Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Pinnacle West Capital
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$90.93 112 $10,190
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
8-K 2019-02-22 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-15 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-09 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-19 Officers, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-18 Enter Agreement, Officers
8-K 2018-11-09 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-08 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-06 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-02 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-24 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-10 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-07 Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-03 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-12 Enter Agreement, Leave Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement
8-K 2018-07-09 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-29 Enter Agreement
8-K 2018-06-28 Enter Agreement, Leave Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement
8-K 2018-06-13 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-17 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-16 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-04-09 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-03-20 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-21 Officers
8-K 2018-02-15 Officers
8-K 2018-01-22 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-10 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-03 Other Events
AEP American Electric Power
EIX Edison
KEP Korea Electric Power
ETR Entergy
HNP Huaneng Power
CPL Cpfl Energy
OGE Oklahoma Gas & Electric
POR Portland General Electric
MGEE MGE Energy
AT Atlantic Power
PNW 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrants' Common Equity, Related
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership Of
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related
Item 14. Principal Accountant
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
EX-10.4.2 pnw20181231exhibit1042.htm
EX-10.4.3 pnw20181231exhibit1043.htm
EX-10.6.4 pnw20181231exhibit1064.htm
EX-10.11.1 pnw20181231exhibit10111.htm
EX-21.1 pnw20181231exhibit211.htm
EX-23.1 pnw20181231exhibit231.htm
EX-23.2 pnw20181231exhibit232.htm
EX-31.1 pnw20181231exhibit311.htm
EX-31.2 pnw20181231exhibit312.htm
EX-31.3 pnw20181231exhibit313.htm
EX-31.4 pnw20181231exhibit314.htm
EX-32.1 pnw20181231exhibit321p.htm
EX-32.2 pnw20181231exhibit322a.htm

Pinnacle West Capital Earnings 2018-12-31

PNW 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

Document
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)
 
      x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
 
OR
 
o            TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from              to             
Commission
File Number
 
Registrants; State of Incorporation;
Addresses; and Telephone Number
 
IRS Employer
Identification No.
1-8962
 
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
(An Arizona corporation)
400 North Fifth Street, P.O. Box 53999
Phoenix, Arizona 85072-3999
(602) 250-1000
 
86-0512431
1-4473
 
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
(An Arizona corporation)
400 North Fifth Street, P.O. Box 53999
Phoenix, Arizona 85072-3999
(602) 250-1000
 
86-0011170
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
Title Of Each Class
 
Name Of Each Exchange On Which Registered
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
 
Common Stock,
No Par Value
 
New York Stock Exchange
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
 
None
 
None
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY             Common Stock, Par Value $2.50 per share
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
Yes x  No o
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
Yes x  No o
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
Yes o  No x
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
Yes o  No x
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
Yes x  No o
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
Yes x  No o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
Yes x  No o
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
Yes x  No o
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or in any amendment to this Form 10-K.x
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.  (Check one):
 
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
 
 
Large accelerated filer x
 
Accelerated filer o
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer o
 
Smaller reporting company o
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company ☐
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
 
 
Large accelerated filer o
 
Accelerated filer o
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer x
 
Smaller reporting company o
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company ☐
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether each registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes o  No x
 
State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates, computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of each registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter:
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
 
$9,020,511,769.84 as of June 30, 2018
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
 
$0 as of June 30, 2018
 
The number of shares outstanding of each registrant’s common stock as of February 15, 2019
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
 
112,146,511 shares
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
 
Common Stock, $2.50 par value, 71,264,947 shares. Pinnacle West Capital Corporation is the sole holder of Arizona Public Service Company’s Common Stock.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation’s definitive Proxy Statement relating to its Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 15, 2019 are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.
 
Arizona Public Service Company meets the conditions set forth in General Instruction I(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and is therefore filing this form with the reduced disclosure format allowed under that General Instruction.



Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
This combined Form 10-K is separately filed by Pinnacle West and APS.  Each registrant is filing on its own behalf all of the information contained in this Form 10-K that relates to such registrant and, where required, its subsidiaries.  Except as stated in the preceding sentence, neither registrant is filing any information that does not relate to such registrant, and therefore makes no representation as to any such information.  The information required with respect to each company is set forth within the applicable items.  Item 8 of this report includes Consolidated Financial Statements of Pinnacle West and Consolidated Financial Statements of APS.  Item 8 also includes Combined Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

i


GLOSSARY OF NAMES AND TECHNICAL TERMS
4CA
4C Acquisition, LLC, a subsidiary of the Company
AC
Alternating Current
ACC
Arizona Corporation Commission
ADEQ
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality
AFUDC
Allowance for Funds Used During Construction
ANPP
Arizona Nuclear Power Project, also known as Palo Verde
APS
Arizona Public Service Company, a subsidiary of the Company
ARO
Asset retirement obligations
ASU
Accounting Standards Update
BART
Best available retrofit technology
Base Fuel Rate
The portion of APS’s retail base rates attributable to fuel and purchased power costs
BCE
Bright Canyon Energy Corporation, a subsidiary of the Company
BHP Billiton
BHP Billiton New Mexico Coal, Inc.
BNCC
BHP Navajo Coal Company
CAISO
California Independent System Operator
CCR
Coal combustion residuals
Cholla
Cholla Power Plant
DC
Direct Current
distributed energy systems
Small-scale renewable energy technologies that are located on customers’ properties, such as rooftop solar systems
DOE
United States Department of Energy
DOI
United States Department of the Interior
DSM
Demand side management
EES
Energy Efficiency Standard
El Dorado
El Dorado Investment Company, a subsidiary of the Company
El Paso
El Paso Electric Company
EPA
United States Environmental Protection Agency
FERC
United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
Four Corners
Four Corners Power Plant
GWh
Gigawatt-hour, one billion watts per hour
kV
Kilovolt, one thousand volts
kWh
Kilowatt-hour, one thousand watts per hour
LFCR
Lost Fixed Cost Recovery Mechanism
MMBtu
One million British Thermal Units
MW
Megawatt, one million watts
MWh
Megawatt-hour, one million watts per hour
Native Load
Retail and wholesale sales supplied under traditional cost-based rate regulation
Navajo Plant
Navajo Generating Station
NERC
North American Electric Reliability Corporation
NRC
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NTEC
Navajo Transitional Energy Company, LLC
OCI
Other comprehensive income
OSM
Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement
Palo Verde
Palo Verde Generating Station or PVGS
Pinnacle West
Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (any use of the words “Company,” “we,” and “our” refer to Pinnacle West)
PSA
Power supply adjustor approved by the ACC to provide for recovery or refund of variations in actual fuel and purchased power costs compared with the Base Fuel Rate
RES
Arizona Renewable Energy Standard and Tariff
Salt River Project or SRP
Salt River Project Agricultural Improvement and Power District
SCE
Southern California Edison Company
TCA
Transmission cost adjustor
TEAM
Tax expense adjustor mechanism
VIE
Variable interest entity

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This document contains forward-looking statements based on current expectations.  These forward-looking statements are often identified by words such as “estimate,” “predict,” “may,” “believe,” “plan,” “expect,” “require,” “intend,” “assume,” “project” and similar words.  Because actual results may differ materially from expectations, we caution readers not to place undue reliance on these statements.  A number of factors could cause future results to differ materially from historical results, or from outcomes currently expected or sought by Pinnacle West or APS.  In addition to the Risk Factors described in Item 1A and in Item 7 — “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this report, these factors include, but are not limited to:

our ability to manage capital expenditures and operations and maintenance costs while maintaining reliability and customer service levels;
variations in demand for electricity, including those due to weather, seasonality, the general economy, customer and sales growth (or decline), and the effects of energy conservation measures and distributed generation;
power plant and transmission system performance and outages;
competition in retail and wholesale power markets;
regulatory and judicial decisions, developments and proceedings;
new legislation, ballot initiatives and regulation, including those relating to environmental requirements, regulatory policy, nuclear plant operations and potential deregulation of retail electric markets;
fuel and water supply availability;
our ability to achieve timely and adequate rate recovery of our costs, including returns on and of debt and equity capital investment;
our ability to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency mandates and recover related costs;
risks inherent in the operation of nuclear facilities, including spent fuel disposal uncertainty;
current and future economic conditions in Arizona, including in real estate markets;
the development of new technologies which may affect electric sales or delivery;
the cost of debt and equity capital and the ability to access capital markets when required;
environmental, economic and other concerns surrounding coal-fired generation, including regulation of greenhouse gas emissions;
volatile fuel and purchased power costs;
the investment performance of the assets of our nuclear decommissioning trust, pension, and other postretirement benefit plans and the resulting impact on future funding requirements;
the liquidity of wholesale power markets and the use of derivative contracts in our business;
potential shortfalls in insurance coverage;
new accounting requirements or new interpretations of existing requirements;
generation, transmission and distribution facility and system conditions and operating costs;
the ability to meet the anticipated future need for additional generation and associated transmission facilities in our region;
the willingness or ability of our counterparties, power plant participants and power plant land owners to meet contractual or other obligations or extend the rights for continued power plant operations; and
restrictions on dividends or other provisions in our credit agreements and ACC orders. 
 
These and other factors are discussed in the Risk Factors described in Item 1A of this report, and in Item 7 — “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this report, which readers should review carefully before placing any reliance on our financial statements or disclosures.  Neither Pinnacle West nor APS assumes any obligation to update these statements, even if our internal estimates change, except as required by law.


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PART I


ITEM 1.  BUSINESS
 Pinnacle West
 Pinnacle West is a holding company that conducts business through its subsidiaries.  We derive essentially all of our revenues and earnings from our wholly-owned subsidiary, APS.  APS is a vertically-integrated electric utility that provides either retail or wholesale electric service to most of the State of Arizona, with the major exceptions of about one-half of the Phoenix metropolitan area, the Tucson metropolitan area and Mohave County in northwestern Arizona.
 
Pinnacle West’s other subsidiaries are El Dorado, BCE and 4CA.  Additional information related to these subsidiaries is provided later in this report.
 
Our reportable business segment is our regulated electricity segment, which consists of traditional regulated retail and wholesale electricity businesses (primarily electric service to Native Load customers) and related activities, and includes electricity generation, transmission and distribution.
 
BUSINESS OF ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
 
APS currently provides electric service to approximately 1.2 million customers.  We own or lease 6,015 MW of regulated generation capacity (which is expected to increase by 510 MW upon completion of the Ocotillo Modernization Project by the middle of 2019) and we hold a mix of both long-term and short-term purchased power agreements for additional capacity, including a variety of agreements for the purchase of renewable energy.  During 2018, no single purchaser or user of energy accounted for more than 2.7% of our electric revenues.



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The following map shows APS’s retail service territory, including the locations of its generating facilities and principal transmission lines.

smap.jpg


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Energy Sources and Resource Planning
To serve its customers, APS obtains power through its various generation stations and through purchased power agreements.  Resource planning is an important function necessary to meet Arizona’s future energy needs.  APS’s sources of energy by type used to supply energy to Native Load customers during 2018 were as follows:
 
chart-50d1349fe82352d4859.jpg

Generation Facilities
 
APS has ownership interests in or leases the coal, nuclear, gas, oil and solar generating facilities described below.  For additional information regarding these facilities, see Item 2.
 
Coal-Fueled Generating Facilities
 
Four Corners — Four Corners is located in the northwestern corner of New Mexico, and was originally a 5-unit coal-fired power plant.  APS owns 100% of Units 1, 2 and 3, which were retired as of December 30, 2013. APS operates the plant and owns 63% of Four Corners Units 4 and 5 following the acquisition of SCE’s interest in Units 4 and 5 described below.  APS has a total entitlement from Four Corners of 970 MW. Additionally, 4CA, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pinnacle West, owned 7% of Units 4 and 5 from July 2016 through July 2018 following its acquisition of El Paso's interest in these units described below.
 
On December 30, 2013, APS purchased SCE’s 48% interest in each of Units 4 and 5 of Four Corners. Concurrently with the closing of the SCE transaction, BHP Billiton, the parent company of BNCC, the coal

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supplier and operator of the mine that served Four Corners, transferred its ownership of BNCC to NTEC, a company formed by the Navajo Nation to own the mine and develop other energy projects. Also occurring concurrently with the closing, the Four Corners’ co-owners executed a long-term agreement for the supply of coal to Four Corners from July 2016 through 2031 (the "2016 Coal Supply Agreement"). El Paso, a 7% owner of Units 4 and 5 of Four Corners, did not sign the 2016 Coal Supply Agreement. Under the 2016 Coal Supply Agreement, APS agreed to assume the 7% shortfall obligation. (See Note 10 for a discussion of certain matters related to the 2016 Coal Supply Agreement.) On February 17, 2015, APS and El Paso entered into an asset purchase agreement providing for the purchase by APS, or an affiliate of APS, of El Paso’s 7% interest in each of Units 4 and 5 of Four Corners. 4CA purchased the El Paso interest on July 6, 2016. The purchase price was immaterial in amount, and 4CA assumed El Paso's reclamation and decommissioning obligations associated with the 7% interest.

NTEC had the option to purchase the 7% interest within a certain timeframe pursuant to an option granted to NTEC. On December 29, 2015, NTEC provided notice of its intent to exercise the option. The purchase did not occur during the originally contemplated timeframe. Concurrent with the settlement of the 2016 Coal Supply Agreement matter described in Note 10, NTEC and 4CA agreed to allow for the purchase by NTEC of the 7% interest, consistent with the option. On June 29, 2018, 4CA and NTEC entered into an asset purchase agreement providing for the sale to NTEC of 4CA's 7% interest in Four Corners. Completion of the sale was subject to the receipt of approval by FERC, which was received on July 2, 2018, and the sale transaction closed on July 3, 2018. NTEC purchased the 7% interest at 4CA’s book value, approximately $70 million, and will pay 4CA the purchase price over a period of four years pursuant to a secured interest-bearing promissory note. In connection with the sale, Pinnacle West guaranteed certain obligations that NTEC will have to the other owners of Four Corners, such as NTEC's 7% share of capital expenditures and operating and maintenance expenses. Pinnacle West's guarantee is secured by a portion of APS's payments to be owed to NTEC under the 2016 Coal Supply Agreement.

The 2016 Coal Supply Agreement contained alternate pricing terms for the 7% interest in the event NTEC did not purchase the interest. Until the time that NTEC purchased the 7% interest, the alternate pricing provisions were applicable to 4CA as the holder of the 7% interest. These terms included a formula under which NTEC must make certain payments to 4CA for reimbursement of operations and maintenance costs and a specified rate of return, offset by revenue generated by 4CA’s power sales. Such payments are due to 4CA at the end of each calendar year. A $10 million payment was due to 4CA at December 31, 2017, which NTEC satisfied by directing to 4CA a prepayment from APS of a portion of a future mine reclamation obligation. The balance of the amount under this formula due December 31, 2018 for calendar year 2017 is approximately $20 million, which was paid to 4CA on December 14, 2018. The balance of the amount under this formula at December 31, 2018 for calendar year 2018 (up to the date that NTEC purchased the 7% interest) is approximately $10 million, which is due to 4CA at December 31, 2019.
  
APS, on behalf of the Four Corners participants, negotiated amendments to an existing facility lease with the Navajo Nation, which extends the Four Corners leasehold interest from 2016 to 2041.  The Navajo Nation approved these amendments in March 2011.  The effectiveness of the amendments also required the approval of the DOI, as did a related federal rights-of-way grant.  A federal environmental review was undertaken as part of the DOI review process, and culminated in the issuance by DOI of a record of decision on July 17, 2015 justifying the agency action extending the life of the plant and the adjacent mine.  

On April 20, 2016, several environmental groups filed a lawsuit against OSM and other federal agencies in the District of Arizona in connection with their issuance of the approvals that extended the life of Four Corners and the adjacent mine.  The lawsuit alleges that these federal agencies violated both the Endangered Species Act ("ESA") and the National Environmental Policy Act ("NEPA") in providing the

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federal approvals necessary to extend operations at Four Corners and the adjacent Navajo Mine past July 6, 2016.  APS filed a motion to intervene in the proceedings, which was granted on August 3, 2016.

On September 15, 2016, NTEC, the company that owns the adjacent mine, filed a motion to intervene for the purpose of dismissing the lawsuit based on NTEC's tribal sovereign immunity. On September 11, 2017, the Arizona District Court issued an order granting NTEC's motion, dismissing the litigation with prejudice, and terminating the proceedings. On November 9, 2017, the environmental group plaintiffs appealed the district court order dismissing their lawsuit. Oral argument for this appeal has been scheduled for March 2019. We cannot predict whether this appeal will be successful and, if it is successful, the outcome of further district court proceedings.
 
Cholla — Cholla was originally a 4-unit coal-fired power plant, which is located in northeastern Arizona.  APS operates the plant and owns 100% of Cholla Units 1, 2 and 3.  PacifiCorp owns Cholla Unit 4, and APS operates that unit for PacifiCorp.  On September 11, 2014, APS announced that it would close its 260 MW Unit 2 at Cholla and cease burning coal at Units 1 and 3 by the mid-2020s if EPA approves a compromise proposal offered by APS to meet required environmental and emissions standards and rules. On April 14, 2015, the ACC approved APS's plan to retire Unit 2, without expressing any view on the future recoverability of APS's remaining investment in the Unit, which was later addressed in the March 27, 2017 settlement agreement regarding APS's general retail case (the "2017 Settlement Agreement"). (See Note 3 for details related to the resulting regulatory asset and allowed recovery set forth in the 2017 Settlement Agreement.) APS believes that the environmental benefits of this proposal are greater in the long-term than the benefits that would have resulted from adding the emissions control equipment. APS closed Unit 2 on October 1, 2015. Following the closure of Unit 2, APS has a total entitlement from Cholla of 387 MW.  In early 2017, EPA approved a final rule incorporating APS's compromise proposal, which took effect for Cholla on April 26, 2017.

APS purchases all of Cholla’s coal requirements from a coal supplier that mines all of the coal under long-term leases of coal reserves with the federal and state governments and private landholders.  The Cholla coal contract runs through 2024. In addition, APS has a coal transportation contract that runs through 2019, with the ability to extend the contract annually through 2024.
 
Navajo Plant — The Navajo Plant is a 3-unit coal-fired power plant located in northern Arizona.  Salt River Project operates the plant and APS owns a 14% interest in Units 1, 2 and 3.  APS has a total entitlement from the Navajo Plant of 315 MW.  The Navajo Plant’s coal requirements are purchased from a supplier with long-term leases from the Navajo Nation and the Hopi Tribe.  The Navajo Plant is under contract with its coal supplier through 2019, with extension rights through 2026.  The Navajo Plant site is leased from the Navajo Nation and is also subject to an easement from the federal government. 

The co-owners of the Navajo Plant and the Navajo Nation agreed that the Navajo Plant will remain in operation until December 2019 under the existing plant lease. The co-owners and the Navajo Nation executed a lease extension on November 29, 2017 that will allow for decommissioning activities to begin after the plant ceases operations in December 2019. Various stakeholders, including regulators, tribal representatives, the plant's coal supplier and DOI have been meeting to determine if an alternate solution can be reached that would permit continued operation of the plant beyond 2019. Although we cannot predict whether any alternate plans will be found that would be acceptable to all of the stakeholders and feasible to implement, we believe it is probable that the current owners of the Navajo Plant will cease plant operations in 2019.

APS is currently recovering depreciation and a return on the net book value of its interest in the Navajo Plant over its previously estimated life through 2026. APS will seek continued recovery in rates for the book value of its remaining investment in the plant (see Note 3 for details related to the resulting regulatory asset)

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plus a return on the net book value as well as other costs related to retirement and closure, which are still being assessed and which may be material.
    
On February 14, 2017, the ACC opened a docket titled "ACC Investigation Concerning the Future of the Navajo Generating Station" with the stated goal of engaging stakeholders and negotiating a sustainable pathway for the Navajo Plant to continue operating in some form after December 2019. APS cannot predict the outcome of this proceeding.
 These coal-fueled plants face uncertainties, including those related to existing and potential legislation and regulation, that could significantly impact their economics and operations.  See “Environmental Matters” below and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Overview and Capital Expenditures” in Item 7 for developments impacting these coal-fueled facilities.  See Note 10 for information regarding APS’s coal mine reclamation obligations.

Nuclear

Palo Verde Generating Station — Palo Verde is a 3-unit nuclear power plant located approximately 50 miles west of Phoenix, Arizona.  APS operates the plant and owns 29.1% of Palo Verde Units 1 and 3 and approximately 17% of Unit 2.  In addition, APS leases approximately 12.1% of Unit 2, resulting in a 29.1% combined ownership and leasehold interest in that unit.  APS has a total entitlement from Palo Verde of 1,146 MW.
 
Palo Verde Leases — In 1986, APS entered into agreements with three separate lessor trust entities in order to sell and lease back approximately 42% of its share of Palo Verde Unit 2 and certain common facilities.  The leaseback was originally scheduled to expire at the end of 2015 and contained options to renew the leases or to purchase the leased property for fair market value at the end of the lease terms.  On July 7, 2014, APS exercised the fixed rate lease renewal options.  The exercise of the renewal options resulted in APS retaining the assets through 2023 under one lease and 2033 under the other two leases. At the end of the lease renewal periods, APS will have the option to purchase the leased assets at their fair market value, extend the leases for up to two years, or return the assets to the lessors. See Note 18 for additional information regarding the Palo Verde Unit 2 sale leaseback transactions.
 
Palo Verde Operating Licenses — Operation of each of the three Palo Verde Units requires an operating license from the NRC.  The NRC issued full power operating licenses for Unit 1 in June 1985, Unit 2 in April 1986 and Unit 3 in November 1987, and issued renewed operating licenses for each of the three units in April 2011, which extended the licenses for Units 1, 2 and 3 to June 2045, April 2046 and November 2047, respectively.
 
Palo Verde Fuel Cycle — The participant owners of Palo Verde are continually identifying their future nuclear fuel resource needs and negotiating arrangements to fill those needs.  The fuel cycle for Palo Verde is comprised of the following stages:
mining and milling of uranium ore to produce uranium concentrates;
conversion of uranium concentrates to uranium hexafluoride;
enrichment of uranium hexafluoride;
fabrication of fuel assemblies;
utilization of fuel assemblies in reactors; and
storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel.
    
The Palo Verde participants have contracted for 100% of Palo Verde’s requirements for uranium concentrates through 2025 and 15% through 2028. In 2018, Palo Verde executed five uranium contracts covering the time period from 2019 to 2025.

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The participants have contracted for 100% of Palo Verde’s requirements for conversion services through 2025, and 40% through 2030. A long-term contract for conversion services was executed in 2018 covering years 2019 to 2030.

The participants have contracted for 100% of Palo Verde’s requirements for enrichment services through 2021, 90% of enrichment services for 2022, and 80% for 2023 through 2026. In 2018, four enrichment contracts were executed to bring the requirements coverage to these levels.

The participants have contracted for 100% of Palo Verde’s requirements for fuel fabrication through 2027. In 2018, a fabrication contract was executed with a new fabrication supplier for Unit 2, and the existing fabrication contract was renegotiated for Units 1 and 3.

Spent Nuclear Fuel and Waste Disposal — The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (“NWPA”) required the DOE to accept, transport, and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high level waste generated by the nation’s nuclear power plants by 1998.  The DOE’s obligations are reflected in a contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (the “Standard Contract”) with each nuclear power plant.  The DOE failed to begin accepting spent nuclear fuel by 1998.  APS is directly and indirectly involved in several legal proceedings related to the DOE’s failure to meet its statutory and contractual obligations regarding acceptance of spent nuclear fuel and high level waste.
 
APS Lawsuit for Breach of Standard Contract — In December 2003, APS, acting on behalf of itself and the Palo Verde participants, filed a lawsuit against the DOE in the United States Court of Federal Claims ("Court of Federal Claims") for damages incurred due to the DOE’s breach of the Standard Contract.  The Court of Federal Claims ruled in favor of APS and the Palo Verde participants in October 2010 and awarded $30.2 million in damages to APS and the Palo Verde participants for costs incurred through December 2006.
 
On December 19, 2012, APS, acting on behalf of itself and the participant owners of Palo Verde, filed a second breach of contract lawsuit against the DOE in the Court of Federal Claims. This lawsuit sought to recover damages incurred due to the DOE’s breach of the Standard Contract for failing to accept Palo Verde’s spent nuclear fuel and high level waste from January 1, 2007 through June 30, 2011, as it was required to do pursuant to the terms of the Standard Contract and the NWPA. On August 18, 2014, APS and the DOE entered into a settlement agreement, stipulating to a dismissal of the lawsuit and payment of $57.4 million by the DOE to the Palo Verde owners for certain specified costs incurred by Palo Verde during the period January 1, 2007 through June 30, 2011. APS’s share of this amount is $16.7 million. Amounts recovered in the lawsuit and settlement were recorded as adjustments to a regulatory liability and had no impact on the amount of reported net income. In addition, the settlement agreement provides APS with a method for submitting claims and getting recovery for costs incurred through December 31, 2016, which has been extended to December 31, 2019.

APS has submitted and received payment for four claims pursuant to the terms of the August 18, 2014 settlement agreement, for four separate time periods during July 1, 2011 through June 30, 2018. The DOE has paid $74.2 million for these claims (APS’s share is $21.6 million). The amounts recovered were primarily recorded as adjustments to a regulatory liability and had no impact on reported net income. APS's next claim pursuant to the terms of the August 18, 2014 settlement agreement was submitted to the DOE on October 31, 2018 in the amount of $10.2 million (APS's share is $3 million). This claim is pending DOE review.

The One-Mill Fee — In 2011, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners and the Nuclear Energy Institute challenged the DOE’s 2010 determination of the adequacy of the one tenth of a cent

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per kWh fee (the “one-mill fee”) paid by the nation’s commercial nuclear power plant owners pursuant to their individual obligations under the Standard Contract.  This fee is recovered by APS in its retail rates.  In June 2012, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (the “D.C. Circuit”) held that the DOE failed to conduct a sufficient fee analysis in making the 2010 determination.  The D.C. Circuit remanded the 2010 determination to the Secretary of the DOE (“Secretary”) with instructions to conduct a new fee adequacy determination within six months.  In February 2013, upon completion of the DOE’s revised one-mill fee adequacy determination, the D.C. Circuit reopened the proceedings.  On November 19, 2013, the D.C. Circuit found that the DOE did not conduct a legally adequate fee assessment and ordered the Secretary to notify Congress of his intent to suspend collecting annual fees for nuclear waste disposal from nuclear power plant operators, as he is required to do pursuant to the NWPA and the D.C. Circuit’s order.  On January 3, 2014, the Secretary notified Congress of his intention to suspend collection of the one-mill fee, subject to Congress’ disapproval. On May 16, 2014, the DOE notified all commercial nuclear power plant operators who are party to a Standard Contract that it reduced the one-mill fee to zero, thus effectively terminating the one-mill fee.
 
DOE’s Construction Authorization Application for Yucca Mountain — The DOE had planned to meet its NWPA and Standard Contract disposal obligations by designing, licensing, constructing, and operating a permanent geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.  In June 2008, the DOE submitted its Yucca Mountain construction authorization application to the NRC, but in March 2010, the DOE filed a motion to dismiss with prejudice the Yucca Mountain construction authorization application.  Several interested parties have also intervened in the NRC proceeding.  Additionally, a number of interested parties filed a variety of lawsuits in different jurisdictions around the country challenging the DOE’s authority to withdraw the Yucca Mountain construction authorization application and the NRC’s cessation of its review of the Yucca Mountain construction authorization application.  The cases have been consolidated into one matter at the D.C. Circuit.  In August 2013, the D.C. Circuit ordered the NRC to resume its review of the application with available appropriated funds.

On October 16, 2014, the NRC issued Volume 3 of the safety evaluation report developed as part of the Yucca Mountain construction authorization application. This volume addresses repository safety after permanent closure, and its issuance is a key milestone in the Yucca Mountain licensing process. Volume 3 contains the staff’s finding that the DOE’s repository design meets the requirements that apply after the repository is permanently closed, including but not limited to the post-closure performance objectives in NRC regulations.

On December 18, 2014, the NRC issued Volume 4 of the safety evaluation report developed as part of the Yucca Mountain construction authorization application. This volume covers administrative and programmatic requirements for the repository. It documents the staff’s evaluation of whether the DOE’s research and development and performance confirmation programs, as well as other administrative controls and systems, meet applicable NRC requirements. Volume 4 contains the staff’s finding that most administrative and programmatic requirements in NRC regulations are met, except for certain requirements relating to ownership of land and water rights.

Publication of Volumes 3 and 4 does not signal whether or when the NRC might authorize construction of the repository.
 
Waste Confidence and Continued Storage — On June 8, 2012, the D.C. Circuit issued its decision on a challenge by several states and environmental groups of the NRC’s rulemaking regarding temporary storage and permanent disposal of high level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel.  The petitioners had challenged the NRC’s 2010 update to the agency’s waste confidence decision and temporary storage rule (“Waste Confidence Decision”).

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The D.C. Circuit found that the agency’s Waste Confidence Decision update constituted a major federal action, which, consistent with NEPA, requires either an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact from the agency’s actions.  The D.C. Circuit found that the NRC’s evaluation of the environmental risks from spent nuclear fuel was deficient, and therefore remanded the Waste Confidence Decision update for further action consistent with NEPA.
 
On September 6, 2012, the NRC Commissioners issued a directive to the NRC staff to proceed directly with development of a generic environmental impact statement to support an updated Waste Confidence Decision.  The NRC Commissioners also directed the staff to establish a schedule to publish a final rule and environmental impact study within 24 months of September 6, 2012. 

In September 2013, the NRC issued its draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement (“GEIS”) to support an updated Waste Confidence Decision. On August 26, 2014, the NRC approved a final rule on the environmental effects of continued storage of spent nuclear fuel. Renamed as the Continued Storage Rule, the NRC’s decision adopted the findings of the GEIS regarding the environmental impacts of storing spent fuel at any reactor site after the reactor’s licensed period of operations. As a result, those generic impacts do not need to be re-analyzed in the environmental reviews for individual licenses. Although Palo Verde had not been involved in any licensing actions affected by the D.C. Circuit’s June 8, 2012, decision, the NRC lifted its suspension on final licensing actions on all nuclear power plant licenses and renewals that went into effect when the D.C. Circuit issued its June 2012 decision. The final Continued Storage Rule was subject to continuing legal challenges before the NRC and the Court of Appeals. In June 2016, the D.C. Circuit issued its final decision, rejecting all remaining legal challenges to the Continued Storage Rule. On August 8, 2016, the D.C. Circuit denied a petition for rehearing.

Palo Verde has sufficient capacity at its on-site independent spent fuel storage installation (“ISFSI”) to store all of the nuclear fuel that will be irradiated during the initial operating license period, which ends in December 2027.  Additionally, Palo Verde has sufficient capacity at its on-site ISFSI to store a portion of the fuel that will be irradiated during the period of extended operation, which ends in November 2047.  If uncertainties regarding the United States government’s obligation to accept and store spent fuel are not favorably resolved, APS will evaluate alternative storage solutions that may obviate the need to expand the ISFSI to accommodate all of the fuel that will be irradiated during the period of extended operation.
 
Nuclear Decommissioning Costs — APS currently relies on an external sinking fund mechanism to meet the NRC financial assurance requirements for decommissioning its interests in Palo Verde Units 1, 2 and 3.  The decommissioning costs of Palo Verde Units 1, 2 and 3 are currently included in APS’s ACC jurisdictional rates.  Decommissioning costs are recoverable through a non-bypassable system benefits charge (paid by all retail customers taking service from the APS system).  Based on current nuclear decommissioning trust asset balances, site specific decommissioning cost studies, anticipated future contributions to the decommissioning trusts, and return projections on the asset portfolios over the expected remaining operating life of the facility, we are on track to meet the current site specific decommissioning costs for Palo Verde at the time the units are expected to be decommissioned. See Note 19 for additional information about APS’s nuclear decommissioning trusts.
 
Palo Verde Liability and Insurance Matters — See “Palo Verde Generating Station — Nuclear Insurance” in Note 10 for a discussion of the insurance maintained by the Palo Verde participants, including APS, for Palo Verde.
 

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Natural Gas and Oil Fueled Generating Facilities

APS has six natural gas power plants located throughout Arizona, consisting of Redhawk, located near Palo Verde; Ocotillo, located in Tempe (discussed below); Sundance, located in Coolidge; West Phoenix, located in southwest Phoenix; Saguaro, located north of Tucson; and Yucca, located near Yuma.  Several of the units at Yucca run on either gas or oil.  APS has two oil-only power plants: Fairview, located in the town of Douglas, Arizona and Yucca GT-4 in Yuma, AZ.  APS owns and operates each of these plants with the exception of one oil-only combustion turbine unit and one oil and gas steam unit at Yucca that are operated by APS and owned by the Imperial Irrigation District.  APS has a total entitlement from these plants of 3,179 MW.  Gas for these plants is financially hedged up to five years in advance of purchasing and the gas is generally purchased one month prior to delivery.  APS has long-term gas transportation agreements with three different companies, some of which are effective through 2024.  Fuel oil is acquired under short-term purchases delivered by truck directly to the power plants.

Ocotillo was originally a 330 MW 4-unit gas plant located in the metropolitan Phoenix area.  In early 2014, APS announced a project to modernize the plant, which involves retiring two older 110 MW steam units, adding five 102 MW combustion turbines and maintaining two existing 55 MW combustion turbines.  In total, this increases the capacity of the site by 290 MW to 620 MW.  (See Note 3 for rate recovery as part of the ACC final written Opinion and Order issued reflecting its decision in APS’s general retail rate case (the "2017 Rate Case Decision")). On September 9, 2016, Maricopa County issued a final permit decision that authorizes construction of the Ocotillo modernization project and construction began in early 2017 with completion targeted by the middle of 2019.

Solar Facilities
APS developed utility scale solar resources through the 170 MW ACC-approved AZ Sun Program, investing approximately $675 million in this program. These facilities are owned by APS and are located in multiple locations throughout Arizona. In addition to the AZ Sun Program, APS developed the 40 MW Red Rock Solar Plant, which it owns and operates. Two of our large customers purchase renewable energy credits from APS that are equivalent to the amount of renewable energy that Red Rock is projected to generate.
 
APS owns and operates more than forty small solar systems around the state.  Together they have the capacity to produce approximately 4 MW of renewable energy.  This fleet of solar systems includes a 3 MW facility located at the Prescott Airport and 1 MW of small solar systems in various locations across Arizona.  APS has also developed solar photovoltaic distributed energy systems installed as part of the Community Power Project in Flagstaff, Arizona.  The Community Power Project, approved by the ACC on April 1, 2010, was a pilot program through which APS owns, operates and receives energy from approximately 1 MW of solar photovoltaic distributed energy systems located within a certain test area in Flagstaff, Arizona.  The pilot program is now complete, and as part of the 2017 Rate Case Decision, the participants have been transferred to the Solar Partner Program described below. Additionally, APS owns 12 MW of solar photovoltaic systems installed across Arizona through the ACC-approved Schools and Government Program.

In December 2014, the ACC voted that it had no objection to APS implementing an APS-owned rooftop solar research and development program aimed at learning how to efficiently enable the integration of rooftop solar and battery storage with the grid.  The first stage of the program, called the "Solar Partner Program," placed 8 MW of residential rooftop solar on strategically selected distribution feeders in an effort to maximize potential system benefits, as well as made systems available to limited-income customers who could not easily install solar through transactions with third parties. The second stage of the program, which included an additional 2 MW of rooftop solar and energy storage, placed two energy storage systems sized at 2 MW on two different high solar penetration feeders to test various grid-related operation improvements and system

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interoperability, and was in operation by the end of 2016.  The costs for this program have been included in APS's rate base as part of the 2017 Rate Case Decision.
In the 2017 Rate Case Decision, the ACC also approved the "APS Solar Communities" program. APS Solar Communities is a three-year program authorizing APS to spend $10 million - $15 million in capital costs each year to install utility-owned distributed generation systems on low to moderate income residential homes, buildings of non-profit entities, Title I schools and rural government facilities. The 2017 Rate Case Decision provided that all operations and maintenance expenses, property taxes, marketing and advertising expenses, and the capital carrying costs for this program will be recovered through the RES.
Energy Storage

APS deploys a number of advanced technologies on its system, including energy storage. Storage can provide capacity, improve power quality, be utilized for system regulation, integrate renewable generation, and can be used to defer certain traditional infrastructure investments. Battery storage can also aid in integrating higher levels of renewables by storing excess energy when system demand is low and renewable production is high and then releasing the stored energy during peak demand hours later in the day and after sunset. APS is utilizing grid-scale battery storage projects to evaluate the potential benefits for customers and further our understanding of how storage works with other advanced technologies and the grid. We are preparing for additional battery storage in the future.

In early 2018, APS entered into a 15-year power purchase agreement for a 65 MW solar facility that charges a 50 MW solar-fueled battery. Service under this agreement is scheduled to begin in 2021. APS issued a request for proposal for approximately 106 MW of battery storage to be located at up to five of its AZ Sun sites. Based upon our evaluation of the RFP responses, APS has decided to expand the initial phase of battery deployment to 141 MW by adding a sixth AZ Sun site. In February 2019, we contracted for the 141 MW and anticipate such facilities could be in service by mid-2020. Additionally, in February 2019, APS signed two 20-year power purchase agreements for energy storage totaling 150 MW. Service under these agreements are scheduled to begin in 2021.  We plan to install at least an additional 660 MW of APS-owned solar plus battery storage and stand-alone battery storage systems by the summer of 2025, with the first 260 MW being procured in 2019 (60 MW on additional AZ Sun sites and 100 MW of solar plus 100 MW of battery storage). 

Purchased Power Contracts
In addition to its own available generating capacity, APS purchases electricity under various arrangements, including long-term contracts and purchases through short-term markets to supplement its owned or leased generation and hedge its energy requirements.  A portion of APS’s purchased power expense is netted against wholesale sales on the Consolidated Statements of Income.  (See Note 16.)  APS continually assesses its need for additional capacity resources to assure system reliability. In addition, APS has also entered into several power purchase agreements for energy storage. (See "Business of Arizona Public Service Company - Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Energy Storage" above for details of our energy storage power purchase agreements.)
 

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Purchased Power Capacity — APS’s purchased power capacity under long-term contracts as of December 31, 2018 is summarized in the table below.  All capacity values are based on net capacity unless otherwise noted.
Type
 
Dates Available
 
Capacity (MW)
Purchase Agreement (a)
 
Year-round through June 14, 2020
 
60

Exchange Agreement (b)
 
May 15 to September 15 annually through February 2021
 
480

Tolling Agreement
 
Summer seasons through October 2019
 
560

Demand Response Agreement (c)
 
Summer seasons through 2024
 
25

Tolling Agreement
 
Summer seasons from Summer 2020 through Summer 2025
 
565

Tolling Agreement
 
June 1 through September 30, 2020-2026
 
570

Renewable Energy (d)
 
Various
 
629

(a)
Up to 60 MW of capacity is available; however, the amount of electricity available to APS under this agreement is based in large part on customer demand and is adjusted annually.
(b)
This is a seasonal capacity exchange agreement under which APS receives electricity during the summer peak season (from May 15 to September 15) and APS returns a like amount of electricity during the winter season (from October 15 to February 15).
(c)
The capacity under this agreement may be increased in 10 MW increments in years 2017 through 2024, up to a maximum of 50 MW.
(d)
Renewable energy purchased power agreements are described in detail below under “Current and Future Resources — Renewable Energy Standard — Renewable Energy Portfolio.”

In February 2019, APS entered into a power purchase agreement for 463 MW of summer seasonal capacity from May to October annually from 2021 through 2027.
Current and Future Resources
 
Current Demand and Reserve Margin
Electric power demand is generally seasonal.  In Arizona, demand for power peaks during the hot summer months.  APS’s 2018 peak one-hour demand on its electric system was recorded on July 24, 2018 at 7,320 MW, compared to the 2017 peak of 7,363 MW recorded on June 20, 2017.  APS’s reserve margin at the time of the 2018 peak demand, calculated using system load serving capacity, was 18%.  For 2019, due to expiring purchase contracts, APS is procuring market resources to maintain its minimum 15% planning reserve criteria.

Future Resources and Resource Plan
APS filed its preliminary 2017 Integrated Resource Plan ("IRP") on March 1, 2016 and an updated preliminary 2017 IRP on September 30, 2016. In March of 2018, the ACC reviewed the 2017 IRPs of its jurisdictional utilities and voted to not acknowledge any of the plans.  APS does not believe that this lack of acknowledgment will have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  Based on an ACC decision, APS is required to file a Preliminary IRP by April 1, 2019 and its final IRP by April 1, 2020.

See "Business of Arizona Public Service Company - Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Generation Facilities - Coal-Fueled Generating Facilities" above for information regarding future plans for the Cholla Plant, Four Corners Plant, Navajo Plant and Ocotillo Plant. See "Business of Arizona Public Service Company - Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Purchased Power Contracts" above for information regarding future plans for purchased power contracts.


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Energy Imbalance Market

In 2015, APS and the CAISO, the operator for the majority of California's transmission grid, signed an agreement for APS to begin participation in the Energy Imbalance Market (“EIM”). APS's participation in the EIM began on October 1, 2016.  The EIM allows for rebalancing supply and demand in 15-minute blocks, with dispatching every five minutes before the energy is needed, instead of the traditional one hour blocks.  APS continues to expect that its participation in EIM will lower its fuel costs, improve visibility and situational awareness for system operations in the Western Interconnection power grid, and improve integration of APS’s renewable resources.

Renewable Energy Standard
In 2006, the ACC adopted the RES.  Under the RES, electric utilities that are regulated by the ACC must supply an increasing percentage of their retail electric energy sales from eligible renewable resources, including solar, wind, biomass, biogas and geothermal technologies.  The renewable energy requirement is 9% of retail electric sales in 2019 and increases annually until it reaches 15% in 2025.  In APS’s 2009 general retail rate case settlement agreement (the “2009 Settlement Agreement”), APS committed to use its best efforts to have 1,700 GWh of new renewable resources in service by year-end 2015 in addition to its RES renewable resource commitments. APS met its settlement commitment in 2015.
A component of the RES is focused on stimulating development of distributed energy systems.  Accordingly, under the RES, an increasing percentage of that requirement must be supplied from distributed energy resources.  This distributed energy requirement is 30% of the overall RES requirement of 9% in 2019. On June 29, 2018, APS filed its 2019 RES Implementation Plan and requested a permanent waiver of the residential distributed energy requirement for 2019. The following table summarizes the RES requirement standard (not including the additional commitment required by the 2009 Settlement Agreement) and its timing:
 
 
2019
 
2020
 
2025
RES as a % of retail electric sales
9%
 
10%
 
15%
Percent of RES to be supplied from distributed energy resources
30%
 
30%
 
30%

On April 21, 2015, the RES rules were amended to require utilities to report on all eligible renewable resources in their service territory, irrespective of whether the utility owns renewable energy credits associated with such renewable energy. The rules allow the ACC to consider such information in determining whether APS has satisfied the requirements of the RES. See "Clean Resource Energy Standard and Tariff" in Note 3 for information regarding an additional renewable energy standards proposal.


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Renewable Energy Portfolio.  To date, APS has a diverse portfolio of existing and planned renewable resources totaling 1,806 MW, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and biogas.  Of this portfolio, 1,717 MW are currently in operation and 89 MW are under contract for development or are under construction.  Renewable resources in operation include 238 MW of facilities owned by APS, 629 MW of long-term purchased power agreements, and an estimated 817 MW of customer-sited, third-party owned distributed energy resources.
 
APS’s strategy to achieve its RES requirements includes executing purchased power contracts for new facilities, ongoing development of distributed energy resources and procurement of new facilities to be owned by APS.  See "Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Generation Facilities - Solar Facilities" above for information regarding APS-owned solar facilities.

The following table summarizes APS’s renewable energy sources currently in operation and under development as of December 31, 2018.  Agreements for the development and completion of future resources are subject to various conditions, including successful siting, permitting and interconnection of the projects to the electric grid.

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Location
 
Actual/
 Target
Commercial
Operation
Date
 
Term
(Years)
 
Net
 Capacity
 In Operation
(MW AC)
 
Net Capacity
 Planned/Under
Development
(MW AC)
 
APS Owned
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Solar:
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
AZ Sun Program:
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Paloma
 
Gila Bend, AZ
 
2011
 
 

 
17

 
 

 
Cotton Center
 
Gila Bend, AZ
 
2011
 
 

 
17

 
 

 
Hyder Phase 1
 
Hyder, AZ
 
2011
 
 

 
11

 
 

 
Hyder Phase 2
 
Hyder, AZ
 
2012
 
 

 
5

 
 

 
Chino Valley
 
Chino Valley, AZ
 
2012
 
 

 
19

 
 

 
Hyder II
 
Hyder, AZ
 
2013
 
 

 
14

 
 

 
Foothills
 
Yuma, AZ
 
2013
 
 

 
35

 
 

 
Gila Bend
 
Gila Bend, AZ
 
2014
 
 

 
32

 
 
 
Luke AFB
 
Glendale, AZ
 
2015
 
 
 
10

 
 
 
Desert Star
 
Buckeye, AZ
 
2015
 
 
 
10

 
 
 
Subtotal AZ Sun Program
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
170

 

 
Multiple Facilities
 
AZ
 
Various
 
 

 
4

 
 

 
Red Rock
 
Red Rock, AZ
 
2016
 
 
 
40

 
 
 
Distributed Energy:
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
APS Owned (a)
 
AZ
 
Various
 
 

 
24

 
 
 
Total APS Owned
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
238

 

 
Purchased Power Agreements
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Solar:
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Solana
 
Gila Bend, AZ
 
2013
 
30

 
250

 
 

 
RE Ajo
 
Ajo, AZ
 
2011
 
25

 
5

 
 

 
Sun E AZ 1
 
Prescott, AZ
 
2011
 
30

 
10

 
 

 
Saddle Mountain
 
Tonopah, AZ
 
2012
 
30

 
15

 
 

 
Badger
 
Tonopah, AZ
 
2013
 
30

 
15

 
 

 
Gillespie
 
Maricopa County, AZ
 
2013
 
30

 
15

 
 

 
Solar + Energy Storage:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Sun Streams
 
Arlington, AZ
 
2021
 
15

 
 
 
50

 
Wind:
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Aragonne Mesa
 
Santa Rosa, NM
 
2006
 
20

 
90

 
 

 
High Lonesome
 
Mountainair, NM
 
2009
 
30

 
100

 
 

 
Perrin Ranch Wind
 
Williams, AZ
 
2012
 
25

 
99

 
 

 
Geothermal:
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Salton Sea
 
Imperial County, CA
 
2006
 
23

 
10

 
 

 
Biomass:
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Snowflake
 
Snowflake, AZ
 
2008
 
15

 
14

 
 

 
Biogas:
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Glendale Landfill
 
Glendale, AZ
 
2010
 
20

 
3

 
 

 
NW Regional Landfill
 
Surprise, AZ
 
2012
 
20

 
3

 
 

 
Total Purchased Power Agreements
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
629

 
50

 
Distributed Energy
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Solar (b)
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
Third-party Owned
 
AZ
 
Various
 
 

 
817

 
39

 
Agreement 1
 
Bagdad, AZ
 
2011
 
25

 
15

 
 

 
Agreement 2
 
AZ
 
2011-2012
 
20-21

 
18

 
 

 
Total Distributed Energy
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
850

 
39

 
Total Renewable Portfolio
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
1,717

 
89

 


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(a)
Includes Flagstaff Community Power Project, APS School and Government Program and APS Solar Partner Program.
(b)
Includes rooftop solar facilities owned by third parties. Distributed generation is produced in DC and is converted to AC for reporting purposes.

Demand Side Management
 In December 2009, Arizona regulators placed an increased focus on energy efficiency and other demand side management programs to encourage customers to conserve energy, while incentivizing utilities to aid in these efforts that ultimately reduce the demand for energy.  The ACC initiated its Energy Efficiency rulemaking, with a proposed EES of 22% cumulative annual energy savings by 2020.  This standard was adopted and became effective on January 1, 2011.  This standard will likely impact Arizona’s future energy resource needs.  (See Note 3 for energy efficiency and other demand side management obligations).
 
Competitive Environment and Regulatory Oversight
 
Retail
 
The ACC regulates APS’s retail electric rates and its issuance of securities.  The ACC must also approve any significant transfer or encumbrance of APS’s property used to provide retail electric service and approve or receive prior notification of certain transactions between Pinnacle West, APS and their respective affiliates. (See Note 3 for information regarding ACC's regulation of APS's retail electric rates.)
 
APS is subject to varying degrees of competition from other investor-owned electric and gas utilities in Arizona (such as Southwest Gas Corporation), as well as cooperatives, municipalities, electrical districts and similar types of governmental or non-profit organizations.  In addition, some customers, particularly industrial and large commercial customers, may own and operate generation facilities to meet some or all of their own energy requirements.  This practice is becoming more popular with customers installing or having installed products such as rooftop solar panels to meet or supplement their energy needs.
 
On May 9, 2013, the ACC voted to re-examine the facilitation of a deregulated retail electric market in Arizona.  The ACC subsequently opened a docket for this matter and received comments from a number of interested parties on the considerations involved in establishing retail electric deregulation in the state.  One of these considerations was whether various aspects of a deregulated market, including setting utility rates on a “market” basis, would be consistent with the requirements of the Arizona Constitution.  On September 11, 2013, after receiving legal advice from the ACC staff, the ACC voted 4-1 to close the current docket and await full Arizona Constitutional authority before any further examination of this matter.  The motion approved by the ACC also included opening one or more new dockets in the future to explore options to offer more rate choices to customers and innovative changes within the existing cost-of-service regulatory model that could include elements of competition.  The ACC opened a docket on November 4, 2013 to explore technological advances and innovative changes within the electric utility industry.  A series of workshops in this docket were held in 2014 and another in February of 2015.

On November 17, 2018, the ACC voted 5-0 to again re-examine retail competition. A Special Open Meeting Workshop was held on December 3, 2018. No substantive action was taken, but interested parties were asked to submit written comments and respond to a list of questions from ACC Staff. Those comments and responses are still being submitted. The ACC is planning at least one more workshop on the issue in 2019. APS cannot predict whether these efforts will result in any changes.
    

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Wholesale
 
FERC regulates rates for wholesale power sales and transmission services.  (See Note 3 for information regarding APS’s transmission rates.)  During 2018, approximately 4.7% of APS’s electric operating revenues resulted from such sales and services.  APS’s wholesale activity primarily consists of managing fuel and purchased power supplies to serve retail customer energy requirements.  APS also sells, in the wholesale market, its generation output that is not needed for APS’s Native Load and, in doing so, competes with other utilities, power marketers and independent power producers.  Additionally, subject to specified parameters, APS hedges both electricity and fuels.  The majority of these activities are undertaken to mitigate risk in APS’s portfolio.

Subpoena from Arizona Corporation Commissioner Robert Burns   

On August 25, 2016, Commissioner Burns, individually and not by action of the ACC as a whole, served subpoenas in APS’s then current retail rate proceeding on APS and Pinnacle West for the production of records and information relating to a range of expenditures from 2011 through 2016. The subpoenas requested information concerning marketing and advertising expenditures, charitable donations, lobbying expenses, contributions to 501(c)(3) and (c)(4) nonprofits and political contributions. The return date for the production of information was set as September 15, 2016. The subpoenas also sought testimony from Company personnel having knowledge of the material, including the Chief Executive Officer.

On September 9, 2016, APS filed with the ACC a motion to quash the subpoenas or, alternatively, to stay APS's obligations to comply with the subpoenas and decline to decide APS's motion pending court proceedings. Contemporaneously with the filing of this motion, APS and Pinnacle West filed a complaint for special action and declaratory judgment in the Superior Court of Arizona for Maricopa County, seeking a declaratory judgment that Commissioner Burns’ subpoenas are contrary to law. On September 15, 2016, APS produced all non-confidential and responsive documents and offered to produce any remaining responsive documents that are confidential after an appropriate confidentiality agreement is signed.

On February 7, 2017, Commissioner Burns opened a new ACC docket and indicated that its purpose is to study and rectify problems with transparency and disclosure regarding financial contributions from regulated monopolies or other stakeholders who may appear before the ACC that may directly or indirectly benefit an ACC Commissioner, a candidate for ACC Commissioner, or key ACC Staff.  As part of this docket, Commissioner Burns set March 24, 2017 as a deadline for the production of all information previously requested through the subpoenas. Neither APS nor Pinnacle West produced the information requested and instead objected to the subpoena. On March 10, 2017, Commissioner Burns filed suit against APS and Pinnacle West in the Superior Court of Arizona for Maricopa County in an effort to enforce his subpoenas. On March 30, 2017, APS filed a motion to dismiss Commissioner Burns' suit against APS and Pinnacle West. In response to the motion to dismiss, the court stayed the suit and ordered Commissioner Burns to file a motion to compel the production of the information sought by the subpoenas with the ACC. On June 20, 2017, the ACC denied the motion to compel.

On August 4, 2017, Commissioner Burns amended his complaint to add all of the ACC Commissioners and the ACC itself as defendants. All defendants moved to dismiss the amended complaint. On February 15, 2018, the Superior Court dismissed Commissioner Burns’ amended complaint. On March 6, 2018, Commissioner Burns filed an objection to the proposed final order from the Superior Court and a motion to further amend his complaint. The Superior Court permitted Commissioner Burns to amend his complaint to add a claim regarding his attempted investigation into whether his fellow commissioners should have been disqualified from voting on APS’s 2017 rate case. Commissioner Burns filed his second amended complaint, and all defendants filed responses opposing the second amended complaint and requested that it be dismissed.

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Oral argument occurred in November 2018 regarding the motion to dismiss. On December 18, 2018, the trial court granted the defendants’ motions to dismiss and entered final judgment on January 18, 2019. On February 13, 2019, Commissioner Burns filed a notice of appeal. APS and Pinnacle West cannot predict the outcome of this matter.

Environmental Matters

Climate Change

Legislative Initiatives. There have been no recent successful attempts by Congress to pass legislation that would regulate greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions, and it is unclear at this time whether the 116th Congress will consider a climate change bill. In the event climate change legislation ultimately passes, the actual economic and operational impact of such legislation on APS depends on a variety of factors, none of which can be fully known until a law is written and enacted and the specifics of the resulting program are established. These factors include the terms of the legislation with regard to allowed GHG emissions; the cost to reduce emissions; in the event a cap-and-trade program is established, whether any permitted emissions allowances will be allocated to source operators free of cost or auctioned (and, if so, the cost of those allowances in the marketplace) and whether offsets and other measures to moderate the costs of compliance will be available; and, in the event of a carbon tax, the amount of the tax per pound of carbon dioxide (“CO2”) equivalent emitted.

In addition to federal legislative initiatives, state-specific initiatives may also impact our business. While Arizona has no pending legislation and no proposed agency rule regulating GHGs in Arizona at this time, the California legislature enacted AB 32 and SB 1368 in 2006 to address GHG emissions. In October 2011, the California Air Resources Board approved final regulations that established a state-wide cap on GHG emissions beginning on January 1, 2013 and established a GHG allowance trading program under that cap. The first phase of the program, which applies to, among other entities, importers of electricity, commenced on January 1, 2013. Under the program, entities selling electricity into California, including APS, must hold carbon allowances to cover GHG emissions associated with electricity sales into California from outside the state. APS is authorized to recover the cost of these carbon allowances through the PSA.

Regulatory Initiatives. In 2009, EPA determined that GHG emissions endanger public health and welfare. As a result of this “endangerment finding,” EPA determined that the Clean Air Act required new regulatory requirements for new and modified major GHG emitting sources, including power plants. APS will generally be required to consider the impact of GHG emissions as part of its traditional New Source Review ("NSR") analysis for new major sources and major modifications to existing plants.

On June 2, 2014, EPA issued two proposed rules to regulate GHG emissions from modified and reconstructed electric generating units ("EGUs") pursuant to Section 111(b) of the Clean Air Act and existing fossil fuel-fired power plants pursuant to Clean Air Act Section 111(d). On August 3, 2015, EPA finalized carbon pollution standards for EGUs, the "Clean Power Plan". On October 10, 2017, EPA issued a proposal to repeal the Clean Power Plan and proposed replacement regulations on August 21, 2018. In addition, judicial challenges to the Clean Power Plan are pending before the D.C. Circuit, though that litigation is currently in abeyance while EPA develops regulatory action to potentially repeal and replace that regulation.

EPA's pending proposal to regulate carbon emissions from EGUs replaces the Clean Power Plan with standards that are based entirely upon measures that can be implemented to improve the heat rate of steam-electric power plants, specifically coal-fired EGUs. In contrast with the Clean Power Plan, EPA's proposed "Affordable Clean Energy Rule" would not involve utility-level generation dispatch shifting away from coal-fired generation and toward renewable energy resources and natural gas-fired combined cycle power plants. In

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addition, to address the NSR implications of power plant upgrades potentially necessary to achieve compliance with the proposed Affordable Clean Energy Rule standards, EPA also proposed to revise EPA's NSR regulations to more readily authorize the implementation of EGU efficiency upgrades.

We cannot predict the outcome of EPA's regulatory actions related to the August 2015 carbon pollution standards for EGU's, including any actions related to EPA's repeal proposal for the Clean Power Plan or additional rulemaking actions to approve the EPA's recently proposed Affordable Clean Energy Rule. In addition, we cannot predict whether the D.C. Circuit Court will continue to hold the litigation challenging the original Clean Power Plan in abeyance in light of EPA's repeal proposal, which is still pending.

Company Response to Climate Change Initiatives. We have undertaken a number of initiatives that address emission concerns, including renewable energy procurement and development, promotion of programs and rates that promote energy conservation, renewable energy use, and energy efficiency. (See “Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Current and Future Resources” above for details of these plans and initiatives.) APS currently has a diverse portfolio of renewable resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biogas, and biomass.
APS prepares an annual inventory of GHG emissions from its operations. For APS's operations involving fossil-fuel electricity generation and electricity transmission and distribution, APS's annual GHG inventory is reported to EPA under the EPA GHG Reporting Program. APS also voluntarily tracks and reports the full-scope of the Company's GHG emissions arising from all APS operations. In addition to GHG emissions from generation and transmission and distribution operations, this data includes all other GHG emissions arising from ancillary Company operations, such as vehicle use, employee travel, portable generators and facility energy usage. This data is then voluntarily communicated to the public in Pinnacle West’s annual Corporate Responsibility Report, which is available on our website (www.pinnaclewest.com). The report provides information related to the Company and its approach to sustainability and its workplace and environmental performance. The information on Pinnacle West’s website, including the Corporate Responsibility Report, is not incorporated by reference into or otherwise a part of this report.
  
EPA Environmental Regulation

Regional Haze Rules. In 1999, EPA announced regional haze rules to reduce visibility impairment in national parks and wilderness areas. The rules require states (or, for sources located on tribal land, EPA) to determine what pollution control technologies constitute the BART for certain older major stationary sources, including fossil-fired power plants. EPA subsequently issued the Clean Air Visibility Rule, which provides guidelines on how to perform a BART analysis.

Cholla. APS believed that EPA’s original 2012 final rule establishing controls constituting BART for Cholla, which would require installation of selective catalytic reduction ("SCR") controls, was unsupported and that EPA had no basis for disapproving Arizona’s State Implementation Plan ("SIP") and promulgating a Federal Implementation Plan ("FIP") that was inconsistent with the state’s considered BART determinations under the regional haze program.  In September 2014, APS met with EPA to propose a compromise BART strategy, whereby APS would permanently close Cholla Unit 2 and cease burning coal at Units 1 and 3 by the mid-2020s. (See Note 3 for details related to the resulting regulatory asset.) APS made the proposal with the understanding that additional emission control equipment is unlikely to be required in the future because retiring and/or converting the units as contemplated in the proposal is more cost effective than, and will result in increased visibility improvement over, the BART requirements for oxides of nitrogen ("NOx") imposed through EPA's BART FIP. In early 2017, EPA approved a final rule incorporating APS's compromise proposal, which took effect for Cholla on April 26, 2017.
    

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Four Corners. Based on EPA’s final standards, APS's 63% share of the cost of required BART controls for Four Corners Units 4 and 5 is approximately $400 million, the majority of which has already been incurred.  (See Note 3 for information regarding the related rate recovery.) In addition, APS and El Paso entered into an asset purchase agreement providing for the purchase by APS, or an affiliate of APS, of El Paso's 7% interest in Four Corners Units 4 and 5. 4CA purchased the El Paso interest on July 6, 2016. NTEC purchased the interest from 4CA on July 3, 2018. (See "Four Corners Coal Supply Agreement - 4CA Matter" in Note 10 for a discussion of the NTEC purchase.) The cost of the pollution controls related to the 7% interest is approximately $45 million, which was assumed by NTEC through its purchase of the 7% interest.
 
Navajo Plant. APS estimates that its share of costs for upgrades at the Navajo Plant, based on EPA’s FIP, could be up to approximately $200 million; however, given the future plans for the Navajo Plant, we do not expect to incur these costs.  See "Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Generation Facilities - Coal-Fueled Generating Facilities - Navajo Generating Station" above and "Navajo Plant" in Note 3 for information regarding future plans for the Navajo Plant.

Coal Combustion Waste. On December 19, 2014, EPA issued its final regulations governing the handling and disposal of CCR, such as fly ash and bottom ash. The rule regulates CCR as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ("RCRA") and establishes national minimum criteria for existing and new CCR landfills and surface impoundments and all lateral expansions consisting of location restrictions, design and operating criteria, groundwater monitoring and corrective action, closure requirements and post closure care, and recordkeeping, notification, and internet posting requirements. The rule generally requires any existing unlined CCR surface impoundment that is contaminating groundwater above a regulated constituent’s groundwater protection standard to stop receiving CCR and either retrofit or close, and further requires the closure of any CCR landfill or surface impoundment that cannot meet the applicable performance criteria for location restrictions or structural integrity. Such closure requirements are deemed "forced closure" or "closure for cause" of unlined surface impoundments, and are the subject of recent regulatory and judicial activities described below.

On December 16, 2016, President Obama signed the Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation ("WIIN") Act into law, which contains a number of provisions requiring EPA to modify the self-implementing provisions of the Agency's current CCR rules under Subtitle D. Such modifications include new EPA authority to directly enforce the CCR rules through the use of administrative orders and providing states, like Arizona, where the Cholla facility is located, the option of developing CCR disposal unit permitting programs, subject to EPA approval. For facilities in states that do not develop state-specific permitting programs, EPA is required to develop a federal permit program, pending the availability of congressional appropriations. By contrast, for facilities located within the boundaries of Native American tribal reservations, such as the Navajo Nation, where the Navajo Plant and Four Corners facilities are located, EPA is required to develop a federal permit program regardless of appropriated funds.

ADEQ has initiated a process to evaluate how to develop a state CCR permitting program that would cover EGUs, including Cholla. While APS has been working with ADEQ on the development of this program, we are unable to predict when Arizona will be able to finalize and secure EPA approval for a state-specific CCR permitting program. With respect to the Navajo Nation, APS has sought clarification as to when and how EPA would be initiating permit proceedings for facilities on the reservation, including Four Corners. We are unable to predict at this time when EPA will be issuing CCR management permits for the facilities on the Navajo Nation. At this time, it remains unclear how the CCR provisions of the WIIN Act will affect APS and its management of CCR.

Based upon utility industry petitions for EPA to reconsider the RCRA Subtitle D regulations for CCR, which were premised in part on the CCR provisions of the 2016 WIIN Act, on September 13, 2017, EPA

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agreed to evaluate whether to revise these federal CCR regulations. On July 17, 2018, EPA finalized a revision to its RCRA Subtitle D regulations for CCR, the "Phase I, Part I" revision to its CCR regulations, deferring for future action a number of other proposed changes contemplated in a March 1, 2018 proposal. For the final rule issued on July 17, 2018, EPA established nationwide health-based standards for certain constituents of CCR subject to groundwater corrective action, and delayed the closure deadlines for certain unlined CCR surface impoundments by 18 months (for example, those disposal units required to undergo forced closure). These changes to the federal regulations governing CCR disposal are unlikely to have a material impact on APS. As for those aspects of the March 2018 rulemaking proposal for which EPA has yet to take final action, it remains unclear which specific provisions of the federal CCR rules will ultimately be modified, how they will be modified, or when such modification will occur.

Pursuant to a June 24, 2016 order by the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals in the litigation by industry- and environmental-groups challenging EPA’s CCR regulations, EPA is required to complete a rulemaking proceeding in the near future concerning whether or not boron must be included on the list of groundwater constituents that might trigger corrective action under EPA’s CCR rules.  Simultaneously with the issuance of EPA's proposed modifications to the federal CCR rules in response to industry petitions, on March 1, 2018, EPA issued a proposed rule seeking comment as to whether or not boron should be included on this list. EPA is not required to take final action approving the inclusion of boron.  Should EPA take final action adding boron to the list of groundwater constituents that might trigger corrective action, any resulting corrective action measures may increase APS's costs of compliance with the CCR rule at our coal-fired generating facilities.  At this time APS cannot predict the eventual results of this rulemaking proceeding concerning boron.

On August 21, 2018, the D.C. Circuit Court issued its decision on the merits in this litigation. The Court upheld the legality of EPA’s CCR regulations, though it vacated and remanded back to EPA a number of specific provisions, which are to be corrected in accordance with the Court’s order. Among the issues affecting APS’s management of CCR, the D.C. Circuit’s decision vacated and remanded those provisions of the EPA CCR regulations that allow for the operation of unlined CCR surface impoundments, even where those unlined impoundments have not otherwise violated a regulatory location restriction or groundwater protection standard (i.e., otherwise triggering forced closure). At this time, it remains unclear how this D.C. Circuit Court decision will affect APS’s operations or financial results, as EPA has yet to take regulatory action on remand to revise its 2015 CCR regulations consistent with the Court’s order.

Based on this decision, on December 17, 2018, certain environmental groups filed an emergency motion with the D.C. Circuit to either stay or summarily vacate EPA's July 17, 2018 final rule extending the closure-initiation deadline for certain unlined CCR surface impoundments until October 2020. In response, EPA filed a motion to remand but not vacate that deadline extension regulation. We cannot predict the outcome of the D.C. Circuit's consideration of these dueling motions, and whether or how such a ruling would affect APS's operations or financial results.

APS currently disposes of CCR in ash ponds and dry storage areas at Cholla and Four Corners. APS estimates that its share of incremental costs to comply with the CCR rule for Four Corners is approximately $22 million and its share of incremental costs to comply with the CCR rule for Cholla is approximately $20 million. The Navajo Plant currently disposes of CCR in a dry landfill storage area. APS estimates that its share of incremental costs to comply with the CCR rule for the Navajo Plant is approximately $1 million. Additionally, the CCR rule requires ongoing, phased groundwater monitoring. By October 17, 2017, electric utility companies that own or operate CCR disposal units, such as APS, must have collected sufficient groundwater sampling data to initiate a detection monitoring program.  To the extent that certain threshold constituents are identified through this initial detection monitoring at levels above the CCR rule’s standards, the rule required the initiation of an assessment monitoring program by April 15, 2018.

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APS recently completed the statistical analyses for its CCR disposal units that triggered assessment monitoring. APS determined that several of its CCR disposal units at Cholla and Four Corners will need to undergo corrective action. In addition, all such units must cease operating and initiate closure by October of 2020. APS currently estimates that the additional incremental costs to complete this corrective action and closure work, along with the costs to develop replacement CCR disposal capacity, could be approximately $5 million for both Cholla and Four Corners. APS initiated an assessment of corrective measures on January 14, 2019, and anticipates completing this assessment during the summer of 2019. During this assessment, APS will gather additional groundwater data, solicit input from the public, host public hearings, and select remedies. As such, this $5 million cost estimate may change based upon APS’s performance of the CCR rule’s corrective action assessment process. Given uncertainties that may exist until we have fully completed the corrective action assessment process, we cannot predict any ultimate impacts to the Company; however, at this time we do not believe any potential change to the cost estimate would have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Effluent Limitation Guidelines. On September 30, 2015, EPA finalized revised effluent limitation guidelines establishing technology-based wastewater discharge limitations for fossil-fired EGUs.  EPA’s final regulation targets metals and other pollutants in wastewater streams originating from fly ash and bottom ash handling activities, scrubber activities, and coal ash disposal leachate.  Based upon an earlier set of preferred alternatives, the final effluent limitations generally require chemical precipitation and biological treatment for flue gas desulfurization scrubber wastewater, “zero discharge” from fly ash and bottom ash handling, and impoundment for coal ash disposal leachate. 

On August 11, 2017, EPA announced that it would be initiating rulemaking proceedings to potentially revise the September 2015 effluent limitation guidelines. On September 18, 2017, EPA finalized a regulation postponing the earliest date on which compliance with the effluent limitation guidelines for these waste-streams would be required from November 1, 2018 until November 1, 2020. Until EPA issues a proposal describing how it intends to change the effluent limitation guidelines for bottom ash transport water and flue gas desulfurization wastewater, it is unclear how EPA’s reconsideration process will affect how the Four Corners plant manages these waste-streams. We expect that compliance with these limitations will be required in connection with National Pollution Discharge Elimination System ("NPDES") discharge permit renewals.  APS anticipates that, in connection with EPA's current reconsideration of the NPDES permit for Four Corners (see "Four Corners National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit" below), EPA will propose a compliance deadline for the effluent limitation guidelines governing bottom ash transport water during March of 2019. Until EPA proposes a new NPDES permit reissuance for Four Corners, it is unclear what date EPA will assign as a compliance deadline for Four Corners. Cholla and the Navajo Plant do not require NPDES permitting.

Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards. On October 1, 2015, EPA finalized revisions to the primary ground-level ozone national ambient air quality standards (“NAAQS”) at a level of 70 parts per billion (“ppb”).  With ozone standards becoming more stringent, our fossil generation units will come under increasing pressure to reduce emissions of NOx and volatile organic compounds, and to generate emission offsets for new projects or facility expansions located in ozone nonattainment areas.  EPA was expected to designate attainment and nonattainment areas relative to the new 70 ppb standard by October 1, 2017.  While EPA took action designating attainment and unclassifiable areas on November 6, 2017, the Agency's final action designating non-attainment areas was not issued until April 30, 2018. At that time, EPA designated the geographic areas containing Yuma and Phoenix, Arizona as in non-attainment with the 2015 70 ppb ozone NAAQS. The vast majority of APS's natural gas-fired EGUs are located in these jurisdictions. Areas of Arizona and the Navajo Nation where the remainder of APS's fossil-fuel fired EGU fleet is located were designated as in attainment. We anticipate that revisions to the SIPs and FIPs implementing required controls to achieve the new 70 ppb standard will be in place between 2020 and 2021.  At this time, because proposed SIPs and FIPs

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implementing the revised ozone NAAQSs have yet to be released, APS is unable to predict what impact the adoption of these standards may have on the Company. APS will continue to monitor these standards as they are implemented within the jurisdictions affecting APS.

Superfund-Related Matters. The Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act ("CERCLA" or "Superfund") establishes liability for the cleanup of hazardous substances found contaminating the soil, water or air.  Those who released, generated, transported to, or disposed of hazardous substances at a contaminated site are among the parties who are potentially responsible ("PRPs").  PRPs may be strictly, and often are jointly and severally, liable for clean-up.  On September 3, 2003, EPA advised APS that EPA considers APS to be a PRP in the Motorola 52nd Street Superfund Site, Operable Unit 3 ("OU3") in Phoenix, Arizona.  APS has facilities that are within this Superfund site.  APS and Pinnacle West have agreed with EPA to perform certain investigative activities of the APS facilities within OU3.  In addition, on September 23, 2009, APS agreed with EPA and one other PRP to voluntarily assist with the funding and management of the site-wide groundwater remedial investigation and feasibility study ("RI/FS") for OU3.  Based upon discussions between the OU3 working group parties and EPA, along with the results of recent technical analyses prepared by the OU3 working group to supplement the RI/FS, APS anticipates finalizing the RI/FS in the summer or fall of 2019. We estimate that our costs related to this investigation and study will be approximately $2 million.  We anticipate incurring additional expenditures in the future, but because the overall investigation is not complete and ultimate remediation requirements are not yet finalized, at the present time expenditures related to this matter cannot be reasonably estimated.

On August 6, 2013, the Roosevelt Irrigation District ("RID") filed a lawsuit in Arizona District Court against APS and 24 other defendants, alleging that RID’s groundwater wells were contaminated by the release of hazardous substances from facilities owned or operated by the defendants.  The lawsuit also alleges that, under Superfund laws, the defendants are jointly and severally liable to RID.  The allegations against APS arise out of APS’s current and former ownership of facilities in and around OU3.  As part of a state governmental investigation into groundwater contamination in this area, on January 25, 2015, ADEQ sent a letter to APS seeking information concerning the degree to which, if any, APS’s current and former ownership of these facilities may have contributed to groundwater contamination in this area.  APS responded to ADEQ on May 4, 2015. On December 16, 2016, two RID environmental and engineering contractors filed an ancillary lawsuit for recovery of costs against APS and the other defendants in the RID litigation. That same day, another RID service provider filed an additional ancillary CERCLA lawsuit against certain of the defendants in the main RID litigation, but excluded APS and certain other parties as named defendants. Because the ancillary lawsuits concern past costs allegedly incurred by these RID vendors, which were ruled unrecoverable directly by RID in November of 2016, the additional lawsuits do not increase APS's exposure or risk related to these matters.

On April 5, 2018, RID and the defendants in that particular litigation executed a settlement agreement, fully resolving RID's CERCLA claims concerning both past and future cost recovery. APS's share of this settlement was immaterial. In addition, the two environmental and engineering vendors voluntarily dismissed their lawsuit against APS and the other named defendants without prejudice. An order to this effect was entered on April 17, 2018. With this disposition of the case, the vendors may file their lawsuit again in the future. In addition, APS and certain other parties not named in the remaining RID service provider lawsuit may be brought into the litigation via third-party complaints filed by the current direct defendants. We are unable to predict the outcome of these matters; however, we do not expect the outcome to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Manufactured Gas Plant Sites. Certain properties which APS now owns or which were previously owned by it or its corporate predecessors were at one time sites of, or sites associated with, manufactured gas plants. APS is taking action to voluntarily remediate these sites. APS does not expect these matters to have a material adverse effect on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

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Federal Agency Environmental Lawsuit Related to Four Corners

On April 20, 2016, several environmental groups filed a lawsuit against OSM and other federal agencies in the District of Arizona in connection with their issuance of the approvals that extended the life of Four Corners and the adjacent mine.  The lawsuit alleges that these federal agencies violated both ESA and NEPA in providing the federal approvals necessary to extend operations at the Four Corners Power Plant and the adjacent Navajo Mine past July 6, 2016.  APS filed a motion to intervene in the proceedings, which was granted on August 3, 2016.

On September 15, 2016, NTEC, the company that owns the adjacent mine, filed a motion to intervene for the purpose of dismissing the lawsuit based on NTEC's tribal sovereign immunity. On September 11, 2017, the Arizona District Court issued an order granting NTEC's motion, dismissing the litigation with prejudice, and terminating the proceedings. On November 9, 2017, the environmental group plaintiffs appealed the district court order dismissing their lawsuit. Oral arguments in this appeal will be heard in March 2019. We cannot predict whether this appeal will be successful and, if it is successful, the outcome of further district court proceedings.

Four Corners National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System ("NPDES") Permit

On July 16, 2018, several environmental groups filed a petition for review before the EPA Environmental Appeals Board ("EAB") concerning the NPDES wastewater discharge permit for Four Corners, which was reissued on June 12, 2018.  The environmental groups allege that the permit was reissued in contravention of several requirements under the Clean Water Act and did not contain required provisions concerning EPA’s 2015 revised effluent limitation guidelines for steam-electric EGUs, 2014 existing-source regulations governing cooling-water intake structures, and effluent limits for surface seepage and subsurface discharges from coal-ash disposal facilities.  To address certain of these issues through a reconsidered permit, EPA took action on December 19, 2018 to withdraw the NPDES permit reissued in June 2018. Withdrawal of the permit moots the EAB appeal, and EPA filed a motion to dismiss on that basis. EPA indicated that it anticipates proposing a replacement NPDES permit by March 2019 and, depending on the extent of public comments concerning that proposal, taking final action on a new NPDES permit by June 2019. At this time, we cannot predict the outcome of EPA's reconsideration of the NPDES permit and whether reconsideration will have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Navajo Nation Environmental Issues

Four Corners and the Navajo Plant are located on the Navajo Reservation and are held under rights of way granted by the federal government, as well as leases from the Navajo Nation. See “Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Generation Facilities - Coal-Fueled Generating Facilities” above for additional information regarding these plants.

In July 1995, the Navajo Nation enacted the Navajo Nation Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, the Navajo Nation Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Navajo Nation Pesticide Act (collectively, the “Navajo Acts”). The Navajo Acts purport to give the Navajo Nation Environmental Protection Agency authority to promulgate regulations covering air quality, drinking water, and pesticide activities, including those activities that occur at Four Corners and the Navajo Plant. On October 17, 1995, the Four Corners participants and the Navajo Plant participants each filed a lawsuit in the District Court of the Navajo Nation, Window Rock District, challenging the applicability of the Navajo Acts as to Four Corners and the Navajo Plant. The Court has stayed these proceedings pursuant to a request by the parties, and the parties are seeking to negotiate a settlement.

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In April 2000, the Navajo Nation Council approved operating permit regulations under the Navajo Nation Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act. APS believes the Navajo Nation exceeded its authority when it adopted the operating permit regulations. On July 12, 2000, the Four Corners participants and the Navajo Plant participants each filed a petition with the Navajo Supreme Court for review of these regulations. Those proceedings have been stayed, pending the settlement negotiations mentioned above. APS cannot currently predict the outcome of this matter.

On May 18, 2005, APS, SRP, as the operating agent for the Navajo Plant, and the Navajo Nation executed a Voluntary Compliance Agreement to resolve their disputes regarding the Navajo Nation Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act. As a result of this agreement, APS sought, and the courts granted, dismissal of the pending litigation in the Navajo Nation Supreme Court and the Navajo Nation District Court, to the extent the claims relate to the Clean Air Act. The agreement does not address or resolve any dispute relating to other Navajo Acts. APS cannot currently predict the outcome of this matter.

Water Supply

Assured supplies of water are important for APS’s generating plants. At the present time, APS has adequate water to meet its operating needs. The Four Corners region, in which Four Corners is located, has historically experienced drought conditions that may affect the water supply for the plants if adequate moisture is not received in the watershed that supplies the area. However, during the past 12 months the region has received snowfall and precipitation sufficient to recover the Navajo Reservoir to an optimum operating level, reducing the probability of shortage in future years. Although the watershed and reservoirs are in a good condition at this time, APS is continuing to work with area stakeholders to implement agreements to minimize the effect, if any, on future drought conditions that could have an impact on operations of its plants.

Conflicting claims to limited amounts of water in the southwestern United States have resulted in numerous court actions, which, in addition to future supply conditions, have the potential to impact APS’s operations.

San Juan River Adjudication. Both groundwater and surface water in areas important to APS’s operations have been the subject of inquiries, claims, and legal proceedings, which will require a number of years to resolve. APS is one of a number of parties in a proceeding, filed March 13, 1975, before the Eleventh Judicial District Court in New Mexico to adjudicate rights to a stream system from which water for Four Corners is derived. An agreement reached with the Navajo Nation in 1985, however, provides that if Four Corners loses a portion of its rights in the adjudication, the Navajo Nation will provide, for an agreed upon cost, sufficient water from its allocation to offset the loss. In addition, APS is a party to a water contract that allows the company to secure water for Four Corners in the event of a water shortage and is a party to a shortage sharing agreement, which provides for the apportionment of water supplies to Four Corners in the event of a water shortage in the San Juan River Basin.

Gila River Adjudication. A summons served on APS in early 1986 required all water claimants in the Lower Gila River Watershed in Arizona to assert any claims to water on or before January 20, 1987, in an action pending in Arizona Superior Court. Palo Verde is located within the geographic area subject to the summons. APS’s rights and the rights of the other Palo Verde participants to the use of groundwater and effluent at Palo Verde are potentially at issue in this adjudication. As operating agent of Palo Verde, APS filed claims that dispute the court’s jurisdiction over the Palo Verde participants’ groundwater rights and their contractual rights to effluent relating to Palo Verde. Alternatively, APS seeks confirmation of such rights. Several of APS’s other power plants are also located within the geographic area subject to the summons, including a number of gas-fired power plants located within Maricopa and Pinal Counties. In November 1999,

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the Arizona Supreme Court issued a decision confirming that certain groundwater rights may be available to the federal government and Indian tribes. In addition, in September 2000, the Arizona Supreme Court issued a decision affirming the lower court’s criteria for resolving groundwater claims. Litigation on both of these issues has continued in the trial court. In December 2005, APS and other parties filed a petition with the Arizona Supreme Court requesting interlocutory review of a September 2005 trial court order regarding procedures for determining whether groundwater pumping is affecting surface water rights. The Arizona Supreme Court denied the petition in May 2007, and the trial court is now proceeding with implementation of its 2005 order. No trial date concerning APS’s water rights claims has been set in this matter.

At this time, the lower court proceedings in the Gila River adjudication are in the process of determining the specific hydro-geologic testing protocols for determining which groundwater wells located outside of the subflow zone of the Gila River should be subject to the adjudication court’s jurisdiction. A hearing to determine this jurisdictional test question was held in March of 2018 in front of a special master, and a draft decision based on the evidence heard during that hearing was issued on May 17, 2018. The decision of the special master, which was finalized on November 14, 2018, but which is subject to further review by the trial court judge, accepts the proposed hydro-geologic testing protocols supported by APS and other industrial users of groundwater. Upon a final decision by the trial court judge in this matter, further proceedings thereafter will be dedicated to determining the specific hydro-geologic testing protocols for subflow depletion determinations. The determinations made in this final stage of the proceedings will ultimately govern the adjudication of rights for parties, such as APS, that rely on groundwater extraction to support their industrial operations. At this time, APS cannot predict the outcome of these proceedings.

Little Colorado River Adjudication. APS has filed claims to water in the Little Colorado River Watershed in Arizona in an action pending in the Apache County, Arizona, Superior Court, which was originally filed on September 5, 1985. APS’s groundwater resource utilized at Cholla is within the geographic area subject to the adjudication and, therefore, is potentially at issue in the case. APS’s claims dispute the court’s jurisdiction over its groundwater rights. Alternatively, APS seeks confirmation of such rights. Other claims have been identified as ready for litigation in motions filed with the court. On December 20, 2018, the court issued a case management order governing future proceedings in the adjudication, whereby discovery is currently scheduled to close in December 2019 and a trial will be held in June 2020.

Although the above matters remain subject to further evaluation, APS does not expect that the described litigation will have a material adverse impact on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

BUSINESS OF OTHER SUBSIDIARIES

Bright Canyon Energy

On July 31, 2014, Pinnacle West announced its creation of a wholly-owned subsidiary, BCE.  BCE's focus is on new growth opportunities that leverage the Company’s core expertise in the electric energy industry.  BCE’s first initiative is a 50/50 joint venture with BHE U.S. Transmission LLC, a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Energy Company.  The joint venture, named TransCanyon, is pursuing independent transmission opportunities within the eleven states that comprise the Western Electricity Coordinating Council, excluding opportunities related to transmission service that would otherwise be provided under the tariffs of the retail service territories of the venture partners’ utility affiliates.  TransCanyon continues to pursue transmission development opportunities in the western United States consistent with its strategy.
    
On March 29, 2016, TransCanyon entered into a strategic alliance agreement with Pacific Gas and Electric Company ("PG&E") to jointly pursue competitive transmission opportunities solicited by the CAISO,

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the operator for the majority of California's transmission grid. TransCanyon and PG&E intend to jointly engage in the development of future transmission infrastructure and compete to develop, build, own and operate transmission projects approved by the CAISO.

El Dorado
 
El Dorado owns minority interests in several energy-related investments and Arizona community-based ventures.  El Dorado’s short-term goal is to prudently realize the value of its existing investments.  As of December 31, 2018, El Dorado had total assets of approximately $8 million. El Dorado is not expected to contribute in any material way to our future financial performance, nor will it require any material amounts of capital over the next three years. 

4CA
    
As of December 31, 2018, 4CA had total assets of approximately $72 million, primarily consisting of a note receivable from NTEC.  See "Business of Arizona Public Service Company - Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Generating Facilities - Coal-Fueled Generating Facilities - Four Corners" above for information regarding 4CA and the note receivable from NTEC.
OTHER INFORMATION
 
Subpoenas

Pinnacle West has received grand jury subpoenas issued in connection with an investigation by the office of the United States Attorney for the District of Arizona. The subpoenas seek information principally pertaining to the 2014 statewide election races in Arizona for Secretary of State and for positions on the ACC. The subpoenas request records involving certain Pinnacle West officers and employees, including the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, as well as communications between Pinnacle West personnel and a former ACC Commissioner. Pinnacle West is cooperating fully with the United States Attorney’s office in this matter.

Other Information

Pinnacle West, APS and El Dorado are all incorporated in the State of Arizona.  BCE and 4CA are incorporated in Delaware. Additional information for each of these companies is provided below:
 
 
Principal Executive Office
Address
 
Year of
Incorporation
 
Approximate
Number of
Employees at
December 31, 2018
Pinnacle West
 
400 North Fifth Street
Phoenix, AZ 85004
 
1985
 
96

APS
 
400 North Fifth Street
P.O. Box 53999
Phoenix, AZ 85072-3999
 
1920
 
6,158

BCE
 
400 East Van Buren
Phoenix, AZ 85004
 
2014
 
5

El Dorado
 
400 East Van Buren
Phoenix, AZ 85004
 
1983
 

4CA
 
400 North Fifth Street
Phoenix, AZ 85004
 
2016
 

Total
 
 
 
 
 
6,259

 

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The APS number includes employees at jointly-owned generating facilities (approximately 2,526 employees) for which APS serves as the generating facility manager.  Approximately 1,330 APS employees are union employees, represented by the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers ("IBEW"). In January 2018, the Company concluded negotiations with the IBEW and approved a two-year extension of the contract set to expire on April 1, 2018.  Under the extension, union members received wage increases for 2018 and 2019; there were no other changes. The current contract expires on April 1, 2020.

WHERE TO FIND MORE INFORMATION

We use our website (www.pinnaclewest.com) as a channel of distribution for material Company information.  The following filings are available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”):  Annual Reports on Form 10-K, definitive proxy statements for our annual shareholder meetings, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers, such as the Company, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov. Our board and committee charters, Code of Ethics for Financial Executives, Code of Ethics and Business Practices and other corporate governance information is also available on the Pinnacle West website.  Pinnacle West will post any amendments to the Code of Ethics for Financial Executives and Code of Ethics and Business Practices, and any waivers that are required to be disclosed by the rules of either the SEC or the New York Stock Exchange, on its website.  The information on Pinnacle West’s website is not incorporated by reference into this report.
 
You can request a copy of these documents, excluding exhibits, by contacting Pinnacle West at the following address:  Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, Office of the Corporate Secretary, Mail Station 8602, P.O. Box 53999, Phoenix, Arizona 85072-3999 (telephone 602-250-4400).

ITEM 1A.  RISK FACTORS
 
In addition to the factors affecting specific business operations identified in the description of these operations contained elsewhere in this report, set forth below are risks and uncertainties that could affect our financial results.  Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, the following risks and uncertainties apply to Pinnacle West and its subsidiaries, including APS.

REGULATORY RISKS
 
Our financial condition depends upon APS’s ability to recover costs in a timely manner from customers through regulated rates and otherwise execute its business strategy.
 
APS is subject to comprehensive regulation by several federal, state and local regulatory agencies that significantly influence its business, liquidity and results of operations and its ability to fully recover costs from utility customers in a timely manner.  The ACC regulates APS’s retail electric rates and FERC regulates rates for wholesale power sales and transmission services.  The profitability of APS is affected by the rates it may charge and the timeliness of recovering costs incurred through its rates.  Consequently, our financial condition and results of operations are dependent upon the satisfactory resolution of any APS rate proceedings and ancillary matters which may come before the ACC and FERC, including in some cases how court challenges to these regulatory decisions are resolved. Arizona, like certain other states, has a statute that allows the ACC to reopen prior decisions and modify otherwise final orders under certain circumstances.


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The ACC must also approve APS’s issuance of securities and any significant transfer or encumbrance of APS property used to provide retail electric service, and must approve or receive prior notification of certain transactions between us, APS and our respective affiliates.  Decisions made by the ACC or FERC could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

APS’s ability to conduct its business operations and avoid fines and penalties depends upon compliance with federal, state and local statutes, regulations and ACC requirements, and obtaining and maintaining certain regulatory permits, approvals and certificates.
 
APS must comply in good faith with all applicable statutes, regulations, rules, tariffs, and orders of agencies that regulate APS’s business, including FERC, NRC, EPA, the ACC, and state and local governmental agencies.  These agencies regulate many aspects of APS’s utility operations, including safety and performance, emissions, siting and construction of facilities, customer service and the rates that APS can charge retail and wholesale customers.  Failure to comply can subject APS to, among other things, fines and penalties.  For example, under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, FERC can impose penalties (approximately $1.2 million dollars per day per violation) for failure to comply with mandatory electric reliability standards.  APS is also required to have numerous permits, approvals and certificates from these agencies.  APS believes the necessary permits, approvals and certificates have been obtained for its existing operations and that APS’s business is conducted in accordance with applicable laws in all material respects.  However, changes in regulations or the imposition of new or revised laws or regulations could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.  We are also unable to predict the impact on our business and operating results from pending or future regulatory activities of any of these agencies.

The operation of APS’s nuclear power plant exposes it to substantial regulatory oversight and potentially significant liabilities and capital expenditures.
 
The NRC has broad authority under federal law to impose safety-related, security-related and other licensing requirements for the operation of nuclear generating facilities.  Events at nuclear facilities of other operators or impacting the industry generally may lead the NRC to impose additional requirements and regulations on all nuclear generating facilities, including Palo Verde.  In the event of noncompliance with its requirements, the NRC has the authority to impose a progressively increased inspection regime that could ultimately result in the shut-down of a unit or civil penalties, or both, depending upon the NRC’s assessment of the severity of the situation, until compliance is achieved.  The increased costs resulting from penalties, a heightened level of scrutiny and implementation of plans to achieve compliance with NRC requirements may adversely affect APS’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

APS is subject to numerous environmental laws and regulations, and changes in, or liabilities under, existing or new laws or regulations may increase APS’s cost of operations or impact its business plans.
 
APS is, or may become, subject to numerous environmental laws and regulations affecting many aspects of its present and future operations, including air emissions of conventional pollutants and greenhouse gases, water quality, discharges of wastewater and waste streams originating from fly ash and bottom ash handling facilities, solid waste, hazardous waste, and coal combustion products, which consist of bottom ash, fly ash, and air pollution control wastes.  These laws and regulations can result in increased capital, operating, and other costs, particularly with regard to enforcement efforts focused on power plant emissions obligations.  These laws and regulations generally require APS to obtain and comply with a wide variety of environmental licenses, permits, and other approvals.  If there is a delay or failure to obtain any required environmental regulatory approval, or if APS fails to obtain, maintain, or comply with any such approval, operations at affected facilities could be suspended or subject to additional expenses.  In addition, failure to comply with applicable environmental laws and regulations could result in civil liability as a result of government

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enforcement actions or private claims or criminal penalties.  Both public officials and private individuals may seek to enforce applicable environmental laws and regulations.  APS cannot predict the outcome (financial or operational) of any related litigation that may arise.
 
Environmental Clean Up.  APS has been named as a PRP for a Superfund site in Phoenix, Arizona, and it could be named a PRP in the future for other environmental clean-up at sites identified by a regulatory body. APS cannot predict with certainty the amount and timing of all future expenditures related to environmental matters because of the difficulty of estimating clean-up costs.  There is also uncertainty in quantifying liabilities under environmental laws that impose joint and several liability on all PRPs.

Coal Ash. In December 2014, EPA issued final regulations governing the handling and disposal of CCR, which are generated as a result of burning coal and consist of, among other things, fly ash and bottom ash. The rule regulates CCR as a non-hazardous waste. APS currently disposes of CCR in ash ponds and dry storage areas at Cholla and Four Corners and in a dry landfill storage area at the Navajo Plant. To the extent the rule requires the closure or modification of these CCR units or the construction of new CCR units beyond what we currently anticipate, APS would incur significant additional costs for CCR disposal. In addition, the rule may also require corrective action to address releases from CCR disposal units or the presence of CCR constituents within groundwater near CCR disposal units above certain regulatory thresholds.

Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards. In 2015, EPA finalized revisions to the national ambient air quality standards for nitrogen oxides, which set new, more stringent standards intended to protect human health and human welfare. Depending on the final attainment designations for the new standards and the state implementation requirements, APS may be required to invest in new pollution control technologies and to generate emission offsets for new projects or facility expansions located in ozone nonattainment areas.

APS cannot assure that existing environmental regulations will not be revised or that new regulations seeking to protect the environment will not be adopted or become applicable to it.  Revised or additional regulations that result in increased compliance costs or additional operating restrictions, particularly if those costs incurred by APS are not fully recoverable from APS’s customers, could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.  Due to current or potential future regulations or legislation coupled with trends in natural gas and coal prices, the economics of continuing to own certain resources, particularly coal facilities, may deteriorate, warranting early retirement of those plants, which may result in asset impairments.  APS would seek recovery in rates for the book value of any remaining investments in the plants as well as other costs related to early retirement, but cannot predict whether it would obtain such recovery.
 
APS faces potential financial risks resulting from climate change litigation and legislative and regulatory efforts to limit GHG emissions, as well as physical and operational risks related to climate effects.

Concern over climate change has led to significant legislative and regulatory efforts to limit CO2, which is a major byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuel, and other GHG emissions.
Potential Financial Risks - Greenhouse Gas Regulation, the Clean Power Plan and Potential Litigation. In 2015, EPA finalized a rule to limit carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants. The implementation of this rule within the jurisdictions where APS operates could result in a shift in in-state generation from coal to natural gas and renewable generation. Such a substantial change in APS’s generation portfolio could require additional capital investments and increased operating costs, and thus have a significant financial impact on the Company. EPA took action in October 2017 to repeal these regulations and in August 2018 EPA proposed the Affordable Clean Energy Rule to replace the Clean Power Plan with a new set of regulations.

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Depending on the final outcome of a pending judicial review of the Clean Power Plan, along with related regulatory activity to repeal or replace these regulations, the utility industry may face alternative efforts from private parties seeking to establish alternative GHG emission limitations from power plants. Alternative GHG emission limitations may arise from litigation under either federal or state common laws or citizen suit provisions of federal environmental statutes that attempt to force federal agency rulemaking or imposing direct facility emission limitations. Such lawsuits may also seek damages from harm alleged to have resulted from power plant GHG emissions.
Physical and Operational Risks. Weather extremes such as drought and high temperature variations are common occurrences in the Southwest’s desert area, and these are risks that APS considers in the normal course of business in the engineering and construction of its electric system. Large increases in ambient temperatures could require evaluation of certain materials used within its system and represent a greater challenge.
Co-owners of our jointly owned generation facilities may have unaligned goals and positions due to the effects of legislation, regulations, economic conditions or changes in our industry, which could have a significant impact on our ability to continue operations of such facilities.

APS owns certain of our power plants jointly with other owners with varying ownership interests in such facilities. Changes in the nature of our industry and the economic viability of certain plants, including impacts resulting from types and availability of other resources, fuel costs, legislation and regulation, together with timing considerations related to expiration of leases or other agreements for such facilities, could result in unaligned positions among co-owners. Such differences in the co-owners’ willingness or ability to continue their participation could ultimately lead to disagreements among the parties as to how and whether to continue operation of such plants, which could lead to eventual shut down of units or facilities and uncertainty related to the resulting cost recovery of such assets. See Note 3 for a discussion of the co-owners' plans to cease operations of the Navajo Plant and the related risks associated with APS's continued recovery of its remaining investment in the plant.

Deregulation or restructuring of the electric industry may result in increased competition, which could have a significant adverse impact on APS’s business and its results of operations.
 
In 1999, the ACC approved rules for the introduction of retail electric competition in Arizona.  Retail competition could have a significant adverse financial impact on APS due to an impairment of assets, a loss of retail customers, lower profit margins or increased costs of capital.  Although some very limited retail competition existed in APS’s service area in 1999 and 2000, there are currently no active retail competitors offering unbundled energy or other utility services to APS’s customers.  This is in large part due to a 2004 Arizona Court of Appeals decision that found critical components of the ACC's rules to be violative of the Arizona Constitution. The ruling also voided the operating authority of all the competitive providers previously authorized by the ACC. On May 9, 2013, the ACC voted to re-examine the facilitation of a deregulated retail electric market in Arizona.  The ACC subsequently opened a docket for this matter and received comments from a number of interested parties on the considerations involved in establishing retail electric deregulation in the state.  One of these considerations is whether various aspects of a deregulated market, including setting utility rates on a “market” basis, would be consistent with the requirements of the Arizona Constitution.  On September 11, 2013, after receiving legal advice from the ACC staff, the ACC voted 4-1 to close the current docket and await full Arizona Constitutional authority before any further examination of this matter.  The motion approved by the ACC also included opening one or more new dockets in the future to explore options to offer more rate choices to customers and innovative changes within the existing cost-of-service regulatory model that could include elements of competition. 

One of these options would be a continuation or expansion of APS’s existing AG (Alternative Generation)-X program, which essentially allows up to 200 MW of cumulative load to be served via a buy-

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through arrangement with competitive suppliers of generation.  The AG-X program was approved by the ACC as part of the 2017 Settlement Agreement.
 
In November 2018, the ACC voted to again re-examine retail competition. Interested parties were asked to submit written comments, which are still being submitted. In addition, proposals to enable or support retail electric competition may be made from time to time through ballot initiatives, legislative action or other forums in Arizona. The ACC held one workshop on retail competition in December 2018 and is planning at least one more workshop on the issue in 2019. We cannot predict future regulatory or legislative action that might result in increased competition.

Proposals to change policy in Arizona or other states made through ballot initiatives or referenda may increase the Company’s cost of operations or impact its business plans.

In Arizona and other states, a person or organization may file a ballot initiative or referendum with the Arizona Secretary of State or other applicable state agency and, if a sufficient number of verifiable signatures are presented, the initiative or ref