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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
Transition Report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from ________ to ________
Commission File Number: 000-50058
PRA Group, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware75-3078675
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
120 Corporate Boulevard, Norfolk, Virginia 23502
(888) 772-7326
(Address of principal executive offices, zip code, telephone number)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per sharePRAANASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15 (d) of the Act. Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one): Large accelerated filer     Accelerated filer     Non-accelerated filer    Smaller reporting company   Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.     
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No  
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023 was $885,369,133 based on the $22.85 closing price as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market.
The number of shares of the registrant's Common Stock outstanding as of February 23, 2024 was 39,247,271.
Documents incorporated by reference
Portions of the Registrant's definitive Proxy Statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.



Table of Contents
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 1C.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
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Table of Contents

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All references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Form 10-K") to "PRA Group," "our," "we," "us," the "Company" or similar terms are to PRA Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Forward-Looking Statements:
This report contains forward-looking statements as defined by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Statements other than statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements, including statements regarding cash collection trends, operating cost trends, liquidity and capital needs and other statements of expectations, beliefs, future plans, strategies and anticipated events or trends. Our results could differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements, or our forward-looking statements could be wrong, as a result of risks, uncertainties and assumptions including the following:
a deterioration in the economic or inflationary environment in the markets in which we operate;
our inability to replace our portfolios of nonperforming loans with additional portfolios sufficient to operate efficiently and profitably and/or purchase nonperforming loans at appropriate prices;
our inability to collect sufficient amounts on our nonperforming loans to fund our operations, including as a result of restrictions imposed by local, state, federal and international laws and regulations;
a disruption or failure by any of our third-party service providers to meet their obligations and our service level expectations;
our inability to successfully implement our strategic and operational initiatives in our U.S. business;
changes in accounting standards and their interpretations;
the impact of a disease outbreak on the markets in which we operate and our inability to successfully manage the challenges associated with a disease outbreak, including epidemics, pandemics or similar widespread public health concerns;
the occurrence of goodwill impairment charges;
loss contingency accruals that are inadequate to cover actual losses;
our inability to manage risks associated with our international operations;
changes in local, state, federal or international laws or the interpretation of these laws, including tax, bankruptcy and collection laws;
our inability to comply with existing and new regulations of the collection industry;
changes in tax provisions or exposure to additional tax liabilities;
investigations, reviews, or enforcement actions by governmental authorities, including the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("CFPB");
our inability to comply with data privacy regulations such as the General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR");
adverse outcomes in pending litigation or administrative proceedings;
our inability to retain, expand, renegotiate or replace our credit facilities and our inability to comply with the covenants under our financing arrangements;
our inability to manage effectively our capital and liquidity needs, including as a result of changes in credit or capital markets or adverse changes in our credit ratings;
changes in interest or exchange rates;
default by or failure of one or more of our counterparty financial institutions;
disruptions of business operations caused by cybersecurity incidents or the underperformance or failure of information technology infrastructure, networks or communication systems; and
the "Risk Factors" in Item 1A of this Form 10-K and in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC").
You should assume that the information appearing in this Form 10-K is accurate only as of the date it was issued. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date. The future events, developments or results described in, or implied by, this Form 10-K could turn out to be materially different. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to publicly update or revise our forward-looking statements after the date of this Form 10-K, and you should not expect us to do so.
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PART I
Item 1. Business.
General
PRA Group Inc. is a global financial and business services company with operations based primarily in the Americas and Europe, and to a lesser extent, Australia.
Our primary business is the purchase, collection and management of portfolios of nonperforming loans. The accounts we purchase are primarily the unpaid obligations of individuals owed to credit originators, which include banks and other types of consumer, retail and auto finance companies. We purchase portfolios of nonperforming loans at a discount in two broad categories: Core and Insolvency. Our Core operation specializes in purchasing and collecting nonperforming loans, which we purchase since the credit originators have chosen not to pursue, or have been unsuccessful in, collecting the full balance owed. Our Insolvency operation consists primarily of purchasing and collecting on nonperforming loans where the customer is involved in a bankruptcy proceeding, or the equivalent thereof, in certain European countries. We also provide fee-based services on class action claims recoveries in the United States ("U.S.").
Portfolio Acquisitions
To identify purchasing opportunities, we maintain an extensive marketing effort with our global investment team contacting known and prospective sellers of nonperforming loans. From these sellers, we acquire a variety of nonperforming loans, including Visa® and Mastercard® general purpose credit card accounts, private label credit card accounts, personal loans, automobile loans and small business loans. Sellers of nonperforming loans include major banks, credit unions, consumer finance companies, retailers, utilities, automobile finance companies and other credit originators. The price at which we purchase portfolios depends on a number of factors, including the age since charge-off of the portfolio, whether it is a Core or Insolvency portfolio, geographic region, the seller's selection criteria, our historical collections experience with a certain asset type or credit originator, our estimated cost to collect on the portfolio, our financing costs and the current market environment.
We purchase portfolios of nonperforming loans from credit originators through auctions and negotiated sales. In an auction process, the seller will assemble a portfolio of nonperforming loans and will request purchase prices from specifically invited bidders. In a privately negotiated sale process, the credit originator will contact one or more purchasers directly, receive a bid and negotiate the terms of sale. Typically, invited purchasers, in either case, will have already successfully completed a qualification process that can include the seller's review of any or all of the following: the purchaser's experience, reputation, financial standing, operating procedures, business practices and compliance oversight.
We purchase portfolios of nonperforming loans through either single portfolio transactions, referred to as spot sales, or through the pre-arranged purchase of multiple portfolios over time, referred to as forward flow sales. Under a forward flow agreement, we purchase statistically similar nonperforming loan portfolios from a credit originator on a periodic basis, at a negotiated price over a specified term, typically ranging from three to 12 months.
Portfolio Collection Operations
Call Center Operations
In higher volume markets, our collection efforts have been driven by internally staffed call centers. In some newer markets, and in markets that have less consistent debt purchasing patterns, most notably outside the U.S., we also utilize external vendors to support some or all of our collection efforts. As part of more recent efforts to enhance the performance of our U.S. business, we have expanded the outsourcing of collection efforts while also testing and piloting the offshoring of collections. Over time, we expect these initiatives will complement our internal resources and U.S. call centers. Whether the accounts are being serviced by internal staff or external vendors, except for accounts placed with a third-party debt collection agency, we utilize our proprietary analysis to proportionally direct work efforts to those customers most able and willing to pay. The analysis driving those decisions relies on models and variables that we believe will result in the highest correlation to profitable collections from call activity.
Legal Recovery - Core Portfolios
An important component of our collection efforts involves our legal recovery operations and the judicial collection of balances from customers who, in general, we believe have the ability, but not the willingness, to resolve their obligations. There are some markets, especially the Nordic countries, in which the collection process follows a prescribed, time-sensitive and sequential set of legal actions, but in the majority of instances, we use models and analysis to select those accounts reflecting a higher propensity to pay within a given legal environment. Depending on the characteristics of the account and the applicable
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local collection laws, we determine whether to commence legal action to judicially collect on the account. In certain countries, the legal collection process has a lower cost. The legal process can take an extended period of time and requires an upfront investment in court filing costs, but usually generates net cash collections that likely would not have been realized otherwise. We use a combination of internal staff (attorneys and support), as well as external law firms and other third-party vendors, to pursue legal collections under certain circumstances, as we deem appropriate.
Insolvency Operations
Accounts that are in an insolvent or bankrupt status are managed by our Insolvency operations team. These accounts fall under insolvency plans ranging from Individual Voluntary Arrangements ("IVAs") and Trust Deeds in the UK, to Consumer Proposals in Canada, to various forms of bankruptcy plans in the U.S., Canada, Germany and the UK. We file claims or claim transfers securing our creditor rights in plans, and we actively manage these accounts through the entire life cycle of the insolvency proceeding to ensure that we participate in any distributions to creditors. The accounts we manage are derived from two sources: (1) our purchased portfolios of insolvent nonperforming loans and (2) our Core purchased portfolios of nonperforming loans where our customers file for protection under insolvency or bankruptcy laws after we have purchased the account.
These accounts are managed under the relevant country's insolvency or bankruptcy codes and may have an associated payment plan that generally ranges from three to seven years. Accounts that are purchased while insolvent can be purchased at any stage in the insolvency or bankruptcy plan life cycle. Portfolios sold close to the filing of the insolvency or bankruptcy plan may take months to generate cash flow; however, aged portfolios sold years after the filing of the insolvency or bankruptcy plan will typically generate cash flows immediately.
Digital
As a complement to our collection operations, and in-line with macro trends demonstrating an increasingly digital consumer, we continue to implement digital platforms to support our collection efforts in all of our operating markets. These platforms provide for inbound collections, as well as outbound collections where permitted by local regulations. Our digital channels allow us to service our customers in a channel many of them prefer, providing convenient, user-friendly platforms for making payments, accessing account information, viewing documents and contacting an account representative.
Equity Method Investment
We have an 11.7% equity interest in RCB Investimentos S.A. ("RCB"), a portfolio servicer and manager that performs the underwriting and collections activities related to our Brazilian portfolios. Fees paid to RCB are included within Agency fees in our Consolidated Income Statements.
Fee-Based Services
In addition to the purchase, collection and management of portfolios of nonperforming loans, we provide fee-based services including class action claims recovery purchasing and servicing through our subsidiary, Claims Compensation Bureau, LLC ("CCB").
Seasonality
Customer payment patterns in all of the countries in which we operate can be affected by, among other factors, seasonal employment trends, income tax refunds and holiday spending habits.
Competition
Competition is derived from both third-party contingent fee collection agencies and purchasers of debt that either manage their own nonperforming loans or outsource such servicing. In the U.S., regulatory complexity and burdens, combined with seller preference for experienced portfolio purchasers, create barriers to successful entry for new competitors. In Brazil, there are a small number of major purchasers of nonperforming loans, whose experience and access to capital also create barriers to successful entry for new competitors. In Europe, the diverse regulatory environment across different markets creates varying levels of competition, with some markets being more competitive than others.
We compete in the purchasing of nonperforming loans on the basis of price, reputation, industry experience and performance. We believe that our competitive strengths include our:
global presence, with portfolios in 18 countries;
strong relationships with credit originators;
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ability to close transactions in a timely fashion;
capital position;
extensive data set developed since our founding in 1996;
disciplined and proprietary underwriting process;
ability to bid on portfolios at appropriate prices;
compliance program;
reputation from previous portfolio purchase transactions;
quality customer service; and
ability to efficiently and effectively collect on various asset types.
Government Regulation
We are subject to a variety of federal, state, local and international laws that establish specific guidelines and procedures that debt collectors must follow when collecting on customer accounts, including laws relating to the collection, use, retention, security and transfer of personal information. It is our policy to comply with applicable laws in all of our activities. To promote compliance with applicable laws and regulations, we provide extensive training upon hire and additional training at least annually. We also monitor and evaluate our collectors and third-party service providers in order to provide meaningful and prompt feedback. Our compliance management system and related controls, which are embedded in our business processes, are also tested regularly by our compliance and internal audit departments to foster compliance with laws, regulations and internal policy.
Our failure to comply with these laws could result in an enforcement action against us, the payment of significant fines and penalties, restrictions upon our operations or our inability to recover amounts owed to us. Significant laws and regulations applicable to our business include the following:
Fair Debt Collection Practices Act ("FDCPA"), which imposes certain obligations and restrictions on the practices of debt collectors, including specific restrictions regarding the time, place and manner of the communications.
Fair Credit Reporting Act ("FCRA"), which obligates credit information providers to verify the accuracy of information provided to credit reporting agencies and investigate consumer disputes concerning the accuracy of such information.
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act ("GLBA"), which requires that certain financial institutions, including collection companies, develop policies to protect the privacy of consumers' private financial information and provide notices to consumers advising them of their privacy policies.
Electronic Funds Transfer Act, which regulates electronic fund transfer transactions, including a consumer’s right to stop payments on a pre-approved fund transfer and right to receive certain documentation of the transaction.
Telephone Consumer Protection Act ("TCPA"), which, along with similar state laws, places certain restrictions on users of certain automated dialing equipment and pre-recorded messages that place telephone calls to consumers.
Servicemembers Civil Relief Act ("SCRA"), which gives U.S. military service personnel relief from credit obligations they may have incurred prior to entering military service and may also apply in certain circumstances to obligations and liabilities incurred by a servicemember while serving on active duty.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act ("HIPAA"), which provides standards to protect the confidentiality of patients' personal healthcare and financial information in the U.S.
U.S. Bankruptcy Code, which prohibits certain contacts with consumers after the filing of bankruptcy petitions and dictates what types of claims will or will not be allowed in a bankruptcy proceeding including how such claims may be discharged.
Americans with Disabilities Act, which requires that telecommunications companies operating in the U.S. take steps to ensure functionally equivalent services are available for their consumers with disabilities, and requires accommodation of consumers with disabilities, such as the implementation of telecommunications relay services.
U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA"), United Kingdom Bribery Act ("UK Bribery Act") and Similar Laws. Our operations outside the U.S. are subject to various U.S. and international laws and regulations, such as the FCPA and the UK Bribery Act, which prohibit certain payments to governmental officials and other individuals. The FCPA prohibits U.S. companies and their agents and employees from providing anything of value to a foreign official for the purposes of influencing any act or decision of these individuals in order to obtain an unfair advantage or help obtain or retain business. Although similar to the FCPA, the UK Bribery Act is broader in scope and covers bribes given to or received by any person with improper intent.
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Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act"), which restructured the regulation and supervision of the financial services industry in the U.S. and created the CFPB. The CFPB has rulemaking, supervisory, and enforcement authority over larger consumer debt collectors. The Dodd-Frank Act, along with the Unfair, Deceptive, or Abusive Acts or Practices ("UDAAP") provisions included therein, and the Federal Trade Commission Act, prohibit unfair, deceptive, and/or abusive acts and practices.
International data protection and privacy laws, which include relevant country specific legislation in the UK and other European countries where we operate that regulate the processing of information relating to individuals, including the obtaining, holding, use or disclosure of such information; the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, which aims to protect personal information that is collected, used or disclosed in certain circumstances for purposes of electronic commerce in Canada; and the GDPR, which regulates the processing and free movement of personal data within the European Union ("EU") and transfer of such data outside the EU.
Consumer Credit Act 1974 (and its related regulations); Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations of 1999; and the Financial Conduct Authority's:
consumer credit conduct of business rules, which apply to our UK operations and govern consumer credit agreements;
Consumer Duty, which sets higher and clearer standards of consumer protection across financial services; and
Senior Managers and Certification Regime ("SM&RC"), which aims to reduce harm to consumers and strengthen market integrity.
In addition, certain of our EU subsidiaries are subject to capital adequacy, liquidity and other requirements imposed by regulators, such as the Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority.
Human Capital
As of December 31, 2023, we employed 3,155 full-time equivalents globally, with approximately 72% of our workforce located in the Americas and Australia and 28% in Europe. Our employees share a common set of values and commitments that define how we treat each other, how we relate to our customers and the responsibilities we have to shareholders, regulators, clients and others. We refer to this shared set of values as CARES, which stands for Committed, Accountable, Respectful, Ethical and Successful. These values are intended to foster a high-performing workforce and sense of belonging by working together to build an equitable and inclusive culture where employees can reach their full potential.
In support of these values, we offer comprehensive total rewards programs, which include competitive pay and bonus structures, health and wellness benefits, retirement plans and an employee assistance program. Additionally, we offer tuition reimbursement assistance and have a robust suite of training and development offerings, both in person and through virtual learning technology for employees across the globe, many available in multiple languages.
Management considers our employee relations to be good. While none of our North American employees are represented by a union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement, in Europe, we work closely with a number of works councils, and in countries where it is the customary local practice, such as Finland and Spain, we have collective bargaining agreements.
Available Information
We make available on or through our website, www.pragroup.com, certain reports that we file with or furnish to the SEC in accordance with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"). These include our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, our Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act ("SEC Filings"). We make this information available on our website free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the information with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at: www.sec.gov.
The information contained on, or that can be accessed through our website, is not, and shall not be deemed to be a part of this Form 10-K or incorporated into any of our other SEC Filings.




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Reports filed with, or furnished to, the SEC are also available free of charge upon request by contacting our corporate office at:
PRA Group, Inc.
Attn: Investor Relations
120 Corporate Boulevard, Suite 100
Norfolk, Virginia 23502
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
You should carefully read the following discussion of material factors, events and uncertainties when evaluating our business and the forward-looking information contained in this Form 10-K. The events and consequences discussed in these risk factors could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, liquidity and financial condition. While we believe we have identified and discussed below the material risk factors affecting our business, these risk factors do not identify all the risks we face, and there may be additional risks and uncertainties that we do not presently know or that we do not currently believe to be material that may have an adverse effect on our business, performance or financial condition in the future.
Operational and Industry Risks
A deterioration in the economic or inflationary environment in the countries in which we operate could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our performance may be adversely affected by economic or inflationary conditions in any market in which we operate. These conditions could include changes in global or domestic economic policy and sovereign debt crises. Deterioration in economic conditions, or a significant rise in inflation or high level of sustained inflation, could negatively affect the ability of consumers to pay their debts. This may in turn adversely impact our business and financial results.
If global credit market conditions and the stability of global banks deteriorate, the amount of consumer or commercial lending and financing could be reduced, thus reducing the volume of nonperforming loans available for purchase, which could adversely affect our business, financial results and ability to succeed in the markets in which we operate.
Other economic factors that could influence our performance include the financial stability of the lenders on our credit facilities and our access to capital and credit. For example, deterioration in the financial markets could contribute to the insolvency of lending institutions, notably those providing our credit facilities, or the tightening of credit markets, which could make it difficult or impossible for us to obtain credit on favorable terms or at all. These and other economic factors could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to continually replace our nonperforming loans with additional portfolios sufficient to operate efficiently and profitably, or we may not be able to purchase nonperforming loans at appropriate prices.
To operate profitably, we must purchase and service a sufficient amount of nonperforming loans to generate revenue that exceeds our expenses. Salaries and other compensation expense constitute a significant portion of our operating expenses and, if we do not replace the nonperforming loan portfolios we service with additional portfolios, we may have to reduce the number of our collection and other administrative personnel. We may then have to rehire staff if we subsequently obtain additional portfolios. These practices could lead to negative consequences, including the following:
low employee morale;
fewer experienced employees;    
higher training costs;    
disruptions in our operations;    
loss of efficiency; and    
excess costs associated with unused space in our facilities.
The availability of nonperforming loan portfolios at prices that generate an appropriate return on our investment depends on a number of factors, including the following:
consumer debt levels;
sales of nonperforming loan portfolios by credit originators; and
competitive factors affecting potential purchasers and credit originators of nonperforming loans.
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Furthermore, heightened regulation of the credit card and consumer lending industry, or changing credit origination strategies, may result in decreased availability of credit to consumers, potentially leading to a future reduction in nonperforming loans available for purchase from credit originators. We cannot predict how our ability to identify and purchase nonperforming loans and the quality of those nonperforming loans would be affected if there were a shift in lending practices, whether caused by changes in the regulations or accounting practices applicable to credit originators or purchasers, a sustained economic downturn or otherwise.
Moreover, there can be no assurance that credit originators will continue to sell their nonperforming loans consistent with historical levels or at all, or that we will be able to bid competitively for those portfolios. Because of the length of time involved in collecting on acquired portfolios and the variability in the timing of our collections, we may not be able to identify trends and make changes in our purchasing strategies in a timely manner. If we are unable to maintain our business or adapt to changing market needs as well as our current or future competitors, we may experience reduced access to nonperforming loan portfolios at appropriate prices and, therefore, reduced profitability.
We may not be able to collect sufficient amounts to fund our operations due to the purchase of nonperforming loans that ultimately prove to be unprofitable.
Our principal business consists of purchasing and collecting nonperforming loans that consumers or others have failed to pay. The credit originators have typically made numerous attempts to recover on their accounts, often using a combination of in-house recovery efforts and third-party collection agencies. These nonperforming loans are difficult to collect, and we may not collect a sufficient enough amount to cover our investment and the costs of running our business. Furthermore, if the statistical models we use to make cash flow projections as part of our underwriting process are inaccurate, we may acquire nonperforming loan portfolios that ultimately prove to be unprofitable. Moreover, if we experience operational issues in making collections on our nonperforming loan portfolios, we may incur losses on portfolios that would have otherwise been profitable.
We outsource and offshore certain activities related to our business to third parties. Any disruption or failure of these third parties to provide these services could adversely affect our business operations, financial condition and reputation.
We use third parties to conduct collection and other activities through outsourcing and offshoring. These third parties include law firms, collection agencies, data providers, tracing service providers, business process outsourcing and information technology firms. One or more of these third parties could fail to meet its obligations and service level expectations, become insolvent or cease operations, which could adversely impact our business operations and financial condition. Furthermore, we may not be able to find alternative third parties in a timely manner on terms that are acceptable to us or because of contractual restrictions that limit our flexibility in responding to disruptions at these vendors, resulting in operational inefficiencies. If any of these third-party service providers violate laws, regulatory requirements, contractual obligations, or act inappropriately in the conduct of their business, our operations and reputation could be negatively impacted and result in regulatory fines and penalties. Any of these factors could cause our business, financial condition, operations and reputation to be adversely affected. Additionally, offshoring could expose performance of these activities to the risks described under International Operations Risks within this section.
We may not be successful in implementing, or in anticipating, the impact of our cash collections generating and cost-related operational initiatives in our U.S. business, and our plans for implementing such initiatives may be altered or delayed due to various factors, which could have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
Our future growth depends, in part, on our ability to generate higher cash collections at a lower marginal cost through effective execution. In our U.S. business, we continue to identify and implement initiatives that we believe will position our business for long-term sustainable growth and profitability by allowing us to achieve a lower marginal cost structure and to execute effectively, particularly around customer contact strategies and post-judgment legal collection processes. It is possible that the implementation of some of these initiatives could be altered or delayed or result in unintended consequences, such as business disruptions, distraction of management and employees, reduced productivity, unexpected employee attrition or an inability to attract or retain key personnel. If we are unable to successfully implement our initiatives as planned, or do not achieve the expected impacts as a result of these initiatives, we may not realize all or any of the anticipated benefits, resulting in a failure to meet our future business objectives.




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Goodwill impairment charges could negatively impact our net income and stockholder's equity.
We have recorded a significant amount of goodwill as a result of our business acquisitions. Goodwill is not amortized, but rather, is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level. Goodwill is required to be tested for impairment annually and between annual tests if events or circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. There are numerous risks that may cause the fair value of a reporting unit to fall below its carrying amount, which could lead to the recognition of a goodwill impairment charge. These risks include:
adverse changes in macroeconomic conditions, the business climate, or the market for the entity's services;
significant variances between actual and expected financial results;
negative or declining cash flows;
lowered expectations of future results;
significant expense increases;
a more likely-than-not expectation of selling or disposing all, or a portion of, a reporting unit;
an adverse action or assessment by a regulator;
significant increase in discount rates; or
a sustained decrease in the price per share of our common stock.
Our goodwill impairment testing involves the use of estimates and the exercise of judgment, including judgments regarding expected future business performance and market conditions.
Based on our October 1, 2023, impairment test, we concluded that the goodwill of our reporting units was not impaired. However, we estimated that our Debt Buying and Collection ("DBC") reporting unit’s fair value exceeded its carrying value by 6%, and therefore, the reporting unit may be at-risk for future impairment if our cash flow projections are not met or if market factors utilized in the impairment test deteriorate, including adverse changes in the debt sales market and an increase in the discount rate.
Our loss contingency accruals may not be adequate to cover actual losses.
We are involved in judicial, regulatory and arbitration proceedings or investigations concerning matters arising from our business activities. We establish accruals for potential liability arising from legal proceedings when it is probable that such liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. However, there can be no assurance as to the ultimate outcome. We may still incur legal costs for a matter even if we have not accrued a liability. In addition, actual losses may be higher than the amount accrued for a certain matter, or in the aggregate. An unfavorable resolution of a legal proceeding or claim could adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.
A disease outbreak could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We cannot predict the extent to which a disease outbreak, including epidemics, pandemics or similar widespread public health concerns, will impact our business, results of operations and financial results. A disease outbreak could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition if:
political, legal and regulatory actions and policies in response to a disease outbreak prevent us from performing our collection activities or result in material increases in our costs to comply with such laws and regulations;
consumers respond to a disease outbreak by failing to pay amounts owed to us as a result of factors that impact their ability to make payments;
we are unable to maintain staffing levels necessary to operate our business due to the continued spread of a disease outbreak causing employees to be unable or unwilling to work;
we are unable to collect on existing nonperforming loans or experience material decreases in our cash collections; or
we are unable to purchase nonperforming loans needed to operate our business because credit originators become unable or unwilling to sell their nonperforming loans consistent with historical levels.




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International Operations Risks
Our international operations expose us to risks, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
A significant portion of our operations is conducted outside the U.S. This could expose us to adverse economic, industry and political conditions that may have a negative impact on our ability to manage our existing operations, which could have a negative effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The global nature of our operations expands the risks and uncertainties described elsewhere in this section, including the following:    
changes in local political, economic, social and labor conditions in the markets in which we operate;
foreign exchange controls on currency conversion and the transfer of funds that might prevent us from repatriating cash earned in countries outside the U.S. in a tax-efficient manner;
currency exchange rate fluctuations, currency restructurings, inflation or deflation and our ability to manage these fluctuations through a foreign exchange risk management program;
different employee/employer relationships, laws and regulations, union recognition and the existence of employment tribunals and works councils;
laws and regulations imposed by international governments, including those governing data security, sharing and transfer;
potentially adverse tax consequences resulting from changes in tax laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate or challenges to our interpretations and application of complex international tax laws;
logistical, communications and other challenges caused by distance and cultural and language differences, each making it harder to do business in certain jurisdictions;
volatility of global credit markets and the availability of consumer credit and financing in our international markets;
uncertainty as to the enforceability of contract rights under local laws;
the potential of forced nationalization of certain industries, or the impact on creditors' rights, consumer disposable income levels, flexibility and availability of consumer credit and the ability to enforce and collect aged or charged-off debts stemming from international governmental actions, whether through austerity or stimulus measures or initiatives, intended to control or influence macroeconomic factors such as wages, unemployment, national output or consumption, inflation, investment, credit, finance, taxation or other economic drivers;
the presence of varying levels of business corruption in international markets and the effect of various anti-corruption and other laws on our international operations;
the impact on our day-to-day operations and our ability to staff our international operations given long-term trends towards higher wages in developed and emerging international markets as well as the potential impact of union organizing efforts;
the potential for a widening military conflict in Europe;
potential damage to our reputation due to non-compliance with international and local laws; and
the complexity and necessity of using non-U.S. representatives, consultants and other third-party vendors.
Any one of these factors could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Compliance with complex and evolving international and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations could increase our cost of doing business in international jurisdictions.
We operate on a global basis with offices and activities in a number of jurisdictions throughout the Americas, Europe and Australia. We face increased exposure to risks inherent in conducting business internationally, including compliance with complex international and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations, which could increase our cost of doing business in international jurisdictions. These laws and regulations include those related to taxation and anti-corruption laws such as the FCPA and the UK Bribery Act. Given the complexity of these laws, there is a risk that we may inadvertently breach certain provisions of these laws, such as through the negligent behavior of an employee or our failure to comply with certain formal documentation requirements. Violations of these laws and regulations by us, any of our employees or our third-party vendors, either inadvertently or intentionally, could result in fines and penalties, criminal sanctions, restrictions on our operations and ability to offer our services in one or more countries. Violations of these laws could also adversely affect our business, brand, international expansion efforts, ability to attract and retain employees and results of operations.
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Additionally, pending international regulations, such as the EU Directive (2021/2167) on Credit Servicers and Credit Purchasers, could adversely affect our operations in Europe once they are effective and require implementation. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ("OECD") recently issued Pillar Two model rules with the aim of ensuring that multinational enterprises pay a 15% effective tax rate in each jurisdiction. The EU adopted the OECD Pillar Two Directive effective January 1, 2024. We are monitoring the enactment of Pillar Two legislation in EU countries and elsewhere to determine the potential impact on our financial results, as well as monitoring U.S. amendments to the U.S. global intangible low-tax income ("GILTI"), if any. While we currently do not expect the implementation of Pillar Two and amendments to GILTI will significantly increase our U.S. and international income taxes, there is a risk the final enactment could cause a material increase in our income tax expense and payments.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
Our ability to collect and enforce our nonperforming loans may be limited under federal, state and international laws, regulations and policies.
Our operations are subject to licensing and regulation by governmental and regulatory bodies in the many jurisdictions in which we operate. U.S. federal and state laws, and the laws and regulations of the international countries in which we operate, may limit our ability to collect on and enforce our rights with respect to our nonperforming loans regardless of any act or omission on our part. Some laws and regulations applicable to credit issuers may preclude us from collecting on nonperforming loans we acquire if the credit issuer previously failed to comply with applicable laws in generating or servicing those accounts. Collection laws and regulations also directly apply to our business. Such laws and regulations are extensive and subject to change. A variety of state, federal and international laws and regulations govern the collection, use, retention, transmission, sharing and security of consumer data. Consumer protection and privacy protection laws, changes in the ways that existing rules or laws are interpreted or enforced and any procedures that may be implemented as a result of regulatory consent orders may adversely affect our ability to collect on our nonperforming loans and adversely affect our business. Our failure to comply with laws or regulations applicable to us could limit our ability to collect on our nonperforming loans, which could reduce our profitability and adversely affect our business.
Failure to comply with government regulation of the collections industry could result in penalties, fines, litigation, damage to our reputation or the suspension or termination of our ability to conduct our business.
The collections industry throughout the markets in which we operate is governed by various laws and regulations, many of which require us to be a licensed debt collector. Our industry is also at times investigated by regulators and offices of state attorneys general, and subpoenas and other requests or demands for information may be issued by governmental authorities who are investigating debt collection activities. These investigations may result in enforcement actions, fines and penalties, or the assertion of private claims and lawsuits. If any such investigations result in findings that we or our vendors have failed to comply with applicable laws and regulations, we could be subject to penalties, litigation losses and expenses, damage to our reputation, or the suspension or termination of, or required modification to, our ability to conduct collections, which would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In a number of jurisdictions, we must maintain licenses to purchase or own debt, and/or to perform debt recovery services and must satisfy related bonding requirements. Our failure to comply with existing licensing requirements, changing interpretations of existing requirements, or adoption of new licensing requirements, could restrict our ability to collect in certain jurisdictions, subject us to increased regulation, increase our costs or adversely affect our ability to purchase, own and/or collect our nonperforming loans.
Some laws, among other things, also may limit the interest rate and fees we may impose on our consumers, limit the time in which we may file legal actions to enforce consumer accounts and require specific account information for certain collection activities. In addition, local requirements and court rulings in various jurisdictions may affect our ability to collect.
Regulations and statutes applicable to our industry further provide that, in some cases, consumers cannot be held liable for, or their liability may be limited with respect to, charges to their debit or credit card accounts that resulted from unauthorized use of their credit. These laws, among others, may limit our ability to recover amounts owing with respect to the nonperforming loans, whether or not we committed any wrongful act or omission in connection with the account.
If we fail to comply with any applicable laws and regulations discussed above, such failure could result in penalties, litigation losses and expenses, damage to our reputation, or otherwise impact our ability to conduct collections efforts, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
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Investigations, reviews or enforcement actions by governmental authorities may result in changes to our business practices, negatively impact our nonperforming loan portfolio acquisition volume, make collection of nonperforming loans more difficult or expose us to the risk of fines, penalties, restitution payments and litigation.
Our debt collection activities and business practices are subject to review from time to time by various governmental authorities and regulators, including the CFPB, which may commence investigations, reviews or enforcement actions targeted at businesses in the financial services industry. These investigations or reviews may involve individual consumer complaints or our debt collection policies and practices generally. Such investigations or reviews could lead to assertions by governmental authorities that we are not complying with applicable laws or regulations. In such circumstances, authorities may request or seek to impose a range of remedies that could involve potential compensatory or punitive damage claims, fines, restitution payments, sanctions or injunctive relief, that if agreed to or granted, could require us to make payments or incur other expenditures. The CFPB has the authority to obtain cease and desist orders (which can include orders for restitution or rescission of contracts, as well as other kinds of affirmative relief), recover costs, and impose monetary penalties (ranging from $5,000 per day to over $1 million per day, depending on the nature and gravity of the violation). In addition, where a company has violated Title X of the Dodd-Frank Act or CFPB regulations implemented thereunder, the Dodd-Frank Act empowers state attorneys general and other state regulators to bring civil actions to remedy violations under state law. Governmental authorities could also request or seek to require us to cease certain practices or institute new practices. Negative publicity relating to investigations or proceedings brought by governmental authorities could have an adverse impact on our reputation, harm our ability to conduct business with industry participants and result in financial institutions reducing or eliminating sales of nonperforming loan portfolios to us. Moreover, changing or modifying our internal policies or procedures, responding to governmental inquiries and investigations and defending lawsuits or other proceedings could require significant efforts on the part of management and result in increased costs to our business. In addition, such efforts could divert management's full attention from our business operations. All of these factors could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The CFPB has issued civil investigative demands ("CIDs") to many companies that it regulates, including PRA Group, and periodically examines practices regarding the collection of consumer debt. In April 2023, Portfolio Recovery Associates, LLC ("PRA"), our wholly owned subsidiary, entered into an order with the CFPB settling a previously disclosed investigation of certain debt collection practices of PRA (the "2023 Order"). We are currently implementing our redress plan and have submitted our compliance plan to the CFPB for review. Although we believe that we will comply with the requirements of the 2023 Order, there can be no assurance we will implement each requirement to the satisfaction of the CFPB or that additional litigation or new industry regulations currently under consideration by the CFPB would not have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The regulation of data privacy in the U.S and globally, or an inability to effectively manage our data governance structures, could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition by increasing our compliance costs, exposing us to the risk of liability or decreasing our competitiveness.
A variety of jurisdictions in which we operate have laws and regulations concerning privacy, cybersecurity and the protection of personal data, including the EU GDPR, the UK GDPR, the U.S. GLBA, and the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018. These laws and regulations create certain privacy rights for individuals and impose prescriptive operational requirements for covered businesses relating to the processing and protection of personal data and may also impose substantial penalties for non-compliance.
Laws and regulations relating to privacy, cybersecurity and data protection are quickly evolving, and any such proposed or new legal frameworks could significantly impact our operations, financial performance and business. The application and enforcement of these evolving legal requirements is uncertain and may require us to further change or update our information practices, and could impose additional compliance costs and regulatory scrutiny. If we fail to effectively implement and maintain data governance structures across our business, or to effectively interpret and utilize such data, our operations could be exposed to additional adverse impacts, and we could be at a competitive disadvantage.
In addition, we rely on data provided to us by credit reference agencies and servicing providers. If these agencies and service providers were to stop providing us with data for any reason, for example, due to a change in governmental regulation, there could be a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may incur significant costs complying with legal obligations and inquiries, investigations or any other government actions related to privacy, cybersecurity, and data protection. Such legal requirements and government actions also may impede our development of new services or businesses, make existing services or businesses unprofitable, increase our operating costs, require substantial management resources, result in adverse publicity and subject us to remedies that harm our business or profitability, including penalties or orders that may change or terminate current business practices. Our insurance policies may
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be insufficient to insure us against such risks, and future escalations in premiums and deductibles under these policies may render them uneconomical.
Changes in tax provisions or exposures to additional tax liabilities could have an adverse effect on our financial condition.
We record reserves for uncertain tax positions based on our assessment of the probability of successfully sustaining tax filing positions. Management exercises significant judgment when assessing the probability of successfully sustaining tax filing positions, in determining whether a tax liability should be recorded and, if so, estimating that amount. Our tax filings are subject to audit by domestic and international tax authorities. If our tax filing positions are successfully challenged, payments could be required that are in excess of reserved amounts or we may be required to reduce the carrying amount of our net deferred tax asset, either of which could be significant to our financial condition or results of operations. Although we believe our estimates are reasonable, the ultimate tax outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements and may adversely or beneficially affect our financial results in the period(s) for which such determination is made.
Financial and Liquidity Risks
We expect to use leverage in executing our business strategy, which may have adverse consequences.
We may incur a substantial amount of debt in the future. As of December 31, 2023, we had total consolidated indebtedness of $2.9 billion, all of which, except for $298.0 million outstanding principal amount of our 7.375% Senior Notes due 2025 (the "2025 Notes"), $398.0 million outstanding principal amount of our 8.375% Senior Notes due 2028 (the "2028 Notes") and $350.0 million outstanding principal amount of our 5.00% Senior Notes due 2029 (the "2029 Notes", and together with the 2028 Notes and 2025 Notes, the "Senior Notes"), was secured indebtedness. In addition, as of December 31, 2023, we had total committed revolving borrowing capacity of $2.7 billion available under our credit facilities, all of which if borrowed would be secured indebtedness. Total availability under these credit facilities as of December 31, 2023, was $1.3 billion, comprised of $344.4 million based on current estimated remaining collections ("ERC"), and $938.5 million of additional availability subject to debt covenants, including advance rates. We will consider a number of factors when evaluating our level of indebtedness and when making decisions about incurring any new indebtedness, including the purchase price of assets to be acquired with debt financing, the estimated market value of our assets and the ability of particular assets, and the Company as a whole, to generate cash flow to cover the expected debt service.
Incurring a substantial amount of debt could have important consequences for our business, including:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our debt or to our trade or other creditors;
increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic or industry conditions;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to fund capital expenditures and acquisitions, particularly when the availability of financing in the capital markets is constrained;
requiring a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations and reducing our ability to use our cash flows to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and general corporate requirements;
increasing the amount of interest expense because the indebtedness under our credit facilities bears interest at floating rates, which, if interest rates increase, will result in higher interest expense;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate; and
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to less leveraged competitors.
We cannot assure you that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available to us through capital markets financings, under credit facilities or otherwise, in an amount sufficient to enable us to repay our indebtedness, repurchase our Senior Notes upon a change of control or fund our other liquidity needs. We may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness, at or before its scheduled maturity. We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance any of our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all. In addition, we may incur additional indebtedness in order to finance our operations or to repay existing indebtedness. If we cannot service our indebtedness, we may have to take actions such as selling assets, seeking additional debt or equity or reducing or delaying capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions, investments and alliances. We cannot assure you that any such actions, if necessary, could be effected on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or on terms that would be advantageous to our stockholders or on terms that would not require us to breach the terms and conditions of our existing or future debt agreements.


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We may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow or complete alternative financing plans, including raising additional capital, to meet our debt service obligations.
Our ability to generate sufficient cash flow from operations to make scheduled payments on our debt obligations will depend on our current and future financial performance, which in part depends on general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. In the future, we may fail to generate sufficient cash flow from the collection of nonperforming loans to meet our cash requirements. Further, our capital requirements may vary materially from those currently planned if, for example, our revenues do not reach expected levels, we have to incur unforeseen expenses, we invest in acquisitions or make other investments that we believe will benefit our competitive position. If we do not generate sufficient cash flow from operations to satisfy our debt obligations, including interest payments and the payment of principal at maturity, we may have to undertake alternative financing plans, such as refinancing or restructuring our debt, selling assets or seeking to raise additional capital. We cannot provide assurance that any refinancing would be possible, that any assets could be sold, or, if sold, of the timeliness and amount of proceeds realized from those sales, that additional financing could be obtained on acceptable terms, if at all, or that additional financing would be permitted under the terms of our various debt instruments then in effect. Furthermore, our ability to refinance would depend upon the condition of the finance and credit markets. Our inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our obligations on commercially reasonable terms or on a timely basis, would materially affect our business, financial condition or results of operations and may delay or prevent the expansion of our business.
The agreements governing our indebtedness include provisions that may restrict our financial and business operations.
Our credit facilities and the indentures that govern our Senior Notes contain financial and other restrictive covenants, including restrictions on certain types of transactions and our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders. These restrictions may interfere with our ability to engage in other necessary or desirable business activities, which could materially affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Failure to satisfy any one of these covenants could result in negative consequences, including the following:
acceleration of outstanding indebtedness;
exercise by our lenders of rights with respect to the collateral pledged under certain of our outstanding indebtedness;
our inability to continue to purchase nonperforming loans needed to operate our business; or
our inability to secure alternative financing on favorable terms, if at all.
Adverse changes in our credit ratings could have a negative impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our ability to access capital markets is important to our ability to operate our business. Increased scrutiny of our industry and the impact of regulation, as well as changes in our financial performance and unfavorable conditions in the capital markets, could result in credit agencies reexamining and downgrading our credit ratings. A downgrade in our credit ratings may restrict or discontinue our ability to access capital markets at attractive rates and increase our borrowing costs, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Cybersecurity and Technology Risks
A cybersecurity incident could damage our reputation and adversely impact our business and financial results.
Our business is highly dependent on our ability to process and monitor a large number of transactions across markets and in multiple currencies. We rely on information technology systems to conduct our business, including systems developed and administered by third parties. Many of these systems contain sensitive and confidential information, including personal data, our trade secrets and proprietary business information, and information and materials owned by or pertaining to our customers, vendors and business partners. The secure maintenance of this information, and the information technology systems on which they reside, is critical to our business strategy as well as our operations and financial performance. As we expand geographically, and our reliance on information technology systems increases, maintaining the security of such systems and our data becomes more significant and challenging.
Although we take a number of steps to protect our information technology systems, the attacks that companies have experienced have increased in number, sophistication and complexity over the past few years, including threats from the malicious use of new artificial intelligence tools.
Accordingly, we may suffer data security incidents or other cybersecurity incidents, which could compromise our systems and networks, creating system disruptions and exploiting vulnerabilities in our services. Any such breach or other
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incident also could result in the personal data or other confidential or proprietary information stored on our systems and networks, or our vendors’ systems and networks, being improperly accessed, acquired or modified, publicly disclosed, lost, or stolen, which could subject us to liability to our customers, vendors, business partners and others. We seek to detect and investigate such incidents and to prevent their recurrence where practicable through preventive and remedial measures, but such measures may not be successful.
Should a cybersecurity incident occur, we may be required to expend significant resources to notify affected parties, modify our protective measures or investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures. Additionally, such cybersecurity events could cause reputational damage and subject us to fines, penalties, litigation costs and settlements and financial losses that may not be fully covered by our cybersecurity insurance. To date, disruptions to our information technology systems, due to outages, security breaches or other causes, including cybersecurity incidents, have not had a material impact on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
For further discussion about our risk management and strategy with respect to cybersecurity, and the roles of the Board and management in our cybersecurity governance, refer to Item 1C. "Cybersecurity" of this Form 10-K.
The underperformance or failure of our information technology infrastructure, networks or communication systems could result in a loss in productivity, loss of competitive advantage and business disruption.
We depend on effective information and communication systems to operate our business. Significant resources are required to maintain or enhance our existing information and telephone systems and to replace obsolete systems. Although we periodically upgrade, streamline and integrate our systems and have invested in strategies to prevent a failure, our systems are susceptible to outages due to natural disasters, power loss, computer viruses, security breaches, hardware or software vulnerabilities, disruptions, and similar events. Failure to adequately implement or maintain effective and efficient information systems with sufficiently advanced technological capabilities, or our failure to efficiently and effectively consolidate our information systems to eliminate redundant or obsolete applications, could cause us to lose our competitive advantage, divert management’s time, result in a loss of productivity or disrupt business operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.

Item 1C. Cybersecurity.
We rely heavily on information technology systems to operate our business, including processing and monitoring a large number of transactions across markets and in multiple currencies. To date, we have not experienced a cybersecurity incident that we deemed to be material. For a discussion of whether and how any risks from cybersecurity threats are reasonably likely to materially affect us, including our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition, refer to Item 1A. Risk Factors – "Cybersecurity and Technology Risks," which is incorporated by reference into this Item 1C.
Risk Management and Strategy
We have developed and implemented a comprehensive, written information security program predicated on industry best practices and applicable regulations that is comprised of administrative, physical, and technical safeguards. Through our information security program, we seek to assess, identify, monitor, mitigate, and manage cybersecurity threats and prevent the recurrence of said threats through preventative and remedial measures. Our information security program is integrated as part of our overall risk management system.
Our information security program is based on written risk assessments that identify reasonably foreseeable internal and external risks to the security, confidentiality, and integrity of our information systems and information that could result in the unauthorized disclosure, misuse, alteration, destruction, or other compromise of these systems. Our risk assessments are developed from industry best practices and include criteria for evaluating and categorizing identified security risks or threats based on the likelihood and potential impact of the threat. Our information security program continuously assesses the sufficiency of our safeguards to control potential risks. Additionally, as part of our risk assessment system, we regularly measure, analyze, and report security and risk metrics. We have invested and continue to invest in risk management measures in order to protect our information systems and information.
Our program also includes a comprehensive incident management process intended to promptly identify, evaluate, respond, remediate, and recover from cybersecurity incidents including the preparation, detection, analysis, communication, eradication, and containment of such incidents including those associated with third-party service providers. The identification,
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assessment and response functions related to information security are managed by an incident response team, which is responsible for maintaining and operationalizing our incident response plan.
To protect against the risk of cybersecurity threats associated with the use of third-party providers in support of our operations, we take reasonable steps to select and retain service providers that are capable of maintaining appropriate safeguards for the information at use, requiring our service providers by contract to implement and maintain such safeguards, and periodically assessing our service providers based on the risk they present and the continued adequacy of their safeguards. In addition, we may engage third-party service providers to perform functions associated with our information security program and the assessment of security threats.
We regularly evaluate and adjust our information security procedures by integrating emerging technologies, revised frameworks and industry best practices. In addition, we require all employees to undertake mandatory annual training covering information security, social engineering, remote working, phishing and email security and digital threats, among others. Additionally, we maintain internal informational content consisting of educational material on cyber awareness on our Company portals and conduct ongoing simulated phishing exercises.
Governance
Role of the Board
Our Board oversees the Company’s enterprise risk management framework, including information security. The Board has delegated responsibility for overseeing enterprise risk to its Risk Committee, which is governed by a formal charter. Consistent with the Risk Committee Charter, management reports regularly to the Risk Committee on key risks to the Company, including cybersecurity risks. The Chief Information Officer (“CIO”) and/or Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”) reports regularly to the Risk Committee on the overall status of and any recommended changes to the information security program, compliance with applicable regulations and material matters related to the program, including the annual risk assessment, risk management and control decisions, service provider arrangements, results of testing and information security-related events, if any, and management’s responses to the same. After each Risk Committee meeting, the Risk Committee Chair reports to the Board of Directors on the matters reported on during the committee meeting.
Role of Management
Our information security management team oversees the design, implementation, and maturation of security practices to protect critical business processes, information systems and information technology assets across our enterprise. Management is primarily responsible and accountable for the awareness, oversight and control of enterprise information security and the implementation of cybersecurity policies, procedures, and strategies. Our information security and risk assessment teams regularly communicate to management the effectiveness and efficiency of our information security program’s risk management processes. Management reviews such assessments, reports any potential threats and vulnerabilities and responds accordingly, including by providing regularly scheduled reports and escalating items, as necessary, to the Disclosure Committee and the Board's Risk Committee.
Our information security management team is led by a global CIO, to whom the CISO and Chief Technology Officer report. The CIO, who reports directly to the CEO, has more than 30 years of experience in information technology and is responsible for information technology, information security, and business applications at a strategic level across the Company’s global platform. Moreover, the CIO is also responsible for reporting any information security matters to the Disclosure Committee to support the Company’s compliance with applicable disclosure obligations. Our CISO has held various positions in the information security field over the past 18 years including senior level positions across multiple industries with a focus on establishing and executing systems and security strategies to protect corporate data and improve regulatory compliance. The experience of our information security management spans various job practice analysis areas and is underpinned by relevant education and certifications as well as decades of in-field experience in areas such as information security program development, information security governance, risk management and information security incident management. As discussed above, management reports regularly to the Board on our information security program.
Item 2. Properties.
Our corporate headquarters are located in Norfolk, Virginia. In addition, as of December 31, 2023, we had 10 operational centers in the Americas (eight leased and two owned), eight in Europe (all leased) and two in Australia (all leased).
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
We and our subsidiaries are from time to time subject to a variety of legal and regulatory claims, inquiries and proceedings, most of which are incidental to the ordinary course of our business. We initiate lawsuits against customers and are occasionally countersued by them in such actions. Also, customers, either individually, as members of a class action, or through
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a governmental entity on behalf of customers, may initiate litigation against us in which they allege that we have violated a state or federal law in the process of collecting on an account. From time to time, other types of lawsuits are brought against us.
Refer to the "Litigation and Regulatory Matters" section of Note 14 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for information regarding legal proceedings in which we are involved.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Common Stock
Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "PRAA". Based on information provided by our transfer agent and registrar, as of February 20, 2024, there were 45 holders of record.
Stock Performance
The following graph and subsequent table compare, from December 31, 2018 to December 31, 2023, cumulative stockholder returns assuming an initial investment of $100 in our common stock (PRAA), the stocks comprising the Nasdaq Financial 100 (IXF) and the stocks comprising the Nasdaq Global Market Composite Index (NQGM) at the beginning of the period. Any dividends paid during the five-year period are assumed to be reinvested.
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Ticker201820192020202120222023
PRA Group, Inc.PRAA$100.0 $149.0 $162.7 $206.0 $138.6 $107.5 
Nasdaq Financial 100IXF$100.0 $129.5 $134.3 $170.9 $129.7 $146.7 
Nasdaq Global Market Composite IndexNQGM$100.0 $137.9 $227.3 $192.9 $106.7 $113.6 
The comparisons of stock performance shown above are not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future performance of our common stock. We do not make or endorse any predictions as to our future stock performance.
Dividend Policy
Our Board of Directors sets our dividend policy. We do not currently pay regular dividends on our common stock and did not pay dividends during the three years ended December 31, 2023; however, our Board of Directors may determine in the future to declare or pay dividends on our common stock. Our credit facilities and the indentures that govern our Senior Notes contain financial and other restrictive covenants, including restrictions on certain types of transactions and our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on conditions then existing, including our results of operations, financial condition, contractual restrictions, capital requirements, business prospects and other factors that our Board of Directors may consider relevant.
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Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
Share Repurchase Programs
On February 25, 2022, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase program under which we are authorized to repurchase up to $150.0 million of our outstanding common stock. For more information, see Item 7 "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources" of this Form 10-K.
We did not repurchase any common stock during the fourth quarter of the year ended December 31, 2023.
Item 6. [Reserved]

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Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Objective
This discussion is from the perspective of management and is intended to help the reader understand our financial condition, cash flows and other changes in financial condition and results of operations. It should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Executive Overview
We are a global financial and business services company with operations based primarily in the Americas and Europe, and to a lesser extent, Australia. Our primary business is the purchase, collection and management of portfolios of nonperforming loans.
For the year ended December 31, 2023 we had:
Total portfolio purchases of $1.2 billion.
Total cash collections of $1.7 billion.
Cash efficiency ratio of 58.0%.
Diluted earnings per share of $(2.13).
As of December 31, 2023, we had estimated remaining collections ("ERC") of $6.4 billion.
In the U.S., in 2023, portfolio supply and pricing dynamics improved, and we expect them to remain healthy in 2024. There is a positive correlation between industry credit card charge-off rates and our U.S. portfolio purchases, and in 2023, we benefited from significant growth in portfolio supply within the U.S. Additionally, we are evaluating and implementing a number of strategic and operational initiatives in our U.S. business designed to improve profitability by increasing cash collections while reducing our marginal costs. These initiatives include customer contact strategies and legal collection processes. In Brazil, we benefited from higher recent purchasing levels, which generated a significant increase in cash collections during 2023.
The European debt sale market remains competitive. While credit normalization in Europe has been slower than the U.S., like the U.S., Europe has seen improved portfolio pricing. While we believe the cost of living in certain European markets, including the UK, has put pressure on consumers, resulting in fewer large one-time payments, the proportion of customers paying us has remained stable.
In 2023, net loss attributable to PRA Group of $83.5 million reflected a decrease from net income attributable to PRA Group of $117.1 million in 2022. Total portfolio revenue in 2023 was $786.3 million compared to $941.2 million in 2022, a decrease of $154.9 million. Total operating expenses increased from $680.7 million in 2022 to $702.1 million in 2023. Interest expense, net increased from $130.7 million in 2022 to $181.7 million in 2023, an increase of $51.0 million. Due to our net loss in 2023, we recorded an income tax benefit of $16.1 million in 2023 compared to income tax expense of $36.8 million in 2022.
Frequently Used Terms
We may use the following terminology throughout this Form 10-K:
"Buybacks" refers to purchase price refunded by the seller due to the return of ineligible nonperforming loan accounts.
"Cash collections" refers to collections on our nonperforming loan portfolios.
"Cash receipts" refers to cash collections on our nonperforming loan portfolios, fees and revenue recognized from our class action claims recovery services.
"Change in expected recoveries" refers to the differences of actual recoveries received when compared to expected recoveries and the net present value of changes in estimated remaining collections.
"Core" accounts or portfolios refer to accounts or portfolios that are nonperforming loans and are not in an insolvent status upon acquisition. These accounts are aggregated separately from insolvency accounts.
"Estimated remaining collections" or "ERC" refers to the sum of all future projected cash collections on our nonperforming loan portfolios.
"Finance receivables" or "receivables" refers to the negative allowance for expected recoveries recorded on our balance sheet as an asset.
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"Insolvency" accounts or portfolios refer to accounts or portfolios of nonperforming loans that are in an insolvent status when we purchase them and as such are purchased as a pool of insolvent accounts. These accounts include IVAs, Trust Deeds in the UK, Consumer Proposals in Canada and bankruptcy accounts in the U.S., Canada, Germany and the UK.
"Negative Allowance" refers to the present value of cash flows expected to be collected on our finance receivables.
"Portfolio acquisitions" refers to all nonperforming loan portfolios acquired as a result of a purchase or added as a result of a business acquisition.
"Portfolio purchases" refers to all nonperforming loan portfolios purchased in the normal course of business and excludes those added as a result of business acquisitions.
"Portfolio income" reflects revenue recorded due to the passage of time using the effective interest rate calculated based on the purchase price of nonperforming loan portfolios and estimated remaining collections.
"Purchase price" refers to the cash paid to a seller to acquire nonperforming loans.
"Purchase price multiple" refers to the total estimated collections on our nonperforming loan portfolios divided by purchase price.
"Recoveries" refers to cash collections plus buybacks and other adjustments.
"Total estimated collections" or "TEC" refers to actual cash collections plus estimated remaining collections on our nonperforming loan portfolios.
Unless otherwise specified, references to 2023, 2022 and 2021 are for the years ended December 31, 2023, December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively.






23

Results of Operations
The following table sets forth Consolidated Income Statement amounts as a percentage of total revenues for the periods indicated (dollars in thousands). Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified for consistency with the current year presentation (fee income is now included within Other revenue on our Consolidated Income Statements).
202320222021
Revenues:
Portfolio income$757,128 94.4 %$772,315 79.9 %$875,327 79.9 %
Changes in expected recoveries29,134 3.6 168,904 17.5 197,904 18.1 
Total portfolio revenue786,262 98.0 941,219 97.4 1,073,231 98.0 
Other revenue16,292 2.0 25,305 2.6 22,501 2.0 
Total revenues802,554 100.0 966,524 100.0 1,095,732 100.0 
Operating expenses:
Compensation and employee services288,778 36.0 285,537 29.5 301,981 27.6 
Legal collection fees38,072 4.7 38,450 4.0 47,206 4.3 
Legal collection costs89,131 11.1 76,757 7.9 78,330 7.1 
Agency fees74,699 9.3 63,808 6.6 63,140 5.8 
Outside fees and services82,619 10.3 92,355 9.6 92,615 8.5 
Communication40,430 5.0 39,205 4.1 42,755 3.9 
Rent and occupancy17,319 2.2 18,589 1.9 18,376 1.7 
Depreciation and amortization13,376 1.7 15,243 1.6 15,256 1.4 
Impairment of real estate5,239 0.7 — — — — 
Other operating expenses52,399 6.5 50,778 5.2 61,077 5.5 
Total operating expenses702,062 87.5 680,722 70.4 720,736 65.8 
Income from operations100,492 12.5 285,802 29.6 374,996 34.2 
Other income and (expense):
Interest expense, net(181,724)(22.6)(130,677)(13.6)(124,143)(11.3)
Foreign exchange gain/(loss), net289 — 985 0.1 (809)(0.1)
Other(1,944)(0.2)(1,325)(0.1)282 — 
Income/(loss) before income taxes(82,887)(10.3)154,785 16.0 250,326 22.8 
Income tax expense/(benefit)(16,133)(2.0)36,787 3.8 54,817 5.0 
Net income/(loss)(66,754)(8.3)117,998 12.2 195,509 17.8 
Adjustment for net income attributable to noncontrolling interests16,723 2.1 %851 0.1 %12,351 1.1 %
Net income/(loss) attributable to PRA Group, Inc.$(83,477)(10.4)%$117,147 12.1 %$183,158 16.7 %
Cash efficiency ratio (1)
58.0%61.0%65.3%
(1) Calculated by dividing cash receipts less operating expenses by cash receipts.
24

Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared With Year Ended December 31, 2022
Cash Collections
Cash collections for the years indicated were as follows (amounts in millions):
20232022 $ Change% Change
   Americas and Australia Core$892.7 $946.0 $(53.3)(5.6)%
   Americas Insolvency104.2 129.4 (25.2)(19.5)
   Europe Core572.1 559.7 12.4 2.2 
   Europe Insolvency91.4 93.9 (2.5)(2.7)
Total cash collections$1,660.4 $1,729.0 $(68.6)(4.0)%
Cash collections adjusted (1)
$1,660.4 $1,732.9 $(72.5)(4.2)%
(1) Cash collections adjusted refers to 2022 foreign currency cash collections remeasured at 2023 average U.S. dollar exchange rates.
Cash collections were $1.66 billion in 2023, a decrease of $68.6 million, or 4.0%, compared to $1.73 billion in 2022. The decrease was primarily due to a decline of $159.4 million, or 16.9%, in U.S. collections, largely due to the impact of lower purchasing levels in the years leading up to 2023 with higher levels of consumer liquidity driving a lower supply of nonperforming loan portfolios. This decrease was partially offset by higher cash collections in Brazil of $76.6 million, or 82.8%, due mainly to higher recent purchases, and an increase of $12.4 million, or 2.2%, in Europe Core collections.
Revenues
Revenues for the years indicated were as follows (amounts in thousands):
20232022 $ Change% Change
Portfolio income$757,128 $772,315 $(15,187)(2.0)%
Changes in expected recoveries29,134 168,904 (139,770)(82.8)
Total portfolio revenue786,262 941,219 (154,957)(16.5)
Other revenue16,292 25,305 (9,013)(35.6)
Total revenues$802,554 $966,524 $(163,970)(17.0)%
Total Portfolio Revenue
Total portfolio revenue was $786.3 million in 2023, a decrease of $154.9 million, or 16.5%, compared to $941.2 million in 2022. This was primarily due to the decrease in changes in expected recoveries, which was largely driven by lower levels of cash overperformance and a net increase to the ERC of certain pools during 2022 compared to a net decrease during 2023. Additionally, and primarily impacting the first quarter of 2023, the tax refund season was softer than we had anticipated, with U.S. collections lower than our expectations, which then prompted a reduction in ERC. This resulted in a negative $30.7 million net present value adjustment to our U.S. Core portfolio, with nearly half of this adjustment related to the 2021 U.S. Core vintage. The decrease in portfolio income was largely the result of higher levels of consumer liquidity driving a lower supply of nonperforming loan portfolios in the years leading up to 2023.
Other Revenue
Other revenue was $16.3 million in 2023, a decrease of $9.0 million, or 35.6%, compared to $25.3 million in 2022. The decrease was primarily due to the timing of settlements in CCB.
Operating Expenses
Total operating expenses were $702.1 million in 2023, an increase of $21.4 million, or 3.1%, compared to $680.7 million in 2022.
Compensation and Employee Services
Compensation and employee service expenses were $288.8 million in 2023, an increase of $3.3 million, or 1.2%, compared to $285.5 million in 2022. The increase mainly reflects higher severance expenses of $8.6 million, partially offset by decreases in temporary labor and healthcare and other benefit expenses.
25

Legal Collection Fees
Legal collection fees of $38.1 million in 2023 were stable, decreasing slightly compared to $38.5 million in 2022. Legal collection fees represent contingent fees incurred for the cash collections generated by our third-party attorney network.
Legal Collection Costs
Legal collection costs were $89.1 million in 2023, an increase of $12.3 million, or 16.0%, compared to $76.8 million in 2022. Legal collection costs primarily consist of costs paid to courts where a lawsuit is filed for the purpose of attempting to collect on an account. The increase primarily reflects higher volumes of lawsuits filed in the U.S. during 2023.
Agency Fees
Agency fees were $74.7 million in 2023, an increase of $10.9 million, or 17.1%, compared to $63.8 million in 2022. Agency fees primarily represent third-party collection fees. The increase was mainly due to the increase in cash collections in Brazil.
Outside Fees and Services
Outside fees and services expenses were $82.6 million in 2023, a decrease of $9.8 million, or 10.6%, compared to $92.4 million in 2022. The decrease reflects lower litigation costs and consulting fees.
Communication
Communication expenses were $40.4 million in 2023, an increase of $1.2 million, or 3.1%, compared to $39.2 million in 2022. Communication expenses primarily relate to correspondence, network and telephony costs associated with our revenue generating activities. The small increase was mainly due to higher business volumes related to customer contact strategies.
Impairment of Real Estate
Impairment of real estate was $5.2 million in 2023 due to an impairment charge associated with our decision to cease call center operations at one of our owned regional offices in the U.S., which is being marketed for sale or lease. No impairment was recorded in 2022.
Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net was $181.7 million in 2023, an increase of $51.0 million, or 39.1%, compared to $130.7 million in 2022, primarily reflecting increased interest rates and higher average debt balances. Interest income increased $10.7 million primarily due to the cash we received and invested from the issuance of our 2028 Notes in the first quarter of 2023, substantially all of the net proceeds of which we used to retire our Convertible Senior Notes due 2023 ("2023 Notes") in the second quarter of 2023, in addition to higher interest rates earned on our investments and bank account balances.
Interest expense, net for the years indicated was as follows (amounts in thousands):
20232022 $ Change% Change
Interest on revolving credit facilities and term loan, and unused line fees$110,684 $71,108 $39,576 55.7 %
Interest on senior notes69,728 39,625 30,103 76.0 
Interest on convertible notes5,032 12,075 (7,043)(58.3)
Amortization of loan fees and other loan costs9,223 10,097 (874)(8.7)
Interest income(12,943)(2,228)(10,715)480.9 
Interest expense, net$181,724 $130,677 $51,047 39.1 %
Income Tax Expense/(Benefit)
Income tax benefit was $16.1 million in 2023 compared to income tax expense of $36.8 million in 2022. The change in income tax expense/(benefit) was primarily due to the loss before income taxes in 2023 compared to income before income taxes in 2022. In 2023, our effective tax benefit rate was 19.5%, compared to an effective tax rate of 23.8% in 2022. This was mainly due to changes in the mix of income from different taxing jurisdictions.
26

Noncontrolling interests
In Brazil, we purchase nonperforming loan portfolios through investment funds in which we hold a majority interest. The portion of our Net income/(loss) attributable to noncontrolling interests is reflected in Adjustment of net income attributable to noncontrolling interests, which was $16.7 million in 2023 compared to $0.9 million in 2022. The increase was due to the strong performance of our investment funds, where we benefited from a significant increase in cash collections during 2023 due to higher recent purchasing levels.
Year Ended December 31, 2022 Compared To Year Ended December 31, 2021
Refer to Item 7 "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of our 2022 Form 10-K for a discussion of our 2022 results compared to our 2021 results.
27

Supplemental Performance Data
Finance Receivables Portfolio Performance
We purchase portfolios of nonperforming loans from a variety of credit originators or acquire portfolios through strategic acquisitions and segregate them into two main portfolio segments: Core or Insolvency, based on the status of the account upon acquisition. In addition, the accounts are segregated into geographical regions based upon where the account was acquired. Ultimately, accounts are aggregated into annual pools based on portfolio segment, geography and year of acquisition. Portfolios of accounts that were in an insolvency status at the time of acquisition are represented in the Insolvency tables below. All other acquisitions of portfolios of accounts are included in our Core portfolio tables as represented below. Once an account is initially segregated, it is not later transferred from an Insolvency pool to a Core pool or vice versa and the account continues to be accounted for as originally segregated regardless of any future changes in operational status. Specifically, if a Core account files for bankruptcy or insolvency protection after acquisition, we adjust our collection practices to comply with any respective bankruptcy or insolvency rules or policies; however, for accounting purposes, the account remains in the Core pool. In the event an insolvency account is dismissed from its bankruptcy or insolvency status whether voluntarily or involuntarily, we are typically free to pursue alternative collection activities; however, the account remains in the Insolvency pool.
The purchase price multiple represents our estimate of total cash collections over the original purchase price of the portfolio. Purchase price multiples can vary over time due to a variety of factors, including pricing competition, supply levels, paper type, age of the accounts acquired, mix of portfolios purchased, costs to collect, expected returns and changes in operational efficiency. For example, increased pricing due to elevated levels of competition or supply constraints negatively impacts purchase price multiples as we pay more to buy similar portfolios of nonperforming loans.
Further, there is a direct relationship between the price we pay for a portfolio, the purchase price multiple and the effective interest rate of the pool. When we pay more for a portfolio, the purchase price multiple and effective interest rates are generally lower. The opposite tends to occur when we pay less for a portfolio. Certain types of accounts have lower collection costs, and we generally pay more for these types of accounts, resulting in a lower purchase price multiple but similar net income margins when compared with other portfolio purchases. Within a given portfolio type, when lower purchase price multiples are the result of more competitive pricing, this generally leads to lower profitability. As portfolio pricing becomes more favorable, our profitability will tend to increase. Profitability within given Core portfolio types may also be impacted by the age and quality of the accounts, which impact the cost to collect those accounts. Fresher accounts, for example, typically carry lower associated collection costs, while older accounts and lower balance accounts typically carry higher costs and, as a result, require higher purchase price multiples to achieve the same net profitability as fresher paper.
Revenue recognition is driven by estimates of the amount and timing of future cash collections. We record new portfolio acquisitions at the purchase price, which reflects the amount we expect to collect discounted at an effective interest rate. During the year of acquisition, portfolios are aggregated into annual pools, and the blended effective interest rate will change to reflect new buying and new cash flow estimates until the end of the year. At that time, the purchase price amount is fixed at the aggregated amounts paid to acquire the portfolio, the effective interest rate is fixed at the amount we expect to collect, discounted at the rate to equate purchase price to the recovery estimate, and the currency rates are fixed for purposes of comparability in future periods. Depending on the level of performance and expected future impacts from our operations, we may update ERC and TEC levels based on the results of our cash forecasting with a correlating adjustment to the purchase price multiple. We follow an established process to evaluate ERC, and we typically do not adjust our ERC and TEC until we gain sufficient collection experience and confidence with a pool of accounts. Over time, our TEC has often increased as pools have aged resulting in the ratio of TEC to purchase price for any given year of buying to gradually increase.
The numbers presented in the following tables represent gross cash collections and do not reflect any costs to collect; therefore, they may not represent relative profitability. Due to all of the factors described above, readers should be cautious when making comparisons of purchase price multiples among periods and between types of categories of portfolio segments and related geographies.
28

Purchase Price Multiples
as of December 31, 2023
Amounts in thousands
Purchase Period
Purchase Price (2)(3)
Total Estimated Collections (4)
Estimated Remaining Collections (5)
Current Purchase Price Multiple
Original Purchase Price Multiple (6)
Americas and Australia Core
1996-2013$1,932,722 $5,725,248 $52,146 296%233%
2014404,117 884,911 27,461 219%204%
2015443,114 899,839 35,758 203%205%
2016455,767 1,078,122 65,679 237%201%
2017532,851 1,200,599 105,245 225%193%
2018653,975 1,482,269 152,931 227%202%
2019581,476 1,294,462 182,487 223%206%
2020435,668 951,929 216,016 218%213%
2021435,846 749,966 362,191 172%191%
2022406,082 708,070 460,475 174%179%
2023622,583 1,227,985 1,118,683 197%197%
Subtotal6,904,201 16,203,400 2,779,072 
Americas Insolvency
1996-20131,266,056 2,502,614 91 198%159%
2014148,420 218,811 98 147%124%
201563,170 88,009 73 139%125%
201691,442 117,987 256 129%123%
2017275,257 356,839 1,121 130%125%
201897,879 135,530 1,939 138%127%
2019123,077 168,658 18,261 137%128%
202062,130 90,690 28,225 146%136%
202155,187 73,803 33,804 134%136%
202233,442 46,811 34,461 140%139%
202391,282 122,780 113,508 135%135%
Subtotal2,307,342 3,922,532 231,837 
Total Americas and Australia9,211,543 20,125,932 3,010,909 
Europe Core
2012-201340,742 71,982 177%153%
2014 (1)
773,811 2,465,052 394,133 319%208%
2015411,340 743,591 141,158 181%160%
2016333,090 567,702 162,940 170%167%
2017252,174 363,813 107,971 144%144%
2018341,775 544,970 194,808 159%148%
2019518,610 838,326 353,219 162%152%
2020324,119 561,192 262,884 173%172%
2021412,411 695,544 428,779 169%170%
2022359,447 582,380 489,333 162%162%
2023410,593 692,580 640,924 169%169%
Subtotal4,178,112 8,127,132 3,176,150 
Europe Insolvency
2014 (1)
10,876 18,882 — 174%129%
201518,973 29,301 29 154%139%
201639,338 57,673 932 147%130%
201739,235 51,995 2,020 133%128%
201844,908 52,658 4,862 117%123%
201977,218 112,260 20,970 145%130%
2020105,440 156,670 42,614 149%129%
202153,230 72,736 33,441 137%134%
202244,604 60,935 46,620 137%137%
202346,558 64,411 60,029 138%138%
Subtotal480,380 677,521 211,517 
Total Europe4,658,492 8,804,653 3,387,667 
Total PRA Group$13,870,035 $28,930,585 $6,398,576 
(1)Includes finance receivables portfolios that were acquired through the acquisition of Aktiv Kapital AS in 2014.
(2)Includes the acquisition date finance receivables portfolios that were acquired through our business acquisitions.
(3)Non-U.S. amounts are presented at the exchange rate at the end of the year in which the portfolio was purchased. In addition, any purchase price adjustments that occur throughout the life of the portfolio are presented at the year-end exchange rate for the respective year of purchase.
(4)Non-U.S. amounts are presented at the year-end exchange rate for the respective year of purchase.
(5)Non-U.S. amounts are presented at the December 31, 2023 exchange rate.
(6)The Original Purchase Price Multiple represents the purchase price multiple at the end of the year of acquisition.
29

Portfolio Financial Information
For the Year Ended December 31, 2023
Amounts in thousands
Purchase Period
Cash
Collections (2)
Portfolio Income (2)
Changes in Expected Recoveries (2)
Total Portfolio Revenue (2)
Net Finance Receivables as of December 31, 2023 (3)
Americas and Australia Core
1996-2013$28,414 $14,689 $11,698 $26,387 $15,661 
201411,826 5,085 6,623 11,708 10,416 
201514,084 8,296 (352)7,944 15,107 
201624,898 16,456 (973)15,483 21,960 
201743,765 24,863 (5,960)18,904 43,205 
201892,931 38,221 13,105 51,326 84,611 
2019110,278 49,393 287 49,681 100,749 
2020125,832 55,634 (3,681)51,953 121,292 
2021136,807 78,122 (52,274)25,848 190,907 
2022195,438 95,009 (5,798)89,211 281,983 
2023108,414 75,234 3,074 78,307 591,032 
Subtotal892,687 461,002 (34,251)426,752 1,476,923 
Americas Insolvency
1996-20131,089 336 756 1,092 — 
2014430 249 136 385 — 
2015325 105 121 226 39 
2016893 120 521 641 228 
20174,852 438 1,457 1,895 1,013 
201812,677 1,085 (1,751)(667)1,858 
201928,698 3,149 651 3,800 17,310 
202019,470 4,202 1,000 5,202 25,023 
202117,474 4,590 924 5,515 28,874 
20229,163 3,831 716 4,547 27,851 
20239,166 4,998 2,237 7,234 85,331 
Subtotal104,237 23,103 6,768 29,870 187,527 
Total Americas and Australia996,924 484,105 (27,483)456,622 1,664,450 
Europe Core
2012-20131,029 1,028 1,029 — 
2014 (1)
107,571 67,749 24,528 92,277 101,742 
201533,779 16,091 2,643 18,734 72,591 
201629,663 15,334 (3,008)12,326 96,274 
201720,166 7,471 1,012 8,484 73,646 
201841,613 15,083 1,326 16,409 128,861 
201975,074 23,993 23,157 47,150 238,759 
202056,078 21,772 3,436 25,207 163,027 
202173,017 32,638 (5,931)26,707 258,670 
202283,782 34,199 986 35,185 307,528 
202350,320 20,129 (1,029)19,099 377,193 
Subtotal572,092 254,460 48,148 302,607 1,818,291 
Europe Insolvency
2014 (1)
235 — 235 235 — 
2015395 26 289 315 27 
20161,315 248 330 578 429 
20173,800 259 821 1,080 1,753 
20187,154 650 39 690 4,417 
201917,460 2,479 1,266 3,745 18,413 
202029,687 4,643 3,180 7,823 38,342 
202114,734 3,556 1,405 4,961 28,669 
202212,352 4,588 195 4,783 36,875 
20234,302 2,114 709 2,823 44,932 
Subtotal91,434 18,563 8,469 27,033 173,857 
Total Europe663,526 273,023 56,617 329,640 1,992,148 
Total PRA Group$1,660,450 $757,128 $29,134 $786,262 $3,656,598 
(1)Includes finance receivables portfolios that were acquired through the acquisition of Aktiv Kapital AS in 2014.
(2)Non-U.S. amounts are presented using the average exchange rates during the current reporting period.
(3)Non-U.S. amounts are presented at the December 31, 2023 exchange rate.

30

Cash Collections by Year, By Year of Purchase (1)
as of December 31, 2023
Amounts in millions
Cash Collections
Purchase Period
Purchase Price (3)(4)
1996-20132014201520162017201820192020202120222023Total
Americas and Australia Core
1996-2013$1,932.7 $3,618.9 $660.3 $474.4 $299.7 $197.0 $140.3 $99.7 $64.7 $46.5 $36.0 $28.4 $5,665.9 
2014404.1 — 92.7 253.4 170.3 114.2 82.2 55.3 31.9 22.3 15.0 11.8 849.1 
2015443.1 — — 117.0 228.4 185.9 126.6 83.6 57.2 34.9 19.5 14.1 867.2 
2016455.8 — — — 138.7 256.5 194.6 140.6 105.9 74.2 38.4 24.9 973.8 
2017532.9 — — — — 107.3 278.7 256.5 192.5 130.0 76.3 43.8 1,085.1 
2018654.0 — — — — — 122.7 361.9 337.7 239.9 146.1 92.9 1,301.2 
2019581.5 — — — — — — 143.8 349.0 289.8 177.7 110.3 1,070.6 
2020435.7 — — — — — — — 132.9 284.3 192.0 125.8 735.0 
2021435.8 — — — — — — — — 85.0 177.3 136.8 399.1 
2022406.1 — — — — — — — — — 67.7 195.4 263.1 
2023622.6 — — — — — — — — — — 108.5 108.5 
Subtotal6,904.3 3,618.9 753.0 844.8 837.1 860.9 945.1 1,141.4 1,271.8 1,206.9 946.0 892.7 13,318.6 
Americas Insolvency
1996-20131,266.1 1,491.4 421.4 289.9 168.7 85.5 30.3 6.8 3.6 2.2 1.6 1.1 2,502.5 
2014148.4 — 37.0 50.9 44.3 37.4 28.8 15.8 2.2 1.1 0.7 0.4 218.6 
201563.2 — — 3.4 17.9 20.1 19.8 16.7 7.9 1.3 0.6 0.3 88.0 
201691.4 — — — 18.9 30.4 25.0 19.9 14.4 7.4 1.8 0.9 118.7 
2017275.3 — — — — 49.1 97.3 80.9 58.8 44.0 20.8 4.9 355.8 
201897.9 — — — — — 6.7 27.4 30.5 31.6 24.6 12.7 133.5 
2019123.1 — — — — — — 13.4 31.4 39.1 37.8 28.7 150.4 
202062.1 — — — — — — — 6.5 16.1 20.4 19.5 62.5 
202155.2 — — — — — — — — 4.6 17.9 17.5 40.0 
202233.4 — — — — — — — — — 3.2 9.2 12.4 
202391.3 — — — — — — — — — — 9.0 9.0 
Subtotal2,307.4 1,491.4 458.4 344.2 249.8 222.5 207.9 180.9 155.3 147.4 129.4 104.2 3,691.4 
Total Americas and Australia9,211.7 5,110.3 1,211.4 1,189.0 1,086.9 1,083.4 1,153.0 1,322.3 1,427.1 1,354.3 1,075.4 996.9 17,010.0 
Europe Core
2012-201340.7 27.7 14.2 5.5 3.5 3.3 3.3 2.4 1.9 1.8 1.4 1.0 66.0 
2014 (2)
773.8 — 153.2 292.0 246.4 220.8 206.3 172.9 149.8 149.2 122.2 107.6 1,820.4 
2015411.3 — — 45.8 100.3 86.2 80.9 66.1 54.3 51.4 40.7 33.8 559.5 
2016333.1 — — — 40.4 78.9 72.6 58.0 48.3 46.7 36.9 29.7 411.5 
2017252.2 — — — — 17.9 56.0 44.1 36.1 34.8 25.2 20.2 234.3 
2018341.8 — — — — — 24.3 88.7 71.3 69.1 50.7 41.6 345.7 
2019518.6 — — — — — — 48.0 125.7 121.4 89.8 75.1 460.0 
2020324.1 — — — — — — — 32.3 91.7 69.0 56.1 249.1 
2021412.4 — — — — — — — — 48.5 89.9 73.0 211.4 
2022359.4 — — — — — — — — — 33.9 83.8 117.7 
2023410.6 — — — — — — — — — — 50.2 50.2 
Subtotal4,178.0 27.7 167.4 343.3 390.6 407.1 443.4 480.2 519.7 614.6 559.7 572.1 4,525.8 
Europe Insolvency
2014 (2)
10.9 — — 4.3 3.9 3.2 2.6 1.5 0.8 0.3 0.2 0.2 17.0 
201519.0 — — 3.0 4.4 5.0 4.8 3.9 2.9 1.6 0.6 0.4 26.6 
201639.3 — — — 6.2 12.7 12.9 10.7 7.9 6.0 2.7 1.3 60.4 
201739.2 — — — — 1.2 7.9 9.2 9.8 9.4 6.5 3.8 47.8 
201844.9 — — — — — 0.6 8.4 10.3 11.7 9.8 7.2 48.0 
201977.2 — — — — — — 5.0 21.1 23.9 21.0 17.5 88.5 
2020105.4 — — — — — — — 6.0 34.6 34.1 29.7 104.4 
202153.2 — — — — — — — — 5.5 14.4 14.7 34.6 
202244.6 — — — — — — — — — 4.5 12.4 16.9 
202346.6 — — — — — — — — — — 4.2 4.2 
Subtotal480.3 — — 7.3 14.5 22.1 28.8 38.7 58.8 93.0 93.8 91.4 448.4 
Total Europe4,658.3 27.7 167.4 350.6 405.1 429.2 472.2 518.9 578.5 707.6 653.5 663.5 4,974.2 
Total PRA Group$