to transactions that were completed, pending, or abandoned.
(2)Other during the year ended December 31, 2023 consisted of (i) interest income offset by (ii) cybersecurity incident loss, (iii) restructuring and other charges, including severance and benefits paid to employees pursuant to workforce reduction plans, (iv) the disposition of our Pahrump operations, (v) expenses for third-party consultants to assist us with the development, implementation, and documentation of new and enhanced internal controls and processes for compliance with Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404(b), (vi) a legal settlement outside of the ordinary course of business, and (vii) valuation allowance on our notes receivable. Other during the year ended December 31, 2022 consisted of (i) income related to the release of indemnity funds previously escrowed as part of an acquisition in a prior year and (ii) interest income, offset by (iii) accounting, legal, and professional services expenses incurred related to the restatement of our consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 and the condensed consolidated financial statements for the quarterly periods ended March 31, 2021, June 30, 2021, September 30, 2021, March 31, 2020, June 30, 2020, and September 30, 2020, (iv) expenses for third-party consultants to assist us with the development, implementation, and documentation of new and enhanced internal controls and processes for compliance with Sarbanes-Oxley Section 404(b), and (v) severance expense.
Medical Margin
Medical margin is a non-GAAP financial metric. We present medical margin because we believe it helps investors understand underlying trends in our business and facilitates an understanding of our operating performance from period to period by facilitating a comparison of our recurring core business operating results.
Medical margin represents the amount earned from capitation revenue after medical claims expenses are deducted. Medical claims expenses represent costs incurred for medical services provided to our members. As our platform grows and matures over time, we expect medical margin to increase in absolute dollars; however, medical margin PMPM may vary as the percentage of new members brought onto our platform fluctuates. New membership added to the platform is typically dilutive to medical margin PMPM.
Medical margin should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for performance measures calculated in accordance with GAAP. We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using medical margin on a supplemental basis. You should review the reconciliation of gross profit to medical margin set forth below and not rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 59

The following table presents our medical margin:
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
(in thousands)
Capitated revenue$1,252,309 $1,034,800 
Less: medical claims expense(1,117,258)(972,725)
Medical margin$135,051 $62,075 
The following table sets forth a reconciliation of our gross profit, the most directly comparable GAAP metric, to medical margin:
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
(in thousands)
Gross profit$31,635 $(7,753)
Other patient service revenue(14,066)(14,671)
Other medical expense117,482 84,499 
Medical margin$135,051 $62,075 
Key Performance Metrics
We monitor the following operating metrics to help us evaluate our business, identify trends affecting our business, formulate business plans and make strategic decisions.
Gross Profit
Gross profit represents the amount earned from total operating revenue less the sum of: (i) medical claims expenses and (ii) other medical expenses including physician compensation expense related to surplus sharing and bonuses and other direct medical expenses incurred to improve care for our members. We believe this metric provides insight into the economics of the P3 Care Model, as it includes all medical claims expense associated with our members’ care as well as partner compensation and additional medical costs we incur as part of our aligned partnership model. Other medical expenses are largely variable and proportionate to the level of surplus in each respective market, among other cost factors.
The following table presents our gross profit:
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
(in thousands)
Total operating revenue$1,266,375 $1,049,471 
Less: medical claims expense(1,117,258)(972,725)
Less: other medical expense(117,482)(84,499)
Gross profit$31,635 $(7,753)
At-Risk Membership
At-risk membership represents the approximate number of Medicare members for whom we receive a fixed percentage of premium under capitation arrangements as of the end of the reporting period. We had 108,900 and 100,400 at-risk members as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 60

Affiliate Primary Care Physicians
Affiliate primary care physicians represent the approximate number of primary care physicians included in our affiliate network, with whom members may be attributed under our capitation arrangements, as of the end of the reporting period. We had 2,750 and 2,800 primary care physicians as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Platform Support Costs
Our platform support costs, which include regionally-based support personnel and other operating costs to support our markets, are expected to decrease over time as a percentage of revenue as our physician partners add members and our revenue grows. Our operating expenses at the enterprise level include resources and technology to support payor contracting, clinical program development, quality, data management, finance, and legal functions. We exclude costs related to the operations of our owned medical clinics and wellness centers.
The table below represents costs to support our markets and enterprise functions, which are included in corporate, general and administrative expenses:
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
(dollars in thousands)
Platform support costs$96,937 $119,167 
% of total operating revenue7.7 %11.4 %
Key Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
Capitated revenue. We contract with health plans using an at-risk model. Under the at-risk model, we are responsible for the cost of all covered health care services provided to members assigned by the health plans to the Company in exchange for a fixed payment, which generally is a POP based on health plans’ premiums received from CMS. Through this capitation arrangement, we stand ready to provide assigned MA members all their medical care via our directly employed and affiliated physician/specialist network.
The premiums health plans receive are determined via a competitive bidding process with CMS and are based on the costs of care in local markets and the average utilization of services by patients enrolled. Medicare pays capitation using a “risk adjustment model,” which compensates providers based on the health status (acuity) of each individual patient. MA plans with higher acuity patients receive higher premiums. Conversely, MA plans with lower acuity patients receive lesser premiums. Under the risk adjustment model, capitation is paid on an interim basis based on enrollee data submitted for the preceding year and is adjusted in subsequent periods after final data is compiled. As premiums are adjusted via this risk adjustment model (using a Risk Adjustment Factor, “RAF”), our PMPM payments change commensurately with how our contracted Medicare Advantage plans’ premiums change with CMS.
The transaction price for these contracts is variable as it primarily includes PMPM fees, which can fluctuate throughout the course of the year based on the acuity of each individual enrollee. In certain contracts, PMPM fees also include adjustments for items such as performance incentives or penalties based on the achievement of certain clinical quality metrics as contracted with payors. Capitated revenue is recognized based on a PMPM transaction price to transfer the service for a distinct increment of the series and is recognized net of projected acuity adjustments and performance incentives or penalties. We recognize revenue in the month in which attributed members are entitled to receive healthcare benefits during the contract term. The capitation amount is subject to possible retroactive premium risk adjustments based on the member’s individual acuity.
Other patient service revenue. Other patient service revenue is comprised primarily of encounter-related fees to treat patients outside of our at-risk arrangements at company owned clinics. Other patient service revenue also includes ancillary fees earned under contracts with certain payors for the provision of certain care coordination and other care management services. These services are provided to patients covered by these payors regardless of whether those patients receive their care from our directly employed or affiliated medical groups.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 61

Operating Expense
Medical expense. Medical expenses primarily include costs of all covered services provided to members by non-P3 employed providers. This also includes an estimate of the cost of services that have been incurred, but not yet reported (“IBNR”). IBNR is recorded as claims payable on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Estimates for incurred claims are based on historical enrollment and cost trends while also taking into consideration operational changes. Future and actual results typically differ from estimates. Differences could result from an overall change in medical expenses per member, changes in member mix or simply due to the addition of new members. IBNR estimates are made on an accrual basis and adjusted in future periods as required. To the extent we revise our estimates of incurred but not reported claims for prior periods up or down, there would be a correspondingly favorable or unfavorable effect on our current period results that may or may not reflect changes in long term trends in our performance.
Premium deficiency reserve. Premium deficiency reserves (“PDR”) are recognized when it is probable that expected future health care costs and maintenance costs under a group of existing contracts will exceed anticipated future premiums and stop-loss insurance recoveries on those contracts. PDR represents the advance recognition of a probable future loss in the current period’s financial statements.
Corporate, general and administrative expense. Corporate, general and administrative expenses include employee-related expenses, including salaries and related costs and equity-based compensation for our executive, technology infrastructure, operations, clinical and quality support, finance, legal, and human resources departments. In addition, general and administrative expenses include all corporate technology and occupancy costs.
Sales and marketing expense. Sales and marketing expenses consist of costs related to patient and provider marketing and community outreach. These expenses capture all costs for both our local and enterprise sales and marketing efforts.
Depreciation and amortization expense. Depreciation expense is associated with our property and equipment, including leasehold improvements, computer equipment and software, furniture and fixtures, and internally developed software. Amortization expense is associated with definite lived intangible assets, including trademarks and tradenames, customer contracts, provider network agreements, and payor contracts.
Goodwill impairment. During the year ended December 31, 2022, we recorded a $1,315.0 million goodwill impairment charge due to the presence of certain macroeconomic and financial market conditions, industry-specific considerations, our performance, and the sustained decrease in the price of our Class A common stock. We do not have any goodwill as of December 31, 2022.
Other Income (Expense)
Interest expense, net. Interest expense primarily consists of interest on our term loan facility and unsecured promissory note and amortization of debt issuance costs and original issue discount.
Mark-to-market of stock warrants. Mark-to-market of stock warrants consists of the change in the fair value on the revaluation of warrant liabilities associated with our public and private placement Class A common stock warrants.
Other. Other consists of gains and losses resulting from other transactions.
Income Taxes
P3 LLC is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal and most applicable state and local income tax jurisdictions. As a partnership, P3 LLC is generally not subject to taxes, other than entity level state income taxes. Any taxable income or loss generated by P3 LLC is passed through to and included within the taxable income or loss of its members, including us, on a pro rata basis. We are subject to U.S. federal income taxes, in addition to state and local income taxes with respect to our allocable share of any taxable income or loss generated by P3 LLC.
Non-controlling Interest
We consolidate the financial results of P3 LLC and report a non-controlling interest on our consolidated statements of operations, representing the portion of net income or loss attributable to the non-controlling interest. The
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 62

weighted average ownership percentages during the period are used to calculate the net income or loss attributable to P3 Health Partners Inc. and the non-controlling interest.
Results of Operations
The following table sets forth our consolidated statements of operations data for the periods indicated. Amounts may not sum due to rounding.
Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2022
Year Ended December 31, 2023% of RevenueYear Ended December 31, 2022% of Revenue
(dollars in thousands)
Operating revenue:
Capitated revenue$1,252,309 99 %$1,034,800 99 %
Other patient service revenue14,066 14,671 
Total operating revenue1,266,375 100 1,049,471 100 
Operating expense:
Medical expense1,234,740 98 1,057,224 101 
Premium deficiency reserve(12,705)(1)(11,461)(1)
Corporate, general and administrative expense122,362 10 157,284 15 
Sales and marketing expense3,233 — 5,096 — 
Goodwill impairment— — 1,314,952 125 
Depreciation and amortization86,675 87,289 
Total operating expense1,434,305 113 2,610,384 248 
Operating loss(167,930)(13)(1,560,913)(149)
Other (expense) income:
Interest expense, net(15,985)(1)(11,404)(1)
Mark-to-market of stock warrants433 — 9,865 
Other(249)— 2,757 — 
Total other (expense) income(15,801)(1)1,218 — 
Loss before income taxes(183,731)(15)(1,559,695)(149)
Provision for income taxes(2,695)— (1,862)— 
Net loss(186,426)(15)(1,561,557)(149)
Net loss attributable to redeemable non-controlling interest(128,653)(10)(1,291,430)(123)
Net loss attributable to controlling interest$(57,773)(5)%$(270,127)(26)%
Revenue
Year Ended December 31,Change
20232022Amount%
(dollars in thousands)
Capitated revenue$1,252,309 $1,034,800 $217,509 21 %
Other patient service revenue14,066 14,671 (605)(4)%
Total operating revenue$1,266,375 $1,049,471 $216,904 21 %
Capitated revenue was $1,252.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, an increase of $217.5 million, or 21%, compared to $1,034.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase was primarily driven by a 12% increase in capitated revenue rates, due to increased premiums from patients with a higher average level of acuity, and an 8% increase in the total number of at-risk members from 100,400 at December 31, 2022 to 108,900 at December 31, 2023, which was in part a result of our participation in the Accountable Care Organization Realizing Equity, Access, and
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 63

Community Health (“ACO REACH”) model, which began January 1, 2023. Capitated revenue was approximately 99% of total operating revenue for each of the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.
Other patient service revenue was $14.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, a decrease of $0.6 million, or 4%, compared to $14.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. Other patient service revenue was approximately 1% of total operating revenue for each of the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.
Operating Expense
Medical Expense
Year Ended December 31,Change
20232022Amount%
(dollars in thousands)
Medical expense$1,234,740 $1,057,224 $177,516 17 %
Medical expense was $1,234.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, an increase of $177.5 million, or 17%, compared to $1,057.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase was primarily driven by an increase in the total number of at-risk members year-over-year resulting from our participation in the ACO REACH Model, which began January 1, 2023, and a new health plan contract as of April 1, 2023, partially offset by the termination and conversion of certain health plans from at-risk to upside-only risk.
Premium Deficiency Reserve
Year Ended December 31,Change
20232022Amount%
(dollars in thousands)
Premium deficiency reserve$(12,705)$(11,461)$(1,244)11 %
Premium deficiency reserve was a benefit of $12.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, an increase of $1.2 million, or 11%, compared to a benefit of $11.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The change was due to management’s assessment of the profitability of contracts, wherein increased membership and the maturation of our overall contractual arrangements are expected to reduce our future losses.
Corporate, General and Administrative Expense
Year Ended December 31,Change
20232022Amount%
(dollars in thousands)
Corporate, general and administrative expense$122,362 $157,284 $(34,922)(22)%
Corporate, general and administrative expense was $122.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, a decrease of $34.9 million, or 22%, compared to $157.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The decrease was primarily driven by decreases in equity-based compensation expense of $13.4 million, salary and related expense of $9.4 million as headcount decreased 33% from December 31, 2022 to December 31, 2023, and professional fees of $8.1 million supporting our operations as a public company and the absence of restatement-related costs.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 64

Other Income (Expense)
Year Ended December 31,Change
20232022Amount%
(dollars in thousands)
Other (expense) income:
Interest expense, net$(15,985)$(11,404)$(4,581)40 %
Mark-to-market of stock warrants433 9,865 (9,432)(96)%
Other(249)2,757 (3,006)(109)%
Total other (expense) income$(15,801)$1,218 $(17,019)(1,397)%
Interest expense, net was $16.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to $11.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. This increase was primarily due to interest associated with the Company’s unsecured promissory note issued in December 2022.
Other expense was $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, which consisted primarily of a cybersecurity incident loss of $1.0 million offset by an increase in interest income on our notes receivable of $0.7 million. Other income during the year ended December 31, 2022 primarily consisted of income from the release of indemnity funds previously escrowed as part of an acquisition in a prior year totaling $2.5 million.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
P3 Health Partners Inc. is a holding company and has no material assets other than its ownership of equity interests in P3 LLC. As such, we have no independent means of generating revenue or cash flow, and our ability to pay taxes, make payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement (“TRA”), and to pay dividends will depend on the financial results and cash flows of P3 LLC and the distributions received from P3 LLC. Deterioration in the financial condition, earnings or cash flow of P3 LLC for any reason could limit or impair P3 LLC’s ability to pay such distributions. Additionally, to the extent that we need funds and P3 LLC is restricted from making such distributions under applicable law or regulation or under the terms of any financing arrangements, or P3 LLC is otherwise unable to provide such funds, it could materially adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition. It is anticipated that the distributions we will receive from P3 LLC may, in certain periods, exceed the actual tax liabilities and obligations to make payments under the TRA.
Cash Sources
To date, we have financed our operations principally through the cash we obtained as a result of the Business Combinations, private placements of our equity securities, payments from our payors, issuances of promissory notes, and borrowings under the Term Loan Facility (as defined below). We generate cash from our operations, generally from our contracts with payors. As of December 31, 2023, we had cash and restricted cash of $40.9 million.
We have experienced losses since our inception and net losses of $186.4 million and $1,561.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We expect to continue to incur operating losses and generate negative cash flows from operations for the foreseeable future due to the strong growth we have experienced over the last six years and the investments we are making in expanding our business, which require up-front expenses. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors, including the pace of our growth, ability to manage medical costs, the maturity of our members, and our ability to raise capital. We may need to raise additional capital through a combination of debt financing, other non-dilutive financing and/or equity financing and to the extent we are unsuccessful at doing so, we may need to adjust our growth trajectory to accommodate our capital needs and look for additional ways to generate cost efficiencies.
Shelf Registration
On November 9, 2023, we filed a shelf Registration Statement on Form S-3 with a capacity of $250 million (the “Shelf Registration”), which was declared effective by the SEC on November 20, 2023, and entered into an Open Market Sales Agreement (“Sales Agreement”) pursuant to which we may issue and sell, from time to time, through the sales agent, shares of our Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, with an aggregate value of up to $75 million. The sales agent will make commercially reasonable efforts, following our instructions, to sell shares over time, adhering to specified limits. Sales will be conducted through at-the-market offerings as defined by Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. The
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 65

aggregate value of shares of Class A common stock that may be offered, issued, and sold under the Sales Agreement is included in the aggregate value of securities that may be offered, issued, and sold by us under the Shelf Registration. Upon termination of the Sales Agreement, any unused portion will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the Shelf Registration. As of December 31, 2023, we have sold approximately 27,000 shares of our Class A common stock under the Sales Agreement for net proceeds of approximately $33,000.
March 2023 Private Placement
On April 6, 2023, pursuant to a Securities Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”), dated March 30, 2023 with the purchasers named therein (the “Purchasers”), which included certain affiliated entities of CPF and our Chief Medical Officer and member of our board of directors, we issued 79.9 million units at a price of approximately $1.12 per unit for institutional investors, and a purchase price of approximately $1.19 per unit for employees and consultants. Each unit consisted of one share of Class A common stock and 0.75 of a warrant to purchase one share of Class A common stock at an exercise price of $1.13. Certain institutional investors elected to receive pre-funded warrants to purchase Class A common stock in lieu of a portion of their Class A common stock. In total, we sold (i) an aggregate of 69.2 million shares of our Class A common stock, (ii) Common Warrants to purchase an aggregate of 59.9 million shares of Class A common stock, and (iii) Pre-Funded Warrants to purchase an aggregate of 10.8 million shares of Class A common stock to the Purchasers for aggregate proceeds of approximately $86.6 million, net of offering costs of approximately $2.9 million (collectively, the “March 2023 Private Placement”). See Note 13 “Capitalization” to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K for additional information about the March 2023 Private Placement.
Term Loan
In November 2020, we entered into a Term Loan and Security Agreement with CRG Servicing, LLC (as amended, the “Term Loan Agreement”) providing for funding of up to $100.0 million (the “Term Loan Facility”). The Term Loan Facility’s maturity date is December 31, 2025. As of December 31, 2023, we had $65.0 million of borrowings outstanding under the Term Loan Facility, and remaining availability under the Term Loan Facility ended upon termination of the commitment period on February 28, 2022. Interest is payable at 12.0% per annum on a quarterly cycle (in arrears), which began on March 31, 2021. In March 2021, we elected to pay interest at 8.0% with the remaining interest at 4.0% being added to principal as paid in-kind (“PIK”) for a period of three years (or 12 payments).
We are required to remain in compliance with financial covenants such as minimum liquidity of $5.0 million and annual minimum revenue levels. In addition, the Term Loan Agreement restricts our ability and the ability of our subsidiaries to, among other things, incur indebtedness and liens. On an annual basis, we must post a minimum amount of annual revenue equal to $525.0 million in 2023; $585.0 million in 2024 and $650.0 million in 2025. The maturity date may be accelerated as a remedy under the certain default provisions in the Term Loan Agreement, or in the event a mandatory prepayment event occurs.
In connection with the issuance of the VGS Promissory Note (defined below) and entry into the 2022 Subordination Agreement (defined below), on December 13, 2022, we entered into an amendment to the Term Loan Agreement to permit the issuance of the VGS Promissory Note and the entry into the 2022 Subordination Agreement.
In connection with the issuance of the VGS 2 Promissory Note (defined below) and entry into the 2024 Subordination Agreement (defined below), on March 22, 2024, we entered into the Fourth Amendment to the Term Loan Agreement to permit the issuance of the VGS 2 Promissory Note and the entry into the 2024 Subordination Agreement.
VGS Promissory Note
On December 13, 2023, we entered into a financing transaction with VBC Growth SPV LLC (“VGS”) which included the issuance of an unsecured promissory note (the “VGS Promissory Note”) to VGS and the entry into a warrant agreement and the 2022 Subordination Agreement (defined below). The VGS Promissory Note provided for funding of up to $40.0 million. The maturity date of the VGS Promissory Note is May 19, 2026. As of December 31, 2023, we had $29.1 million of borrowings outstanding under the VGS Promissory Note, and remaining availability under the VGS Promissory Note ended upon termination of the commitment period on February 3, 2023. We paid VGS an up-front fee of 1.5% and will pay a back-end fee of 9.0% at the time the VGS Promissory Note is paid. Interest is payable at 14.0% per annum on a quarterly cycle (in arrears) beginning March 31, 2023. We may elect to pay interest of 6.0% in kind and 8.0% in cash, subject to certain limitations.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 66

The VGS Promissory Note may be prepaid, at our option, either in whole or in part, without penalty or premium, at any time and from time to time, subject to the payment of the back-end fee; provided that prepayments must be in increments of at least $2.0 million. The VGS Promissory Note provides for mandatory prepayments with the proceeds of certain asset sales, and the Lender has the right to demand payment in full upon (i) a change of control of the Company and (ii) certain qualified financings (as defined in the VGS Promissory Note).
The VGS Promissory Note restricts our ability to, among other things, incur indebtedness and liens, and make investments and restricted payments. The maturity date may be accelerated as a remedy under the certain default provisions in the agreement, or in the event a mandatory prepayment event occurs.
In connection with the issuance of the VGS Promissory Note, we also entered into a subordination agreement, dated as of December 13, 2022 (the “2022 Subordination Agreement”) with VGS which subordinates VGS’s right of payment under the VGS Promissory Note to the right of payment and security interests of the lenders under the Term Loan Facility. Under the terms of the 2022 Subordination Agreement, we will be required to pay all interest under the VGS Promissory Note in-kind. The VGS Promissory Note may be prepaid, at our option, either in whole or in part, without penalty or premium subject to certain conditions.
As of December 31, 2023, we were not in compliance with its Term Loan Facility and VGS Promissory Note covenants related to issuance of the 2023 financial statements with an audit opinion free of a “going concern” qualification. The Term Loan Facility and VGS Promissory Note lenders have granted us a waiver of the covenant under the Term Loan Facility related to the existence of a “going concern” qualification in the audit opinion for our audited financial statements for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023. We were in compliance with all other covenants under the Term Loan Facility and VGS Promissory Note as of December 31, 2023; however, there can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain compliance with these covenants in the future or that the lenders under the Term Loan Facility, VGS Promissory Note or the lenders of any future indebtedness we may incur will grant any such waiver or forbearance in the future.
VGS 2 Promissory Note
On March 22, 2024, we entered into a financing transaction with VBC Growth SPV 2, LLC (“VGS 2”), consisting of the issuance by P3 LLC of an unsecured promissory note (the “VGS 2 Promissory Note”) to VGS 2. The VGS 2 Promissory Note provides for funding of up to $25.0 million, available for draw by P3 LLC in two tranches, as follows: (i) a first tranche of $10.0 million which was immediately drawn on March 22, 2024, and (ii) a second tranche of $15.0 million available at our sole option in a single draw, on or around March 29, 2024, but no later than April 5, 2024. The VGS 2 Promissory Note matures on September 30, 2027. Interest is payable at 17.5% per annum on a quarterly cycle (in arrears) beginning June 30, 2024. We may elect to pay either (1) 8.0% cash interest and 9.5% PIK interest, or (2) 17.5% PIK interest, provided that payment of cash interest will be permitted only to the extent permitted by the Term Loan Agreement and the 2024 Subordination Agreement, and if not so permitted, such interest shall accrue as PIK interest. The VGS 2 Promissory Note provides for mandatory prepayments with the proceeds of certain asset sales, and VGS 2 has the right to demand payment in full upon (i) a change of control of the Company and (ii) certain qualified financings (as defined in the VGS 2 Promissory Note).
The VGS 2 Promissory Note restricts P3 LLC’s ability and the ability of its subsidiaries to, among other things, incur indebtedness and liens, and make investments and restricted payments. The maturity date may be accelerated as a remedy under the certain default provisions in the agreement, or in the event a mandatory prepayment event occurs.
In connection with the issuance of the VGS 2 Promissory Note, we also entered into a subordination agreement, dated as of March 22, 2024 (the “2024 Subordination Agreement”) with VGS 2 which subordinates VGS 2’s right of payment under the VGS 2 Promissory Note to the right of payment and security interests of the lenders under the Term Loan Facility. Under the terms of the 2024 Subordination Agreement, we will be required to pay all interest under the VGS 2 Promissory Note in-kind.
We paid VGS 2 an up-front fee of 1.5% of the aggregate principal amount of the loan in-kind. In addition, we will pay VBC 2 a back-end fee at the time the VGS 2 Promissory Note is redeemed as follows: (i) if paid prior to June 30, 2024, 2.25%; (ii) if paid after June 30, 2024 and on or before September 30, 2024, 4.5%; (iii) if paid after September 30, 2024 and on or before December 31, 2024,6.75% and (iv) if paid after December 31, 2024, 9.0%.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 67

Repurchase Promissory Note
In June 2019, we issued a share repurchase promissory note to a former equity investor for $15.0 million, which was subsequently amended in November 2020 (as amended, the “Repurchase Promissory Note”). The Repurchase Promissory Note automatically matures and is due and payable on the earlier of June 30, 2026, a change in control transaction, or an underwritten primary public offering, each as defined in the agreement. The Repurchase Promissory Note accrues PIK interest of 11.0% per year. The principal balance, accrued interest, and an exit fee of $0.6 million are due at maturity.
Cash Uses
Our primary uses of cash include payments for medical expenses, administrative expenses, cost associated with our care model, debt service, and capital expenditures. Final reconciliation and receipts of amounts due from payors are typically settled in arrears.
Pursuant to our election under Section 754 of the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”), we expect to obtain an increase in our share of the tax basis in the net assets of P3 LLC when its units are redeemed or exchanged. We intend to treat any redemptions and exchanges of P3 LLC units as direct purchases of the units for U.S. federal income tax purposes. These increases in tax basis may reduce the amounts that we would otherwise pay in the future to various tax authorities. They may also decrease gains (or increase losses) on future dispositions of certain capital assets to the extent the tax basis is allocated to those capital assets.
In connection with the Business Combinations, we entered into a TRA that provides for the payment by us of 85% of the amount of any tax benefits that we actually realize, or in some cases are deemed to realize, as a result of (i) increases in our share of the tax basis in the net assets of P3 LLC resulting from any redemptions or exchanges of P3 LLC, (ii) tax basis increases attributable to payments made under the TRA, and (iii) deductions attributable to imputed interest pursuant to the TRA (the “TRA Payments”). We expect to benefit from the remaining 15% of any tax benefits that we may actually realize.
The estimation of a liability under the TRA is, by its nature, imprecise and subject to significant assumptions regarding a number of factors, including (but not limited to) the amount and timing of taxable income generated by the Company each year as well as the tax rate then applicable. The TRA liability is estimated to be $11.0 million as of December 31, 2023. Due to the Company’s history of losses, the Company has not recorded tax benefits associated with the increase in tax basis as a result of the Business Combinations. As a result, the Company determined that payments to TRA holders are not probable and no TRA liability has been recorded as of December 31, 2023.
As non-controlling interest holders exercise their right to exchange their units in P3 LLC, a TRA liability may be recorded based on 85% of the estimated future tax benefits that the Company may realize as a result of increases in the tax basis of P3 LLC. The amount of the increase in the tax basis, the related estimated tax benefits, and the related TRA liability to be recorded will depend on the price of the Company’s Class A common stock at the time of the relevant redemption or exchange.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 68

The following table summarizes current and long-term material cash requirements as of December 31, 2023:
Material Cash Requirements
TotalLess than
1 year
1-3
years
3-5
years
More than
5 years
(in thousands)
Unpaid claims(1)
$178,009 $178,009 $— $— $— 
Long-term debt, principal(2)
109,102 — 109,102 — — 
Long-term debt, interest(3)
59,311 5,882 53,429 — — 
Operating lease liabilities(4)
23,720 4,625 7,633 6,218 5,244 
Total$370,142 $188,516 $170,164 $6,218 $5,244 
_____________________________________________
(1)Represents unpaid claims due to third parties for health care services provided to members, including estimates for incurred but not reported claims. Estimates for incurred claims are based on historical enrollment and cost trends while also taking into consideration operational changes. Future and actual results typically differ from estimates. Differences could result from an overall change in medical expenses per members, changes in member mix or simply due to addition of new members.
(2)Represents principal payments only. We will pay interest on outstanding indebtedness based on the rates and terms summarized in Note 11 “Debt” in our consolidated financial statements.
(3)Represents interest expected to be incurred on our long-term debt based on amounts outstanding as of December 31, 2023 as summarized in Note 11 “Debt” in our consolidated financial statements.
(4)Represents minimum operating lease payments, excluding potential lease renewals. See Note 16 “Leases” in our consolidated financial statements.
Liquidity and Going Concern
As of the date of this Form 10-K, management believes that our existing cash resources are not sufficient to support planned operations for at least the next year from the issuance of this Form 10-K. As a result, management has concluded that there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date the consolidated financial statements contained elsewhere in this Form 10-K are issued. In evaluating the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern, management considered the Company’s current projections of future cash flows, current financial condition, sources of liquidity, and debt obligations for at least one year from the date of issuance of this Form 10-K in considering whether it has the ability to meet its obligations. This evaluation of our cash resources available over the next year from the date of issuance of this Form 10-K does not take into consideration the potential mitigating effect of our ongoing efforts to raise capital or management’s plans that have not been fully implemented or the many factors that determine the Company’s capital requirements, including the pace of our growth, ability to manage medical costs and the maturity of our members. Management continues to explore raising additional capital through a combination of debt financing and equity issuances. If we raise funds by issuing debt securities or preferred stock, or by incurring loans, these forms of financing would have rights, preferences, and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. If we raise capital through the issuance of additional equity, such sales and issuance would dilute the ownership interests of the existing holders of our Class A common stock. The availability and the terms under which we may be able to raise additional capital could be disadvantageous, and the terms of debt financing or other non-dilutive financing may involve restrictive covenants and dilutive financing instruments, which could place significant restrictions on our operations. Macroeconomic conditions and credit markets could also impact the availability and cost of potential future debt financing. There can be no assurances that any additional debt, other non-dilutive and/or equity financing would be available to us on favorable terms, or potentially at all. We expect to continue to incur net losses, comprehensive losses, and negative cash flows from operating activities in accordance with our operating plan. If we are unable to obtain additional funding when needed, we will need to curtail planned activities in order to reduce costs, which will likely have an unfavorable effect on our ability to execute on our business plan, and have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and future prospects.
The audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K have been prepared assuming the Company will continue as a going concern and do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of these uncertainties.
Our independent registered public accounting firm, in its report on the Company’s consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2023, has also expressed substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 69

Cash Flows
The following table summarizes our cash flows:
Year Ended December 31,
20232022
(in thousands)
Net cash used in operating activities$(76,028)$(126,019)
Net cash used in investing activities(1,827)(7,733)
Net cash provided by financing activities100,332 11,375 
Net change in cash$22,477 $(122,377)
Operating Activities
Net cash used in operating activities was $76.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, compared to net cash used in operating activities of $126.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. Significant changes impacting net cash used in operating activities during the year ended December 31, 2023 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 were primarily due to (i) cash sweeps of $30.8 million received in 2023, $20.3 million of which related to dates of service prior to 2023, (ii) $2.5 million in cash received in 2023 related to the release of indemnity funds previously escrowed as part of an acquisition in a prior year, and (iii) changes in working capital. As previously disclosed, cash sweeps of $12.3 million were received in the comparative period in 2022, but were recognized in 2021 in accordance with our revenue recognition policy resulting from the extended reporting period related to the delayed 2021 audit.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities was $1.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, primarily consisting of purchases of property and equipment. Net cash used in investing activities was $7.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, primarily consisting of the acquisition of two medical practices, net of cash acquired, and purchases of property and equipment.
Financing Activities
Net cash provided by financing activities was $100.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, consisting of proceeds from the March 2023 Private Placement, net of offering costs, and borrowings on the VGS Promissory Note. Net cash provided by financing activities was $11.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, consisting of proceeds from the issuance of the VGS Promissory Note, offset by debt repayments.
Critical Accounting Estimates
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires management use judgment in the application of accounting policies, including making estimates and assumptions that could affect assets and liabilities, revenue and expenses and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. Management bases its estimates on the best information available at the time, its experiences and various other assumptions believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from those estimates. To the extent that there are differences between our estimates and actual results, our future financial statement presentation, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows will be affected. Below is a discussion of the critical accounting estimates that are particularly important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations and require the application of significant judgment by management.
Capitated Revenue
The transaction price for our capitated payor contracts is variable as it primarily includes PMPM fees associated with unspecified membership. Medicare pays capitation using a “risk adjustment model,” which compensates providers based on the health status (acuity) of each individual patient. Medicare Advantage plans with higher acuity patients receive higher premiums. Conversely, Medicare Advantage plans with lower acuity patients receive lesser premiums. Under the risk adjustment model, capitation is paid on an interim basis based on enrollee data submitted for the preceding year and is
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 70

adjusted in subsequent periods after final data is compiled. As premiums are adjusted via this risk adjustment model (via a RAF), our PMPM payments will change commensurately with how our contracted Medicare Advantage plans’ premiums change with CMS. In certain contracts, PMPM fees also include adjustments for items such as performance incentives or penalties based on the achievement of certain clinical quality metrics as contracted with payors.
Capitated revenue is recognized based on an estimated PMPM transaction price to transfer the service for a distinct increment of the series (e.g., month), net of projected acuity adjustments and performance incentives or penalties as management can reasonably estimate the ultimate PMPM payment of those contracts. We recognize revenue in the month in which eligible members are entitled to receive healthcare benefits during the contract term. The capitation amount is subject to possible retroactive premium risk adjustments based on the member’s individual acuity.
Medical Expense and Claims Payable
The cost of healthcare services is recognized in the period services are provided. Medical expense includes costs of all covered services provided to members assigned by the health plans under P3’s at-risk model. Medical expense includes the cost for third-party healthcare service providers, the cost for overseeing the quality of care and programs, and from time to time, remediation of certain claims that might result from periodic reviews conducted by various regulatory agencies. This also includes an estimate of the cost of services that have been incurred, but not yet reported (“IBNR”).
We estimate our IBNR by applying standard actuarial methodologies, which utilize historical data, including the period between the date services are rendered and the date claims received (and paid), denied claims activity, expected medical cost inflation, seasonality patterns, and changes in membership mix. Such estimates are subject to impact from changes in both the regulatory and economic environments. Our claims payable represents management’s best estimate of its liability for unpaid medical costs. We have included incurred but not reported claims of $178.0 million and $151.2 million on our consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Our consolidated financial statements could be materially impacted if actual claims expense is different from our estimates. If our liability for incurred and not reported claims at December 31, 2023 were to differ by plus or minus 5%, the impact on medical claims expense would be approximately $8.9 million.
Premium Deficiency Reserves
A PDR is recorded when there is a probable future loss on unearned capitated premiums after estimated expected claim costs and claim adjustment expenses. Losses under prepaid health care services contracts shall be recognized when it is probable that expected future health care costs and maintenance costs under a group of existing contracts will exceed anticipated future premiums and stop-loss insurance recoveries on those contracts. To determine the need to recognize a loss, contracts shall be grouped in a manner consistent with the provider’s method of establishing premium rates, for example, by community rating practices, geographical area, or statutory requirements, to determine whether a loss has been incurred. In our at-risk arrangements, the more we improve health outcomes and lower the overall cost of care, the more profitable we will be over time.
We assess the profitability of our at-risk arrangements to identify contracts where current operating results or forecasts indicate probable future losses. Management estimates the Company’s PDR by utilizing estimates of membership growth rates, changes in membership mix, estimated PMPM payments under contracts, historical claims data, seasonality patterns, our ability to lower the overall cost of care and incremental medical costs, such as those related to COVID-19 admissions. Such estimates are subject to impact from changes in both the regulatory and economic environments. The Company’s PDR represents management’s best estimate of its probable future losses. We have included premium deficiency reserve liabilities of $13.7 million and $26.4 million on our accompanying consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 4 “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K for a description of recent accounting standards issued and the anticipated effects on our consolidated financial statements.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 71

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Not required for Smaller Reporting Companies.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 72

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
Shareholders and Board of Directors
P3 Health Partners Inc.
Henderson, Nevada
Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of P3 Health Partners Inc. (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, stockholders’ equity and mezzanine equity, and cash flows for each of the years then ended, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the years then ended, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”) and our report dated March 28, 2024 expressed an adverse opinion thereon.
Going Concern Uncertainty
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company has suffered recurring losses from operations that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. Management’s plans in regard to these matters are also described in Note 2. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
Basis for Opinion
These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 73

matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
Estimate of the Premium Deficiency Reserve
As described in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s consolidated premium deficiency reserve (“PDR”) balance was approximately $13.7 million at December 31, 2023. PDR is established when it is probable that expected future health care costs and maintenance costs under a group of contracts will exceed future premium and stop-loss insurance recoveries on those contracts. The Company assesses if a PDR is needed through review of current results and forecasts. For purposes of determining premium deficiency losses, contracts are grouped consistent with the Company’s method of acquiring, servicing, and measuring the profitability of such contracts based on the expected medical loss ratio.
We identified the estimate of PDR as a critical audit matter. The principal consideration for this determination was the significant judgment used in developing certain assumptions used in the medical loss ratio (“MLR”). Auditing this element involved subjective auditor judgment due to the nature and extent of audit effort required to address these matters, including the extent of specialized skills or knowledge needed.
The primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter included:
Assessing the reasonableness of certain assumptions used in the expected MLR by evaluating these assumptions through comparison to the historical performance of the Company and its peers to determine if contradictory evidence existed.
Utilizing personnel with specialized knowledge and skills in actuarial methods to assess the healthcare claims trend assumption in the expected MLR.
Valuation of Incurred but Not Reported Claims
As described in Notes 3 and 10 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s consolidated claims payable balance was approximately $178.0 million at December 31, 2023. The Company’s claims payables primarily consist of the Company’s estimate for claims that have been incurred but have either not yet been received, processed, or paid and as such, not reported (“IBNR”). As discussed in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements, management develops its IBNR liability estimate using standard actuarial methodologies, which utilize historical data, including the period between the date services are rendered and the date claims are received and paid (the completion factor), per member per month healthcare cost trends, denied claims activity, expected medical cost inflation, seasonality patterns, changes in membership mix, and a provision for adverse deviation (“PAD”).
We identified the valuation of IBNR claims as a critical audit matter. The principal considerations for this determination were the significant judgments involved in: (i) evaluating the actuarial methodologies used, (ii) estimating the completion factors and per member per month cost based on historical payment patterns and consideration of health care cost trend factors, and (iii) determining the appropriate level of PAD. Auditing these elements involved subjective auditor judgments due to the nature and extent of audit effort required to address these matters, including the extent of specialized skills or knowledge needed.
The primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter included:
Testing the completeness and accuracy of the underlying reports used in estimating: (i) the completion factors by agreeing to underlying claims data and repricing certain claims, and (ii) the per member per month cost by agreeing to underlying claims data and confirming member information with health plans.
Utilizing personnel with specialized knowledge and skills in actuarial methods to assist in: (i) evaluating the appropriateness and consistency of the actuarial methodologies used, (ii) evaluating the reasonableness of the completion factors, per member per month healthcare cost trends factors, and the PAD used by the Company’s management and its actuarial specialist by comparing our independently determined IBNR estimate to management’s recorded IBNR liability, and (iii) reviewing prior period estimates using subsequent claims development.
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 74

Determination of the Premium Risk Adjustment Revenue
As described in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s consolidated capitated revenue included approximately $27.7 million of estimated premium risk adjustment revenue during the year ended December 31, 2023. Medicare pays capitation using a “risk adjustment model,” which compensates providers based on the health status (acuity) of each individual patient, also known as the hierarchal condition categories (“HCC”). Medicare Advantage plans with higher acuity patients receive higher premiums. Conversely, Medicare Advantage plans with lower acuity patients receive lesser premiums. Under the risk adjustment model, capitation is paid on an interim basis based on enrollee data submitted for the preceding year and is adjusted in subsequent periods after final data is compiled (using a Risk Adjustment Factor or “RAF”).
We identified the determination of Medicare Advantage RAF revenue as a critical audit matter. The principal considerations for this determination were the significant complexities involved in determining the HCC and the corresponding risk adjustment factor revenue. Auditing these elements involved especially challenging and complex calculations due to the nature and extent of audit effort required to address these matters, including the extent of specialized skills or knowledge needed.
The primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter included:
Assessing the reasonableness and accuracy of the underlying data used in the determination of the HCC by vouching samples to underlying support.
Utilizing personnel with specialized knowledge and skills in actuarial methods to assist in determining the HCC and the corresponding risk adjustment revenue.
/s/ BDO USA, P.C.
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2021.
Las Vegas, Nevada
March 28, 2024
P3 Health Partners Inc. | 2023 Form 10-K | 75

P3 HEALTH PARTNERS INC. and SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
December 31,
20232022
ASSETS
CURRENT ASSETS:  
Cash $36,320 $17,537 
Restricted cash4,614 920 
Health plan receivable, net of allowance for credit losses of $150 and $0, respectively
118,497 72,092 
Clinic fees, insurance and other receivable2,973 7,500 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets 3,613 2,643 
TOTAL CURRENT ASSETS166,017 100,692 
Property and equipment, net 8,686 8,839 
Intangible assets, net666,733 751,050 
Other long-term assets19,531 15,990 
TOTAL ASSETS (1)
$860,967 $876,571 
LIABILITIES, MEZZANINE EQUITY, and STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY  
CURRENT LIABILITIES:  
Accounts payable$8,663 $11,542 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities36,884 16,647 
Accrued payroll 3,506 8,224 
Health plan settlements payable34,992 13,608 
Claims payable178,009 151,207 
Premium deficiency reserve13,670 26,375 
Accrued interest23,648 14,061 
TOTAL CURRENT LIABILITIES299,372 241,664 
Operating lease liability13,622 11,516 
Warrant liabilities1,085 1,517 
Contingent consideration4,907 4,794 
Long-term debt, net108,319 94,421 
TOTAL LIABILITIES (1)
427,305 353,912 
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES (Note 16 and Note 20)
MEZZANINE EQUITY:
Redeemable non-controlling interest291,532 516,805 
STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY:  
Class A common stock, $0.0001 par value; 800,000 shares authorized; 116,588 and 41,579 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
12 4 
Class V common stock, $0.0001 par value; 205,000 shares authorized; 196,569 and 201,592 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
20 20 
Additional paid in capital509,442 315,375 
Accumulated deficit (367,344)(309,545)
TOTAL STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY 142,130 5,854 
TOTAL LIABILITIES, MEZZANINE EQUITY, and STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY $860,967 $876,571 
____________________
(1)The Company’s consolidated balance sheets include the assets and liabilities of its consolidated variable interest entities (“VIEs”). As discussed in Note 22: Variable Interest Entities, P3 LLC is itself a VIE. P3 LLC represents substantially all the assets and liabilities of the Company. As a result, the language and numbers below refer only to VIEs held at the P3 LLC level. The consolidated balance sheets include total assets that can be used only to settle obligations of P3 LLC’s consolidated VIEs totaling $8.6 million and $3.1 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, and total liabilities of P3 LLC’s consolidated VIEs for which creditors do not have recourse to the general credit of the Company totaled $13.6 million and $