20-F 1 tmb-20211231x20f.htm 20-F
0.960.931.380.960.931.38ProQR Therapeutics N.V.00016129402021FYfalse12600004150001210000001612940prqr:RvoInnovationCreditForCysticFibrosisProgramMember2020-06-012020-06-300001612940prqr:RadboudUniversityMedicalCenterMemberprqr:LicenseAgreementMemberifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2015-06-012015-06-300001612940prqr:RadboudUniversityMedicalCenterMemberprqr:PatentLicenseAgreementMemberifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2014-04-012014-04-300001612940prqr:RadboudUniversityMedicalCenterMemberprqr:LicenseAgreementMember2015-06-012015-06-300001612940prqr:RadboudUniversityMedicalCenterMemberprqr:PatentLicenseAgreementMember2014-04-012014-04-300001612940ifrs-full:NotLaterThanOneYearMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:PhoenicisTherapeuticsInc.Member2021-01-310001612940prqr:InsermTransfertSaAndAssistanceMemberprqr:LicenseAgreementMember2018-01-012018-01-310001612940prqr:Mr.DinkoValerioMember2017-09-122017-09-120001612940prqr:AnnouncementOfReductionOfWorkforceMember2022-04-132022-04-130001612940prqr:RvoInnovationCreditForCysticFibrosisProgramMember2012-06-012012-06-010001612940country:NL2021-12-310001612940country:NL2020-12-310001612940prqr:FoundationFightingBlindnessMemberprqr:ClinicalSupportAgreementMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:OrdinarySharesMemberprqr:AtMarketOfferingMemberprqr:CantorFitzgeraldAndCoMember2021-11-300001612940ifrs-full:OrdinarySharesMember2021-11-3000016129402021-11-300001612940ifrs-full:OrdinarySharesMemberprqr:MarketOfferingProgramMember2020-03-310001612940prqr:OfficeAndLaboratoryFacilityMemberprqr:LondonUkMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:OfficeAndLaboratoryFacilityMemberprqr:LeidenNetherlandsMember2020-07-012020-07-010001612940prqr:OfficeAndLaboratoryFacilityMemberprqr:LeidenNetherlandsMember2021-06-012021-06-300001612940ifrs-full:OrdinarySharesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:OrdinarySharesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:OrdinarySharesMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:OfficeAndLaboratoryFacilityMemberprqr:LeidenNetherlandsMember2021-01-012021-06-300001612940prqr:OfficeAndLaboratoryFacilityMemberprqr:LeidenNetherlandsMember2020-12-012020-12-310001612940prqr:InnovationCreditIncludingAccruedInterestMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:UnderwrittenPublicOfferingAndConcurrentRegisteredDirectOfferingMember2021-04-300001612940prqr:FoundationFightingBlindnessMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:FoundationFightingBlindnessMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:ConvertibleDebtKreosCapitalDebtFinancingMember2020-08-310001612940prqr:ConvertibleDebtPontifaxMedisonDebtFinancingMember2020-07-310001612940prqr:OfficeAndLaboratoryFacilityMemberprqr:LeidenNetherlandsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ConvertibleDebtKreosCapitalDebtFinancingMember2020-08-012020-08-310001612940prqr:ConvertibleDebtPontifaxMedisonDebtFinancingMember2020-07-012020-07-310001612940prqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMember2021-12-292021-12-290001612940prqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMember2020-07-012020-08-310001612940prqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:WingsTherapeuticsIncMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:PhoenicisTherapeuticsIncMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:FoundationFightingBlindnessMemberprqr:ClinicalSupportAgreementMember2018-02-090001612940prqr:EliLillyAndCompanyMemberprqr:PremiumsOnShareIssueMember2021-09-300001612940prqr:YarrowBiotechnologyMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:InnovationCreditIncludingAccruedInterestMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:ConvertibleDebtIncludingAccruedInterestMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ConvertibleDebtIncludingAccruedInterestMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsN.v.Memberprqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMemberprqr:AmylonTherapeuticsB.vMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:FoundationFightingBlindnessMemberifrs-full:EnteringIntoSignificantCommitmentsOrContingentLiabilitiesMemberprqr:ClinicalSupportAgreementMember2018-02-092018-02-090001612940prqr:IonisPharmaceuticalsIncMemberprqr:LicenseAgreementMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2018-10-262018-10-260001612940prqr:OfficeAndLaboratoryFacilityMemberprqr:LeidenNetherlandsMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsRestrictedStockUnitsMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:OtherPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:OtherPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMemberifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMemberifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:WingsTherapeuticsIncMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:EliLillyAndCompanyMember2021-09-012021-09-300001612940prqr:YarrowBiotechnologyMemberprqr:UpFrontPaymentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:YarrowBiotechnologyMemberprqr:ResearchAndDevelopmentServicesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:YarrowBiotechnologyMemberprqr:PremiumsOnShareIssueMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:EliLillyAndCompanyMemberprqr:UpFrontPaymentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:EliLillyAndCompanyMemberprqr:PremiumsOnShareIssueMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsViiiB.v.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsViiB.v.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsViB.v.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsVB.v.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsIxB.v.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsIvB.v.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsIInc.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsIiiB.v.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsIiB.v.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsIB.v.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsHoldingB.v.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:AmylonTherapeuticsB.vMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:YarrowBiotechnologyMember2021-10-012021-12-310001612940prqr:YarrowBiotechnologyMember2021-05-012021-05-310001612940prqr:YarrowBiotechnologyMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:IonisPharmaceuticalsIncMember2018-10-262018-10-260001612940prqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMemberprqr:LaboratoryEquipmentMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberprqr:LaboratoryEquipmentMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:OtherPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberprqr:LaboratoryEquipmentMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:OtherPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:LaboratoryEquipmentMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:OtherPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberprqr:LaboratoryEquipmentMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:OtherPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberprqr:LaboratoryEquipmentMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:OtherPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2020-12-310001612940prqr:LaboratoryEquipmentMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:OtherPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberprqr:LaboratoryEquipmentMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:OtherPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberprqr:LaboratoryEquipmentMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:OtherPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMemberifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2019-12-310001612940prqr:LaboratoryEquipmentMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:OtherPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:GrossCarryingAmountMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:AccumulatedDepreciationAndAmortisationMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:NoncontrollingInterestsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:NoncontrollingInterestsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:NoncontrollingInterestsMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:EliLillyAndCompanyMember2021-09-012021-09-300001612940prqr:UnderwrittenPublicOfferingAndConcurrentRegisteredDirectOfferingMember2021-04-012021-04-300001612940prqr:AtMarketOfferingMember2021-01-012021-01-310001612940prqr:UnderwrittenPublicOfferingAndConcurrentRegisteredDirectOfferingMember2019-10-012019-10-310001612940prqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMember2021-12-292021-12-310001612940prqr:ConvertibleDebtKreosCapitalDebtFinancingMember2020-08-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ConvertibleDebtPontifaxMedisonDebtFinancingMember2020-07-012021-12-310001612940prqr:RvoInnovationCreditForCysticSepofarsenProgramMember2018-12-102021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfExchangeDifferencesOnTranslationMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfExchangeDifferencesOnTranslationMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfExchangeDifferencesOnTranslationMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:SofinnovaCapitalViiFcprMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:AtMarketOfferingMemberprqr:CantorFitzgeraldAndCoMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:EliLillyAndCompanyMember2021-09-300001612940ifrs-full:OrdinarySharesMemberprqr:MarketOfferingProgramMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:OrdinarySharesMember2020-12-310001612940prqr:WorldwideLicenseAgreementMemberprqr:IonisPharmaceuticalsIncMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:OrdinarySharesMember2019-12-310001612940prqr:UnderwrittenPublicOfferingAndConcurrentRegisteredDirectOfferingMember2019-10-310001612940ifrs-full:OrdinarySharesMember2018-12-310001612940ifrs-full:PreferenceSharesMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:OrdinarySharesMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsRestrictedStockUnitsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsRestrictedStockUnitsMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:Ms.AlisonLawtonMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.JamesShannonMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.DinkoValerioMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.D.a.DeBoerMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.BartFiliusMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsStockOptionsMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsStockOptionsMember2020-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsStockOptionsMember2019-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsStockOptionsMember2018-12-310001612940prqr:ConvertibleDebtKreosCapitalDebtFinancingMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2020-08-310001612940prqr:ConvertibleDebtPontifaxMedisonDebtFinancingMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2020-07-310001612940prqr:RvoInnovationCreditForCysticSepofarsenProgramMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2018-12-100001612940prqr:RvoInnovationCreditForCysticFibrosisProgramMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMember2012-06-010001612940prqr:InnovationCreditMember2020-06-012020-06-300001612940prqr:Over5YearsMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:OfficeAndLaboratoryFacilityMemberprqr:LondonUkMember2021-04-010001612940prqr:Over5YearsMember2020-12-310001612940prqr:OfficeAndLaboratoryFacilityMemberprqr:LeidenNetherlandsMember2020-07-010001612940prqr:SupervisoryBoardMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:SeniorManagementMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:Ms.TheresaHeggieMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ManagementBoardMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:SupervisoryBoardMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:SeniorManagementMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:Ms.TheresaHeggieMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:ManagementBoardMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:ManagementBoardAndSeniorManagementMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:SupervisoryBoardMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:SeniorManagementMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:Ms.TheresaHeggieMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.PaulBaartMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.AntoinePapiernikMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:ManagementBoardMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:ManagementBoardAndSeniorManagementMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:IonisPharmaceuticalsIncMemberprqr:StockPurchaseAgreementMember2018-10-262018-10-260001612940prqr:YarrowBiotechnologyMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:IssuedCapitalMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:IssuedCapitalMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:SharePremiumMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:RetainedEarningsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfSharebasedPaymentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:IssuedCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:SharePremiumMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:RetainedEarningsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfSharebasedPaymentsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:SharePremiumMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:RetainedEarningsMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfSharebasedPaymentsMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:EquityAttributableToOwnersOfParentMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfEquityComponentOfConvertibleInstrumentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:EquityAttributableToOwnersOfParentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfEquityComponentOfConvertibleInstrumentsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:EquityAttributableToOwnersOfParentMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:PhoenicisTherapeuticsInc.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMemberprqr:OtherReceivablesMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMemberprqr:CashAtBankMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMemberifrs-full:EquityInvestmentsMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:PastDueOrImpairedMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:OperatingCostsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:OperatingCostsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:Ms.AlisonLawtonMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.JamesShannonMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.DinkoValerioMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.D.a.DeBoerMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.BartFiliusMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:Ms.AlisonLawtonMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.JamesShannonMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.DinkoValerioMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.D.a.DeBoerMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.BartFiliusMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:Ms.AlisonLawtonMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.JamesShannonMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.DinkoValerioMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.D.a.DeBoerMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.BartFiliusMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:TopOfRangeMemberprqr:IfrsStockOptionsMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMemberprqr:IfrsStockOptionsMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:TopOfRangeMemberprqr:IfrsStockOptionsMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMemberprqr:IfrsStockOptionsMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:SharePremiumMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfSharebasedPaymentsMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfExchangeDifferencesOnTranslationMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfEquityComponentOfConvertibleInstrumentsMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:NoncontrollingInterestsMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:IssuedCapitalMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:EquityAttributableToOwnersOfParentMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:SharePremiumMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfSharebasedPaymentsMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfExchangeDifferencesOnTranslationMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfEquityComponentOfConvertibleInstrumentsMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:NoncontrollingInterestsMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:IssuedCapitalMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:EquityAttributableToOwnersOfParentMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:SharePremiumMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:RetainedEarningsMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfSharebasedPaymentsMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfExchangeDifferencesOnTranslationMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:NoncontrollingInterestsMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:IssuedCapitalMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:EquityAttributableToOwnersOfParentMember2019-12-310001612940ifrs-full:SharePremiumMember2018-12-310001612940ifrs-full:RetainedEarningsMember2018-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfSharebasedPaymentsMember2018-12-310001612940ifrs-full:ReserveOfExchangeDifferencesOnTranslationMember2018-12-310001612940ifrs-full:NoncontrollingInterestsMember2018-12-310001612940ifrs-full:IssuedCapitalMember2018-12-310001612940ifrs-full:EquityAttributableToOwnersOfParentMember2018-12-310001612940prqr:ManagementBoardAndSeniorManagementMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsStockOptionsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsStockOptionsMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsStockOptionsMember2019-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsSellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsSellingGeneralAndAdministrativeExpensesMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:YarrowBiotechnologyMemberprqr:UpFrontPaymentsAndPremiumMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:EliLillyAndCompanyMemberprqr:UpFrontPaymentsAndPremiumMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:YarrowBiotechnologyMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:FoundationFightingBlindnessMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:EuropeanCommissionHorizon2020ProgramMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:EliLillyAndCompanyMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:FoundationFightingBlindnessMember2020-12-310001612940prqr:EuropeanCommissionHorizon2020ProgramMember2020-12-3100016129402019-12-3100016129402018-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsN.v.Memberprqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMemberprqr:AmylonTherapeuticsB.vMember2018-01-012019-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsN.v.Memberprqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMemberifrs-full:TopOfRangeMemberprqr:AmylonTherapeuticsB.vMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsN.v.Memberprqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMemberifrs-full:BottomOfRangeMemberprqr:AmylonTherapeuticsB.vMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:ProqrTherapeuticsN.v.Memberprqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMemberprqr:AmylonTherapeuticsB.vMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:RvoInnovationCreditForCysticSepofarsenProgramMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:Mr.DinkoValerioMember2017-09-120001612940prqr:RvoInnovationCreditForCysticFibrosisProgramMember2012-06-010001612940prqr:LessThan1YearMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:InnovationCreditMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:InnovationCreditIncludingAccruedInterestMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:ConvertibleDebtIncludingAccruedInterestMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:Between2And5YearsMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:Between1And2YearsMember2021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:FixedInterestRateMember2021-12-310001612940prqr:LessThan1YearMember2020-12-310001612940prqr:InnovationCreditMember2020-12-310001612940prqr:InnovationCreditIncludingAccruedInterestMember2020-12-310001612940prqr:IfrsConvertibleDebtMember2020-12-310001612940prqr:ConvertibleDebtIncludingAccruedInterestMember2020-12-310001612940prqr:Between2And5YearsMember2020-12-310001612940prqr:Between1And2YearsMember2020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:FixedInterestRateMember2020-12-310001612940prqr:InnovationCreditIncludingAccruedInterestMember2019-12-310001612940prqr:ConvertibleDebtIncludingAccruedInterestMember2019-12-310001612940prqr:KpmgAccountantsN.v.Member2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:DeloitteAccountantsB.v.Member2020-01-012020-12-310001612940prqr:DeloitteAccountantsB.v.Member2019-01-012019-12-3100016129402020-12-310001612940prqr:LaboratoryEquipmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:OtherPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940ifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2021-01-012021-12-310001612940prqr:LaboratoryEquipmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:OtherPropertyPlantAndEquipmentMember2020-01-012020-12-310001612940ifrs-full:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2020-01-012020-12-3100016129402020-01-012020-12-3100016129402019-01-012019-12-3100016129402021-12-310001612940dei:BusinessContactMember2021-01-012021-12-3100016129402021-01-012021-12-31utr:sqmiso4217:USDxbrli:sharesprqr:segmentprqr:claimprqr:directorprqr:installmentprqr:trancheprqr:itemxbrli:sharesiso4217:EURxbrli:pureprqr:employeeiso4217:EURxbrli:sharesiso4217:USDprqr:EquityInstrumentsprqr:Optionprqr:Options

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report: Not applicable

For the transition period from           to         

Commission file number 001-36622

PROQR THERAPEUTICS N.V.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

The Netherlands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

Zernikedreef 9

2333 CK Leiden

The Netherlands

(Address of principal executive offices)

Smital Shah, Chief Business and Financial Officer

Tel: +31 88 166 7000

sshah@proqr.com, Zernikedreef 9, 2333 CK Leiden, The Netherlands

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

   

Name of each exchange on which registered

Ordinary Shares, nominal value € 0.04 per share

PRQR

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

Ordinary shares, nominal value € 0.04 per share: 71,290,805

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 Yes    No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 Yes    No

Note – Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 Yes    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

 Yes    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 Large accelerated filer

 Accelerated filer

 Non-accelerated filer

 Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

†The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report:

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 U.S. GAAP

 International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board

 Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

 Item 17    Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

 Yes    No

Summary of the Material and Other Risks Associated with Our Business

Our business is subject to numerous material risks and uncertainties that you should be aware of in evaluating our business, including those described in Part I, Item 3.D: “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 20-F, or this Annual Report. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company with a history of losses. We expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability, which could result in a decline in the market value of our ordinary shares.
We will require additional capital to fund our operations and if we fail to obtain necessary financing, we will not be able to complete the development and commercialization of our product candidates.
We have a limited operating history, which may make it difficult to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.
We depend on the success of our product candidates, some of which are in early phases of development. We cannot be certain that we will be able to successfully complete the clinical development of, obtain regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize our product candidates.
The regulatory approval processes of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy, time-consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.
Failures or delays in the commencement or completion of our preclinical studies or ongoing or planned clinical trials of our product candidates could result in increased costs to us and could delay, prevent or limit our ability to generate revenue and continue our business.
Positive results from early clinical trials and preclinical testing of our product candidates are not necessarily predictive of the results of later clinical trials for our product candidates. If we cannot achieve positive results in our clinical trials for our product candidates, we may be unable to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize them.
If we are not able to obtain and maintain orphan product exclusivity for sepofarsen or ultevursen, or obtain such status for other/future product candidates for which we seek this status, or if our competitors are able to obtain orphan product exclusivity before we do, we may not be able to obtain approval for our competing products for a significant period of time.
Our development and commercialization strategy for our product candidates relies in part upon certain patent rights that we license from third parties, and termination of such license could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We rely on third-party manufacturers and suppliers and we intend to rely on third parties to produce preclinical, clinical and commercial supplies of our product candidates.
We license patent rights from third-party owners or licensees and if we fail to comply with our obligations in our intellectual property licenses, we could lose rights that are fundamental to our business.
Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.
We or our licensors or any current or future collaborators or strategic partners may become subject to third party claims or litigation alleging infringement of patents or other proprietary rights or seeking to invalidate patents or other proprietary rights, and we may need to resort to litigation to protect or enforce our patents or other proprietary rights, all of which could be costly, time consuming, delay or prevent the development and commercialization of our product candidates, or put our patents and other proprietary rights at risk.
Third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.
We face competition from entities that have developed or may develop product candidates for our target indications. If these companies develop technologies or product candidates more rapidly than we do or their technologies, including delivery technologies, are more effective, our ability to develop and successfully commercialize our product candidates may be adversely affected.
Even if we are able to commercialize any of our product candidates, the products may not receive coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors, which could harm our business.
Any inability to attract and retain qualified key management and technical personnel would impair our ability to implement our business plan.
Members of our management board and supervisory board and our principal shareholders and their affiliates have significant control over our company, which will limit other stakeholders’ ability to influence corporate matters and could delay or prevent a change in corporate control.
We are a foreign private issuer and, as a result, we are not subject to U.S. proxy rules and are subject to the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act) reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. domestic public company.
Certain U.S. holders of our ordinary shares may suffer adverse tax consequences if we are characterized as a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
The rights and responsibilities of our shareholders are governed by Dutch law and differ in some important respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders under U.S. law.
The effects of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may materially and adversely affect our business and our financial results.

The material and other risks summarized above should be read together with the text of the full risk factors discussed in the section entitled “Risk Factors” and the other information set forth in this Annual Report, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, as well as in other documents that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the SEC). If any such material and other risks and uncertainties actually occur, our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. The risks summarized above or described in full elsewhere in this Annual Report are not the only risks that we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us, or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Summary of the Material and Other Risks Associated with Our Business

Introduction

4

Cautionary Language Regarding Forward-looking Statements

5

Part I

7

Item 1: Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

7

Item 2: Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

7

Item 3: Key Information

7

A. [Reserved]

7

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

7

C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

7

D. Risk Factors

7

Item 4: Information on the Company

54

A. History and Development of the Company

54

B. Business Overview

55

C. Organizational Structure

92

D. Property, Plants and Equipment

93

Item 4A: Unresolved Staff Comments

93

Item 5: Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

93

A. Operating Results

93

B. Liquidity and Capital Resources

99

C. Research and Development

104

D. Trend Information

104

E. Critical accounting policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

104

F.SF.Safe Harbor

105

Item 6: Directors, Senior Management and Employees

105

A. Directors and Senior Management

105

B. Compensation

108

C. Board Practices

109

D. Employees

114

E. Share Ownership

114

Item 7: Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

114

A. Major shareholders

114

B. Related Party Transactions

116

C. Interests of Experts and Counsel

116

Item 8: Financial Information

117

A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information

117

1

B. Significant Changes

117

Item 9: The Offer and Listing

117

A. Offering and Listing Details

117

B. Plan of Distribution

117

C. Markets

118

D. Selling Shareholders

118

E. Dilution

118

F. Expenses of the Issue

118

Item 10: Additional Information

118

A. Share Capital

118

B. Memorandum and Articles of Association

118

C. Material Contracts

127

D. Exchange Controls

127

E. Taxation

127

F. Dividends and Paying Agents

136

G. Statement by Experts

136

H. Documents on Display

136

I. Subsidiary Information

137

Item 11: Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

137

Item 12: Description of Securities other that Equity Securities

137

A. Debt Securities

137

B. Warrants and Rights

137

C. Other Securities

138

D. American Depositary Shares

138

Part II

139

Item 13: Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

139

Item 14: Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

139

Item 15: Controls and Procedures

139

A. Disclosure Controls and Procedures

139

B. Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

139

C. Attestation Report of the Registered Public Accounting Firm

140

D. Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

141

Item 16: [Reserved]

141

Item 16A: Audit Committee Financial Expert

141

2

Introduction

This document contains information required for the Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2021 of ProQR Therapeutics N.V. (the Annual Report). Unless the context specifically indicates otherwise, references in this Annual Report to “ProQR Therapeutics N.V.”, “ProQR Therapeutics”, “ProQR”, “we”, “our”, “ours”, “us”, the “Company” and similar designations refer to ProQR Therapeutics N.V., a company organized under the laws of the Netherlands, and where appropriate, its consolidated subsidiaries.

IFRS Based Information

The audited financial statements as at December 31, 2021 and 2020, and for the years ended December 31, 2021, December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, included in the Annual Report have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).

Non-GAAP Information

In presenting and discussing our financial position, operating results and cash flows, management uses certain non-GAAP financial measures. These non-GAAP financial measures should not be viewed in isolation as alternatives to the equivalent IFRS measure and should be used in conjunction with the most directly comparable IFRS measure(s).

Exchange Rates

All references in this Annual Report to “U.S. dollars” or “$” are to the legal currency of the United States, and all references to “€” or “euro” are to the currency of the European Economic and Monetary Union. Our business to date has been conducted primarily in the European Union, and we maintain our books and records in euro. We present our financial statements in euro, which is the Company’s functional currency.

Fair Value Information

In presenting our financial position, fair values are used for the measurement of various items in accordance with the applicable accounting standards. These fair values are based on market prices, where available, and are obtained from sources that are deemed to be reliable. Readers are cautioned that these values are subject to changes over time and are only valid at the balance sheet date. When quoted prices or observable market values do not exist, fair values are estimated using valuation models, which we believe are appropriate for their purpose. They require management to make significant assumptions with respect to future developments which are inherently uncertain and may therefore deviate from actual developments. Critical assumptions used are disclosed in the financial statements. In certain cases, independent valuations are obtained to support management’s determination of fair values.

Trademarks

We use various trademarks and tradenames, including without limitation “ProQR”, “Axiomer”, “Trident” and our corporate logo, that we use in connection with the operation of our business. Other trademarks or trade names of third parties referred to or incorporated by reference in this Annual Report are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this Annual Report may be referred to without the ®, ™ or SM symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent permissible under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend to use or display other companies’ trademarks and trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us, any other companies.

4

Cautionary Language Regarding Forward-looking Statements

This Annual Report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. The forward-looking statements are contained principally in Part I, Item 4.B “Business Overview,” Part I, Item 3.D. “Risk Factors,” and Part I, Item 5. “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects,” but are also contained elsewhere in this Annual Report. Forward-looking statements can be identified generally as those containing words as “aim,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “target,” “potential,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” or the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report are based upon information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report and, while we believe we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained this Annual Report, we caution you that these statements are based on a combination of facts and factors currently known by us and our expectations of the future, about which we cannot be certain.

By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties because they relate to events, competitive dynamics and industry change, and depend on economic circumstances that may or may not occur in the future or may occur on longer or shorter timelines than anticipated. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this Annual Report, we caution you that forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that are in some cases beyond our control. Known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors may cause our actual results, performance or achievements, including in relation to the clinical development of sepofarsen (formerly known as QR-110), ultevursen (formerly known as QR-421a), or any other pipeline program, to be materially different from our expectations. These forward-looking statements include, without limitation, statements about the following:

the cost, timing and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials and other development activities by us and our collaborative partners;
the impact on our operations and activities that may be slowed or halted by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;
the likelihood of our clinical programs being executed on timelines provided and reliance on our contract research organizations and predictability of timely enrollment of subjects and patients to advance our clinical trials and maintain their own operations;
our reliance on contract manufacturers to supply materials for research and development and the risk of supply interruption from a contract manufacturer;
the potential for future data to alter initial and preliminary results of early-stage clinical trials;
the unpredictability of the duration and results of the regulatory review of applications or clearances that are necessary to initiate and continue to advance and progress our clinical programs;
the ability to secure, maintain and realize the intended benefits of collaborations with partners;
the possible impairment of, inability to obtain, and costs to obtain intellectual property rights;
possible safety or efficacy concerns that could emerge as new data are generated in research and development;
our ability to maintain and service our debt;
our ability to attract and retain key scientific or management personnel; our ability to obtain funding for our operations, including funding necessary to complete further development and commercialization of our product candidates, if approved;
the accuracy of our estimates of our future revenue, expenses, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
our estimates regarding the market opportunities for our current and future programs and any future product candidates;

5

general business, financial and accounting risks and risks related to litigation and disputes with third parties; and
the other risks and uncertainties, including those listed under the caption “Risk Factors.”

In addition, even if our results, performance, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate are consistent with such forward-looking statements, they may not be predictive of results or developments in future periods. Among the factors that may result in differences are our expectations regarding risks and uncertainties related to the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on our business, operations, strategy, goals and anticipated milestones, including our ongoing and planned research activities, ability to conduct ongoing and planned clinical trials, clinical supply of current or future drug candidates, commercial supply of current or future approved products, and launching, marketing and selling current or future approved products, and our ability to obtain and maintain requisite regulatory approvals and to enroll patients in our planned clinical trials, additional interactions with regulatory authorities and expectations regarding future regulatory filings, our reliance on collaborations with third parties, estimating the commercial potential of our development programs and other risks indicated in the risk factors included in this report and other filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC.

Actual results could differ materially from our forward-looking statements due to a number of factors, including the risks set forth under the section “Risk Factors” of this report and elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Any forward-looking statements that we make in this Annual Report are valid only as of the date of such statements, and we undertake no obligation to update such statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Annual Report or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

This Annual Report contains market data and industry forecasts that were obtained from industry publications. These data involve a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. While we believe the market position, market opportunity and market size information included in this Annual Report is generally reliable, such information is inherently imprecise.

6

Part I

Item 1: Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not applicable.

Item 2: Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not applicable.

Item 3: Key Information

A. [Reserved]

Not applicable.

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D. Risk Factors

You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this Annual Report, including the financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Capital Needs and Financial Position

We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company with a history of losses. We expect to continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability, which could result in a decline in the market value of our ordinary shares.

We are a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history, engaged in the discovery and development of RNA-based therapeutics for the treatment of severe genetic disorders and the development of RNA editing platforms which could be used to develop new product candidates across multiple therapeutic areas. Since our inception in February 2012, we have devoted a significant portion of our resources to the development of our product candidates in Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), sepofarsen and Usher syndrome, ultevursen. We have also devoted a significant portion of our resources to QR-1123 for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), QR-504a for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, for both of which we intend to cease or suspend making investments, eluforsen for cystic fibrosis, for which we have ceased making investments, and QR-313 for epidermolysis bullosa, which we have spun off. In addition, we have devoted a portion of our resources to the development of our RNA editing platforms and announced as part of our strategy update in April 2022 that we will be increasing our investment in our Axiomer RNA editing platform. We have had significant operating losses since our inception. Our net losses for the years ended December 31, 2019, December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2021 were, € 56,746,000, € 46,614,000 and € 61,680,000 respectively. At December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of € 317,770,000. Substantially all of our losses have resulted from expenses incurred in connection with our research and development programs and from general and administrative costs associated with our operations. While sepofarsen and ultevursen are in later stages of development,

7

our RNA editing platforms are still in early stages of development and we are subject to the risks of failure inherent in the development of novel technologies and product candidates based on novel technologies.

To date, the only material income we have generated has been from the receipt of (government) research grants and collaboration agreements. Our ability to generate revenue from product sales and become profitable depends upon our ability to obtain regulatory approval and successfully commercialize sepofarsen and ultevursen or any other product candidates that we might develop, in-license or acquire in the future, enter into new collaboration agreements and generate milestone and royalty payments under existing or future collaboration agreements.

Even if we are able to successfully achieve regulatory approval for our product candidates, we do not know when any of these product candidates will generate revenue for us, if at all. We have not generated, and do not expect to generate, any product revenue for the foreseeable future, and we expect to continue to incur significant operating losses for the foreseeable future due to the cost of research and development of both RNA editing platforms and product candidates, preclinical studies and clinical trials and the regulatory approval process for product candidates. The amount of future losses is uncertain. Our ability to achieve profitability, if ever, will depend on, among other things, our ability to develop product candidates with our RNA editing platforms, us or any current or future collaborators successfully developing product candidates, obtaining regulatory approvals to market and commercialize product candidates, manufacturing any approved products on commercially reasonable terms, establishing a sales and marketing organization or suitable third party alternatives for any approved product and raising sufficient funds to finance business activities. If we or any current or future collaborators are unable to develop and commercialize one or more of our product candidates or if sales revenue from any product candidate that receives approval is insufficient, we will not achieve profitability, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our ability to generate revenue from our product candidates also depends on a number of additional factors, including our ability to:

successfully complete development activities, including the ongoing and planned preclinical and clinical studies for our product candidates;
complete and submit New Drug Applications (NDAs) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Marketing Authorization Applications (MAAs) to the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and obtain regulatory approval for indications for which there is a commercial market;
complete and submit applications to, and obtain regulatory approval from, other foreign regulatory authorities;
set a commercially viable price for any products for which we may receive approval;
obtain commercial quantities of our products at acceptable cost levels;
develop a commercial organization capable of sales, marketing and distribution for any product that we might intend to sell ourselves in the markets in which we have retained commercialization rights;
find suitable partners to help us market, sell and distribute our approved products that we do not intend to sell ourselves in one or more markets;
achieve acceptance among patients, clinicians and advocacy groups for any product we develop; and
obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement for our products from third parties, including government payors.

In addition, because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with product development, including the risk that our product candidates may not advance through development, as has been the case for product candidates for which we have suspended or ceased development activities, or be shown not to be safe and effective for their intended uses, the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory agencies may require additional clinical trials or preclinical studies or impose post-approval requirements for product candidates that do advance through development.

8

We are unable to predict the timing or amount of increased expenses, or when or if we will be able to achieve or maintain profitability. Even if we are able to complete the processes described above, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with commercializing our product candidates. Moreover, commercialization of ultevursen will trigger payments of up to $ 37.5 million pursuant to our agreement with Foundation Fighting Blindness (FFB). Under our collaboration with Ionis related to our suspended QR-1123 product candidate, we would be required to make payments to Ionis upon achievement of development and sales milestones, and royalty payments as a percentage of annual net sales. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and the notes to the financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report for more details on these transactions.

Even if we are able to generate revenues from the sale of any of our product candidates, we may not become profitable and may need to obtain additional funding to continue operations. If we fail to become profitable or are unable to sustain profitability on a continuing basis, then we may be unable to continue our operations at planned levels and be forced to reduce our operations, which could result in a decline in the market value of our ordinary shares.

We will require additional capital to fund our operations and if we fail to obtain necessary financing, we will not be able to complete the development and commercialization of our product candidates.

Our operations have consumed substantial amounts of cash since inception. We expect to continue to spend substantial amounts of cash to conduct further research and development and preclinical testing and clinical trials of our product candidates, to seek regulatory approvals for our product candidates and to launch and commercialize any product candidates for which we receive regulatory approval, including potentially building our own commercial organization to serve the United States, the European Union and certain other markets. As at December 31, 2021, we had € 187,524,000 in cash and cash equivalents. Based on our current operating plans announced as part of our strategy update in April 2022, we believe that the existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to fund our anticipated level of operations into 2025. However, our future capital requirements and the period for which our existing resources will support our operations may vary significantly from what we expect. Our monthly spending levels will vary based on new and ongoing development and corporate activities. Because the length of time and activities associated with successful development of our RNA editing platforms and product candidates is highly uncertain, we are unable to estimate the actual funds we will require for development and any approved marketing and commercialization activities relating to product candidates. Our future funding requirements, both near and long-term, will depend on many factors, including, but not limited to:

the initiation, progress, timing, costs and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials for our product candidates, and the challenges of, and expenses associated with, continuing our development activities under the effects of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the related restrictive measures imposed by governments;
the clinical development plans we establish for these product candidates;
the number and characteristics of product candidates that we develop or may in-license;
the number and characteristics of programs that we may pursue in our innovation unit, including the development of RNA editing platforms;
the terms of any collaboration arrangements we may choose to enter into;
the outcome, timing and cost of meeting regulatory requirements established by the FDA, the EMA and other comparable foreign regulatory authorities;
the cost of filing, prosecuting, defending and enforcing our patent claims and other intellectual property rights;
the cost of defending any intellectual property disputes, including patent infringement actions brought by third parties against us or our product candidates;
the effect of competing technological and market developments;

9

the cost and timing of completion of commercial-scale outsourced manufacturing activities; and
the cost of establishing sales, marketing and distribution capabilities for any product candidates for which we may receive regulatory approval in regions where we choose to commercialize our products on our own.

We cannot be certain that additional funding will be available on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, we may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of one or more of our products or product candidates or one or more of our other research and development initiatives such as our RNA editing platforms. We also could be required to seek collaborators for one or more of our current or future product candidates at an earlier stage than otherwise would be desirable or on terms that are less favorable than might otherwise be acceptable or relinquish or license on unfavorable terms our rights to technologies or product candidates that we otherwise would seek to develop or commercialize ourselves.

We have a limited operating history, which may make it difficult to evaluate the success of our business to date and to assess our future viability.

We were founded in February 2012 and began operations in May 2012. Our operations to date have been limited to organizing and staffing our company, acquiring and developing product and technology rights, conducting development activities for our product candidates and entering into collaborations. Moreover, we have revised our strategy from time to time, including in April 2022 when we announced updated plans with respect to our pipeline. Consequently, any predictions about our future success, performance or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a longer operating history, more experience with research and development initiatives and clinical development or approved products on the market.

We or third parties upon whom we depend may be adversely affected by natural disasters and/or global health pandemics, and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

The occurrence of unforeseen or catastrophic events, including extreme weather events and other natural disasters, man-made disasters, or the emergence of epidemics or pandemics, depending on their scale, may cause different degrees of damage to the national and local economies and could cause a disruption in our operations and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Man-made disasters, pandemics, and other events connected with the regions in which we operate could have similar effects. If a natural disaster, health pandemic, or other event beyond our control occurred that prevented us from using all or a significant portion of our office and/or lab spaces, damaged critical infrastructure, such as our manufacturing facilities or our manufacturing facilities of our third-party contract manufacturers, or that otherwise disrupted operations, it may be difficult for us to continue our business for a substantial period of time.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our existing shareholders. Further, any future financing arrangements, as well as existing debt financing, may restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.

We may seek additional capital through a combination of private and public equity offerings, debt financings, strategic partnerships and alliances and licensing arrangements. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, existing ownership interests may be diluted and the terms of such financings may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of existing shareholders. For instance, the debt that we have incurred under our loan facility with our senior lenders Pontifax Medison Finance and Kreos Capital is coupled with equity conversion options and warrants to purchase shares, which could result in dilution of our existing shareholders’ ownership. As of the date of this report, we have drawn down two tranches under this facility: € 26,520,000 in indebtedness under a tranche drawn in December 2021, which can be converted at a conversion rate of $ 11.94 and € 13,847,000 in indebtedness under a tranche drawn in the third quarter of 2020, which can be converted at a conversion rate of $ 7.88.

10

In addition, such indebtedness also results in increased fixed payment obligations and certain restrictive covenants, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, limitations on our ability to acquire or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business and may result in liens being placed on our assets and intellectual property. If we were to default on such indebtedness, we could lose such assets and intellectual property.

Also, if we raise additional funds through strategic partnerships and alliances and licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our product candidates, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us.

The effects of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may materially and adversely affect our business and our financial results.

The continued effects of the COVID-19 pandemic could adversely impact our clinical trials or preclinical studies, including our ability to recruit and retain patients and principal investigators and site staff who, as healthcare providers, have heightened exposure to COVID-19. For instance, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in delays of our ongoing and scheduled trials, including our ongoing pivotal trial of sepofarsen for LCA10 and the ongoing pivotal trial of ultevursen for Usher syndrome. While we have implemented mitigation procedures designed to enable us to continue our development activities, there can be no assurance that these procedures will continue to be successful or that we can avoid a material and adverse disruption to our business in case further spikes in the number of infections, including due to the emergence of new variants, would occur in countries where patients are expected to be enrolled or where they are located. As the pandemic continues, we have experienced the prioritization of hospital resources toward the treatment of COVID-19 patients and restrictions in travel. Furthermore, persons living with indications that are targeted by ProQR’s product candidates may be unwilling to enroll in our trials or be unable to comply with clinical trial protocols if new quarantines or travel restrictions were to impede patient movement or interrupt healthcare services. COVID-19 restrictions can also negatively affect the operations of third-party contract research organizations (CROs) that we rely upon to carry out our clinical trials. Moreover, COVID-19 might impact the operations of our third-party manufacturers, which could result in delays or disruptions in the supply of our product candidates. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, three vaccines for COVID-19 have received Emergency Use Authorization by the FDA and two of these later received marketing approval. Additional vaccines may be authorized or approved in the future. The resultant demand for vaccines and potential for manufacturing facilities and materials to be commandeered under the Defense Production Act of 1950, or equivalent foreign legislation, may make it more difficult to obtain materials or manufacturing slots for the products needed for our clinical trials, which could lead to delays in these trials. While we do not currently believe our supply chain has been affected, there can be no assurances that we will not experience supply disruptions in the future. The negative impact COVID-19 has had and may continue to have to patient enrollment or treatment or the timing and execution of our clinical trials could cause costly delays to our clinical trial activities, which could adversely affect our ability to obtain regulatory approval for and to commercialize our product candidates, increase our operating expenses and have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results.

In addition, COVID-19 has resulted in significant governmental measures being implemented to control the spread of the virus, including quarantines, travel restrictions and business shutdowns. We have taken and may continue to take temporary precautionary measures intended to help minimize the risk of the virus to our employees, including requiring most of our employees to work remotely, suspending all non-essential travel worldwide for our employees and attending industry events and work-related meetings remotely. These measures could negatively affect our business. For instance, requiring employees to work remotely may result in decreased efficiency and effectiveness of our operations and increases the risk of a cybersecurity incident. COVID-19 has also caused volatility in the global financial markets and threatened a slowdown in the global economy, which could negatively affect our ability to raise additional capital on attractive terms or at all.

The extent to which COVID-19 continues to impact our business, results of operations and financial condition will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted with confidence, such as the duration of the outbreak, new information that may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19, new strains of the virus, including the Delta and Omicron variants and any future variants, that may emerge, which may impact rates of infection and vaccination efforts, developments or perceptions regarding the safety of vaccines, or the extent and

11

effectiveness of actions to contain COVID-19 and treat its impact, including vaccination campaigns and lockdown measures, among others. In addition, recurrences or additional waves of COVID-19 cases could cause other widespread or more severe impacts depending on where infection rates are highest. We cannot presently predict the scope and severity of any potential business shutdowns or disruptions, but if we or any of the third parties with whom we engage were to experience prolonged business shutdowns or other disruptions, our ability to conduct our business in the manner and on the timelines presently planned could be materially and negatively affected, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operation and financial condition.

Risks Related to the Development and Regulatory Approval of our Product Candidates

Our business depends in part on the success of our product candidates. We cannot be certain that we will be able to successfully complete the clinical development of, obtain regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize our product candidates.

We currently have no products on the market and only two product candidates, sepofarsen and ultevursen, that are currently in Phase 2/3 pivotal trials. In February 2022, we announced that top-line results from our Phase 2/3 pivotal trial of sepofarsen did not meet the primary endpoint of BCVA at Month 12 compared to placebo. However, post-hoc analyses of the Phase 2/3 pivotal trial appeared to demonstrate an encouraging activity signal when comparing treatment eye to contralateral eye across multiple endpoints and we plan to discuss these findings with the EMA and FDA in the third quarter of 2022. In the meantime, we plan to continue this trial, which is a two-year study, until we receive further regulatory guidance, following which next steps will be determined. Further, in March 2021 we reported interim results from our Phase 1/2 trial of ultevursen and thereafter commenced two Phase 2/3 pivotal trials of ultevursen, with first patients dosed in December 2021. As part of our strategy update in April 2022, we announced that we will now focus on a single Phase 2/3 trial of ultevursen with a potential interim/futility analysis in 2023 while winding down the other Phase 2/3 trial of ultevursen. Updates on planned adjustments to the continuing trial, in light of the findings related to sham control, will be provided after alignment with regulatory authorities. There can be no assurance that we will complete the Phase 2/3 pivotal trial of sepofarsen or the Phase 2/3 trial of ultevursen in the desired timeframe or at all.

Moreover, as part of our strategy update in April 2022, we suspended the early phase clinical trials for our QR-1123 program for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) and our QR-504a program for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy and suspended all other research activities related to our inherited retinal disease pipeline. To the extent we resume any of these programs or commence any new clinical programs in the future, the successful clinical development, regulatory approval and commercialization of any of these product candidates would require additional or new preclinical testing and substantial additional or new clinical development and regulatory approval efforts before we are permitted to commence their commercialization, if ever. It would be several years before we could complete a pivotal trial for any of such other product candidates, if ever.

The clinical trials and manufacturing and marketing of our existing product candidates or any future product candidates will be subject to extensive and rigorous review and regulation by numerous government authorities in the United States, the European Union and other jurisdictions where we intend to test and, if approved, market our product candidates. Before obtaining regulatory approvals for the commercial sale of any product candidate, we must demonstrate through preclinical testing and clinical trials that the product candidate is safe and effective for use in each target indication, and potentially in specific patient populations, including the pediatric population. This process can take many years and may include post-marketing studies and surveillance, which would require the expenditure of substantial resources beyond our existing funds. Of the large number of drugs in development for approval in the United States and the European Union, only a small percentage successfully complete the FDA or EMA regulatory approval processes, as applicable, and are commercialized. Accordingly, even if we are able to obtain the requisite financing to continue to fund our research, development and clinical programs, we cannot be certain that any of our product candidates will be successfully developed or commercialized.

12

The regulatory approval processes of the FDA, the EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities are lengthy, time-consuming and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.

We are not permitted to market our product candidates in the United States or the European Union until we receive an NDA approval from the FDA or an MAA approval from the European Commission, respectively, or in any other foreign countries until we receive the requisite approval from such countries. Prior to submitting an NDA to the FDA or an MAA to the EMA for approval of any product candidate, we will need to complete preclinical and toxicology studies, as well as proof-of-concept studies and Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials for such candidate. While we intend to submit marketing applications for our product candidates that successfully complete clinical development, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so in a timely manner or at all. Successfully initiating and completing clinical programs and obtaining approval of an NDA or a MAA is a complex, lengthy, expensive and uncertain process, and the FDA, the EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may delay, limit or deny approval of our product candidates for many reasons, including, among others:

we may not be able to demonstrate that our product candidates are safe and effective in treating patients to the satisfaction of the FDA or the EMA;
the results of our clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical or clinical significance required by the FDA or the EMA for marketing approval;
the FDA or the EMA may disagree with the number, design, size, conduct or implementation of our clinical trials;
the FDA or the EMA may require that we conduct additional clinical trials, including pivotal trials;
the FDA or the EMA or other applicable foreign regulatory agencies may not approve the formulation, labeling or specifications of our product candidates;
the CROs that we retain to conduct our clinical trials may take actions outside of our control that materially adversely impact our clinical trials;
the FDA or the EMA may find the data from preclinical studies and clinical trials insufficient to demonstrate that the clinical and other benefits of our products outweigh their safety risks;
the FDA or the EMA may disagree with our interpretation of data from our preclinical studies and clinical trials;
the FDA or the EMA may not accept data generated at our clinical trial sites;
if our NDAs or MAAs, if and when submitted, are reviewed by the FDA or the EMA, as applicable, these regulatory agencies may have difficulties scheduling the necessary review meetings in a timely manner, may recommend against approval of our application or may require, as a condition of approval, additional preclinical studies or clinical trials, limitations on approved labeling or distribution and use restrictions;
the FDA may require development of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy as a condition of approval or post-approval, and the EMA may grant only conditional approval or impose specific obligations as a condition for marketing authorization, or may require us to conduct post-authorization safety studies;
the FDA, the EMA or other applicable foreign regulatory agencies may not approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract; or
the FDA or the EMA may change their approval policies or adopt new regulations.

13

Any of these factors, many of which are beyond our control, could jeopardize our ability to obtain regulatory approval for and successfully market our product candidates. Any such setback in our pursuit of regulatory approval would have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects.

Failures or delays in the commencement or completion of our preclinical studies or ongoing or planned clinical trials of our product candidates could result in increased costs to us and could delay, prevent or limit our ability to generate revenue and continue our business.

Successful completion of clinical trials is a prerequisite to submitting an NDA to the FDA or an MAA to the EMA and, consequently, the ultimate approval and commercial marketing of our product candidates. Clinical trials are expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and are uncertain as to outcome. A product candidate can unexpectedly fail at any stage of clinical development. The historical failure rate for product candidates is high due to scientific feasibility, safety, efficacy, changing standards of medical care and other variables. We do not know whether our clinical trials will begin or be completed on schedule, if at all, as the commencement and completion of clinical trials can be delayed or prevented for a number of reasons, including, among others:

delays in reaching or failing to reach agreement on acceptable terms with (prospective) CROs and trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different CROs and trial sites;
inadequate quantity or quality of a product candidate or other materials necessary to conduct clinical trials;
difficulties obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) or ethics committee approval to conduct a clinical trial at a prospective site or sites, or institutional biosafety committee (IBC) approval, if applicable;
challenges in recruiting and enrolling patients to participate in clinical trials, including the size and nature of the patient population, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, eligibility criteria for the clinical trial, the nature of the clinical trial protocol, the availability of approved effective treatments for the relevant disease and competition from other clinical trial programs for similar indications;
severe or unexpected drug-related side effects experienced by patients in our clinical trials or by individuals using drugs similar to our product candidates;
reports from preclinical or clinical testing of other RNA therapies that raise safety or efficacy concerns;
difficulties retaining patients who have enrolled in a clinical trial but may be prone to withdraw due to lack of efficacy, side effects, personal reasons or loss of interest; or
force majeure events such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

Clinical trials may also be delayed or terminated as a result of ambiguous or negative interim results. In addition, a clinical trial may be suspended or terminated by us, the FDA, the EMA, the IRBs at the sites where the IRBs are overseeing a clinical trial, a data safety monitoring board (DSMB) overseeing the clinical trial at issue or other regulatory authorities due to a number of factors, including, among others:

failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols;
inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial sites by the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory authorities that reveals deficiencies or violations that require us to undertake corrective action, including the imposition of a clinical hold;
unforeseen safety issues, including any that could be identified in our ongoing toxicology studies, adverse side effects or lack of effectiveness;

14

changes in government regulations or administrative actions;
problems with clinical supply materials; and
lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial.

Positive results from early-stage clinical trials and preclinical testing of our product candidates are not necessarily predictive of the results of later clinical trials for our product candidates. If we cannot achieve positive results in our later stage clinical trials for our product candidates, we may be unable to successfully develop, obtain regulatory approval for and commercialize them.

Positive results from early-stage clinical trials and preclinical testing of our product candidates in vitro and in vivo may not necessarily be predictive of the results from later-stage clinical trials. For example, in February 2022, we announced that our Phase 2/3 pivotal trial of sepofarsen did not meet the primary endpoint of Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) at Month 12 compared to placebo despite initially observing encouraging results in our Phase 1/2 clinical trial. In April 2022, we announced results from a post-hoc analyses of the Phase 2/3 pivotal trial that appeared to demonstrate an encouraging activity signal when comparing treatment eye to contralateral eye across multiple endpoints that is more consistent with the results seen in earlier trials, where the contralateral eye was used as the control. While we plan to discuss these findings with the EMA and FDA in the third quarter of 2022, we may not receive feedback or guidance supporting the continuation of the program. Additionally, the results observed from our Phase 1/2 clinical trial of ultevursen may not be replicated in our ongoing phase 2/3 clinical trial of this product candidate. Many companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in later-stage clinical trials after achieving positive results in preclinical and early-stage clinical trials, and we cannot be certain that we will not face similar setbacks. These setbacks have been caused by, among other things, preclinical findings made while clinical trials were already underway or safety or efficacy observations made in clinical trials, including adverse events. For example, in our Phase 1/2 clinical trial of sepofarsen, adverse events observed after longer duration of treatment included mild cystoid macular edema and lens opacities. These events were considered likely related to study medication and are consistent with those seen for other ophthalmic and intravitreal oligonucleotide therapies. While these adverse events did not result in any trial discontinuations, there can be no assurance that adverse events that are more serious will not arise in ongoing or future clinical trials of our product candidates. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials nonetheless failed to obtain FDA or EMA approval. If we fail to produce positive results in our clinical trials for our lead product candidates, the development timeline and regulatory approval and commercialization prospects for those product candidates, and, correspondingly, our business and financial prospects would be materially adversely affected.

Additionally, some of our clinical trials utilize an “open-label” trial design. An “open-label” clinical trial is one where both the patient and investigator know whether the patient is receiving the investigational product candidate or either an existing approved drug or placebo. Most typically, open-label clinical trials test only the investigational product candidate and sometimes may do so at different dose levels. Open-label clinical trials are subject to various limitations that may exaggerate any therapeutic effect as patients in open-label clinical trials are aware when they are receiving treatment. Open-label clinical trials may be subject to a “patient bias” where patients perceive their symptoms to have improved merely due to their awareness of receiving an experimental treatment. Moreover, patients selected for early clinical studies often include the most severe sufferers and their symptoms may have been bound to improve notwithstanding the new treatment. In addition, open-label clinical trials may be subject to an “investigator bias” where those assessing and reviewing the physiological outcomes of the clinical trials are aware of which patients have received treatment and may interpret the information of the treated group more favorably given this knowledge. The results from an open-label trial may not be predictive of future clinical trial results with any of our product candidates when studied in a controlled environment with a placebo or active control.

15

If we are not able to obtain and maintain orphan product exclusivity for sepofarsen, ultevursen, QR-1123 or QR-411, or obtain such status for future product candidates for which we seek this status, or if our competitors are able to obtain orphan product exclusivity before we do, we may not be able to obtain approval for our competing products for a significant period of time.

Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States and the European Union, may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a product as an orphan drug if it is a drug intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States who have been diagnosed as having the disease or condition, or a patient population of more than 200,000 in the United States when there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available the product in the United States will be recovered from sales in the United States for that product, at the time of the submission of the request for orphan drug designation. With respect to the European Union, under Regulation No. (EC) 141/2000 on Orphan Medicinal Products, a medicinal product may be designated as an orphan medicinal product if, among other things, it is intended for the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of a life-threatening or chronically debilitating condition affecting not more than five in 10,000 people in the European Union. Generally, if a product with an orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first marketing approval for the indication for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to a period of market exclusivity. This exclusivity precludes the EMA or the FDA, as applicable, from approving another marketing application for the same or, in the EU, a similar drug for the same indication for that time period, unless, among other things, the later product is clinically superior. The applicable period is seven years in the United States and ten years in the European Union following marketing approval. The EU exclusivity period can be reduced to six years if a drug no longer meets the criteria for orphan drug designation, for example if the drug is sufficiently profitable so that market exclusivity is no longer justified.

Orphan drug exclusivity may be lost if the FDA or EMA determines that the request for designation was materially defective, or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the drug to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition or if the incidence and prevalence of patients who are eligible to receive the drug in these markets materially increase. Although we have obtained orphan designation for several of our product candidates in the European Union and the United States, even after an orphan drug is approved, the same or, in the EU, a similar drug can subsequently be approved for the same condition if the competent regulatory agency concludes that the later drug is safer, more effective or otherwise clinically superior.

If we lose orphan drug exclusivity or if our competitors obtain orphan drug exclusivity for other rare diseases or conditions we are targeting before we do, we may lose out on the potential benefits of market exclusivity or we may be precluded from obtaining marketing authorization, as the case may.

We may seek orphan drug designation for future product candidates, but we may not obtain such designation or, if we obtain orphan drug designation, we may not be able to maintain the benefits associated with orphan drug status.

Changes in regulatory requirements or guidance from the FDA, EMA or other applicable regulatory authorities, or unanticipated events during our clinical studies may occur, which may result in changes to clinical study protocols or additional clinical study requirements, which could result in increased costs to us and could delay our development timeline.

Changes in regulatory requirements, or guidance from the FDA, EMA, or other applicable regulatory authorities, imposition of additional clinical study requirements by applicable regulatory authorities or unanticipated events during our clinical studies may force us to amend clinical study protocols or conduct additional trials or involve delays to our clinical trials and clinical development strategy, all of which could result in increased costs to our clinical development programs. We may experience delays if we are required by the FDA, EMA, or other applicable regulatory authorities, or if we voluntarily decide to, redesign or restructure a clinical study once initiated. Amendments to our clinical study protocols may require resubmission to the applicable regulatory authorities, IRBs and Ethics Committees for review and approval, which may adversely impact the cost, timing and/or successful completion of a clinical study. For example, as part of our prioritization strategy and restructuring initiatives, we plan to focus the ultevursen program on a single Phase 2/3 trial with the potential addition of an interim/futility analysis in 2023 and other potential changes to the trial design and protocol, such as changing the control from sham to a comparison of the treatment eye to contralateral eye. We may

16

be delayed in our clinical development if we are unable to obtain alignment with the FDA, EMA, or other applicable regulatory authorities on an acceptable clinical study design or statistical analysis plan for any of our clinical trials, including potential modifications to the Phase 2/3 trial of ultevursen. Additionally, the FDA, EMA, or other applicable regulatory authorities may require us to conduct additional clinical trials, including pivotal trials, to support a marketing application. If we experience delays completing - or if we terminate - any of our clinical studies, or if we are required to conduct additional clinical studies, the commercial prospects for our product candidates may be harmed and our ability to generate product revenue will be delayed.

Our RNA technologies are unproven in the disease indications for which they are being developed and tested and may not lead to the development of, or result in, marketable products.

We are developing RNA editing platforms and a pipeline of product candidates using these proprietary RNA technologies for severe genetic disorders. We believe that targeting the mRNA to restore the production of functional protein is a unique approach that offers advantages versus small molecule, gene therapy and other therapeutic approaches. However, the scientific research that forms the basis of our efforts to develop product candidates is both preliminary and limited. The mechanism of action of our compounds could be different from what we today hypothesize. Also, we may discover that the molecules that we develop do not possess certain properties required for a drug to be effective, such as the ability to remain stable in the human body for the period of time required for the drug to reach the target tissue or the ability to cross the cell wall and enter into cells within the target tissue for effective delivery. We may spend substantial funds attempting to introduce these properties and may never succeed in doing so. For example, while we have discovered and are developing our novel Axiomer and Trident RNA editing platforms and will be increasing our investment in Axiomer as announced as part of our strategy update in April 2022, there can be no assurance that we will be able to leverage our technology to create viable product candidates to advance into the clinic, or develop those candidates to submit for regulatory approval. In addition, product candidates based on RNA technologies may demonstrate different chemical and pharmacological properties in humans than they do in laboratory studies or animals. Even if our product candidates have successful results in animal studies, they may not demonstrate the same chemical and pharmacological properties in humans and may interact with human biological systems or other existing treatments in unforeseen, ineffective or harmful ways. Our RNA technologies may provoke an unwanted immune response, or immunogenicity, which may neutralize the therapeutic effects of our product candidates and could result in harmful outcomes for patients. As a result, we may never succeed in developing a marketable product, and in turn we may not become profitable and the value of our ordinary shares would decline.

Furthermore, the FDA and the EMA have relatively limited experience with therapeutics based on RNA. This may increase the complexity, uncertainty and length of the regulatory approval process for our product candidates. Neither we nor any future collaborator may receive approval to market and commercialize any product candidate. Even if we or a collaborator were to obtain regulatory approval, the approval may be for disease indications or patient populations that are not as broad as we intended or may require labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings. We or a collaborator may be required to perform additional or unanticipated clinical trials to obtain approval or be subject to post-marketing testing requirements to maintain regulatory approval. If our RNA technology proves to be ineffective, unsafe or commercially unviable, our entire platform and pipeline would have little, if any, value, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Failure to obtain regulatory approval in jurisdictions outside the United States and the European Union would prevent our product candidates from being marketed in those jurisdictions.

In order to market and sell our products in jurisdictions other than the United States and the European Union, we must obtain separate marketing approvals and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements. The regulatory approval process outside the United States and the European Union generally includes all of the risks associated with obtaining FDA and EMA approval, but can involve additional testing. We may need to partner with third parties in order to obtain approvals outside the United States and the European Union. In addition, in many countries worldwide, it is required that the product be approved for reimbursement before the product can be approved for sale in that country. We may not obtain approvals from regulatory authorities outside the United States and the European Union on a timely basis, if at all. Even if we were to receive approval in the United States or the European Union, approval by the FDA or the EMA does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other countries or jurisdictions. Similarly, approval by one regulatory authority outside the United States and the European Union would not ensure approval by regulatory

17

authorities in other countries or jurisdictions or by the FDA or the EMA. We may not be able to file for marketing approvals and may not receive necessary approvals to commercialize our products in any market. If we are unable to obtain approval of our product candidates by regulatory authorities in other foreign jurisdictions, the commercial prospects of those product candidates may be significantly diminished and our business prospects could decline.

A breakthrough therapy designation by the FDA for our product candidates may not lead to a faster development or regulatory review or approval process, and it does not increase the likelihood that our product candidates will receive marketing approval.

We may seek a breakthrough therapy designation for sepofarsen, ultevursen or other product candidates in the future. A breakthrough therapy is defined as a drug that is intended, alone or in combination with one or more other drugs, to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition, and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over available therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints. For product candidates that have been designated as breakthrough therapies, interaction and communication between the FDA and the sponsor of the trial can help to identify the most efficient path for clinical development while minimizing the number of patients placed in ineffective control regimens. Product candidates designated as breakthrough therapies by the FDA may also be eligible for accelerated approval.

Designation as a breakthrough therapy is within the discretion of the FDA. Accordingly, even if we believe that any of our product candidates meets the criteria for designation as a breakthrough therapy, the FDA may disagree and instead determine not to make such designation. The availability of breakthrough therapy designation was established with the passage of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act of 2012, and while the FDA has released guidance as to the criteria it uses in designating drugs as breakthrough therapies, we cannot be sure that our product candidates will meet the FDA’s qualifying criteria for such designation. In any event, the receipt of a breakthrough therapy designation for a product candidate may not result in a faster development process, review or approval compared to drugs considered for approval under conventional FDA procedures and also does not assure ultimate approval by the FDA. In addition, even if one or more of our product candidates qualify as breakthrough therapies, the FDA may later decide that the products no longer meet the conditions for such qualification or decide that the time period for FDA review or approval will not be shortened.

A fast track designation by the FDA or PRIME designation by the EMA may not actually lead to a faster development, regulatory review or approval process.

We have obtained fast track designation from the FDA for sepofarsen for LCA due to the p.Cys998X mutation in the CEP290 gene, ultevursen for Usher syndrome and retinitis pigmentosa and QR-1123 for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa caused by the P23H mutation in the rhodopsin gene. We also have obtained PRIority MEdicine (PRIME) designation from the EMA for sepofarsen for LCA due to the p.Cys998X mutation in the CEP290 gene. We may seek fast track designation or PRIME designation for other product candidates as well. If a product candidate is intended to treat a serious or life-threatening condition and the product candidate demonstrates the potential to address unmet medical needs for this condition, the sponsor may be eligible for FDA fast track designation. To be accepted for PRIME designation, a product candidate has to show its potential to benefit patients with unmet needs based on early clinical data. The FDA and EMA have broad discretion whether or not to grant such designations, and even if we believe one or more of our product candidates is eligible for such a designation, we cannot be sure that the FDA or EMA would decide to grant it. Even if we do receive fast track or PRIME designation, we may not experience a faster development process, review or approval compared to conventional FDA or EMA procedures. The FDA and EMA may withdraw such designation if they believe that the designation is no longer supported by data from our clinical development program.

A rare pediatric disease designation may not lead to the receipt of a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher, even if sepofarsen or ultevursen is approved.

The FDA has awarded rare pediatric disease priority review vouchers (PRVs) to sponsors of drug products intended to treat rare pediatric disease products if the treatment and product application meet certain criteria. Under this program, upon the approval of a qualifying NDA or biologics license application (BLA) for the treatment or prevention of a rare pediatric disease, the sponsor of the application may be eligible for a PRV that can be used to obtain priority review for a subsequent NDA or BLA. The PRV may be sold or transferred an unlimited number of times. The FDA has granted rare

18

pediatric disease designation for sepofarsen for LCA and ultevursen for USH2A-associated retinitis pigmentosa. The authority for the FDA to award PRVs after September 30, 2024 is currently limited to product candidates that receive rare pediatric disease designation on or prior to September 30, 2024, and the FDA may only award PRVs through September 30, 2026, but it is possible the authority for the FDA to award PRVs will be further extended by Congress. There is no guarantee, however, that we will receive a PRV for sepofarsen or ultevursen even if either is approved by the FDA to treat a rare pediatric disease.

Risks Related to Our Dependence on Third Parties

If a collaborative partner terminates or fails to perform its obligations under an agreement with us, the commercialization of our product candidates, if approved, could be delayed or terminated.

We are party to, and we may from time to time in the future pursue, collaborative arrangements for the development and commercialization of product candidates, if approved. We have executed and continue to consider strategic alternatives that include spinouts, out-licensing or collaborative partnerships to develop and commercialize our RNA technologies, including our Axiomer Program, or programs. For example, in 2021, we entered into a licensing and research collaboration agreement with Eli Lilly and Company (Lilly) focused on the discovery, development, and commercialization of potential new medicines for genetic disorders in the liver and nervous system. If any of our collaborative partners in future collaborative arrangements for the commercialization of product candidates or similar arrangements does not devote sufficient time and resources to the collaboration arrangement with us, we may not realize the potential commercial benefits of the arrangement, and our results of operations may be materially adversely affected. In addition, if any such collaboration partner were to breach or terminate its arrangements with us, the commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed, curtailed or terminated.

In addition, we entered into an in-licensing collaboration with Ionis Pharmaceuticals, pursuant to which we in-licensed QR-1123 in exchange for upfront, milestone and royalty payments. In April 2022, we announced the suspension of development for this program as part of our strategy update. This licensing arrangement imposes diligence obligations on us and Ionis Pharmaceuticals may have the right to terminate this in-licensing arrangement if we are not in compliance with these obligations. Further, in light of the suspension of our QR-1123 program, there can be no assurance that we will realize the intended benefits of this arrangement, nor can there be any assurance that the consideration that we have paid or would be obligated to pay in the future, as well as the investments that we have made to develop QR-1123 or any further investment, will yield any returns. Further, any future development of QR-1123 would depend on our ability to maintain this collaboration.

Much of the potential revenue from current and future collaborations may consist of contingent payments, such as payments for achieving regulatory milestones or royalties payable on sales of drugs. The milestone and royalty revenue that we may receive under these collaborations will depend upon our collaborators’ ability to successfully develop, introduce, market and sell new products. In addition, collaborators may decide to enter into arrangements with third parties to commercialize products developed under collaborations using our technologies, which could reduce the milestone and royalty revenue that we may receive, if any. Future collaboration partners may fail to develop or effectively commercialize products using our products or technologies because they:

decide not to devote the necessary resources due to internal constraints, such as limited personnel with the requisite expertise, limited cash resources or specialized equipment limitations, or the belief that other drug development programs may have a higher likelihood of obtaining marketing approval or may potentially generate a greater return on investment;
decide to pursue other technologies or develop other product candidates, either on their own or in collaboration with others, including our competitors, to treat the same diseases targeted by our own collaborative programs;
do not have sufficient resources necessary to carry the product candidate through clinical development, marketing approval and commercialization; or
cannot obtain the necessary marketing approvals.

19

Moreover, competition may negatively impact a partner’s focus on, and commitment to, our product candidates and, as a result, could delay or otherwise negatively affect the commercialization of such product candidate. The failure of any current or future collaboration partners to develop or effectively commercialize our product candidates, if approved, for any of these reasons would have a material adverse effect on our operating results and financial condition.

Our development and commercialization strategy for our product candidates relies in part upon certain patent rights that we license from third parties, and termination of such license could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Some of our RNA technologies rely in part upon certain patent rights that we license from third parties. Pursuant to our license agreements, we are obligated to use commercially reasonable efforts to develop and make available to the public products or processes, as well as to achieve certain specified development, regulatory and commercial milestones. If we do not meet the specified milestones, the third party may be able to terminate the license agreement. They may also terminate the license agreement if we are in breach of certain financial obligations or we are otherwise in default of certain obligations under the license agreement. If a license agreement were terminated, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We rely on third-party manufacturers and suppliers and we intend to rely on third parties to produce preclinical, clinical and commercial supplies of our product candidates.

We rely on third parties to supply the materials and components for, and manufacture, our research and development, preclinical and clinical trial supplies. We do not own manufacturing facilities or supply sources for such components and materials. There can be no assurance that our supply of research and development, preclinical and clinical development drugs and other materials will not be limited, interrupted, restricted in certain geographic regions or of satisfactory quality or continue to be available at acceptable prices. In particular, any replacement of our drug product formulation manufacturer could require significant effort and expertise because there may be a limited number of qualified replacements.

The manufacturing process for a product candidate is subject to FDA, EMA and other foreign regulatory authority review. Suppliers and manufacturers must meet applicable manufacturing requirements and undergo rigorous facility and process validation tests required by regulatory authorities in order to comply with regulatory standards such as cGMP. In the event that any of our suppliers or manufacturers fails to comply with such requirements or fails to perform its obligations to us in relation to quality, timing or otherwise, or if our supply of components or other materials becomes limited or interrupted for other reasons, we may be forced to manufacture the materials ourselves, for which we currently do not have the capabilities or resources, or enter into an agreement with another third party, which we may not be able to do on reasonable terms, if at all. In some cases, the technical skills or technology required to manufacture our product candidates may be unique or proprietary to the original manufacturer and we may have difficulty, or there may be contractual restrictions prohibiting us from, transferring such skills or technology to another third party and a feasible alternative may not exist. These factors would increase our reliance on such manufacturer or require us to obtain a license from such manufacturer in order to have another third party manufacture our product candidates. If we are required to change manufacturers for any reason, we will be required to verify that the new manufacturer maintains facilities and procedures that comply with quality standards and with all applicable regulations and guidelines. We will also need to verify, such as through a manufacturing comparability study, that any new manufacturer or manufacturing process will produce our product candidate according to the specifications previously submitted to the FDA, the EMA or another regulatory authority. The delays associated with the verification of a new manufacturer or manufacturing process could negatively affect our ability to develop product candidates in a timely manner or within budget.

We expect to continue to rely on third party manufacturers if we receive regulatory approval for any product candidate. To the extent that we have existing, or enter into future, manufacturing arrangements with third parties, we will depend on these third parties to perform their obligations in a timely manner consistent with contractual and regulatory requirements, including those related to quality control and assurance. If we are unable to obtain or maintain third-party manufacturing for product candidates, or to do so on commercially reasonable terms, we may not be able to develop and

20

commercialize our product candidates successfully. Our or a third party’s failure to execute on our manufacturing requirements could adversely affect our business in a number of ways, including:

an inability to initiate or continue preclinical studies or clinical trials of product candidates under development;
delay in submitting regulatory applications, or receiving regulatory approvals, for product candidates;
loss of the cooperation of a collaborator;
subjection of our product candidates to additional inspections by regulatory authorities;
requirements to cease distribution or to recall batches of our product candidates; and
in the event of approval to market and commercialize a product candidate, an inability to meet commercial demands for our products.

If third parties on which we depend to conduct our preclinical studies or clinical trials do not perform as contractually required, fail to satisfy regulatory or legal requirements or miss expected deadlines, our development programs could be delayed with materially adverse effects on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We rely on Contract Research Organizations (CROs), clinical data management organizations and consultants to design, conduct, supervise and monitor preclinical studies and clinical trials for our product candidates. We and our clinical investigators and CROs are required to comply with various regulations, including Good Clinical Practices (GCP) which are enforced by the FDA, and guidelines of the Competent Authorities of the Member States of the European Economic Area (EEA) and comparable foreign regulatory authorities to ensure that the health, safety and rights of patients are protected in clinical development and clinical trials, and that trial data integrity is assured. Regulatory authorities ensure compliance with these requirements through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and trial sites. If we or any of our investigators or CROs fail to comply with applicable requirements, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA, the EMA or other comparable foreign regulatory authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. We cannot be certain that upon inspection by a given regulatory authority, such regulatory authority will determine that any of our clinical trials comply with such requirements. In addition, our clinical trials must be conducted with products produced under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) requirements, which mandate the methods, facilities and controls used in manufacturing, processing and packaging of a drug product to ensure its safety and identity. Failure to comply with these regulations may require us to repeat preclinical studies and clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process.

Our CROs are not our employees, and except for remedies available to us under our agreements with such CROs, we cannot control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our ongoing clinical and preclinical programs. If CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations or meet expected deadlines or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to their failure to adhere to our clinical protocols, regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize, our product candidates. As a result, our operations and the commercial prospects for our product candidates would be harmed, our costs could increase and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed. Additionally, any significant delays could cause us to miss diligence milestones under our license agreements and could cause licensors to terminate the agreements, which would further harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Because we have relied and continue to rely on third parties, our internal capacity to perform these functions is limited. Outsourcing these functions involves a risk that third parties may not perform to our standards, may not produce results in a timely manner or may fail to perform at all. In addition, the use of third-party service providers requires us to disclose our proprietary information to these parties, which could increase the risk that this information will be misappropriated. We currently have a relatively small number of employees, which limits the internal resources we have available to identify and monitor our third-party service providers. To the extent we are unable to identify and

21

successfully manage the performance of third-party service providers in the future, our business may be adversely affected. Even though we carefully manage our relationships with our CROs, there can be no assurance that we will not be impacted by these type of challenges or delays in the future or that these delays or challenges will not have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.

If we cannot contract with acceptable third parties on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, or if these third parties do not carry out their contractual duties, satisfy legal and regulatory requirements for the conduct of preclinical studies or clinical trials or meet expected deadlines, our clinical development programs could be delayed and otherwise adversely affected. In all events, we are responsible for ensuring that each of our preclinical studies and clinical trials is conducted in accordance with the general investigational plan and protocols for the trial. The FDA and the EMA require clinical trials to be conducted in accordance with GCP, including for conducting, recording and reporting the results of clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are credible and accurate and that the rights, integrity and confidentiality of clinical trial participants are protected. Our reliance on third parties that we do not control does not relieve us of these responsibilities and requirements. Any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our relationships with customers and third-party payors will be subject to applicable anti-kickback, fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations, which could expose us to criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings.

Healthcare providers, physicians and third-party payors play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our future arrangements with third-party payors and customers may expose us to broadly applicable fraud and abuse and other healthcare laws and regulations that may constrain the business or financial arrangements and relationships through which we market, sell and distribute our products for which we obtain marketing approval. As a biopharmaceutical company, even though we do not and will not control referrals of healthcare services or bill directly to Medicare, Medicaid or other third-party payors, certain federal and state healthcare laws and regulations pertaining to fraud and abuse and patients’ rights are and will be applicable to our business. Restrictions under applicable federal and state healthcare laws and regulations that may affect our ability to operate include the following:

the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, persons and entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or paying remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service, for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program such as Medicare and Medicaid. A person or entity can be found guilty of violating the statute without actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it. The term remuneration has been interpreted broadly to include anything of value. Further, courts have found that if “one purpose” of remuneration is to induce referrals, the federal Anti-Kickback statute is violated. Violations are subject to significant civil and criminal fines and penalties for each violation, plus up to three times the remuneration involved, imprisonment, and exclusion from government healthcare programs. In addition, a claim submitted for payment to any federal healthcare program that includes items or services that were made as a result of a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal False Claims Act, or FCA. The Anti-Kickback Statute has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between biopharmaceutical manufacturers on the one hand and prescribers, purchasers, and formulary managers, among others, on the other;
federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including the FCA and civil monetary penalty laws, impose criminal and civil penalties, including through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, against individuals or entities for knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement or record to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government. A claim that includes items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim under the FCA. Manufacturers can be held liable under the FCA even when they do not submit claims directly to government payors if they are deemed to “cause” the submission of false or fraudulent claims. The FCA also permits a private individual acting as a “whistleblower” to bring qui tam actions on behalf of the federal

22

government alleging violations of the FCA and to share in any monetary recovery or settlement. When an entity is determined to have violated the FCA, the government may impose civil fines and penalties for each false claim, plus treble damages, and exclude the entity from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs;
the U.S. federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) imposes criminal and civil liability for executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, and also created federal criminal laws that prohibit knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false statements or using or making any false or fraudulent document in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. Similar to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity can be found guilty of violating HIPAA fraud provisions without actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it;
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH), also imposes obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information on certain covered healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, known as covered entities, as well as their respective “business associates”, being those independent contractors or agents of covered entities that create, receive, maintain, transmit or obtain protected health information in connection with providing a service on behalf of a covered entity. HITECH also created new tiers of civil monetary penalties, amended HIPAA to make civil and criminal penalties directly applicable to business associates, and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the federal HIPAA laws and seek attorneys’ fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions. In addition, there may be additional federal, state and non-U.S. laws which govern the privacy and security of health and other personal information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts;
the U.S. federal physician payment transparency requirements under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, collectively, the Affordable Care Act, require applicable manufacturers of covered drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies to report annually to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) information related to direct or indirect payments and other transfers of value to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors), and teaching hospitals, and ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Effective January 1, 2022, these reporting obligations extend to include transfers of value made in the previous year to certain non-physician providers such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners;
federal government price reporting laws, which require us to calculate and report complex pricing metrics in an accurate and timely manner to government programs;
federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers; and
analogous state, local and foreign laws and regulations, such as state anti-kickback and false claims laws, may apply to sales or marketing arrangements and claims involving healthcare items or services reimbursed by any third-party payors, including private insurers. Some state laws require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government and may require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and certain other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures. Additionally, state and foreign laws govern the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

23

The distribution of biopharmaceutical products is subject to additional requirements and regulations, including extensive record-keeping, licensing, storage and security requirements intended to prevent the unauthorized sale of biopharmaceutical products.

Comparable laws and regulations exist in the countries within the European Economic Area (EEA) and other countries where we may market our products in the future, including without limitation the United Kingdom, Canada and Brazil. Although in the EEA such laws are partially based upon European Union law, they may vary from country to country. Both healthcare and industry specific, as well as general EU and national laws, regulations and industry codes constrain, for example, our interactions with government officials and healthcare practitioners, and the handling of healthcare data. Non-compliance with any of these laws or regulations could lead to criminal or civil liability.

Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, reputational harm, exclusion from government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, as well as additional reporting obligations and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or other agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws. If any physicians or other healthcare providers or entities with whom we expect to do business are found to not be in compliance with applicable laws, they may be subject to similar penalties. In addition, the approval and commercialization of any product candidate we develop outside the United States will also likely subject us to foreign equivalents of the healthcare laws mentioned above, among other foreign laws. All of these could harm our ability to operate our business and our financial results.

Our employees may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

We are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct. Misconduct by employees could include intentional failures to comply with FDA or EMA regulations or similar regulations of other foreign regulatory authorities, to provide accurate information to the FDA, the EMA or other foreign regulatory authorities, to comply with certain manufacturing standards, to comply with U.S. federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations and similar laws and regulations established and enforced by comparable foreign regulatory authorities, to report financial information or data accurately or to disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Employee misconduct could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to our reputation. We have adopted and implemented a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, but it is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity, such as employee training on enforcement of the Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with such laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions and any imposition of significant fines or other sanctions could have a significant impact on our business and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

We license patent rights from third-party owners or licensees and if we fail to comply with our obligations in our intellectual property licenses, we could lose rights that are fundamental to our business.

We rely, and will continue to rely, on intellectual property rights licensed from third parties to protect our technology. We are a party to licenses that give us rights to third-party intellectual property that are necessary or useful for our business. For our LCA program we have a world-wide exclusive sublicensable and royalty-bearing license to patent

24

rights owned by the Radboud University Medical Center (Radboud) and license to patent rights owned by Inserm Transfert (Inserm) for the commercial sale of antisense oligonucleotides that cause exon skipping in CEP290 pre-mRNA. For our Usher program we have a world-wide exclusive sublicensable and royalty-bearing license to patent rights owned by Radboud, for the commercial sale of antisense oligonucleotides that cause exon skipping in USH2A pre-mRNA. For our suspended adRP program we have a world-wide exclusive license to patent rights owned by Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. for the commercial use of gapmers that target mutated Rhodopsin (P23H) mRNA. For our suspended FECD program we have a world-wide exclusive sublicensable and royalty-bearing license to patent rights owned by Vico Therapeutics B.V. for the prophylactic and therapeutic use of antisense oligonucleotides for the treatment of FECD.

Our licensing arrangements impose diligence, development, regulatory and commercialization milestones, and royalty, insurance and other obligations on us. If we fail to comply with these obligations, including with respect to programs that we have suspended as part of the strategy update announced in April 2022, licensors may have the right to terminate these agreements, in which case we might not be able to develop, manufacture or market in the future any product that is covered by these agreements or may face other penalties under the agreements. Such an occurrence could materially adversely affect the value of the product candidate being developed under any such agreement. Termination of any such agreement or reduction or elimination of our rights under any such agreement may result in our having to negotiate new or amended agreements with less favorable terms to the extent we want to proceed with the relevant program in the future, or cause us to lose our rights under such agreement, including our rights to important intellectual property and technologies that form the basis of our RNA technology, which may then be in-licensed by one or more of our competitors, any of which could adversely affect our competitive business position and harm our business prospects.

Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedural, document submission, fee payment and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.

Periodic maintenance fees on any issued patent are due to be paid to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (U.S. PTO) the European Patent Office (EPO) and other foreign patent agencies in several stages over the lifetime of the patent. The U.S. PTO, EPO and various foreign national or international patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process. While an inadvertent lapse can in many cases be rectified by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with the applicable rules, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. Non-compliance events that could result in abandonment or lapse of patent rights include, but are not limited to, failure to timely file national and regional stage patent applications based on our international patent application, failure to respond to official actions within prescribed time limits, non-payment of fees and failure to properly legalize and submit formal documents. If we or our licensors fail to maintain the patents and patent applications covering our product candidates, our competitors might be able to enter the market, which would have a material adverse effect on our business.

We or our licensors or any future collaborators or strategic partners may become subject to third party claims or litigation alleging infringement of patents or other proprietary rights or seeking to invalidate patents or other proprietary rights, and we may need to resort to litigation to protect or enforce our patents or other proprietary rights, all of which could be costly, time consuming, delay or prevent the development and commercialization of our product candidates, or put our patents and other proprietary rights at risk.

We or our licensors or any future collaborators or strategic partners may be subject to third-party claims for infringement or misappropriation of patent or other proprietary rights. We are generally obligated under our license or collaboration agreements to indemnify and hold harmless our licensors or collaborators for damages arising from intellectual property infringement by us. If we or our licensors, or any future collaborators or strategic partners, are found to infringe a third-party patent or other intellectual property rights, we could be required to pay damages, potentially including treble damages, if we are found to have willfully infringed. In addition, we or our licensors, or any future collaborators or strategic partners, may choose to seek, or be required to seek, a license from a third party, which may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. Even if a license can be obtained on acceptable terms, the rights may be non-exclusive, which could give our competitors access to the same technology or intellectual property rights licensed to us. If we fail to obtain a required license, we or any future collaborator may be unable to effectively market product candidates based on

25

our technology, which could limit our ability to generate revenue or achieve profitability and possibly prevent us from generating revenue sufficient to sustain our operations. In addition, we may find it necessary to pursue claims or initiate lawsuits to protect or enforce our patent or other intellectual property rights. The cost to us in defending or initiating any litigation or other proceeding relating to patent or other proprietary rights, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial, and litigation would divert our management’s attention for a significant amount of time. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of complex patent litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent litigation or other proceedings could delay our research and development efforts and limit our ability to continue our operations.

Further, if we were to initiate legal proceedings against a third party to enforce a patent covering one of our products or our technology, the defendant could counterclaim that our patent is invalid or unenforceable. In patent litigation in the U.S. and in most European countries, defendant counterclaims alleging invalidity or unenforceability are commonplace. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, for example, lack of novelty, obviousness or non-enablement. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could be an allegation that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the U.S. PTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability during patent litigation is unpredictable. With respect to the validity question, for example, we cannot be certain that there is no invalidating prior art, of which we and the patent examiner were unaware during prosecution. If a defendant were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on one or more of our products or certain aspects of our platform technology. Such a loss of patent protection could have a material adverse impact on our business. Patents and other intellectual property rights also will not protect our technology if competitors design around our protected technology without legally infringing our patents or other intellectual property rights.

Third parties may initiate legal proceedings alleging that we are infringing their intellectual property rights, the outcome of which would be uncertain and could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.

Our commercial success depends upon our ability to develop, manufacture, market and sell our product candidates, and to use our proprietary technologies without infringing the proprietary rights of third parties. We cannot guarantee that none of our product candidates, their manufacture, use, sale, offer for sale, or importation into the United States or into any country of the EEA will be held to infringe a third-party patent. As a result, we may become party to, or be threatened with, future adversarial proceedings or litigation regarding intellectual property rights with respect to our products and technology, including litigation in a Federal District court, or an interference or a post grant proceeding before the U.S. PTO or litigation in foreign courts or proceedings before foreign patent offices. Third parties may assert infringement claims against us based on existing patents or patents that may be granted in the future.

Furthermore, in the event a thus far unidentified third party were to assert an infringement claim against us and we were ultimately found to infringe the third party’s intellectual property rights, we could be required to obtain a license from such third party to continue developing and commercializing our products and technology. However, we may not be able to obtain an appropriate license on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Even if we are able to obtain a license, it may be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us. We could be forced, including by court order, to cease commercializing the infringing technology or product. In addition, in any such proceeding or litigation, we could be found liable for monetary damages. A finding of infringement could prevent us from commercializing our product candidates or force us to cease some of our business operations, which could materially harm our business. Any claims by third parties that we have misappropriated their confidential information or trade secrets could have a similar negative impact on our business.

If the third parties from whom we license patent rights do not properly or successfully obtain, maintain or enforce the patents underlying such licenses, or if they retain or license to others any competing rights, our competitive position and business prospects may be adversely affected.

Our success will further depend in part on the ability of our licensors to obtain, maintain and enforce patent protection for our licensed intellectual property, in particular, those patents to which we have secured exclusive rights. Ionis, Radboud, Inserm, and Vico as well as our other licensors, may not successfully prosecute the patent applications licensed to us. Even if patents are issued or granted, Ionis, Radboud, Inserm and Vico, or our other licensors may fail to

26

maintain these patents, may determine not to pursue litigation against other companies that are infringing these patents, or may pursue litigation less aggressively than we would. Further, the license agreements may not provide us with a complete freedom to operate in the respective fields, which would allow for third parties to develop competing products. Without protection for, or exclusive right to, the intellectual property we license, other companies might be able to offer substantially identical products for sale, which could adversely affect our competitive business position and harm our business prospects.

If we are not able to adequately prevent disclosure of trade secrets and other proprietary information, the value of our technology and products could be significantly diminished.

We rely on trade secrets to protect our proprietary technologies, especially where we do not believe patent protection is appropriate or obtainable. However, trade secrets are difficult to protect. We rely in part on confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators, sponsored researchers, contract manufacturers, vendors and other advisors to protect our trade secrets and other proprietary information. These agreements may not effectively prevent disclosure of confidential information and may not provide an adequate remedy in the event of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information. In addition, we cannot guarantee that we have executed these agreements with each party that may have or has had access to our trade secrets.

Any party with whom we have executed a confidentiality agreement may breach that agreement and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. In addition, some courts inside and outside the United States are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor, we would have no right to prevent them, or those to whom they disclose such trade secrets, from using that technology or information to compete with us. If any of our trade secrets were to be disclosed to or independently developed by a competitor or other third-party, our competitive position could be harmed.

We may be subject to claims that we or our employees or consultants have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of our employees’ or consultants’ former employers or their clients. These claims may be costly to defend and if we do not successfully do so, we may be required to pay monetary damages and may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel.

Many of our employees were previously employed at universities or biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although no claims against us are currently pending, we may be subject to claims in the future that these employees or we have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed trade secrets or other proprietary information of their former employers. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel. A loss of key research personnel or their work product could compromise our ability to commercialize, or prevent us from commercializing, our product candidates, which could severely harm our business. Even if we are successful in defending against these claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management.

We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights throughout the world.

Filing, prosecuting and defending patents on all of our product candidates throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive. Competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and, further, may be able to export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection but where enforcement is not as strong as that in the United States. These products may compete with our products in jurisdictions where we do not have any issued patents and our patent claims or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from so competing.

Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in certain foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to biopharmaceuticals, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of

27

competing products in violation of our proprietary rights generally. For example, the Special 301 Report (April 2020) from the Office of the United States Trade Representative identified a number of countries, including India and China, where challenges to the procurement and enforcement of patent rights have been reported. Several countries, including India and China, have been listed in the report every year since 1989. As a result, proceedings to enforce our patent rights in certain foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial cost and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business.

Risks Related to the Commercialization of Our Product Candidates

If any of our product candidates are approved for marketing and commercialization and we are unable to develop sales, marketing and distribution capabilities on our own or enter into agreements with third parties to perform these functions on acceptable terms, we will be unable to successfully commercialize any such future products.

Even if any of our product candidates are approved, we currently have no sales, marketing or distribution capabilities or experience. In addition, we intend to consider out-licensing, spinouts or collaborative partnerships to develop and commercialize our RNA technologies or programs. If any of our product candidates is approved, we will need to enter into collaborations with third parties to provide sales, marketing and distribution capabilities to commercialize such products or develop these capabilities internally, which would be expensive and time-consuming. If we decide to rely on third parties with such capabilities to market our products or decide to co-promote products with collaborators, we will need to establish and maintain marketing and distribution arrangements with such third parties, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to enter into such arrangements on acceptable terms or at all. In entering into third-party marketing or distribution arrangements, any revenue we receive will depend upon the efforts of the third parties and there can be no assurance that such third parties will have adequate sales and distribution capabilities for our products or be successful in gaining market acceptance of any approved product. If we decide to market our products directly, we would need to commit significant financial and managerial resources to develop a marketing and sales force with technical expertise and supporting distribution, administration and compliance capabilities. If we are not successful in commercializing any product approved in the future, either on our own or through third parties, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

In addition, we have estimated the size of patient populations and market potential for certain of the indications that our product candidates are intended to target. While we have based our estimates on industry and market data that we obtained from sources, including scientific journals, that we believe to be reliable, actual potential may differ from these estimates.

We face competition from entities that have developed or may develop product candidates for our target indications. If these companies develop technologies or product candidates more rapidly than we do or their technologies, including delivery technologies, are more effective, our ability to develop and successfully commercialize. whether on our own or with a collaborator, our product candidates may be adversely affected.

The development and commercialization of drugs is highly competitive. We compete with a variety of multinational pharmaceutical companies and specialized biotechnology companies, as well as technology being developed at universities and other research institutions. Our competitors have developed, are developing or may develop product candidates and processes competitive with our product candidates. Competitive therapeutic treatments include those that have already been approved and accepted by the medical community and any new treatments that may enter the market. We believe that a significant number of products are currently under development, and may become commercially available in the future, for the treatment of conditions for which we may try to develop product candidates. An overview of potential competitors is included in Item 4.B: “Business overview - Competition”.

Many of our competitors possess significantly greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing, sales and supply resources or experience than us. If we successfully obtain approval for any product candidate, we may face competition based on many different factors, including the safety and effectiveness of our products, the ease with which our products can be administered and the extent to which patients accept relatively new routes of administration, the timing and scope of regulatory approvals for these products, the availability and cost of manufacturing, marketing and sales capabilities, price, reimbursement coverage and patent position. Competing products could present superior treatment alternatives, including being more effective, safer, less expensive or marketed and sold more effectively than any products we may

28

develop. Competitive products may make any products we develop obsolete or noncompetitive before we recover the expense of developing and commercializing our product candidates. Such competitors could also recruit our employees, which could negatively impact our level of expertise and our ability to execute our business plan. Furthermore, in our clinical studies we could be competing for the same patient population, resulting in a smaller population of suitable candidates and possibly delays and additional costs.

Even if we are able to commercialize any of our product candidates, whether on our own or with a collaborator, the products may not receive coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors, which could harm our business.

The availability of reimbursement by governmental and private payors is essential for most patients to be able to afford expensive treatments. Sales of any of our product candidates, if approved, by us or a collaborator will depend substantially on the extent to which the costs of these product candidates will be paid by health maintenance, managed care, pharmacy benefit and similar healthcare management organizations, or reimbursed by government health administration authorities, private health coverage insurers and other third-party payors. If reimbursement is not available, or is available only to limited levels, we or our collaborators may not be able to successfully commercialize any product candidate. Even if coverage is provided, the approved reimbursement amount may not be high enough to allow us to establish or maintain pricing sufficient to realize a sufficient return on our investment.

There is significant uncertainty related to the insurance coverage and reimbursement of newly approved products. In the United States, the principal decisions about reimbursement for new medicines are typically made by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, as CMS decides whether and to what extent a new medicine will be covered and reimbursed under Medicare. Private payors tend to follow CMS to a substantial degree. It is difficult to predict what CMS will decide with respect to reimbursement for fundamentally novel products such as ours, as there is no body of established practices and precedents for these new products. Moreover, reimbursement agencies in Europe may be more conservative than CMS. For example, a number of cancer drugs have been approved for reimbursement in the United States and have not been approved for reimbursement in certain European countries. Factors payors consider in determining reimbursement are based on whether the product is: (i) a covered benefit under its health plan; (ii) safe, effective and medically necessary; (iii) appropriate for the specific patient; (iv) cost-effective; and (v) neither experimental nor investigational.

The intended use of a drug product by a physician can also affect pricing. For example, CMS could initiate a National Coverage Determination administrative procedure, by which the agency determines which uses of a therapeutic product would and would not be reimbursable under Medicare. This determination process can be lengthy, thereby creating a long period during which the future reimbursement for a particular product may be uncertain.

Outside the United States, particularly in member states of the European Union, the pricing of prescription drugs is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations or the successful completion of health technology assessment procedures with governmental authorities can take considerable time after receipt of marketing approval for a product. In addition, there can be considerable pressure by governments and other stakeholders on prices and reimbursement levels, including as part of cost containment measures. Certain countries allow companies to fix their own prices for medicines, but monitor and control company profits. Political, economic and regulatory developments may further complicate pricing negotiations, and pricing negotiations may continue after reimbursement has been obtained. Reference pricing used by various European Union Member States and parallel distribution, or arbitrage between low-priced and high-priced Member States, can further reduce prices. In some countries, we or our collaborators may be required to conduct a clinical trial or other studies that compare the cost-effectiveness of our RNA technology candidates to other available therapies in order to obtain or maintain reimbursement or pricing approval. Publication of discounts by third-party payors or authorities may lead to further pressure on the prices or reimbursement levels within the country of publication and other countries. If reimbursement of any product candidate approved for marketing is unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects could be adversely affected.

Moreover, efforts by governmental and other third-party payors, in the United States and abroad, to cap or reduce healthcare costs may cause such organizations to limit both coverage and level of reimbursement for new products approved and, as a result, they may not cover or provide adequate payment for our product candidates. We expect to

29

experience pricing pressures in connection with the sale, whether by us or a collaborator, of any of our product candidates due to the trend toward managed healthcare, the increasing influence of health maintenance organizations and additional legislative changes. The downward pressure on healthcare costs in general, particularly prescription drugs and surgical procedures and other treatments, has become very intense. As a result, increasingly high barriers are being erected to the entry of new products.

Even if we receive marketing approval for any of our product candidates, they may not achieve broad market acceptance, which would limit the revenue that we generate from its sales.

The commercial success of any of our product candidates, if approved by the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory authorities, will depend upon the awareness and acceptance of the product among the medical community, including physicians, patients, patient advocacy groups and healthcare payors. Market acceptance of any of our product candidates, if approved, will depend on a number of factors, including, among others:

our product candidates’ demonstrated ability to treat patients and to provide patients with incremental therapeutic benefits, as compared with other available treatments;
the relative convenience and ease of administration of our product candidates, including as compared with other treatments for patients;
the prevalence and severity of any adverse side effects;
limitations or warnings contained in the labeling approved for our product candidates by the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory authorities;
availability of alternative treatments;
pricing and cost effectiveness;
the effectiveness of our sales and marketing strategies or those of our collaborators;
our, or our collaborators’, ability to increase awareness of our product candidates through marketing efforts;
our ability to obtain sufficient third-party coverage or reimbursement; and
the willingness of patients to pay out-of-pocket in the absence of third-party coverage.

Moreover, commercialization of ultevursen will trigger payments of up to $ 37.5 million pursuant to our agreement with FFB. Under our collaboration with Ionis related to our suspended QR-1123 product candidate, we would be required to make payments to Ionis upon achievement of development and sales milestones, and royalty payments as a percentage of annual net sales, if we were to resume this program in the future. We may not have sufficient funds to support our milestone payment obligations to FFB and Ionis, if these were to be triggered, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and prospects.

Recently enacted and future legislation, including potentially unfavorable pricing regulations or other healthcare reform initiatives, may increase the difficulty and cost for us to obtain marketing approval of, and commercialize, our product candidates and may negatively affect the prices we may obtain.

In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been, and continue to be, several legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval of our product candidates, whether by us or a collaborator, restrict or regulate post-approval activities or affect our or a collaborator’s ability to profitably sell any product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval.

30

In the United States, the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (the Medicare Modernization Act) established the Medicare Part D program and provided authority for limiting the number of drugs that will be covered in any therapeutic class thereunder. The Medicare Modernization Act, including its cost reduction initiatives, could decrease the coverage and reimbursement rate that we or a collaborator receive for any of our approved products. Furthermore, private payors often follow Medicare coverage policies and payment limitations in setting their own reimbursement rates. Therefore, any reduction in reimbursement that results from the Medicare Modernization Act may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors.

In March 2010, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was enacted, which substantially changed the way health care is financed by both governmental and private insurers, and significantly impacted the U.S. biopharmaceutical industry. The ACA imposes a significant annual fee on companies that manufacture or import branded prescription drug products. It also contains substantial new provisions intended to broaden access to health insurance, reduce or constrain the growth of health care spending, enhance remedies against healthcare fraud and abuse, add new transparency requirements for the healthcare and health insurance industries, and impose additional health policy reforms, any of which could negatively impact our business. Among other things, it subjects biological products to potential competition by lower-cost biosimilars, expands the types of entities eligible for the 340B drug discount program, introduced a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected; increased the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program and extended the rebate program to individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations, established annual fees and taxes on manufacturers of certain branded prescription drugs, and created a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must agree to offer 50% (increased to 70% pursuant to the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, or BBA, effective as of January 2019) point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D. The ACA is likely to continue the downward pressure on pharmaceutical and medical device pricing, especially under the Medicare program, and may also increase our regulatory burdens and operating costs.

Since its enactment, there have been numerous judicial, administrative, executive, and legislative challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. On June 17, 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the most recent judicial challenge to the ACA brought by several states without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the ACA. Prior to the Supreme Court's decision, President Biden issued an Executive Order to initiate a special enrollment period from February 15, 2021 through August 15, 2021 for purposes of obtaining health insurance coverage through the ACA marketplace. The Executive Order also instructed certain governmental agencies to review and reconsider their existing policies and rules that limit access to healthcare, including among others, reexamining Medicaid demonstration projects and waiver programs that include work requirements, and policies that create unnecessary barriers to obtaining access to health insurance coverage through Medicaid or the ACA. It is unclear how other healthcare reform measures of the Biden administrations or other efforts, if any, to challenge repeal or replace the ACA, will impact our business.

In addition, other legislative and regulatory changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the ACA was enacted:

On August 2, 2011, the U.S. Budget Control Act of 2011, among other things, included aggregate reductions of Medicare payments to providers of 2% per fiscal year. The reductions went into effect on April 1, 2013 and, due to subsequent legislative amendments to the statute, will remain in effect through 2030 , with the exception of a temporary suspension from May 1, 2020 through March 31, 2022 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Following the temporary suspension, a 1% payment reduction will occur beginning April 1, 2022 through June 30, 2022, and the 2% payment reduction will resume on July 1, 2022.
On January 2, 2013, the U.S. American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 was signed into law, which, among other things, further reduced Medicare payments to several types of providers.
On April 13, 2017, CMS published a final rule that gives states greater flexibility in setting benchmarks for insurers in the individual and small group marketplaces, which may have the effect of relaxing the essential health benefits required under the ACA for plans sold through such marketplaces.

31

On May 30, 2018, the Right to Try Act, was signed into law. The law, among other things, provides a federal framework for certain patients to access certain investigational new drug products that have completed a Phase 1 clinical trial and that are undergoing investigation for FDA approval. Under certain circumstances, eligible patients can seek treatment without enrolling in clinical trials and without obtaining FDA permission under the FDA expanded access program. There is no obligation for a pharmaceutical manufacturer to make its drug products available to eligible patients as a result of the Right to Try Act.
On May 23, 2019, CMS published a final rule to allow Medicare Advantage Plans the option of using step therapy for Part B drugs beginning January 1, 2020.

On December 20, 2019, former President Trump signed into law the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 1865), which repealed the Cadillac tax, the health insurance provider tax, and the medical device excise tax. It is impossible to determine whether similar taxes could be instated in the future.

Additionally, there has been increasing legislative and enforcement interest in the United States with respect to drug pricing practices. There has been heightened governmental scrutiny over the manner in which manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several U.S. Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, reduce the cost of prescription drugs under Medicare, and review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs.

At the federal level, President Biden signed an Executive Order on July 9, 2021 affirming the administration’s policy to (i) support legislative reforms that would lower the prices of prescription drug and biologics, including by allowing Medicare to negotiate drug prices, by imposing inflation caps, and, by supporting the development and market entry of lower-cost generic drugs and biosimilars; and (ii) support the enactment of a public health insurance option. Among other things, the Executive Order also directs HHS to provide a report on actions to combat excessive pricing of prescription drugs, enhance the domestic drug supply chain, reduce the price that the Federal government pays for drugs, and address price gouging in the industry; and directs the FDA to work with states to address importation plans for drugs from Canada. If implemented, importation of drugs from Canada may materially and adversely affect the price that we would receive for any of our product candidates for which we receive marketing approval in the United States.

Further, on November 20, 2020, CMS issued an Interim Final Rule implementing the Most Favored Nation (MFN) Model under which Medicare Part B reimbursement rates would have been calculated for certain drugs and biologicals based on the lowest price drug manufacturers receive in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries with a similar gross domestic product per capita. However, on December 29, 2021 CMS rescinded the MFN rule.

Additionally, on November 30, 2020, HHS published a regulation removing safe harbor protection for price reductions from pharmaceutical manufacturers to plan sponsors under Part D, either directly or through pharmacy benefit managers, unless the price reduction is required by law. The rule also created a new safe harbor for price reductions reflected at the point-of-sale, as well as a safe harbor for certain fixed fee arrangements between pharmacy benefit managers and manufacturers. Pursuant to court order, the removal and addition of the aforementioned safe harbors were delayed and recent legislation imposed a moratorium on implementation of the rule until January 1, 2026.

Although a number of these and other proposed measures may require authorization through additional legislation to become effective, and the Biden administration may reverse or otherwise change these measures, both the Biden administration and Congress have indicated that they will continue to seek new legislative and/or administrative measures to control drug costs.

We expect that these and other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and in additional downward pressure on the price that we, or our collaborators, would receive for any approved drug, which could have an adverse effect on customers for our product candidates. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors.

32

Further, legislative and regulatory proposals have been made to expand post-approval requirements and restrict sales and promotional activities for pharmaceutical products. We cannot be sure whether additional legislative changes will be enacted, or whether FDA regulations, guidance or interpretations will be changed, or what the impact of such changes on the marketing approvals, if any, of our product candidates, may be. In addition, increased scrutiny by the U.S. Congress of the FDA’s approval process may significantly delay or prevent marketing approval, as well as subject us to more stringent product labeling and post-marketing conditions and other requirements.

Individual states in the U.S. have also become increasingly aggressive in passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. Legally mandated price controls on payment amounts by third-party payors or other restrictions could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. In addition, regional healthcare authorities and individual hospitals are increasingly using bidding procedures to determine what pharmaceutical products and which suppliers will be included in their prescription drug and other healthcare programs. This could reduce the ultimate demand for our products or put pressure on our product pricing, which could negatively affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

In the European Union, similar political, economic and regulatory developments may affect our, or our collaborators’, ability to profitably commercialize our current or any future products. In addition to continuing pressure on prices and cost containment measures, legislative developments at the European Union or Member State level may result in significant additional requirements or obstacles that may increase our operating costs. The delivery of healthcare in the European Union, including the establishment and operation of health services and the pricing and reimbursement of medicines, is almost exclusively a matter for national, rather than European Union, law and policy. National governments and health service providers have different priorities and approaches to the delivery of health care and the pricing and reimbursement of products in that context. In general, however, the healthcare budgetary constraints in most European Union Member States have resulted in restrictions on the pricing and reimbursement of medicines by relevant health service providers. Coupled with ever-increasing European Union and national regulatory burdens on those wishing to develop and market products, this could prevent or delay marketing approval of our product candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities and affect our, or our collaborators’, ability to commercialize any products for which we obtain marketing approval. In international markets, reimbursement and healthcare payment systems vary significantly by country, and many countries have instituted price ceilings on specific products and therapies.

There have been, and likely will continue to be, legislative and regulatory proposals at the foreign, federal and state levels directed at broadening the availability of healthcare and containing or lowering the cost of healthcare. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action, either in the U.S. or abroad. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our products. Such reforms could have an adverse effect on anticipated revenue from product candidates that we may successfully develop and for which we may obtain regulatory approval and may affect our overall financial condition and ability to develop product candidates.

Even if any of our product candidates receive regulatory approval, they may still face future development and regulatory difficulties and we will be subject to extensive post-approval regulatory requirements and review.

If we obtain regulatory approval for any of our product candidates, we and any approved product candidates would be subject to extensive ongoing requirements and review by the FDA, the EMA and foreign regulatory authorities governing the manufacture, quality control, further development, labeling, packaging, storage, distribution, safety surveillance, import, export, advertising, promotion, recordkeeping and reporting of safety and other post-market information. The safety profile of any product will continue to be closely monitored by the FDA, the EMA and comparable foreign regulatory authorities after approval. If the FDA, the EMA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities become aware of new safety information after approval of any of our product candidates, these regulatory authorities may require labeling changes or establishment of a risk management strategy, impose significant restrictions on a product’s indicated uses or marketing, impose ongoing requirements for potentially costly post-approval studies or post-market surveillance or impose a recall.

33

In addition, manufacturers of therapeutic products and their facilities are subject to continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA, the EMA and other regulatory authorities for compliance with cGMP regulations. For certain commercial prescription drug products, manufacturers and other parties involved in the supply chain must also meet chain of distribution requirements and build electronic, interoperable systems for product tracking and tracing and for notifying the FDA of counterfeit, diverted, stolen and intentionally adulterated products or other products that are otherwise unfit for distribution in the United States. If we or a regulatory agency discover previously unknown problems with a product, such as adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or problems with the facility where the product is manufactured, a regulatory agency may impose restrictions on that product, the manufacturing facility or us, including requiring recall or withdrawal of the product from the market or suspension of manufacturing. If we, our product candidates or the manufacturing facilities for our product candidates fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements, a regulatory agency may, among other things:

issue untitled letters or warning letters;
mandate modifications to promotional materials or require us to provide corrective information to healthcare practitioners;
require us to enter into a consent decree, which can include imposition of various fines, reimbursements for inspection costs, required due dates for specific actions and penalties for noncompliance;
seek an injunction or impose civil or criminal penalties or monetary fines;
suspend or withdraw regulatory approval;
suspend any ongoing clinical studies;
refuse to approve pending applications or supplements to applications filed by us;
suspend or impose restrictions on operations, including costly new manufacturing requirements; or
seize or detain products, refuse to permit the import or export of products, or require us to initiate a product recall.

The occurrence of any event or penalty described above may inhibit our ability to commercialize our products or generate revenue.

We are subject to anti-corruption laws, as well as export control laws, customs laws, sanctions laws and other laws governing our operations. If we fail to comply with these laws, we could be subject to civil or criminal penalties, other remedial measures and legal expenses, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our operations are subject to anti-corruption laws, including the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 (Bribery Act), the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and other anti-corruption laws that apply in countries where we do business and may do business in the future. The Bribery Act, the FCPA and other similar laws generally prohibit us, our officers, and our employees and intermediaries from bribing, being bribed or making other prohibited payments to government officials or other persons to obtain or retain business or gain some other business advantage. If we were to pursue sales, marketing or distribution activities in the future, we may operate in a number of jurisdictions that pose a high risk of potential Bribery Act or FCPA violations, and we may participate in collaborations and relationships with third parties whose actions could potentially subject us to liability under the Bribery Act, the FCPA or local anti-corruption laws. In addition, we cannot predict the nature, scope or effect of future regulatory requirements to which our international operations might be subject or the manner in which existing laws might be administered or interpreted.

We are also subject to other laws and regulations governing our international operations, including regulations administered by the governments of the United Kingdom and the United States, and authorities in the European Union,

34

including applicable export control regulations, economic sanctions on countries and persons, customs requirements and currency exchange regulations, collectively referred to as the Trade Control laws, and anti-money laundering laws.

There is no assurance that we will be completely effective in ensuring our compliance with all applicable anti-corruption laws, including the Bribery Act, the FCPA or other legal requirements, including Trade Control laws. If we are not in compliance with the Bribery Act, the FCPA, other anti-corruption laws, Trade Control laws or anti-money laundering laws, we may be subject to criminal and civil penalties, disgorgement and other sanctions and remedial measures, and legal expenses, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. Likewise, any investigation of any potential violations of the Bribery Act, the FCPA, other anti-corruption laws, Trade Control laws or anti-money laundering laws by U.K., U.S. or other authorities could also have an adverse impact on our reputation, our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If we receive regulatory approvals and were to pursue sale, marketing or distribution activities ourselves, we may market our product candidates in multiple jurisdictions where we have limited or no operating experience and may be subject to increased business and economic risks that could affect our financial results.

If we receive regulatory approvals, we may market our product candidates ourselves in jurisdictions where we have limited or no experience in marketing, developing and distributing our products. Certain markets have substantial legal and regulatory complexities that we may not have experience navigating. We would be subject to a variety of risks inherent in doing business internationally, including:

risks related to the legal and regulatory environment in non-U.S. jurisdictions, including with respect to privacy and data security, and unexpected changes in laws, regulatory requirements and enforcement;
burdens of complying with a variety of foreign laws in multiple jurisdictions;
potential damage to our brand and reputation due to compliance with local laws;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
political, social or economic instability;
difficulty of effective enforcement of contractual provisions in local jurisdictions;
differences in local business culture and practices, difference in customer attitudes and tendencies and general differences in culture and local trends;
the potential need to recruit and work through local partners;
reduced protection for or increased violation of intellectual property rights in some countries;
inadequate protection against unfair commercial use;
difficulties in managing global operations and legal compliance costs associated with multiple international locations;
compliance with the Bribery Act, the FCPA, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, and similar laws in other jurisdictions;
natural disasters, including earthquakes, tsunamis and floods;
inadequate local infrastructure;
compliance with Trade Control laws and anti-money laundering laws;

35

the effects of applicable foreign tax structures and potentially adverse tax consequences; and
exposure to local banking, currency control and other financial-related risks.

The FDA, the EMA and other regulatory agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses. If we are found to have improperly promoted off-label uses, we may become subject to significant liability.

The FDA, the EMA and other regulatory agencies strictly regulate the promotional claims that may be made about prescription products if approved. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA, the EMA or other similar regulatory agencies as reflected in the product’s approved labeling. If we receive marketing approval for our product candidates, physicians may nevertheless prescribe them to their patients in a manner that is inconsistent with the approved label. If we are found to have promoted such off-label uses, we may become subject to significant liability.

In the United States, engaging in impermissible promotion of our products for off-label uses can also subject us to false claims litigation under federal and state statutes, which can lead to civil and criminal penalties and fines and agreements that materially restrict the manner in which we promote or distribute those products. These false claims statutes include the federal False Claims Act, which allows any individual to bring a lawsuit against a pharmaceutical or medical device company on behalf of the federal government alleging submission of false or fraudulent claims, or causing to present such false or fraudulent claims, for payment by a federal program such as Medicare or Medicaid. If the government prevails in the lawsuit, the individual will share in any fines or settlement funds. Since 2004, these False Claims Act lawsuits against pharmaceutical and medical device companies have increased significantly in volume and breadth, leading to several substantial civil and criminal settlements based on certain sales practices promoting off-label drug uses. This growth in litigation has increased the risk that a company will have to defend a false claim action, pay settlement fines or restitution, agree to comply with burdensome reporting and compliance obligations, and be excluded from the Medicare, Medicaid, and other federal and state healthcare programs. If we do not lawfully promote our approved products, we may become subject to such litigation and, if we are not successful in defending against such actions, those actions may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Adverse decisions of tax authorities or changes in tax treaties, laws, rules or interpretations could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

The tax laws and regulations in the Netherlands, the jurisdiction of our incorporation and our current resident state for tax purposes, may be subject to change and there may be changes in enforcement of tax law. Additionally, European and other tax laws and regulations are complex and subject to varying interpretations. We cannot be sure that our interpretations are accurate or that the responsible tax authority agrees with our views. If our tax positions are challenged by the tax authorities, we could incur additional tax liabilities, which could increase our costs of operations and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Further changes in the tax laws of the jurisdictions in which we operate could arise as a result of the base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) project being undertaken by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The OECD, which represents a coalition of member countries that encompass certain of the jurisdictions in which we operate or in which we could choose to set up operations in the future, is undertaking studies and publishing action plans that include recommendations aimed at addressing what they believe are issues within tax systems that may lead to tax avoidance by companies. It is possible that the jurisdictions in which we do business could react to the BEPS initiative or their own concerns by enacting tax legislation that could adversely affect us or our shareholders through increasing our tax liabilities.

36

Risks Related to Our Organization, Structure and Operations

Members of our management board and supervisory board and our principal shareholders and their affiliates have significant control over our company, which will limit other stakeholders’ ability to influence corporate matters and could delay or prevent a change in corporate control.

The holdings of the members of our management board and supervisory board and our principal shareholders and their affiliates, represent significant ownership, in the aggregate, of our outstanding ordinary shares (as set out in “Item 7.A. Major Shareholders”). As a result, these shareholders, if they act together, will be able to influence our management and affairs and control the outcome of matters submitted to our shareholders for approval, including the election of members of our management board and supervisory board and any sale, merger, consolidation, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. These shareholders may have interests, with respect to their ordinary shares, which are different from other investors and the concentration of voting power among these shareholders may have an adverse effect on the price of our ordinary shares. In addition, this concentration of ownership might adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares by:

delaying, deferring or preventing a change of control of our Company;
impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving our Company; or
discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our Company.

Please see “Item 7.A. Major Shareholders” for more information regarding the ownership of our outstanding ordinary shares by our management board and supervisory board and our principal shareholders and their affiliates.

Any inability to attract and retain qualified key management and technical personnel would impair our ability to implement our business plan.

Our success largely depends on the continued service of key management and other specialized personnel. The loss of one or more members of our management board or other key employees or advisors could delay our research and development programs and materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The relationships that our key managers have cultivated within our industry make us particularly dependent upon their continued employment with us. Moreover, we are dependent on the continued service of our technical personnel because of the highly technical nature of our product candidates and technologies and the specialized nature of the regulatory approval process. Because our management board and key employees are not obligated to provide us with continued service, they could terminate their employment or services with us at any time without penalty, subject to providing any required advance notice. Our future success will depend in large part on our continued ability to attract and retain other highly qualified scientific, technical and management personnel, as well as personnel with expertise in clinical testing, manufacturing, governmental regulation and commercialization. We face competition for personnel from other companies, universities, public and private research institutions, government entities and other organizations.

We will need to maintain a good relationship with our employees to maintain our operations. A deterioration in our relationships with our employees could have an adverse impact on our business.

In April 2022, we announced an update on our company’s strategy that included an envisaged reduction in force totaling approximately 30% of our workforce. Our decision to engage in this reduction results from an assessment of our internal resources needs in light of our updated business strategy. This reduction represents a cost-cutting measure across the organization designed to extend our cash runway into 2025 and to focus our development efforts on our ultevursen program and our Axiomer technology platform. These actions have caused substantial uncertainty as to job security for the rest of our employees and could damage employee morale across our organization, harm our recruiting and retention efforts and may distract the attention of our company and management from executing on our business strategy. In addition, due to the fact that this qualifies as a collective dismissal in the Netherlands, the three largest Dutch trade unions have been notified. Typically, if any of these trade unions takes an interest, they usually will want to negotiate a social plan, containing the conditions and arrangements applicable to the redundant employees, whereby they will likely

37

ask for certain arrangements in addition to what the company already offered to the affected employees, which would increase costs. In light of any such social plan negotiations, trade unions may threaten or initiate industrial action, for example a strike, to support their demands, which could result in both operational and reputational damage. Other reputational concerns include employees or trade unions publicly questioning the company’s decision making. Other risks associated with the termination of the employment contracts in the Netherlands are that, if the company cannot come to a mutual termination agreement with the affected employees, a substantiated request for approval to unilaterally terminate the employment agreements must be submitted to the Dutch authorities (i.e., the Dutch Employment Agency (UWV)), which would delay the termination process. If the UWV rejects such request for approval, the company cannot terminate the employment agreements unilaterally, unless it successfully challenges this rejection in court. If such further court proceedings are not successful, the affected employees would remain employed by the company and entitled to continued payment of their salaries. If the UWV accepts the request for approval and the employment agreements are terminated unilaterally, employees could challenge the termination of their employment agreement in court or, instead, claim additional (uncapped) compensation. This claim for compensation is possible even if UWV approval is obtained and if a social plan is agreed upon with the trade unions as well. Maintaining good relationships with our employees and operating effectively and efficiently across our organization are crucial to our operations and our success. If we are unable to successfully maintain such relationships or manage the uncertainty as a result of the reduction in the number of our residual workforce, and the complexity of operations, our business may be adversely affected.

We may experience difficulties in managing our growth and expanding our operations.

We have limited experience in drug development. As our product candidates enter and advance through preclinical studies and clinical trials, we will need to expand our development, regulatory and manufacturing capabilities or contract with other organizations to provide these capabilities for us. In the future, we expect to have to manage additional relationships with collaborators or partners, suppliers and other organizations. Our ability to manage our operations and future growth will require us to continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures. We may not be able to implement improvements to our management information and control systems in an efficient or timely manner and may discover deficiencies in existing systems and controls.

Data collection and use in the European Union and United Kingdom is governed by restrictive regulations governing the use, processing, and cross-border transfer of personal information.

We are subject to a number of laws and regulations relating to privacy and data protection, including, in relation to the European Union, the General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679 (the EU GDPR) and, in relation to the UK, the Data Protection Act 2018 and the EU GDPR as it forms part of UK law by virtue of the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 (the UK GDPR). As the regulatory focus on privacy issues continues to increase and worldwide laws and regulations concerning the handling of personal data expand and become more complex (including in relation to privacy, the use of AI, the operation of digital platforms, and provision of digital services), we expect that potential risks related to data collection and use within the business may intensify. In addition, new laws or regulations governing privacy, security, the use of AI, the provision of digital services, and data protection may be introduced which could apply in future. The nature and extent of such additions and changes in data protection laws or regulations, and the application to, or impact they may have on, the Company, is uncertain.

The data protection laws applicable to us impact our ability to collect, augment, analyze, use, transfer and share personal data. For example, EU GDPR and UK GDPR, among other obligations and requirements: (i) impose requirements relating to how an organization can collect and rely upon consent obtained from an individual to process their personal data; (ii) impose obligations in relation to the provision of information to individuals relating to the processing of their personal data; (iii) require organizations to notify personal data breaches to competent data protection authorities and/or individuals; and (iv) impose additional requirements in relation to the processing of certain categories of data (i.e. “ sensitive information” or special category data), which includes health data, data revealing racial or ethnic origin, and genetic data. EU GDPR and UK GDPR also grant individuals certain rights, subject to certain limitations, including the rights to request and access a copy of the personal data processed by an organization, to have inaccurate personal data rectified or completed if incomplete, to object to or restrict the processing of their personal data, and to request deletion of personal data.

38

Regulators can impose significant monetary fines for violations of laws and regulations relating to privacy and data protection. For example, non-compliance with certain obligations under the EU GDPR and UK GDPR may result in monetary penalties of up to, the greater of, 4 per cent. of the Company’ s worldwide turnover in the preceding financial year, or €20 million (under EU GDPR) or £17.5 million (under UK GDPR) as applicable. The EU GDPR and UK GDPR, and other changes in laws or regulations associated with the enhanced protection of personal data, mean that the size of potential fines related to data protection and our costs of providing products and services, could result in changes to our business practices, and could prevent us from offering certain services in jurisdictions in which we operate. Although we have implemented contracts, policies and procedures designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors, partners, serv providers or agents will not violate such laws and regulations or our contracts, policies and procedures. Additionally, public perception and standards related to the privacy of personal data can shift rapidly, in ways that may affect our reputation, the regulators’ approaches to enforcement of existing laws, or influence regulators to enact regulations and laws that may limit our ability to handle personal data or provide certain products and services.

The EU GDPR and UK GDPR, and other applicable data protection laws, also impose restrictions in relation to the international transfer of personal data. For example, in order to transfer data outside of the EEA or UK to a non-adequate country, the EU GDPR and UK GDPR (as applicable) requires us to enter into an appropriate transfer mechanism, and often take additional steps to ensure an essentially equivalent level of data protection. These transfer mechanisms are subject to change, and implementing new or revised transfer mechanisms or ensuring an essentially equivalent protection may involve additional expense and potentially increased compliance risk. In the event a legislator, government, regulator or court imposes additional restrictions on international transfers, there may be operational interruption in the performance of services for customers and internal processing of employee information. Such restrictions may also increase our obligations in relation to carrying out international transfers of personal data, and incur additional expense and increased regulatory liabilities.

Our failure to comply with U.S. data protection laws and regulations could lead to government enforcement actions and significant penalties against us, and adversely impact our operating results.

There are numerous laws and legislative and regulatory initiatives at the U.S. federal and state levels as well addressing privacy and security concerns, and some state privacy laws apply more broadly than HIPAA and associated regulations. For example, California recently enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), which creates new individual privacy rights for California consumers (as defined in the law) and places increased privacy and security obligations on entities handling personal information about residents of California. The CCPA requires covered companies to provide certain disclosures to consumers about its data collection, use and sharing practices, and to provide affected California residents with ways to opt-out of certain sales or transfers of personal information. The CCPA went into effect on January 1, 2020, and became enforceable by the California Attorney General on July 1, 2020. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for certain data breaches that result in the loss of personal information. This private right of action may increase the likelihood of, and risks associated with, data breach litigation. While there is currently an exception for protected health information that is subject to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, and clinical trial regulations, as currently written, the CCPA may impact our business activities. There continues to be uncertainty surrounding the enforcement and implementation of the CCPA, exemplifying the vulnerability of our business to the evolving regulatory environment related to personal data and protected health information.

Additionally, a new California ballot initiative, the California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA) was passed in November 2020. Effective starting on January 1, 2023, the CPRA imposes additional obligations on companies covered by the legislation and will significantly modify the CCPA, including by expanding consumers’ rights with respect to certain sensitive personal information. The CPRA also creates a new state agency that will be vested with authority to implement and enforce the CCPA and the CPRA. The effects of the CCPA and the CPRA are potentially significant and may require us to modify our data collection or processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply and increase our potential exposure to regulatory enforcement and/or litigation.

Certain other state laws impose similar privacy obligations and we anticipate that more states may enact legislation similar to the CCPA. The CCPA has prompted a number of proposals for new federal and state-level privacy legislation. Such proposed legislation, if enacted, may add additional complexity, variation in requirements, restrictions and

39

potential legal risk, require additional investment of resources in compliance programs, impact strategies and the availability of previously useful data and could result in increased compliance costs and/or changes in business practices and policies.

We are increasingly dependent on information technology systems, and our systems and infrastructure face certain risks, including from cyber security breaches and data leakage, which in turn could lead to a determination that we have failed to comply with EU GDPR and UK GDPR, resulting in a fine or regulatory enforcement action.

We increasingly rely upon technology systems and infrastructure, including support provided by our partners and third parties, to support our business. For example, we routinely rely on our technology systems and infrastructure to aid us in the collection, use, storage and transfer, disclosure and other processing of voluminous amounts of data (including confidential, business, personal and other sensitive information). We also rely on systems for manufacturing, regulatory compliance and various other matters.

The increasing use and evolution of technology, including cloud-based computing, and reliance on third parties creates additional opportunities for the unintentional, intentional and/or unauthorized exposure, dissemination and/or destruction of confidential information stored in our technology systems, infrastructure and products. Our computer systems, servers and other technology systems (and those of third parties that we use) are vulnerable to breakdown, interruption, cyber and other security attacks, system malfunction, unauthorized access and other events. Security threats, including cyber and other attacks are becoming increasingly sophisticated, frequent, and adaptive. Any such vulnerability could compromise our technology systems and infrastructure and could expose personal and/or proprietary information (including sensitive personal information) to unauthorized third parties and/or cause permanent loss of such data. While we have invested in the protection of data and information technology, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent breakdowns, breaches in our systems or other incidents or ensure compliance with all applicable security and privacy laws, regulations and standards. For instance, in February 2021, an unauthorized third party compromised the email accounts of five employees and gained access to contact information of our employees and approximately 300 identified third party contacts who were sent a phishing email. We filed the required reports with the data protection authority in the Netherlands and notified the affected parties of this phishing incident. In addition, we engaged a security specialist company to investigate this incident and deliver a report with its findings and we took appropriate measures with the aim to minimize the risk of future incidents of this nature. These various types of incidents can lead to regulatory fines and penalties, business disruption, reputational harm, financial loss among other damages. We could also suffer strained relationships, increased costs (for security measures, remediation or otherwise), litigation (including class actions and stockholder derivative actions) or other negative consequences (including a decline in stock price) from breaches, cyber and other security attacks, industrial espionage, ransomware, email or phishing scams, malware or other cyber incidents, which may compromise our system infrastructure or lead to data leakage, either internally or at our third-party providers or other business partners.

Some cyber security incidents may be very difficult to prevent. For example, supply chain incidents involving previously unknown vulnerabilities in widely-used software are becoming increasingly common, of which the recent SolarWinds and Log4j incidents are examples. While we are not currently aware of any impact from supply chain vulnerabilities including but not necessarily limited to SolarWinds and Log4j, these are recent events, and the full scope of the attacks are not yet known. Therefore, there is residual risk that we may experience a security breach arising from the SolarWinds, Log4j, and other supply chain vulnerabilities.

While we have invested in the protection of data and information technology and in related training, as the phishing incident described above demonstrates, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prevent significant breakdowns, attacks, breaches in our systems or other cyber incidents or ensure compliance with all applicable security and privacy laws, regulations and standards, including with respect to third-party service providers that utilize sensitive personal information, including protected health information on our behalf.

40

Our internal computer systems, or those of our CROs or other contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer security breaches, which could result in a material disruption of our product development programs, a determination that we have failed to comply with EU GDPR and UK GDPR, resulting in a fine, and adversely affect our business.

Despite the implementation of security measures, our information technology and other internal infrastructure systems and those of our CROs and other contractors and consultants are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, cyberattacks and unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. A significant disruption in the availability of our information technology and other internal infrastructure systems could cause interruptions in our collaborations with our partners and delays in our research and development work. For instance, the loss of preclinical or clinical data involving our product candidates could result in delays in our development and regulatory filing efforts and significantly increase our costs. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in unauthorized disclosure of, or access to, or accidental or unlawful loss, destruction, alteration of, or damage to, our data, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability, including fines for failure to comply with EU GDPR or UK GDPR as applicable (to the extent the data contained personal data), and the development of our product candidates could be delayed.

Our current operations are mainly concentrated in one location, and any events affecting this location may have material adverse consequences.

Our current operations are primarily located in our facilities in Leiden, the Netherlands. Any unplanned event, such as flood, fire, explosion, earthquake, extreme weather condition, medical epidemics, power shortage, telecommunication failure or other natural or manmade accidents or incidents that result in us being unable to fully utilize the facilities may have a material adverse effect on our ability to operate our business, particularly on a daily basis, and have significant negative consequences on our financial and operating conditions. Loss of access to these facilities may result in increased costs, delays in the development of our product candidates or interruption of our business operations. As part of our risk management policy, we maintain insurance coverage at levels that we believe are appropriate for our business. However, in the event of an accident or incident at these facilities, we cannot assure you that the amounts of insurance will be sufficient to satisfy any damages and losses. If our facilities are unable to operate because of an accident or incident or for any other reason, even for a short period of time, any or all of our research and development programs may be harmed.

Our international operations subject us to various operational risks, and our failure to manage these risks could adversely affect our results of operations.

We face significant operational risks as a result of doing business internationally, such as:

fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; potentially adverse and/or unexpected tax consequences, including penalties due to the failure of tax planning or due to the challenge by tax authorities on the basis of transfer pricing and liabilities imposed from inconsistent enforcement;
potential changes to relevant accounting standards, which may impact our reported financial situation and results;
being subject to the different, complex and changing laws, regulations and court systems of multiple jurisdictions and compliance with a wide variety of foreign laws, treaties and regulations;
reduced protection of, or significant difficulties in enforcing, intellectual property rights in certain countries;
difficulties in attracting and retaining qualified personnel due to the location of our operations;
restrictions imposed by local labor practices and laws of jurisdictions where we have employees on our business and operations, including unilateral cancellation or modification of contracts;

41

rapid changes in global government, economic and political policies and conditions, political or civil unrest or instability, terrorism or epidemics and other similar outbreaks or events, and potential failure in confidence of our suppliers or customers due to such changes or events; and
tariffs, trade protection measures, import or export licensing requirements, trade embargoes and other trade barriers.

The United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our business, which could reduce the price of our ordinary shares.

In June 2016, a majority of voters in the United Kingdom voted in favor of the United Kingdom withdrawing from the European Union in a national referendum, commonly referred to as Brexit. On March 29, 2017, the U.K. Prime Minister formally delivered the notice of withdrawal. In March and April 2019, the United Kingdom and the European Union agreed on two extensions of the withdrawal deadline. On October 28, 2019, a third extension of the withdrawal deadline was agreed to, in which the final withdrawal date was moved to January 31, 2020. Pursuant to Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, the United Kingdom ceased being a Member State of the European Union on January 31, 2020. There was a transitional period, during which European Union’s rules continued to apply in the United Kingdom, however this ended on December 31, 2020 (the Transition Period). The United Kingdom and European Union have signed a European Union-United Kingdom Trade and Cooperation Agreement, which became provisionally applicable on January 1, 2021 and will become formally applicable once ratified by both the United Kingdom and the European Union. This agreement provides details on how some aspects of the United Kingdom and European Union’s relationship regarding medicinal products will operate, particularly in relation to Good Manufacturing Practice, however there are still many uncertainties.

We may also face new regulatory costs and challenges that could have an adverse effect on our operations as a result of Brexit. Following the end of the Transition Period, the UK has a stand-alone medicines and medical devices regulatory regime and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is the UK’s stand-alone medicines and medical devices regulator. Within the UK, the regulatory framework is divided between Great Britain and Northern Ireland as, under the Northern Ireland Protocol, EU rules will continue to be applicable in Northern Ireland. Further high-level details about certain Brexit regulatory changes are set out in the sections below. Also, the United Kingdom will lose the benefits of global trade agreements negotiated by the European Union on behalf of its members, which may result in increased trade barriers that could make our doing business in the United Kingdom more difficult. We generally expect that, now the Transition Period has expired, Brexit could lead to legal uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the United Kingdom determines which European Union laws to replicate or replace, including those related to the regulation of medicinal products. Any of these effects of Brexit, and others we cannot anticipate, could negatively impact our business, prospects and results of operations in the United Kingdom.

In relation to data privacy, the UK became a third country for the purposes of EU GDPR on 31 December 2020, and the European Commission adopted a data protection adequacy decision in relation to the UK for the purposes of EU GDPR on 28 June 2021. This means that transfers of personal data from the EEA to the UK do not require a contractual safeguard. However, this adequacy decision is limited to, and requires renewal every, four years. In the event that the European Commission revisits the adequacy decision (before or at the point of renewal) and decides not to renew the adequacy decision for the UK, transfers of personal data from the EEA to the UK must then be made pursuant to appropriate safeguards (i.e., an international transfer mechanism) outlined in the EU GDPR. The implementation of these appropriate safeguards can involve additional expense and potentially increased compliance risk.

Further, whilst we have reviewed our data privacy policies and procedures to ensure compliance under UK GDPR, and have appointed a UK representative to act on our behalf in relation to compliance with UK GDPR and to deal with the UK data protection authority (pursuant to Article 27 UK GDPR), UK data privacy regulation may diverge from EU laws in relation to the processing of data relating to living persons, including the EU General Data Protection Regulation 2016/679 (the EU GDPR) – even though the EU GDPR and other EU privacy legislation in force in the UK (at December 31, 2020) have been retained substantively into UK law. To the extent UK data protection laws diverge from EU laws in the future, we may need to implement additional procedures and processes to comply with data privacy laws in the UK and/or EU. The implementation of these additional procedures and processes to accommodate differences in

42

EU and UK laws, or additional compliance measures in the UK, may involve additional expense and potentially increased compliance risk.

In addition, these developments have had and may continue to have a significant adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets, and could significantly reduce global market liquidity and restrict the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets. Many of the regulations that now apply in the United Kingdom following the Transition Period (including financial laws and regulations, tax, intellectual property rights, data protection laws, supply chain logistics, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, medicine approval and regulations, immigration laws and employment laws), will likely be amended in future as the United Kingdom determines its new approach, which may result in significant divergence from European Union regulations. As a result of this uncertainty around such divergence and the economic and commercial impact that it could have, global financial markets could experience significant volatility, which could adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares and our ability to access the equity and debt markets. Asset valuations, currency exchange rates and credit ratings may also be subject to increased market volatility. Also, the lack of clarity about future U.K. laws and regulations as the United Kingdom determines which European Union rules and regulations to replace or replicate, including financial laws and regulations, tax and free trade agreements, intellectual property rights, supply chain logistics, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, immigration laws and employment laws, could decrease foreign direct investment in the United Kingdom, increase costs, and depress economic activity, which could adversely impact our business prospects in the United Kingdom. The long-term effects of Brexit will depend in part on how the European Union-United Kingdom Trade and Cooperation Agreement, and any future agreements signed by the United Kingdom and the European Union, take effect in practice. Such a withdrawal from the European Union is unprecedented, and it is unclear how the restrictions on the United Kingdom’s access to the European single market for goods, capital, services and labor within the European Union and the wider commercial, legal and regulatory environment, could impact our current and future operations and clinical activities in the United Kingdom.

Any of these effects of Brexit, among others, could materially adversely affect the business, business opportunities, and financial condition of our Company.

Inadequate funding for the FDA and other government agencies could hinder their ability to hire and retain key leadership and other personnel, which in turn could prevent new products from being developed or commercialized in a timely manner or otherwise prevent those agencies from performing normal business functions on which the operation of our business may rely, which could negatively impact our business.

The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and statutory, regulatory, and policy changes. Average review times at the agency have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of other agencies on which our operations may rely, including those that fund research and development activities, is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable.

Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new drugs to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the last several years the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA, have had to furlough critical FDA and other government employees and stop critical activities. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Further, future shutdowns of other government agencies, such as the SEC, may also impact our business by delaying review of our public filings, which in turn could delay or frustrate our ability to access the public capital markets. Similar developments at regulators (including the EMA) in other countries could have similar impacts on our applications for marketing approval and on our business.

In response to the global COVID-19 pandemic, since March 2020 when foreign and domestic inspections of facilities were largely placed on hold, the FDA has been working to resume routine surveillance, bioresearch monitoring and pre-approval inspections on a prioritized basis. Since April 2021, the FDA has conducted limited inspections and employed remote interactive evaluations, using risk management methods, to meet user fee commitments and goal dates. Ongoing travel restrictions and other uncertainties continue to impact oversight operations both domestic and abroad and it is unclear when standard operational levels will resume. The FDA is continuing to complete mission-

43

critical work, prioritize other higher-tiered inspectional needs (e.g., for-cause inspections), and carry out surveillance inspections using risk-based approaches for evaluating public health.  Should FDA determine that an inspection is necessary for approval of a marketing application and an inspection cannot be completed during the review cycle due to restrictions on travel, and the FDA does not determine a remote interactive evaluation to be adequate, the FDA has stated that it generally intends to issue, depending on the circumstances, a complete response letter or defer action on the application until an inspection can be completed. During the COVID-19 public health emergency, a number of companies announced receipt of complete response letters due to the FDA's inability to complete required inspections for their applications. Regulatory authorities outside the U.S. may adopt similar restrictions or other policy measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and may experience delays in their regulatory activities.

The investment of our cash and cash equivalents is subject to risks which may cause losses and affect the liquidity of these investments.

As at December 31, 2021 we had € 187,524,000 in cash and cash equivalents. To date, our cash and cash equivalents have been deposited primarily in savings and deposit accounts with original maturities of twelve months or less. Savings and deposit accounts generate small amounts of interest income, if any. In 2020 and 2021, some of our euro savings accounts required us to incur small amounts of interest expenses. Any future investments may include term deposits, corporate bonds, money market funds and government securities, all in accordance with our cash management policy. These investments are subject to general credit, liquidity, market and interest rate risks. For example, interest rates may be negative in the European Union. We may realize losses in the fair value of these investments or a complete loss of these investments, which would have a negative effect on our financial statements.

In addition, should our investments cease paying or reduce the amount of interest paid to us, our interest income would suffer. The materialization of any of the market risks associated with our investment portfolio may have an adverse effect on our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.

We may be exposed to significant foreign exchange risk.

We incur portions of our expenses, and may in the future derive revenues, in currencies other than our functional currency (i.e. the euro), in particular, the U.S. dollar. As a result, we are exposed to foreign currency exchange risk as our results of operations and cash flows are subject to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. We currently do not engage in hedging transactions to protect against uncertainty in future exchange rates between particular foreign currencies and the euro. Therefore, for example, an increase in the value of the U.S. dollar against the euro could be expected to have a negative impact on our expenditures, although it is our policy to match the currency of our cash and cash equivalents with expected cash out flows as much as practically feasible. We cannot predict the impact of foreign currency fluctuations, and foreign currency fluctuations in the future may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our business entails a significant risk of product liability and our ability to obtain sufficient insurance coverage could have a material effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.

The use of our product candidates in preclinical studies, in clinical trials and the sale of any of our product candidates if approved, exposes us to the risk of product liability claims. Product liability claims might be brought against us by patients, healthcare providers or others selling or otherwise coming into contact with our product candidates. For example, we may be sued if any product we develop allegedly causes injury or is found to be otherwise unsuitable during product testing, manufacturing, marketing or sale. Any such product liability claims may include allegations of defects in manufacturing, defects in design, a failure to warn of dangers inherent in the product, including as a result of interactions with alcohol or other drugs, negligence, strict liability, and a breach of warranties. Claims could also be asserted under state consumer protection acts. If we become subject to product liability claims and cannot successfully defend ourselves against them, we could incur substantial liabilities. In addition, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, product liability claims may result in, among other things:

withdrawal of patients from our clinical trials;
substantial monetary awards to patients or other claimants;

44

decreased demand for any of our current or future product candidates following marketing approval, if obtained;
damage to our reputation and exposure to adverse publicity;
increased FDA or EMA warnings on product labels;
litigation costs;
distraction of management’s attention from our primary business;
loss of revenue; and
the inability to successfully commercialize any of our current or future product candidates, if approved.

We will need to maintain product liability insurance coverage for our clinical trials. We may not be able to obtain such coverage at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts to protect us against losses, including if insurance coverage becomes increasingly expensive. Large judgments have been awarded in class action lawsuits based on drugs that had unanticipated side effects. The cost of any product liability litigation or other proceedings, even if resolved in our favor, could be substantial, particularly in light of the size of our business and financial resources. A product liability claim or series of claims brought against us could cause our share price to decline and, if we are unsuccessful in defending such a claim or claims and the resulting judgments exceed our insurance coverage, our financial condition, business and prospects could be materially adversely affected.

Our ability to use our net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

Our ability to use our net operating losses (‘NOLs’ or ‘tax losses’) in the Netherlands is currently limited and may be further limited. Under Dutch income tax law, effective from January 1, 2022, tax losses may be carried forward indefinitely. However, the offset of losses will be limited in a given year against the first €1 million of taxable profit. For taxable profit in excess of this amount, losses may only be offset up to 50% of this excess. As at December 31, 2021, we had a total of € 312.6 million tax loss carry-forwards available for offset against future taxable profits. The first amount of our tax loss carry-forwards has expired in 2021.

There is also a risk that due to regulatory changes such as suspensions on the use for NOLs, our existing NOLs could expire or otherwise become unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. For these reasons, we may not be able to use a material portion of the NOLs, even if we attain profitability.

Changes in accounting rules and regulations, or interpretations thereof, could result in unfavorable accounting charges or require us to change our compensation policies.

Accounting methods and policies for biopharmaceutical companies, including policies governing revenue recognition, research and development and related expenses and accounting for share-based compensation, are subject to review, interpretation and guidance from relevant accounting authorities, as well as the SEC. Changes to accounting methods or policies, or interpretations thereof, may require us to reclassify, restate or otherwise change or revise our financial statements, including those contained in this Annual Report.

Risks Related to Ownership of our Ordinary Shares

We cannot predict what the market price of our ordinary shares will be. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to sell our ordinary shares at or above the price at which they purchased them.

An active trading market for our shares may not be sustained. The market value of our ordinary shares may decrease from time to time. As a result of these and other factors, investors may be unable to resell our shares at or above the price at which they purchased them. The lack of an active market may impair investors’ ability to sell our shares at the

45

time they wish to sell them or at a price that they consider reasonable. The lack of an active market may also reduce the fair market value of our shares. Further, an inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital by selling our ordinary shares and may impair our ability to enter into strategic partnerships or acquire companies or products by using our ordinary shares as consideration. The market price of our shares may be volatile and investors could lose all or part of their investment.

The trading price of our ordinary shares is likely to be highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. For example, the price of our ordinary shares, which reached its high record of $ 27.60 per share at the close of the trading on March 16, 2015, decreased as low as $ 0.75 per share at the close of the trading on April 18, 2022. In addition to the factors discussed in this “Risk Factors” section and elsewhere in this Annual Report, these factors include:

the results of our clinical trials
the presentation of data at industry conferences by us and/or our competitors;
the responses to any of our IND applications with the FDA and any of our CTA applications with the EMA;
any current or future preclinical or clinical trials of our product candidates, including any delays in enrollment rates or timing of these trials;
regulatory actions with respect to our products or our competitors’ products;
the recruitment or departure of key personnel;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, collaborations or capital commitments;
results of clinical trials of our competitors;
the success of competitive products or technologies;
actual or anticipated changes in our growth rate relative to our competitors;
regulatory or legal developments in the United States, the European Union and other jurisdictions;
developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;
the level of expenses related to any of our product candidates or preclinical or clinical development programs;
actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;
variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;
fluctuations in the valuation of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us;
share price and volume fluctuations attributable to inconsistent trading volume levels of our shares;
announcement or expectation of additional financing efforts;
sales of our ordinary shares by us, our insiders or our other shareholders;

46

changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;
market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors; and
general economic, industry and market conditions.

In addition, the stock market in general, and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have sometimes been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. Broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our ordinary shares, regardless of our actual operating performance. The realization of any of the above risks or any of a broad range of other risks, including those described in these “Risk Factors,” could have a dramatic and material adverse impact on the market price of our ordinary shares.

If we are unable to maintain compliance with Nasdaq listing standards, our ordinary shares may be delisted from the Nasdaq Stock Market and you may face significant restrictions on the resale of your shares.

There can be no assurances that we will be able to maintain our Nasdaq Global Market listing in the future. For example, Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(a)(2) requires listed securities to maintain a minimum bid price of $1.00 per share and Nasdaq Listing Rule 5810(c)(3)(A) provides that a failure to meet the minimum bid price requirement exists if the deficiency continues for a period of 30 consecutive business days. To regain compliance, the bid price of our ordinary shares must have a closing bid price of at least $1.00 per share for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days. During the 30 trading days prior to the filing of this report, our ordinary shares have traded below $1.00 per share for a total of 30 days, and the closing bid price of our ordinary shares on April 26, 2022 was $ 0.72 per share. As a result, we may in the future receive a notification from the Nasdaq that the trading price of our ordinary shares does not meet the minimum bid price requirement and may be delisted, subject to cure periods and extensions set forth in the Nasdaq rules. Ways to regain compliance may include a reverse share split designed to increase the trading price of our ordinary shares on a post-split basis.

In the event we are unable to maintain compliance with the Nasdaq Global Market listing standards and our ordinary shares are delisted from the exchange, it would, among other things, likely lead to a number of negative implications, including an adverse effect on the price of our ordinary shares, reduced liquidity in our ordinary shares, the loss of federal preemption of state securities laws, breach of covenants in agreements with our lenders and certain investors and greater difficulty in obtaining financing. In the event of a de-listing, we would take actions to restore our compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements, but we can provide no assurance that any such action taken by us would allow our ordinary shares to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our ordinary shares, prevent our ordinary shares from dropping below the Nasdaq minimum bid price requirement in the future, or prevent future non-compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements. If we cannot restore our compliance with Nasdaq’s listing requirements, we would pursue eligibility for trading of these securities on other markets or exchanges, such as the OTCQB or OTCQX, which are unorganized, inter-dealer, over-the-counter markets which provides significantly less liquidity than the Nasdaq Global Market or other national securities exchanges.

Unstable market and economic conditions may have serious adverse consequences on our business, financial condition and trading price of our ordinary shares.

The global credit and financial markets have experienced extreme volatility and disruptions in the past several years, including severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, declines in consumer confidence, declines in economic growth, increases in unemployment rates and uncertainty about economic stability. We believe that the state of global economic conditions remain particularly volatile and uncertain, not only in light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting economic downturn in various regions, the impact of fiscal stimulus programs initiated by various governments in response to the pandemic and economic downturn and ongoing supply chain issues and inflationary pressures, but also due to recent and expected shifts in political, legislative and regulatory conditions concerning, among other matters, international trade and taxation, and that an uneven recovery or a renewed global downturn may negatively impact our ability to conduct clinical trials on the scale and timelines anticipated. There can be no assurance that further deterioration in credit and financial markets and confidence in economic conditions will not occur. Our general business strategy may be adversely affected by any such economic downturn, volatile business or political

47

environment or continued unpredictable and unstable market conditions. If the current equity and credit markets deteriorate, it may make obtaining any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult, more costly and more dilutive. Failure to secure any necessary financing in a timely manner and on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our growth strategy, financial performance and stock price and could require us to delay or abandon clinical development plans. In addition, there is a risk that one or more of our current service providers, manufacturers and other partners may not survive an economic downturn, which could directly affect our ability to attain our operating goals on schedule and on budget. To the extent that our profitability and strategies are negatively affected by downturns or volatility in general economic conditions, our business and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

If securities or industry analysts publish inaccurate or unfavorable research or cease to publish research about our business, our share price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our ordinary shares depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. In the event securities or industry analysts who cover us downgrade our ordinary shares, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our share price would likely decline. In addition, if one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our ordinary shares could decrease, which might cause our share price and trading volume to decline.

Sales of a substantial number of our ordinary shares by our existing shareholders in the public market could cause our share price to fall.

If our existing shareholders sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of our ordinary shares in the public market, the trading price of our ordinary shares could decline. In addition, a substantial number of ordinary shares subject to outstanding options are or will become eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting schedules. If these additional ordinary shares are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, in the public market, the trading price of our ordinary shares could decline.

If we sell our ordinary shares in future financings, shareholders may experience immediate dilution and, as a result, our share price may decline.

We may from time to time issue additional ordinary shares or securities convertible into our ordinary shares, including in future financings that we may undertake. For example, in September 2021, the Company issued 3,989,976 shares to Eli Lilly and Company (Lilly) pursuant to the global licensing and research collaboration between the Company and Lilly, resulting in gross proceeds of € 23,223,000. In April 2021, the Company consummated an underwritten public offering of 15,923,077 ordinary shares at an issue price of $ 6.50 per share. The gross proceeds from this offering amounted to € 88,115,000.

In March 2020, we entered into a sales agreement for at-the-market (ATM) offerings up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $ 75,000,000 of our ordinary shares with Citigroup Global Markets Inc. and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. In January 2021, we issued 585,398 ordinary shares under this sales agreement, with gross proceeds amounting to $ 3,262,000. In November 2021 we entered into a new sales agreement for ATM offerings up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $75,000,000 of our ordinary shares with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., replacing the one entered into in March 2020. Due to the issuances described above and any future additional issuances of shares of our common stock or securities convertible into common stock, including pursuant to our shelf registration statement or our ATM facility, our shareholders may experience immediate dilution and, as a result, our stock price may decline.

In addition, under the terms of our collaboration with Ionis Pharmaceuticals Inc, we issued to them 112,473 ordinary shares in November 2018. Under the same collaboration agreement, we issued 371,306 ordinary shares to Ionis in December 2019. In the future, we may also make future milestone payments to Ionis, certain of which will be made in equity and others in cash or equity at our discretion.

In the third quarter of 2020, we entered into a loan facility with our senior lenders Pontifax Medison Finance and Kreos Capital. In December 2021, this loan facility was amended and increased to a total facility size of € 93,472,000.

48

As of December 31, 2021, an aggregate of € 13,847,000 had been drawn down under a first tranche. The amounts outstanding under this tranche may be convertible into ordinary shares at a price of $ 7.88 per share. Further, as part of this first tranche, we issued five-year warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 302,676 ordinary shares. In addition, as of December 31, 2021, an aggregate of € 26,520,000 had been drawn down under a second tranche. The amounts outstanding under this tranche may be convertible into ordinary shares at a price of $ 11.94 per share. Further, as part of this second tranche, we issued five-year warrants to purchase up to an aggregate of 376,952 ordinary shares. We may be required to issue additional warrants to purchase ordinary shares upon further drawdowns under the facility. If our ordinary shares are issued in connection with the conversion of the loan or exercise of warrants to purchase ordinary shares, our shareholders may experience dilution and, as a result, our stock price may decline.

Because we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future, capital appreciation, if any, will be the sole source of potential gain for our shareholders.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our ordinary shares. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. In addition, the terms of our loan facility with our senior lenders Pontifax Medison Finance and Kreos Capital preclude us from paying dividends and future debt agreements may have similar negative covenants. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our ordinary shares will be the sole source of gain for our shareholders for the foreseeable future.

We have been a listed company since September 2014. Complying with all requirements will increase our costs, require additional management resources and qualified accounting and financial personnel, and we may fail to meet all of these obligations.

We face substantial legal, accounting, administrative and other costs and expenses as a public company. Compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, the Dutch Financial Supervision Act and the rules promulgated thereunder, as well as rules of the SEC and NASDAQ and the Dutch Corporate Governance Code, or DCGC, for example, are expected to result in ongoing increases in our legal, audit and financial compliance costs. The Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act) requires, among other things, that we file certain periodic reports with respect to our business and financial condition. We must also comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Complying with Section 404 is costly and management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We currently do not have an internal audit group, and we will need to continue to hire additional accounting and financial staff with appropriate public company experience and technical accounting knowledge, and it may be difficult to recruit and maintain such personnel. Implementing any appropriate changes to our internal controls may require specific compliance training for our directors, officers and employees, entail substantial costs to modify our existing accounting systems, and take a significant period of time to complete. Such changes may not, however, be effective in maintaining the adequacy of our internal controls, and any failure to maintain that adequacy, or consequent inability to produce accurate financial statements or other reports on a timely basis, could increase our operating costs and could materially impair our ability to operate our business.

If we fail to establish and maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud. As a result, shareholders could lose confidence in our financial and other public reporting, which would harm our business and the trading price of our ordinary shares.

Effective internal controls over financial reporting are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and, together with adequate disclosure controls and procedures, are designed to prevent fraud. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, any testing by us conducted in connection with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or any subsequent testing by our independent registered public accounting firm, may reveal deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses or that may require prospective or retroactive changes to our financial statements or identify other areas for further attention or improvement. Inferior internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our ordinary shares.

49

Our management board is required to assess the effectiveness of our internal controls and procedures annually and, in case we become a domestic filer, we will be required to disclose changes to these controls on a quarterly basis. Our independent registered public accounting firm is required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404. An independent assessment of the effectiveness of our internal controls could detect problems that our management’s assessment might not. Undetected material weaknesses in our internal controls could lead to financial statement restatements and require us to incur the expense of remediation.

Our disclosure controls and procedures may not prevent or detect all errors or acts of fraud.

We are subject to certain reporting requirements of the Exchange Act. Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to reasonably assure that information required to be disclosed by us in reports we file or submit under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to management, recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC. We believe that any disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls and procedures, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control system are met. These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty, and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people or by an unauthorized override of the controls. Accordingly, because of the inherent limitations in our control system, misstatements or insufficient disclosures due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.

Risks Related to Investing in a Foreign Private Issuer or a Dutch Company

We are a foreign private issuer and, as a result, we are not subject to U.S. proxy rules and are subject to Exchange Act reporting obligations that, to some extent, are more lenient and less frequent than those of a U.S. domestic public company.

We report under the Exchange Act as a non-U.S. company with foreign private issuer status. Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act and although we are subject to Dutch laws and regulations with regard to such matters and intend to furnish quarterly financial information to the SEC, we are exempt from certain provisions of the Exchange Act that are applicable to U.S. domestic public companies, including:

the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;
the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and
the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q containing unaudited financial and other specified information, or current reports on Form 8-K, upon the occurrence of specified significant events.

In addition, foreign private issuers are not required to file their annual report on Form 20-F until 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, while U.S. domestic issuers that are accelerated filers are required to file their annual report on Form 10-K within 75 days after the end of each fiscal year. Foreign private issuers are also exempt from the Regulation Fair Disclosure, aimed at preventing issuers from making selective disclosures of material information. As a result of the above, our shareholders may not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are not foreign private issuers.

Certain U.S. holders of our ordinary shares may suffer adverse tax consequences if we are characterized as a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Generally, if, for any taxable year, at least 75% of our gross income is passive income, or at least 50% of the value of our assets is attributable to assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income, including cash, we would be characterized as a passive foreign investment company (PFIC) for U.S. federal income tax purposes. For purposes of these tests, passive income includes dividends, interest, and gains from the sale or exchange of

50

investment property and rents and royalties other than rents and royalties which are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business. If we are characterized as a PFIC, our U.S. shareholders may suffer adverse tax consequences, including having gains realized on the sale of our ordinary shares treated as ordinary income, rather than capital gain, the loss of the preferential rate applicable to dividends received on our ordinary shares by individuals who are U.S. holders, and having interest charges apply to distributions by us and the proceeds of share sales. See Item 10.E: “Taxation” for more information.

The market value of our assets may be determined in large part by reference to the market price of our ordinary shares, which is likely to fluctuate and may fluctuate considerably given that market prices of technology companies have been especially volatile. In addition, the composition of our income and assets will be affected by how, and how quickly, we spend our cash, including any cash raised pursuant to prior offerings. Based on the average value of our gross assets and composition of our income, we believe that we were not a PFIC for the 2021 taxable year. However, our status as a PFIC is a fact-intensive determination made on an annual basis, and we cannot provide any assurance regarding our PFIC status for the current, prior or future taxable years.

We do not currently intend to provide the information necessary for U.S. holders to make a “qualified electing fund,” (QEF) election if we are treated as a PFIC for any taxable year, and prospective investors should assume that a QEF election will not be available.

The rights and responsibilities of our shareholders are governed by Dutch law and differ in some important respects from the rights and responsibilities of shareholders under U.S. law.

Our corporate affairs are governed by our articles of association, our internal rules and by the laws governing companies incorporated in the Netherlands. The rights of our shareholders and the responsibilities of members of our supervisory board under Dutch law are different than under the laws of some U.S. jurisdictions. In the performance of their duties, our management board and our supervisory board are required by Dutch law to consider the interests of ProQR Therapeutics, its shareholders, its employees and other stakeholders and not only those of our shareholders. Also, as a Dutch company, we are not required to solicit proxies or prepare proxy statements for general meetings of shareholders. Dutch law does not have a regulatory regime for U.S.-style proxy solicitations and, even though Dutch law accommodates voting by proxy, the solicitation of proxies is not a widely used business practice in the Netherlands. In addition, the rights of holders of shares and many of the rights of shareholders as they relate to, for example, the exercise of shareholder rights, are governed by Dutch law and our articles of association and differ from the rights of shareholders under U.S. law. For example, Dutch law does not grant appraisal rights to a company’s shareholders who wish to challenge the consideration to be paid upon a merger or consolidation of the company.

We may lose our foreign private issuer status which would then require us to comply with the Exchange Act’s domestic reporting regime and cause us to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses.

We are a foreign private issuer and therefore we are not required to comply with all of the periodic disclosure and current reporting requirements of the Exchange Act applicable to U.S. domestic issuers. In order to maintain our current status as a foreign private issuer, either:

a majority of our ordinary shares must be either directly or indirectly owned of record by non-residents of the United States; or
a majority of our “executive officers” and a majority of our directors may not be U.S. citizens or residents, more than 50% of our assets cannot be located in the United States and our business must be administered principally outside the United States.

If we lose this status, we would be required to comply with the Exchange Act reporting and other requirements applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, which are more detailed and extensive than the requirements for foreign private issuers.

We may also be required to make changes in our corporate governance practices in accordance with various SEC and NASDAQ rules. The regulatory and compliance costs to us under U.S. securities laws if we are required to comply with

51

the reporting requirements applicable to a U.S. domestic issuer may be significantly higher than the costs we would incur as a foreign private issuer. As a result, we expect that a loss of foreign private issuer status would increase our legal and financial compliance costs, would make some activities more time consuming and costly and could necessitate the hiring of additional accounting, financial and legal staff. We also expect that if we were required to comply with the rules and regulations applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, it would make it more difficult and expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These rules and regulations could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our supervisory board.

We currently report our financial results under IFRS, which differ in certain significant respect from U.S. GAAP.

Currently we report our financial statements under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). There have been and there may in the future be certain significant differences between IFRS and U.S. GAAP, including differences related to revenue recognition, share-based compensation expense, income tax and earnings per share. As a result, our financial information and reported earnings for historical or future periods could be significantly different if they were prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In addition, we do not intend to provide a reconciliation between IFRS and U.S. GAAP unless it is required under applicable law. As a result, you may not be able to meaningfully compare our financial statements under IFRS with those companies that prepare financial statements under U.S. GAAP.

Provisions of our articles of association or Dutch corporate law might deter acquisition bids for us that might be considered favorable and prevent or frustrate any attempt to replace or remove the management board and supervisory board.

Certain provisions of our articles of association may make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of us or effect a change in our management board or supervisory board. These provisions include:

the authorization of a class of preferred shares that may be issued against payment of 25% of the nominal value thereof to a protection foundation, for which we have granted a perpetual and repeatedly exercisable call option to such protection foundation, for up to such number of preferred shares as equals, at the time of exercise of the call option, the lesser of: (i) the total number of shares equal to our issued share capital at that time minus the number of preferred shares already held by the protection foundation at that time (if any) or (ii) the maximum number of preferred shares that may be issued under our authorized share capital under our articles of association from time to time;
a provision that our management board members and supervisory board members may only be appointed upon a binding nomination by our supervisory board, which can be set aside by a two-thirds majority of our shareholders representing more than half of our issued share capital;
a provision that our management board members and supervisory board members may only be removed or suspended by our general meeting of shareholders by a two-thirds majority of votes cast representing more than 50% of our issued share capital (unless the removal was proposed by the supervisory board); and
a requirement that certain matters, including an amendment of our articles of association, may only be brought to our shareholders for a vote upon a proposal by our management board that has been approved by our supervisory board.

In addition, under Dutch law, our management board and supervisory board need to act in the interest of the company and our business. The boards are required to take into account the interests of all our stakeholders, including by promoting the sustainable success of our business and the creation of long term value for us and our business. The boards are responsible for determining our strategy and choosing our strategic direction. In doing so and depending on the circumstances they may decide to not entertain a proposed takeover or other strategic proposal, even if the proposal is supported by the majority of our shareholders and/or would create more shareholder value. The boards may also use their general authority under Dutch corporate law and the Dutch Corporate Governance Code (the DCGC) to use (ad-hoc) defensive mechanisms against and/or not co-operate with a proposal, e.g., by not providing due diligence and or by not cooperating with shareholder proposals to adopt resolutions in a general shareholder meeting that may change our

52

strategy. The boards may for instance invoke the maximum 180 days response time set out in the DCGC and/or the Dutch statutory reflection period of up to 250 days in response to shareholder activists seeking changes in the composition of the boards and/or upon hostile takeover attempts.

As indicated above, we have adopted an anti-takeover measure by granting a perpetual and repeatedly exercisable call option to the protection foundation, which confers upon the protection foundation the right to acquire, under certain conditions, the number of preferred shares described above. The issuance of such preferred shares will occur upon the protection foundation’s exercise of the call option and will not require shareholder consent. Such a measure has the effect of making a takeover of us more difficult or less attractive and as a result, our shareholders may be unable to benefit from a change of control and realize any potential change of control premium which may materially and adversely affect the market price of our ordinary shares.

We are not obligated to and do not comply with all the best practice provisions of the Dutch Corporate Governance Code. This may affect our shareholders’ rights.

As a Dutch company we are subject to the Dutch Corporate Governance Code (DCGC). The DCGC contains both principles and best practice provisions that regulate relations between the management board, the supervisory board and the shareholders (i.e., the general meeting of shareholders). The DCGC is based on a “comply or explain” principle. Accordingly, companies are required to disclose in their annual reports, filed in the Netherlands, whether they comply with the provisions of the DCGC. If they do not comply with those provisions (e.g., because of a conflicting NASDAQ requirement), we are required to give the reasons for such non-compliance.

The DCGC applies to all Dutch companies listed on a government-recognized stock exchange, whether in the Netherlands or elsewhere, including NASDAQ. We do not comply with all the best practice provisions of the DCGC. This may affect our shareholders’ rights and they may not have the same level of protection as a shareholder in a Dutch company that fully complies with the DCGC.

We intend to rely in certain cases on NASDAQ Stock Market rules that permit us to comply with applicable Dutch corporate governance practices, rather than the corresponding domestic U.S. corporate governance practices, and therefore our shareholders’ rights will differ from the rights they would have as a shareholder of a domestic U.S. issuer.

As a foreign private issuer whose ordinary shares are listed on the NASDAQ Global Market, we are permitted in certain cases to follow Dutch corporate governance practices instead of the corresponding requirements of the NASDAQ Marketplace Rules. A foreign private issuer that elects to follow a home country practice instead of NASDAQ requirements must submit to NASDAQ in advance a written statement from an independent counsel in such issuer’s home country certifying that the issuer’s practices are not prohibited by the home country’s laws. In addition, a foreign private issuer must disclose in its annual reports filed with the SEC each such requirement that it does not follow and describe the home country practice followed instead of any such requirement. We intend to follow Dutch corporate governance practices with regard to the quorum requirements applicable to meetings of shareholders and the provision of proxy statements for general meetings of shareholders, rather than the corresponding domestic U.S. corporate governance practices. In accordance with Dutch law and generally accepted business practices, our articles of association do not provide quorum requirements (other than those which follow from Dutch law) generally applicable to general meetings of shareholders. Although we do intend to provide shareholders with an agenda and other relevant documents for the general meeting of shareholders, Dutch law does not have a regulatory regime for the solicitation of proxies and the solicitation of proxies is not a generally accepted business practice in the Netherlands. Accordingly, our shareholders may not be afforded the same protection as provided under NASDAQ’s corporate governance rules.

Any U.S. or other foreign judgments that investors may obtain against us may be difficult to enforce against us in the Netherlands.

We are incorporated under the laws of the Netherlands. We currently have only limited operations in the United States. Most of our assets are currently located in the Netherlands. The majority of our management board, supervisory board and officers reside outside the United States. As a result, it may not be possible for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon such persons or to enforce against them or the Company in U.S. courts, including

53

judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States. In addition, it is not clear whether a Dutch court would impose civil liability on the Company or any of our managing directors or supervisory directors in an original action based solely upon the federal securities laws of the United States brought in a court of competent jurisdiction in the Netherlands.

The United States and the Netherlands currently do not have a treaty providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments, other than arbitration awards, in civil and commercial matters. Consequently, a final judgment for payment given by a court in the United States, whether or not predicated solely upon U.S. securities laws, would not automatically be recognized or enforceable in the Netherlands. In order to obtain a judgment which is enforceable in the Netherlands, the party in whose favor a final and conclusive judgment of the U.S. court has been rendered will be required to file its claim with a court of competent jurisdiction in the Netherlands. Such party may submit to the Dutch court the final judgment rendered by the U.S. court. If and to the extent that the Dutch court finds that the jurisdiction of the U.S. court has been based on grounds which are internationally acceptable and that proper legal procedures have been observed, the Dutch court will, in principle, give binding effect to the judgment of the U.S. court, unless such judgment contravenes principles of public policy of the Netherlands. Dutch courts may deny the recognition and enforcement of punitive damages or other awards. Moreover, a Dutch court may reduce the amount of damages granted by a U.S. court and recognize damages only to the extent that they are necessary to compensate actual losses or damages. Enforcement and recognition of judgments of U.S. courts in the Netherlands are solely governed by the provisions of the Dutch Code of Civil Procedure.

Based on the lack of a treaty as described above, U.S. investors may not be able to enforce against us or our management board or supervisory board members, representatives or certain experts named herein who are residents of the Netherlands or countries other than the United States any judgments obtained in U.S. courts in civil and commercial matters, including judgments under the U.S. federal securities laws.

Item 4: Information on the Company

A. History and Development of the Company

ProQR Therapeutics is dedicated to changing lives through the creation of transformative RNA therapies for the treatment of severe genetic rare diseases with a focus on inherited retinal diseases such as Leber congenital amaurosis 10, Usher syndrome type 2, and autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Based on our unique proprietary RNA platform technologies, we are growing our pipeline with patients and loved ones in mind.

ProQR was founded in 2012 by Daniel de Boer, Gerard Platenburg, the late Henri Termeer and Dinko Valerio. Since September 18, 2014, our ordinary shares have been listed on the NASDAQ Global Market under the ticker symbol “PRQR”. As of December 31, 2021, we had raised € 420 million in gross proceeds from our public offerings of shares and private placements of equity securities, as well as € 43 million in convertible debt. In addition, we have received grants, loans and other funding from patient organizations and government institutions supporting our programs, including from Foundation Fighting Blindness and the Dutch government under the innovation credit program.

Our legal name is ProQR Therapeutics N.V. and we were incorporated in the Netherlands on February 21, 2012. We reorganized from a private company with limited liability to a public company with limited liability on September 23, 2014. Our company is registered with the Dutch Trade Register of the Chamber of Commerce (handelsregister van de Kamer van Koophandel) under number 54600790. Our corporate seat is in Leiden, the Netherlands. The address of our headquarters and registered office is Zernikedreef 9, 2333 CK Leiden, the Netherlands, telephone number +31 88 166 7000. Our U.S. office is located at 245 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. The name and address of our agent for service in the United States is Smital Shah, 245 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.

The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers like ProQR that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov. We maintain a corporate website at www.ProQR.com. Information found on, or accessible through, our website is not incorporated by reference into and should not be considered a part of this Annual Report, and the reference to our website in this Annual Report is an inactive textual reference only.

54

B. Business Overview

Our strategy focuses on two key pillars: genetic eye disease and our Axiomer RNA base-editing technology platform.

Genetic eye disease

Inherited retinal diseases, a group of debilitating eye diseases, affecting over five million people in the world, is an area of high unmet medical need for which there is only one approved treatment available for only a few thousand patients. We believe our RNA platform based on intravitreal delivery may be suitable to repair defective RNA in the eye and stop progression or even reverse vision loss associated with the diseases. Our clinical pipeline includes sepofarsen, for CEP290-mediated Leber congenital amaurosis 10, or LCA10, and ultevursen, for USH2A-mediated Usher syndrome and retinitis pigmentosa.

RNA editing platform technologies

Beyond our clinical portfolio, we discovered and developed two novel proprietary RNA editing platform technologies, Axiomer and Trident. Since discovering the Axiomer RNA editing technology in 2014, we have established a leading IP estate in the ADAR editing space, a first industry partnership, and with its broad applicability, we believe the platform has significant further potential.

In 2021, we entered into a global licensing and research collaboration with Eli Lilly and Company where our Axiomer RNA editing platform will be used to progress new drug targets for genetic disorders in the liver and nervous system toward clinical development and commercialization.

We continuously evaluate further opportunities for beneficial collaborations or strategic partnerships to efficiently bring our medicines to patients.

We are also accelerating the development of Axiomer and expanding into areas beyond the eye, including initially liver and central nervous system (CNS), which have strong alignment with our RNA oligonucleotide delivery approaches.

Corresponding to these strategic priorities, in April 2022 we suspended our QR-1123 and QR-504a development programs, suspended our IRD research, and had a workforce reduction.

Our RNA Therapies

Our investigational RNA therapies aim to repair defective RNA to stop or reverse genetic diseases. Genetic diseases are caused by mutations in genes in the DNA. The mutation is copied into the RNA that serves as a blueprint for protein production. By designing our RNA therapies to repair the specific mutation in the RNA, the function of the protein can be restored. This approach allows us to take away the underlying cause of the disease without having to make permanent changes to a patient’s DNA.

55

Graphic

Our investigational RNA therapies are single-stranded RNA oligonucleotides chemically modified to enhance stability and cellular uptake. Each of our investigational RNA therapies is designed to repair a specific RNA mutation and we believe this targeted approach may offer several advantages compared to other therapeutic approaches in the treatment of the rare genetic diseases we target.

Sepofarsen for Leber Congenital Amaurosis 10

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the most common genetic cause of childhood blindness, with LCA Type 10 (LCA10) being one of the most severe forms. People with LCA10 typically become blind within the first few years of life and currently there are no approved therapies. The most common mutation is c.2991+1655A>G (also known as p.Cys998X) in the CEP290 gene. We estimate this mutation occurs in approximately 2,000 patients in the Western world.

Sepofarsen is in development as a potential treatment for patients who have LCA10 due to the p.Cys998X mutation. Sepofarsen aims to repair the underlying cause in the RNA by splice correction. This RNA splice correction allows the production of a normal (wild-type) CEP290 protein which can restore vision in patients with LCA10. Sepofarsen is administered through intravitreal injections in the eye.

A Phase 1/2 clinical trial of sepofarsen in adults and children with LCA10 due to the p.Cys998X mutation has been completed. We presented final data from this trial at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Annual Meeting in 2020, where sepofarsen demonstrated clinical proof-of-concept in LCA10 patients as shown by a significant, rapid and sustained improvement in vision in majority of the patients.

In February 2022 we announced that Illuminate, our pivotal Phase 2/3 trial of sepofarsen in CEP290-mediated LCA10, did not meet the primary endpoint of Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) at Month 12 compared to a sham procedure control group. Post-hoc analyses showed that the efficacy signal seen with sepofarsen when comparing active treatment and sham eyes to their corresponding contralateral eyes across BCVA, full field stimulus testing (FST), and other endpoints, including patient reported outcomes (PROs), was more consistent with the results seen in earlier findings, where the contralateral eye was used as the control. We plan to meet with the EMA and FDA to discuss these data in Q3 2022.

Data from the Illuminate trial will be presented at the Seventh Annual Retinal Cell and Gene Therapy Innovation Summit, April 29, 2022, and the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Annual Meeting, May 1-4, 2022.

56

Sepofarsen has been granted orphan drug designation by the FDA and EMA for LCA and received fast track designation by the FDA for LCA10. In 2019, we also received PRIME designation from the EMA for LCA due to the CEP290 p.Cys998X mutation as well as rare pediatric disease designation from the FDA for LCA10.

Ultevursen for USH2A-mediated Retinitis Pigmentosa and Usher Syndrome

Usher syndrome is the leading cause of combined hearing loss and blindness. Patients are usually born with moderate to severe hearing loss that may worsen over time. The retinal phenotype, known as retinitis pigmentosa, or RP, starts with night blindness followed by progressive loss of peripheral visual fields (tunnel vision) until no vision is left. The retinal phenotype can exist without the hearing loss, this disease is called RP. Both Usher syndrome and RP can be caused by mutations in the USH2A gene, which encodes a protein called usherin. To date, there are no therapies approved or product candidates in clinical development that treat the vision loss associated with USH2A mutations.

We are developing ultevursen for patients with USH2A exon 13 mutations. In the Western world, approximately 16,000 patients have vision loss due to mutations in exon 13 of the USH2A gene.

Ultevursen is a first-in-class RNA therapy aimed at modulating the RNA that then results in the expression of functional usherin protein in the eye to maintain vision. This candidate is intended to be administered by intravitreal injections.

In March 2021, we presented data from a Phase 1/2 clinical trial of ultevursen, named Stellar, in adults with Usher syndrome or nsRP due to exon 13 USH2A mutations. Results demonstrated that ultevursen given as a single intravitreal injection was observed to be well tolerated with no serious adverse events noted. Ultevursen-treated patients responded on endpoints consistent with their disease stage in both advanced and early-moderate patient populations, including BCVA and static perimetry, respectively. Concordant improvements were also measured in other endpoints assessing retinal structure and function. On the basis of these findings, we advanced ultevursen into two sham-controlled Phase 2/3 clinical trials, which dosed the first patients in December 2021. The results from the sepofarsen Illuminate trial indicated that in the enrolled patient populations, the inter-patient variability was greater than the intra-patient variability. Therefore, we believe the sham comparator is likely not the best control and the contralateral eye may be a better comparison to reduce inter-patient variability. The ultevursen program will therefore be amended following alignment with regulators to a single Phase 2/3 trial, with the potential addition of an interim/futility analysis in 2023.

Ultevursen received orphan drug designation for the treatment of RP from the FDA and EMA. Ultevursen was also granted fast track designation for Usher syndrome type 2 and rare pediatric disease designation for RP caused by USH2A exon 13 mutations by the FDA.

Novel RNA Editing Technologies

Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) have been used as therapeutics for the last few decades. ProQR has built an extensive pipeline of investigational RNA therapies based on the technologies already available. But our scientists have gone beyond that and invented entirely new ways of using oligonucleotides for the treatment of genetic diseases. Both the Axiomer and Trident RNA editing platforms are novel, proprietary RNA technologies invented at ProQR or with our academic collaborators. We have built a broad intellectual property estate around these technologies and together with the leading academic experts in the RNA field, we continue to advance these technologies.

Our Axiomer RNA editing technology is designed to enable the editing of specific single nucleotides in RNA. The technology is based on editing oligonucleotides, or EONs, designed to recruit endogenous ADAR enzymes (Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA) to make single adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) changes in the RNA in a highly specific and targeted manner. This technology could reverse the more than 20,000 G-to-A mutations in the human population that cause disease. In vitro and in vivo work indicates that the EONs are generally applicable for the correction of mRNA G-to-A mutations. The technology is also designed to make de novo changes to protein function and therefore has broad applicability to genetic and non-genetic diseases.

A global licensing and research collaboration with Eli Lilly and Company focuses on the discovery, development, and commercialization of potential new medicines for genetic disorders in the liver and nervous system. The companies will use the Axiomer RNA editing platform to progress up to five new drug targets toward clinical development and

57

commercialization. Under the terms of the agreement, ProQR received $50 million upfront from Lilly, and is eligible to receive up to approximately $1.25 billion in milestones, as well as royalties on potential product sales. We believe the platform holds significant further potential for strategic transactions.

Our Trident RNA pseudouridylation platform is designed to enable the suppression of nonsense mutations and premature stop codons (PTC) that cause 11% of all human genetic diseases. Since all premature stop codons contain uridine, pseudouridylation of that uridine converts those nonsense codons into sense codons. The Trident technology harnesses the endogenously expressed pseudouridylation machinery with guide RNAs to inhibit nonsense mRNA-mediated decay (NMD) in a sequence-specific manner and promote PTC readthrough. The Trident technology has the potential to be applied in genetic diseases caused by PTCs.

Our Strategy

Key elements of our strategy include:

Develop RNA therapies for patients in need. Through our patient-focused approach, we work to develop best-in-class therapies and to advance the understanding of conditions that we target. As RNA therapies have become an established modality, we are translating new applications in a pipeline of product candidates for patients suffering from rare diseases. Our focus on genetic eye disease will include exploring the development path for selected ophthalmology programs based on comparing active treatment and sham eyes to their corresponding contralateral eyes, subject to regulatory feedback from EMA and the FDA, whom we intend to meet with in Q3 of 2022.
Accelerate our RNA-editing technology platform and pipeline. Our novel and proprietary RNA editing platform technologies, Axiomer and Trident, are new ways to use oligonucleotides to edit single nucleotides in the RNA. We believe the Axiomer technology may be applicable to more than 20,000 disease-causing mutations and is designed to make de novo changes to protein function and therefore has broad applicability to genetic and non-genetic diseases. The Trident RNA editing platform technology may be applicable to 11% of all genetic diseases . We intend to use these platforms to develop novel therapies for the eye, and to expand into the liver, CNS, and beyond. We continue to validate and create value for these platforms by pursuing additional licensing, partnering and other strategic relationships outside this core therapeutic area, like our partnership with Lilly.

Patient Focused Approach

ProQR is dedicated to developing best-in-class RNA therapies to improve the lives of patients, families and communities affected by rare and underserved conditions. In order to achieve this goal, ProQR strives to integrate the patient voice into our decision-making throughout the drug development process as we believe that a patient focused strategy is crucial to our success. Therefore, our Patient and Medical Community Engagement (PMCE) team actively collaborates with and listens to the communities we serve to ensure that the patient voice is at the heart of all the work we do here at ProQR.

A key initiative at driving this patient voice to the heart of the work we do at ProQR is the Global Patient & Caregiver Steering Committee. Launched in January 2020, the Steering Committee is a forum for direct patient input on a wide range of topics, to ensure ProQR is meeting the needs of individuals we are striving for a solution for.

In 2020 ProQR partnered with Foundation Fighting Blindness in the My Retina Tracker Program, a collaborative, open access program providing no-cost genetic testing and genetic counseling for individuals living in the United States with a clinical diagnosis of an IRD. Genetic testing is crucial to receiving an accurate diagnosis to then move forward with the best care.

58

Sepofarsen for Leber Congenital Amaurosis 10 (LCA10)

LCA Background

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the most common genetic cause of blindness in childhood. The c.2991+1655A>G mutation (also known as p.Cys998X) in the CEP290 (centrosomal protein of 290 kDa) gene is the most prevalent mutation which generally accounts for the most severe disease phenotype (LCA10). This mutation leads to significant decrease in CEP290 protein within the photoreceptor cells in the retina. Patients affected by this mutation typically lose sight in the first years of life. Clinical features of LCA10 include loss of vision, involuntary eye movement or nystagmus, abnormalities of pupil reactions and no detectable photoreceptor electrical signals on electroretinography (ERG).

Representation of the p.Cys998X mutation causing LCA10

Graphic

LCA Genetics

More than 20 genes have been associated with the genetic defect that causes LCA. The most common mutation is the p.Cys998X in the CEP290 gene causing LCA10. The p.Cys998X mutation is a single nucleotide substitution in the CEP290 gene that creates a new splice site, also called a cryptic splice site, between exon 26 and 27. During the splicing of the pre-mRNA this causes a part of the intron, or pseudoexon, to be included in the mRNA. The pseudoexon contains a premature stop codon, thus the mRNA is not translated into the full length CEP290 protein. CEP290 protein is involved in the formation and stability of the connecting cilium in photoreceptor cells, which facilitates the transport of proteins from the inner segment to the outer segment of the cell. When CEP290 is absent, there is a disturbance in normal protein transport to the outer segments of the photoreceptor cell, which provokes the shortening of the outer segment and its inability to perform its light transducing function.

LCA Prevalence and Diagnosis

LCA affects about 15,000 patients in the Western world. Although diagnosis rates vary, our estimations indicate the most common p.Cys998X mutation occurs in approximately 2,000 patients in the Western world.

59

Patients are initially diagnosed through the presence of clinical symptoms. Nystagmus, rapid involuntary movements of the eyes, tends to be the first symptom visible as well as oculo-digital signs comprising eye poking, pressing, and rubbing. Vision impairment or blindness becomes obvious as age increases. After an ophthalmological examination, LCA is diagnosed. A genetic screening including all known mutations causing LCA is performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of LCA in order to give the patient the most accurate prognosis possible.

Approaches for the Treatment of LCA10

There are currently no treatments approved for patients with p.Cys998X associated LCA10 and disease management is currently supportive in nature. The eye is highly suitable for oligonucleotide therapies as it is a contained organ with physical cellular barriers. These natural barriers strongly limit the free entry and exit of cells and larger molecules in and out of the eye, therefore limiting the systemic exposure of locally administered therapies.

Sepofarsen for LCA10, splice correction for p.Cys998X CEP290 mRNA

Graphic

Sepofarsen is designed to bind to pre-mRNA and silence the cryptic splice site leading to production of normal mRNA.

Sepofarsen for the Treatment of LCA10

Sepofarsen is designed to treat LCA10 by splice correction. By binding to the pre-mRNA, sepofarsen aims to silence the cryptic splice site caused by the p.Cys998X mutation. The splicing machinery can thus process the pre-mRNA correctly resulting in normal mRNA and we expect the production of full-length functional wild-type CEP290 protein. Sepofarsen is administered by intravitreal injection.

Sepofarsen received orphan drug designation from the FDA and EMA for the treatment of LCA. Sepofarsen was also granted fast track designation for LCA10 and rare pediatric disease designation by the FDA for LCA10 and PRIME designation by EMA for the treatment of LCA due to the CEP290 p.Cys998X mutation.

Clinical Development for Sepofarsen

In Phase 1/2 testing, sepofarsen was observed to significantly improve vision and the response was durable for up to 12 months. Concordant improvements in key secondary outcome measures supported the observed change in vision. In the

60

target registration dose group (160µg/80µg), sepofarsen was well-tolerated with a favorable benefit/risk profile. Available data from the Phase 1/2 study (PQ-110-001) confirm clinical proof-of-concept as shown by the significant improvement in BCVA and is further supported by improvement in performance on the mobility course and FST. Importantly, the three endpoints analyzed showed concordant improvement, as summarized in Table 1. In approximately 60% of subjects, multiple independent measures of visual function were improved in the treated eye, but not in the contralateral eye.

Table 1. Summary of Efficacy Endpoints from the Phase 1/2 study (PR 110-001) of sepofarsen

Endpoint

Units

Direction Showing

Improvement

Responder

Threshold

Change from Baseline at Month 12

Mean (SEM)

Treated

Untreated

Overall

Best corrected visual acuity

-0.55 (0.26)

(ETDRS/BRVT) (n=11)

LogMAR

↓= improved

≥ -0.3

p<0.05 vs. CE

-0.122 (0.07)

Full field stimulus red (FST red)

-0.91 (0.18)

(n=10)

log cd/m2

↓= improved

-0.5

p<0.01 vs. CE

-0.16 (0.16)

Full field stimulus blue (FST blue)

-0.79 (0.23)

(n=10)

log cd/m2

↓= improved

-0.5

p<0.02 vs. CE

-0.02 (0.11)

Mobility course

2.5 (0.98)

(n=10)

Level

↑= improved

≥ 2

p=0.1 vs. CE

1.75 (0.75)

Abbreviations: BRVT=Berkeley Rudimentary Vision Test; cd/m2=logarithm of candelas/square meter; CE=contralateral eye; ETDRS=Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study; LogMAR=Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution

Measurements of BCVA and functional vision (mobility) confirmed vision improvement in these subjects. In addition, clear improvement in FST was seen at both red and blue wavelengths in the treated eye only.

Performance on a mobility course was also improved. Concordant improvement in the mechanistic and functional outcome measures support the potential on-target benefits of sepofarsen.

Phase 1/2 Insight Extension Study

The ongoing Insight study, or PQ-110-002, is an open-label extension study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of sepofarsen in subjects who completed participation in study PQ-110-001. Insight will provide continued access to the investigational product in the treated eye, as well as treatment of the contralateral eye. In July 2020, preliminary data from the Insight study were presented, which showed benefits consistent with the Phase 1/2 findings. We reported additional and updated data from the Insight study in November 2021 showing that the vast majority of the treated eyes have demonstrated improvement on multiple endpoints.

Mobility Course Validation Study

This study is designed to evaluated whether a mobility course using multiple light levels simulating real world conditions can detect changes in vision in subjects with a phenotype representative of LCA10. The study was conducted at 17 sites across 9 countries, and will include 48 patients in the final analysis that is underway. Once finalized, we intend to discuss with Regulators potential validation of this mobility course as an endpoint in future studies in IRDs.

Phase 1/2 Brighten Study

Brighten is a Phase 2/3 trial of sepofarsen in pediatric patients less than 8 years old. The study started in 2021 and the primary objectives of the study are safety and tolerability.

Phase 2/3 Illuminate Pivotal Trial

Illuminate (PQ-110-003) is a Phase 2/3 pivotal trial that aims at defining safety and quantifying the treatment effect, relative to masked, sham-treated control subjects, at more than one dose level (160μg/80µg target registration dose level and 80μg/40µg). This study randomized 36 patients aged 8 years or older to receive sepofarsen at the target registration dose, a low dose, or sham treatment. Enrollment was completed in January 2021. In February 2022, we reported that Illuminate did not meet the primary endpoint of BCVA at Month 12 compared to a sham procedure control group.

61

Phase 2/3 Illuminate post-hoc analyses

In April 2022 we reported post-hoc analyses of the trial, which showed that the efficacy seen with sepofarsen when comparing active treatment and sham eyes to their corresponding contralateral eyes across BCVA, FST, and other endpoints, including PROs, is more consistent with the results seen in earlier trials, where the contralateral eye was used as the control. The overall safety profile of sepofarsen was consistent with earlier trials.

In figure 1, when the effect in the treatment eye (TE) was compared to the untreated contralateral eye (CE) in the same patient, at Month 12, a benefit in vision was observed as a mean change from baseline in BCVA of -0.12 logMAR (n=23) in the sepofarsen treated groups. This effect was not observed in the sham treated group (n=12) with the same comparison (treated vs. contralateral eye).

Figure 1. Sepofarsen BCVA at Month 12 post-hoc analysis – no change in sham when TE is compared to sham CE

Graphic

Other endpoints showed similar effect when comparing treatment to contralateral eye, including FST, as shown in figure 2.

62

Figure 2. Sepofarsen FST – comparing sham and contralateral eye as control

Graphic

These findings were supported by the PRO analyses, based on the Patient Global Impressions-Change (PGI-C) that demonstrated that 61% of patients in the treatment groups reported an improvement in vision, as well as by Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (VFQ-25).

Figure 3 shows a post-hoc meta-analysis, combining all available data from the sepofarsen treated patients across the Phase 1/2 trial and the Illuminate Ph 2/3 trial.

Figure 3. Meta analysis combining sepofarsen Phase 1/2 and Phase 2/3 data – BCVA TE-CE shows consistent and significant benefit compared to sham TE-CE

Graphic

63

Given the meaningful responses observed in both trials in several patients, the clear unmet need and our patient-centric approach, in the third quarter of 2022, we plan to meet with the EMA and FDA to discuss these data from the Illuminate trial. Following this discussion, we intend to share an update in Q3 or early Q4 of 2022, depending on timing of regulatory meetings.

Based on the recommendation of the DSMC, we plan to continue Illuminate, which is a 2 year study, the Brighten pediatric study, and Insight, until further regulatory guidance is obtained, after which next steps will be determined.

We plan to report data from the Illuminate trial at the upcoming Seventh Annual Retinal Cell and Gene Therapy Innovation Summit, April 29, 2022, and the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Annual Meeting, May 1-4, 2022.

Ultevursen for USH2A-mediated Retinitis Pigmentosa and Usher Syndrome

Usher Syndrome and RP Background

Usher syndrome is the leading cause of combined inherited deafness and blindness. Patients with this syndrome generally progress to a stage in which they have very limited central and peripheral vision and are divided in two subgroups: patients with Usher syndrome and patients that have retinitis pigmentosa (RP) due to a mutation in the USH2A gene. Patients with Usher syndrome develop vision loss in time, and are usually born with moderate to severe hearing loss that may worsen over time, whereas patients with RP develop vision loss only. Each subgroup is about 50% of the total population.

The retinal phenotype known as RP is characterized by photoreceptor degeneration that leads to progressive vision loss. The first visual symptoms typically appear during the second decade of life and start with night blindness due to the start of degeneration of rod photoreceptors. When rod degeneration progresses, patients lose their peripheral visual fields until only a residual central island of vision (tunnel vision) is left. As the disease progresses further, cone photoreceptors degenerate which eventually results in complete blindness.

Representation of USH2A Exon 13 Mutations Causing Retinitis Pigmentosa

Graphic

Usher Syndrome and RP Genetics

Usher syndrome and RP can be caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the USH2A gene, encoding the protein usherin. Mutations in the USH2A gene can disrupt the production of usherin, a protein expressed in photoreceptors where it is required for their maintenance. Usherin is also expressed in the ear, where it is required for normal

64

development of cochlear hair cells and hence, normal hearing. In the eye, defects in usherin cause RP. Exon 13 mutations represent the most common mutations in the USH2A gene.

Disease Prevalence and Diagnosis

The diagnosis of the disease is based on clinical symptoms and ophthalmologic evaluations. A genetic screening can determine the specific mutation that is causing the disease. The number of patients with vision loss due to USH2A exon 13 mutations is estimated to be around 16,000 in the Western world. Lack of access to genotyping may result in significant underdiagnosis in many inherited retinal diseases.

Approaches for the Treatment of Usher Syndrome and RP

While the hearing deficit in patients with Usher syndrome type 2 can be at least partially mitigated using hearing aids or cochlear implants, there is no approved treatment for the vision loss associated with USH2A mutations. Disease management is supportive in nature. We believe that intravitreal RNA therapy ultevursen is the only product candidate in pivotal Phase 2/3 development for the treatment of patients with RP caused by exon 13 mutations in the USH2A gene. Due to the size of the USH2A gene, this type of RP is not amenable to a gene therapy approach. Also, given the disease affects both the peripheral and central retina, current gene replacement and gene editing approaches have fundamental limitations as these therapies must be delivered with a surgical procedure to a limited subretinal area. The important deficit in peripheral vision of USH2A patients is therefore not addressed.

Ultevursen for the Treatment of Usher Syndrome and RP

Ultevursen is being developed as a treatment for RP caused by mutations in exon 13 of the USH2A gene. Mutations in exon 13, including the prevalent c.2299delG mutation, can disrupt the production of usherin, which is required for photoreceptor maintenance. Ultevursen aims to induce excision, or skipping, of exon 13 from USH2A mRNA leading to an in-frame deletion in the USH2A mRNA. Since exon 13 encodes for a repetitive part of the usherin protein, excision of exon 13 is expected to lead to a truncated (partial), however, functional usherin protein. Because of the exon skipping approach, ultevursen is not specific to a single mutation but targets any mutation present in exon 13 of the USH2A gene.

USH2A exon 13 exon skip

Graphic

65

Ultevursen received orphan drug designation from the FDA and EMA for the treatment of RP. Ultevursen was also granted fast track designation for Usher syndrome type 2 and rare pediatric disease designation for RP caused by USH2A exon 13 mutations by the FDA.

Clinical Development of Ultevursen

Stellar (PQ-421a-001) was a Phase 1/2 randomized, single ascending dose study designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of ultevursen in subjects with vision loss due to mutations in exon 13 of the USH2A gene. The primary objective of the trial was to evaluate safety and tolerability. Secondary objectives included evaluating visual acuity (as measured by BCVA), visual fields (as measured by static perimetry and microperimetry), and changes in retinal structure (as measured by optical coherence tomography, or OCT). The study was conducted at expert sites in North America and Europe.

The Stellar trial completed enrollment in late 2020. The study included a total of 20 patients, of which 14 received a single dose of ultevursen and six received a single sham procedure for masking. The 14 treatment patients enrolled (mean age of 46 years) varied in their disease stage and were classified as advanced patients (defined as patients with baseline visual acuity of <70 letters or equivalent to worse than 20/40 on a Snellen chart) or early-moderate patients. Six patients met the criteria for advanced disease and eight patients met the criteria for early-moderate disease. Three different dose levels were studied. The population also varied in disease characteristics with both Usher syndrome (n=7) and nsRP (n=7) and genetic background with both homozygous (n= 9) and heterozygous (n=5) subjects for USH2A exon 13 mutations. All patients were followed for up to 48 weeks, with one patient followed up to 96 weeks.

In March 2021, results from the Stellar trial were reported.

Safety Data

Ultevursen was observed to be well tolerated with no serious adverse events reported. Two cases of pre-existing cataracts were observed, one in the treated eye and one in the untreated eye of the same patient. Both are considered not treatment related. Cataracts are known to occur as part of the background disease in in over 30% of the patients. No new cataracts were reported in the study. Cystoid macular edema, or CME, is frequently associated with the disease and is part of the natural history of the disease in over 30% of the patients, and is usually managed adequately with topical eyedrops. One subject with pre-existing CME was enrolled into the 200µg cohort. The CME progressed during the study but was classified as mild and managed with standard of care therapy. No new cases of CME occurred during the study.

Efficacy Data

Due to the different rates of disease progression between patients, the patient’s untreated contralateral eye was used as a control. In patients with advanced disease, the primary measure of efficacy is best corrected visual acuity, or BCVA. In early-moderate disease patients, the primary measure of efficacy is measurement of visual fields by static perimetry. Ultevursen-treated patients responded on endpoints consistent with their disease stage in both advanced and early-moderate patient populations. Concordant improvements were also measured in other endpoints assessing retinal structure and function.

As shown in Figure 4, the data established the dosing interval at 6 months with a sustained effect of approximately 6 months across multiple endpoints. The 6-month durability of effect is in line with the half-life of ultevursen and is the dosing regimen in the Phase 2/3 Sirius trial.

66

Figure 4. Sustained effect of approximately 6 months in OCT, BCVA and static perimetry

Chart, line chart

Description automatically generated

There were no observed differences in responses at the different dose levels or responses between homozygotes and heterozygotes as well as usher syndrome and RP patients.

As shown in figure 5, the advanced population demonstrated a mean benefit of 9.3 letters at the one year time point after a single injection. At 72 week follow up, the treatment benefit had further extended to a mean 13 letter benefit after a single injection. This served as the basis for the Phase 2/3 Sirius study.

Figure 5. Ultevursen Phase 1/2 mean change from baseline in BCVA after single injection

Graphic

Phase 2/3 trial of ultevursen

Regulatory input was obtained on the design of two potentially pivotal trials of ultevursen– Sirius and Celeste. The first patients were dosed in these studies in December 2021.

In April 2022 following the results from the sepofarsen Illuminate trial, which indicatied that the enrolled patient population, the inter-patient variability was greater than the intra-patient variability, and therefore the sham comparator is likely not the best control and the contralateral eye may be a better comparison to reduce variability, the program will be amended to focus on a single Phase 2/3 Sirius trial with the potential addition of an interim/futility analysis in 2023. Updates on planned adjustments to the Sirius trial in light of the findings related to sham control will be provided after alignment with regulatory authorities, which we intend to seek in Q3 2022.

67

Phase 1/2 Helia extension study

An open-label treatment extension study, Helia, has begun enrolling eligible participants who have completed the Phase 1/2 Stellar trial. Patients will be offered multiple-dose treatments for both eyes.

Other Pipeline Programs

In April 2022 we announced a portfolio reprioritization and suspended the development of QR-1123 for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, QR-504a for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, and our earlier stage IRD research programs.

Axiomer RNA Base-Editing Platform Technology

With the Axiomer platform we discovered at the ProQR labs, we can harness the endogenous editing system in our cells to repair RNA in an entirely new way, by editing oligonucleotides (EONs) that are designed to recruit ADAR (Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA) enzymes to a selected target RNA where it then performs an adenosine-to-iosine (A-to-I) edit. Because an ‘I’ is read by the translation machinery as a guanosine (G) this innovative platform has the potential to reverse the 20,000 known disease-causing G-to-A mutations. In addition to reversing mutations, the technology also has the ability to make de novo changes to protein function by making edits to wild-type RNA, expanding the potential of the platform further to both genetic and non-genetic diseases.

Diagram, timeline

Description automatically generated

ADAR RNA Editing

ADAR is an RNA editing system that is present in all human cells which was first discovered in 1987. In the human body, ADAR is responsible for editing RNA to, for example, to create different isoforms of proteins, change the functionality of small RNA molecules and regulate splicing. A-to-I RNA editing is a very frequently occurring natural process. Our platform evolved from the mechanism that nature developed.

Editing Oligonucleotides

We created synthetic editing oligonucleotides, or EONs, based on what we saw in nature. It mimics the double stranded RNA target sequence that is recognized by endogenous ADAR, which then deaminates the targeted ‘A’ in the RNA to create an ‘I’. The EONs are short single stranded chemically modified oligonucleotides that can be delivered without a vector. A range of chemical modifications at specific regions of the EONs help with stability and editing efficiency. For example, backbone modifications of the ADAR-binding region enable ADAR binding and improve stability of the EON. Specific modification of the dZ base in the editing enabling region has shown to greatly improve editing efficiency.

68

Lilly partnership

A global licensing and research collaboration with Eli Lilly and Company focuses on the discovery, development, and commercialization of potential new medicines for genetic disorders in the liver and nervous system. The companies will use the Axiomer RNA editing platform to progress up to five new drug targets toward clinical development and commercialization. Under the terms of the agreement, ProQR received $50 million upfront from Lilly, and is eligible to receive up to approximately $1.25 billion in milestones, as well as royalties on potential product sales. We believe the platform holds significant further potential for strategic transactions.

Axiomer Platform for the Treatment of Genetic Conditions

The Axiomer platform technology has broad applicability with the potential to address a wide range of currently untreatable diseases. We have optimized our design rules and can now apply these across targets which cause diseases in multiple different organs. Our focus will be on developing the platform for conditions of the eye, liver and central nervous system. We have achieved editing efficiencies of approximately 60% in cells and up to 20% editing in our human retinal organoid model. We are accelerating this work and will be selecting our internal development candidates and provide further pipeline guidance during the second half of 2022.

Intellectual property

With a portfolio of 11 patient families and one additional pending, the broad Axiomer® patent estate protects key features of EON design and ADAR recruitment. The estate protects different designs of ADAR recruiting editing oligonucleotides (EONs), recruitment of both ADAR1 and ADAR2, unmodified and chemically modified EONs and stereopure EON designs. The patents date back to 2014, protecting the platform beyond 2040

Human Capital Resources

We believe in passion and commitment and have built a strong team of ProQRians from all walks of life and approximately 35 different nationalities, who are up to the challenge and committed to make a difference for the patients we serve. We actively create a caring atmosphere, in which we love to work and maintain productive and happy lives. At ProQR we foster empowerment, self-development, creativity, and a sense of community.

As an employer, we are a true believer in the value of a workforce in which people from diverse backgrounds are encouraged to develop themselves both personally and professionally. This is reflected in our equal gender balanced leadership team and broader workforce. We believe that happy and energized people, working well together in an environment in which they thrive, will do phenomenal and awesome things.

We are committed to ensure that no employee, candidate, or job applicant receives less favorable treatment on the grounds of race, age, disability, pregnancy, religion, gender identity and expression, sexual orientation, marriage or civil partnership status. At ProQR we want to create an inclusive culture where everyone can be valued for who they are and in which individual differences and the contributions in all forms are recognized and valued.

Animal Welfare

It is required by regulatory authorities to demonstrate the safety and, if possible, efficacy of a new drug in animals before it can be tested in humans. The welfare of animals in our preclinical studies is of great importance to ProQR for reasons of ethics, quality, reliability, and applicability of scientific studies. To assure high quality (scientific) research, animal welfare is essential. By actively pursuing the 3R principles (Reduce, Refine and Replace), ProQR is committed to reduce the number of animals needed, minimize discomfort and pain of animals used, and use alternatives to animal research whenever possible.

Animal experiments will be performed only if there are no alternatives such as performing in silico, in-vitro or ex-vivo studies. Study designs will be evaluated with the aim to identify opportunities to reduce the number of animals needed to achieve the objectives of the study. By conducting small pilot (tolerability) studies and by using innovative new technologies and modeling approaches, ProQR further pursues the ambition to reduce, refine and replace animal studies.

69

Approval by the (institutional or national) animal care and use committees is required prior the execution of in vivo studies.

External collaborators contracted for the execution of our in vivo preclinical studies, also known as contract research organizations (CROs), are selected based on their expertise, quality and accreditations for laboratory animal care and welfare. CRO facilities are audited by ProQR prior to contracting to ensure that the housing, husbandry and welfare of animals complies with the highest international standards. Personnel responsible for housing, husbandry and the care of animals must have received adequate and relevant documented education.

Manufacturing and Supply

We do not currently own or operate manufacturing facilities to produce clinical or commercial quantities of any of our product candidates. We currently contract with drug product manufacturers for the production of sepofarsen solution for intravitreal injection and ultevursen solution for intravitreal injection, and we expect to continue to do so to meet the planned clinical requirements of our product candidates.

Currently, each of the active ingredients for our manufacturing activities are supplied by single source suppliers. We have agreements for the supply of such active ingredients with manufacturers that we believe have sufficient capacity to meet our demands. In addition, we believe that adequate alternative sources for such supplies exist. We typically order clinical supplies and services on a purchase order basis and do not enter into long-term dedicated capacity or minimum supply arrangements. We have a commercial supply agreement in place for the manufacturing of the active ingredient in sepofarsen. This agreement took effect in July 2019 to cover the process qualification activities, and will remain effective until ten years after the date of first commercial sale of sepofarsen. The agreement may be terminated earlier by either party in case of a material breach of the agreement, or by us in case (i) the product or the development thereof is discontinued, (ii) of insufficient supplies of the product, or (iii) of a refusal to implement changes required by regulatory authorities. During the first five years after the first commercial sale, we shall be required to exclusively order our demand of sepofarsen under this agreement, and thereafter only half the demand. Every half year, we shall submit 36 months forecasts of which the first 12 months are a binding take or pay commitment.

Manufacturing is subject to extensive regulations that impose various procedural and documentation requirements, which govern record keeping, manufacturing processes and controls, personnel, quality control and quality assurance, amongst others. The contract manufacturing organizations we use manufacture our product candidates under cGMP conditions. cGMP is a regulatory standard for the production of pharmaceuticals that will be used in humans.

Competition

The pharmaceutical industry is highly competitive and subject to rapid and significant technological change. Our potential competitors include large pharmaceutical, biotechnology, specialty pharmaceutical, and generic drug companies, academic institutions, government agencies and research institutions. Key competitive factors affecting the commercial success of our product candidates are likely to be efficacy, safety and tolerability profile, delivery, reliability, convenience of dosing, patient recruitment for clinical studies, price and reimbursement. Many of our existing or potential competitors have substantially greater financial, technical, and human resources than we do and significantly greater experience in the discovery and development of product candidates, obtaining FDA, EMA and other regulatory approvals of products and the commercialization of those products. Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a small number of our competitors. Accordingly, our competitors may be more successful than we may be in obtaining FDA or EMA approval for therapies and achieving widespread market acceptance. Our competitors’ products may be more effective, or more effectively marketed and sold, than any product candidate we may commercialize and may render our therapies obsolete or non-competitive before we can recover development and commercialization expenses.

Our competitors are working on similar technologies in the field of RNA repair and RNA editing, but also in the field of gene editing and gene therapy as well as other types of therapies, such as small molecules, protein replacement or antibodies. The industry targeting hereditary ophthalmology indications is driven by gene therapy, gene editing, and other approaches.

70

Intellectual Property

We strive to protect our technology platforms and our product candidates through a variety of approaches, including obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection for our current and future technology platforms, our product candidates as well as their methods of use and processes for their manufacture, and any other inventions or discoveries that are commercially important to our business. We seek to obtain domestic and international patent protection and endeavor to promptly file patent applications or in-license patent rights relating to new, commercially valuable inventions to expand our intellectual property portfolio.

Our commercial success will depend in part upon obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection for our current and future technology platforms and product candidates, as well as successfully defending our patent rights against third-party challenges. Our ability to prevent or stop third parties from making, using, selling, offering to sell or importing our product candidates will depend in part upon whether we have valid and enforceable patent rights that cover the activities of third parties.

We cannot be sure that patents will be granted with respect to any of our own or our in-licensed pending patent applications or with respect to any patents applications we may own or in-license in the future, nor can we be sure that any of our own or in-licensed patents or any patents we may own or license in the future will be useful in protecting our technology. Please see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property” for additional information on the risks associated with our intellectual property strategy and portfolio.

Patent Rights

We have been building and will continue to build our patent portfolio. Where possible, we pursue or plan to pursue multi-tiered patent protection for our technology platforms and our product candidates as well as their manufacture, formulation and use. In addition to the United States, we file, and plan to file, patent applications in various countries and regions where we think such filings are likely to be cost effective.

The term of individual patents depends upon the legal term of the patents in the countries in which they are obtained. In most countries in which we file or plan to file, the patent term is 20 years from the earliest date of filing of a non-provisional patent application. In the United States, a patent’s term may be lengthened by patent term adjustment, which compensates a patentee for administrative delays by the U.S. PTO in granting a patent. However, the term of a United States patent may be shortened if a patent is terminally disclaimed by its owner over another patent. In addition, depending upon the circumstances, certain United States patents may be eligible for a patent term extension which compensates a patentee for delays in granting marketing approval for a patented active ingredient or use of an active ingredient. In Europe, a similar mechanism is available, such that patents may be eligible for a supplementary protection certificate to compensate for the time lost in obtaining marketing authorization for the active ingredient.

Patent Rights Relating to Our LCA Program

With regard to our LCA Program and our lead candidate in the LCA space, sepofarsen, we entered into an exclusive license agreement with the Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands in April 2014 to obtain rights in a patent family with composition of matters claims directed to antisense oligonucleotides for treating LCA and method of use claims relating to modulation of the splicing of the CEP290 gene product. Patents were granted in Europe (EP 2753694 B1), in the U.S. (US 9,771,580 and US 10,167,470), in Australia (AU 2012305053), and in Eurasia (EA 033653), and applications are currently pending in the U.S. (continuation application) as well as Brazil and Canada. The term of any patents resulting from these applications would be expected to extend to at least 2032. Furthermore, we entered into an exclusive license agreement with Inserm Transfert SA and Assistance-Publique-Hôpiteaux de Paris (AP-HP), Paris, France in January 2018 to obtain rights in a patent family with composition of matters claims directed to antisense oligonucleotides for treating LCA and method of treatment claims relating to modulation of the splicing of the CEP290 gene product. Patents were granted in the U.S. (US 9,012,425; US 9,487,782; US 9,777,272) and in Europe (EP 2718437 B1) and applications are currently pending in the U.S. (continuation application) and Europe (divisional application). The term of any patents resulting from these applications would be expected to extend to at least 2032. We amended the aforementioned license with Inserm Transfert SA and AP-HP to add a non-exclusive license with respect to a patent family with method claims directed to methods for performing antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon

71

skipping in the retina of a subject in need thereof. Patents were granted in Europe (EP 3019610 B1) and applications are currently pending in the U.S. (continuation application). The term of any patents resulting from these applications would be expected to extend to at least 2034.

To further strengthen our position on sepofarsen, we filed our own international patent application in February 2016 to obtain intellectual property rights to a variety of improved antisense oligonucleotides, including sepofarsen, and the use thereof in the treatment of LCA. Patents were granted in South Africa (ZA 2017/05331) and the U.S. (US 10,421,963) and applications are currently pending in the U.S. (continuation application), Europe, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Eurasia, India, Israel, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, and New Zealand. The term of any patents resulting from these applications would be expected to extend to at least 2036.

Patent Rights Relating to Our Usher Program

With regard to our Usher Program and our lead candidates in the Usher space, QR-411 and QR-421a, we entered into an exclusive license agreement with the Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands in June 2015 to obtain rights in a patent family with composition of matters claims directed to antisense oligonucleotides for treating Usher syndrome type II and method of use claims relating to modulation of the splicing of the USH2A gene product. A patent was granted in the U.S. (US 10,131,910) and applications are currently pending in the U.S. (continuation application) as well as Europe, Canada, Australia, and Israel. The term of any patents resulting from these applications would be expected to extend to at least 2035.

To further strengthen our position on the lead candidates QR-411 and QR-421a, we filed two international patent applications in April 2017 and September 2017, respectively. Both applications were continued in the U.S. and Europe and several other countries. The term of any patents resulting from these applications, if issued, would be expected to extend to at least 2037.

Patent Rights Relating to Our Axiomer Program

With regard to our Axiomer program, we filed several national and international patent applications from 2014 to 2020, several of which were continued in national and regional patent applications after the respective international phases. The term of any patents resulting from these applications, if issued, would be expected to extend to at least between 2035 and 2040.

Patent Rights Relating to Our TRIDENT Program

With regard to our TRIDENT program, we filed an international patent application in 2019 directed to antisense oligonucleotides that are applicable for nucleotide-specific pseudouridylation. In the TRIDENT program we are working together with Prof. Yi-Tao Yu at the University of Rochester, NY, USA. The international application was continued in national and regional patent applications. The term of any patents resulting from these applications, if issued, would be expected to extend to at least 2039.

Patent Rights Relating to Our Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa Program

On October 26, 2018, we and Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. entered into a License Agreement, pursuant to which Ionis granted us an exclusive, worldwide, royalty-bearing license to us to develop and commercialize certain pharmaceutical products, including the product designated by Ionis as IONIS-RHO-2.5Rx, which has been re-designated by us as QR-1123, for the prevention or treatment of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, or adRP, in humans, including patient screening. Ionis also granted to the Company certain sub-license rights. Ionis licensed us non-exclusive rights under a range of technology and manufacturing patent families, as well as an exclusive right to one patent family related to QR-1123. The product patent family contains a granted patent in the U.S. (US 10,426,789) and pending applications in the U.S. (continuation application), Europe, Brazil, Canada, Israel, India, Mexico, and New Zealand.

72

Trade Secrets

In addition to patent protection, we rely on trade secrets and know-how to develop and maintain our competitive position. Trade secrets and know-how can be difficult to protect. Nevertheless, we seek to protect our trade secrets and know-how via, among other things, confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and consultants. We also seek to preserve the confidentiality of our trade secrets and know-how by implementing and maintaining security of our premises and information and limiting access to our trade secrets and know-how.

License Agreement with Radboud for LCA

In April 2014, we entered into a Patent License Agreement with Radboud University Medical Center (Radboud) in the field of antisense oligonucleotide-based therapy for Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Under the terms of this license agreement, we have an exclusive, world-wide royalty-bearing license under certain Radboud patent rights to develop, make, have made, use, sell offer for sale and import of certain licensed products of Radboud for use in all prophylactic and therapeutic uses in the field of LCA. Pursuant to the terms of the license agreement, we are obligated to pay Radboud net-sales-related royalties in the low single digits which shall be determined on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis. If we are required to pay any third-party royalties, we may deduct that amount from that which is owed to Radboud. Radboud shall provide human resources, materials, facilities and equipment that are necessary for preclinical and clinical trials and if we do not purchase such trial facilities from Radboud, we are required to pay an increased net-sales-related royalty. In our sole discretion, we may elect to convert our obligation to pay net-sales-related royalties into one of the two lump-sum royalty options contained in the license agreement, the amount of which depends on whether we elect to convert prior to or after regulatory approval has been filed.

We may sublicense our rights to any third-party provided such sub-license includes the same obligations on the sub-licensee as are on us and we promptly furnish Radboud with a copy of the executed sublicensing agreements.

The license agreement will remain in effect until the date on which all of the relevant patent applications and all granted patents ensuing from such applications have expired or is terminated earlier in accordance with the agreement. Either party may terminate the agreement if the other party is in default of a material obligation under the agreement which has not been cured within 30 days of notice of such default. Either party may also terminate the agreement if the other party declares bankruptcy, dissolves, liquidates or is subject to other analogous proceedings. Radboud may also terminate the license agreement if we do not pay any amount owed under the agreement and such payment remains overdue for at least 30 days after receiving notice from Radboud of the amount due.

License Agreement with Radboud for Usher syndrome

In June 2015, we entered into another license agreement with Radboud. Under the terms of this license agreement, we have an exclusive, world-wide royalty-bearing license under certain Radboud patent rights to develop, make, have made, use, sell offer for sale and import of certain licensed products of Radboud for use in all prophylactic and therapeutic uses in the field of Usher syndrome. Pursuant to the terms of the license agreement, we are obligated to pay Radboud net-sales-related royalties in the low single digits which shall be determined on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis. If we are required to pay any third-party royalties, we may deduct that amount from that which is owed to Radboud. Radboud shall provide human resources, materials, facilities and equipment that are necessary for preclinical and clinical trials and if we do not purchase such trial facilities from Radboud, we are required to pay an increased net-sales-related royalty. In our sole discretion, we may elect to convert our obligation to pay net-sales-related royalties into one of the two lump-sum royalty options contained in the license agreement, the amount of which depends on whether we elect to convert prior to or after regulatory approval has been filed.

We may sublicense our rights to any third-party provided such sub-license includes the same obligations on the sub-licensee as are on us and we promptly furnish Radboud with a copy of the executed sublicensing agreements.

The license agreement will remain in effect until the date on which all of the relevant patent applications and all granted patents ensuing from such applications have expired or is terminated earlier in accordance with the agreement. Either party may terminate the agreement if the other party is in default of a material obligation under the agreement which has not been cured within 30 days of notice of such default. Either party may also terminate the agreement if the other party

73

declares bankruptcy, dissolves, liquidates or is subject to other analogous proceedings. Radboud may also terminate the license agreement if we do not pay any amount owed under the agreement and such payment remains overdue for at least 30 days after receiving notice from Radboud of the amount due.

License Agreement with Inserm Transfert SA for LCA

In January 2018, we entered into a license agreement with Inserm Transfert SA and Assistance-Publique-Hôpiteaux de Paris. Under the terms of the agreement, we have a world-wide, exclusive, royalty-bearing license under patent rights belonging to Inserm Transfert SA and other co-owners to develop, have developed, make, have made, use, have used and sell, have sold or otherwise distribute certain licensed products related to antisense oligonucleotides for treating LCA and method of treatment claims relating to modulation of the splicing of the CEP290 gene product.

We have the right to grant sublicenses to third parties subject to certain limitations such as the sublicensee’s activities not conflicting with the public order or ethical obligations of Inserm Transfert SA or any co-owner and not tarnishing the image of Inserm Transfert SA or any co-owner.

In January 2020, the license agreement with Inserm Transfert SA and Assistance-Publique-Hôpiteaux de Paris was amended so as to include a world-wide, non-exclusive, royalty-bearing license under patent rights belonging to Inserm Transfert SA and other co-owners to develop, have developed, make, have made, use, have used and sell, have sold or otherwise distribute certain licensed products for use in a method for antisense oligonucleotide-mediated exon skipping in photoreceptor cells.

In partial consideration of the rights and licenses granted by the license agreement, we are required to pay a lumpsum payment and an annual license maintenance fee, as well as to make payments upon the completion of certain milestones: completion of a clinical trial more advanced than First in Man, such as a Phase 2b; and the first marketing authorization or any foreign equivalent for a first product. In further consideration of the rights and license granted under the agreement, we shall pay to Inserm Transfert SA a running royalty in the low single digits on net sales of products sold by us or our sublicensee.

Unless terminated earlier pursuant to termination provisions of Agreement, the license agreement will remain in effect on a country-by-country basis, until the later to occur of the following events (i) the invalidation or expiration of the last to expire or to be invalidated patent rights which covers the manufacture, use or sale of the product in the relevant country or until the expiration of the exclusive commercialization right granted by a regulatory agency to a product as an orphan drug or (ii) five years after the first commercial sale of a product in the country in which the product is sold. The agreement may be terminated by either party in the event of an uncured breach by the other party. Inserm Transfert SA may terminate the agreement if we become the subject of voluntary or involuntary winding-up proceedings or judicial recovery, if we or our sublicensees interrupt development activities for at least one year, if we or our sublicensees interrupt commercialization for more than twelve months after the first commercialization in a country, if we do not commercialize a product within two years following our obtaining of marketing approval in a country, or if we or our sublicensees do not put a product into commercial use and do not keep products reasonably available to the public within twelve years of the effective date of the agreement.

License Agreement with Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. for adRP

In October 2018, we entered into a license agreement with Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc (Ionis). Under the License Agreement, we are required to make an upfront payment of an aggregate of up to $ 6.0 million in installments, and certain payments up to an aggregate of $ 20.0 million upon the satisfaction of certain development and sales milestones. In addition, Ionis is entitled to royalty payments in the low double digits of aggregate annual net sales, subject to minimum sales in certain circumstances, and subject to reduced rates in certain circumstances. The royalty term lasts on a product-by-product and country-by-country basis, until the later of the expiration of the patent rights licensed to us and the expiration of regulatory-based exclusivity for such product in such country. The License Agreement may also be terminated by either party based upon certain uncured material breaches by, or insolvency of, the other party, or by us at any time with advanced notice.

74

In connection with the upfront payments and development milestone payments, we also simultaneously entered into a Stock Purchase Agreement with Ionis, pursuant to which we agreed to issue an aggregate of $ 2.5 million of ordinary shares to satisfy the first installment upfront payment, and the remaining installment of the upfront payment in ordinary shares determined upon the due date of such installment. In addition, the Stock Purchase Agreement provides for the ability for us, at our discretion, to pay the development milestone payments in ordinary shares when such payments are due. We may not issue ordinary shares to Ionis to the extent that such issuance would result in Ionis owning in excess of 18.5% of our issued and outstanding shares, nor may we issue ordinary shares if such issuance, together with previous issuances under the Stock Purchase Agreement, would exceed 19.9% of our outstanding ordinary shares as of the date of the execution of the Stock Purchase Agreement. Under these circumstances, we are required to pay the remainder of the upfront and/or development milestone payments in cash.

In addition, in connection with the Stock Purchase Agreement, we also entered into an Investor Agreement with Ionis, pursuant to which we agreed to register for resale the ordinary shares issued by us under the Stock Purchase Agreement, under the circumstances described in the Investor Agreement. The Investor Agreement also contains customary covenants related to our registration of such shares, preparation of filings in connection therewith and indemnification of Ionis. The Investor Agreement also contains lockup provisions prohibiting the disposition of our ordinary shares issued under the Stock Purchase Agreement for a period of 12 months from the applicable issuance date, as well as voting provisions requiring Ionis to vote its ordinary shares in accordance with the recommendations of our board of directors, in each case subject to certain exceptions.

Other License Agreements

In January 2016, we entered into an agreement with Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), which gives us a world-wide, exclusive, royalty-bearing license in the field of amyloid beta related diseases, notably Alzheimer’s disease and HCHWA-D, under certain patent rights of LUMC regarding antisense oligonucleotide based therapies. This license agreement contains certain diligence obligations for the Company coupled to milestone payments and complements the Company’s intellectual property relating to its CNS program. The royalties payable under this license agreement are in the low single digits. On September 12, 2017, we spun out this program into Amylon Therapeutics B.V., in which we maintain a majority ownership.

In January 2017, we entered into an agreement with LUMC, which gives us a world-wide, exclusive, royalty-bearing license in the field of Huntington’s disease, under certain patent rights of LUMC regarding antisense oligonucleotide based therapies. This license agreement contains certain diligence obligations for the Company coupled to milestone payments and complements the Company’s intellectual property relating to the HD program. The royalties payable under this license agreement are in the low single digits.

In February 2019, we entered into an agreement with the University of Rochester, New York, which gives us a world-wide, exclusive, royalty-bearing, sublicensable license in the field of antisense oligonucleotides for use in nucleotide specific RNA editing through pseudouridylation, under certain patent rights of University of Rochester. This license agreement contains certain diligence obligations for the Company coupled to milestone payments and complements the Company’s intellectual property relating to the Axiomer/pseudouridylation program. The royalties payable under this license agreement are in the low single digits.

In September 2020, the Company entered into an agreement with Vico Therapeutics B.V., which gives us a world-wide, exclusive, royalty-bearing, sublicensable license in the field of the prophylactic and therapeutic use of antisense oligonucleotide for the treatment of Fuch’s Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD) caused by a trinucleotide repeat, under certain patent rights of Vico Therapeutics B.V. The royalties payable under this license agreement are in the low single digits. In partial consideration of the rights and licenses granted by the license agreement, the Company is required to make annual maintenance payments. Unless terminated earlier in accordance with the license agreement, the agreement will stay in effect until the expiration of all of the licensed patent rights. The license agreement may be terminated by either party in the event of an uncured breach by the breaching party. Vico Therapeutics B.V. may terminate the license agreement if the Company applies for an order or an order is made declaring the Company bankrupt or granting the Company suspension of payments, or a liquidator is appointed for the Company, or the Company is dissolved, liquidated, or ceases to carry on all or a substantial part of its business or a decision is taken to that effect, or in the event uncured payment defaults.

75

Regulatory Matters

Government Regulation and Product Approval

Government authorities in the United States at the federal, state and local level, and in other countries, extensively regulate, among other things, the research, development, testing, manufacture, quality control, approval, labeling, packaging, storage, record-keeping, promotion, advertising, distribution, marketing, export and import of products such as those we are developing.

U.S. Drug Development Process

In the United States, the FDA regulates drugs under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), and itsimplementing regulations and other federal, state and local statutes and regulations. The process of obtaining regulatory approvals and compliance with appropriate federal, state, local and foreign statutes and regulations require the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Failure to comply with the applicable U.S. requirements at any time during the product development process, approval process, or after approval, may subject an applicant to administrative or judicial sanctions. These sanctions could include the FDA’s refusal to approve pending applications, withdrawal of an approval, a clinical hold, untitled or warning letters, product recalls, product seizures, total or partial suspension of production or distribution, injunctions, fines, refusals of government contracts, restitution, disgorgement or civil or criminal penalties. The process required by the FDA before a drug may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:

completion of preclinical laboratory tests, animal studies and formulation studies according to Good Laboratory Practices, or GLP, regulations;
manufacture of the drug product in accordance with current Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) regulations;
submission to the FDA of an IND, which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin;
performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials according to Good Clinical Practice (GCP) regulations to establish the safety and efficacy of the proposed drug for its intended use;
preparation and submission to the FDA of an NDA;
payment of user fees for FDA review of an NDA;
satisfactory completion of an FDA inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the product, or components thereof, are produced to assess compliance with cGMP;
satisfactory completion of an FDA audit of clinical trial sites to assess compliance with GCP; and
review and approval by the FDA of the NDA.

The testing and approval process require substantial time, effort and financial resources and we cannot be certain that any approvals for our product candidates will be granted on a timely basis, if at all.

Once a pharmaceutical product candidate is identified for development, it enters the preclinical testing stage. Preclinical tests include laboratory evaluations of product chemistry, toxicity, formulation and stability, as well as animal studies. An IND sponsor must submit the results of the preclinical tests, together with manufacturing information, analytical data and any available clinical data or literature, to the FDA as part of the IND. The sponsor must also include a protocol detailing, among other things, the objectives of the initial clinical trial, the parameters to be used in monitoring safety and the effectiveness criteria to be evaluated if the initial clinical trial lends itself to an efficacy evaluation. Some preclinical testing may continue even after the IND is submitted. The IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA raises concerns or questions related to a proposed clinical trial and places the trial

76

on a clinical hold within that 30-day time period. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns before the clinical trial can begin. Clinical holds also may be imposed by the FDA at any time before or during clinical trials due to safety concerns or non-compliance and may be imposed on all drug products within a certain class of drugs. The FDA also can impose partial clinical holds, for example, prohibiting the initiation of clinical trials of a certain duration or for a certain dose.

All clinical trials must be conducted under the supervision of one or more qualified investigators in accordance with GCP regulations. These regulations include the requirement that all research subjects provide informed consent in writing before their participation in any clinical trial. Further, an IRB must review and approve the plan for any clinical trial before it commences at any institution, and the IRB must conduct continuing review and reauthorize the trial at least annually. An IRB considers, among other things, whether the risks to individuals participating in the clinical trial are minimized and are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits. The IRB also approves the information regarding the clinical trial and the consent form that must be provided to each clinical trial subject or his or her legal representative and must monitor the clinical trial until completed.

Each new clinical protocol and any amendments to the protocol must be submitted for FDA review, and to the IRBs for approval. Protocols detail, among other things, the objectives of the clinical trial, dosing procedures, subject selection and exclusion criteria, the parameters to assess efficacy and the parameters to be used to monitor subject safety.

Human clinical trials are typically conducted in three sequential phases that may overlap or be combined:

Phase 1. The product is initially introduced into a small number of healthy human subjects or patients and tested for safety, dosage tolerance, absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion and, if possible, to gain early evidence on effectiveness. In the case of some products for severe or life-threatening diseases, especially when the product is suspected or known to be unavoidably toxic, the initial human testing may be conducted in patients.

Phase 2. Involves clinical trials in a limited patient population to identify possible adverse effects and safety risks, to preliminarily evaluate the efficacy of the product for specific targeted diseases and to determine dosage tolerance and optimal dosage and schedule.

Phase 3. Clinical trials are undertaken to further evaluate dosage, clinical efficacy and safety in an expanded patient population. These clinical trials are intended to establish the overall risk/benefit relationship of the product and provide an adequate basis for product labeling.

Post-approval trials, sometimes referred to as Phase 4 clinical trials, may be conducted after initial marketing approval. These trials are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication. In certain instances, the FDA may mandate the performance of Phase 4 clinical trials as a condition of approval of an NDA.

Progress reports detailing the results of the clinical trials must be submitted at least annually to the FDA. Within 15 calendar days after the sponsor determines that the information qualifies for writing, written IND safety reports must be submitted to the FDA and the investigators for serious and unexpected suspected adverse events, any clinically important increase in the rate of a serious suspected adverse reaction over that listed in the protocol or investigator's brochure, or any findings from other studies or animal or in vitro testing that suggest a significant risk in humans exposed to the product drug. The sponsor also must notify the FDA of any unexpected fatal or life-threatening suspected adverse reaction within seven calendar days after the sponsor’s initial receipt of the information. Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 testing may not be completed successfully within any specified period, if at all. The FDA or the sponsor may suspend or terminate a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the drug has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients. Additionally, some clinical trials are overseen by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board or committee. This group provides authorization for whether a trial may move forward at designated checkpoints based on access to certain data from the trial.

77

Concurrent with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional animal studies and must also develop additional information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the product and finalize a process for manufacturing the product in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the product candidate and, among other things, the manufacturer must develop methods for testing the identity, strength, quality and purity of the final product. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested, and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the product candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.

A drug being studied in clinical trials may be made available to individual patients in certain circumstances outside of clinical trials, known as expanded access or “compassionate use”. There is no requirement for a company to provide expanded access to its investigational product. However, if a company decides to make its investigational product available for expanded access, FDA reviews each request for expanded access and determines if treatment may proceed. Under the FDCA, a sponsor of one or more investigational products for the treatment of a serious disease or condition is required to make publicly available, such as by posting on its website, its policy on evaluating and responding to requests for individual patient access to such investigational drug. This requirement applies on the earlier of the first initiation of a Phase 2 or Phase 3 trial of the investigational drug, or as applicable, 15 days after the drug receives a designation as a breakthrough therapy, fast track product, or regenerative advanced therapy.

U.S. Review and Approval Processes

The results of product development, preclinical studies and clinical trials, along with descriptions of the manufacturing process, analytical tests conducted on the drug, proposed labeling and other relevant information, are submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA for a new drug, requesting approval to market the product. The submission of an NDA is subject to the payment of a substantial user fee; a waiver of such fee may be obtained under certain limited circumstances. For example, the agency will waive the application fee for the first human drug application that a small business or its affiliate submits for review. The sponsor of an approved NDA is also subject to an annual prescription drug product program fee.

The FDA reviews all NDAs submitted to ensure that they are sufficiently complete for substantive review before it accepts them for filing. The FDA may request additional information rather than accept an NDA for filing. In this event, the NDA must be re-submitted with the additional information. The re-submitted application also is subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing. Once the submission is accepted for filing, the FDA begins an in-depth substantive review. The FDA reviews an NDA to determine, among other things, whether a product is safe and effective for its intended use and whether its manufacturing is cGMP-compliant to assure the product’s identity, strength, quality and purity. Before approving an NDA, the FDA typically will inspect the facility or facilities where the product is or will be manufactured. The FDA will not approve an application unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements and adequate to assure consistent production of the product within required specifications. The FDA may refer the NDA to an advisory committee for review, evaluation and recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. An advisory committee is a panel of experts, including clinicians and other scientific experts, who provide advice and recommendations when requested by the FDA. The FDA is not bound by the recommendation of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations when making decisions.

The approval process is lengthy and difficult, and the FDA may refuse to approve an NDA if the applicable regulatory criteria are not satisfied or may require additional clinical data or other data and information. Even if such data and information are submitted, the FDA may ultimately decide that the NDA does not satisfy the criteria for approval. Data obtained from clinical trials are not always conclusive and the FDA may interpret data differently than we interpret the same data. The FDA will issue a complete response letter if the agency decides not to approve the NDA in its present form. The complete response letter usually describes all of the specific deficiencies that the FDA identified in the NDA that must be satisfactorily addressed before it can be approved. The deficiencies identified may be minor, for example, requiring labeling changes, or major, for example, requiring additional clinical trials. Additionally, the complete response letter may include recommended actions that the applicant might take to place the application in a condition for approval. If a complete response letter is issued, the applicant may either resubmit the NDA, addressing all of the deficiencies identified in the letter, or withdraw the application or request an opportunity for a hearing.

78

If a product receives regulatory approval, the approval may be significantly limited to specific patients and dosages or the indications for use may otherwise be limited, which could restrict the commercial value of the product. Further, the FDA may require that certain contraindications, warnings or precautions be included in the product labeling. In addition, the FDA may require post-approval studies, including Phase 4 clinical trials, to further assess a drug’s safety and effectiveness after NDA approval and may require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the safety of approved products that have been commercialized. The FDA may require a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy, or REMS, program as a condition of approval, which could entail requirements for long-term patient follow-up, a medication guide, physician communication plans or additional elements to ensure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries and other risk minimization tools.

Fast Track Designation and Accelerated Approval

The FDA has a Fast Track program that is intended to expedite or facilitate the process for reviewing new drugs that meet certain criteria. Specifically, new drugs are eligible for Fast Track designation if they are intended to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition for which there is an unmet medical need and demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs for the condition. Fast Track designation applies to the combination of the product and the specific indication for which it is being studied. The sponsor of a new drug may request the FDA to designate the drug as a Fast Track product concurrently with, or at any time after, submission of an IND, and the FDA must determine if the drug candidate qualifies for fast track designation within 60 days of receipt of the sponsor’s request. In addition to other benefits, such as the ability to engage in more frequent interactions with the FDA, the FDA may initiate review of sections of a Fast Track drug’s NDA before the application is complete. This rolling review is available if the applicant provides, and the FDA approves, a schedule for the submission of each portion of the NDA and the applicant pays applicable user fees. However, the FDA’s time period goal for reviewing an application does not begin until the last section of the NDA is submitted. Additionally, the Fast Track designation may be withdrawn by the FDA if the FDA believes that the designation is no longer supported by data emerging in the clinical trial process.

Under FDA’s accelerated approval regulations, the FDA may approve a drug for a serious or life-threatening illness that provides meaningful therapeutic benefit to patients over existing treatments based upon a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit, or on a clinical endpoint that can be measured earlier than irreversible morbidity or mortality, that is reasonably likely to predict an effect on irreversible morbidity or mortality or other clinical benefit, taking into account the severity, rarity, or prevalence of the condition and the availability or lack of alternative treatments. In clinical trials, a surrogate endpoint is a marker, such as a measurement of laboratory or clinical signs of a disease or condition that is thought to predict clinical benefit, but is not itself a measure of clinical benefit. Surrogate endpoints can often be measured more easily or more rapidly than clinical endpoints. A drug candidate approved on this basis is subject to rigorous post-marketing compliance requirements, including the completion of post-approval clinical trials sometimes referred to as Phase 4 trials to confirm the effect on the clinical endpoint. Failure to conduct required post-approval studies with diligence, or to confirm a clinical benefit during post-marketing studies, will allow the FDA to withdraw the drug from the market on an expedited basis. All promotional materials for drug candidates approved under accelerated regulations are subject to prior review by the FDA.

Breakthrough Designation

A drug product can be designated as a breakthrough therapy if it is intended to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that it may demonstrate substantial improvement over available therapies on one or more clinically significant endpoints. A sponsor may request that a drug product be designated as a breakthrough therapy concurrently with, or at any time after, the submission of an IND, and the FDA must determine if the drug candidate qualifies for breakthrough therapy designation within 60 days of receipt of the sponsor’s request. If so designated, the FDA shall act to expedite the development and review of the product’s marketing application, including by meeting with the sponsor throughout the product’s development, providing timely advice to the sponsor to ensure that the development program to gather preclinical and clinical data is as efficient as practicable, involving senior managers and experienced review staff in a cross-disciplinary review, assigning a cross-disciplinary project lead for the FDA review team to facilitate an efficient review of the development program and to serve as a scientific liaison between the review team and the sponsor, and taking steps to ensure that the design of the clinical trials is as efficient as practicable.

79

Priority Review

The FDA may grant an NDA a priority review designation, which sets the target date for FDA action on the application for a new molecular entity at six months after the FDA accepts the application for filing. Priority review is granted where there is evidence that the proposed product would be a significant improvement in the safety or effectiveness of the treatment, diagnosis, or prevention of a serious condition compared to available therapies. If criteria are not met for priority review, the application is subject to the standard FDA review period of ten months after FDA accepts the application for filing. Priority review designation does not change the scientific/medical standard for approval or the quality of evidence necessary to support approval.

Rare Pediatric Disease Priority Review Voucher

The FDA may grant rare pediatric disease designation for indications in the treatment or prevention of a rare disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States and that is a serious or life-threatening disease that primarily affects individuals aged from birth to 18 years, including age groups often called neonates, infants, children and adolescents. Under the FDCA, a sponsor who receives approval of an NDA for a product that is for the prevention or treatment of a rare pediatric disease and meets certain additional criteria, may qualify for a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher, or PRV. A PRV can be redeemed to receive priority review under an expedited timeframe for a subsequent marketing application for a different product. A PRV may also be sold or transferred from the initial sponsor to another sponsor and may be further transferred any number of times before it is used. On December 27, 2020, the Rare Pediatric Disease Priority Review Voucher Program was extended. Under the current statutory sunset provisions, after September 30, 2024, FDA may only award a voucher for an approved rare pediatric disease product application if the sponsor has rare pediatric disease designation for the drug or biologic, and that designation was granted by September 30, 2024. After September 30, 2026, FDA may not award any rare pediatric disease priority review vouchers. It is possible the authority for FDA to award rare pediatric disease priority review vouchers will be further extended by Congress.

Post-Approval Requirements

Any products for which we receive FDA approval are subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, record-keeping requirements, reporting of adverse experiences with the product, providing the FDA with updated safety and efficacy information, product sampling and distribution requirements, complying with certain electronic records and signature requirements and complying with FDA promotion and advertising requirements. The FDA strictly regulates labeling, advertising, promotion and other types of information on products that are placed on the market. Products may be promoted only for the approved indications and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. Further, manufacturers must continue to comply with cGMP requirements, which are extensive and require considerable time, resources and ongoing investment to ensure compliance. In addition, changes to the manufacturing process generally require prior FDA approval before being implemented and other types of changes to the approved product, such as adding new indications and additional labeling claims, are also subject to further FDA review and approval.

Manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacturing and distribution of approved products are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies, and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with cGMP and other laws. The cGMP requirements apply to all stages of the manufacturing process, including the production, processing, sterilization, packaging, labeling, storage and shipment of the product. Manufacturers must establish validated systems to ensure that products meet specifications and regulatory standards, and test each product batch or lot prior to its release. Manufacturers and other parties involved in the drug supply chain for prescription drugs and biologics must also comply with product tracking and tracing requirements and for notifying the FDA of counterfeit, diverted, stole and intentionally adulterated products or products that are otherwise unfit for distribution in the United States.

The FDA may withdraw a product approval if compliance with regulatory requirements is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product may result in restrictions on the product or even complete withdrawal of the product from the market. Further, the failure to maintain compliance with regulatory requirements may result in administrative or judicial actions, such as fines, untitled

80

or warning letters, holds on clinical trials, product seizures, product detention or refusal to permit the import or export of products, refusal to approve pending applications or supplements, restrictions on marketing or manufacturing, injunctions or civil or criminal penalties.

From time to time, legislation is drafted, introduced and passed in Congress that could significantly change the statutory provisions governing the approval, manufacturing and marketing of products regulated by the FDA. In addition to new legislation, FDA regulations, guidance, and policies are often revised or reinterpreted by the agency in ways that may significantly affect our business and our product candidates. It is impossible to predict whether further legislative or FDA regulation or policy changes will be enacted or implemented and what the impact of such changes, if any, may be.

Patent Term Restoration and Marketing Exclusivity

Depending upon the timing, duration and specifics of FDA approval of the use of our product candidates, some of our U.S. patents may be eligible for limited patent term extension under the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, commonly referred to as the Hatch-Waxman Amendments. The Hatch-Waxman Amendments permit a patent restoration term of up to five years as compensation for patent term lost during product development and the FDA regulatory review process. However, patent term restoration cannot extend the remaining term of a patent beyond a total of 14 years from the product’s approval date. The patent term restoration period is generally one-half the time between the effective date of an IND and the submission date of an NDA plus the time between the submission date of an NDA and the approval of that application, except that the review period is reduced by any time during which the applicant failed to exercise due diligence. Only one patent applicable to an approved drug is eligible for the extension and the application for the extension must be submitted prior to the expiration of the patent. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, in consultation with the FDA, reviews and approves the application for any patent term extension or restoration. In the future, we intend to apply for restorations of patent term for some of our currently owned or licensed patents to add patent life beyond their current expiration dates, depending on the expected length of the clinical trials and other factors involved in the filing of the relevant NDA; however, there can be no assurance that any such extension will be granted to us.

Market exclusivity provisions under the FDCA can also delay the submission or the approval of certain applications. The FDCA provides a five-year period of non-patent marketing exclusivity within the United States to the first applicant to gain approval of an NDA for a new chemical entity. A drug is a new chemical entity if the FDA has not previously approved any other new drug containing the same active moiety, which is the molecule or ion responsible for the action of the drug substance. During the exclusivity period, the FDA may not accept for review an abbreviated new drug application, or ANDA, or a 505(b)(2) NDA submitted by another company for another version of such drug where the applicant does not own or have a legal right of reference to all the data required for approval. However, an application may be submitted after four years if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or non-infringement. The FDCA also provides three years of marketing exclusivity for an NDA, 505(b)(2) NDA or supplement to an existing NDA if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are deemed by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application, for example, new indications, dosages or strengths of an existing drug. This three-year exclusivity covers only the conditions of use associated with the new clinical investigations and does not prohibit the FDA from approving ANDAs for drugs containing the original active agent. Five-year and three-year exclusivity will not delay the submission or approval of a full NDA. However, an applicant submitting a full NDA would be required to conduct or obtain a right of reference to all of the preclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and effectiveness.

Pediatric exclusivity is another type of exclusivity in the United States. Pediatric exclusivity, if granted, provides an additional six months to an existing exclusivity or statutory delay in approval resulting from a patent certification. This six-month exclusivity, which runs from the end of other exclusivity protection or patent delay, may be granted based on the voluntary completion of a pediatric clinical trial in accordance with an FDA-issued “Written Request” for such a clinical trial.

Orphan Drugs

Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may grant orphan drug designation to drugs intended to treat a rare disease or condition—a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or more than 200,000

81

individuals in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making a drug in the United States for this type of disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product. Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting an NDA. After the FDA grants orphan drug designation, the generic identity of the drug and its potential orphan use are disclosed publicly by the FDA. Orphan drug designation does not convey any advantage in, or shorten the duration of, the regulatory review and approval process. The first NDA applicant to receive FDA approval for a particular active ingredient to treat a particular disease or condition with FDA orphan drug designation is entitled to a seven-year exclusive marketing period in the United States for that product, for that indication. During the seven-year exclusivity period, the FDA may not approve any other applications to market the same drug for the same disease or condition, except in limited circumstances, such as if the second applicant demonstrates the clinical superiority of its product to the product with orphan drug exclusivity through a demonstration of superior safety, superior efficacy, or a major contribution to patient care. Orphan drug exclusivity does not prevent FDA from approving a different drug for the same disease or condition, or the same drug for a different disease or condition. Among the other benefits of orphan drug designation are tax credits for certain research and a waiver of the NDA application user fee.

Pediatric Information

Under the Pediatric Research Equity Act of 2003, as amended, NDAs or supplements to NDAs must contain data adequate to assess the safety and effectiveness of the drug for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the drug is safe and effective. The FDCA requires that a sponsor who is planning to submit a marketing application for a drug product that includes a new active ingredient, new indication, new dosage form, new dosing regimen or new route of administration submit an initial Pediatric Study Plan, or PSP, within sixty days of an end-of-Phase 2 meeting or as may be agreed between the sponsor and the FDA. The initial PSP must include an outline of the pediatric study or studies that the sponsor plans to conduct, including study objectives and design, age groups, relevant endpoints and statistical approach, or a justification for not including such detailed information, and any request for a deferral of pediatric assessments or a full or partial waiver of the requirement to provide data from pediatric studies along with supporting information. The FDA may, on its own initiative or at the request of the applicant, grant deferrals for submission of data or full or partial waivers. The FDA and the sponsor must reach agreement on the PSP. A sponsor can submit amendments to an agreed-upon initial PSP at any time if changes to the pediatric plan need to be considered based on data collected from preclinical studies, early phase clinical trials, and/or other clinical development programs.

Disclosure of Clinical Trial Information

Sponsors of certain clinical trials of FDA-regulated products, including drugs, are required to register and disclose certain clinical trial information, which is publicly available at www.clinicaltrials.gov. Information related to the product, patient population, phase of investigation, trial sites and investigators, and other aspects of the clinical trial is then made public as part of the registration. Sponsors are also obligated to disclose the results of their clinical trials after completion. Disclosure of the results of these trials can be delayed until the new product or new indication being studied has been approved. Competitors may use this publicly available information to gain knowledge regarding the progress of development programs.

Pharmaceutical Coverage, Pricing and Reimbursement

Significant uncertainty exists as to the coverage and reimbursement status of any drug products for which we may obtain regulatory approval. In the United States, sales of any products for which we may receive regulatory approval for commercial sale will depend in part on the availability of coverage and reimbursement from third-party payors. Third-party payors include government authorities, managed care providers, private health insurers and other organizations. The process for determining whether a payor will provide coverage for a drug product may be separate from the process for setting the reimbursement rate that the payor will pay for the drug product. Third-party payors may limit coverage to specific drug products on an approved list, or formulary, which might not include all of the FDA-approved drugs for a particular indication. Moreover, a payor’s decision to provide coverage for a drug product does not imply that an adequate reimbursement rate will be approved. Adequate third-party reimbursement may not be available to enable us to maintain price levels sufficient to realize an appropriate return on our investment in product development.

82

Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the price and examining the medical need and cost-effectiveness of medical products and services, in addition to their safety and efficacy. In order to obtain coverage and reimbursement for any product that might be approved for sale, we may need to conduct expensive pharmaco-economic studies in order to demonstrate the medical need and cost-effectiveness of any products, in addition to the costs required to obtain regulatory approvals. Our product candidates may not be considered medically necessary or cost-effective. If third-party payors do not consider a product to be cost-effective compared to other available therapies, they may not cover the product after approval as a benefit under their plans or, if they do, the level of payment may not be sufficient to allow a company to sell its products at a profit.

The U.S. government and state legislatures have shown significant interest in implementing cost containment programs to limit the growth of government-paid health care costs, including price controls, restrictions on reimbursement and requirements for substitution of generic products for branded prescription drugs. For example, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, collectively, the Affordable Care Act (ACA), contains provisions that may reduce the profitability of drug products, including, for example, increased rebates for drugs reimbursed by Medicaid programs, extension of Medicaid rebates to Medicaid managed care plans, mandatory discounts for certain Medicare Part D beneficiaries and annual fees based on pharmaceutical companies’ share of sales to federal health care programs. Adoption of government controls and measures, and tightening of restrictive policies in jurisdictions with existing controls and measures, could limit payments for pharmaceuticals.

The marketability of any products for which we receive regulatory approval for commercial sale may suffer if the government and third-party payors fail to provide adequate coverage and reimbursement. In addition, an increasing emphasis on cost containment measures in the United States has increased and we expect will continue to increase the pressure on pharmaceutical pricing. Coverage policies and third-party reimbursement rates may change at any time. Even if favorable coverage and reimbursement status is attained for one or more products for which we receive regulatory approval, less favorable coverage policies and reimbursement rates may be implemented in the future.

Other Healthcare Laws and Compliance Requirements

If we obtain regulatory approval of our products, we will be subject to various federal and state laws targeting fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry. These laws may impact, among other things, our proposed sales, marketing and education programs. In addition, we may be subject to patient privacy regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. The laws that may affect our ability to operate include:

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, to induce or reward, or in return for, either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order, or recommendation of, an item or service reimbursable under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. A person or entity can be found guilty of violating the statute without actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it. The term remuneration has been interpreted broadly to include anything of value. Further, courts have found that if “one purpose” of remuneration is to induce referrals, the federal Anti-Kickback statute is violated. Violations are subject to significant civil and criminal fines and penalties for each violation, plus up to three times the remuneration involved, imprisonment, and exclusion from government healthcare programs. In addition, a claim submitted for payment to any federal healthcare program that includes items or services that were made as a result of a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal False Claims Act (FCA). The Anti-Kickback Statute has been interpreted to apply to arrangements between biopharmaceutical manufacturers on the one hand and prescribers, purchasers, and formulary managers, among others, on the other. There are a number of statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors protecting some common activities from prosecution, and on November 20, 2020, the Office of Inspector General, or OIG, finalized further modifications to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute;
federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalty laws, including the FCA and civil monetary penalty laws which impose criminal and civil penalties, including through civil whistleblower or qui tam actions, against individuals or entities for knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, to the federal government, including the Medicare and Medicaid programs, claims for payment that are false or fraudulent or

83

making a false statement or record to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government. A claim that includes items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim under the FCA. Manufacturers can be held liable under the FCA even when they do not submit claims directly to government payors if they are deemed to “cause” the submission of false or fraudulent claims. The FCA also permits a private individual acting as a “whistleblower” to bring qui tam actions on behalf of the federal government alleging violations of the FCA and to share in any monetary recovery or settlement. When an entity is determined to have violated the FCA, the government may impose civil fines and penalties for each false claim, plus treble damages, and exclude the entity from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs;
the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which imposes federal criminal and civil liability for executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program and also created federal criminal laws that prohibit knowingly and willfully falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false statements or using or making any false or fraudulent document in connection with the delivery of or payment for healthcare benefits, items or services. Similar to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity can be found guilty of violating HIPAA fraud provisions without actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it;
the federal transparency laws, including the provision of the ACA referred to as the federal Physician Payment Sunshine Act, that requires applicable manufacturers of covered drugs to disclose payments and other transfers of value provided to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors) and teaching hospitals and physician ownership and investment interests. Effective January 1, 2022, these reporting obligations will extend to include transfers of value made in the previous year to certain non-physician providers such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners;
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or HITECH, and its implementing regulations, which imposes certain requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information on certain covered healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, known as covered entities, as well as their respective business associates;
Federal government price reporting laws, which require us to calculate and report complex pricing metrics in an accurate and timely manner to government programs;
Federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers; and
state law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers, and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Healthcare legislative reform

In both the United States and certain foreign jurisdictions, there have been a number of legislative and regulatory changes to the health care system that could impact our ability to sell our products profitably. In particular, in 2010, the ACA was enacted, which, among other things, subjected biologic products to potential competition by lower-cost biosimilars; addressed a new methodology by which rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program are calculated for drugs that are inhaled, infused, instilled, implanted or injected; increased the minimum Medicaid rebates owed by most manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program; extended the Medicaid Drug Rebate program to utilization of prescriptions of individuals enrolled in Medicaid managed care organizations; subjected manufacturers to new annual fees and taxes for certain branded prescription drugs; created a new Medicare Part D coverage gap discount program, in which manufacturers must agree to offer 50% (increased to 70% pursuant to the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, effective as of January 1, 2019) point-of-sale discounts off negotiated prices of applicable brand drugs to eligible beneficiaries during their coverage gap period, as a condition for the manufacturer’s

84

outpatient drugs to be covered under Medicare Part D; and provided incentives to programs that increase the federal government’s comparative effectiveness research.

Since its enactment, there have been judicial, Congressional and executive challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. On June 17, 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the most recent judicial challenge to the ACA brought by several states without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the ACA. Prior to the Supreme Court’s decision, President Biden issued an executive order to initiate a special enrollment period from February 15, 2021 through August 15, 2021 for purposes of obtaining health insurance coverage through the ACA marketplace. The executive order also instructed certain governmental agencies to review and reconsider their existing policies and rules that limit access to healthcare, including among others, reexamining Medicaid demonstration projects and waiver programs that include work requirements, and policies that create unnecessary barriers to obtaining access to health insurance coverage through Medicaid or the ACA. It is unclear how other healthcare reform measures of the Biden administration or other efforts, if any, to challenge, repeal or replace the ACA will impact our business.

Additionally, there has been increasing legislative and enforcement interest in the United States with respect to drug pricing practices. Specifically, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny over the manner in which manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which has resulted in several U.S. Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to drug pricing, reduce the cost of prescription drugs under Medicare, and review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs. At a federal level, President Biden signed an Executive Order on July 9, 2021 affirming the administration’s policy to (i) support legislative reforms that would lower the prices of prescription drug and biologics, including by allowing Medicare to negotiate drug prices, by imposing inflation caps, and, by supporting the development and market entry of lower-cost generic drugs and biosimilars; and (ii) support the enactment of a public health insurance option. Among other things, the Executive Order also directs HHS to provide a report on actions to combat excessive pricing of prescription drugs, enhance the domestic drug supply chain, reduce the price that the Federal government pays for drugs, and address price gouging in the industry; and directs the FDA to work with states and Indian Tribes that propose to develop section 804 Importation Programs in accordance with the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, and the FDA’s implementing regulations. FDA released such implementing regulations on September 24, 2020, which went into effect on November 30, 2020, providing guidance for states to build and submit importation plans for drugs from Canada. On September 25, 2020, CMS stated drugs imported by states under this rule will not be eligible for federal rebates under Section 1927 of the Social Security Act and manufacturers would not report these drugs for “best price” or Average Manufacturer Price purposes. Since these drugs are not considered covered outpatient drugs, CMS further stated it will not publish a National Average Drug Acquisition Cost for these drugs. If implemented, importation of drugs from Canada may materially and adversely affect the price we receive for any of our product candidates. Further, on November 20, 2020 CMS issued an Interim Final Rule implementing the Most Favored Nation (MFN), Model under which Medicare Part B reimbursement rates would have been be calculated for certain drugs and biologicals based on the lowest price drug manufacturers receive in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries with a similar gross domestic product per capita. However, on December 29, 2021 CMS rescinded the MFN rule. Additionally, on November 30, 2020, HHS published a regulation removing safe harbor protection for price reductions from pharmaceutical manufacturers to plan sponsors under Part D, either directly or through pharmacy benefit managers, unless the price reduction is required by law. The rule also creates a new safe harbor for price reductions reflected at the point-of-sale, as well as a safe harbor for certain fixed fee arrangements between pharmacy benefit managers and manufacturers. Pursuant to court order, the removal and addition of the aforementioned safe harbors were delayed and recent legislation imposed a moratorium on implementation of the rule until January 1, 2026. Although a number of these and other proposed measures may require authorization through additional legislation to become effective, and the Biden administration may reverse or otherwise change these measures, both the Biden administration and Congress have indicated that they will continue to seek new legislative and/or administrative measures to control drug costs.

It is possible that other repeal and replacement initiatives, if enacted into law, could ultimately result in fewer individuals having health insurance coverage and/or in individuals having insurance coverage that provides less generous benefits. Thus, the full impact of the ACA, any law replacing elements of it, or the political uncertainty surrounding its repeal or replacement on our business remains unclear. Adoption of government controls and measures, and tightening of restrictive policies in j