10-K 1 powi-20231231x10k.htm 10-K POWI - FY 2023 - Form 10-K
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

Commission File Number 000-23441

POWER INTEGRATIONS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

94-3065014

(State or other jurisdiction of Incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

5245 Hellyer Avenue

San Jose

,

California

95138-1002

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip code)

(408) 414-9200

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class

  

Trading Symbol(s)

  

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock

POWI

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes      No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes      No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

Large Accelerated Filer

    

Accelerated Filer  

Non-accelerated Filer    

Smaller Reporting Company  

Emerging Growth Company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. 

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No 

The aggregate market value of registrant’s voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of registrant on June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $4.1 billion, based upon the closing sale price of the common stock as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market. Shares of common stock held by each officer and director have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not a conclusive determination for other purposes.

As of February 5, 2024, 56,886 thousand shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.001 par value, were issued and outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The information required by Part III of this report, to the extent not set forth herein, is incorporated by reference from the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to the 2024 annual meeting of stockholders, which definitive proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the fiscal year to which this Report relates.

POWER INTEGRATIONS, INC.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

PART I.

ITEM 1.

BUSINESS

4

ITEM 1A.

RISK FACTORS

14

ITEM 1B.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

21

ITEM 1C.

CYBERSECURITY

21

ITEM 2.

PROPERTIES

23

ITEM 3.

LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

23

ITEM 4.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

23

PART II.

ITEM 5.

MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

24

ITEM 6.

[RESERVED]

25

ITEM 7.

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

26

ITEM 7A.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

33

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

35

ITEM 9.

CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

64

ITEM 9A.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

64

ITEM 9B.

OTHER INFORMATION

66

ITEM 9C.

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

66

PART III.

ITEM 10.

DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

67

ITEM 11.

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

67

ITEM 12.

SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS

67

ITEM 13.

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE

67

ITEM 14.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES

67

PART IV.

ITEM 15.

EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES

68

ITEM 16.

FORM 10-K SUMMARY

75

SIGNATURES

76

2

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes a number of forward-looking statements that involve many risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements are identified by the use of the words “would,” “could,” “will,” “may,” “expect,” “believe,” “should,” “anticipate,” “if,” “future,” “intend,” “plan,” “estimate,” “potential,” “target,” “seek” or “continue” and similar words and phrases, including the negatives of these terms, or other variations of these terms, that denote future events. These statements reflect our current views with respect to future events and our potential financial performance and are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results and financial position to differ materially and/or adversely from what is projected or implied in any forward-looking statements included in this Form 10-K. These factors include, but are not limited to: if demand for our products continues to decline in our major end markets, our net revenues will decline further; we do not have long-term contracts with any of our customers and if they fail to place, or if they cancel or reschedule orders for our products, our operating results and our business may suffer; our products are sold through distributors, which limits our direct interaction with our end customers, therefore reducing our ability to forecast sales and increasing the complexity of our business; if our products do not penetrate additional markets, our business will not grow as we expect; intense competition in the high-voltage power supply industry may lead to a decrease in our average selling price and reduced sales volume of our products; we depend on third-party suppliers to provide us with wafers for our products, and if they fail to provide us sufficient quantities of wafers, our business may suffer; if we are unable to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights, we could lose market share, incur costly litigation expenses, suffer incremental price erosion or lose valuable assets, any of which could harm our operations and negatively impact our profitability; and the other risk factors described in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We make these forward-looking statements based upon information available on the date of this Form 10-K, and expressly disclaim any obligation to update or alter any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information or otherwise, except as required by laws. In evaluating these statements, you should specifically consider the risks described under Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

3

PART I

Item 1. Business.

Overview

We design, develop and market analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits (“ICs”) and other electronic components and circuitry used in high-voltage power conversion. Our products are used in power converters that convert electricity from a high-voltage source to the type of power required for a specified downstream use. In most cases, this conversion entails, among other functions, converting alternating current (“AC”) to direct current (“DC”) or vice versa, reducing or increasing the voltage, and regulating the output voltage and/or current according to the customer’s specifications.

A large percentage of our products are ICs used in AC-DC power supplies, which convert the high-voltage AC from a wall outlet to the low-voltage DC required by most electronic devices. Power supplies incorporating our products are used with all manner of electronic products including mobile phones, computing and networking equipment, appliances, electronic utility meters, battery-powered tools, industrial controls, and “home-automation,” or “internet of things” applications such as networked thermostats, power strips and security devices. Variations of our power-supply ICs are used for high-voltage power conversion in electric vehicles (“EVs”). We also supply high-voltage LED drivers, which are AC-DC ICs specifically designed for lighting applications that utilize light-emitting diodes, and motor-driver ICs for brushless DC (“BLDC”) motors used in consumer appliances, HVAC systems, ceiling fans and a variety of industrial applications.

We also offer high-voltage gate drivers—either standalone ICs or circuit boards containing ICs, electrical isolation components and other circuitry—used to operate high-voltage switches such as insulated-gate bipolar transistors (“IGBTs”) and silicon-carbide (“SiC”) MOSFETs. These combinations of switches and drivers are used for power conversion in high-power applications (i.e., power levels ranging from approximately 100 kilowatts up to gigawatts) such as industrial motors, solar- and wind-power systems, EVs and high-voltage DC transmission systems.

Our power-conversion products are distinguished by their “system-level” nature; that is, they incorporate into a single product numerous elements of a power-conversion system including a high-voltage transistor, drivers, advanced control circuitry and, in some cases, a communication link connecting the primary (i.e., input) and secondary (i.e., output) sides of the power converter while maintaining safety isolation to protect the end user from exposure to high voltage. Alternatively, a power converter can be designed and assembled using discrete components purchased from a variety of suppliers.

Our system-level products offer a number of important benefits compared with discrete designs, including: reduced design complexity; smaller size; lower component count, which in turn results in higher reliability and easier sourcing of components; reduced time-to-market; and more efficient use of engineering resources. Our products also reduce the energy consumption of power converters during normal use and in “standby” operation, when the end product is not in use. In addition to the environmental and economic benefits of reduced energy usage, our energy-saving technologies provide a number of benefits to our customers; these include helping them meet the increasingly stringent efficiency standards now in effect for many electronic products, and enabling the elimination of bulky, costly heatsinks used to dissipate the heat produced by wasted electricity. By reducing component count, circuit-board size and the need for heatsinks, our products also contribute to a reduction in materials usage and electronic waste.

While the size of our addressable market fluctuates with changes in macroeconomic and industry conditions, the market has generally exhibited a modest growth rate over time as growth in the unit volume of power converters has been offset to a large degree by reductions in the average selling price of components in this market. Therefore, the growth of our business depends largely on increasing our penetration of the markets that we serve and on further expanding our addressable market. Our growth strategy includes the following elements:

Increase our penetration of the markets we serve. We currently address AC-DC applications with power outputs up to approximately 500 watts, gate-driver applications ranging approximately 100 kilowatts up to gigawatts, and motor-drive applications up to approximately 400 watts. Through our research and development efforts, we seek to introduce more advanced products for these markets offering higher levels of integration and performance compared to earlier products. We also continue to expand our sales and application-engineering staff and our network of distributors, as well as our offerings of technical documentation and design-support tools and services to help customers use our products. These tools and services include our PI Expert™ design software, which we offer free of charge, and our transformer-sample service. In 2022 we launched PowerPros, a live online video support service that

4

enables power-supply designers to talk directly with members of our applications engineering team 24 hours a day, six days a week, anywhere in the world.
Capitalize on efforts to reduce carbon emissions by providing products that contribute to improved energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy.  In its 2019 World Energy Outlook, the International Energy Agency estimated that more than two-thirds of the reduction in carbon-dioxide (“CO2”) emissions needed to achieve the “Sustainable Development Scenario” of the United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda is to come from improved energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy. Energy savings enabled by our products help our customers comply with regulations that seek to curb energy consumption in support of reducing CO2 emissions. For example: our EcoSmart™ technology drastically reduces the amount of energy consumed by electronic products when they are plugged in but not in use; our PowiGaN™ gallium-nitride (“GaN”) transistors reduce energy consumption compared to silicon transistors; and our BridgeSwitch™ motor-driver ICs provide highly efficient power conversion for BLDC motors in appliances and industrial applications. Also, our gate-driver products are critical components in energy-efficient DC motor drives, solar- and wind-power systems, efficient high-voltage DC transmission systems (including transmission of energy from renewable energy installations to the power grid), and low-emissions transportation applications such as electric locomotives.
Increase the size of our addressable market. Prior to 2010 our addressable market consisted of AC-DC applications with up to about 50 watts of output, a served available market (“SAM”) opportunity of approximately $1.5 billion. Since then we have expanded our SAM to approximately $4 billion through a variety of means. These include the introduction of products that enable us to address higher-power AC-DC applications (such as our Hiper™ product families), the introduction of LED-driver products, and our entry into the gate-driver market through the acquisition of CT-Concept Technologie AG in 2012. In 2016 we introduced the SCALE-iDriverTM family of ICs, broadening the range of gate-driver applications we can address, and in 2018 we introduced our BridgeSwitch™ motor-driver ICs for BLDC motors. We have recently introduced a series of automotive-qualified versions of our products, including SCALE-iDriver, InnoSwitch™ and LinkSwitch™ ICs, targeting the EV market; we expect to introduce additional products targeting EVs in the future, and expect automotive applications to become a significant portion of our SAM over time.

Also contributing to our SAM expansion has been the emergence of new applications within the power ranges that our products can address. For example, applications such as “smart” utility meters, battery-powered lawn equipment and bicycles, and USB power receptacles (often installed alongside traditional AC wall outlets) can incorporate our products. The increased use of connectivity, LED lighting and other power-consuming electronic features in consumer appliances has also enhanced our SAM.

Finally, we have expanded our SAM through the development of new technologies that increase the value (and therefore the average selling prices) of our products. For example, our InnoSwitch™ ICs integrate circuitry from the secondary, or low-voltage, side of AC-DC power supplies, whereas earlier product families integrated circuitry only on the primary, or high-voltage side. In 2019 we began incorporating our proprietary GaN transistors in some our products, enabling a higher level of energy efficiency than ICs with silicon transistors. Since then, we have introduced a variety of new products utilizing GaN technology, as well as new generations of our GaN technology capable of supporting higher voltages (as high as 1250 volts). We are currently developing new products incorporating these technologies, which we believe will enable us to address higher-power applications than we address with our current range of products and therefore further expand our SAM.

We intend to continue expanding our SAM in the years ahead through all of the means described above.

Industry Background

Virtually every electronic device that plugs into a wall socket requires a power supply to convert the high-voltage alternating current provided by electric utilities into the low-voltage direct current required by most electronic devices. A power supply may be located inside a device, such as a consumer appliance or flat-panel TV, or it may be outside the device as in the case of a mobile-phone charger or an adapter for a cordless phone or cable modem.

Until approximately 1970, AC-DC power supplies were generally in the form of line-frequency, or linear, transformers. These devices, consisting primarily of copper wire wound around an iron core, tend to be bulky and heavy, and typically waste a substantial amount of electricity. In the 1970s, the availability of high-voltage discrete

5

semiconductors enabled the development of a new generation of power supplies known as switched-mode power supplies, or switchers. These switchers generally came to be cost-effective alternatives to linear transformers in applications requiring more than a few watts of power; in recent years the use of linear transformers has declined even further as a result of energy-efficiency standards and higher raw-material prices.

Switchers are generally smaller, lighter-weight and more energy-efficient than linear transformers. However, switchers designed with discrete components are highly complex, containing numerous components and requiring a high level of analog design expertise. Further, the complexity and high component count of discrete switchers make them relatively costly, difficult to manufacture and prone to failures. Also, some discrete switchers lack protection and energy-efficiency features; adding these features may further increase the component count, cost and complexity of the power supply.

In high-power systems such as industrial motor drives, electric locomotives and renewable-energy systems, power conversion is typically performed using arrays of high-power silicon transistors known as IGBT modules; these modules are operated by electronic circuitry known as gate drivers (or IGBT drivers), whose function is to ensure accurate, safe and reliable operation of the IGBT modules. Like discrete power supplies, discrete gate drivers tend to be highly complex, requiring a large number of components and a great deal of design expertise.

Our Highly Integrated Approach

In 1994 we introduced TOPSwitch, the industry’s first cost-effective high-voltage IC for switched-mode AC-DC power supplies. We have since introduced a range of other product families, expanding the range of power-supply applications we can serve and enhancing our competitiveness in applications we already addressed. In 2012 we expanded our addressable market to include high-voltage gate drivers, and in 2018 we introduced our BridgeSwitch motor-driver ICs for BLDC motors.

Our products drastically reduce the complexity and component count of power converters compared to typical discrete designs by integrating many of the functions otherwise performed by numerous discrete electronic components, and by eliminating (or reducing the size and cost of) additional components through innovative system design. As a result, our products enable power converters to have superior features and functionality at a total cost equal to or lower than that of many competing alternatives. Our products offer the following key benefits:

Fewer Components, Reduced Size and Higher Reliability

Our highly integrated ICs and gate drivers enable designs with up to 70% fewer components than comparable discrete designs. This reduction in component count enhances reliability and efficiency, reduces size, and results in lower manufacturing costs for our customers. Power supplies that incorporate our ICs are also lighter and more portable than comparable power supplies built with linear transformers, which are still used in some low-power applications.

Reduced Time-to-Market, Enhanced Manufacturability

Because our products eliminate much of the complexity associated with the design of power converters, designs can typically be completed in much less time, resulting in more efficient use of our customers’ design resources and shorter time-to-market for new designs. The lower component count and reduced complexity enabled by our products also makes designs more suitable for high-volume manufacturing. We also provide extensive hands-on design support as well as online design tools, such as our PI Expert design software, that further reduce time-to-market and product development risks.

Energy Efficiency

Our EcoSmart technology improves the energy efficiency of electronic devices during normal operation as well as standby and “no-load” conditions. This technology enables manufacturers to cost-effectively meet the growing demand for energy-efficient products, and to comply with increasingly stringent energy-efficiency requirements. Our proprietary GaN transistor technology, introduced in 2019, offers substantially higher levels of active-mode efficiency compared to traditional silicon switches, while our BridgeSwitch motor-driver ICs enable efficiency of up to 98.5%, not only minimizing waste but also eliminating the need for heatsinks in many applications, which in turn reduces cost and weight.

Wide Power Range and Scalability

Products in our current IC families can address AC-DC power supplies with output power up to approximately 500 watts as well as some high-voltage DC-DC applications; our high-voltage gate drivers are used in applications with power levels ranging from approximately 100 kilowatts to gigawatts, while our motor-driver ICs address BLDC

6

applications up to about 400 watts. Within each of our product families, designers can scale up or down in power to address a wide range of designs with minimal design effort.

Energy Efficiency

Power supplies often draw significantly more electricity than the amount needed by the devices they power. As a result, billions of dollars’ worth of electricity is wasted each year, and millions of tons of greenhouse gases are unnecessarily produced by power plants. Energy waste occurs during the normal operation of a device and in standby mode, when the device is plugged in but idle. For example: computers and printers waste energy while in “sleep” mode; TVs that are turned off by remote control consume energy while awaiting a remote-control signal to turn them back on; a mobile-phone charger left plugged into a wall outlet continues to draw electricity even when not connected to the phone (a condition known as “no-load”); and many common household appliances, such as microwave ovens, dishwashers and washing machines, also consume power when not in use. In fact, a 2015 study by the National Resources Defense Council found that devices that are “always-on” but inactive may be causing as much as $19 billion in annual energy waste in the United States alone.

In response to concerns about the environmental impact of carbon emissions, policymakers have taken action to promote energy efficiency. For example, the ENERGY STAR® program and the European Union Code of Conduct encourage manufacturers of electronic devices to comply with voluntary energy-efficiency specifications. In 2007 the California Energy Commission (“CEC”) implemented mandatory efficiency standards for external power supplies. The CEC standards were implemented nationwide in the United States in July 2008 as a result of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (“EISA”); these federal standards were tightened in 2016. Similar standards for external power supplies took effect in the European Union in 2010 as part of the EU’s EcoDesign Directive for Energy-Related Products.

In 2010, the EU EcoDesign Directive implemented standards limiting standby power consumption on a wide range of electronic products. The limit was reduced by 50 percent beginning in 2013, with many products now limited to 500 milliwatts of standby usage; the EU standards are scheduled to tighten further beginning in 2025. The EISA legislation also required substantial improvements in the efficiency of lighting technologies, effectively resulting in the phase-out of most incandescent light sources and increased adoption of LED-lighting technology. In December 2019 the government of China published new efficiency standards for room air conditioners, which took effect in July 2020. In 2022 India’s Bureau of Energy Efficiency implemented new labeling standards for ceiling fans in an effort to drive adoption of BLDC motors in place of less efficient induction motors.

We believe we offer products that enable manufacturers to meet or exceed these regulations, and all other such regulations of which we are aware. Since 1998, our AC-DC power-conversion ICs have featured our EcoSmart technology which drastically reduces standby power waste. We have sold more than 20 billion ICs featuring EcoSmart technology, resulting in estimated savings of more than 175 terawatt-hours of standby power worldwide. In 2010 we expanded our portfolio of energy-saving products with the introduction of our CapZero and SenZero IC families, which eliminate additional sources of standby waste in some power supplies. We also offer a range of products designed specifically for LED-lighting applications. Our GaN technology, introduced in 2019, also dramatically improves the active-mode efficiency of power-supplies.

Products

Below is a brief description of our products:

AC-DC power conversion products

TOPSwitch, our first commercially successful product family, was introduced in 1994. Since then we have introduced a wide range of products (such as our TinySwitch, LinkSwitch and Hiper families) to increase the level of integration and improve upon the functionality of the original TOPSwitch, and to broaden the range of power levels we can address. In 2010 we introduced our CapZero and SenZero families, which reduce standby power consumption in certain applications by eliminating waste caused by so-called bleed resistors and sense resistors. We have also introduced products designed specifically for LED-lighting applications, known as LYTSwitch ICs, as well as a range of high-performance, high-voltage diodes known as Qspeed diodes.

In 2014 we introduced our InnoSwitch product family, the first power-supply ICs to combine primary, secondary and feedback circuits into a single package. These ICs employ a proprietary technology known as FluxLink to enable precise control without the need for optical components, which tend to add cost and diminish the reliability of power supplies. In 2019 we began offering InnoSwitch ICs with more-efficient GaN transistors rather than silicon transistors. In 2020 we introduced GaN-based MinE-CAP ICs, which enable the use of smaller input capacitors as a way to further reduce the size of a power supply. Our ClampZero ICs, introduced in 2021 alongside the GaN-based InnoSwitch4-CZ family of

7

ICs, further enhance efficiency by recovering power losses associated with the high switching frequency of GaN transistors. In 2023 we announced new versions of our InnoSwitch products incorporating GaN transistors with higher voltage ratings of 900 volts and 1250 volts; earlier GaN products feature transistors rated at 750 volts.

This portfolio of power-conversion products generally addresses power supplies ranging from less than one watt of output up to approximately 500 watts of output, a market we refer to as the “low-power” market. This market consists of an extremely broad range of applications including mobile-device chargers, consumer appliances, utility meters, LCD monitors, main and standby power supplies for desktop computers, servers and TVs, and numerous other consumer and industrial applications, as well as LED lighting. We also now offer automotive-qualified versions of certain products, such as InnoSwitch ICs, for use in electric vehicles.

High-voltage gate drivers

We offer a range of high-voltage gate-driver products sold primarily under the SCALE and SCALE-2 product-family names. These products are fully assembled circuit boards incorporating multiple ICs, electrical isolation components and other circuitry. We offer both ready-to-operate “plug-and-play” drivers designed specifically for use with particular IGBT modules, as well as “driver cores,” which provide more basic driver functionality that customers can customize to their own specifications after purchase. In 2016 we introduced the SCALE-iDriver family of standalone ICs, which enables us to address applications ranging from a few kilowatts up to about 100 kilowatts, whereas previously our sales of high-power products were primarily for applications above 100 kilowatts. In 2020 we introduced an automotive-qualified version of SCALE-iDriver suitable for use in powertrain and charging applications for electric vehicles.

Motor-driver products

The BridgeSwitch family of products, introduced in 2018, is a family of motor-driver ICs addressing BLDC motor applications up to approximately 400 watts. Such applications include refrigerator compressors, ceiling fans, air purifiers as well as pumps, fans and blowers used in consumer appliances such as dishwashers and laundry machines. BridgeSwitch products are complemented by our Motor-Expert software, which provides configuration and diagnostic tools for design engineers.

Other Product Information

TOPSwitch, TinySwitch, LinkSwitch, DPA-Switch, EcoSmart, Hiper, Qspeed, InnoSwitch, BridgeSwitch, SCALE, SCALE-II, SCALE-III, SCALE-iDriver, PeakSwitch, CAPZero, SENZero, ChiPhy, FluxLink, CONCEPT, PI Expert and Motor-Expert are trademarks of Power Integrations, Inc.

End Markets and Applications

Our net revenues consist primarily of sales of the products described above. When evaluating our net revenues, we categorize our sales into the following four major end-market groupings: communications, computer, consumer, and industrial.

The table below provides the approximate mix of our net sales by end market:

Year Ended December 31, 

End Market

    

2023

2022

2021

Communications

29

%  

21

%  

30

%

Computer

 

12

%  

10

%  

10

%

Consumer

 

27

%  

33

%  

32

%

Industrial

 

32

%  

36

%  

28

%

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Our products are used in a vast range of power-conversion applications in the above-listed end-market categories. The following chart lists the most prominent applications for our products in each category.

Market Category

    

Primary Applications

Communications

Mobile-phone chargers, adapters for routers, cordless phones, broadband modems, voice-over-IP phones, other network and telecom gear

Computer

Desktop PCs and monitors, servers, adapters for tablets and notebook computers, other computer peripherals

Consumer

Major and small appliances, air conditioners and other comfort appliances, TVs and set-top boxes, video-game consoles

Industrial

Industrial controls, LED lighting, utility meters, motor controls, uninterruptible power supplies, battery-powered tools, networked thermostats, power strips and other “smart home” devices, industrial motor drives, renewable energy systems, electric locomotives, electric passenger cars and commercial vehicles, high-voltage DC transmission systems

Sales, Distribution and Marketing

We sell our products to original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, and merchant power-supply manufacturers through our direct sales staff and a worldwide network of independent sales representatives and distributors. We have sales offices in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, India, China, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Canada, Singapore and Taiwan. Direct sales to OEMs and merchant power supply manufacturers represented approximately 31%, 30% and 25% of our net product revenues in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively, while sales to distributors accounted for the remainder in each of the corresponding years. Most of our distributors are entitled to return privileges based on revenues and are protected from price reductions affecting their inventories. Our distributors are not subject to minimum purchase requirements, and sales representatives and distributors can discontinue marketing our products at any time.

Our sales are primarily made pursuant to standard purchase orders. The quantity of products purchased by our customers as well as shipment schedules are subject to revisions that reflect changes in both the customers’ requirements and in manufacturing availability. Historically, our business has been characterized by short-lead-time orders and quick delivery schedules.

Our top ten customers, including distributors that resell to OEMs and merchant power supply manufacturers, accounted for approximately 80%, 76% and 78% of net revenues in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. In 2023, three customers each accounted for more than 10% of revenues, in 2022 and 2021, two customers, both distributors, each accounted for more than 10% of revenues.

Research and Development

Our research and development efforts are focused on improving our technologies, introducing new products to expand our addressable markets, reducing the costs of existing products, and improving the cost-effectiveness and functionality of our customers’ power converters. We have assembled teams of highly skilled engineers to meet our research and development goals. These engineers have expertise in high-voltage device structure and process technology, analog and digital IC design, system architecture and packaging.

Intellectual Property and Other Proprietary Rights

We use a combination of patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets and confidentiality procedures to protect our intellectual-property rights. In 2023, we received 17 U.S. and 48 foreign patents. As of December 31, 2023, we held 300 U.S. and 349 foreign patents. Both U.S. and foreign patents have expiration dates ranging from 2024 to 2044. While our patent portfolio as a whole is important to the success of our business, we are not materially dependent upon any single patent. We also hold trademarks in the U.S. and various other geographies including Taiwan, Korea, Hong Kong, China, United Kingdom, Europe, Japan, India, Brazil, Russia and Switzerland.

We regard as proprietary some equipment, processes, information and knowledge that we have developed and used in the design and manufacture of our products. Our trade secrets include a high-volume production process used in the manufacture of our high-voltage ICs. We attempt to protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information through non-disclosure agreements, proprietary-information agreements with employees and consultants, and other security measures.

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Manufacturing

We contract with three foundries for the manufacture of the vast majority of our silicon wafers: (1) Lapis Semiconductor Co., Ltd., or Lapis, (formerly OKI Electric Industry), (2) Seiko Epson Corporation, or Epson and (3) X-FAB Semiconductor Foundries AG, or X-FAB. These contractors manufacture wafers using our proprietary high-voltage process technologies at fabrication facilities located in Japan, Germany and the United States.

Our ICs are assembled, packaged and tested by independent subcontractors in China, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines; a small percentage of our ICs are tested at our headquarters facility in California. Our gate-driver boards are assembled and tested by independent subcontractors in Sri Lanka and Thailand; some of the boards are tested at our facility in Switzerland.

Our fabless manufacturing model enables us to focus on our engineering and design strengths, minimize capital expenditures and still have access to high-volume manufacturing capacity. We utilize both proprietary and standard IC packages for assembly. Some of the materials used in our packages and certain aspects of the assembly process are specific to our products. We require our assembly manufacturers to use high-voltage molding compounds which are more difficult to process than industry standard molding compounds. We work closely with our contractors on a continuous basis to maintain and improve our manufacturing processes.

Our proprietary high-voltage processes do not require leading-edge geometries, which enables us to use our foundries’ older, lower-cost facilities for wafer manufacturing. However, because of our highly sensitive high-voltage process, we must interact closely with our foundries to achieve satisfactory yields. Our wafer supply agreements with Lapis, Epson and X-FAB expire in April 2028, December 2025 and December 2028, respectively. Under the terms of the Lapis and Epson agreements, each supplier has agreed to reserve a specified amount of production capacity and to sell wafers to us at fixed prices, which are subject to periodic review jointly by the supplier and us. In addition, Lapis and Epson require us to supply them with a rolling six-month forecast on a monthly basis. Our agreements with Lapis and Epson each provide for the purchase of wafers in U.S. dollars, with mutual sharing of the impact of the fluctuations in the exchange rate between the Japanese yen and the U.S. dollar. Under the terms of the X-FAB agreement, X-FAB has agreed to reserve a specified amount of production capacity and to sell wafers to us at fixed prices, which are subject to periodic review jointly by X-FAB and us. The agreement with X-FAB also requires us to supply them with rolling six-month forecasts on a monthly basis. Our purchases of wafers from X-FAB are denominated in U.S. dollars.

Although some aspects of our relationships with Lapis, Epson and X-FAB are contractual, some important aspects of these relationships are not written in binding contracts and depend on the suppliers’ continued cooperation. We cannot assure that we will continue to work successfully with Lapis, Epson or X-FAB in the future, that they will continue to provide us with sufficient capacity at their foundries to meet our needs, or that any of them will not seek an early termination of their wafer supply agreement with us. Our operating results could suffer in the event of a supply disruption with one or more of our foundries if we were unable to quickly qualify alternative manufacturing sources for existing or new products or if these sources were unable to produce wafers with acceptable manufacturing yields.

We typically receive shipments from our foundries approximately four to six weeks after placing orders, and lead times for new products can be substantially longer. To provide sufficient time for assembly, testing and finishing, we typically need to receive wafers four weeks before the desired ship date to our customers. As a result of these factors and the fact that customers’ orders can be placed with little advance notice, we have only a limited ability to react to fluctuations in demand for our products. We try to carry a substantial amount of wafer and finished-goods inventory to help offset these risks and to better serve our markets and meet customer demand.

Competition

Competing alternatives to our high-voltage ICs for the power-supply market include monolithic and hybrid ICs from companies such as STMicroelectronics, Infineon Technologies and Sanken Electric Company, as well as PWM-controller chips paired with discrete high-voltage silicon or GaN transistors. Such controller chips are produced by a large number of vendors, including those listed above as well as others including NXP Semiconductors, Diodes Inc., On-Bright Electronics, MediaTek Inc., Renesas Electronics and, in recent years, an increasing number of Chinese suppliers such as Southchip Semiconductor, Chipown Microelectronics and Hangzhou Silan Microelectronics Co. Our gate-driver products compete with alternatives from such companies as Broadcom, Infineon, Mitsubishi Electric, Fuji Electric, Semikron and Hangzhou Firstack Technology Co., as well as driver circuits made up of discrete devices. Our motor-driver ICs compete with power modules from such companies as ON Semiconductor, Infineon, STMicroelectronics, Mitsubishi and Sanken as well as discrete designs from a wide range of other suppliers. In general, we expect competition from Chinese semiconductor vendors to intensify over time reflecting China’s stated aim to develop its domestic semiconductor industry.

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Generally, our products enable customers to design power converters with total bill-of-materials costs similar to those of competing alternatives. As a result, the value of our products is influenced by the prices of discrete components, which fluctuate in relation to market demand, raw-material prices and other factors, but have generally decreased over time.

While we vary the pricing of our ICs in response to fluctuations in prices of alternative solutions, we also compete based on a variety of other factors. Most importantly, the highly integrated nature of our products enables designs that utilize fewer total components than comparable discrete designs or designs using other integrated or hybrid products. This enables power converters to be designed more quickly and manufactured more efficiently and reliably than competing designs. We also compete on the basis of product functionality such as safety features and energy-efficiency features and on the basis of the technical support we provide to our customers. This support includes hands-on design assistance as well as a range of design tools and documentation such as software and reference designs. We also believe that our record of product quality and history of delivering products to our customers on a timely basis serve as additional competitive advantages.

Warranty

We generally warrant that our products will substantially conform to the published specifications for 12 months from the date of shipment. Under the terms and conditions of sale, our liability is limited generally to either a credit equal to the purchase price or replacement of the defective part.

Government Regulation

We are subject to a variety of federal, state and local governmental laws and regulations worldwide, including, but not limited to, laws, rules and regulations related to anti-corruption, antitrust, data privacy requirements, employment, environmental, foreign exchange controls, health and safety requirements, immigration, import/export requirements, IP and tax. Any failure to comply with laws and regulations may subject us to a range of consequences including fines, suspension of certain of our business activities, limitations on our ability to sell our products, obligations to remediate in the case of environmental contamination, and criminal and civil liabilities or other sanctions. Changes in environmental laws and regulations could require us to alter our manufacturing processes or use substitute materials. Our failure to comply with laws, rules and regulations could subject us to future liabilities.

See also our risk factors under Part 1. Item 1A. Risk Factors in this Annual Report on Form 10-K under “Risks Related to Laws and Regulations.”

Human Capital

As of December 31, 2023, we employed 819 full-time personnel across 14 countries with 361, or 44% of the total, residing in North America, while 56% resided offshore comprising 334 in the Asia-Pacific region and 124 across Europe. As of December 31, 2023, 6% of our worldwide employees were foreign nationals, defined as individuals requiring employment visas in the countries where they are employed. Women comprise approximately 24% of our total U.S. workforce and 34% of our non-technical U.S. workforce. The ethnic makeup of our U.S. workforce is approximately as follows: 62% Asian; 27% white; 6% Hispanic or Latino; 4% other.

Innovation is the lifeblood of our company, and we depend on our people to sustain our competitive advantage. To attract and retain talented employees, we offer competitive compensation with generous comprehensive benefits for employees and dependents (including domestic partners). We offer health, dental and vision insurance, covering 85% of the cost of employee health insurance in 2023, flexible spending accounts for healthcare and child-care expenses, matching 401(k) contributions (at a rate of 50% of the employee contribution, up to a maximum of 4% of the employee’s eligible compensation), employee stock plans, paid vacation and family leave, life and disability insurance, flu vaccinations, tuition reimbursement, charitable gift matching, health-and-wellness programs designed to promote physical well-being and other mental health services. Approximately 97% of eligible U.S. employees participate in our 401(k) plan and 70% of eligible employees participated in the most recent offering period of our employee stock purchase plan. These benefits, combined with our culture of innovation and sustainable growth, contribute to below-average employee turnover relative to our industry and an average tenure of nearly 7 years. In 2022 and 2023 we were certified by Great Place to Work® based on the results of an anonymous survey of employees; in the 2023 survey, 85% of employees stated that Power Integrations is a great place to work, compared to an average of 57% for U.S. companies according to Great Place to Work.

It is our policy to ensure equal employment opportunity for all applicants and employees without regard to prohibited considerations of race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy, gender identity and sexual orientation), national origin, age, disability or genetic information, marital status or any other classification protected by applicable

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local, state or federal laws. Our employees are encouraged to engage with company leadership and raise concerns and questions in person, via e-mail (anonymously if desired), or at our quarterly employee communications meeting with the CEO and senior management team. All employees receive training in the prevention of sexual harassment and abusive conduct in the workplace.

We value our employees, giving them the tools and training to grow as individuals, and the freedom to take risks in the service of innovation. We offer tuition reimbursement for job-related education and provide live and online classes covering topics such as communication, leadership and management, software, and time management. We also offer catered lunch-time workshops on a range of personal-development topics such as financial planning, nutrition and stress management.

Additional information regarding our commitment to our people can be found on our website at https://www.power.com/company/sustainability-citizenship/.

Investor Information

We make available, free of charge, copies of our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after filing this material electronically or otherwise furnishing it to the SEC. Investors may obtain free electronic copies or request paper copies of these reports via the “For Investors” section of our website, www.power.com. Our website address is provided solely for informational purposes. We do not intend, by this reference, that our website should be deemed to be part of this Annual Report. The reports we file with the SEC are also available at www.sec.gov.

Our corporate governance guidelines, the charters of our board committees, and our code of business conduct and ethics, including ethics provisions that apply to our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, controller and senior financial officers, are also available via the investor website listed above. These items are also available in print to any stockholder who requests them by calling (408) 414-9200. We intend to satisfy the disclosure requirements of Form 8-K regarding an amendment to, or a waiver from, a provision of our code of business conduct and ethics that applies to our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or controller, or persons performing similar functions by posting such information on our investor website listed above.

Power Integrations, Inc. was incorporated in California on March 25, 1988, and reincorporated in Delaware in December 1997.

Information About Our Executive Officers

As of January 31, 2024, our executive officers, who were appointed by and serve at the discretion of our board of directors, were as follows:

Name

    

Position With Power Integrations

    

Age

Balu Balakrishnan

 

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

 

69

Douglas Bailey

 

Vice President, Marketing

 

57

Radu Barsan

 

Vice President, Technology

 

71

Sunil Gupta

 

Vice President, Operations

 

51

David “Mike” Matthews

 

Chief Technical Officer

 

59

Sandeep Nayyar

 

Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer

 

64

Clifford Walker

 

Vice President, Corporate Development

 

72

Yang Chiah Yee

 

Vice President, Worldwide Sales

 

57

Balu Balakrishnan has served as president, chief executive officer and as a director of Power Integrations since January 2002; he has also served as chairman of the board since May 2023. He served as president and chief operating officer from April 2001 to January 2002. From January 2000 to April 2001, he was vice president of engineering and strategic marketing. From September 1997 to January 2000, he was vice president of engineering and new business development. From September 1994 to September 1997, Mr. Balakrishnan served as vice president of engineering and marketing. Prior to joining Power Integrations in 1989, Mr. Balakrishnan was employed by National Semiconductor Corporation.

Douglas Bailey has served as our vice president of marketing since November 2004. From March 2001 to April 2004, he served as vice president of marketing at ChipX, a structured ASIC company. His earlier experience includes serving as business management and marketing consultant for Sapiential Prime, Inc., director of sales and business unit manager for 8x8, Inc., and serving in application engineering management for IIT, Inc. and design engineering roles with LSI Logic, Inmos, Ltd. and Marconi.

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Radu Barsan has served as our vice president of technology since January 2013, leading our foundry engineering, technology development and quality organizations. Prior to joining Power Integrations, Dr. Barsan served as chairman and CEO at Redfern Integrated Optics, Inc., a supplier of single frequency narrow linewidth lasers, modules, and subsystems, from 2001 to 2013. Previously, he served in a succession of engineering-management and technology development roles at Phaethon Communications, Inc., a photonics technology company, Cirrus Logic, Inc., a high-precision analog and digital signal processing company, Advanced Micro Devices, a semiconductor company, Cypress Semiconductor, Inc., a semiconductor company and Microelectronica a semiconductor company. Dr. Barsan has more than 40 years of commercial experience in semiconductor and photonic components development, engineering and operations.

Sunil Gupta has served as our vice president of operations since August 2020. Prior to joining Power Integrations, Mr. Gupta was vice president of operations at Renesas Electronics Corporation, a provider of electronics solutions, from July 2017 until August 2020, in which position he was responsible for global operations for Intersil and IDT products as well as the integration into the operations of Renesas. Prior to joining Renesas he was Senior Vice President, Global Operations at Intersil Corporation, a developer of power management and precision analog integrated circuits, from June 2016 to July 2017, in which position he led the global operations and technology teams, and was Vice President, Quality and Technology Development at Intersil was from September 2013 to June 2016, in which position he led the quality, reliability, yield, process technology and package technology teams. Mr. Gupta joined Intersil in 2012 as its Vice President, Quality and Reliability.  Prior to joining Intersil, Mr. Gupta was the Director of Worldwide Customer Quality Engineering at Qualcomm, and prior to Qualcomm Mr. Gupta spent 16 years at National Semiconductor in wafer fab operations and quality.

Mike Matthews has served as our chief technical officer since February 2023. Mr. Matthews joined Power Integrations in 1992, managing our European application engineering group and then our European sales organization as managing director of Power Integrations (Europe). He led our product-definition team from 2000 through 2023, serving as director of strategic marketing until 2012 and then as vice president of product of development prior to assuming his current role. Prior to joining Power Integrations, Mr. Matthews worked at several electric motor-drive companies and then at Siliconix, a semiconductor company, as a motor-control applications specialist.

Sandeep Nayyar has served as our vice president and chief financial officer since June 2010. Previously Mr. Nayyar served as vice president of finance at Applied Biosystems, Inc., a developer and manufacturer of life-sciences products, from 2002 to 2009. Mr. Nayyar was a member of the executive team with world-wide responsibilities for finance. From 1990 to 2001, Mr. Nayyar served in a succession of financial roles including vice president of finance at Quantum Corporation, a computer storage company. Mr. Nayyar also worked for five years in the public-accounting field at Ernst & Young LLP. Mr. Nayyar is a Certified Public Accountant, Chartered Accountant and has a Bachelor of Commerce from the University of Delhi, India. Mr. Nayyar serves as a director and audit-committee chairman of Smart Global Holdings, Inc., a manufacturer of specialty memory solutions since his appointment in 2014. He was the lead independent director from 2021 to 2022.

Clifford Walker has served as our vice president, corporate development since June 1995. From September 1994 to June 1995, Mr. Walker served as vice president of Reach Software Corporation, a software company. From December 1993 to September 1994, Mr. Walker served as president of Morgan Walker International, a consulting company.

Yang Chiah Yee has served as our vice president, worldwide sales since June 2021. From March 2018 to June 2021, Mr. Yee served as senior vice president of worldwide sales at NeoPhotonics Corporation, a supplier of optoelectronic modules and subsystems for high-speed communication networks, where he was responsible for managing the worldwide sales and customer service organization, meeting with major clients, designing effective sales strategies and negotiating major contracts. From August 2016 to February 2017, Mr. Yee served as senior vice president of worldwide sales at IDEX Biometrics ASA, a supplier of fingerprint sensor solutions for payment cards, digital wallets and cyber authentication. From March 2008 to March 2016, Mr. Yee served in various senior sales roles at Atmel Corporation, a semiconductor designer and manufacturer of microcontroller and memory chips before its acquisition by Microchip Technology, Inc. Mr. Yee’s earlier experience includes senior sales roles at Xilinx Inc. and Memec LLC focusing on the Asia-Pacific region. Mr. Yee received a bachelor of engineering degree from Nanyang Technological Institute at the National University of Singapore, and holds a graduate diploma in marketing management from the Singapore Institute of Management.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

The following are important factors that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we deem immaterial also may impair our business operations. If any of the following risks or such other risks actually occurs, our business could be harmed.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

Our operating results are volatile and difficult to predict. If we fail to meet the expectations of public market analysts or investors, the market price of our common stock may decrease significantly. Our net revenues and operating results have varied significantly in the past, are difficult to forecast, are subject to numerous factors both within and outside of our control, and may fluctuate significantly in the future. As a result, our operating results could fall below the expectations of public market analysts or investors. If that occurs, the price of our stock may decline.

Some of the factors that could affect our operating results include the following:

the demand for our products declining in the major end markets we serve, which may occur due to competitive factors, supply-chain fluctuations, rising inflation or other changes in macroeconomic conditions;
reliance on international sales activities for a substantial portion of our net revenues;
the volume and timing of orders received from customers;
our products are sold through distributors, which limits our direct interaction with our end customers, which reduces our ability to forecast sales and increases the complexity of our business;
the ability of our products to penetrate additional markets;
our ability to develop and bring to market new products and technologies on a timely basis;
failure, disruption, security breaches, or other incidents impacting our information technology infrastructure or information management systems;
interruptions in our information technology systems;
competitive pressures on selling prices;
we face risks related to the Novel Coronavirus pandemic (“COVID-19”), which has disrupted and may again disrupt our operations, including our manufacturing, research and development, and sales and marketing activities, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows;
risks associated with our supply chain including, the volume, cost and timing of delivery of orders placed by us with our wafer foundries and assembly subcontractors, and their ability to procure materials;
our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel;
the lengthy timing of our sales cycle;
earthquakes, fire, pandemics or other disasters;
undetected defects and failures in meeting the exact specifications required by our products;
fluctuations in exchange rates, particularly the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Japanese yen, the Euro and the Swiss franc;
the inability to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights;
expenses we are required to incur (or choose to incur) in connection with our intellectual property litigations;
changes in tax rules and regulations, changes in interpretation of tax rules and regulations, or unfavorable assessments from tax audits may increase the amount of taxes we are required to pay;

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changes in environmental laws and regulations, including with respect to energy consumption and climate change;
uncertainties arising out of economic consequences of current and potential military actions, including current on-going conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East, or terrorist activities and associated political instability;
risks associated with acquisitions and strategic investments;
our ability to successfully integrate, or realize the expected benefits from, our acquisitions; and
continued impact of changes in securities laws and regulations, including potential risks resulting from our evaluation of our internal controls over financial reporting.

Risks Related to the Operation and Growth of Our Business

If demand for our products continues to decline in our major end markets, our net revenues will continue to decline further. When our customers are not successful in maintaining high levels of demand for their products, their demand for our ICs decreases, which adversely affects our operating results. A limited number of applications of our products, such as cellphone chargers and consumer appliances, make up a significant percentage of our net revenues. We expect that a significant level of our net revenues and operating results will continue to be dependent upon these applications in the near term. Demand for end products incorporating our products has been highly cyclical over time and has been impacted by economic downturns; our recent results have been impacted by economic conditions including inflation and the effects of anti-COVID measures in China. Any further economic slowdown in the end markets that we serve could cause a further slowdown in demand for our ICs, causing our net revenues to decline further and potentially result in write-offs of excess or obsolete inventory, which could cause the price of our stock to fall.

Our international sales activities account for a substantial portion of our net revenues, which subjects us to substantial risks. Sales to customers outside of the United States of America account for, and have accounted for a large portion of our net revenues, including approximately 98%, 96% and 98% of our net revenues for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. If our international sales declined and we were unable to increase domestic sales, our revenues would decline and our operating results would be harmed. International sales involve a number of risks to us, including:

tariffs, protectionist measures and other trade barriers and restrictions;
potential insolvency of international distributors and representatives;
reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
the impact of recessionary environments and inflation in the United States and other economies where we do business;
global, regional, and local economic and political conditions, including, but not limited to, social, economic, political, and supply chain instability related to the uncertainty regarding relationships among the international community as a whole including potential risks stemming from tensions between China and Taiwan and between China and Western countries, as well as related to armed conflicts that exist, or in the future could exist, in various parts of the world;
the burdens of complying with a variety of foreign and applicable U.S. Federal and state laws; and
foreign-currency exchange risk.

Our failure to adequately address these risks could reduce our international sales and materially and adversely affect our operating results. Furthermore, because substantially all of our foreign sales are denominated in U.S. dollars, increases in the value of the dollar cause the price of our products in foreign markets to rise, making our products more expensive relative to competing products priced in local currencies.

We do not have long-term contracts with any of our customers and if they fail to place, or if they cancel or reschedule orders for our products, our operating results and our business may suffer. Our business is characterized by short-term customer orders and shipment schedules, and the ordering patterns of some of our large customers have been unpredictable in the past and will likely remain unpredictable in the future. Not only does the volume of units ordered by particular customers vary substantially from period to period, but also purchase orders received from particular customers often vary substantially from early oral estimates provided by those customers for planning purposes. In addition, customer

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orders can be canceled or rescheduled without significant penalty to the customer. In the past, we have experienced customer cancellations of substantial orders for reasons beyond our control, and significant cancellations could occur again at any time. Also, a relatively small number of distributors, OEMs and merchant power supply manufacturers account for a significant portion of our revenues. Specifically, our top ten customers, including distributors, accounted for 80%, 76% and 78% of our net revenues in each of the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. However, a significant portion of these revenues are attributable to sales of our products through distributors of electronic components. These distributors sell our products to a broad, diverse range of end users, including OEMs and merchant power supply manufacturers, which mitigates the risk of customer concentration to a large degree.

Our products are sold through distributors, which limits our direct interaction with our end customers, therefore reducing our ability to forecast sales and increasing the complexity of our business. Sales to distributors accounted for approximately 69%, 70% and 75% of net revenues in the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Selling through distributors reduces our ability to forecast sales and increases the complexity of our business, requiring us to:

manage a more complex supply chain;
monitor the level of inventory of our products at each distributor, and
monitor the financial condition and credit-worthiness of our distributors, many of which are located outside of the United States and are not publicly traded.

Since we have limited ability to forecast inventory levels at our end customers, it is possible that there may be significant build-up of inventories in the distributor channel, with the OEM or the OEM’s contract manufacturer. Such a buildup could result in a slowdown in orders, requests for returns from customers, or requests to move out planned shipments. This could adversely impact our revenues and profits. Any failure to manage these complexities could disrupt or reduce sales of our products and unfavorably impact our financial results.

If our products do not penetrate additional markets, our business will not grow as we expect. We believe that our future success depends in part upon our ability to penetrate additional markets for our products. We cannot assure that we will be able to overcome the marketing or technological challenges necessary to penetrate additional markets. To the extent that a competitor penetrates additional markets before we do, or takes market share from us in our existing markets, our net revenues and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

If our efforts to enhance existing products and introduce new products are not successful, we may not be able to generate demand for our products. Our success depends in significant part upon our ability to develop new ICs for high-voltage power conversion for existing and new markets, to introduce these products in a timely manner and to have these products selected for design into products of leading manufacturers. New product introduction schedules are subject to the risks and uncertainties that typically accompany development and delivery of complex technologies to the market place, including product development delays and defects. If we fail to develop and sell new products in a timely manner, then our net revenues could decline.

In addition, we cannot be sure that we will be able to adjust to changing market demands as quickly and cost-effectively as necessary to compete successfully. Furthermore, we cannot assure that we will be able to introduce new products in a timely and cost-effective manner or in sufficient quantities to meet customer demand or that these products will achieve market acceptance. Our failure, or our customers’ failure, to develop and introduce new products successfully and in a timely manner would harm our business. In addition, customers may defer or return orders for existing products in response to the introduction of new products. When a potential liability exists we will maintain reserves for customer returns, however we cannot assure that these reserves will be adequate.

Any failure, disruption or security breach or incident otherwise impacting our information technology infrastructure or information management systems could have an adverse impact on our business and operations. Cyber-attacks have become increasingly more prevalent and much harder to detect, defend against or prevent. As the frequency of cyber-attacks and resulting breaches reported by other businesses and governments increases, we expect to continue to devote significant resources to improve and maintain our IT infrastructure. We have incurred and may in the future incur significant costs in order to implement, maintain and/or update security systems we believe are necessary to protect our IT infrastructure. As the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and are often not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventive measures. A breakdown in existing controls and procedures around our cyber-security environment may prevent us from detecting, reporting or responding to cyber incidents in a timely manner and could have a material adverse

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effect on our financial position and value of our stock. We cannot guarantee that our implemented processes for IT and risk mitigation measures will be effective for IT systems under our control.

Furthermore, we rely on products and services provided by third-party suppliers to operate certain critical business systems. We cannot guarantee that third parties and infrastructure in our supply chain or our partners’ supply chains have not been or will not be compromised or that they do not or will not in the future contain exploitable defects or bugs that could result in a breach of or disruption to our IT infrastructure, including our products and services, or the third-party information technology systems that support our services.

We have limited insight into the data privacy or security practices of third-party service providers. Our ability to monitor these third parties’ information security practices is limited, and they may not have adequate information security measures in place. If one of our third-party suppliers suffers a security breach, our response may be limited or more difficult because we may not have direct access to their systems, logs and other information related to the security breach.

Interruptions in our information technology systems could adversely affect our business. We rely on the efficient and uninterrupted operation of complex information technology systems and networks to operate our business. Any significant system or network disruption, including but not limited to new system implementations, computer viruses, security breaches, or energy blackouts could have a material adverse impact on our operations, sales and operating results. We have implemented measures to manage our risks related to such disruptions, but such disruptions could still occur and negatively impact our operations and financial results. Furthermore, the risk of state-supported and geopolitically motivated cybersecurity incidents may increase due to geopolitical instability. In addition, we may incur additional costs to remedy any damages caused by these disruptions or security breaches.

Intense competition in the high-voltage power supply industry may lead to a decrease in our average selling price and reduced sales volume of our products. The high-voltage power supply industry is intensely competitive and characterized by significant price sensitivity. Our products face competition from alternative technologies, such as linear transformers, discrete switcher power supplies, and other integrated and hybrid solutions. If the price of competing solutions decreases significantly, the cost effectiveness of our products will be adversely affected. If power requirements for applications in which our products are currently utilized go outside the cost-effective range of our products, some of these alternative technologies can be used more cost effectively. In addition, as our patents expire, our competitors could legally begin using the technology covered by the expired patents in their products, potentially increasing the performance of their products and/or decreasing the cost of their products, which may enable our competitors to compete more effectively. Our current patents may or may not inhibit our competitors from getting any benefit from an expired patent. Our U.S. patents have expiration dates ranging from 2024 to 2044. We cannot assure that our products will continue to compete favorably or that we will be successful in the face of increasing competition from new products and enhancements introduced by existing competitors or new companies entering this market. We believe our failure to compete successfully in the high-voltage power supply business, including our ability to introduce new products with higher average selling prices, would materially harm our operating results.

We face risks related to global health crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which have disrupted and may again disrupt our operations, including our manufacturing, research and development, and sales and marketing activities, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows. Our business as well as the business of our suppliers, customers and distributors was impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and may in the future be adversely impacted by the world-wide response to any further global health crises. Such impacts include public health measures, travel restrictions, business shutdowns, border closures, delivery and freight delays and other disruptions. These disruptions may adversely affect not only our sales and marketing activities, product development, manufacturing and product shipments which could negatively impact our ability to meet customer commitments but also our customers’ ability to manufacture their products, which could reduce their demand for our products. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant economic downturn in local and global economies and in financial markets. Any future global health crisis could have similar economic consequences which may result in reduced demand for our products and have a material adverse effect on our revenues, customer relationships, operating results, cash flows, financial condition and stock price.

We depend on third-party suppliers to provide us with wafers for our products and if they fail to provide us sufficient quantities of wafers, our business may suffer. Our primary supply arrangements for the production of wafers are with Epson, Lapis and X-FAB. Our contracts with these suppliers expire on varying dates, with the earliest to expire in December 2025. Although some aspects of our relationships with Lapis, X-FAB and Epson are contractual, many important aspects of these relationships depend on their continued cooperation. We cannot assure that we will continue to work successfully with Epson, Lapis and X-FAB in the future, and that the wafer foundries’ capacity will meet our needs.

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Additionally, one or more of these wafer foundries could seek an early termination of our wafer supply agreements. Any serious disruption in the supply of wafers from Epson, Lapis and X-FAB could harm our business. We estimate that it would take 12 to 24 months from the time we identified an alternate manufacturing source to produce wafers with acceptable manufacturing yields in sufficient quantities to meet our needs.

Although we provide our foundries with rolling forecasts of our production requirements, their ability to provide wafers to us is ultimately limited by the available capacity of the wafer foundry. Any reduction in wafer foundry capacity available to us could require us to pay amounts in excess of contracted or anticipated amounts for wafer deliveries or require us to make other concessions to meet our customers’ requirements, or may limit our ability to meet demand for our products. Further, to the extent demand for our products exceeds wafer foundry capacity, this could inhibit us from expanding our business and harm relationships with our customers. Any of these concessions or limitations could harm our business.

If our third-party suppliers and independent subcontractors do not produce our wafers and assemble our finished products at acceptable yields, our net revenues may decline. We depend on independent foundries to produce wafers, and independent subcontractors to assemble and test finished products, at acceptable yields and to deliver them to us in a timely manner. The failure of the foundries to supply us wafers at acceptable yields could prevent us from selling our products to our customers and would likely cause a decline in our net revenues and gross margin. In addition, our IC assembly process requires our manufacturers to use a high-voltage molding compound that has been available from only a few suppliers. These compounds and their specified processing conditions require a more exacting level of process control than normally required for standard IC packages. Unavailability of assembly materials or problems with the assembly process can materially and adversely affect yields, timely delivery and cost to manufacture. We may not be able to maintain acceptable yields in the future.

In addition, if prices for commodities used in our products increase significantly, raw material costs would increase for our suppliers which could result in an increase in the prices our suppliers charge us. To the extent we are not able to pass these costs on to our customers; this would have an adverse effect on our gross margins.

We must attract and retain qualified personnel to be successful and competition for qualified personnel is intense in our market. Our success depends to a significant extent upon the continued service of our executive officers and other key management and technical personnel, and on our ability to continue to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel, such as experienced analog design engineers and systems applications engineers. The competition for these employees is intense, particularly in Silicon Valley. The loss of the services of one or more of our engineers, executive officers or other key personnel could harm our business. In addition, if one or more of these individuals leaves our employ, and we are unable to quickly and efficiently replace those individuals with qualified personnel who can smoothly transition into their new roles, our business may suffer. We do not have long-term employment contracts with, and we do not have in place key person life insurance policies on, any of our employees.

Because the sales cycle for our products can be lengthy, we may incur substantial expenses before we generate significant revenues, if any. Our products are generally incorporated into a customer’s products at the design stage. However, customer decisions to use our products, commonly referred to as design wins, can often require us to expend significant research and development and sales and marketing resources without any assurance of success. These significant research and development and sales and marketing resources often precede volume sales, if any, by a year or more. The value of any design win will largely depend upon the commercial success of the customer’s product. We cannot assure that we will continue to achieve design wins or that any design win will result in future revenues. If a customer decides at the design stage not to incorporate our products into its product, we may not have another opportunity for a design win with respect to that product for many months or years.

In the event of an earthquake, fire, other pandemics, natural or other disasters, including with respect to climate change, our operations may be interrupted and our business would be harmed. Our principal executive offices and operating facilities are situated near San Francisco, California, and most of our major suppliers, which are wafer foundries and assembly houses, are located in areas that have been subject to severe earthquakes, such as Japan. Many of our suppliers are also susceptible to other disasters such as tropical storms, typhoons, tsunamis or other catastrophic events, including those caused by climate change. In the event of a disaster, we or one or more of our major suppliers may be temporarily unable to continue operations and may suffer significant property damage. Any interruption in our ability, or that of our major suppliers, to continue operations could delay the development and shipment of our products and have a substantial negative impact on our financial results.

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Our products must meet exacting specifications, and undetected defects and failures may occur which may cause customers to return or stop buying our products and/or impose significant costs to us. Our customers generally establish demanding specifications for quality, performance and reliability, and our products must meet these specifications. ICs as complex as those we sell often encounter development delays and may contain undetected defects or failures when first introduced or after commencement of commercial shipments. We have from time to time in the past experienced product quality, performance or reliability problems. If defects and failures occur in our products, we could experience lost revenue, increased costs, including product warranty or liability claims and costs associated with customer support and product recalls, delays in or cancellations or rescheduling of orders or shipments and product returns or discounts. While we specifically exclude consequential damages in our standard terms and conditions, certain of our contracts may not exclude such liabilities. Our liability insurance which covers certain damages arising out of product defects may not cover all claims or be of a sufficient amount to fully protect against such claims. Costs or payments in connection with such claims could harm our operating results.

Risks Related to Financial Performance

Fluctuations in exchange rates, particularly the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Japanese yen, Swiss franc and euro, may impact our gross margin and net income. Our exchange rate risk related to the Japanese yen includes two of our major suppliers, Epson and Lapis, with which we have wafer supply agreements based in U.S. dollars; however, these agreements also allow for mutual sharing of the impact of the exchange rate fluctuation between Japanese yen and the U.S. dollar. Each year, our management and these suppliers review and negotiate pricing; the negotiated pricing is denominated in U.S. dollars but is subject to contractual exchange rate provisions. The fluctuation in the exchange rate is shared equally between Power Integrations and each of these suppliers. We maintain cash denominated in Swiss francs and euros to fund the operations of our Swiss subsidiary. The functional currency of our Swiss subsidiary is the U.S. dollar; gains and losses arising from the remeasurement of non-functional currency balances are recorded in other income in our consolidated statements of income, and material unfavorable exchange-rate fluctuations with the Swiss franc could negatively impact our net income.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

If we are unable to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights, we could lose market share, incur costly litigation expenses, suffer incremental price erosion or lose valuable assets, any of which could harm our operations and negatively impact our profitability. Our success depends upon our ability to continue our technological innovation and protect our intellectual property, including patents, trade secrets, copyrights and know-how. We are currently engaged in litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, and associated expenses have been, and are expected to remain, material and have adversely affected our operating results. We cannot assure that the steps we have taken to protect our intellectual property will be adequate to prevent misappropriation, or that others will not develop competitive technologies or products. From time to time, we have received, and we may receive in the future, communications alleging possible infringement of patents or other intellectual property rights of others. Costly litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights or to defend us against claimed infringement. The failure to obtain necessary licenses and other rights, and/or litigation arising out of infringement claims could cause us to lose market share and harm our business.

As our patents expire, we will lose intellectual property protection previously afforded by those patents. Additionally, the laws of some foreign countries in which our technology is or may in the future be licensed may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, thus limiting the protections applicable to our technology.

If we do not prevail in our litigation, we will have expended significant financial resources, potentially without any benefit, and may also suffer the loss of rights to use some technologies. We are currently involved in a number of patent litigation matters and the outcome of the litigation is uncertain. See Note 13, Legal Proceedings and Contingencies, in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. For example, we are being sued in an ongoing case for patent infringement. Should we ultimately be determined to be infringing another party’s patents, or if an injunction is issued against us while litigation is pending on those claims, such result could have an adverse impact on our ability to sell products found to be infringing, either directly or indirectly. In the event of an adverse outcome, we may be required to pay substantial damages, stop our manufacture, use, sale, or importation of infringing products, or obtain licenses to the intellectual property we are found to have infringed. We have also incurred, and expect to continue to incur, significant legal costs in conducting these lawsuits, including the appeal of the case we won, and our involvement in this litigation and any future intellectual property litigation could adversely affect sales and divert the efforts and attention of our technical and management personnel, whether or not such litigation is resolved in our favor. Thus, even if

19

we are successful in these lawsuits, the benefits of this success may fail to outweigh the significant legal costs we will have incurred.

Risks Related to Laws and Regulations

Changes in tax rules and regulations, changes in interpretation of tax rules and regulations, or unfavorable assessments from tax audits may increase the amount of taxes we are required to pay. Our operations are subject to income and transaction taxes in the United States and in multiple foreign jurisdictions and to review or audit by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) and state, local and foreign tax authorities. In addition, the United States, countries in Asia and other countries where we do business have recently enacted or are considering changes in relevant tax, accounting and other laws, regulations and interpretations, including changes to tax laws applicable to multinational companies. These potential changes could adversely affect our effective tax rates or result in other costs to us.

The European Union (“EU”) member states formally adopted the EU’s Pillar Two Directive, which was established by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and which generally provides for a 15 per cent minimum effective tax rate for multinational corporations, in all jurisdictions in which they operate. While we do not anticipate that this will have a material impact on our tax provision or effective tax rate, we will continue to monitor the evolving tax legislation in the jurisdictions in which we operate.

As of December 31, 2023, we are currently subject to an ongoing audit with the California Franchise Tax Board for the tax years 2018 and 2019. The foregoing items could have a material effect on our business, cash flow, results of operations or financial conditions.

Changes in environmental laws and regulations, including with respect to energy consumption and climate change, may have a negative impact on our business. Changing environmental regulations and the timetable to implement them continue to impact our customers’ demand for our products. Currently we have limited visibility into our customers’ strategies to implement these changing environmental regulations into their business. The inability to accurately determine our customers’ strategies could increase our inventory costs related to obsolescence.

The semiconductor industry is subject to environmental regulations, particularly those that control and restrict the sourcing, use, transportation, storage, and disposal of certain mineral, chemicals, and materials used in the semiconductor manufacturing process. We expect the heightened worldwide awareness regarding climate change and the environmental impact to continue, which may result in new environmental laws and regulations that could affect us, our suppliers and/or our customers. New environmental laws and regulations could require us or our suppliers to obtain alternative materials that may increase our costs more or be less available, which may adversely affect our operating results.

General Risk Factors

Uncertainties arising out of economic consequences of current and potential military actions or terrorist activities and associated political instability could adversely affect our business. Like other U.S. companies, our business and operating results are subject to uncertainties arising out of economic consequences of current and potential military actions or terrorist activities and associated political instability, and the impact of heightened security concerns on domestic and international travel and commerce. These uncertainties could also lead to delays or cancellations of customer orders, a general decrease in corporate spending or our inability to effectively market and sell our products. Any of these results could substantially harm our business and results of operations, causing a decrease in our revenues.

We are exposed to risks associated with acquisitions and strategic investments. We have made, and in the future intend to make, acquisitions of, and investments in, companies, technologies or products in existing, related or new markets. Acquisitions involve numerous risks, including but not limited to:

inability to realize anticipated benefits, which may occur due to any of the reasons described below, or for other unanticipated reasons;
the risk of litigation or disputes with customers, suppliers, partners or stockholders of an acquisition target arising from a proposed or completed transaction;
impairment of acquired intangible assets and goodwill as a result of changing business conditions, technological advancements or worse-than-expected performance, which would adversely affect our financial results; and
unknown, underestimated and/or undisclosed commitments, liabilities or issues not discovered in our due diligence of such transactions.

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We also in the future may have strategic relationships with other companies, which may decline in value and/or not meet desired objectives. The success of these strategic relationships depends on various factors over which we may have limited or no control and requires ongoing and effective cooperation with strategic partners. Moreover, these relationships are often illiquid, such that it may be difficult or impossible for us to monetize such relationships.

Our inability to successfully integrate, or realize the expected benefits from, our acquisitions could adversely affect our results. We have made, and in the future intend to make, acquisitions of other businesses and with these acquisitions there is a risk that integration difficulties may cause us not to realize expected benefits. The success of the acquisitions could depend, in part, on our ability to realize the anticipated benefits and cost savings (if any) from combining the businesses of the acquired companies and our business, which may take longer to realize than expected.

Securities laws and regulations, including potential risk resulting from our evaluation of internal controls over financial reporting, will continue to impact our results. Complying with the requirements of the federal securities laws and Nasdaq’s conditions for continued listing have imposed significant legal and financial compliance costs, and are expected to continue to impose significant costs and management burden on us. These rules and regulations also may make it more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These rules and regulations could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified executive officers and members of our board of directors, particularly qualified members to serve on our audit committee. Further, the rules and regulations under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which became effective in 2011, may impose significant costs and management burden on us.

Additionally, because these laws, regulations and standards are expected to be subject to varying interpretations, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance becomes available. This evolution may result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and additional costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to our disclosure and governance practices.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

Not applicable.

Item 1C. Cybersecurity.

Cybersecurity Risk Assessment, Identification and Management

We are committed to protecting our information technology (“IT”) infrastructure, including computers, systems, corporate networks and sensitive data, from unauthorized access or attack. We have established global IT policies as well as IT security management control procedures designed to assess, identify, and manage material risks from cybersecurity threats by:

Creating information security awareness among our employees and business partners and defining responsibilities among them;
Implementing controls to identify IT risks and monitor the use of our systems and information resources;
Establishing key policies and processes to adequately and timely respond to security threats;
Maintaining disaster recovery and business continuity plans; and
Emphasizing compliance with applicable laws, regulations and contractual obligations regarding the management of information security.

These policies and controls procedures discussed in more detail below, are an integrated component of our enterprise risk management assessment processes. We routinely review and assess our business groups and systems to identify and prioritize areas of risk, including cybersecurity risk. The results of these assessments and progress against prioritized goals are presented to the board of directors each quarter.

We have incurred and may in the future incur significant costs in order to implement, maintain, and/or update security systems we believe are necessary to protect our IT infrastructure. We deploy technical safeguards that are designed to protect our systems from cybersecurity threats, including firewalls, intrusion prevention, and intrusion detection systems. We have established disclosure controls and procedures to address cybersecurity events, which include elements relating to comprehensive analysis of events and communication within the company, as well as addressing potential disclosure obligations arising from security breaches.

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We have partnered with third parties to support our information security systems and processes, and to help design, build, test, implement and maintain them. Annual risk assessments are conducted by third party consultants to help ensure that risks to our IT infrastructure are minimized or eliminated.  

We rely on products and services provided by third parties for portions of our IT infrastructure, including business management, operations and finance systems. These providers may also experience breaches and attacks on their products which may impact our systems. Further we may also face additional cybersecurity risk due to error or intentional misconduct by contractors and other third-party service providers related to the use of these systems as part of our IT infrastructure.

We have a third-party security policy in place to identify, manage and oversee the potential material risks from threats associated with the use of third-party service providers. We evaluate vendors and consider amongst other factors the criticality of services and sensitivity of information that is within the scope of the services to be provided and manage risk accordingly. Our internal legal department reviews all IT Service Agreements with input from the IT department to ensure that services, terms and conditions in the agreement are suitable. Our IT department performs regular monitoring of vendor services as part of its’ on-going review and monitoring of vendors. As part of our policy, we monitor termination of agreements with vendors designed to ensure that access to Company information is appropriately terminated in a timely manner. Unauthorized network intrusions or other significant information security incidents against third-party systems used by the Company internally are handled in the same manner as internal systems. However as described in Part 1. Item 1A. Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K under “Risks Related to the Operation and Growth of Our Business”, we have limited insight into the data privacy or security of third-party service providers and our response may be limited or more difficult because we may not have direct access to their systems.

Although we believe we have adequate resources and sufficient policies, procedures, and oversight in place to identify and manage IT security risks related to our business operations, there can be no guarantee that our policies and procedures will be properly followed in every instance or that those policies and procedures will be effective. For a description of the risks from cybersecurity threats that may materially affect the Company and how they may do so, see our risk factors under Part 1. Item 1A. Risk Factors in this Annual Report on Form 10-K under “Risks Related to the Operation and Growth of Our Business.”

Management Oversight

Our IT infrastructure and the assessment and management of associated risks are primarily the responsibility of our Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”). Our CISO’s additional responsibilities include hiring appropriate personnel, helping to integrate cybersecurity risks into the Company’s overall risk management strategy, and communicating updates regarding IT/Information security key priorities to relevant personnel including management and the board.  

Our CISO has served in that position since 2018. Our CISO has extensive experience serving in executive and senior IT leadership positions over the past 25 years including serving at Cavium in a succession of information security roles, including Vice President of Business Systems, for eleven years, Vice President of IT Applications at ServiceNow for two years, and overseeing worldwide IT Infrastructure, IT Operations and Information Security at Pinnacle Systems for eight years.

We have in place an Incident Response Procedure policy to define our response to unauthorized network intrusions or other significant information security incidents, collectively cybersecurity incidents. The policy defines the standard operational process to determine if an event observed on a system could have caused a breach of the system or a compromise of sensitive data. This policy serves to establish a formal process to report incidents and track response activities. It also defines escalation processes within the Information Security team and to our Cybersecurity Incident Response Team. It is the responsibility of the Cybersecurity Incident Response team to determine if an incident is material. The Cybersecurity Incident Response Team consists of members from functional groups across our organization including executive management, IT, Information Security, legal, finance and operations. We may include other individuals, including third parties, as appropriate depending on the nature of the incident and system(s) involved. This cross-functional group allows us to address the operational impacts of cybersecurity incidents as and when they occur and to guide decisions related to materiality and, if applicable, disclosure. The Cybersecurity Incident Response Team is responsible for extrapolating cybersecurity incident event information into quantitative and qualitative impacts as they relate to our financial condition and operations. In addition, the Company’s Incident Response Procedure policy includes reporting to the board of directors for certain cybersecurity incidents.

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Board Governance

Our full board of directors oversees our risk management including but not limited to IT and cybersecurity policies, procedures, and risk assessments. Our management reports to our board of directors on information security matters on a quarterly basis, or more frequently as needed.

One of the key functions of our board of directors is informed oversight of our various processes for managing risk. An overall review of risk is inherent in our board of directors ongoing consideration of our long-term strategies, transactions and other matters presented to and discussed by the board of directors. This includes a discussion of the likelihood and potential magnitude of various risks, including cybersecurity risks, and any actions management has taken to limit, monitor or control those risks.

At each quarterly board meeting, the full board receives the quarterly cybersecurity board update that is prepared by our CISO. The report provides a comprehensive cybersecurity update for the past quarter, including topics such as details on threat landscape, incident response, security metrics and performance, compliance and regulatory updates, cybersecurity investments and budget, employee security awareness and trainings, vendor risk management updates, business continuity and disaster recovery updates, and an update on cybersecurity strategy, projects and roadmap.

Item 2. Properties.

We own our principal executive, administrative, manufacturing and technical offices which are located in San Jose, California. We also own an R&D facility in New Jersey, a design center in Germany and a multipurpose office building in Switzerland. We lease administrative office space in Singapore, R&D facilities in Canada, United Kingdom, the Philippines and Malaysia, in addition to sales offices in various countries around the world to accommodate our sales force. We believe that our current facilities are sufficient for our company; however, if headcount increases above capacity we may need to lease additional space.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.

Information with respect to this item may be found in Note 13, Legal Proceedings and Contingencies, in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included later in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which information is incorporated here by reference.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “POWI”.

As of January 31, 2024, there were approximately 60 stockholders of record. Because brokers and other institutions hold many of our shares on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

From time to time our board of directors has authorized the use of funds to repurchase shares of our common stock. In October 2022, our board of directors authorized the use of an additional $100.0 million for the repurchase of our common stock, with repurchases to be executed according to pre-defined price/volume guidelines.

As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $26.0 million available for future stock repurchases. Authorization of future stock-repurchase programs is at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements and business conditions as well as other factors. There is no expiration date on the plan or the amount currently authorized.

The following table summarizes repurchases of our common stock during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2023:

Total Number of

Approximate Dollar Value

Shares Purchased

that May Yet be

Total

Average

as Part of

Repurchased Under the

Number of

Price Paid

Publicly Announced

Plans or Program

Period

Shares Purchased

Per Share

Plans or Programs

(In millions)

October 1, 2023 to October 31, 2023

464,903

$

69.83

464,903

$

41.0

November 1, 2023 to November 30, 2023

215,080

$

69.63

215,080

$

26.0

December 1, 2023 to December 31, 2023

$

26.0

Total

679,983

679,983

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Performance Graph (1)

The following graph shows the cumulative total return on an investment of $100 in cash on December 31, 2018, through December 31, 2023, in our common stock, the Nasdaq Composite Index and the PHLX Semiconductor Sector Index (SOX) and assuming that all dividends were reinvested. The stockholder return shown on the graph below is not necessarily indicative of future performance, and we do not make or endorse any predictions as to future stockholder returns.

Graphic

Company/Index

    

12/31/2018

    

12/31/2019

    

12/31/2020

    

12/31/2021

    

12/31/2022

    

12/31/2023

Power Integrations, Inc.

100.00

163.64

272.93

311.49

242.66

280.41

Nasdaq Composite

 

100.00

136.69

198.10

242.03

163.28

236.17

PHLX Semiconductor (SOX)

100.00

163.26

250.87

358.37

233.37

389.74

(1)This Section is not “soliciting material,” is not deemed “filed” with the SEC and is not to be incorporated by reference in any filing of Power Integrations under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act, whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such filing.

Item 6. [Reserved]

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

This section of this Form 10-K generally discusses 2023 and 2022 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2023 and 2022. Discussions of 2021 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2022 and 2021 are not included in this Form 10-K, and can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. The following discussion and analysis has been prepared as an aid to understanding our financial condition and results of our operations. It should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the notes to those statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” at the beginning of this Form 10-K. Our actual results could differ materially from those contained in these forward-looking statements due to a number of factors, including those discussed in Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Business Overview

We design, develop and market analog and mixed-signal integrated circuits (“ICs”) and other electronic components and circuitry used in high-voltage power conversion. Our products are used in power converters that convert electricity from a high-voltage source to the type of power required for a specified downstream use. In most cases, this conversion entails, among other functions, converting alternating current (“AC”) to direct current (“DC”) or vice versa, reducing or increasing the voltage, and regulating the output voltage and/or current according to the customer’s specifications.

A large percentage of our products are ICs used in AC-DC power supplies, which convert the high-voltage AC from a wall outlet to the low-voltage DC required by most electronic devices. Power supplies incorporating our products are used with all manner of electronic products including mobile phones, computing and networking equipment, appliances, electronic utility meters, battery-powered tools, industrial controls, and “home-automation,” or “internet of things” applications such as networked thermostats, power strips and security devices. Variations of our power-supply ICs are used for high-voltage power conversion in electric vehicles (“EVs”). We also supply high-voltage LED drivers, which are AC-DC ICs specifically designed for lighting applications that utilize light-emitting diodes, and motor-driver ICs for brushless DC (“BLDC”) motors used in consumer appliances, HVAC systems, ceiling fans and a variety of industrial applications.

We also offer high-voltage gate drivers—either standalone ICs or circuit boards containing ICs, electrical isolation components and other circuitry—used to operate high-voltage switches such as insulated-gate bipolar transistors (“IGBTs”) and silicon-carbide (“SiC”) MOSFETs. These combinations of switches and drivers are used for power conversion in high-power applications (i.e., power levels ranging from approximately 100 kilowatts up to gigawatts) such as industrial motors, solar- and wind-power systems, EVs and high-voltage DC transmission systems.

Our net revenues were $444.5 million and $651.1 million in 2023 and 2022, respectively. Revenues from all four end-market categories decreased in 2023 compared to the prior year. We believe that demand for our products has been negatively affected by an array of macroeconomic and geopolitical factors including reduced consumer spending in response to inflation and higher interest rates, softer housing markets, weaker demand for mobile phones, general economic weakness in China, the conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East, and a shift in consumer spending toward travel and services following a period of elevated spending on goods during the COVID-19 pandemic. We believe these factors have exacerbated the effects of a cyclical downturn in the semiconductor industry; such downturns are commonly experienced in our industry following periods of strong growth during which supply chain participants tend to accumulate excess inventories.

Our top ten customers, including distributors that resell to OEMs and merchant power supply manufacturers, accounted for approximately 80% and 76% of net revenues in 2023 and 2022, respectively. International sales represented approximately 98% and 96% of net revenues in 2023 and 2022, respectively.

Our business and financial performance depends significantly on worldwide economic conditions. We face global macroeconomic challenges and risks including the effects of the conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East, potential risks stemming from tensions between China and Taiwan and between China and Western countries, health crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, volatility in exchange rates, cyclical demand patterns common for our industry, inflation, tariffs and other risks associated with the global trade environment.

Because our industry is intensely price-sensitive, our gross margin (gross profit divided by net revenues) is subject to change based on the relative pricing of solutions that compete with ours. Variations in product mix, end-market mix

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and customer mix can also cause our gross margin to fluctuate. Also, because we purchase a large percentage of our silicon wafers from foundries located in Japan, our gross margin is influenced by fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Japanese yen. All else being equal, a 10% change in the value of the U.S. dollar compared to the Japanese yen would eventually result in a corresponding change in our gross margin of approximately 1.5%; this sensitivity may increase or decrease depending on the percentage of our wafer supply that we purchase from Japanese suppliers. Also, although our wafer fabrication and assembly operations are outsourced, as are most of our test operations, a portion of our production costs are fixed in nature. As a result, our unit costs and gross profit margin are impacted by the volume of units we produce.

Our gross profit, defined as net revenues less cost of revenues, was $229.0 million or 52% of net revenues in 2023, compared to $366.9 million or 56% of net revenues in 2022. Our gross margin decreased in 2023 due to a combination of factors, including reduced production volumes, which impacted our manufacturing costs per unit, as well as a less favorable end-market mix, with a greater percentage of revenues coming from lower-margin end markets and applications.

Total operating expenses in 2023 were $193.9 million, an increase of $7.4 million as compared to 2022 due to: higher stock-based compensation expenses reflecting a lower-than-usual level of such expenses in the prior year; higher salary- and benefit-related expenses reflecting annual salary increases and higher costs associated with employee health insurance and other benefits.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, or U.S. GAAP, requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, including those listed below. We base our estimates on historical facts and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable at the time the estimates are made. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Our critical accounting policies are as follows:

revenue recognition;
estimating write-downs for excess and obsolete inventory.

Our critical accounting policies are important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations, and require us to make judgments and estimates about matters that are inherently uncertain. A brief description of our critical accounting policies and material estimates is set forth below. For more information regarding our accounting policies, see Note 2, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements, in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Revenue recognition

Product revenues consist of sales to original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, merchant power supply manufacturers and distributors. We apply the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 606-10, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and all related appropriate guidance. We recognize revenue under the core principle to depict the transfer of control to our customers in an amount reflecting the consideration we expect to be entitled. In order to achieve that core principle, we apply the following five-step approach: (1) identify the contract with a customer, (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract, (3) determine the transaction price, (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract, and (5) recognize revenue when a performance obligation is satisfied.

Sales to most distributors are made under terms allowing certain price adjustments and limited rights of return (known as “stock rotation”) of our products held in their inventory or upon sale to their end customers. We recognize revenue from sales to distributors upon the transfer of control to the distributor. Frequently, distributors need to sell at a price lower than the standard distribution price in order to win business. At the time the distributor invoices its customer or soon thereafter, the distributor submits a “ship-and-debit” price adjustment claim to us to adjust the distributor’s cost from the standard price to the pre-approved lower price. After we verify that the claim was pre-approved, we issue a credit memo to the distributor for the ship-and-debit claim. In determining the transaction price, we consider ship-and-debit price adjustments to be variable consideration. At the time revenue is recognized on sales to distributors, future ship-and-debit price adjustments are unknown and therefore subject to uncertainty. Such price adjustments are estimated using the expected-value method based on an analysis of actual ship-and-debit claims, at the distributor and product level, over a period of time considered adequate to account for current pricing and business trends. The reserve for ship-and-debit

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claims decreased by $17.2 million between December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022, primarily due to lower inventory levels held by distributors. Historically, actual price adjustments for ship-and-debit claims have not materially differed from those estimated when determining the transaction price. To the extent future ship-and-debit claims significantly exceed amounts estimated, there could be a material impact on our revenues and results of operations.

Stock rotation rights grant the distributor the ability to return certain specified amounts of inventory. Stock rotation returns are an additional form of variable consideration and are also estimated using the expected value method based on historical return rates. Historically, these distributor stock rotation returns have not been material.

Estimating write-downs for excess and obsolete inventory

The bulk of our inventory is held in wafers, which combined with the fungibility of our products across customers and applications results in a lower risk of obsolescence. We routinely monitor the quality of our on-hand wafers to ensure that performance remains unchanged over time. When evaluating the adequacy of our provision for excess and obsolete inventory, we identify excess and obsolete products and also analyze historical usage, forecasted demand, current economic trends and historical write-offsThis write-down is reflected as a reduction to inventory in the consolidated balance sheets and an increase in cost of revenues in our consolidated statements of income. If actual market conditions are less favorable than our assumptions, we may be required to take additional write-downs, which could adversely impact our cost of revenues and operating results. Historically, these write-downs have not been material.

Results of Operations

The following table sets forth statement of income data as a percentage of net revenues for the periods indicated:

Year Ended December 31, 

    

2023

2022

2021

Net revenues

100.0

%  

100.0

%  

100.0

%

Cost of revenues

 

48.5

 

43.7

 

48.7

Gross profit

 

51.5

 

56.3

 

51.3

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

Research and development

 

21.6

 

14.4

 

12.1

Sales and marketing

 

14.5

 

9.6

 

8.6

General and administrative

 

7.5

 

4.4

 

5.7

Other operating expenses, net

 

 

0.2

 

Total operating expenses

 

43.6

 

28.6

 

26.4

Income from operations

 

7.9

 

27.7

 

24.9

Other income

 

2.4

 

0.5

 

0.2

Income before income taxes

 

10.3

 

28.2

 

25.1

Provision (benefit) for income taxes

 

(2.2)

 

2.0

 

1.7

Net income

 

12.5

%  

26.2

%  

23.4

%

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

Net revenues. Net revenues consist of revenues from product sales, which are calculated net of returns and allowances. Revenues from all four end-market categories decreased in 2023 compared to the prior year. We believe that demand for our products has been negatively affected by an array of macroeconomic and geopolitical factors including reduced consumer spending in response to inflation and higher interest rates, softer housing markets, weaker demand for mobile phones, general economic weakness in China, the conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East, and a shift in consumer spending toward travel and services following a period of elevated spending on goods during the COVID-19 pandemic. We believe these factors have exacerbated the effects of a cyclical downturn in the semiconductor industry; such downturns are commonly experienced in our industry following periods of strong growth during which supply chain participants tend to accumulate excess inventories.

Our approximate net revenue mix by end-markets served in 2023, 2022 and 2021 is as follows:

End Market

    

2023

2022

2021

Communications

29

%  

21

%  

30

%

Computer

 

12

%

10

%

10

%

Consumer

 

27

%

33

%

32

%

Industrial

 

32

%

36

%

28

%

28

Sales to customers outside of the United States were $435.9 million and $625.6 million in 2023 and 2022, respectively, representing 98% and 96% of net revenues in 2023 and 2022, respectively. Although power supplies using our products are designed and distributed worldwide, most of these power supplies are manufactured by our customers in Asia. As a result, sales to this region accounted for approximately 84% and 75% of our net revenues in 2023 and 2022, respectively. We expect international sales to continue to account for a large portion of our net revenues for the foreseeable future.

Sales to distributors accounted for 69% and 70% of our net revenues in 2023 and 2022, respectively, with direct sales to OEMs and merchant power supply manufacturers accounting for the remainder in each of the corresponding years.

The following customers represented 10% or more of our net revenues for the respective years:

Customer

    

2023

2022

2021

Avnet

 

27

%  

31

%  

30

%

Honestar Technologies Co., Ltd.

18

%  

11

%  

16

%

Salcomp Group

 

10

%  

*

*

* Total customer revenue was less than 10% of net revenues.

No other customers accounted for 10% or more of net revenues during these years.

Gross profit. Gross profit is net revenues less cost of revenues. Our cost of revenues consists primarily of the purchase of wafers from our contracted foundries, the assembly, packaging and testing of our products by sub-contractors, product testing performed in our own facility, overhead associated with the management of our supply chain and the amortization of acquired intangible assets. Gross margin is gross profit divided by net revenues. The following table compares gross profit and gross margin for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021:

(dollars in millions)

    

2023

Change

2022

Change

2021

Gross profit

 

$

229.0

 

(37.6)

%  

$

366.9

 

1.7

%  

$

360.6

Gross margin

 

51.5

%

 

 

56.3

%  

 

 

51.3

%

Our gross margin decreased in 2023 as compared to 2022 due to a combination of factors, including a less favorable end-market mix, with a greater percentage of revenues coming from lower-margin end markets and applications and reduced production volumes, which impacted our manufacturing costs per unit.

Research and development expenses. Research and development (“R&D”) expenses consist primarily of employee-related expenses including salaries and stock-based compensation, as well as expensed material and facility costs associated with the development of new processes and products. We also record R&D expenses for prototype wafers related to new products until the products are released to production. The following table compares R&D expenses for the years ended years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021:

(dollars in millions)

    

2023

Change

2022

Change

2021

R&D expenses

 

$

96.1

  

2.3

%  

$

93.9

 

10.6

%  

$

84.9

Headcount (at period end)

282

310

304

R&D expenses increased in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to increased stock-based compensation expense, higher salaries and related expenses due to annual salary increases and increased equipment-related expenses, partially offset by lower product development costs.

Sales and marketing expenses. Sales and marketing (“S&M”) expenses consist primarily of employee-related expenses, including salaries and stock-based compensation, and commissions to sales representatives, as well as amortization of acquired intangible assets and facilities expenses, including expenses associated with our regional sales and support offices. The following table compares sales and marketing expenses for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021:

(dollars in millions)

    

2023

Change

2022

Change

2021

Sales and marketing expenses

$

64.6

 

3.2

%  

$

62.6

 

2.9

%  

$

60.8

Headcount (at period end)

317

320

280

29

S&M expenses increased in 2023 compared to 2022 primarily due to higher salaries and related expenses, increased travel and trade show expenses, and increased stock-based compensation expense. These increases were partially offset by decreased commissions expense.

General and administrative expenses. General and administrative (“G&A”) expenses consist primarily of employee-related expenses, including salaries and stock-based compensation expenses for administration, finance, human resources and general management, as well as consulting, professional services, legal and auditing expenses. The table below compares G&A expenses for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021:

(dollars in millions)

    

2023

Change

2022

Change

2021

G&A expenses

 

$

33.2

  

15.0

%  

$

28.9

 

(27.5)

%  

$

39.8

Headcount (at period end)

79

72

70

G&A expenses increased in 2023 primarily due to higher salaries and related expenses driven by increased headcount and increased stock-based compensation expense related to performance-based awards. These increases were partially offset by recovery of bad debt  and lower professional services expenses.  

Other operating expenses, net. Other operating expenses, net was $1.1 million in fiscal 2022. This amount consisted of a $2.9 million expense resulting from the settlement of our litigation with Opticurrent LLC on May 16, 2022, in which we agreed to pay Opticurrent $2.9 million to end all outstanding legal disputes, partially offset by receipt of a $1.7 million distribution related to the bankruptcy liquidation of SemiSouth Laboratories, Inc., of which we were a creditor as a result of investments made in SemiSouth in 2011.

Other income. Other income consists primarily of interest income earned on cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities and other investments, and the impact of foreign exchange gains or losses. The following table compares other income for the  years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021:

(dollars in millions)

    

2023

Change

2022

Change

2021

Other income

 

$

10.8

259.9

%  

$

3.0

 

179.9

%  

$

1.1

Other income increased in 2023 due primarily to an increase in interest income resulting from higher yields earned on our investments.

Provision (benefit) for income taxes. Provision for income taxes represents federal, state and foreign taxes. The following table compares the provision for income taxes for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021:

(dollars in millions)

    

2023

Change

2022

Change

2021

Provision (benefit) for income taxes

 

$

(9.8)

(178.2)

%  

$

12.6

7.3

%  

$

11.7

Effective tax rate

 

(21.4)

%

 

6.9

%  

 

6.7

%

In 2023 and 2022, the effective tax rate was lower than the statutory U.S. federal income-tax rates of 21% due to the geographic distribution of our world-wide earnings in lower tax jurisdictions, the impact of federal research tax credits and the recognition of excess tax benefits related to share-based compensation. Additionally, in 2023 and 2022, our effective tax rate was favorably impacted by the geographic distribution of our world-wide earnings in lower-tax jurisdictions and federal research tax credits. In 2023, the rate was further favorably impacted by the release of $7.6 million of reserves related to federal uncertain tax positions as the statute of limitations for review of these positions expired. These benefits were partially offset by U.S. tax on foreign income, known as global intangible low-taxed income. The primary jurisdiction from which our foreign earnings are derived is the Cayman Islands, which is a non-taxing jurisdiction. Income earned in other foreign jurisdictions was not material. We have not been granted any incentivized tax rates and do not operate under tax holidays in any jurisdiction. For additional details, refer to Note 11, Provision for Income Taxes, in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

We had $311.6 million in cash, cash equivalents and short-term marketable securities at December 31, 2023 compared to $353.8 million at December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we had working capital, defined as current assets less current liabilities, of approximately $462.7 million and $466.7 million, respectively.

We have a Credit Agreement with Wells Fargo Bank, National Association (the "Credit Agreement") that provides us with a $75.0 million revolving line of credit to use for general corporate purposes with a $20.0 million sub-limit for the issuance of standby and trade letters of credit. The Credit Agreement was amended on June 7, 2021, to provide an alternate borrowing rate as a replacement for LIBOR and extend the termination date from April 30, 2022 to

30

June 7, 2026, with all other terms remaining the same. The Credit Agreement was amended with an effective date of June 28, 2023 to include the Secured Overnight Financing Rates (“SOFR”) as interest rate benchmark rates, with all other terms remaining the same. Our ability to borrow under the revolving line of credit is conditioned upon our compliance with specified covenants, including reporting and financial covenants, primarily a minimum liquidity measure and a debt to earnings ratio, with which we are currently in compliance. The Credit Agreement terminates on June 7, 2026; all advances under the revolving line of credit will become due on such date, or earlier in the event of a default. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we had no advances outstanding under the Credit Agreement.

Cash from Operating Activities

Our operating activities generated cash of $65.8 million and $215.3 million in the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We generate cash primarily from operating activities in the ordinary course of business.

In 2023, our net income was $55.7 million, we also incurred $35.2 million of depreciation, $28.5 million of stock-based compensation and $2.2 million of intangibles amortization partially offset by a $9.2 million increase in deferred income taxes. Sources of cash also included a $6.6 million decrease in accounts receivable. These sources of cash were partially offset by a $27.7 million increase in inventories due to softening demand during the year, a $18.2 million decrease in taxes payable and accrued liabilities, a $5.4 million decrease in accounts payable (excluding payables related to property and equipment) due to timing of payments and a $1.2 million increase in prepaid expenses and other assets.

In 2022, our net income was $170.9 million, which included non-cash expenses of $34.9 million of depreciation, $22.4 million of stock-based compensation, $3.3 million for amortization of premium on marketable securities, $2.4 million of intangibles amortization and a $2.6 million decrease in deferred income taxes. Sources of cash also included a $19.9 million decrease in accounts receivable and a $7.3 million decrease in prepaid expenses and other assets. These sources of cash were partially offset by a $36.2 million increase in inventories due to softening demand during the year and a $3.8 million decrease in accounts payable (excluding payables related to property and equipment) due to timing of payments and a $5.2 million decrease in taxes payable and accrued liabilities.

Cash from Investing Activities

Our investing activities in the year ended December 31, 2023 resulted in a $14.2 million net use of cash, consisting primarily of $20.9 million for purchases of property and equipment, primarily production-related machinery and equipment, partially offset by $6.7 million from sales and maturities of marketable securities, net of purchases.

Our investing activities in the year ended December 31, 2022 generated $78.3 million of cash, consisting primarily of $116.3 million from sales and maturities of marketable securities, net of purchases, and proceeds of $1.2 million from the sale of an office building, partially offset by $39.2 million for purchases of property and equipment, primarily production-related machinery and equipment.

Cash from Financing Activities

Our financing activities in the year ended December 31, 2023, resulted in a $93.0 million net use of cash. Financing activities consisted primarily of $55.3 million for the repurchase of our common stock and $44.0 million for the payment of dividends to stockholders, partially offset by proceeds of $6.2 million from the issuance of common stock through our employee stock purchase plan.

Our financing activities in the year ended December 31, 2022, resulted in a $346.4 million net use of cash. Financing activities consisted primarily of $311.1 million for the repurchase of our common stock and $41.5 million for the payment of dividends to stockholders, partially offset by proceeds of $6.2 million from the issuance of common stock, including the exercise of employee stock options and issuance of shares through our employee stock purchase plan.

Dividends

In January 2022, our board of directors declared dividends of $0.18 per share to be paid to stockholders of record at the end of each quarter in 2022.

In February 2023, our board of directors raised the cash dividend with the declaration of four cash dividends of $0.19 per share to be paid to stockholders of record at the end of each quarter in 2023. In October 2023, our board of directors raised the cash dividend with the declaration of five cash dividends of $0.20 per share to be paid to stockholders of record at the end of the fourth quarter in 2023 (in lieu of the $0.19 per share announced in February 2023) and at the end of each quarter in 2024.

31

The declaration of any future cash dividend is at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, business conditions and other factors, as well as a determination that cash dividends are in the best interest of our stockholders.

Stock Repurchases

Over the years our board of directors has authorized the use of funds to repurchase shares of our common stock, including $100.0 million in January 2022, $50.0 million in February 2022, $75.0 million in April 2022 and $100.0 million in October 2022 with repurchases to be executed according to pre-defined price/volume guidelines. In 2022, we repurchased 3.8 million shares for $311.1 million, leaving $81.3 million in funds authorized as of December 31, 2022. In 2023, we repurchased 0.8 million shares for $55.3 million, leaving $26.0 million in funds authorized as of December 31, 2023.

Authorization of future stock repurchase programs is at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements and business conditions as well as other factors.

Capital Expenditures

Cash paid for property and equipment in the year ended December 31, 2023 was $20.9 million. We expect capital expenditures in fiscal 2024 to be primarily for machinery and equipment for use in the manufacture of our products to support future growth. We expect to fund these capital expenditures with cash on hand as well as cash provided by future operations.

Other Information

Our cash, cash equivalents and investment balances may change in future periods due to changes in our planned cash outlays, including changes in incremental costs such as direct and integration costs related to future acquisitions. The Tax Act signed into law on December 22, 2017 generally allows companies to repatriate accumulated foreign earnings without incurring additional U.S. federal taxes beginning after December 31, 2017. Accordingly, as of December 31, 2023, our worldwide cash and marketable securities are available to fund capital allocation needs, including capital and internal investments, acquisitions, stock repurchases and/or dividends without incurring significant U.S. federal income taxes.

If our operating results deteriorate in future periods, either as a result of a decrease in customer demand or pricing pressures from our customers or our competitors, or for other reasons, our ability to generate positive cash flow from operations may be jeopardized. In that case, we may be forced to use our cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, use our current financing or seek additional financing from third parties to fund our operations. We believe that cash generated from operations, together with existing sources of liquidity, will satisfy our projected working capital and other cash requirements for at least the next 12 months. Our uses of cash beyond the next 12 months will depend on many factors, including the general economic environment in which we operate and our ability to generate cash flow from operations, which are uncertain but include funding our operations and additional capital expenditures.

Off-Balance-Sheet Arrangements

As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we did not have any off-balance-sheet arrangements or relationships with unconsolidated entities or financial partnerships, such as entities often referred to as structured finance or special purpose entities, which are typically established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance-sheet arrangements or other contractually narrow or limited purposes.

32

Contractual Obligations

As of December 31, 2023, we had the following non-cancelable contractual obligations:

Payments Due by Period

Less than 1

(In thousands)

    

Total

    

Year

    

1 - 3 Years

    

4 - 5 Years

    

Over 5 Years

Operating lease obligations(1)

$

11,239

$

3,168

$

5,617

$

2,211

$

243

Purchase obligations(2)

$

41,585

$

41,585

$

$

$

(1)Operating lease obligations represent undiscounted non-cancelable remaining lease payments.
(2)Purchase obligations represent commitments to our suppliers and other parties for the purchases of goods and services, which primarily consist of wafer and other inventory purchases, assembly and other manufacturing services, and purchases of property and equipment.

In addition to operating lease and purchase obligations, we have a contractual obligation related to income tax as of December 31, 2023, which primarily comprises unrecognized tax benefits of approximately $16.4 million, and was classified as contra deferred tax assets or long-term income taxes payable in our consolidated balance sheet. As of December 31, 2023 we also had approximately $1.7 million classified as long-term income taxes payable related to the estimated one-time transition tax from the enactment of the Tax Act which will be payable in three remaining annual installments. We believe that cash generated from operations, together with existing sources of liquidity, will satisfy the cash requirements for these contractual obligations.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

For recently issued accounting announcements, see “Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements” in Note 2, Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements, in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

Interest Rate Risk. Our exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates primarily to our investment portfolio. We consider cash invested in highly liquid financial instruments with a remaining maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Investments in highly liquid financial instruments with maturities greater than three months are classified as short-term investments. We generally hold securities until maturity; however, they may be sold under certain circumstances, including, but not limited to, when necessary for the funding of acquisitions and other strategic investments. As a result of this policy, we classify our investment portfolio as available-for-sale. We invest in high-credit quality issuers and, by policy, limit the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer. As stated in our policy, we seek to ensure the safety and preservation of our invested principal funds by limiting default risk, market risk and reinvestment risk. We mitigate default risk by investing in safe and high-credit quality securities and by constantly positioning our portfolio to respond appropriately to a significant reduction in a credit rating of any investment issuer, guarantor or depository. The portfolio includes only marketable securities with active secondary or resale markets to facilitate portfolio liquidity. At December 31, 2023 and 2022, we held primarily cash equivalents and short-term investments with fixed interest rates. We do not hold any instruments for trading purposes.

Our investment securities are subject to market interest rate risk and will vary in value as market interest rates fluctuate. To minimize market risk, we invest in high-credit quality issuers and, by policy, limit the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer, and therefore if market interest rates were to increase or decrease by 10% from interest rates as of December 31, 2023 or December 31, 2022, the increase or decrease in the fair market value of our portfolio on these dates would not have been material. We monitor our investments for impairment on a periodic basis. Refer to Note 5, Marketable Securities, in our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for a tabular presentation of our available-for-sale investments and the expected maturity dates.

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk. As of December 31, 2023, our primary transactional currency was the U.S. dollar; in addition, we hold cash in Swiss francs and euros to fund the operation of our Swiss subsidiary. Cash balances held in foreign countries are subject to local banking laws and may bear higher or lower risk than cash deposited in the United States. The following represents the potential impact on our pretax income from a change in the value of the U.S.

33

dollar compared to the Swiss franc and euro as of December 31, 2023. This sensitivity analysis applies a change in the U.S. dollar value of 5% and 10%.

December 31, 2023

(in thousands of USD)

    

5%

    

10%

Swiss franc and euro foreign exchange impact

$

125

$

250

The foreign exchange rate fluctuation between the U.S. dollar versus the Swiss franc and euro is recorded in other income in our consolidated statements of income.

We have R&D and sales offices in various other foreign countries in which our expenses are denominated in the local currency, primary Asia and Western Europe. From time to time we may enter into foreign currency hedging contracts to hedge certain foreign currency transactions. As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we did not have an open foreign currency hedge program utilizing foreign currency forward exchange contracts.

With two of our major suppliers, Seiko Epson Corporation (“Epson”) and ROHM Lapis Semiconductor Co., Ltd. (“Lapis”) we have wafer supply agreements based in U.S. dollars; however, our agreements with Epson and Lapis also allow for mutual sharing of the impact of the exchange rate fluctuation between Japanese yen and the U.S. dollar. Each year, our management and these suppliers review and negotiate pricing; the negotiated pricing is denominated in U.S. dollars but is subject to contractual exchange rate provisions. The fluctuation in the exchange rate is shared equally between us and each of these suppliers.

Nevertheless, as a result of our above-mentioned supplier agreements, our gross margin is influenced by fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the Japanese yen. All else being equal, a 10% change in the value of the U.S. dollar compared to the Japanese yen would eventually result in a corresponding change in our gross margin of approximately 1.5%; this sensitivity may increase or decrease depending on the percentage of our wafer supply that we purchase from some of our Japanese suppliers and could subject our gross profit and operating results to the potential for material fluctuations.

34

Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Power Integrations, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Power Integrations, Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, stockholders' equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes and schedules listed in the Index at Item 8 (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with the accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 12, 2024, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matters

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Inventories – Provision for Excess and Obsolete Inventory – Refer to Notes 2 and 3 to the financial statements

Critical Audit Matter Description

The Company's inventories are recorded at standard cost, which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis, not in excess of net realizable value. The Company routinely evaluates quantities and values of inventories and records a provision for excess and obsolete inventories to reduce its recorded inventory balance to its estimated net realizable value. Management’s assumptions regarding the inventory quantities considered to be excess and obsolete are determined by analyzing historical usage, demand forecasts, current economic trends, and historical write-offs.

We identified the determination of excess and obsolete inventory within work-in-process and finished goods inventory as a critical audit matter due to the significant assumptions made by management when determining the excess and obsolete inventory quantities and the resulting provision. This required a high degree of auditor judgement and an increased extent

35

of effort when performing audit procedures to evaluate the reasonableness of management’s excess and obsolete provision for work-in-process and finished goods inventory.

How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit

Our audit procedures related to management’s assumptions used in determining the excess and obsolete provision for work-in-process and finished goods inventory included the following, among others:

We tested the effectiveness of the control over the determination of the provision for excess and obsolete inventories, including work-in-process and finished goods inventory.
We selected a sample of products from work-in-process and finished goods inventory as of December 31, 2022, and evaluated management's ability to accurately estimate forecasted demand by comparing the respective products usage for the year ended December 31, 2023, to estimates made in the prior year.
We selected a sample of products from work-in-process and finished goods inventory and evaluated the reasonableness of management's provision for work-in-process and finished goods inventory by considering recent usage, historical usage, contracts and communications with customers, expected product lifecycles, macroeconomic conditions, and inquiries with sales personnel.
We considered the existence of contradictory evidence based on reading of internal communications to management and the board of directors, Company press releases, and analyst reports, as well as our observations and inquiries as to changes within the business.

/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP

San Jose, California

February 12, 2024

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2005.

36

POWER INTEGRATIONS, INC.

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

    

December 31, 

    

December 31, 

(in thousands)

    

2023

2022

ASSETS

 

  

 

  

CURRENT ASSETS:

 

  

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

$

63,929

$

105,372

Short-term marketable securities

 

247,640

 

248,441

Accounts receivable, net

 

14,674

 

20,836

Inventories

 

163,164

 

135,420

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

22,193

 

15,004

Total current assets

 

511,600

 

525,073

PROPERTY AND EQUIPMENT, net

 

164,213

 

176,681

INTANGIBLE ASSETS, net

 

4,424

 

6,597

GOODWILL

 

91,849

 

91,849

DEFERRED TAX ASSETS

 

28,325

 

19,034

OTHER ASSETS

 

19,457

 

20,862

Total assets

$

819,868

$

840,096

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

 

CURRENT LIABILITIES:

 

 

Accounts payable

$

26,390

$

30,088

Accrued payroll and related expenses

 

13,551

 

14,778

Taxes payable

 

1,016

 

938

Other accrued liabilities

 

7,910

 

12,572

Total current liabilities

 

48,867

 

58,376

LONG-TERM INCOME TAXES PAYABLE

 

6,244

 

15,757

OTHER LIABILITIES

 

12,516

 

10,747

Total liabilities

 

67,627

 

84,880

COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES (Notes 11, 12 and 13)

 

 

STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY:

 

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value

 

 

Authorized - 140,000 shares

 

 

Outstanding - 56,738 and 56,961 shares in 2023 and 2022, respectively

 

23

 

24

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

(1,462)

 

(7,344)

Retained earnings

 

753,680

 

762,536

Total stockholders’ equity

 

752,241

 

755,216

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

$

819,868

$

840,096

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

37

POWER INTEGRATIONS, INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME

    

Year Ended December 31, 

(In thousands, except per share amounts)

2023

    

2022

    

2021

NET REVENUES

$

444,538

$

651,138

$

703,277

COST OF REVENUES

 

215,582

 

284,231

 

342,638

GROSS PROFIT

 

228,956

 

366,907

 

360,639

OPERATING EXPENSES:

 

  

 

  

 

  

Research and development

 

96,067

 

93,894

 

84,933

Sales and marketing

 

64,598

 

62,574

 

60,808

General and administrative

 

33,232

 

28,897

 

39,840

Other operating expenses, net

1,130

Total operating expenses

 

193,897

 

186,495

 

185,581

INCOME FROM OPERATIONS

 

35,059

 

180,412

 

175,058

OTHER INCOME

 

10,848

 

3,014

 

1,077

INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES

 

45,907

 

183,426

 

176,135

PROVISION (BENEFIT) FOR INCOME TAXES

 

(9,828)

 

12,575

11,722

NET INCOME

$

55,735

$

170,851

$

164,413

EARNINGS PER SHARE:

 

 

 

  

Basic

$

0.97

$

2.96

$

2.73

Diluted

$

0.97

$

2.93

$

2.67

SHARES USED IN PER SHARE CALCULATION:

 

  

 

 

  

Basic

 

57,195

 

57,801

 

60,327

Diluted

 

57,622

 

58,371

 

61,467

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

38

POWER INTEGRATIONS, INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

Year Ended December 31, 

(In thousands)

    

2023

    

2022

    

2021

Net income

$

55,735

$

170,851

$

164,413

Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:

 

 

 

Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of $0 tax in 2023, 2022 and 2021

 

(420)

 

(985)

 

(486)

Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities, net of $0 tax in 2023, 2022 and 2021

 

5,579

 

(4,158)

 

(2,055)

Unrealized actuarial gain on pension benefits, net of tax of ($130), ($271) and ($334) in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively

 

723

 

1,536

 

967

Total other comprehensive income (loss)

 

5,882

 

(3,607)

 

(1,574)

TOTAL COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

$

61,617

$

167,244

$

162,839

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

39

POWER INTEGRATIONS, INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

    

  

    

  

    

    

Accumulated

    

    

Additional

Other

Total

Common Stock

Paid-In

Comprehensive

Retained

Stockholders’

(In thousands)

 

Shares

 

Amount

 

Capital

 

Loss

 

Earnings

 

Equity

BALANCE AT JANUARY 1, 2021

 

59,910

$

28

$

190,920

$

(2,163)

$

621,626

$

810,411

Issuance of common stock under employee stock option and stock award plans

 

780

 

 

1,644

 

 

 

1,644

Repurchase of common stock

 

(878)

 

(1)

 

(73,937)

 

 

 

(73,938)

Issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan

 

101

 

1

 

6,065

 

 

 

6,066

Stock-based compensation expense related to employee stock awards

 

 

 

35,647