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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
________________________________________________________
(Mark One)
xANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
oTRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ___ to ___
Commission File Number 001-37795
________________________________________________________
Park Hotels & Resorts Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)
________________________________________________________
Delaware36-2058176
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S Employer
Identification No.)
1775 Tysons Boulevard, 7th Floor, Tysons, VA
22102
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code): (571) 302-5757
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per sharePKNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerxAccelerated filero
Non-accelerated fileroSmaller reporting companyo
Emerging growth companyo
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. x
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. o
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). YES o NO x
As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $2,729 million (based upon the closing sale price of the common stock on that date on the New York Stock Exchange).
The number of shares of common stock outstanding on February 23, 2024 was 210,582,472.
Documents incorporated by reference: The information called for by Part III will be incorporated by reference from the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A.



Table of Contents
Page
2

Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”). Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements related to the effects of our decision to cease payments on the $725 million non-recourse CMBS loan ("SF Mortgage Loan") secured by two of our San Francisco hotels – the 1,921-room Hilton San Francisco Union Square and the 1,024-room Parc 55 San Francisco – a Hilton Hotel (collectively, the "Hilton San Francisco Hotels") and the lender's exercise of its remedies, including placing such hotels into receivership, as well as our current expectations regarding the performance of our business, our financial results, our liquidity and capital resources, including anticipated repayment of certain of our indebtedness, the completion of capital allocation priorities, the expected repurchase of our stock, the impact from macroeconomic factors (including inflation, elevated interest rates, potential economic slowdown or a recession and geopolitical conflicts), the effects of competition, the effects of future legislation or regulations, the expected completion of anticipated dispositions, the declaration and payment of future dividends and other non-historical statements. Forward-looking statements include all statements that are not historical facts, and in some cases, can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as the words “outlook,” “believes,” “expects,” “potential,” “continues,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “seeks,” “projects,” “predicts,” “intends,” “plans,” “estimates,” “anticipates”, “hopes” or the negative version of these words or other comparable words. You should not rely on forward-looking statements since they involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which are, in some cases, beyond our control and which could materially affect our results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, performance or future achievements or events.
All such forward-looking statements are based on current expectations of management and therefore involve estimates and assumptions that are subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results expressed in these forward-looking statements. You should not put undue reliance on any forward-looking statements and we urge investors to carefully review the disclosures we make concerning risks and uncertainties in Item 1A: “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
The risk factors discussed in Item 1A: “Risk Factors” could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements. There may be other risks and uncertainties that we are unable to predict at this time or that we currently do not expect to have a material adverse effect on our business. Any such risks could cause our results to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements.
Definitions
Except where the context suggests otherwise, we define certain terms in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as follows:
“Adjusted EBITDA” means EBITDA (as defined below) further adjusted to exclude: (i) gains or losses on sales of assets for both consolidated and unconsolidated investments; (ii) costs associated with hotel acquisitions or dispositions expensed during the period; (iii) severance expense; (iv) share-based compensation expense; (v) impairment losses and casualty gains or losses; and (vi) other items that we believe are not representative of our current or future operating performance. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for information regarding our use of Adjusted EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP financial measure.
“Adjusted FFO attributable to stockholders” means Nareit funds from (used in) operations (“FFO”) attributable to stockholders (as defined below), as further adjusted to exclude: (i) costs associated with hotel acquisitions or dispositions expensed during the period; (ii) severance expense; (iii) share-based compensation expense; (iv) casualty gains or losses, and (v) other items that we believe are not representative of our current or future operating performance. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for information regarding our use of Adjusted FFO attributable to stockholders, which is a non-GAAP financial measure.
“ADR” or “average daily rate,” (which we also refer to as "rate") represents rooms revenue divided by total number of room nights sold in a given period.
3

“EBITDA” reflects net income (loss) excluding depreciation and amortization, interest income, interest expense, income taxes and also interest expense, income tax and depreciation and amortization included in equity in earnings (losses) from investments in affiliates. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for information regarding our use of EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP financial measure.
“HGV” refers to Hilton Grand Vacations Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, and references to “HGV Parent” refers only to Hilton Grand Vacations Inc., exclusive of its subsidiaries.
“Hilton” refers to Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, and references to “Hilton Parent” or “Parent” refers only to Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc., exclusive of its subsidiaries.
“Hotel Adjusted EBITDA” measures hotel-level results before debt service, depreciation and corporate expenses for our consolidated hotels, which excludes hotels owned by unconsolidated affiliates. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for information regarding our use of Hotel Adjusted EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP financial measure.
a “luxury” hotel refers to a luxury hotel as defined by Smith Travel Research (“STR”).
“Nareit FFO attributable to stockholders” means net income (loss) attributable to stockholders (calculated in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”)), excluding depreciation and amortization, gains or losses on sales of assets, impairment, and the cumulative effect of changes in accounting principles, plus adjustments for unconsolidated joint ventures. Adjustments for unconsolidated joint ventures are calculated to reflect our pro rata share of the FFO of those entities on the same basis. We calculate Nareit FFO attributable to stockholders for a given operating period in accordance with the guidelines of the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (“Nareit”) and its December 2018 “Nareit Funds from Operations White Paper – 2018 Restatement”. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for information regarding our use of Nareit FFO attributable to stockholders, which is a non-GAAP financial measure.
“occupancy” represents the total number of room nights sold divided by the total number of room nights available at a hotel or group of hotels.
“Park Hotels & Resorts,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” refer to Park Hotels & Resorts Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, and references to “Park Parent” refers only to Park Hotels & Resorts Inc., exclusive of its subsidiaries.
“RevPAR” or “revenue per available room” represents rooms revenue divided by the total number of room nights available to guests for a given period.
“TRS” refers to a taxable REIT subsidiary under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and includes any subsidiaries or other, lower-tier entities of that taxable REIT subsidiary.
an “upper midscale” hotel refers to an upper midscale hotel as defined by STR.
an “upper upscale” hotel refers to an upper upscale hotel as defined by STR.
an “upscale” hotel refers to an upscale hotel as defined by STR.
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PART I
Item 1. Business
Our Company
We are one of the largest publicly-traded lodging real estate investment trusts (“REIT”) with a diverse portfolio of iconic and market-leading hotels and resorts with significant underlying real estate value. On January 3, 2017, Hilton Parent completed the spin-off of a portfolio of hotels and resorts that established us as an independent, publicly traded company. As of February 28, 2024, our portfolio consists of 43 premium-branded hotels and resorts with over 26,000 rooms, located in prime United States (“U.S.”) markets with high barriers to entry. Approximately 86% of our rooms are luxury and upper upscale and all of our rooms are located in the U.S. and its territories. We are focused on consistently delivering superior risk-adjusted returns to stockholders through active asset management and a thoughtful external growth strategy while maintaining a strong and flexible balance sheet.
On September 18, 2019, pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Agreement and Plan of Merger (the “Merger Agreement”), dated as of May 5, 2019, by and among Park Parent, PK Domestic Property LLC, an indirect subsidiary of Park Parent (“PK Domestic”), PK Domestic Sub LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of PK Domestic (“Merger Sub”) and Chesapeake Lodging Trust (“Chesapeake”), Chesapeake merged with and into Merger Sub (the “Merger”). Park Intermediate Holdings LLC (our “Operating Company”) continues to directly or indirectly hold all of our assets and conduct all of our operations. Park Parent owned 100% of the interests in our Operating Company until December 31, 2021 when the business undertook an internal reorganization transitioning our structure to a traditional umbrella partnership REIT ("UPREIT") structure . Effective January 1, 2022, Park Parent became the managing member of our Operating Company and PK Domestic REIT Inc., a direct subsidiary of Park Parent, became a member of our Operating Company. We may, in the future, issue interests in (or from) our Operating Company in connection with acquiring hotels, financing, issuance of equity compensation or other purposes.
We are a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We have been organized and operated, and we expect to continue to be organized and operate, in a manner to qualify as a REIT.
Our Business and Growth Strategies
Our objective is to be the preeminent lodging REIT, focused on consistently delivering superior, risk-adjusted returns to stockholders through active asset management and a thoughtful external growth strategy while maintaining a strong and flexible balance sheet. We intend to pursue this objective through the following strategies:
Operational Excellence through Active Asset Management. We are focused on continually improving property-level operating performance and profitability of each of our hotels and resorts through our proactive asset management efforts. We continue to identify revenue-enhancement opportunities and drive cost efficiencies to maximize the operating performance, cash flow and value of each property. As a pure-play lodging real estate company with significant financial resources and an extensive portfolio of large, multi-use assets, including 7 hotels with 125,000 square feet of meeting space or more, we believe our ability to implement compelling return on investment initiatives represents a significant embedded growth opportunity. These may include the expansion of meeting platforms in convention and resort markets; the upgrade or redevelopment of existing amenities, including retail platforms, food and beverage outlets, pools and other facilities; the development of vacant land into income-generating uses, including retail or mixed-use properties; or the redevelopment or optimization of underutilized spaces. Recently completed projects include the over $220 million of projects at our Bonnet Creek complex, including the meeting space expansion project and renovation of guestrooms, existing meeting space, lobbies, golf course and other recreational amenities, which was completed in January 2024, $80 million of renovations to all guestrooms, public spaces, and certain hotel infrastructure at the Casa Marina Key West, Curio Collection, which was substantially completed during 2023, and the $85 million of guestroom renovations at the Tapa Tower of the Hilton Hawaiian Village Waikiki Beach Resort, which was completed in December 2023. We also may create value through repositioning certain hotels across brands or chain scale segments and exploring adaptive reuse opportunities to ensure our assets achieve their highest and best use. Finally, we are focused on maintaining the competitive strength of our properties and adapting to evolving customer preferences by renovating properties to provide updated guestroom design, open and activated lobby areas, food and beverage and public spaces, and modernized meeting space.
Pursuing Growth and Diversification through Prudent Capital Allocation. We intend to leverage our scale, liquidity and transaction expertise to create value throughout all phases of the lodging cycle through opportunistic
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acquisitions and dispositions and/or corporate transactions, in addition to value-enhancing return on investment projects, which we believe will enable us to further diversify our portfolio. Since our spin-off, we have sold or otherwise disposed of 42 hotels, most of them located in lower growth domestic and international markets for a combined sales price of over $2 billion, which provided us with additional liquidity to de-leverage our balance sheet and to execute on a variety of strategic corporate initiatives. We will continue to opportunistically seek to expand our presence in target markets and further diversify over time, including by acquiring hotels that are affiliated with leading hotel brands and operators.
Maintaining a Strong and Flexible Balance Sheet. We intend to maintain a strong and flexible balance sheet that will enable us to navigate the various seasons of the lodging cycle. We expect to maintain sufficient liquidity with minimal short-term maturities and intend to have a mix of debt that will provide us with the flexibility to prepay debt when desired, dispose of assets, pursue our value enhancement strategies within our existing portfolio, and support acquisition activity. In February 2023, we fully repaid the $50 million outstanding under our amended and restated revolving credit facility ("Revolver") with net proceeds from the sale of the Hilton Miami Airport, and in June 2023, we fully repaid the $75 million mortgage loan secured by the W Chicago – City Center, which was due in August 2023. Additionally, in June 2023, we ceased making debt service payments on the $725 million SF Mortgage Loan secured by the Hilton San Francisco Hotels, which was due November 2023, and in October 2023, the Hilton San Francisco Hotels were placed into receivership. We have no significant maturities until June 2025. We expect to reduce our level of secured debt over time, which will provide additional balance sheet flexibility. Our senior management team has extensive experience managing capital structures over multiple lodging cycles and has extensive and long-standing relationships with numerous lending institutions and financial advisors to address our capital needs.
Our Properties
The following tables provide summary information regarding our portfolio as of February 28, 2024.
Brand Affiliations and Chain Scale
We own and lease hotels and resorts primarily in the upper upscale chain scale segment. The following table sets forth our portfolio by brand affiliations and chain scale segment:
BrandChain ScaleNumber of PropertiesTotal Rooms
Hilton Hotels & ResortsUpper Upscale1916,192
DoubleTree by HiltonUpscale83,543
Signia by HiltonUpper Upscale11,009
Hyatt RegencyUpper Upscale2940
W HotelsLuxury2923
Embassy Suites by HiltonUpper Upscale3816
Curio – A Collection by HiltonUpper Midscale3685
Waldorf Astoria Hotels & ResortsLuxury1502
MarriottUpper Upscale1430
Marriott Tribute PortfolioUpper Upscale1393
JW MarriottLuxury1344
Hyatt CentricUpper Upscale1316
Total4326,093
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Type of Property Interest
The following table sets forth our properties according to the nature of our real estate interest:
Types of InterestNumber of PropertiesTotal Rooms
Fee Simple(1)
2617,890
Ground Lease135,538
3923,428
Unconsolidated Joint Ventures(2)
Fee Simple32,271
Ground Lease1394
42,665
Total4326,093
____________________________________________________________________________________
(1)Includes certain properties that, while primarily owned in fee simple, are subject to ground lease in respect of certain portions of land or facilities. Refer to “—Ground Leases,” Item 2: “Properties,” and Note 9: "Leases" in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
(2)Four of our hotels are owned by unconsolidated joint ventures in which we hold an interest. Refer to Item 2: “Properties” for the percentage ownership in such unconsolidated joint ventures.
Sustainability
We incorporate sustainability into our investment and asset management strategies, with a focus on minimizing environmental impact. When we evaluate the acquisition of new properties, we assess both sustainability opportunities and climate change-related risks as part of our due diligence process. During the ownership of our properties, we seek to invest in proven sustainability practices in both our renovation and redevelopment projects that can enhance asset value, while also improving environmental performance. In such projects, we target specific environmental efficiency enhancements, equipment upgrades and replacements that reduce energy and water consumption and offer appropriate returns on investment.
We are committed to being a responsible corporate citizen and minimizing our impact on the environment. Our approach to corporate citizenship is reinforced by periodic engagement with key stakeholders to understand their corporate responsibility priorities. As part of our ongoing stakeholder engagement and transparency efforts, we participated in the 2023 Global Real Estate Sustainability Benchmark ("GRESB") assessment for the fourth consecutive year, receiving our highest score thus far, ranking in the top third of all publicly listed GRESB participant companies in the Americas and registering a three-point increase over 2022, continuing the Company's trend of enhancing its overall corporate responsibility program and making meaningful improvements toward decarbonization. Additionally, we were recognized by Newsweek as one of America's Most Trustworthy Companies for 2023 and recently, recognized as one of America's Most Responsible Companies in 2024, the fourth time Park has been included in the annual survey. We also received the 2023 Nareit Leader in the Light Award for the hospitality sector for the second year in a row, further highlighting our commitment to superior and sustained sustainability practices.
We have published our 2023 Annual Corporate Responsibility Report on our website, which discloses our environmental and social programs and performance, our risk management strategy and our governance and oversight practices. The report also includes our Task Force Report on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures ("TCFD") as well as our Sustainability Accounting Standards Board ("SASB") and Global Reporting Index ("GRI") indices. Our executive-level Environmental, Social and Governance ("ESG") committee provides oversight of Park's three dedicated corporate responsibility working subcommittees – the Green Park Committee, the Park Cares Committee and the Diversity & Inclusion Steering Committee. Additionally, ESG performance targets were embedded into executive performance objectives and compensation.
Each ESG initiative begins with analysis and work by one of the three working subcommittees, each of which specializes in specific ESG matters. Park's Green Park Committee is dedicated to Park's sustainability efforts and environmental performance and manages the Company's Green Park Program, which prioritizes the achievement of our sustainability goals, including the reduction of greenhouse gas ("GHG") across our portfolio and business as a whole. Our Green Park Sustainability Playbook outlines the Company’s sustainability expectations and processes for its brand and
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management partners on a variety of topics, including HVAC equipment, LED lighting and water efficiency. Park's Engineering Renovation Guidelines address opportunities for incorporating sustainable building attributes during renovations, such as the use of green materials and efficiency standards for HVAC systems, toilets and showers. We were named an ENERGY STAR® Partner of the Year in 2023 for Energy Management for our outstanding contributions in the transition to clean energy economy, and six of our properties earned the ENERGY STAR® Certification for Superior Energy Performance, including our largest hotel, the Hilton Hawaiian Village Waikiki Beach Resort. Also, 83% of our portfolio was Google Eco-certified via Hilton's LightStay program.
Additionally, we have continued to invest in efficiency projects and implemented efficiency best practices for our capital projects. We have implemented sustainability checklists where appropriate, and efficiency projects related to end-of-life equipment replacements or upgrades are routinely conducted. With these projects, we are often able to notably decrease our environmental impact by replacing older equipment with more efficient options. We continued to conduct intensive energy efficiency audits of our portfolio in order to generate a long-term strategy for increased efficiencies and decarbonization, completing the survey of 20 of our hotels since 2021, with a goal to audit our entire portfolio by no later than 2025. The results of these audits also provide a roadmap for budgeting efficiency-related capital expenditures for the current and future years.
Our Principal Agreements
In order for us to continue to qualify as a REIT, independent third parties must operate our hotels. We lease substantially all of our hotels to our TRS lessees, which, in turn have engaged independent third-parties to operate these hotels pursuant to management agreements. The hotels not leased to our TRS lessees are owned by TRSs, which have also engaged independent third-parties to operate these hotels pursuant to management agreements. Certain of our hotels also have franchise agreements. We may, in the future, re-flag existing properties, acquire additional properties that operate under other brands and/or engage other third-party hotel managers and franchisors.
Below is a general overview of our management and franchise agreements.
Management Agreements
Our hotel managers control the day-to-day operations of our hotels that are subject to a management agreement. We have consultative and specified approval rights with respect to certain actions of our hotel managers, including entering into long-term or high value contracts, engaging in certain actions relating to legal proceedings, approving the operating budget, making certain capital expenditures and the hiring of certain management personnel.
As in our franchise agreements described below, we receive a variety of services and benefits under our management agreements with our hotel managers, including the benefit of the name, marks and system of operation of the brand, as well as centralized reservation systems, participation in customer loyalty programs, national advertising, marketing programs and publicity designed to increase brand awareness, as well as training of personnel and payroll and accounting services.
Term
Our management agreements have initial terms ranging from 5 to 30 years and most allow for one or more renewal periods. Assuming all renewal periods are exercised by our hotel managers, the total term of our management agreements range from 5 to 70 years.
Fees
Our management agreements generally contain a two-tiered fee structure, where our hotel managers receive a base management fee and an incentive management fee. The base management fee for our hotels range from approximately 2% to 4% of gross hotel revenues or receipts, as defined in each agreement. The incentive management fee is typically a percentage of a specified performance measure such as operating income, cash flow or other performance measures, as defined in the agreements with some agreements only providing for incentive fees following the satisfaction of certain dollar thresholds. We also pay certain service fees to our hotel managers and generally reimburse our hotel managers for salaries and wages of their employees at our hotels, as well as for certain other expenses incurred in connection with the operation of the hotel.
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Termination Events
Subject to certain qualifications, notice requirements and applicable cure periods, the management agreements generally are terminable by either party upon a material casualty or condemnation of the hotel or the occurrence of certain customary events of default, including, among others: the bankruptcy or insolvency of either party; the failure of either party to make a payment when due, and failure to cure such non-payment after late payment notice; or breach by either party of covenants or obligations under the management agreement. In certain instances, we retain the right to terminate a management agreement if manager fails to meet specified performance criteria.
Additionally, our hotel managers generally have the right to terminate the management agreement in certain situations, including the occurrence of certain actions with respect to a mortgage or our failing to complete or commence required repair after damage or destruction to the hotel, or our failure to meet minimum brand standards. For certain properties, our management agreements also allow early termination, subject to entering into a franchise agreement with an affiliated brand. If our hotel managers terminate due to our default, our hotel managers may exercise all of their rights and remedies at law or in equity.
Sale of a Hotel
Our management agreements generally provide that we cannot sell a hotel to a person who (i) does not have sufficient financial resources, (ii) is of bad moral character, (iii) is a competitor of our hotel managers, or (iv) is a specially designated national or blocked person, as set forth in the applicable management agreement. It is generally an event of default if we proceed with a sale or an assignment of the hotel’s management agreement to such a transferee, without receiving consent from our hotel managers.
Franchise Agreements
Four of our hotels are subject to franchise agreements. Pursuant to the franchise agreements, we have been granted a limited, non-exclusive license to use our franchisor’s brand names, marks and systems. The franchisor also may provide us with a variety of services and benefits, including centralized reservation systems, participation in customer loyalty programs, national advertising, marketing programs and publicity designed to increase brand awareness, as well as training of personnel. In return, we are required to operate franchised hotels consistent with the applicable brand standards. The franchise agreements specify operational, record-keeping, accounting, reporting and marketing standards and procedures with which we must comply, and will promote consistency across the brand by outlining standards for guest services, products, signage and furniture, fixtures and equipment, among other things. To monitor our compliance, the franchise agreements specify that we must make the hotel available for quality inspections by the franchisor.
Term
Our franchise agreements have initial terms ranging from 13 to 20 years and require the franchisor’s consent to be extended.
Fees
Our franchise agreements require that we pay a royalty fee on gross rooms revenue at rates ranging from 5% to 6%, plus a percentage of food and beverage revenue for certain hotels, which in most cases is 3%. We must also pay certain marketing, reservation, program and other customary fees. In addition, the franchisor has the right to require that we renovate guest rooms and public facilities from time to time to comply with then-current brand standards.
Termination Events
Our franchise agreements provide for termination at the franchisor’s option upon the occurrence of certain events, including, among others: the failure to maintain brand standards; the failure to pay royalties and fees or to perform other obligations under the franchise license; bankruptcy; and abandonment of the franchise or a change of control, and in the event of such termination, we are required to pay liquidated damages.
Spin-Off Related Agreements
On January 3, 2017, Hilton Parent completed the spin-off that resulted in our establishment as an independent, publicly traded company.
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Distribution Agreement
We entered into a distribution agreement (“Distribution Agreement”) with Hilton Parent regarding the principal actions taken or to be taken in connection with the spin-off. The Distribution Agreement provided for certain transfers of assets and assumptions of liabilities by us and Hilton Parent and the settlement or extinguishment of certain liabilities and other obligations among Hilton Parent and us. In particular, the Distribution Agreement provided that, subject to the terms and conditions contained in the Distribution Agreement:
all of the assets and liabilities (including whether accrued, contingent or otherwise, and subject to certain exceptions) associated with the separated real estate business were retained by or transferred to us;
all of the assets and liabilities (including whether accrued, contingent or otherwise, and subject to certain exceptions) associated with the timeshare business were retained by or transferred to HGV Parent or its subsidiaries;
all other assets and liabilities (including whether accrued, contingent or otherwise, and subject to certain exceptions) of Hilton were retained by or transferred to Hilton Parent or its subsidiaries;
liabilities (including whether accrued, contingent or otherwise) related to, arising out of or resulting from businesses of Hilton that were previously terminated or divested were allocated among the parties to the extent formerly owned or managed by or associated with such parties or their respective businesses;
each of Park Parent and HGV Parent assumed or retained any liabilities (including under applicable U.S. federal and state securities laws) relating to, arising out of or resulting from the Form 10 registering its common stock to be distributed by Hilton Parent in the spin-off and from any disclosure documents that offered for sale securities in transactions related to the spin-off, subject to exceptions for certain information for which Hilton Parent retained liability; and
except as otherwise provided in the Distribution Agreement or any ancillary agreement, we retained responsibility for any costs or expenses incurred by us following the distribution in connection with the transactions contemplated by the Distribution Agreement, including costs and expenses relating to legal counsel, financial advisors and accounting advisory work related to the distribution.
In addition, notwithstanding the allocation described above, we, HGV and Hilton have agreed that losses related to certain contingent liabilities (and related costs and expenses), which generally are not specifically attributable to any of the separated real estate business, the timeshare business or the retained business of Hilton (“Shared Contingent Liabilities”), will be apportioned among the parties according to fixed percentages of 65%, 26% and 9% for each of Hilton, us and HGV, respectively. Examples of Shared Contingent Liabilities may include uninsured losses arising from actions (including derivative actions) against current or former directors or officers of Hilton in respect of acts or omissions occurring prior to the distribution date, or against current or former directors or officers of any of Hilton, HGV or us, arising out of, in connection with, or otherwise relating to, the spin-offs and the distribution, subject to certain exceptions described in the Distribution Agreement. In addition, costs and expenses of, and indemnification obligations to, third party professional advisors arising out of the foregoing actions may also be subject to these provisions. Subject to certain limitations and exceptions, Hilton shall generally be vested with the exclusive management and control of all matters pertaining to any such Shared Contingent Liabilities, including the prosecution of any claim and the conduct of any defense.
The Distribution Agreement also provides for cross-indemnities that, except as otherwise provided in the Distribution Agreement, are principally designed to place financial responsibility for the obligations and liabilities of each business with the appropriate company.
Tax Matters Agreement
We entered into a tax matters agreement (“Tax Matters Agreement”) with Hilton Parent, HGV Parent and Hilton Domestic Operating Company that governs the respective rights, responsibilities and obligations of us, Hilton Parent and HGV Parent after the spin-off with respect to tax liabilities and benefits, tax attributes, tax contests and other tax sharing regarding U.S. federal, state, local and foreign income taxes, other tax matters and related tax returns. Although binding between the parties, the Tax Matters Agreement is not binding on the IRS. We and HGV Parent have joint and several liability with Hilton Parent to the IRS for the consolidated U.S. federal income taxes of the Hilton consolidated group relating to the taxable periods in which we were part of that group. The Tax Matters Agreement specifies the portion, if any, of this tax liability for which we bear responsibility, and each party has agreed to indemnify the other against any amounts for which they are not responsible. The Tax Matters Agreement also provides special rules for allocating tax
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liabilities in the event that the spin-off is not tax-free. In general, under the Tax Matters Agreement, each party is responsible for any taxes imposed on Hilton that arise from the failure of the spin-off and certain related transactions to qualify as a tax-free transaction for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Code, as applicable, and certain other relevant provisions of the Code, to the extent that the failure to qualify is attributable to actions taken by such party (or with respect to such party’s stock). The parties share responsibility in accordance with sharing percentages for any such taxes imposed on Hilton that are not attributable to actions taken by a particular party.
The Tax Matters Agreement also provides for cross-indemnities with respect to tax matters that, except as otherwise provided in the Tax Matters Agreement, are principally designed to place financial responsibility for the tax-related obligations and liabilities of each business with the appropriate company.
Ground Leases
The following table summarizes the remaining primary term, renewal rights and purchase rights as of February 28, 2024, associated with land underlying our hotels and meeting facilities that we lease from third parties:
PropertyRoomsCurrent Lease Term ExpirationRenewal Rights / Purchase Rights
Leases of Wholly-Owned Properties
Portfolio of Five Hotels(1)
2,054December 31, 2025
2 x 5 years(2)
Embassy Suites Austin Downtown South Congress262February 28, 2029
1 x 10 years(3)
Hilton Oakland Airport360January 19, 2034None
Hilton Orlando Lake Buena Vista814January 31, 20341 x 25 years
Hilton Boston Logan Airport604September 30, 20442 x 20 years
Hilton Seattle Airport & Conference Center396December 31, 2046
Purchase Rights(4)
Renewal Rights
2 x 10 years;
1 x 5 years
Hyatt Regency Mission Bay Spa and Marina438January 31, 2056None
Embassy Suites Kansas City Plaza266
January 30, 2076(5)
Renewal Rights(5)
2 x 25 years
JW Marriott San Francisco Union Square344January 14, 2083None
Leases of Properties by Joint Ventures
Hilton La Jolla Torrey Pines394June 30, 2067
1 x 10 years;
1 x 20 years(6)
____________________________________________________________________________________
(1)Reflects the terms of a master lease agreement pursuant to which we lease the following five hotels: the Hilton Salt Lake City Center; the DoubleTree Hotel Seattle Airport; the DoubleTree Hotel San Diego—Mission Valley; the DoubleTree Hotel Sonoma Wine Country; and the DoubleTree Hotel Durango.
(2)The renewal option may be exercised for less than all 5 of the hotels. Minimum rent is reduced if the renewal option is exercised for less than all of the 5 hotels.
(3)The term of this renewal option exceeds the expiration of the underlying master ground lease in 2031. No extension rights are available, and it is unlikely that the landlord under the master ground lease will grant a term past 2031.
(4)Tenant has a right of first offer with respect to the property.
(5)Lease expires on January 30, 2026; however, the renewal rights are included in the current lease term expiration as the landlord has the option to renew the lease.
(6)Renewal rights are dependent on the amount of capital expenditures invested in the hotel during the term.
We (or certain joint ventures in which we own an interest) are also party to certain leases for facilities related to certain hotels owned by us (or such joint ventures).
Competition
The lodging industry is highly competitive. Our hotels compete with other hotels for guests on the basis of several factors, including the attractiveness of the facility, location, level of service, quality of accommodations, amenities, food and beverage options and outlets, public and meeting spaces and other guest services, consistency of service, room rate, brand reputation and the ability to earn and redeem loyalty program points through a global system. Competition is often
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specific to the individual markets in which our hotels are located and includes competition from existing and new hotels operated under brands primarily in the upper upscale chain scale segments. Increased competition could have a material adverse effect on the occupancy rate, average daily room rate and RevPAR of our hotels or may require us to make capital improvements that we otherwise would not have to make, which may result in decreases in our profitability. We believe our hotels enjoy certain competitive advantages as a result of being flagged with globally recognized brands, including access to centralized reservation systems and national advertising, marketing and promotional services, strong hotel management expertise and guest loyalty programs.
Our principal competitors include hotel operating companies, ownership companies (including other lodging REITs) and national and international hotel brands. We face increased competition from providers of less expensive accommodations, such as select-service hotels or independently managed hotels, during periods of economic downturn when leisure and business travelers become more sensitive to room rates. Increasingly, we also face competition from peer-to-peer inventory sources that allow travelers to stay at homes and apartments booked from owners, thereby providing an alternative to hotel rooms. We face competition for the acquisition of hotels from other REITs, private equity investors, institutional pension funds, sovereign wealth funds and numerous local, regional and national owners, including franchisors, in each of our markets. Some of these entities may have substantially greater financial resources than we do and may be able and willing to accept more risk than we believe we can prudently manage. During the recovery phase of the lodging cycle, competition among potential buyers may increase the bargaining power of potential sellers, which may reduce the number of suitable investment opportunities available to us or increase pricing. Similarly, during times when we seek to sell hotels, competition from other sellers may increase the bargaining power of the potential property buyers.
Seasonality
The lodging industry is seasonal in nature, which can be expected to cause fluctuations in our hotel rooms revenues, occupancy levels, room rates, operating expenses and cash flows. The periods during which our hotels experience higher or lower levels of demand vary from property to property, depending principally upon location, type of property and competitive mix within the specific location.
Cyclicality
The lodging industry is cyclical and demand generally follows, on a lagged basis, key macroeconomic indicators. There is a history of increases and decreases in demand for hotel rooms, in occupancy levels and in room rates realized by owners of hotels through economic cycles. Variability of results through some of the cycles in the past has been more severe due to changes in the supply of hotel rooms in given markets or in given segments of hotels. The combination of changes in economic conditions and in the supply of hotel rooms can result in significant volatility in results for owners of hotel properties. As a result, in a negative economic environment the rate of decline in earnings can be higher than the rate of decline in revenues.
Government Regulations
Our business is subject to various federal and state laws and regulations. In particular, we are subject to the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”). Under the ADA, all public accommodations are required to meet certain U.S. federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. These regulations apply to accommodations first occupied after January 26, 1993. Public accommodations built before January 26, 1993 are required to remove architectural barriers to disabled access where such removal is “readily achievable.” The regulations also mandate certain operational requirements that hotel operators must observe. The failure of a property to comply with the ADA could result in injunctive relief, fines, an award of damages to private litigants or mandated capital expenditures to remedy such noncompliance. Any imposition of injunctive relief, fines, damage awards or capital expenditures could result in reputational harm or otherwise materially and negatively affect our performance and results of operations.
In addition, a number of states regulate the activities of hospitality properties and restaurants, including safety and health standards, as well as the sale of liquor at such properties, by requiring licensing, registration, disclosure statements and compliance with specific standards of conduct. We are also subject to privacy and data security laws. Compliance with, or changes in, these laws could reduce the revenue and profitability of our properties and could otherwise adversely affect our operations.
Environmental Matters
We are subject to certain requirements and potential liabilities under various federal, state and local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations and incur costs in complying with such requirements. These laws
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and regulations govern our operations including any associated air emissions; the use, storage and disposal of hazardous and toxic substances and petroleum products; and wastewater disposal. In addition, as a current and former owner or operator of property, we could be subject to investigation and remediation liabilities that could arise under local, state and federal environmental laws, as well as personal injury, property damage, fines or other claims by third parties associated with environmental compliance or the presence, release, disposal or impacts of hazardous or toxic substances or petroleum products arising at or from our current or former properties. We may incur liability for investigation and remediation of such substances or products regardless of whether we knew of, or caused, the presence or release of such substances or products, and such liability may be joint and several. The presence of these substances or products, or the failure to promptly remediate them, may adversely affect our ability to sell or develop a property or to borrow using the property as collateral or result in restrictions on or interruptions of operations at our properties. We use and store hazardous and toxic substances and petroleum products, such as cleaning materials, pool chemicals, heating oil and fuel for back-up generators at some of our facilities, and we generate certain wastes in connection with our operations. From time to time, we may also be required to manage, abate, remove or contain mold, lead, asbestos-containing materials, radon gas, or other hazardous substances or conditions found in or on our properties. We have implemented an on-going operations and maintenance plan that seeks to identify and remediate these conditions as appropriate. Although we have incurred, and expect that we will continue to incur, costs relating to the investigation, identification, management, and remediation of hazardous materials or petroleum products known or discovered to exist at our properties, as well as costs of complying with various local, state and federal environmental, health and safety laws, those costs have not had, and are not expected to have, a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flow.
REIT Qualification
We are a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We have been organized and operated, and we expect to continue to be organized and operated, in a manner to qualify as a REIT. To qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy requirements related to, among other things, the real estate qualification of sources of our income, the real estate composition and values of our assets, the amounts we distribute to our stockholders annually and the diversity of ownership of our stock. To the extent we continue to remain qualified as a REIT, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on taxable income generated by our REIT activities that we distribute annually to our stockholders. To comply with REIT requirements, we may need to forego otherwise attractive opportunities and limit our expansion opportunities and the manner in which we conduct our operations. Refer to “Risk Factors—Risks Related to our REIT Status and Certain Other Tax Items.”
Insurance
We maintain insurance coverage for general liability, property, including business interruption, terrorism, and other risks with respect to our business for all of our hotels. We also maintain workers’ compensation insurance for our corporate employees, while our managers maintain workers’ compensation insurance for their employees at our hotels. Most of our insurance policies are written with self-insured retentions or deductibles that are common in the insurance market for similar risks. These policies provide coverage for claim amounts that exceed our self-insured retentions or deductibles. Our insurance provides coverage related to any claims or losses arising out of the design, development and operation of our hotels.
Human Capital
Employees
Through ongoing employee development programs, comprehensive and competitive compensation and benefits, and a focus on our employees’ health and well-being, we strive to help our employees in all aspects of their lives. As of December 31, 2023, we had 90 employees. We believe relations are positive between us and our employees. Our hotel managers are generally responsible for hiring and maintaining the labor force at each of our hotels. Although we do not employ the employees at our hotels, we still are subject to the costs and risks generally associated with the hotel labor force, particularly those hotels with unionized labor. We believe relations are positive between our third-party hotel managers and their employees. For a discussion of these relationships, refer to “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business and Industry—We are subject to risks associated with the employment of hotel personnel, particularly with hotels that employ unionized labor, which could increase our operating costs, reduce flexibility of our hotel managers to adjust the size of the workforce at our hotels and could materially and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.”
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion
We value the unique perspectives that a workforce with diverse cultures, ages, genders, and ethnicities brings to our process, and we are committed to enhancing diversity, equity and inclusion at Park. We have a skilled and highly diverse board, including nine independent directors (the "Board"), three of whom are gender diverse. It is Park's policy to
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consider diversity in Board nominations. In addition, our executive team is comprised of seven members, two of whom are gender diverse and three of whom are racially diverse. The following charts summarize the gender and ethnic diversity of our workforce as of December 31, 2023:
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Our commitment to enhancing diversity, equity and inclusion is reflected both in the actions we take within our Company and our efforts in our larger community, such as through recruitment, employee development, mentorship, education, advocacy and community outreach. We have established a Diversity & Inclusion Steering Committee, which is comprised of members of executive leadership and employees from all corporate departments across a broad assortment of levels, genders, ages and races. This committee is dedicated to enhancing our focus on activities that increase awareness and take actions in support of equality, and it seeks to develop partnerships and adopt new initiatives that support systematic change related to racism and diversity. To accomplish this goal, Park's Diversity & Inclusion Steering Committee works in concert with our Park Cares Committee to partner with local organizations that provide services and resources to underserved populations and those in need of social, economic, educational, mental and physical support in our community. The committee has also spent significant time focusing on actions and commitments that impact Park internally such as recruitment and retention practices, policy and process updates, training and increased communication and awareness programs. All our employees are encouraged to take part in initiatives implemented by the Diversity & Inclusion Steering Committee and the Park Cares Committee.
Additionally, our Chief Executive Officer, Thomas J. Baltimore, Jr. serves as one of the three co-chairs of NAREIT's Dividends Through Diversity, Equity & Inclusion CEO Council, which supports the recruitment, inclusion, development, and advancement of women, Black professionals, other people of color, ethnically diverse individuals, and members of other under-represented groups in REITs and the publicly traded real estate industry.
We continually evaluate our practices related to diversity, equity and inclusion through internal and external resources. For example, since 2021, we have included a gender and ethnic diversity analysis to our bi-annual corporate compensation review, which continues to reflect no pay disparity based on any gender or ethnic group.
Training and Development
Human capital development underpins our efforts to successfully execute our Company-wide strategy. We continually invest in our employees’ career growth and provide employees with a wide range of development opportunities. We also seek to increase awareness and understanding through mandatory Company-wide trainings on diversity and inclusion, unconscious bias and other social issues, as well as an annual anti-bribery/anti-corruption training and modern slavery/human trafficking awareness. All employees also participate in anti-harassment and compliance training at least once a year.
Additionally, we provide employees at corporate headquarters with leadership development programs, management development series programs, corporate technical “lunch and learn” trainings, REIT training, executive coaching and emotional intelligence training. Our leadership team encourages employees to continue education and professional certifications with time away from work and training budgets. Our Corporate Strategy and Design & Construction departments also participate in sustainability training, including Nareit’s ESG JumpStart workshop and REITworks conference.
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To support employee development, we provide regular and consistent feedback to our corporate employees through our continuous feedback performance management model. Regular one-on-one feedback sessions are conducted to ensure feedback is current and to reinforce positive performance. We encourage our employees to participate in our employee engagement survey, which is administered by a third party, and undertake initiatives to improve areas identified in the survey. As a direct result of the survey, each department Executive Committee leader conducts feedback sessions with their respective teams, and Company-wide action plans are created and implemented by our Human Resources department. In addition, each department also creates departmental action plans and implements them accordingly.
Also, in 2023, we conducted two pulse surveys, in addition to our annual engagement survey targeted at creating a diverse and welcoming work environment for our employees and developing the leadership skills of our managers who support and empower our employees.
Our Board receives regular reports on these initiatives to ensure that we continue to demonstrate our strong commitment to our employees, diversity and inclusion and other human capital matters.
Health, Safety and Well-being
We provide benefits to support our corporate employees and their families, including but not limited to medical, vision and dental insurance, gym memberships, a 401(k) match program, paid parental leave, and an employee assistance program. We also provide numerous initiatives focused on physical, mental and spiritual well-being including booster clinics, mindfulness training with dedicated coaches and leaders and emotional intelligence workshops.
Together with our hotel managers, we also aim to ensure the health, safety and well-being of all employees and guests at our properties. For example, in 2020, we committed to the American Hotel & Lodging Association’s 5-Star Promise, which enhances policies, trainings and resources related to the safety of hotel employees and guests. We aim to promote health and well-being measures in our design and construction projects through the use of natural ventilation, daylighting and air and water quality monitoring. Hotel employee health and safety factors are designed into projects, which include alarm systems cameras, first aid locations and personal alert devices. Additionally, we have developed standardized procedures to be undertaken during and immediately following an extreme weather event or other emergency, including communication guidance, life safety and foreseen event preparedness instructions and guidance on how to manage environmental hazards, among other risk-related topics.
Community Engagement
Our Park Cares Committee focuses on engagement with local communities and spearheads volunteer work. In 2023, Park Cares sponsored three community service initiatives where employees were invited to participate with in-kind donations or by volunteering their time, of which 75 of our employees participated. In 2023, we supported 17 organizations and/or programs through charitable contributions, sponsorships and scholarships contributing a total of approximately $322,000 in cash donations. The hotels within our portfolio are also extremely involved with their respective communities, raising money or donating supplies, food or services as well as contributing countless hours to many worthwhile causes.
For additional information on the above matters, please review our 2023 Annual Corporate Responsibility Report on our website.
Corporate Information
Our principal executive offices are currently located at 1775 Tysons Boulevard, 7th Floor, Tysons, Virginia 22102. Our telephone number is (571) 302-5757. Our website is located at www.pkhotelsandresorts.com. The information that is found on or accessible through our website is not incorporated into, and does not form a part of, this Annual Report on Form 10-K or any other report or document that we file with or furnish to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). We have included our website address in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as an inactive textual reference and do not intend it to be an active link to our website.
We make available on our website, free of charge, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. We also make our Code of Conduct, and any amendments or waivers thereto, for our directors, officers and employees available on our website on the Corporate Governance – Governance Documents page under the Investors section of our website.
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Availability of Reports
The SEC maintains a website (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy statements, information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Owning our common stock involves a number of significant risks. You should consider carefully the following risk factors. If any of the following risks, as well as additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial, occur, our business, liquidity, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. If this were to happen, the market price of our common stock could decline significantly, and you could lose all or a part of the value of your ownership in our common stock. In addition, the statements in the following risk factors include forward-looking statements. See “Forward-Looking Statements.”
Risks Related to Our Business
Economic disruptions, including the impact from inflation or a future pandemic, may adversely impact and disrupt, our business, financial performance and condition, operating results and cash flows.
Economic disruptions, including as a result of supply chain disruptions and increased inflation, may adversely impact our business. Inflation can affect consumer sentiment and decrease demand for travel, which can cause fluctuations in hotel revenues or earnings at our hotels. Our labor or other costs may also rise due to inflation, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to pass cost increases on to travelers through higher rates. There can also be no assurances that we will not experience future fluctuations in hotel revenues or earnings at our hotels due to macroeconomic factors, such as inflation, increases in interest rates, potential economic slowdown or a recession and geopolitical conflicts.
Additionally, the effects of the recent global pandemic on the hotel industry were unprecedented, and another pandemic in the future could have similar affects, including a drastic reduction in global demand for lodging and historically low occupancy levels. These challenges may adversely impact and disrupt, our business, financial performance and condition, operating results and cash flows.
Other factors that would negatively impact our ability to successfully operate during or following another pandemic, or that could otherwise significantly adversely impact and disrupt our business, financial performance and condition, operating results and cash flows, include:
sustained negative consumer or business sentiment, economic metrics (including inflation, unemployment levels, discretionary spending and declines in personal wealth) or demand for travel, which could further adversely impact demand for lodging;
limited opportunities to acquire new properties or the need to dispose of properties to meet liquidity needs;
the scaling back or delay of a significant amount of planned capital expenditures, including planned renovation projects, which could adversely affect the value of our properties and guest experience at our properties;
our ability to obtain bank lending or access the capital markets could deteriorate;
declines in our business performance or the general economy;
new indebtedness that may contain more restrictive covenants, including as a result of sustained elevated interest rates as a response to increased inflation, than our existing indebtedness or may require new or incremental collateral, and decreased operating revenues, which could increase our risk of default on our loans;
our dependence on our hotel managers, who may be facing similar challenges;
disruptions as a result of corporate employees working remotely, including risk of cybersecurity incidents and disruptions to internal control procedures; and
benefits of government action to provide financial support to affected industries, including the travel and hospitality industry, may not be available to us or our operators.
We face various risks posed by our acquisition activities.
A key element of our business strategy is identifying and consummating acquisitions of additional hotels and portfolios. We can provide no assurances that we will be successful in identifying attractive hotels in the future or that, once identified, we will be successful in consummating future acquisitions. We also face significant competition for
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attractive investment opportunities, which may impact our ability acquire certain hotels or portfolios that we deem attractive at a favorable price, pursuant to acceptable terms, or at all. Any delay or failure on our part to identify, negotiate, finance on favorable terms, consummate and integrate such acquisitions could materially increase our costs or impede our growth.
We may continue to seek to sell or otherwise dispose of certain hotels as we seek to pursue growth and diversification through prudent capital allocation. However, investments in real estate are illiquid, and it may not be possible to dispose of assets in a timely manner or on favorable terms, which could adversely affect our financial condition, operation results and cash flows.
Our ability to dispose of properties on advantageous terms depends on factors beyond our control, including competition from other sellers and the availability of attractive financing for potential buyers, and we cannot predict whether we will be able to sell any hotel we desire to for the price or on the terms set by us or acceptable to us, or the length of time needed to find a willing buyer and to close the sale of the hotel. Upon sales of properties or assets, we may become subject to contractual indemnity obligations, incur unusual or extraordinary distribution requirements, be required to expend funds to correct defects or make capital improvements or, as a result of required debt repayment, face a shortage of liquidity. In addition, many of our hotel management and franchise agreements generally contain restrictive covenants that limit or restrict our ability to sell a hotel free of the management or franchise encumbrance other than to permitted transferees, and as a result we may be prohibited from taking disposition actions that would otherwise be in our and our stockholders’ best interests.
Moreover, the Code imposes restrictions on a REIT’s ability to dispose of properties that are not applicable to other types of real estate companies. In addition, our ability to dispose of some of our hotels could be constrained by their tax attributes. Many of our hotels, including related ancillary personal property, may have low tax bases. If we dispose of these hotels in taxable transactions, we may be required to pay tax on the sale and will be required distribute the after-tax gain to our stockholders under the requirements of the Code applicable to REITs, which, in turn, would impact our cash flow. Therefore, as a result of the foregoing events or circumstances, we may not be able to adjust the composition of our portfolio promptly, on favorable terms or at all in response to changing economic, financial and investment conditions, which may adversely affect our cash flows and our ability to make distributions to stockholders.
We are subject to risks associated with the concentration of our portfolio in the Hilton family of brands. Any deterioration in the quality or reputation of the Hilton brands could have an adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial condition or results of operations.
A majority of our properties currently utilize brands owned by Hilton and participate in the Hilton Honors guest loyalty and rewards program. As a result, our ability to attract and retain guests depends, in part, on the public recognition of the Hilton brands and their associated reputation. Changes in ownership or management practices, the occurrence of accidents or injuries, force majeure events, crime, individual guest notoriety or similar events at our hotels or other properties managed, owned or leased by Hilton can harm our reputation, create adverse publicity, subject us to legal claims and cause a loss of consumer confidence in our business. If the Hilton brands become obsolete or consumers view them as unfashionable or lacking in consistency and quality, we may be unable to attract guests to our hotels, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, any adverse developments in Hilton’s business and affairs, reputation or financial condition could impair its ability to manage our properties and could have a material adverse effect on us.
Hilton Honors guest loyalty program allows program members to accumulate points based on eligible stays and hotel charges and redeem the points for a range of benefits, including free rooms and other items of value. The program is an important aspect of our business and of the affiliation value of a majority of our hotels. Changes to the Hilton Honors loyalty program, which we do not control, or our access to it could negatively impact our business. If the program deteriorates or materially changes in an adverse manner, or if currently tax-exempt program benefits become subject to taxation such that a material number of Hilton Honors members choose to no longer participate in the program, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Contractual and other disagreements with or involving our current and future third-party hotel managers and franchisors could make us liable to them or result in litigation costs or other expenses.
Our management and franchise agreements require us and our managers to comply with operational and performance conditions that are subject to interpretation and could result in disagreements, and we expect this will be true of any management and franchise agreements that we enter into with future third-party hotel managers or franchisors. We cannot predict the outcome of any arbitration or litigation related to such agreements, the effect of any negative judgment
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against us or the amount of any settlement that we may enter into with any third-party. In the event we terminate a management or franchise agreement early and the hotel manager or franchisor considers such termination to have been wrongful, they may seek damages. Additionally, we may be required to indemnify our third-party hotel managers and franchisors against disputes with third parties pursuant to our management and franchise agreements. An adverse result in any of these proceedings could materially and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
We are dependent on the performance of our managers and could be materially and adversely affected if our managers do not properly manage our hotels or otherwise act in our best interests or if we are unable to maintain a good relationship with our third-party hotel managers.
In order for us to continue to qualify as a REIT, independent third parties must operate our hotels. We lease substantially all of our hotels to our TRS lessees. Our TRS lessees and the TRSs that own our hotels, in turn, have entered into management agreements with independent third-party managers to operate our hotels. We could be materially and adversely affected if any third-party hotel manager fails to provide quality services and amenities, fails to maintain a quality brand name or otherwise fails to manage our hotels in our best interest, and could be held financially responsible for the actions and inactions of our third-party hotel managers pursuant to our management agreements. In addition, our third-party hotel managers manage, and in some cases may own or lease, or may have invested in or may have provided credit support or operating guarantees to hotels that compete with our hotels, any of which could result in conflicts of interest. As a result, third-party managers may make decisions regarding competing lodging facilities that are not in our best interests.
The success of our properties largely depends on our ability to establish and maintain good relationships with our hotel managers and other third-party hotel managers and franchisors that we may engage in the future. If we are unable to maintain good relationships with our third-party hotel managers and franchisors, we may be unable to renew existing management or franchise agreements or expand relationships with them. Additionally, opportunities for developing new relationships with additional third-party managers or franchisors may be adversely affected. This, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and our ability to execute our growth strategy. In the event that we terminate any of our management agreements, we can provide no assurances that we could find a replacement hotel manager or that any replacement hotel manager will be successful in operating our hotels. If any of the foregoing were to occur, it could materially and adversely affect us.
Cyber threats and the risk of cybersecurity incidents affecting our hotel managers' or our own information technology and systems, including third-party service providers, could materially adversely affect our business.
Our hotel managers are dependent on information technology networks and systems, including the internet, to access, process, transmit and store proprietary and customer information, including personally identifiable information of hotel guests, including credit card numbers.
These information networks and systems can be vulnerable to threats such as system, network or internet failures; computer hacking or business disruption, including through network- and email-based attacks as well as social engineering; cyber-terrorism; cyber extortion; viruses, worms or other malicious software programs; software vulnerabilities and misconfigurations; and employee error, negligence or fraud. The risk of a cybersecurity incident or disruption, particularly through cyber-attack or cyber intrusion, including by computer hackers, nation-state affiliated actors and cyber terrorists, has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. We rely on our hotel managers to protect proprietary and customer information from these threats. Any compromise of our own network or hotel managers’ networks could result in a disruption to our booking or sales systems or other operations, in increased costs (e.g., related to response, investigation, and notification) or in potential litigation and liability. In addition, public disclosure or loss of customer or proprietary information could result in damage to the hotel manager’s reputation, a loss of confidence among hotel guests, reputational harm for our hotels, potential litigation and increased regulatory oversight, including governmental investigations, enforcement actions, and regulatory fines, any of which may have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition and results of operations. In the conduct of our business, we rely on relationships with third parties, including cloud data storage and other information technology service providers, suppliers, distributors, contractors, and other external business partners, for certain functions or for services in support of key portions of our operations. These third-party entities are subject to similar risks as we are relating to cybersecurity, privacy violations, business interruption, and systems and employee failures and an attack against such third-party service provider or partner could have a material adverse effect on our business.
In addition to the information technologies and systems our hotel managers use to operate our hotels, we have our own corporate technologies and systems that are used to access, store, transmit, and manage or support a variety of business processes and employee personally identifiable information. We may be required to expend significant attention
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and financial resources to protect these technologies and systems against physical or cybersecurity incidents and even then, our security measures may subsequently be deemed to have been inadequate by regulators or courts given the lack of prescriptive measures in data security and cybersecurity laws. There can be no assurance that the security measures we have taken to protect the contents of these systems will prevent failures, inadequacies or interruptions in system services or that system security will not be compromised through system or user error, physical or electronic break-ins, computer viruses, or attacks by hackers. Any such compromise could have a material adverse effect on our business, our financial reporting and compliance, and could subject us to or result in liability claims, litigation, monetary losses or regulatory oversight, investigations or penalties which could be significant. In addition, the cost and operational consequences of responding to cybersecurity incidents and implementing remediation measures could be significant. If our hotel managers' information networks and systems, our corporate technologies and systems, or third-party information systems on which we rely suffer severe damage, disruption or shutdown, and our business continuity plans do not effectively resolve the issues in a timely manner, we may lose revenue and profits as a result of our inability to provide services or invoice and collect payments, and we could experience delays in reporting our financial results.
Like many corporations, our information networks and systems are a target of attacks. In addition, third-party providers of data hosting or cloud services may experience cybersecurity incidents that may involve data we share with them. Although the cybersecurity incidents that we and our third-party partners have experienced to date have not had a material effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations, such incidents could have a material adverse effect on us in the future.
While we have purchased cybersecurity insurance, there are no assurances that the coverage would be adequate in relation to any incurred losses. Moreover, as cyberattacks increase in frequency and magnitude, we may be unable to obtain cybersecurity insurance in amounts and on terms we view as adequate for our operations.
In addition, increased regulation of data collection, use and retention practices, including self-regulation and industry standards, changes in existing laws and regulations, enactment of new laws and regulations, increased enforcement activity, and changes in interpretation of laws, could increase our cost of compliance and operation, limit our ability to grow our business or otherwise harm the Company.
Costs associated with, or failure to maintain, brand operating standards may materially and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability.
The terms of our franchise and brand management agreements generally require us to meet specified operating standards and other terms and conditions, and compliance with such standards may be costly. Failure by us, or any hotel management company that we engage, to maintain these standards or other terms and conditions could result in a franchise license being canceled or the franchisor requiring us to undertake a costly property improvement program. If a franchise license is terminated due to our failure to make required improvements or to otherwise comply with its terms, we also may be liable to the franchisor for a termination payment, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability.
If we were to lose a brand license, the underlying value of a particular hotel could decline significantly (including from the loss of brand name recognition, marketing support, guest loyalty programs, brand manager or franchisor central reservation systems or other systems), which could require us to recognize an impairment on the hotel. Furthermore, the loss of a franchise license at a particular hotel could harm our relationship with the franchisor or brand manager and cause us to incur significant costs to obtain a new franchise license or brand management agreement for the particular hotel. Accordingly, if we lose one or more franchise licenses or brand management agreements, it could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and profitability as well as limit or slow our future growth.
Our efforts to develop, redevelop or renovate our properties, in connection with our active asset management strategy, could be delayed or become more expensive, which could reduce revenues or impair our ability to compete effectively.
If not maintained, the condition of certain of our properties could negatively affect our ability to attract guests or result in higher operating and capital costs. These factors could reduce revenues or profits from these properties. There can be no assurance that our planned replacements and repairs will occur, or even if completed, will result in improved performance. In addition, these efforts are subject to a number of risks, including the following: construction delays or cost overruns; delays in obtaining, or failure to obtain, zoning, occupancy and other required permits or authorizations; government restrictions on the size or kind of development; changes in economic conditions that may result in weakened or lack of demand for improvements that we make or negative project returns; and lack of availability of rooms or meeting spaces for revenue-generating activities during construction, modernization or renovation projects. If our properties are not
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updated to meet guest preferences or brand standards under our management and franchise agreements, if properties under development or renovation are delayed in opening as scheduled, or if renovation investments adversely affect or fail to improve performance, our operations and financial results could be negatively affected.
Our hotels are geographically concentrated in a limited number of markets and, accordingly, we could be disproportionately harmed by adverse changes to these markets, natural disasters, climate change and related regulations, or terrorist attacks.
A significant portion of our room count is located in a concentrated number of markets that exposes us to greater risk to local economic or business conditions, changes in hotel supply in these markets, and other conditions than more geographically diversified hotel companies. As of December 31, 2023, hotels in Florida, Hawaii, Chicago, New York City, New Orleans and Boston represented approximately 60% of our room count, with our hotels in Florida and Hawaii alone each representing greater than 13% of our room count and 37% of our total revenue in 2023. An economic downturn, an increase in hotel supply, a change in guest preferences for certain geographic locations or markets, a force majeure event, a natural disaster, changing weather patterns and other physical effects of climate change (including supply chain disruptions), a terrorist attack or similar event in any one of these markets likely would cause a decline in the hotel market and adversely affect occupancy rates, the financial performance of our hotels in these markets and our overall results of operations, which could be material, and could significantly increase our costs.
Over time, our hotel properties located in coastal markets and other areas that may be impacted by climate change are expected to experience increases in storm intensity and rising sea-levels causing damage to our hotel properties, while hotels in other markets may experience prolonged variations in temperature or precipitation that may limit access to the water needed to operate our hotel properties, increasing operating costs at our hotels, such as the cost of water or energy, and requiring us to expend funds as we seek to repair and protect our hotels against such risks. The effects of climate change may also affect our business by increasing the cost of (or making unavailable) property insurance on terms we find acceptable in areas most vulnerable to such events. There can be no assurance that climate change will not have a material adverse effect on our hotels, operations or business.
If the insurance that we carry does not sufficiently cover damage or other potential losses or liabilities involving our properties, including as a result of terrorism and climate change, our profits could be reduced.
Because certain types of losses are uncertain, including natural disaster, the effects of climate change or other catastrophic losses, they may be uninsurable or prohibitively expensive. There are also other risks that may fall outside the general coverage terms and limits of our policies, including losses related to cybersecurity incidents, natural disaster or climate change. Market forces beyond our control could limit the scope of the insurance coverage that we can obtain or may otherwise restrict our ability to buy insurance coverage at reasonable rates. In the event of a substantial loss, the insurance coverage that we carry may not be sufficient to pay the full value of our financial obligations, our liabilities or the replacement cost of any lost investment or property. Furthermore, certain of our properties may qualify as legally permissible nonconforming uses and improvements, including certain of our iconic and most profitable properties, and we may not be permitted to rebuild such properties as they exist now or at all, regardless of insurance proceeds, if such properties are destroyed. Any loss of this nature, whether insured or not, could materially adversely affect our results of operations and prospects.
In addition, we carry insurance to respond to both first-party and third-party liability losses related to terrorism under a program authorized by Congress following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, which is set to expire in 2027. If the program is not extended or renewed upon its expiration in 2027, or if there are changes to the program that would negatively affect insurance carriers, premiums for terrorism insurance coverage will likely increase and/or the terms of such insurance may be materially amended to increase stated exclusions or to otherwise effectively decrease the scope of coverage available, perhaps to the point where it is effectively unavailable.
We have investments in joint venture projects, which limit our ability to manage third-party risks associated with these projects.
In certain cases, we are minority participants and do not control the decisions of the joint ventures in which we are involved. Consequently, actions by a co-venturer or other third-party outside of our control could expose us to claims for damages, financial penalties and reputational harm, any of which could adversely affect our business and operations. In addition, we may be unable to take action without the approval of our joint venture partners (including approving distributions even from joint ventures with positive cash flow), or our joint venture partners could take actions binding on the joint venture without our consent (including actions taken that are inconsistent with our business interest or goals). Moreover, we may agree to guarantee indebtedness incurred by a joint venture or co-venturer or provide standard
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indemnifications to lenders for loss liability or damage occurring as a result of our actions or actions of the joint venture or other co-venturers. Such a guarantee or indemnity may be on a joint and several basis with a co-venturer, in which case we may be liable in the event that our co-venturer defaults on its guarantee obligation. The non-performance of a co-venturer’s obligations (including due to bankruptcy or inability of such party to meet their capital contribution or other financial obligations) may cause losses to us in excess of the capital we initially may have invested or committed.
In addition, preparing our financial statements requires us to have access to information regarding the results of operations, financial position and cash flows of our joint ventures. Any deficiencies in our joint ventures’ internal controls over financial reporting may affect our ability to report our financial results accurately or prevent or detect fraud. Such deficiencies also could result in restatements of, or other adjustments to, our previously reported or announced operating results, which could diminish investor confidence and reduce the market price for our shares. Additionally, if our joint ventures are unable to provide this information for any meaningful period or fail to meet expected deadlines, we may be unable to satisfy our financial reporting obligations or timely file our periodic reports, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, growth or liquidity, including our ability to access external sources of capital and our cost of capital.
We depend on external sources of capital for future growth. Any disruption to our ability to access capital at times and on terms reasonably acceptable to us may affect adversely our business and results of operations.
Ownership of hotels is a capital-intensive business that requires significant capital expenditures to acquire, operate, maintain and renovate properties. To continue to qualify as a REIT, we are required to distribute to our stockholders at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gain), including taxable income recognized for U.S. federal income tax purposes but with regard to which we do not receive cash. As a result, we must finance our growth, fund debt repayments and fund significant capital expenditures largely with external sources of capital. Our ability to access external capital could be hampered by a number of factors, including, but not limited to, macroeconomic changes, changes in market perceptions of our growth potential, fluctuations in the market price of our common stock, and changes in the terms of our indebtedness, any of which may be outside of our control, and which, individually or in combination, could prevent us from being able to obtain the external capital we require on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all, which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to finance our future growth, our cost of capital, our liquidity and our financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to risks associated with the employment of hotel personnel, particularly with hotels that employ unionized labor, which could increase our operating costs, reduce the flexibility of our hotel managers to adjust the size of the workforce at our hotels and could materially and adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
While our hotel managers are responsible for hiring and maintaining the labor force at our hotels, we are subject to the costs and risks generally associated with the hotel labor force, and increased labor costs due to factors like labor shortages and resulting increases in wages, additional taxes or requirements to incur additional employee benefits costs may adversely impact our operating costs. Labor costs, including wages, can be particularly challenging at those of our hotels with unionized labor, and additional hotels may be subject to new collective bargaining agreements in the future.
From time to time, strikes, lockouts, public demonstrations or other negative actions and publicity may disrupt hotel operations at any of our hotels, negatively impact our reputation or the reputation of our brands, or harm relationships with the labor forces at our hotels. We also may incur increased legal costs and indirect labor costs as a result of contract disputes or other events. Additionally, hotels where our hotel managers have collective bargaining agreements with employees are more highly affected by labor force activities than others. The resolution of labor disputes or new or re-negotiated labor contracts could lead to increased labor costs, either by increases in wages or benefits or by changes in work rules that raise hotel operating costs. Furthermore, labor agreements may limit the ability of our hotel managers to reduce the size of hotel workforces during an economic downturn because collective bargaining agreements are negotiated between the hotel managers and labor unions. As we do not directly employ the employees at our hotels, we do not have the ability to control the outcome of these negotiations.
We could be materially and adversely affected if we are found to be in breach of a ground lease or are unable to renew a ground lease.
Unless we purchase a fee interest in the land and improvements at our properties subject to our ground leases or extend the terms of these leases before their expiration, we will lose our right to operate these properties and we will not have any economic interest in the land or improvements at the expiration of our ground leases; therefore, we generally will not share in any increase in value of the land or improvements beyond the term of a ground lease, notwithstanding our capital outlay to purchase our interest in the hotel or fund improvements thereon, and will lose our right to use the hotel.
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We can provide no assurances that we will be able to renew any ground lease upon its expiration at all or on favorable terms. In addition, if we are found to be in breach of certain of our third-party ground leases, we could lose the right to use the applicable hotel. Our ability to exercise any extension options relating to our ground leases is subject to the condition that we are not in default under the terms of the ground lease at the time that we exercise such options. Additionally, if a governmental authority seizes a hotel subject to a ground lease under its eminent domain power, we may only be entitled to a portion of any compensation awarded for the seizure. If we were to lose the right to use a hotel, we would be unable to derive income from such hotel, which could adversely affect us.
Heightened focus on corporate responsibility, specifically related to ESG factors, may constrain our business operations, impose additional costs and expose us to new risks that could adversely impact our results of operations, financial condition and the price of our securities.
We are committed to corporate responsibility, specifically related to ESG factors. Some investors may use ESG factors to guide their investment strategies, and potential and current employees, business partners and vendors may consider these factors when considering relationships with us, and guests may consider these factors when deciding whether to stay at our properties. Certain organizations that provide corporate risk and corporate governance advisory services to investors have developed scores and ratings to evaluate companies based upon ESG metrics. Many investors focus on ESG-related business practices and scores when choosing where to allocate their investments and may consider a company's score as a factor in making an investment decision. The focus and activism related to ESG and related matters may constrain our business operations or increase expenses. Additionally, we may face reputational damage in the event our corporate responsibility initiatives do not meet the standards set by various constituencies, including those of third-party providers of corporate responsibility ratings and reports. Furthermore, should peer companies outperform us in such metrics, potential or current investors may elect to invest with our competitors and employees, vendors and business partners may choose not to do business with us, or potential guests may choose to stay at competitor hotels, which could have an adverse impact on us or the price of our securities.
Risks Related to Our Industry
We operate in a highly competitive industry.
The lodging industry is highly competitive. Our principal competitors are other owners and investors in upper upscale, full-service hotels, including other lodging REITs, as well as major hospitality chains with well-established and recognized brands. Our hotels face competition for individual guests, group reservations and conference business. We also compete against smaller hotel chains and independent and local hotel owners and operators. Additionally, we face competition from peer-to-peer inventory sources that allow travelers to stay at homes and apartments booked from owners. New hotels may be constructed, and these additions create new competitors, in some cases without corresponding increases in demand for hotel rooms. Our competitors may have greater commercial, financial and marketing resources and more efficient technology platforms, which could allow them to improve their properties and expand and improve their marketing efforts in ways that could affect our ability to compete for guests effectively and adversely affect our revenues and profitability as well as limit or slow our future growth.
The growth of internet reservation channels is another source of competition that could adversely affect our business. A significant percentage of hotel rooms for individual customers are booked through internet travel intermediaries. As intermediary bookings increase, they may be able to obtain higher commissions, reduced room rates or other significant contract concessions from the brands and hotel management companies managing and operating our hotels. While internet travel intermediaries traditionally have competed to attract transient business rather than group and convention business, in recent years they have expanded their business to include marketing to large group and convention business. If that expansion continues, it could both divert group and convention business away from our hotels and increase our cost of sales for group and convention business and materially adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
We also face competition for the acquisition of hotels from other REITs, private equity investors, institutional pension funds, sovereign wealth funds and numerous local, regional and national owners, including franchisors, in each of our markets. Some of these entities may have substantially greater financial resources than we do and may be able and willing to accept more risk than we believe we can prudently manage, which may reduce the number of suitable investment opportunities available to us or increase pricing of assets.
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The lodging industry is subject to seasonal volatility, which is expected to contribute to fluctuations in our financial condition and results of operations.
The lodging industry is typically seasonal in nature. The periods during which our properties experience higher revenues vary from property to property, depending principally upon location and the customer base served. This seasonality can be expected to cause periodic fluctuations in a hotel’s rooms revenues, occupancy levels, room rates and operating expenses. We can provide no assurances that our cash flows will be sufficient to offset any shortfalls that occur as a result of these fluctuations. Consequently, volatility in our financial performance resulting from the seasonality of the lodging industry could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Governmental regulation may adversely affect the operation of our properties and our Company as a whole.
The hotel industry is subject to extensive U.S. federal, state and local governmental regulations, including those relating to the service of alcoholic beverages, the preparation and sale of food, building and zoning requirements and data protection, cybersecurity and privacy. We and our hotel managers are also subject to licensing and regulation by U.S. state and local departments relating to health, sanitation, fire and safety standards, and to laws governing our relationships with employees, including minimum wage requirements, overtime, working conditions and citizenship requirements. Our existing systems may be unable to satisfy changing regulatory requirements and employee and customer expectations, or may require significant additional investments or time to do so. We are also subject to certain environmental compliance costs, including associated air emissions, the use, storage and disposal of hazardous and toxic substances, and wastewater disposal. The cost to comply with environmental laws may be substantial, and our failure to comply with any such laws, including any required permits or licenses, or publicity resulting from actual or alleged compliance failures, could result in substantial fines or possible revocation of our authority to conduct some of our operations or otherwise have an adverse effect on our business. Environmental, health and safety requirements have also become, and may continue to become, increasingly stringent, and our costs may increase as a result. New or revised laws and regulations or new interpretations of existing laws and regulations, such as those related to climate change, could affect the operation of our properties or result in significant additional expense and operating restrictions on us or our hotel managers or adversely affect our ability to sell properties or to use properties as collateral.
Environmental laws may also impose potential liability on a current or former owner or operator of real property for, among other things, investigation, removal or remediation of hazardous or toxic substances or petroleum products at our currently or formerly owned or leased real property, regardless of whether or not we knew of, or caused, the presence or release of such substances, and such liability may be joint and several. From time to time, we may be required to remediate such substances or remove, abate or manage asbestos, mold, radon gas, lead, underground storage tanks, or other hazardous substances or conditions at our properties. The presence or release of such toxic or hazardous substances or petroleum products at or from our currently or formerly owned or leased properties could result in substantial investigation and remediation costs, limitations on or interruptions to our operations or in third-party claims for personal injury, property or natural resource damages, business interruption or other losses, including liens in favor of the government for costs the government incurs in cleaning up contamination. Such claims and the presence of, or need to investigate, remediate or otherwise address hazardous, toxic or unsafe conditions could adversely affect our operations, the value of any affected real property, or our ability to develop, sell, lease or assign our rights in any such property, or could otherwise harm our business or reputation. In addition, we also may be liable for the costs of remediating contamination at off-site waste disposal facilities to which we have arranged for the disposal, transportation or treatment of hazardous substances without regard to whether we complied with environmental laws in doing so.
Further, failure of a property to comply with the ADA could result in injunctive relief, fines, an award of damages to private litigants or mandated capital expenditures to remedy such noncompliance. Any imposition of injunctive relief, fines, damage awards or capital expenditures could adversely impact our business or results of operations. If we fail to comply with the requirements of the ADA, we could be subject to fines, penalties, injunctive action, reputational harm and other business effects which could materially and negatively affect our performance and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Our indebtedness and other contractual obligations could adversely affect our financial condition, our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, our ability to operate our business, our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry and our ability to pay our debts and could divert our cash flow from operations for debt payments.
Our outstanding debt and other contractual obligations could have important consequences, including requiring a substantial portion of cash flow from operations to be dedicated to debt service payments, thereby reducing our ability to use our cash flow to fund our operations, capital expenditures, distributions to stockholders and to pursue future business
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opportunities and limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business or market conditions, increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic, industry or competitive developments and placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors who may be better positioned to take advantage of opportunities that our leverage prevents us from exploiting.
Certain of our debt agreements impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us and our subsidiaries, which may prevent us from capitalizing on business opportunities or could result in foreclosure of our hotels.
The debt agreements and instruments that govern our outstanding indebtedness, including our senior unsecured credit facility and senior notes, impose significant financial and operating restrictions on us, including covenants that may restrict our ability to implement our business plan, finance future operations, respond to changing business and economic conditions, secure additional financing, and engage in opportunistic transactions, such as strategic acquisitions, mergers or asset sales or transactions with affiliates. In addition, if we fail to satisfy the covenants contained in the credit facility, our ability to borrow additional funds under the credit facility may be restricted. Furthermore, the credit agreement that governs our senior unsecured credit facility and indentures that govern our senior notes contain certain affirmative covenants that require us to be in compliance with certain leverage, liquidity and other financial ratios, and the loan documents governing the mortgage-backed loans of our subsidiaries also require them to maintain certain debt service coverage ratios and minimum net worth requirements. We cannot assure you that we will be able to comply with our financial or other covenants and, if we fail to do so, we may not be able to obtain waivers from the lenders or noteholders, as applicable, and/or amend the covenants. Our failure to comply with the restrictive covenants described above, as well as other terms of our other indebtedness and/or the terms of any future indebtedness from time to time, could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could result in our being required to repay these borrowings before their due date. If we are forced to refinance these borrowings on less favorable terms or are unable to refinance these borrowings, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. If we are unable to refinance our debt on acceptable terms or at all, we may be forced to dispose of hotels at inopportune times or on disadvantageous terms, which could result in losses. To the extent we cannot or do not meet our future debt service obligations, we will also risk losing to foreclosure some or all of our hotels that may be pledged to secure our obligation. For example, in June 2023, we ceased making debt service payments on the $725 million SF Mortgage Loan secured by the Hilton San Francisco Hotels, which was due November 2023, and in October 2023, the Hilton San Francisco Hotels were placed into receivership. See Note 7: "Debt" in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere within this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details.
For tax purposes, a foreclosure of any of our hotels would be treated as a sale of the hotel for a purchase price equal to the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage. If the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage exceeds our tax basis in the hotel, we would recognize taxable gain on foreclosure, but we would not receive any cash proceeds, which could impact our ability to meet the REIT distribution requirements imposed by the Code. In October 2023, our effective exit from the two Hilton San Francisco Hotels that secured the SF Mortgage Loan resulted in such required distribution of our REIT taxable income. See Note 7: "Debt" in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere within this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details. In addition, we may give full or partial recourse guarantees to lenders of mortgage debt on behalf of the entities that own our hotels. When we give a recourse guarantee on behalf of an entity that owns one of our hotels, we will be responsible to the lender for satisfaction of the debt if it is not paid by such entity or if certain loan provisions are violated. If any of our hotels are foreclosed on due to a default, our ability to pay cash distributions to our stockholders will be limited.
We may be able to incur substantially more debt and enter into other transactions, which could further exacerbate the risks to our financial condition described above. The use of debt to finance future acquisitions could restrict operations, inhibit our ability to grow our business and revenues, and negatively affect our business and financial results.
We may be able to incur significant additional indebtedness in the future. We may also incur significant additional obligations, such as trade payables, without restrictions under our debt instruments. In addition, we may incur mortgage debt by obtaining loans secured by a portfolio of some or all of the hotels that we own or acquire. To the extent we incur additional debt, the substantial leverage risks described in the preceding two risk factors would increase.
Risks Related to the Spin-Off
We may be responsible for U.S. federal income tax liabilities that relate to the spin-off.
Hilton Parent received a ruling (“IRS Ruling”) from the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) regarding certain U.S. federal income tax aspects of the spin-off. The IRS Ruling received is binding on the IRS, however, the validity of the IRS Ruling is based upon and subject to the accuracy of factual statements and representations made to the IRS by Hilton Parent. As a result of the IRS’s ruling policy at the time of Hilton Parent’s submission, with respect to transactions under
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Section 355 of the Code, the IRS Ruling is limited to specified aspects of the spin-off under Section 355 of the Code and does not represent a determination by the IRS that all of the requirements necessary to obtain tax-free treatment to holders of Hilton Parent’s common stock and to Hilton have been satisfied. Moreover, if any statement or representation upon which the IRS Ruling is based is incorrect or untrue in any material respect, or if the facts upon which the IRS Ruling is based are materially different from the facts that prevailed at the time of the spin-off, the IRS Ruling could be invalidated.
If all or a portion of the spin-off does not qualify as a tax-free transaction for any reason, Hilton Parent may recognize a substantial gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In such case, under U.S. Treasury regulations, each member of the Hilton consolidated group at the time of the spin-off (including us) would be jointly and severally liable for the resulting entire amount of any U.S. federal income tax liability. Additionally, if the distribution of HGV Parent common stock and/or the distribution of Park Parent common stock do not qualify as tax-free under Section 355 of the Code, Hilton Parent stockholders will be treated as having received a taxable dividend to the extent of Hilton Parent’s current and accumulated earnings and profits and then would have a tax-free basis recovery up to the amount of their tax basis in their shares and then would have taxable gain from the sale or exchange of the shares to the extent of any excess.
Even if the spin-off otherwise qualifies as a tax-free transaction for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the distribution would be taxable to us, Hilton Parent and HGV Parent (but not to Hilton Parent stockholders) pursuant to Section 355(e) of the Code if there were one or more acquisitions (including issuances) of our stock, the stock of HGV Parent or the stock of Hilton Parent, representing 50% or more, measured by vote or value, of the stock of any such corporation and the acquisition or acquisitions are deemed to be part of a plan or series of related transactions that include the distribution. The distribution occurred on January 3, 2017. Any acquisition of our common stock within the two-year period before or after January 3, 2017 (with exceptions, including public trading by less-than-5% stockholders and certain compensatory stock issuances) generally would be presumed to have been part of such a plan; however, that presumption is rebuttable. The resulting tax liability would be substantial, and under U.S. Treasury regulations, each member of the Hilton consolidated group at the time of the spin-off (including us) would be jointly and severally liable for the resulting U.S. federal income tax liability. We do not believe that there have been acquisitions of 50% or more of our stock pursuant to a plan that would cause the distribution to be taxable pursuant to Section 355(e) of the Code. This determination relies in part upon factual statements and representations by Hilton Parent, HGV Parent and certain of our shareholders. The rules for determining whether our shares have been acquired pursuant to the requisite plan are not clear in all cases. Accordingly, the IRS or a court could disagree with our view.
Pursuant to the Tax Matters Agreement, we agreed to indemnify Hilton Parent and HGV Parent for any tax liabilities resulting from certain actions we take, or fail to take, and Hilton Parent and HGV Parent agreed to indemnify us for any tax liabilities resulting from transactions entered into, or actions not taken, by Hilton Parent or HGV Parent. For additional detail, see “Spin-off Related Agreements—Tax Matters Agreement.”
We could be required to assume responsibility for obligations allocated to Hilton Parent or HGV Parent under the Distribution Agreement or Tax Matters Agreement or could have indemnification obligations under such agreements.
Under the Distribution Agreement and related ancillary agreements, from and after the spin-offs, each of Hilton Parent, Park Parent and HGV Parent are generally responsible for the debts, liabilities and other obligations related to the business or businesses which they own and operate following the spin-off. Although we do not expect to be liable for any obligations that are not allocated to us under the Distribution Agreement, a court could disregard the allocation agreed to between the parties and require that we assume responsibility for obligations allocated to Hilton Parent or HGV (for example, tax and/or environmental liabilities), particularly if Hilton Parent or HGV Parent were to refuse or were unable to pay or perform the allocated obligations. See “Spin-off Related Agreements—Distribution Agreement.”
In addition, the Distribution Agreement and Tax Matters Agreement provide for cross-indemnities that, except as provided in such agreements, are principally designed to place financial responsibility for the obligations and liabilities of each business with the appropriate company. As well, losses in respect of certain shared contingent liabilities, which generally are not specifically attributable to our business, HGV business or the retained business of Hilton, were determined on the date on which the Distribution Agreement was entered into. The percentage of shared contingent liabilities for which we are responsible was fixed in a manner that is intended to approximate our estimated enterprise value on the distribution date relative to the estimated enterprise values of HGV and Hilton. Subject to certain limitations and exceptions, Hilton will generally be vested with the exclusive management and control of all matters pertaining to any such shared contingent liabilities, including the prosecution of any claim and the conduct of any defense. Any of the foregoing indemnification obligations or shared contingent liabilities could negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. See “Spin-off Related Agreements—Distribution Agreement” and “—Tax Matters Agreement.”
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In connection with the spin-offs, Hilton and HGV indemnified us for certain liabilities. These indemnities may not be sufficient to insure us against the full amount of the liabilities assumed by Hilton and HGV, and Hilton and HGV may be unable to satisfy their indemnification obligations to us in the future.
In connection with the spin-offs, each of Hilton and HGV indemnified us with respect to such parties’ assumed or retained liabilities pursuant to the Distribution Agreement and breaches of the Distribution Agreement or other agreements related to the spin-offs. There can be no assurance that the indemnities from each of Hilton and HGV will be sufficient to protect us against the full amount of these and other liabilities. Third parties also could seek to hold us responsible for any of the liabilities that Hilton and HGV have agreed to assume. Even if we ultimately succeed in recovering from Hilton or HGV any amounts for which we are held liable, we may be temporarily required to bear those losses. Each of these risks could negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Risks Related to our REIT Status and Certain Other Tax Items
If we do not maintain our qualification as a REIT, we will be subject to tax as a C corporation and could face a substantial tax liability.
We have been taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes beginning January 4, 2017. We believe we have been organized and operated, and expect to continue to be organized and operate, in a manner to qualify as a REIT. However, qualification as a REIT involves the interpretation and application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which no or only a limited number of judicial or administrative interpretations may exist. Notwithstanding the availability of cure provisions in the Code, we could fail to meet various compliance requirements, which could jeopardize our REIT status. Our REIT status is also dependent upon the ongoing and historic qualification of subsidiary entities qualifying as REITs or TRSs, as applicable, as a result of its substantial ownership interest in those entities. Furthermore, new tax legislation, administrative guidance or court decisions, in each instance potentially with retroactive effect, could make it more difficult or impossible for us to qualify as a REIT. If we, or any of our subsidiary entities qualifying as REITS, fail to qualify as a REIT in any tax year, then:
we, or such subsidiary entity, would be taxed as a C corporation, which under current laws, among other things, means being unable to deduct dividends paid to stockholders in computing taxable income and being subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income at corporate income tax rates;
any resulting tax liability could be substantial and could have a material adverse effect on our value and financial condition;
unless we, or such subsidiary entity, were entitled to relief under applicable statutory provisions, we, or such subsidiary entity, would be required to pay income taxes, and thus, our cash available for distribution to stockholders would be reduced for each of the years during which we, or such subsidiary entity, did not qualify as a REIT; and
we, or such subsidiary entity, generally would not be eligible to requalify as a REIT for the subsequent four taxable years.
As a result of all these factors, our failure to qualify as a REIT could impair our ability to execute our business and growth strategies, as well as make it more difficult for us to raise capital and service our indebtedness. In addition, if we fail to qualify as a REIT, we will not be required to make distributions to stockholders.
We may face other tax liabilities that reduce our cash flows.
Even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we may be subject to certain U.S. federal, state and local taxes on our income and assets, including taxes on any undistributed income, tax on income from some activities conducted as a result of a foreclosure, and property and transfer taxes. Moreover, if we have net income from “prohibited transactions,” that income will be subject to a 100% tax. In addition, we could, in certain circumstances, be required to pay an excise or penalty tax (which could be significant in amount) in order to utilize one or more relief provisions under the Code to maintain our qualification as a REIT. We are subject to U.S. federal and state income tax on the income earned by our TRSs. Any of these taxes would decrease cash available for distributions to stockholders. Finally, we have operations and assets in Puerto Rico that are subject to tax. Any of these taxes decrease cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
Complying with REIT requirements may force us to borrow to make distributions to stockholders.
From time to time, our taxable income may be greater than our cash flow available for distribution to stockholders. If we do not have other funds available in these situations, we may be unable to distribute substantially all of
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our taxable income as required by the REIT provisions of the Code. In addition, we may be subject to limitations on the ability to use our net operating loss carryovers to offset taxable income that we do not distribute. Thus, we could be required to borrow funds, raise additional equity capital, sell a portion of our assets at disadvantageous prices, issue securities or find another alternative to make distributions to stockholders. These options could increase our costs or reduce our equity.
Our transactions with our TRSs may cause us to be subject to a 100% penalty tax on certain income or deductions if those transactions are not conducted on arm’s-length terms.
The Code imposes a 100% excise tax on certain transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis. The 100% tax may apply, for example, to the extent that we were found to have charged our TRS lessees rent in excess of an arm’s-length rent. It is our policy to evaluate material intercompany transactions and to attempt to set the terms of such transactions so as to achieve substantially the same result as would have been the case if they were unrelated parties. As a result, we believe that all material transactions between and among us and the entities in which we own a direct or indirect interest have been and will be negotiated and structured with the intention of achieving an arm’s-length result and that the potential application of the 100% excise tax will not have a material effect on us. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to comply with the TRS limitation or to avoid application of the 100% excise tax.
If the leases of our hotels to our TRS lessees are not respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we will fail to qualify as a REIT.
To continue to qualify as a REIT, we must annually satisfy two gross income tests, under which specified percentages of our gross income must be derived from certain sources, such as “rents from real property.” Rents paid to us by our TRS lessees pursuant to the leases of our hotels will constitute substantially all of our rents from real property gross income. In order for such rent to qualify as “rents from real property” for purposes of the gross income tests, the leases must be respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes and not be treated as service contracts, financing arrangements, joint ventures or some other type of arrangement. We have structured our leases, and intend to structure any future leases, so that the leases will be respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes, but there can be no assurance that the IRS will agree with this characterization, not challenge this treatment or that a court would not sustain such a challenge. If our leases are not respected as true leases for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we will fail to qualify as a REIT.
If any third-party hotel managers do not qualify as “eligible independent contractors” or if our hotels are not “qualified lodging facilities,” we will fail to qualify as a REIT.
Rent paid by a lessee that is a “related party tenant” of ours will not be qualifying income for purposes of the two gross income tests applicable to REITs. An exception is provided, however, for leases of “qualified lodging facilities” to a TRS so long as the hotels are operated by an “eligible independent contractor” and certain other requirements are satisfied. Substantially all of our hotels are leased to our TRS lessees which have engaged third-party hotel managers (including Hilton, which manages a majority of our hotels) that we believe qualify as “eligible independent contractors.” Among other requirements, an operator will qualify as an eligible independent contractor if it meets certain ownership tests with respect to us, and if, at the time the operator enters into a property management contract with a TRS or its TRS lessee with respect to one of our properties, the operator is actively engaged in the trade or business of operating “qualified lodging facilities” (as defined below) for one or more persons not related to the REIT or its TRSs. No assurances can be provided that any of our current and future hotel managers will in fact comply with this requirement. Failure to comply with this requirement would require us to find other hotel managers for future contracts, and, if we hired a management company without knowledge of the failure, it could jeopardize our status as a REIT.
Finally, each property with respect to which our TRS lessees pay rent must be a “qualified lodging facility.” A “qualified lodging facility” is a hotel, motel, or other establishment more than one-half of the dwelling units in which are used on a transient basis, including customary amenities and facilities, provided that no wagering activities are conducted at or in connection with such facility by any person who is engaged in the business of accepting wagers and who is legally authorized to engage in such business at or in connection with such facility. We believe that the properties that are leased to our TRS lessees are qualified lodging facilities. Although we intend to monitor future acquisitions and improvements of properties, REIT provisions of the Code provide no or only limited guidance for making determinations under the requirements for qualified lodging facilities, and there can be no assurance that these requirements will be satisfied.
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Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Anti-takeover provisions in our organizational documents and Delaware law might discourage or delay acquisition attempts for us that stockholders might consider favorable.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions, as provided for under Delaware law, that may make the merger or acquisition of our company more difficult without the approval of our Board. Among other things, the provisions:
include a restriction on ownership and transfer of our stock to prevent any person from acquiring more than 9.8% (in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock or more than 9.8% (in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of any outstanding class or series of our preferred stock without the approval of our Board (the “Ownership Limitation”);
would allow us to authorize the issuance of undesignated preferred stock in connection with a stockholder rights plan or otherwise, the terms of which may be established and the shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval, and which may include super voting, special approval, dividend, or other rights or preferences superior to the rights of the holders of common stock (although we do not have a stockholder rights plan, and our policy is to either submit any such plan to stockholders for ratification or cause such plan to expire within a year);
provide that our Board is expressly authorized to make, alter or repeal our bylaws; and
establish advance notice requirements for nominations for elections to our Board or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by stockholders at stockholder meetings.
These anti-takeover provisions could discourage, delay or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our company, including actions that our stockholders may deem advantageous, or negatively affect the trading price of our common stock. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors of your choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions you desire.
The stock ownership limits imposed by the Code for REITs and our amended and restated certificate of incorporation restrict stock transfers and/or business combination opportunities.
In order for us to maintain our qualification as a REIT under the Code, not more than 50% in value of our outstanding stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) at any time during the last half of each taxable year. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation also contains other limitations, including the Ownership Limitation, and prohibits any person from: (1) beneficially or constructively owning, as determined by applying certain attribution rules of the Code, our stock if that would result in us being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Code or otherwise cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT; (2) beneficially or constructively owning shares of our stock that would cause any person, including Hilton Parent, to fail to qualify as our eligible independent contractor; (3) transferring stock if such transfer would result in our stock being owned by fewer than 100 persons; and (4) beneficially owning shares of our stock to the extent such ownership would result in our failing to qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” within the meaning of Section 897(h) of the Code. In addition, there can be no assurances that our Board, as permitted in the charter, will not decrease the Ownership Limitation to lower than 9.8% in the future. These stock ownership limits, including the Ownership Limitation, might delay or prevent a transaction or a change in our control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
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Item 1C. Cybersecurity.

Park maintains comprehensive technologies and programs to help ensure our information technology and systems are effective and prepared for data privacy and cybersecurity risks, including oversight of our programs for security monitoring for internal and external threats to help ensure the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our information assets.

Processes for Assessing, Identifying and Managing Material Risks from Cybersecurity Threats

Park's Audit Committee oversees its cybersecurity risk assessment, risk management and risk mitigation policies and programs. Park's Enterprise Risk Management ("ERM") Committee reports to the Audit Committee and is responsible for identifying Park's cybersecurity risks. Park also has a dedicated Risk Management team that reports to the ERM Committee, which includes representatives from several departments, external consultants and insurance professionals who interface with brand and management partners to assist with risk mitigation at our properties. Additionally, we have engaged third-party service providers to assist with risk mitigation activities, implementing security monitoring capabilities designed to alert us to suspicious activity, and developing an incident response program that is designed to restore business operations as quickly and as orderly as possible in the event of a cybersecurity incident. Our cybersecurity incident response plan requires prompt notification of senior management in the event of a cybersecurity incident that has affected or is expected to affect the Company and prompt briefings on subsequent developments as appropriate. We have undertaken table-top risk exercises and employees participate in mandatory annual trainings and receive communications regarding the cybersecurity environment to increase awareness throughout the Company. The Company's cybersecurity program is based on the U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework. We use a risk-based approach with respect to our use and oversight of third-party service providers, tailoring processes according to the nature and sensitivity of the data accessed, processed, or stored by such third-party service provider and performing additional risk screenings and procedures, as appropriate.

Management and Board Oversight

Our Chief Financial Officer ("CFO") has significant work experience related to information security issues and oversight and is the executive officer that oversees our cybersecurity program, which includes the implementation of controls to identify threats, detect attacks and protect our information assets. Our dedicated ERM Committee, which includes our CFO and certain members of our executive leadership team, provides principal oversight and guidance of our cybersecurity risk management programs and processes. While our Board has overall responsibility for risk oversight, our Audit Committee oversees cybersecurity risk matters. Our Audit Committee is responsible for reviewing and overseeing the Company's data privacy, information technology and security and cybersecurity risk exposures and the guidelines, programs and steps implemented by management to assess, manage and mitigate any such exposures. The ERM Committee reports to the Audit Committee at least annually on the Company's enterprise risk management and will report security instances to the Audit Committee as they occur, if material.

Cybersecurity Risks

In addition to the reliance on our own information technology systems, we rely on the information technology systems of our hotel managers to protect proprietary and customer information as well as our third-party service providers who support key portions of our operations. Any compromises of our own network or the networks of our hotel managers or third-party service providers could materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For a discussion of our cybersecurity risks, refer to "Part I - Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Related to Our Business - Cyber threats and the risk of cybersecurity incidents affecting our information technology systems or the information technology systems of our hotel managers or third-party service providers could materially adversely affect our business" included elsewhere within this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Although we have experienced cybersecurity incidents, to date, none have had a material adverse effect on us. We carry insurance that helps provide protection against the potential losses arising from cybersecurity incidents, although we may incur expenses and losses related to a cybersecurity incident that are not covered by insurance or are in excess of our insurance coverage.
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Item 2. Properties.
Our Properties(1)
The following table provides a list of our portfolio as of February 28, 2024:
Location
Type(2)
Ownership
Percentage
Rooms
California
 DoubleTree Hotel San Jose FS100%505
 DoubleTree Hotel Ontario Airport FS67%482
 Hyatt Regency Mission Bay Spa and MarinaGL100%438
 Hilton La Jolla Torrey PinesJV, GL25%394
 Hilton Santa Barbara Beachfront ResortFS50%360
 Hilton Oakland Airport GL100%360
 JW Marriott San Francisco Union SquareGL100%344
 Hyatt Centric Fisherman's WharfFS100%316
 DoubleTree Hotel San Diego – Mission Valley GL100%300
 DoubleTree Hotel Sonoma Wine Country GL100%245
 Juniper Hotel Cupertino, Curio Collection FS100%224
 Hilton Checkers Los AngelesFS100%193
 Colorado
 Hilton Denver City Center
FS(3)
100%613
 DoubleTree Hotel Durango GL100%159
 District of Columbia
 Capital HiltonJV, FS25%559
 Florida
 Hilton OrlandoJV, FS20%1,424
 Signia by Hilton Orlando Bonnet Creek FS100%1,009
 Hilton Orlando Lake Buena Vista GL100%814
 Waldorf Astoria Orlando FS100%502
 Royal Palm South Beach Miami – a Tribute Portfolio ResortFS100%393
 Casa Marina Key West, Curio CollectionFS100%311
 The Reach Key West, Curio CollectionFS100%150
 Hawaii
 Hilton Hawaiian Village Waikiki Beach Resort
FS(3)
100%2,860
 Hilton Waikoloa Village
FS(3)
100%647
 Illinois
 Hilton Chicago FS100%1,544
 W Chicago – LakeshoreFS100%520
 W Chicago – City CenterFS100%403
 Louisiana
 Hilton New Orleans Riverside
FS(3)
100%1,622
 Massachusetts
 Hilton Boston Logan Airport GL100%604
 Hyatt Regency Boston FS100%502
 Boston Marriott NewtonFS100%430
 Missouri
 Embassy Suites Kansas City Plaza GL100%266
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Location
Type(2)
Ownership
Percentage
Rooms
 New Jersey
 Hilton Short Hills FS100%314
 New York
 New York Hilton Midtown
FS(3)
100%1,878
 Puerto Rico
 Caribe Hilton
FS(3)
100%652
 Texas
 Embassy Suites Austin Downtown South CongressGL100%262
 Utah
 Hilton Salt Lake City CenterGL100%500
 Virginia
 DoubleTree Hotel Washington DC – Crystal CityFS100%627
 Hilton McLean Tysons Corner FS100%458
 Embassy Suites Alexandria Old Town
JV, FS(3)
50%288
 Washington
 DoubleTree Hotel Seattle Airport GL100%850
 Hilton Seattle Airport & Conference Center GL100%396
 DoubleTree Hotel Spokane City Center FS10%375
Total26,093
____________________________________________________________________________________
(1)Excludes the two Hilton San Francisco Hotels that were placed into receivership in October 2023.
(2)“FS” refers to fee simple ownership interest; “GL” refers to ground lease; “JV” refers to unconsolidated joint venture.
(3)Certain portions of land or facilities are subject to lease.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
We are involved in various claims and lawsuits arising in the ordinary course of business, some of which include claims for substantial sums, including proceedings involving tort and other general liability claims, employee claims and consumer protection claims. Most occurrences involving liability, claims of negligence and employees are covered by insurance with solvent insurance carriers. For those matters not covered by insurance, which include commercial matters, we recognize a liability when we believe the loss is probable and can be reasonably estimated. The ultimate results of claims and litigation cannot be predicted with certainty. We believe we have adequate reserves against such matters. We currently believe that the ultimate outcome of such lawsuits and proceedings will not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity. However, depending on the amount and timing, an unfavorable resolution of some or all of these matters could materially affect our future results of operations in a particular period.
Additionally, the Distribution Agreement and Tax Matters Agreement provide for cross-indemnities that, except as otherwise provided in the Distribution Agreement and Tax Matters Agreement, are principally designed to place financial responsibility for the obligations and liabilities of Hilton, HGV and the Company with the appropriate company. See “Spin-off Related Agreements – Distribution Agreement” and “– Tax Matters Agreement” and Note 15: "Commitments and Contingencies" in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere within this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Market Information
Our common stock trades on the NYSE under the symbol "PK".
Shareholder Information
At February 23, 2024, we had 14 holders of record of our common stock. However, because our common stock is held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we believe there are substantially more beneficial holders of our common stock than record holders.
In order to comply with certain requirements related to our qualification as a REIT, subject to certain exceptions, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that no person may own, or be deemed to own by virtue of the attribution provisions of the Code, more than 9.8% (in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding common stock or more than 9.8% (in value or by number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of any outstanding class or series of our preferred stock.
Distribution Information
In order to maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT, we intend to distribute annually at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding any net capital gain, to our stockholders on an annual basis. Therefore, as a general matter, we intend to make distributions of all, or substantially all, of our REIT taxable income (including net capital gains) to our stockholders, and as a result, we will generally not be required to pay tax on our income.
Our future distributions will be at the sole discretion of our Board. When determining the amount of future distributions, we expect that our Board will consider, among other factors, (1) the amount required to be distributed to maintain our status as a REIT, (2) limitations on our ability to make distributions contained in the indentures for our senior notes and credit facility, which restrict our ability to make distributions subject to limited exceptions, (3) the amount of cash generated from our operating activities, (4) our expectations of future cash flows, (5) our determination of near-term cash needs for debt repayments, existing or future share repurchases, and selective acquisitions of new properties, (6) the timing of significant capital investments and expenditures and the establishment of any cash reserves, (7) our ability to continue to access additional sources of capital, and (8) the sufficiency of legally available assets.
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Share Performance Graph
The following graph compares our cumulative total stockholder return since December 31, 2018 against the cumulative total returns of the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trust (“Nareit”) Equity Index and the Standard and Poor’s MidCap 400 Index (“S&P 400 Index”). The graph assumes an initial investment of $100 in our common stock and each of the indexes on December 31, 2018, and that all dividends and other distributions were reinvested.
3223
 12/31/201812/31/201912/31/202012/31/202112/31/202212/31/2023
Park Hotels and Resorts Inc.$100.00 $108.34 $77.61 $85.44 $53.47 $73.36 
S&P 400 Index100.00 124.05 138.70 170.89 146.14 167.26 
Nareit Equity Index100.00 126.00 115.92 166.04 125.58 142.83 
This performance graph shall not be deemed "filed" for the purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or incorporated by reference into any filing by us under the Securities Act, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
We did not sell any equity securities during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 that were not registered under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
33


Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliate Purchasers
Period
Total number of
shares
purchased(1)
Weighted average
price paid
per share(2)
Total number of
shares purchased
as part of publicly
announced plans
or programs
Maximum number
(or approximate
dollar value) of
common shares
that may yet be
purchased under
the plans or
programs(3)
(in millions)
January 1, 2023 through January 31, 20232,536,900$11.64 2,536,900$43 
February 1, 2023 through February 28, 2023174,848$13.78 $300 
March 1, 2023 through March 31, 20236,278,600$11.93 6,278,600$225 
April 1, 2023 through April 30, 2023105$12.17 $225 
May 1, 2023 through May 31, 2023236$12.40 $225 
June 1, 2023 through June 30, 2023332$13.74 $225 
July 1, 2023 through July 31, 2023253$13.16 $225 
August 1, 2023 through August 31, 20235,760,165$13.00 5,759,966$150 
September 1, 2023 through September 30, 2023315$12.83 $150 
October 1, 2023 through October 31, 202357$12.00 $150 
November 1, 2023 through November 30, 2023225$12.89 $150 
December 1, 2023 through December 31, 2023$— $150 
Total14,752,036 14,575,466 
____________________________________________________________________________________
(1)The number of shares purchased represents shares of common stock repurchased under the applicable previously announced stock repurchase programs as well as shares of common stock surrendered by certain of our employees to satisfy their federal and state tax obligations associated with the vesting of restricted common stock.
(2)The weighted average price paid per share for shares of common stock surrendered by certain employees is based on the closing price of our common stock on the trading date immediately prior to the date of delivery of the shares. The weighted average price paid per share for shares repurchased excludes commissions paid.
(3)The stock repurchase program authorized on February 25, 2022, which allowed for the repurchase of up to $300 million of our common stock, was terminated on February 17, 2023, upon the authorization of a new $300 million stock repurchase program, which expires on February 21, 2025.
Stock Repurchase Program
In February 2023, our Board terminated a previous $300 million stock repurchase program that was approved in February 2022 (the "February 2022 Stock Repurchase Program") and authorized and approved a new stock repurchase program allowing us to repurchase up to $300 million of our common stock over a two-year period ending in February 2025 (the "February 2023 Stock Repurchase Program" and collectively with the February 2022 Stock Repurchase Program the "Stock Repurchase Programs"), subject to any applicable limitations or restrictions set forth in our credit facility and indentures related to our senior notes. Stock repurchases may be made through open market purchases, including through Rule 10b5-1 trading programs, in privately negotiated transactions, or in such other manner that would comply with applicable securities laws. The timing of any future stock repurchases and the number of shares to be repurchased will depend upon prevailing market conditions and other factors, and we may suspend the repurchase program at any time. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we repurchased in aggregate under the Stock Repurchase Programs approximately 14.6 million shares of our common stock for a total purchase price of $180 million, and as of December 31, 2023, $150 million remained available for stock repurchases under the February 2023 Stock Repurchase Program.
Item 6. [Reserved]
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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the accompanying consolidated financial statements, related notes included thereto and Item 1A., “Risk Factors,” appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. For the discussion and analysis of our 2021 financial condition and results of operations compared to 2022, refer to Item 7., “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.
Overview
We have a diverse portfolio of iconic and market-leading hotels and resorts with significant underlying real estate value. We currently have interests in 43 hotels consisting of premium-branded hotels and resorts with over 26,000 rooms, of which over 86% are luxury and upper upscale and are located in prime U.S. markets and its territories. Our high-quality portfolio currently includes hotels mostly in major urban and convention areas, such as New York City, Washington, D.C., Chicago, Boston, New Orleans and Denver; and premier resorts in key leisure destinations, including Hawaii, Orlando, Key West and Miami Beach; as well as hotels in select airport and suburban locations.
Our objective is to be the preeminent lodging real estate investment trust (“REIT”), focused on consistently delivering superior, risk-adjusted returns to stockholders through active asset management and a thoughtful external growth strategy while maintaining a strong and flexible balance sheet. As a pure-play real estate company with direct access to capital and independent financial resources, we believe our enhanced ability to implement compelling return on investment initiatives within our portfolio represents a significant embedded growth opportunity. Finally, given our scale and investment expertise, we believe we will be able to successfully execute single-asset and portfolio acquisitions and dispositions to further enhance the value and diversification of our assets throughout the lodging cycle, including potentially taking advantage of the economies of scale that could come from consolidation in the lodging REIT industry.
We operate our business through two operating segments, our consolidated hotels and unconsolidated hotels. Our consolidated hotels operating segment is our only reportable segment. Refer to Note 14: "Business Segment Information" in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere within this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding our operating segments.
Basis of Presentation
The consolidated financial statements reflect our financial position, results of operations and cash flows, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”). Refer to Note 2: "Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere within this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Outlook
Economic disruptions, including as a result of supply chain disruptions, elevated interest rates and elevated rates of inflation, may adversely affect our business. Inflationary concerns can affect both consumer sentiment and demand for travel, as well as increase labor or other costs to maintain or operate hotels that cannot be reduced without adversely affecting business growth or hotel value. However, we have relied on the performance of our hotels and active asset management to mitigate the effects of inflation, which is expected to continue to stabilize, and current macroeconomic uncertainty. During 2023, we continued to experience improvements in overall demand across our portfolio, although ADR growth has slowed as the industry recovery has stabilized and seasonal patterns have normalized. While there can be no assurances that we will not experience further fluctuations in hotel revenues or earnings at our hotels due to inflation and other macroeconomic factors, local economic factors and demand, a potential economic slowdown or a recession and geopolitical conflicts, we expect the positive momentum to continue for the remainder of 2024 based on current demand trends, expected increases in city-wide events and as demand from international travel continues to improve.
Recent Events
In October 2023, the trustee for the $725 million non-recourse CMBS loan ("SF Mortgage Loan") secured by two of our San Francisco hotels – the 1,921-room Hilton San Francisco Union Square and the 1,024-room Parc 55 San Francisco – a Hilton Hotel (collectively, the "Hilton San Francisco Hotels"), filed a lawsuit against the borrowers under the SF Mortgage Loan. In connection with the lawsuit, the court appointed a receiver to take control of the Hilton San Francisco Hotels and their operations, and thus, we have no further economic interest in the operations of the hotels. The
35

receiver will operate and has authority over the hotels and, until no later than November 1, 2024, has the ability to sell the hotels. The court order contemplates that the receivership will end with a non-judicial foreclosure by December 2, 2024, if the hotels are not sold within the predetermined sale period. The effective exit from the Hilton San Francisco Hotels resulted in a required distribution. Thus, our Board of Directors (the "Board") declared a special cash dividend of $0.77 per share on October 27, 2023, which was paid on January 16, 2024 to stockholders of record as of December 29, 2023.
Principal Components of and Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations
Revenues
Revenues from our hotels are primarily derived from two categories of customers: transient and group, which historically have accounted for approximately two thirds and one third, respectively, of our rooms revenue. Transient guests are individual travelers who are traveling for business or leisure. Group guests are traveling for group events that reserve rooms for meetings, conferences or social functions sponsored by associations, corporate, social, military, educational, religious or other organizations. Group business usually includes a block of room accommodations, as well as other ancillary services, such as meeting facilities, catering and banquet services. A majority of our food and beverage sales and other ancillary services are provided to customers who also are occupying rooms at our hotels. As a result, occupancy affects all components of revenues from our hotels.
Principal Components
Rooms. Represents the sale of room rentals at our hotels and accounts for a substantial majority of our total revenue.
Food and beverage. Represents revenue from group functions, which may include both banquet revenue and audio and visual revenue, as well as revenue from outlets such as restaurants and lounges at our hotels.
Ancillary hotel. Represents revenue for guest services provided at our hotels, including parking, telecommunications, golf course and spa. Also includes tenant leases and other rental revenue.
Other. Primarily related to support services we provide to HGV timeshare properties that have a presence within or adjacent to certain of our hotels, which include cost reimbursements for the costs of providing housekeeping, landscaping, general maintenance and other services plus a fee representing a percentage of cost reimbursements.
Factors Affecting our Revenues
Consumer demand. Consumer demand for our products and services is closely linked to the performance of the general economy and is sensitive to business and personal discretionary spending levels. Leading indicators of demand include gross domestic product, non-residential fixed investment and the consumer price index. Declines in consumer demand due to adverse general economic conditions, reductions in travel patterns, lower consumer confidence, outbreaks of pandemic or contagious diseases, and adverse political conditions can lower the revenues and profitability of our hotels. Further, competition for guests and the supply of services at our hotels affect our ability to sustain or increase rates charged to customers at our hotels. As a result, changes in consumer demand and general business cycles have historically subjected and could in the future subject our revenues to significant volatility. In addition, leisure travelers currently make up the majority of our transient demand. Therefore, we will be significantly more affected by trends in leisure travel than trends in business travel.
Supply. New room supply is an important factor that can affect the lodging industry’s performance. Room rates and occupancy, and thus RevPAR, tend to increase when demand growth exceeds supply growth. The addition of new competitive hotels and resorts affects the ability of existing hotels and resorts to sustain or grow RevPAR, and thus profits. New development is determined largely by construction costs, the availability of financing and expected performance of existing hotels and resorts.
Expenses
Principal Components
Rooms. These costs include housekeeping, reservation systems, room supplies, laundry services at our hotels and front desk costs.
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Food and beverage. These costs primarily include food, beverage and the associated labor and will correlate closely with food and beverage revenues.
Other departmental and support. These costs include labor and other costs associated with other ancillary revenue, such as parking, telecommunications, golf course and spa, as well as labor and other costs associated with administrative departments, sales and marketing, repairs and minor maintenance and utility costs. Additionally, these costs include franchise fees and are generally computed as a percentage of rooms revenues. Refer to Item 1: “Business – Our Principal Agreements,” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information on franchise fees.
Other property. These costs consist primarily of real and personal property taxes, other local taxes, ground rent, equipment rent and property insurance.
Management fees. Base management fees are computed as a percentage of gross revenue. Incentive management fees generally are paid if specified financial performance targets are achieved. Refer to Item 1: “Business – Our Principal Agreements,” included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Casualty and impairment gains or losses. Casualty losses are expenses that represent losses incurred resulting from property damage or destruction caused by any sudden, unexpected or unusual event such as a hurricane. Casualty gains are insurance proceeds for property damage claims that are in excess of any associated impairment loss recognized and clean-up and recovery costs incurred, less any insurance deductible. Impairment losses are non-cash expenses that are recognized when circumstances indicate that the carrying value of a long-lived asset is not recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized for the excess of the carrying value over the fair value of the asset.
Depreciation and amortization. These are non-cash expenses that primarily consist of depreciation of fixed assets such as buildings, furniture, fixtures and equipment at our hotels, as well as amortization of finite lived intangible assets.
Corporate general & administrative. These costs include general and administrative expenses, including costs associated with the potential disposition of hotels. General and administrative expenses consist primarily of compensation expense for our corporate staff and personnel supporting our business, professional fees, travel and entertainment expenses, and office administrative and related expenses.
Other. These costs include costs to provide support services to certain HGV timeshare properties located at some of our hotel properties.
Factors Affecting our Costs and Expenses
Variable expenses. Expenses associated with our room expense and food and beverage expense are mainly affected by occupancy and correlate closely with their respective revenues. These expenses can increase based on increases in salaries and wages, as well as on the level of service and amenities that are provided. Additionally, food and beverage expense is affected by the mix of business between banquet, catering and outlet sales.
Fixed expenses. Many of the other expenses associated with our hotels are relatively fixed. These expenses include portions of rent expense, property taxes and insurance. Since we generally are unable to decrease these costs significantly or rapidly when demand for our hotels decreases, any resulting decline in our revenues can have a greater adverse effect on our net cash flow, margins and profits. This effect can be especially pronounced during periods of economic contraction or slow economic growth. The effectiveness of any cost-cutting efforts is limited by the amount of fixed costs inherent in our business. As a result, we may not be able to successfully offset revenue reductions through cost cutting. The individuals employed at certain of our hotels are party to collective bargaining agreements with our hotel managers that may also limit the manager’s ability to make timely staffing or labor changes in response to declining revenues. In addition, any efforts to reduce costs, or to defer or cancel capital improvements, could adversely affect the economic value of our hotels. We have taken steps to reduce our fixed costs to levels we believe are appropriate to maximize profitability and respond to market conditions without jeopardizing the overall customer experience or the value of our hotels.
Changes in depreciation and amortization expense. Changes in depreciation expense are due to renovations of existing hotels, acquisition or development of new hotels, the disposition of existing hotels through sale or closure or
37

changes in estimates of the useful lives of our assets. As we place new assets into service, we will be required to recognize additional depreciation expense on those assets.
Key Business Metrics Used by Management
Occupancy
Occupancy represents the total number of room nights sold divided by the total number of room nights available at a hotel or group of hotels. Occupancy measures the utilization of our hotels’ available capacity. We use occupancy to gauge demand at a specific hotel or group of hotels in a given period. Occupancy levels also help us determine achievable ADR levels as demand for rooms increases or decreases.
Average Daily Rate
ADR represents rooms revenue divided by total number of room nights sold in a given period. ADR measures average room price attained by a hotel and ADR trends provide useful information concerning the pricing environment and the nature of the customer base of a hotel or group of hotels. ADR is a commonly used performance measure in the hotel industry, and we use ADR to assess pricing levels that we are able to generate by type of customer, as changes in rates have a more pronounced effect on overall revenues and incremental profitability than changes in occupancy, as described above.
Revenue per Available Room
RevPAR represents rooms revenue divided by the total number of room nights available to guests for a given period. We consider RevPAR to be a meaningful indicator of our performance as it provides a metric correlated to two primary and key factors of operations at a hotel or group of hotels: occupancy and ADR. RevPAR is also a useful indicator in measuring performance over comparable periods.
Comparable Hotels Data
We present certain data for our hotels on a comparable hotel basis as supplemental information for investors. We present comparable hotel results to help us and our investors evaluate the ongoing performance of our comparable hotels. Our comparable hotels data includes results from hotels that were active and operating in our portfolio since January 1st of the previous year and excludes results from property dispositions that have occurred through December 31, 2023.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We also evaluate the performance of our business through certain other financial measures that are not recognized under U.S. GAAP. Each of these non-GAAP financial measures should be considered by investors as supplemental measures to GAAP performance measures such as total revenues, operating profit and net income (loss).
EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA
EBITDA, presented herein, reflects net income (loss) excluding depreciation and amortization, interest income, interest expense, income taxes and also interest expense, income tax and depreciation and amortization included in equity in earnings (losses) from investments in affiliates.
Adjusted EBITDA, presented herein, is calculated as EBITDA, further adjusted to exclude the following items that are not reflective of our ongoing operating performance or incurred in the normal course of business, and thus, excluded from management's analysis in making day-to-day operating decisions and evaluations of our operating performance against other companies within our industry:
Gains or losses on sales of assets for both consolidated and unconsolidated investments;
Costs associated with hotel acquisitions or dispositions expensed during the period;
Severance expense;
Share-based compensation expense;
Impairment losses and casualty gains or losses; and
Other items that we believe are not representative of our current or future operating performance.
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Hotel Adjusted EBITDA measures hotel-level results before debt service, depreciation and corporate expenses for our consolidated hotels, which excludes hotels owned by unconsolidated affiliates, and is a key measure of our profitability. We present Hotel Adjusted EBITDA to help us and our investors evaluate the ongoing operating performance of our consolidated hotels.
EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA are not recognized terms under U.S. GAAP and should not be considered as alternatives to net income (loss) or other measures of financial performance or liquidity derived in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In addition, our definitions of EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies.
We believe that EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA provide useful information to investors about us and our financial condition and results of operations for the following reasons: (i) EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA are among the measures used by our management team to make day-to-day operating decisions and evaluate our operating performance between periods and between REITs by removing the effect of our capital structure (primarily interest expense) and asset base (primarily depreciation and amortization) from our operating results; and (ii) EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA are frequently used by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties as a common performance measure to compare results or estimate valuations across companies in our industry.
EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA have limitations as analytical tools and should not be considered either in isolation or as a substitute for net income (loss) or other methods of analyzing our operating performance and results as reported under U.S. GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect our interest expense;
EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect our income tax expense;
EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect the effect on earnings or changes resulting from matters that we consider not to be indicative of our future operations; and
other companies in our industry may calculate EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA differently, limiting their usefulness as comparative measures.
We do not use or present EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA as measures of our liquidity or cash flow. These measures have limitations as analytical tools and should not be considered either in isolation or as a substitute for cash flow or other methods of analyzing our cash flows and liquidity as reported under U.S. GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;
EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments, on our indebtedness;
EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect the cash requirements to pay our taxes;
EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect historical cash expenditures or future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments; and
although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized will often have to be replaced in the future, and EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect any cash requirements for such replacements.
39

Because of these limitations, EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Hotel Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as discretionary cash available to us to reinvest in the growth of our business or as measures of cash that will be available to us to meet our obligations.
The following table provides a reconciliation of Net income to Hotel Adjusted EBITDA:
 Year Ended December 31,
 20232022
 
(in millions)
Net income$106 $173 
Depreciation and amortization expense287 269 
Interest income(38)(13)
Interest expense207 217 
Interest expense associated with hotels in receivership45 30 
Income tax expense38 — 
Interest expense, income tax and depreciation and amortization included in equity in earnings from investments in affiliates
EBITDA653 685 
Gain on sales of assets, net(1)
(15)(22)
Gain on derecognition of assets(2)
(221)— 
Gain on sale of investments in affiliates(3)
(3)(92)
Share-based compensation expense18 17 
Impairment and casualty loss204 
Other items23 12 
Adjusted EBITDA659 606 
Less: Adjusted EBITDA from investments in affiliates(24)(25)
Add: All other(4)
51 49 
Hotel Adjusted EBITDA$686 $630 
____________________________________________________________________________________
(1)For the year ended December 31, 2022, includes a gain of $9 million on the sale of the DoubleTree Las Vegas Hotel included in equity in earnings (losses) from investments in affiliates.
(2)For the year ended December 31, 2023, represents the gain from derecognizing the Hilton San Francisco Hotels from our consolidated balance sheet in October 2023, when the receiver took control of the hotels.
(3)Included in other gain (loss), net.
(4)Includes other revenues and other expenses, non-income taxes on TRS leases included in other property expenses and corporate general and administrative expenses.
Nareit FFO attributable to stockholders and Adjusted FFO attributable to stockholders
We present Nareit FFO attributable to stockholders and Nareit FFO per diluted share (defined as set forth below) as non-GAAP measures of our performance. We calculate funds from (used in) operations (“FFO”) attributable to stockholders for a given operating period in accordance with standards established by the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (“Nareit”), as net income (loss) attributable to stockholders (calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP), excluding depreciation and amortization, gains or losses on sales of assets, impairment, and the cumulative effect of changes in accounting principles, plus adjustments for unconsolidated joint ventures. Adjustments for unconsolidated joint ventures are calculated to reflect our pro rata share of the FFO of those entities on the same basis. As noted by Nareit in its December 2018 “Nareit Funds from Operations White Paper – 2018 Restatement,” since real estate values historically have risen or fallen with market conditions, many industry investors have considered presentation of operating results for real estate companies that use historical cost accounting to be insufficient by themselves. For these reasons, Nareit adopted the FFO metric in order to promote an industry-wide measure of REIT operating performance. We believe Nareit FFO provides useful information to investors regarding our operating performance and can facilitate comparisons of operating performance between periods and between REITs. Our presentation may not be comparable to FFO reported by other REITs that do not define the terms in accordance with the current Nareit definition, or that interpret the current Nareit
40

definition differently than we do. We calculate Nareit FFO per diluted share as our Nareit FFO divided by the number of fully diluted shares outstanding during a given operating period.
We also present Adjusted FFO attributable to stockholders and Adjusted FFO per diluted share when evaluating our performance because we believe that the exclusion of certain additional items described below provides useful supplemental information to investors regarding our ongoing operating performance. Management historically has made the adjustments detailed below in evaluating our performance and in our annual budget process. We believe that the presentation of Adjusted FFO provides useful supplemental information that is beneficial to an investor’s complete understanding of our operating performance. We adjust Nareit FFO attributable to stockholders for the following items, which may occur in any period, and refer to this measure as Adjusted FFO attributable to stockholders:
Costs associated with hotel acquisitions or dispositions expensed during the period;
Severance expense;
Share-based compensation expense;
Casualty gains or losses; and
Other items that we believe are not representative of our current or future operating performance.
The following table provides a reconciliation of Net income attributable to stockholders to Nareit FFO attributable to stockholders and Adjusted FFO attributable to stockholders:
 Year Ended December 31,
 20232022
 
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Net income attributable to stockholders$97 $162 
Depreciation and amortization expense287 269 
Depreciation and amortization expense attributable to noncontrolling interests(4)(4)
Gain on sales of assets, net(15)(13)
Gain on derecognition of assets(1)
(221)— 
Gain on sale of investments in affiliates(2)
(3)(92)
Impairment loss202 — 
Equity investment adjustments:
Equity in earnings from investments in affiliates(11)(15)
Pro rata FFO of investments in affiliates14 12 
Nareit FFO attributable to stockholders346 319 
Casualty loss
Share-based compensation expense18 17 
Interest expense associated with hotels in receivership(3)
20 — 
Other items(4)
53 10 
Adjusted FFO attributable to stockholders$439 $352 
Nareit FFO per share – Diluted(5)
$1.61 $1.40 
Adjusted FFO per share – Diluted(5)
$2.04 $1.54 
____________________________________________________________________________________
(1)For the year ended December 31, 2023, represents the gain from derecognizing the Hilton San Francisco Hotels from our consolidated balance sheet in October 2023, when the receiver took control of the hotels.
(2)Included in other gain (loss), net.
(3)Reflects incremental default interest expense and late payment administrative fees associated with the default of the SF Mortgage Loan beginning in June 2023 and all interest expense that has accrued since the Hilton San Francisco Hotels were placed into receivership at the end of October 2023.
(4)For the year ended December 31, 2023, includes $28 million of income tax expense associated with the effective exit from the Hilton San Francisco Hotels.
(5)Per share amounts are calculated based on unrounded numbers.
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Results of Operations
Property dispositions have had a significant effect on the year-over-year comparability of our operations as further illustrated in the table of Hotel Revenues and Operating Expenses below. Our non-comparable hotels consists of one hotel sold and one hotel returned to the lessor upon early termination of the ground lease during 2023, five consolidated hotels sold during 2022 and the two Hilton San Francisco Hotels, which were placed into receivership at the end of October 2023. The results of operations of these hotels are included in our consolidated results only during our period of ownership. Changes in our operating revenues and expenses from these non-comparable hotels are shown below.
Hotel Revenues and Operating Expenses
 Year Ended December 31,  Change from Non-Comparable Hotels
 20232022Change
Change from Comparable Hotels(1)
Change from the San Francisco HotelsChange from Other Non-Comparable Hotels
 (in millions)
Rooms revenue$1,653 $1,559 $94 $122 $14 $(42)
Food and beverage revenue696 606 90 98 (10)
Ancillary hotel revenue264 261 (1)(2)
Rooms expense449 408 41 48 (9)
Food and beverage expense501 449 52 58 — (6)
Other departmental and support expense635 613 22 40 (1)(17)
Other property expense241 223 18 21 (4)
Management fees expense126 115 11 11 (1)
____________________________________________________________________________________
(1)Change from our comparable hotels primarily relates to the market-specific conditions discussed below.
Group, transient, contract and other rooms revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023, as well as the change for each segment compared to 2022 are as follows:
 Year Ended December 31,Change from Non-Comparable Hotels
 20232022Change
Change from Comparable Hotels(1)
Change from the San Francisco Hotels
Change from Non-Comparable Hotels
 (in millions)
Group rooms revenue$480 $403 $77 $67 $15 $(5)
Transient rooms revenue1,043 1,052 (9)31 (7)(33)
Contract rooms revenue92 71 21 19 (3)
Other rooms revenue38 33 (1)
Rooms revenue$1,653 $1,559 $94 $122 $14 $(42)
____________________________________________________________________________________
(1)Change from our comparable hotels primarily relates to the market-specific conditions discussed below.
Market-Specific Conditions
The increases in hotel revenues and operating expenses from our comparable hotels were primarily a result of significant occupancy increases in certain of our largest markets. During the year ended December 31, 2023, our Hawaii, New York, Chicago, New Orleans, Washington, D.C. and Boston markets experienced the most significant changes compared to the same period in 2022. Combined occupancy and ADR at our two Hawaii hotels increased 5.8 percentage points and 3.8%, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to same period in 2022, driven by increases in group and domestic transient demand primarily at the Hilton Hawaiian Village Waikiki Beach Resort, which experienced increases in both occupancy and ADR of 5.4 percentage points and 5.0%, respectively. The New York Hilton Midtown benefited from increases in group and transient demand resulting in increases in occupancy of 18.9 percentage
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points for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022. Combined occupancy at our Chicago hotels increased 6.5 percentage points for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022 due to increases in transient and group demand, which also drove a 25% increase in food and beverage revenue at the Hilton Chicago. Occupancy at our New Orleans hotel increased 4.3 percentage points for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022 driven by increases in group demand, which also resulted in an increase in food and beverage revenue of 25%. Combined occupancy and ADR at our Washington D.C. hotels increased 8.4 percentage points and 12.2%, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022 driven by increases in both group and transient demand. Combined occupancy and ADR at our Boston hotels increased 4.4 percentage points and 7.1%, respectively for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022 driven by increases in both group and transient demand.

During the year ended December 31, 2023, hotel revenues and operating expenses for the Casa Marina Key West, Curio Collection, decreased $31 million and $11 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022 as the hotel's operations were suspended, or partially suspended, due to renovations from May 2023 through December 2023.
Other revenue and Other operating expense
During the year ended December 31, 2023, other revenue increased by $10 million and other operating expense increased by $11 million due to an increase in business and related costs that are allocated to HGV pursuant to service arrangements with certain of our hotels.
Corporate general and administrative
 Year Ended December 31,
 20232022
Percent Change
 (in millions)
General and administrative expenses$45 $43 4.7 %
Share-based compensation expense18 17 5.9 %
Other items(33.3)%
Total corporate general and administrative$65 $63 3.2 %
Impairment and casualty loss
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we recognized an impairment loss of approximately $202 million. Refer to Note 8: "Fair Value Measurements" in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere within this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
In September 2022, Hurricanes Ian and Fiona caused minimal damage and disruption at our hotels in Florida and Puerto Rico, respectively, and we recognized a casualty loss of approximately $5 million for costs to repair and remediate damage at these hotels.
Gain (loss) on sales of assets, net
During the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, we recognized a net gain of $15 million and $13 million, respectively, primarily as a result of the sales of our consolidated hotels.
Gain on derecognition of assets
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we recognized a gain of $221 million from the derecognition of the Hilton San Francisco Hotels from our consolidated balance sheet in October 2023, when the receiver took control of the hotels. Refer to Note 7: "Debt" in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere within this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Non-operating Income and Expenses
Interest income
Interest income increased $25 million during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022 as a result of an increase in interest rates, which more than offset a decrease in average cash balances.
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Interest expense
Interest expense decreased $10 million during the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the same period in 2022 due to the full repayments in December 2022 of our unsecured delayed draw term loan facility ("2019 Term Facility") and the $26 million mortgage loan secured by the Hilton Checkers, as well as the full repayment of the $75 million mortgage loan secured by the W Chicago - City Center in June 2023, partially offset by $50 million of borrowings under our Revolver in December 2022, which was subsequently repaid in February 2023. Interest expense associated with our debt for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 were as follows:
 Year Ended December 31,
 20232022Percent Change
 (in millions)
HHV Mortgage Loan(1)
$55 $55 — %
Other mortgage loans19 21 (9.5)%
Revolver33.3 %
2019 Term Facility(2)
— (100.0)%
2025 Senior Notes(3)
49 49 — %
2028 Senior Notes(3)
43 43 — %
2029 Senior Notes(3)
36 36 — %
Other(85.7)%
Total interest expense$207 $217 (4.6)%
____________________________________________________________________________________
(1)In October 2016, we entered into a $1.275 billion CMBS loan secured by the Hilton Hawaiian Village Waikiki Beach Resort (“HHV Mortgage Loan”).
(2) In December 2022, we fully repaid our 2019 Term Facility.
(3)In May and September 2020, Park Intermediate Holdings LLC (our “Operating Company”), PK Domestic Property LLC, an indirect subsidiary of the Company (“PK Domestic”), and PK Finance Co-Issuer Inc. (“PK Finance”) issued an aggregate of $650 million of senior notes due 2025 (“2025 Senior Notes”) and an aggregate of $725 million of senior notes due 2028 (“2028 Senior Notes”), respectively. Additionally, in May 2021, our Operating Company, PK Domestic and PK Finance issued an aggregate of $750 million senior notes due 2029 ("2029 Senior Notes," collectively with the 2025 Senior Notes and 2028 Senior Notes, the "Senior Notes").
Our current debt outstanding is approximately $3.8 billion, excluding the SF Mortgage Loan, at a weighted average interest rate of 5.2%, all of which is fixed-rate debt, refer to Item 7A: “Interest Rate Risk” and Note 7: "Debt" in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere within this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Interest expense associated with hotels in receivership
Interest expense on the SF Mortgage Loan increased $15 million due to accrued default interest beginning in June 2023 when we ceased making payments on the loan. The stated rate on the loan is 4.11%, however, beginning June 1, 2023, the default interest rate on the loan is 7.11%. Additionally, beginning June 1, 2023, the loan accrues a monthly late payment administrative fee of 3% of the monthly amount due.
Other gain (loss), net
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we recognized a gain of approximately $4 million primarily due to an early termination fee received from the lessor to terminate the lease for the Embassy Suites Phoenix Airport hotel.
During the year ended December 31, 2022, we recognized a gain of $96 million, which is primarily due to the sale of our ownership interests in the joint ventures that own and operate the Hilton San Diego Bayfront. Refer to Note 3: "Acquisitions and Dispositions" in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere within this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
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Income tax expense
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we recognized income tax expense of $38 million, primarily related to the effective exit from the Hilton San Francisco Hotels in October 2023, which resulted in incremental income tax expense of $28 million. The remaining income tax expense is primarily related to our TRSs.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Overview
We seek to maintain sufficient amounts of liquidity with an appropriate balance of cash, debt and equity to provide financial flexibility. As of December 31, 2023, we had total cash and cash equivalents of $717 million and $33 million of restricted cash. Restricted cash primarily consists of cash restricted as to use by our debt agreements and reserves for capital expenditures in accordance with certain of our management agreements.
Throughout 2023, we continued to experience improvements in overall demand across our portfolio and expect the improvement to continue through 2024 based on current demand trends, including an increase in city-wide events and from international travel. We continue to mitigate the effects of macroeconomic and inflationary pressures through active asset management.
With approximately $950 million available under our Revolver and $717 million in existing cash and cash equivalents, we have sufficient liquidity to pay our debt maturities and to fund other liquidity obligations over the next 12 months and beyond. We fully repaid the $75 million mortgage loan secured by the W Chicago - City Center in June 2023 and the $50 million of borrowings under our Revolver in February 2023. Excluding the SF Mortgage Loan for which we ceased to make debt service payments in June 2023 and is in default, we have no significant maturities until June 2025. Refer to Note 7: "Debt" in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere within this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information on the SF Mortgage Loan. We may also take actions to improve our liquidity, such as the issuance of additional debt, equity or equity-linked securities, if we determine that doing so would be beneficial to us. However, there can be no assurance as to the timing of any such issuance, which may be in the near term, or that any such additional financing will be completed on favorable terms, or at all.
Our known short-term liquidity requirements primarily consist of funds necessary to pay for operating expenses and other expenditures, including reimbursements to our hotel manager for payroll and related benefits, costs associated with the operation of our hotels, interest and contractually due principal payments on our outstanding indebtedness, capital expenditures for in-progress renovations and maintenance at our hotels, corporate general and administrative expenses and dividends to our stockholders. During 2023, we declared dividends of $2.15 per share, including dividends of $1.70 per share during the fourth quarter of 2023, which was paid on January 16, 2024, consisting of a special cash dividend of $0.77 per share from the effective exit from the Hilton San Francisco Hotels and our fourth quarterly dividend of $0.93 based on 2023 operating results. In addition, we declared a first quarter dividend of $0.25 per share in February 2024 to be paid on April 15, 2024 to stockholders of record as of March 29, 2024. Many of the other expenses associated with our hotels are relatively fixed, including portions of rent expense, property taxes and insurance. Since we generally are unable to decrease these costs significantly or rapidly when demand for our hotels decreases, the resulting decline in our revenues can have a greater adverse effect on our net cash flow, margins and profits. Our long-term liquidity requirements primarily consist of funds necessary to pay for scheduled debt maturities, capital improvements at our hotels, and costs associated with potential acquisitions.
Our commitments to fund capital expenditures for renovations and maintenance at our hotels will be funded by cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash to the extent permitted by our lending agreements and cash flow from operations. We have construction contract commitments of approximately $90 million for capital expenditures at our properties, of which $16 million relates to projects at the Bonnet Creek complex, including the meeting space expansion project and renovation of guestrooms, existing meeting space, lobbies, golf course and other recreational amenities, and $10 million relates to the complete renovation of all guestrooms, public spaces, and certain hotel infrastructure at the Casa Marina Key West, Curio Collection. Our contracts contain clauses that allow us to cancel all or some portion of the work. Additionally, we have established reserves for capital expenditures (“FF&E reserve”) in accordance with our management and certain debt agreements. Generally, these agreements require that we fund 4% of hotel revenues into an FF&E reserve, unless such amounts have been incurred.
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Our cash management objectives continue to be to maintain the availability of liquidity, minimize operational costs, make debt payments and fund our capital expenditure programs and future acquisitions. Further, we have an investment policy that is focused on the preservation of capital and maximizing the return on new and existing investments.
Stock Repurchase Program
In February 2023, our Board terminated a previous $300 million stock repurchase program that was approved in February 2022 (the "February 2022 Stock Repurchase Program") and authorized and approved a new stock repurchase program allowing us to repurchase up to $300 million of our common stock over a two-year period ending in February 2025 (the "February 2023 Stock Repurchase Program" and collectively with the February 2022 Stock Repurchase Program the "Stock Repurchase Programs"), subject to any applicable limitations or restrictions set forth in our credit facility and indentures related to our senior notes. Stock repurchases may be made through open market purchases, including through Rule 10b5-1 trading programs, in privately negotiated transactions, or in such other manner that would comply with applicable securities laws. The timing of any future stock repurchases and the number of shares to be repurchased will depend upon prevailing market conditions and other factors, and we may suspend the repurchase program at any time. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we repurchased in aggregate under the Stock Repurchase Programs approximately 14.6 million shares of our common stock for a total purchase price of $180 million, and as of December 31, 2023, $150 million remained available for stock repurchases under the February 2023 Stock Repurchase Program.
Sources and Uses of Our Cash and Cash Equivalents
The following tables summarize our net cash flows and key metrics related to our liquidity:
 Year Ended December 31,
 20232022
Percent Change
 
(in millions)
Net cash provided by operating activities$503 $409 23.0 %
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities(217)87 349.4 %
Net cash used in financing activities(475)(320)48.4 %
Operating Activities
Cash flow provided by operating activities are primarily generated from the operating income generated at our hotels. The $94 million increase in net cash provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily due to an increase in cash from operations as a result of an increase in occupancy at our hotels, a decrease in cash paid for interest of $30 million, primarily due to the cessation of debt service payments toward the SF Mortgage Loan, and an increase in interest income of $25 million due to an increase in interest rates.
Investing Activities
The $217 million in net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2023 was primarily attributable to $296 million in capital expenditures and land acquisitions and a $30 million reduction of restricted cash associated with the derecognition of the Hilton San Francisco hotels, partially offset by $116 million of net proceeds from the sale of one of our hotels.
The $87 million in net cash provided by investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily attributable to $244 million of net proceeds from the sale of five of our consolidated hotels and our ownership interests in the joint ventures that own and operate one hotel in addition to $11 million in distributions from the joint venture that sold one of our unconsolidated hotels, partially offset by $168 million in capital expenditures.
Financing Activities
The $475 million in net cash used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2023 was primarily attributable to the repurchase of approximately 14.6 million shares of our common stock for approximately $180 million, $152 million of dividends paid and $133 million of debt repayments.
The $320 million in net cash used in financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily attributable to the repurchase of approximately 12.7 million shares of our common stock for $227 million and $142 million
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of debt repayments, partially offset by $50 million of borrowings under our Revolver and $30 million of proceeds from refinanced mortgage debt for one of our consolidated joint ventures.
Dividends
As a REIT, we are required to distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the deduction for dividends paid and excluding net capital gains, to our stockholders on an annual basis. Therefore, as a general matter, after consideration of the allowable use of our net operating loss carryforward, we intend to make distributions of all, or substantially all, of our REIT taxable income (including net capital gains) to our stockholders, and, as a result, we will generally not be required to pay tax on our income. Consequently, before consideration of the use of any net operating loss carryforward, it is unlikely that we will be able to retain substantial cash balances that could be used to meet our liquidity needs from our annual taxable income. Instead, we will need to meet these needs from external sources of capital and amounts, if any, by which our cash flow generated from operations exceeds taxable income.
We declared the following dividends to holders of our common stock during 2023:
Record Date Payment DateDividend per Share
March 31, 2023April 17, 2023$0.15 
June 30, 2023July 17, 2023$0.15 
September 29, 2023October 16, 2023$0.15 
December 29, 2023
January 16, 2024(1)
$1.70 
____________________________________________________________________________________
(1)    Of the full $1.70 per share payment, $0.93 per share represented the quarterly dividend for the fourth quarter based on 2023 results of operations. The remaining $0.77 per share was attributable to the required distribution from the effective exit from the Hilton San Francisco Hotels.
Debt
As of December 31, 2023, our total indebtedness was approximately $3.8 billion, including approximately $2.1 billion of our Senior Notes, and excluding both the $725 million SF Mortgage Loan on which we ceased making debt service payments in June 2023 and approximately $164 million of our share of debt from investments in affiliates. Substantially all the debt of such unconsolidated affiliates is secured solely by the affiliates’ assets or is guaranteed by other partners without recourse to us. Refer to Note 7: "Debt" in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere within this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
Critical Accounting Estimates
The preparation of our financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of our financial statements, the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods and the related disclosures in our historical consolidated financial statements and accompanying footnotes. We believe that of our significant accounting policies, which are described in Note 2: "Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere within this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the following accounting policies are critical because they involve a higher degree of judgment, and the estimates required to be made were based on assumptions that are inherently uncertain. As a result, these accounting policies could materially affect our financial position, results of operations and related disclosures. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate these estimates and judgments based on historical experiences and various other factors that are believed to reflect the current circumstances. While we believe our estimates, assumptions and judgments are reasonable, they are based on information presently available. Actual results may differ significantly from these estimates due to changes in judgments, assumptions and conditions as a result of unforeseen events or otherwise, which could have a material effect on our financial position or results of operations.
Acquisitions
We evaluate each of our acquisitions to determine if it is as an asset acquisition or a business combination. An asset acquisition occurs when substantially all the fair value of an acquisition is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets. In an acquisition of assets, the total cash consideration, including transaction costs is allocated to the individual assets acquired and liabilities assumed, respectively, on a relative fair value basis. In a business combination, the assets acquired and liabilities assumed are measured at fair value. We evaluate several factors, including market data for similar assets, expected future cash flows discounted at risk-adjusted rates and replacement cost
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for the assets to determine an appropriate fair value of the assets. Changes to these factors could affect the measurement of assets and liabilities.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets with Finite Lives
We evaluate the carrying value of our property and equipment and intangible assets with finite lives by comparing the expected undiscounted future cash flows to the net book value of the assets if we determine there are indicators of potential impairment. If it is determined that the expected undiscounted future cash flows are less than the net book value of the assets, the excess of the net book value over the estimated fair value is recorded in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss) as an impairment loss.
As part of the process described above, we exercise judgment to:
determine if there are indicators of impairment present. Factors we consider when making this determination include assessing the overall effect of trends in the hospitality industry and the general economy, historical experience, capital costs and other asset-specific information;
determine the projected undiscounted future cash flows when indicators of impairment are present. Judgment is required when developing projections of future revenues and expenses based on estimated growth rates over the expected hold period of the asset group. These estimated growth rates are based on historical operating results, as well as various internal projections and external sources; and
determine the asset fair value when required. In determining the fair value, we often use internally-developed discounted cash flow models. Assumptions used in the discounted cash flow models include estimating cash flows, which may require us to adjust for specific market conditions, as well as capitalization rates, which are based on location, property or asset type, market-specific dynamics and overall economic performance. The discount rate takes into account our weighted average cost of capital according to our capital structure and other market specific considerations.
Changes in estimates and assumptions used in our impairment testing of property and equipment and intangible assets with finite lives could result in future impairment losses, which could be material.
We did not identify any additional property and equipment and intangible assets with finite lives with indicators of impairment for which an additional 10% change in our estimates of undiscounted future cash flows or other significant assumptions would result in material impairment losses.
Income Taxes
We use a prescribed more-likely-than-not recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return if there is uncertainty in income taxes recognized in the financial statements. Assumptions and estimates are used to determine the more-likely-than-not designation. Changes to these assumptions and estimates can lead to an additional income tax expense (benefit), which can materially change our consolidated financial statements.
Consolidation
We use judgment when evaluating whether we have a controlling financial interest in an entity, including the assessment of the importance of rights and privileges of the partners based on voting rights, as well as financial interests in an entity that are not controllable through voting interests. If the entity is considered to be a variable interest entity (“VIE”), we use judgment determining whether we are the primary beneficiary, and then consolidate those VIEs for which we have determined we are the primary beneficiary. If the entity in which we hold an interest does not meet the definition of a VIE, we evaluate whether we have a controlling financial interest through our voting interest in the entity. Changes to judgments used in evaluating our partnerships and other investments could materially affect our consolidated financial statements.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
We are exposed to market risk primarily from changes in interest rates, which may affect our future income, cash flows and fair value, depending on changes to interest rates. In certain situations, we may seek to reduce cash flow volatility associated with changes in interest rates by entering into financial arrangements intended to provide a hedge against a portion of the risks associated with such volatility.
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Interest Rate Risk
As of December 31, 2023, there was no variable rate debt outstanding as we have no outstanding borrowings under our Revolver, which is our only variable-rate debt. Borrowings under our Revolver bear interest based on the secured overnight financing rate ("SOFR"). Our future interest rate risk may be affected by any future borrowings under our Revolver prior to the December 1, 2026 maturity date.
The following table sets forth the contractual maturities and the total fair values as of December 31, 2023 for our financial instruments:
Maturities by Period
   
2024(1)
2025202620272028
Thereafter
Carrying
Value
Fair
Value
(in millions, excluding average interest rate)
Liabilities:
Fixed-rate debt$61 $657 $1,563 $30 $725 $750 $3,786 $3,626 
Average interest rate4.83 %7.47 %4.20 %5.37 %5.88 %4.88 %5.24 %
___________________________________________________________________________________
(1)Excludes the SF Mortgage Loan.
Refer to Note 7: "Debt" in our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
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Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
Management of Park Hotels & Resorts Inc. (the “Company”) is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The Company’s internal control over financial reporting is designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The Company's internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of the Company’s management and directors; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of assets of the Company that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Management has assessed the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023. In making this assessment, management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013). Based on this assessment, management determined that the Company maintained effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023.
Ernst & Young LLP, the independent registered public accounting firm that has audited the consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, has issued an attestation report on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023. The report is included herein.
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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Park Hotels & Resorts Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Park Hotels & Resorts Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss), cash flows and equity for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15 (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework), and our report dated February 28, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

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Assessment of Property and Equipment for Impairment
Description of the Matter
The Company had property and equipment, net of $7,459 million as of December 31, 2023 and recognized an impairment loss of approximately $202 million during the year ended December 31, 2023 as disclosed in Note 4 of the consolidated financial statements. As discussed in Note 2 of the consolidated financial statements, property and equipment is evaluated for recoverability based on expected undiscounted future cash flows if there are indicators of impairment. If it is determined that the expected undiscounted future cash flows are less than the net book value of the asset group, the excess of the net book value over the estimated fair value is recorded within impairment losses.
Auditing management’s assessment of impairment of property and equipment was complex and highly judgmental due to the significant estimation required in determining the timing and amount of expected undiscounted future cash flows as well as capitalization and discount rates used to assess properties for impairment. In particular, the expected future cash flows are based on significant estimates, including projections of future income and estimated growth rates. Further, a fair value measurement is highly sensitive to changes in capitalization and discount rates, that are estimated based on future economic and market conditions.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design, and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company’s review process for evaluating property and equipment for impairment, including controls over management’s review of the significant assumptions described above.
Our testing of the Company’s impairment assessment included, among other procedures, evaluating the significant assumptions and testing the completeness and accuracy of the underlying data used by the Company to develop the expected future cash flows for their properties. We compared the significant assumptions, including discount rates, growth rates and capitalization rates, used by management to current industry and economic trends, and changes to the Company’s strategy. We assessed the historical accuracy of management’s estimates and performed sensitivity analyses of significant assumptions to evaluate changes in the expected future cash flows that would result from changes in the assumptions. We also involved our valuation specialists to assist in our evaluation of the assumptions used in management's estimates of fair value.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2016.
Tysons, Virginia
February 28, 2024
53

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Park Hotels & Resorts Inc.
Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited Park Hotels & Resorts Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the COSO criteria). In our opinion, Park Hotels & Resorts Inc. (the Company) maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on the COSO criteria.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of comprehensive income (loss), cash flows and equity for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15 and our report dated February 28, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ Ernst & Young LLP
Tysons, Virginia
February 28, 2024
54

PARK HOTELS & RESORTS INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in millions, except share and per share data)
 December 31,
20232022
ASSETS
Property and equipment, net$7,459 $8,301 
Contract asset760  
Intangibles, net42 43 
Cash and cash equivalents717 906 
Restricted cash33 33 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $3 and $2
112 129 
Prepaid expenses59 58 
Other assets40 47 
Operating lease right-of-use assets197 214 
TOTAL ASSETS (variable interest entities $236 and $237)
$9,419 $9,731 
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY
Liabilities
Debt$3,765 $3,892 
Debt associated with hotels in receivership725 725 
Accrued interest associated with hotels in receivership35  
Accounts payable and accrued expenses210 220 
Dividends payable362 56 
Due to hotel managers131 141 
Other liabilities200 172 
Operating lease liabilities223 234 
Total liabilities (variable interest entities $218 and $219)
5,651 5,440 
Commitments and contingencies – refer to Note 15 
Stockholders' Equity
Common stock, par value $0.01 per share, 6,000,000,000 shares authorized, 210,676,264 shares issued and 209,987,581 shares outstanding as of December 31, 2023 and 224,573,858 shares issued and 224,061,745 shares outstanding as of December 31, 2022
2 2 
Additional paid-in capital4,156 4,321 
(Accumulated deficit) retained earnings(344)16 
Total stockholders' equity3,814 4,339 
Noncontrolling interests(46)(48)
Total equity3,768 4,291 
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND EQUITY$9,419 $9,731 
Refer to the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
55

PARK HOTELS & RESORTS INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(in millions, except per share data)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Revenues
Rooms$1,653 $1,559 $870 
Food and beverage696 606 251 
Ancillary hotel264 261 190 
Other85 75 51 
Total revenues2,698 2,501 1,362 
Operating expenses
Rooms449 408 254 
Food and beverage501 449 208 
Other departmental and support635 613 423 
Other property241 223 191 
Management fees126 115 59 
Impairment and casualty loss204 6 9 
Depreciation and amortization287 269 281 
Corporate general and administrative65 63 62 
Other83 72 49 
Total expenses2,591 2,218 1,536 
Gain (loss) on sales of assets, net15 13 (5)
Gain on derecognition of assets221   
Operating income (loss)343 296 (179)
Interest income38 13 1 
Interest expense(207)(217)(228)
Interest expense associated with hotels in receivership(45)(30)(30)
Equity in earnings (losses) from investments in affiliates11 15 (7)
Other gain (loss), net4 96 (7)
Income (loss) before income taxes144 173 (450)
Income tax expense(38) (2)
Net income (loss)106 173 (452)
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests(9)(11)(7)
Net income (loss) attributable to stockholders$97 $162 $(459)
Other comprehensive income, net of tax expense:
Change in fair value of interest rate swap, net of tax expense of $0
$ $ $2 
Loss from interest rate swap reclassified into earnings  2 
Total other comprehensive income