10-K 1 psec10-kq42022.htm 10-K Document

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ýANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022
OR
oTRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 Commission File Number: 814-00659 
PROSPECT CAPITAL CORPORATION
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland43-2048643
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
10 East 40th Street, 42nd Floor 
New York, New York10016
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (212) 448-0702
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolsName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per sharePSECNASDAQ Global Select Market
5.35% Series A Fixed Rate Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $0.001PSEC PRANew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
5.50% Series A1 Preferred Stock, par value $0.001
5.50% Series AA1 Preferred Stock, par value $0.001
5.50% Series MM1 Preferred Stock, par value $0.001
5.50% Series M1 Preferred Stock, par value $0.001
5.50% Series M2 Preferred Stock, par value $0.001
5.50% Series A2 Preferred Stock, par value $0.001

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý    No o
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o    No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes o    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ý
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o
Smaller reporting company o
Emerging growth company o
 (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ý 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o    No ý



The aggregate market value of the common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant as of December 31, 2021 was $2.375 billion (based on the closing price on that date of $8.41 on the NASDAQ Global Select Market). For the purposes of calculating this amount only, all executive officers and Directors are “affiliates” of the Registrant.
As of September 2, 2022, there were 394,791,577 shares of the Registrant’s common stock outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the Registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement relating to the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent described therein.



Table of Contents
  Page
PART I
PART II
PART III
PART IV




FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This report contains information that may constitute “forward-looking statements.” Generally, the words “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “project,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “may,” “plan” and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements, which generally are not historical in nature. However, the absence of these words or similar expressions does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking. All statements that address operating performance, events or developments that we expect or anticipate will occur in the future—including statements relating to volume growth, share of sales and earnings per share growth, and statements expressing general views about future operating results—are forward-looking statements. Management believes that these forward-looking statements are reasonable as and when made. However, caution should be taken not to place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements because such statements speak only as of the date when made. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. In addition, forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from our historical experience and our present expectations or projections. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those described in Part I, “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this report and those described from time to time in reports that we have filed or in the future may file with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
The forward-looking statements contained in this report involve a number of risks and uncertainties, including statements concerning:
our future operating results;
our business prospects and the prospects of our portfolio companies;
the impact of investments that we expect to make;
our contractual arrangements and relationships with third parties;
the dependence of our future success on the general economy and its impact on the industries in which we invest;
the impact of global health epidemics, including, but not limited to, the ongoing coronavirus pandemic, on our and our portfolio companies’ business and the global economy;
uncertainty surrounding inflation and the financial and political stability of the United States, Europe, and China;
the ability of our portfolio companies to achieve their objectives;
difficulty in obtaining financing or raising capital, especially in the current credit and equity environment, and the impact of a protracted decline in the liquidity of credit markets on our and our portfolio companies’ business;
the level and volatility of prevailing interest rates and credit spreads, magnified by the current turmoil in the credit markets;
the impact of changes in London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), the cessation of publication of certain LIBOR rates as of June 30, 2022 and in the future and the new use of the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) on our operating results;
adverse developments in the availability of desirable loan and investment opportunities whether they are due to competition, regulation or otherwise;
a compression of the yield on our investments and the cost of our liabilities, as well as the level of leverage available to us;
our regulatory structure and tax treatment, including our ability to operate as a business development company and a regulated investment company;
the adequacy of our cash resources and working capital;
the timing of cash flows, if any, from the operations of our portfolio companies;
the ability of our investment adviser to locate suitable investments for us and to monitor and administer our investments;
authoritative generally accepted accounting principles or policy changes from such standard-setting bodies as the Financial Accounting Standards Board, the Securities and Exchange Commission, Internal Revenue Service, the NASDAQ Global Select Market, the New York Stock Exchange LLC, and other authorities that we are subject to, as well as their counterparts in any foreign jurisdictions where we might do business; and
any of the other risks, uncertainties and other factors we identify in this Annual Report.
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PART I
Item 1. Business
In this Annual Report, the terms “Prospect,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” mean Prospect Capital Corporation and all entities included in our consolidated financial statements, unless the context specifically requires otherwise.
General
Prospect is a financial services company that primarily lends to and invests in middle-market privately-held companies. We are a closed-end investment company incorporated in Maryland. We have elected to be regulated as a business development company (“BDC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “1940 Act”). As a BDC, we have elected to be treated as a regulated investment company (“RIC”), under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (the “Code”). We were organized on April 13, 2004, and were funded in an initial public offering completed on July 27, 2004. We are one of the largest BDCs with approximately $7.66 billion of total assets as of June 30, 2022.
We are externally managed by our investment adviser, Prospect Capital Management L.P. (“Prospect Capital Management” or the “Investment Adviser”). Prospect Administration LLC (“Prospect Administration” or the “Administrator”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Investment Adviser, provides administrative services and facilities necessary for us to operate.
Our investment objective is to generate both current income and long-term capital appreciation through debt and equity investments. We invest primarily in senior and subordinated secured debt and equity of private companies in need of capital for acquisitions, divestitures, growth, development, recapitalizations and other purposes. We work with the management teams or financial sponsors to seek investments with historical cash flows, asset collateral or contracted pro-forma cash flows.
We currently have four primary strategies that guide our origination of investment opportunities: (1) lending to companies, including companies controlled by private equity sponsors and not controlled by private equity sponsors, and including both directly-originated loans and syndicated loans, (2) lending to companies and purchasing controlling equity positions in such companies, including both operating companies and financial services companies, (3) purchasing controlling equity positions and lending to real estate companies, and (4) investing in structured credit. We may also invest in other strategies and opportunities from time to time that we view as attractive. We continue to evaluate other origination strategies in the ordinary course of business with no specific top-down allocation to any single origination strategy.
Lending to Companies - We make directly-originated agented loans to companies, including companies which are controlled by private equity sponsors and companies that are not controlled by private equity sponsors (such as companies that are controlled by the management team, the founder, a family or public shareholders). This debt can take the form of first lien, second lien, unitranche or unsecured loans. These loans typically have equity subordinate to our loan position. We may also purchase selected equity co-investments in such companies. In addition to directly-originated, agented loans, we also invest in senior and secured loans, syndicated loans and high yield bonds that have been sold to a club or syndicate of buyers, both in the primary and secondary markets. These investments are often purchased with a long term, buy-and-hold outlook, and we often look to provide significant input to the transaction by providing anchoring orders. Historically, this strategy has comprised approximately 40%-60% of our portfolio.
Lending to Companies and Purchasing Controlling Equity Positions in Such Companies - This strategy involves purchasing senior and secured yield-producing debt and controlling equity positions in operating companies across various industries. We believe this strategy provides enhanced certainty of closure to sellers and the opportunity for management to continue on in their current roles. These investments are often structured in tax-efficient partnerships, enhancing returns. Historically, this strategy has comprised approximately 15%-25% of our portfolio.
Purchasing Controlling Equity Positions and Lending to Real Estate Companies - We purchase debt and controlling equity positions in tax-efficient real estate investment trusts (“REIT” or “REITs”). The real estate investments of National Property REIT Corp. (“NPRC”) are in various classes of developed and occupied real estate properties that generate current yields, including multi-family properties, and student housing. NPRC seeks to identify properties that have historically significant occupancy rates and recurring cash flow generation. NPRC generally co-invests with established and experienced property management teams that manage such properties after acquisition. Additionally, NPRC makes investments in rated secured structured notes (primarily debt of structured credit). NPRC also purchases loans originated by certain consumer loan facilitators. It purchases each loan in its entirety (i.e., a “whole loan”). The borrowers are consumers, and the loans are typically serviced by the facilitators of the loans. Historically, this overall investment strategy has comprised approximately 10%-20% of our business.
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Investing in Structured Credit - We make investments in collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”), often taking a significant position in subordinated structured notes (equity) and rated secured structured notes (debt). The underlying portfolio of each structured credit investment is diversified across approximately 100 to 200 broadly syndicated loans and does not have direct exposure to real estate, mortgages, or consumer-based credit assets. The structured credit portfolios in which we invest are managed by established collateral management teams with many years of experience in the industry. Historically, this overall strategy has comprised approximately 10%-20% of our portfolio.
Typically, we concentrate on making investments in companies with annual revenues of less than $750 million and enterprise values of less than $1 billion. Our typical investment involves a secured loan of less than $250 million. We also acquire controlling interests in companies in conjunction with making secured debt investments in such companies. In most cases, companies in which we invest are privately held at the time we invest in them. We refer to these companies as “target” or “middle-market” companies and these investments as “middle-market investments.”
We seek to maximize total returns to our investors, including both current yield and equity upside, by applying rigorous credit analysis and asset-based and cash-flow based lending techniques to make and monitor our investments. We are constantly pursuing multiple investment opportunities, including purchases of portfolios from private and public companies, as well as originations and secondary purchases of particular securities. We also regularly evaluate control investment opportunities in a range of industries, and some of these investments could be material to us. There can be no assurance that we will successfully consummate any investment opportunity we are currently pursuing. If any of these opportunities are consummated, there can be no assurance that investors will share our view of valuation or that any assets acquired will not be subject to future write downs, each of which could have an adverse effect on our stock price.
Our Investment Objective and Policies
Our investment objective is to generate both current income and long-term capital appreciation through debt and equity investments. We focus on making investments in private companies. We are a non-diversified company within the meaning of the 1940 Act.
We invest primarily in first and second lien secured loans and unsecured debt, which in some cases includes an equity component. First and second lien secured loans generally are senior debt instruments that rank ahead of unsecured debt of a given portfolio company. These loans also have the benefit of security interests on the assets of the portfolio company, which may rank ahead of or be junior to other security interests. Our investments in structured credit are subordinated to senior loans and are generally unsecured. We invest in debt and equity positions of structured credit which are a form of securitization in which the cash flows of a portfolio of loans are pooled and passed on to different classes of owners in various tranches. Our structured credit investments are derived from portfolios of corporate debt securities which are generally risk rated from BB to B.
We may also acquire controlling interests in companies in conjunction with making secured debt investments in such companies. These may be in several industries, including industrial, service, aircraft leasing, real estate and financial businesses.
We seek to maximize returns and minimize risk for our investors by applying rigorous analysis to make and monitor our investments. While the structure of our investments varies, we can invest in senior secured debt, senior unsecured debt, subordinated secured debt, subordinated unsecured debt, convertible debt, convertible preferred equity, preferred equity, common equity, warrants and other instruments, many of which generate current yield. While our primary focus is to seek current income through investment in the debt and/or dividend-paying equity securities of eligible privately-held, thinly-traded or distressed companies and long-term capital appreciation by acquiring accompanying warrants, options or other equity securities of such companies, we may invest up to 30% of the portfolio in opportunistic investments in order to seek enhanced returns for stockholders. Such investments may include investments in the debt and equity instruments of broadly-traded public companies. We expect that these public companies generally will have debt securities that are non-investment grade. Such investments may also include purchases (either in the primary or secondary markets) of the equity and junior debt tranches of a type of pools such as CLOs. Structurally, CLOs are entities that are formed to hold a portfolio of senior secured loans made to companies whose debt is rated below investment grade or, in limited circumstances, unrated. The senior secured loans within a CLO are limited to senior secured loans which meet specified credit and diversity criteria and are subject to concentration limitations in order to create an investment portfolio that is diverse by senior secured loan, borrower, and industry, with limitations on non-U.S. borrowers. Within this 30% basket, we have and may make additional investments in debt and equity securities of financial companies and companies located outside of the United States.
Our investments may include other equity investments, such as warrants, options to buy a minority interest in a portfolio company, or contractual payment rights or rights to receive a proportional interest in the operating cash flow or net income of
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such company. When determined by the Investment Adviser to be in our best interest, we may acquire a controlling interest in a portfolio company. Any warrants we receive with our debt securities may require only a nominal cost to exercise, and thus, as a portfolio company appreciates in value, we may achieve additional investment return from this equity interest. We have structured, and will continue to structure, some warrants to include provisions protecting our rights as a minority-interest or, if applicable, controlling-interest holder, as well as puts, or rights to sell such securities back to the company, upon the occurrence of specified events. In many cases, we obtain registration rights in connection with these equity interests, which may include demand and “piggyback” registration rights.
We plan to hold many of our debt investments to maturity or repayment, but will sell a debt investment earlier if a liquidity event takes place, such as the sale or recapitalization of a portfolio company, or if we determine a sale of such debt investment to be in our best interest.
We have qualified and elected to be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. As a RIC, we generally do not have to pay corporate-level U.S. federal income taxes on any ordinary income or capital gains that we distribute to our stockholders as dividends. To continue to qualify as a RIC, we must, among other things, meet certain source-of-income and asset diversification requirements (as described below). In addition, to qualify for RIC tax treatment, we must distribute to our stockholders, for each taxable year, at least 90% of our “investment company taxable income,” which is generally our ordinary income plus the excess of our realized net short-term capital gains over our realized net long-term capital losses.
For a discussion of the risks inherent in our portfolio investments, see “Risk Factors – Risks Relating to Our Investments.”
Industry Sectors
Our portfolio is invested across 39 industry categories. Excluding our CLO investments, which do not have industry concentrations, no individual industry comprises more than 18.3% of the portfolio on either a cost or fair value basis.
Ongoing Relationships with Portfolio Companies
Monitoring
Prospect Capital Management monitors our portfolio companies on an ongoing basis. Prospect Capital Management will continue to monitor the financial trends of each portfolio company to determine if it is meeting its business plan and to assess the appropriate course of action for each company.
Prospect Capital Management employs several methods of evaluating and monitoring the performance and value of our investments, which may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Assessment of success in adhering to the portfolio company’s business plan and compliance with covenants;
Regular contact with portfolio company management and, if appropriate, the financial or strategic sponsor to discuss financial position, requirements and accomplishments;
Comparisons to other portfolio companies in the industry, if any;
Attendance at and participation in board meetings of the portfolio company; and
Review of monthly and quarterly financial statements and financial projections for the portfolio company.
Investment Valuation
As a BDC, and in accordance with the 1940 Act, we fair value our investment portfolio on a quarterly basis, with any unrealized gains and losses reflected in net increase (decrease) in net assets resulting from operations on our Consolidated Statement of Operations. To value our investments, we follow the guidance of ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement (“ASC 820”), that defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in conformity with GAAP, and requires disclosures about fair value measurements. For further discussion of ASC 820 and our process for determining the fair value of investment portfolio, see Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates.
For a discussion of the risks inherent in determining the value of securities for which readily available market values do not exist, see “Risk Factors – Risks Relating to Our Business – Most of our portfolio investments are recorded at fair value as
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determined in good faith under the direction of our Board of Directors and, as a result, there is uncertainty as to the value of our portfolio investments.”
Managerial Assistance
As a BDC, we are obligated under the 1940 Act to make available to certain of our portfolio companies significant managerial assistance. “Making available significant managerial assistance” refers to any arrangement whereby we provide significant guidance and counsel concerning the management, operations, or business objectives and policies of a portfolio company. We are also deemed to be providing managerial assistance to all portfolio companies that we control, either by ourselves or in conjunction with others. The nature and extent of significant managerial assistance provided by us to controlled and non-controlled portfolio companies will vary according to the particular needs of each portfolio company. Examples of such activities include (i) advice on recruiting, hiring, management and termination of employees, officers and directors, succession planning and other human resource matters; (ii) advice on capital raising, capital budgeting, and capital expenditures; (iii) advice on advertising, marketing, and sales; (iv) advice on fulfillment, operations, and execution; (v) advice on managing relationships with unions and other personnel organizations, financing sources, vendors, customers, lessors, lessees, lawyers, accountants, regulators and other important counterparties; (vi) evaluating acquisition and divestiture opportunities, plant expansions and closings, and market expansions; (vii) participating in audit committee, nominating committee, board and management meetings; (viii) consulting with and advising board members and officers of portfolio companies (on overall strategy and other matters); and (ix) providing other organizational, operational, managerial and financial guidance.
Prospect Administration, when executing a managerial assistance agreement with each portfolio company to which we provide managerial assistance, arranges for the provision of such managerial assistance on our behalf. When doing so, Prospect Administration utilizes personnel of our Investment Adviser. We, on behalf of Prospect Administration, invoice portfolio companies receiving and paying for managerial assistance, and we remit to Prospect Administration its cost of providing such services, including the charges deemed appropriate by our Investment Adviser for providing such managerial assistance. No income is recognized by Prospect.
Investment Adviser
Prospect Capital Management, a Delaware limited partnership that is registered as an investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (the “Advisers Act”) manages our investments. Prospect Capital Management is led by John F. Barry III and M. Grier Eliasek, two senior executives with significant investment advisory and business experience. Both Messrs. Barry and Eliasek spend a significant amount of their time in their roles at Prospect Capital Management working on our behalf. The principal executive offices of Prospect Capital Management are 700 S Rosemary Ave, Suite 204, West Palm Beach, FL 33401. We depend on the due diligence, skill and network of business contacts of the senior management of the Investment Adviser. We also depend, to a significant extent, on the Investment Adviser’s investment professionals and the information and deal flow generated by those investment professionals in the course of their investment and portfolio management activities. The Investment Adviser’s senior management team evaluates, negotiates, structures, closes, monitors and services our investments. Our future success depends to a significant extent on the continued service of the senior management team, particularly John F. Barry III and M. Grier Eliasek. The departure of any of the senior managers of the Investment Adviser could have a materially adverse effect on our ability to achieve our investment objective. In addition, we can offer no assurance that Prospect Capital Management will remain the Investment Adviser or that we will continue to have access to its investment professionals or its information and deal flow. Under the Investment Advisory Agreement (as defined below), we pay Prospect Capital Management investment advisory fees, which consist of an annual base management fee based on our gross assets as well as a two-part incentive fee based on our performance. Mr. Barry currently controls Prospect Capital Management.
Investment Advisory Agreement
Terms
We have entered into an investment advisory and management agreement with the Investment Adviser (the “Investment Advisory Agreement”) under which the Investment Adviser, subject to the overall supervision of our Board of Directors, manages the day-to-day operations of, and provides investment advisory services to, us. Under the terms of the Investment Advisory Agreement, the Investment Adviser: (i) determines the composition of our portfolio, the nature and timing of the changes to our portfolio and the manner of implementing such changes, (ii) identifies, evaluates and negotiates the structure of the investments we make (including performing due diligence on our prospective portfolio companies), and (iii) closes and monitors investments we make.
The Investment Adviser’s services under the Investment Advisory Agreement are not exclusive, and it is free to furnish similar services to other entities so long as its services to us are not impaired. For providing these services the Investment Adviser
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receives a fee from us, consisting of two components: a base management fee and an incentive fee. The base management fee is calculated at an annual rate of 2.00% on our total assets. For services currently rendered under the Investment Advisory Agreement, the base management fee is payable quarterly in arrears. The base management fee is calculated based on the average value of our gross assets at the end of the two most recently completed calendar quarters and appropriately adjusted for any share issuances or repurchases during the current calendar quarter.
The incentive fee has two parts. The first part, the income incentive fee, is calculated and payable quarterly in arrears based on our pre-incentive fee net investment income for the immediately preceding calendar quarter. For this purpose, pre-incentive fee net investment income means interest income, dividend income and any other income (including any other fees (other than fees for providing managerial assistance), such as commitment, origination, structuring, diligence and consulting fees and other fees that we receive from portfolio companies) accrued during the calendar quarter, minus our operating expenses for the quarter (including the base management fee, expenses payable under the Administration Agreement described below, and any interest expense and dividends paid on any issued and outstanding preferred stock, but excluding the incentive fee). Pre-incentive fee net investment income includes, in the case of investments with a deferred interest feature (such as original issue discount, debt instruments with payment-in-kind interest and zero coupon securities), accrued income that we have not yet received in cash. Pre-incentive fee net investment income does not include any realized capital gains, realized capital losses or unrealized capital gains or losses. Pre-incentive fee net investment income, expressed as a rate of return on the value of our net assets at the end of the immediately preceding calendar quarter, is compared to a “hurdle rate” of 1.75% per quarter (7.00% annualized).
The net investment income used to calculate this part of the incentive fee is also included in the amount of the gross assets used to calculate the 2.00% base management fee. We pay the Investment Adviser an income incentive fee with respect to our pre-incentive fee net investment income in each calendar quarter as follows: 
No incentive fee in any calendar quarter in which our pre-incentive fee net investment income does not exceed the hurdle rate;
100.00% of our pre-incentive fee net investment income with respect to that portion of such pre-incentive fee net investment income, if any, that exceeds the hurdle rate but is less than 125.00% of the quarterly hurdle rate in any calendar quarter (8.75% annualized assuming a 7.00% annualized hurdle rate), i.e., the “catch-up”; and
20.00% of the amount of our pre-incentive fee net investment income, if any, that exceeds 125.00% of the quarterly hurdle rate in any calendar quarter (8.75% annualized assuming a 7.00% annualized hurdle rate).
These calculations are appropriately prorated for any period of less than three months and adjusted for any share issuances or repurchases during the current quarter.
The second part of the incentive fee, the capital gains incentive fee, is determined and payable in arrears as of the end of each calendar year (or upon termination of the Investment Advisory Agreement, as of the termination date), and equals 20.00% of our realized capital gains for the calendar year, if any, computed net of all realized capital losses and unrealized capital depreciation at the end of such year. In determining the capital gains incentive fee payable to the Investment Adviser, we calculate the aggregate realized capital gains, aggregate realized capital losses and aggregate unrealized capital depreciation, as applicable, with respect to each investment that has been in our portfolio. For the purpose of this calculation, an “investment” is defined as the total of all rights and claims which may be asserted against a portfolio company arising from our participation in the debt, equity, and other financial instruments issued by that company. Aggregate realized capital gains, if any, equal the sum of the differences between the aggregate net sales price of each investment and the aggregate amortized cost basis of such investment when sold or otherwise disposed. Aggregate realized capital losses equal the sum of the amounts by which the aggregate net sales price of each investment is less than the aggregate amortized cost basis of such investment when sold or otherwise disposed. Aggregate unrealized capital depreciation equals the sum of the differences, if negative, between the aggregate valuation of each investment and the aggregate amortized cost basis of such investment as of the applicable calendar year-end. At the end of the applicable calendar year, the amount of capital gains that serves as the basis for our calculation of the capital gains incentive fee involves netting aggregate realized capital gains against aggregate realized capital losses on a since-inception basis and then reducing this amount by the aggregate unrealized capital depreciation. If this number is positive, then the capital gains incentive fee payable is equal to 20.00% of such amount, less the aggregate amount of any capital gains incentive fees paid since inception.
Examples of Quarterly Incentive Fee Calculation
Example 1: Income Incentive Fee*
*The hypothetical amount of pre-incentive fee net investment income shown is based on a percentage of total net assets.
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Alternative 1
Assumptions
Investment income (including interest, dividends, fees, etc.) = 1.25%
Hurdle rate(1) = 1.75%
Base management fee(2) = 0.50%
Other expenses (legal, accounting, custodian, transfer agent, etc.)(3) = 0.20%
Pre-incentive fee net investment income (investment income – (base management fee + other expenses)) = 0.55%
Pre-incentive net investment income does not exceed hurdle rate, therefore there is no income incentive fee.
Alternative 2
Assumptions
Investment income (including interest, dividends, fees, etc.) = 2.70%
Hurdle rate(1) = 1.75%
Base management fee(2) = 0.50%
Other expenses (legal, accounting, custodian, transfer agent, etc.)(3) = 0.20%
Pre-incentive fee net investment income (investment income – (base management fee + other expenses)) = 2.00%
Pre-incentive net investment income exceeds hurdle rate, therefore there is an income incentive fee payable by us to the Investment Adviser. The Income Incentive Fee would be calculated as follows:
= 100% × “Catch Up” + the greater of 0% AND (20% × (pre-incentive fee net investment income – 2.1875%))
= (100% × (2.00% - 1.75%)) + 0%
= 100% × 0.25% + 0%
= 0.25%
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Alternative 3
Assumptions
Investment income (including interest, dividends, fees, etc.) = 3.00%
Hurdle rate(1) = 1.75%
Base management fee(2) = 0.50%
Other expenses (legal, accounting, custodian, transfer agent, etc.)(3) = 0.20%
Pre-incentive fee net investment income (investment income – (base management fee + other expenses)) = 2.30%
Pre-incentive net investment income exceeds hurdle rate, therefore there is an income incentive fee payable by us to the Investment Adviser. The Income Incentive Fee would be calculated as follows:
= 100% × “Catch Up” + the greater of 0% AND (20% × (pre-incentive fee net investment income – 2.1875%))
= (100% × (2.1875% – 1.75%)) + the greater of 0% AND (20% × (2.30% – 2.1875%))
= (100% × 0.4375%) + (20% × 0.1125%)
= 0.4375% + 0.0225%
= 0.46%
(1)Represents 7% annualized hurdle rate.
(2)Represents 2% annualized base management fee.
(3)Excludes organizational and offering expenses.
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Example 2: Capital Gains Incentive Fee
Alternative 1
Assumptions
Year 1: $20 million investment made
Year 2: Fair market value (“FMV”) of investment determined to be $22 million
Year 3: FMV of investment determined to be $17 million
Year 4: Investment sold for $21 million
The impact, if any, on the capital gains portion of the incentive fee would be:
Year 1: No impact
Year 2: No impact
Year 3: Decrease base amount on which the second part of the incentive fee is calculated by $3 million (unrealized capital depreciation)
Year 4: Increase base amount on which the second part of the incentive fee is calculated by $4 million ($1 million of realized capital gain and $3 million reversal in unrealized capital depreciation)
Alternative 2
Assumptions
Year 1: $20 million investment made
Year 2: FMV of investment determined to be $17 million
Year 3: FMV of investment determined to be $17 million
Year 4: FMV of investment determined to be $21 million
Year 5: FMV of investment determined to be $18 million
Year 6: Investment sold for $15 million
The impact, if any, on the capital gains portion of the incentive fee would be:
Year 1: No impact
Year 2: Decrease base amount on which the second part of the incentive fee is calculated by $3 million (unrealized capital depreciation)
Year 3: No impact
Year 4: Increase base amount on which the second part of the incentive fee is calculated by $3 million (reversal in unrealized capital depreciation)
Year 5: Decrease base amount on which the second part of the incentive fee is calculated by $2 million (unrealized capital depreciation)
Year 6: Decrease base amount on which the second part of the incentive fee is calculated by $3 million ($5 million of realized capital loss offset by a $2 million reversal in unrealized capital depreciation)
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Alternative 3
Assumptions
Year 1: $20 million investment made in company A (“Investment A”) and $20 million investment made in company B (“Investment B”)
Year 2: FMV of Investment A is determined to be $21 million and Investment B is sold for $18 million
Year 3: Investment A is sold for $23 million
The impact, if any, on the capital gains portion of the incentive fee would be:
Year 1: No impact
Year 2: Decrease base amount on which the second part of the incentive fee is calculated by $2 million (realized capital loss on Investment B)
Year 3: Increase base amount on which the second part of the incentive fee is calculated by $3 million (realized capital gain on Investment A)
Alternative 4
Assumptions
Year 1: $20 million investment made in company A (“Investment A”) and $20 million investment made in company B (“Investment B”)
Year 2: FMV of Investment A is determined to be $21 million and FMV of Investment B is determined to be $17 million
Year 3: FMV of Investment A is determined to be $18 million and FMV of Investment B is determined to be $18 million
Year 4: FMV of Investment A is determined to be $19 million and FMV of Investment B is determined to be $21 million
Year 5: Investment A is sold for $17 million and Investment B is sold for $23 million
The impact, if any, on the capital gains portion of the incentive fee would be:
Year 1: No impact
Year 2: Decrease base amount on which the second part of the incentive fee is calculated by $3 million (unrealized capital depreciation on Investment B)
Year 3: Decrease base amount on which the second part of the incentive fee is calculated by $1 million ($2 million in unrealized capital depreciation on Investment A and $1 million recovery in unrealized capital depreciation on Investment B)
Year 4: Increase base amount on which the second part of the incentive fee is calculated by $3 million ($1 million recovery in unrealized capital depreciation on Investment A and $2 million recovery in unrealized capital depreciation on Investment B)
Year 5: Increase base amount on which the second part of the incentive fee is calculated by $1 million ($3 million realized capital gain on Investment B offset by $3 million realized capital loss on Investment A plus a $1 million reversal in unrealized capital depreciation on Investment A from Year 4)
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Duration and Termination
The Investment Advisory Agreement was originally approved by our Board of Directors on June 23, 2004 and was recently re-approved by the Board of Directors on June 16, 2022 for an additional one-year term expiring June 21, 2023, as discussed below. Unless terminated earlier as described below, it will remain in effect from year to year thereafter if approved annually by our Board of Directors or by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of our outstanding voting securities, including, in either case, approval by a majority of our directors who are not interested persons. The Investment Advisory Agreement will automatically terminate in the event of its assignment. The Investment Advisory Agreement may be terminated by either party without penalty upon not more than 60 days’ written notice to the other. See “Risk Factors – Risks Relating to Our Business – We are dependent upon Prospect Capital Management’s key management personnel for our future success.”
Indemnification
The Investment Advisory Agreement provides that, absent willful misfeasance, bad faith or gross negligence in the performance of its duties or by reason of the reckless disregard of its duties and obligations, Prospect Capital Management and its officers, managers, agents, employees, controlling persons, members and any other person or entity affiliated with it are entitled to indemnification from us for any damages, liabilities, costs and expenses (including reasonable attorneys’ fees and amounts reasonably paid in settlement) arising from the rendering of Prospect Capital Management’s services under the Investment Advisory Agreement or otherwise as the Investment Adviser.
Board of Directors Approval of the Investment Advisory Agreement
On June 16, 2022, our Board of Directors voted unanimously to renew the Investment Advisory Agreement for the 12-month period ending June 21, 2023. In its consideration of the Investment Advisory Agreement, the Board of Directors focused on information it had received relating to, among other things: (a) the nature, quality and extent of the advisory and other services to be provided to us by Prospect Capital Management; (b) comparative data with respect to advisory fees or expense ratios paid by other business development companies with similar investment objectives; (c) our operating expenses; (d) the profitability of Prospect Capital Management and any existing and potential sources of indirect income to Prospect Capital Management or Prospect Administration from their relationships with us and the profitability of those relationships; (e) information about the services performed and the personnel performing such services under the Investment Advisory Agreement; (f) the organizational capability and financial condition of Prospect Capital Management and its affiliates and (g) the possibility of obtaining similar services from other third party service providers or through an internally managed structure. In approving the renewal of the Investment Advisory Agreement, the Board of Directors, including all of the directors who are not “interested persons,” considered the following:
Nature, Quality and Extent of Services. The Board of Directors considered the nature, extent and quality of the investment selection process employed by Prospect Capital Management. The Board of Directors also considered Prospect Capital Management’s personnel and their prior experience in connection with the types of investments made by us. The Board of Directors concluded that the services to be provided under the Investment Advisory Agreement are generally the same as those of comparable business development companies described in the available market data.
Investment Performance. The Board of Directors reviewed our investment performance over various periods, as well as comparative data with respect to the investment performance of a group of other, comparable externally managed business development companies. The Board of Directors concluded that Prospect Capital Management was delivering results consistent with our investment objective and that our investment performance was satisfactory when compared to comparable business development companies.
The reasonableness of the fees paid to Prospect Capital Management. The Board of Directors considered comparative data based on publicly available information on a group of other, comparable business development companies selected by the Adviser and the Company’s Board of Directors (the “BDC Expense Peers”) with respect to services rendered and the advisory fees (including the management fees and incentive fees), as well as our operating expenses, efficiency ratio and expense ratio compared to the BDC Expense Peers. The Board of Directors reviewed information concerning Prospect Capital Management’s costs in serving as the Company’s investment adviser, including costs associated with technology, infrastructure and compliance necessary to manage the Company, as well as compensation costs, Prospect Capital Management’s compensation program, and the relationship of such compensation to Prospect Capital Management’s ability to attract and retain investment advisory personnel. Finally, on behalf of the Company, the Board of Directors also considered the profitability of Prospect Capital Management. Based upon its review, the Board of Directors concluded that the fees to be paid under the Investment Advisory Agreement are reasonable.
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Economies of Scale. The Board of Directors considered information about the potential of Prospect Capital Management to realize economies of scale in managing our assets, and determined that at this time there were not economies of scale to be realized by Prospect Capital Management.
Based on the information reviewed and the discussions detailed above, the Board of Directors (including all of the directors who are not “interested persons”) concluded that the investment advisory fee rates and terms are fair and reasonable in relation to the services provided and approved the renewal of the Investment Advisory Agreement with Prospect Capital Management as being in the best interests of the Company and its stockholders.
Administration Agreement
We have also entered into an administration agreement (the “Administration Agreement”) with Prospect Administration under which Prospect Administration, among other things, provides (or arranges for the provision of) administrative services and facilities for us. For providing these services, we reimburse Prospect Administration for our allocable portion of overhead incurred by Prospect Administration in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement, including rent and our allocable portion of the costs of our Chief Financial Officer and Chief Compliance Officer and her staff, including the internal legal staff. Under this agreement, Prospect Administration furnishes us with office facilities, equipment and clerical, bookkeeping and record keeping services at such facilities. Prospect Administration also performs, or oversees the performance of, our required administrative services, which include, among other things, being responsible for the financial records that we are required to maintain and preparing reports to our stockholders and reports filed with the SEC. In addition, Prospect Administration assists us in determining and publishing our net asset value, overseeing the preparation and filing of our tax returns and the printing and dissemination of reports to our stockholders, and generally oversees the payment of our expenses and the performance of administrative and professional services rendered to us by others. Under the Administration Agreement, Prospect Administration also provides on our behalf managerial assistance to those portfolio companies to which we are required to provide such assistance (see Managerial Assistance section below). The Administration Agreement may be terminated by either party without penalty upon 60 days’ written notice to the other party. Prospect Administration is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Investment Adviser.
The Administration Agreement provides that, absent willful misfeasance, bad faith or negligence in the performance of its duties or by reason of the reckless disregard of its duties and obligations, Prospect Administration and its officers, managers, partners, agents, employees, controlling persons, members and any other person or entity affiliated with it are entitled to indemnification from us for any damages, liabilities, costs and expenses (including reasonable attorneys’ fees and amounts reasonably paid in settlement) arising from the rendering of Prospect Administration’s services under the Administration Agreement or otherwise as administrator for us. Our payments to Prospect Administration are reviewed quarterly by our Board of Directors.
Human Capital
We do not currently have any employees and do not expect to have any employees. The services necessary for the operation of our business are provided by investment professionals and personnel of Prospect Capital Management and by the officers and the employees of Prospect Administration pursuant to the terms of the Investment Advisory Agreement and the Administration Agreement, respectively, each as described herein and in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
Each of our executive officers is an employee or affiliate of Prospect Capital Management or Prospect Administration. Our day-to-day investment activities are managed by Prospect Capital Management, the investment professionals of which focus on origination, transaction development, investment and the ongoing monitoring of our investments. We reimburse both Prospect Capital Management and Prospect Administration for a certain portion of expenses incurred in connection with such staffing. Because we have no employees, we do not have a formal employee relations policy.
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Portfolio Managers
The following individuals function as portfolio managers primarily responsible for the day-to-day management of our portfolio. Our portfolio managers are not responsible for day-to-day management of any other accounts. For a description of their principal occupations for the past five years, please refer to our definitive Proxy Statement for our 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days after the end of our fiscal year.
NamePosition
Length of Service with Company (Years)
John F. Barry IIIChairman and Chief Executive Officer18
M. Grier EliasekPresident and Chief Operating Officer18
Mr. Eliasek receives no compensation from the Company. Mr. Eliasek receives a salary and bonus from Prospect Capital Management that takes into account his role as a senior officer of the Company and of Prospect Capital Management, his performance and the performance of each of Prospect Capital Management and the Company. Mr. Barry receives no compensation from the Company. Mr. Barry, as the sole member of Prospect Capital Management, receives a salary and/or bonus from Prospect Capital Management and is entitled to equity distributions after all other obligations of Prospect Capital Management are met.
The following table sets forth the dollar range of our common stock beneficially owned by each of the portfolio managers described above as of June 30, 2022:
Name
Aggregate Dollar Range of Common Stock Beneficially Owned by Portfolio Managers(1)(2)(3)
John F. Barry IIIOver $1,000,000
M. Grier EliasekOver $1,000,000
(1) Beneficial ownership is calculated in accordance with Rule 13d-3(d)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”). In computing the aggregate dollar of common stock beneficially owned by a person who also owns shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock (as defined herein), we have included the aggregate dollar value of shares of common stock issuable upon the conversion of the person’s outstanding shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock.
(2) The dollar ranges are: none, $1-$10,000, $10,001-$50,000, $50,001-$100,000; $100,001 - $500,000; $500,001 - $1,000,000; or over $1,000,000.
(3) The dollar range of our equity securities beneficially owned is based on the closing price of $6.99 on June 30, 2022 on The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (the “Nasdaq”).
Payment of Our Expenses
All investment professionals of the Investment Adviser and its respective staff, when and to the extent engaged in providing investment advisory and management services, and the compensation and routine overhead expenses of such personnel allocable to such services, will be provided and paid for by the Investment Adviser. We bear all other costs and expenses of our operations and transactions, including those relating to: organization and offering; calculation of our net asset value (including the cost and expenses of any independent valuation firm); expenses incurred by Prospect Capital Management payable to third parties, including agents, consultants or other advisers (such as independent valuation firms, accountants and legal counsel), in monitoring our financial and legal affairs and in monitoring our investments and performing due diligence on our prospective portfolio companies; interest payable on debt, if any, and dividends payable on preferred stock, if any, incurred to finance our investments; offerings of our debt, our preferred shares, our common stock and other securities; investment advisory fees; fees payable to third parties, including agents, consultants or other advisors, relating to, or associated with, evaluating and making investments; transfer agent and custodial fees; registration fees; listing fees; taxes; independent directors’ fees and expenses; costs of preparing and filing reports or other documents with the SEC; the costs of any reports, proxy statements or other notices to stockholders, including printing costs; our allocable portion of the fidelity bond, directors and officers/errors and omissions liability insurance, and any other insurance premiums; direct costs and expenses of administration, including auditor and legal costs; and all other expenses incurred by us, by the Investment Adviser or by Prospect Administration in connection with administering our business, such as our allocable portion of overhead under the Administration Agreement, including rent and our allocable portion of the costs of our Chief Financial Officer and Chief Compliance Officer and her staff.
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License Agreement
We entered into a license agreement with Prospect Capital Management pursuant to which Prospect Capital Management agreed to grant us a non-exclusive, royalty free license to use the name “Prospect Capital.” Under this agreement, we have a right to use the Prospect Capital name, for so long as Prospect Capital Management or one of its affiliates remains the Investment Adviser. Other than with respect to this limited license, we have no legal right to the Prospect Capital name. This license agreement will remain in effect for so long as the Investment Advisory Agreement with the Investment Adviser is in effect.
Determination of Net Asset Value
The net asset value per share of our outstanding shares of common stock will be determined quarterly by dividing the value of total assets minus liabilities minus carrying value of our then outstanding preferred stock by the total number of common shares outstanding.
In calculating the value of our total assets, we will value investments for which market quotations are readily available at such market quotations. Short-term investments which mature in 60 days or less, such as U.S. Treasury bills, are valued at amortized cost, which approximates market value. The amortized cost method involves recording a security at its cost (i.e., principal amount plus any premium and less any discount) on the date of purchase and thereafter amortizing/accreting that difference between the principal amount due at maturity and cost assuming a constant yield to maturity as determined at the time of purchase. Short-term securities which mature in more than 60 days are valued at current market quotations by an independent pricing service or at the mean between the bid and ask prices obtained from at least two brokers or dealers (if available, or otherwise by a principal market maker or a primary market dealer). Investments in money market mutual funds are valued at their net asset value as of the close of business on the day of valuation.
Most of the investments in our portfolio do not have market quotations which are readily available, meaning the investments do not have actively traded markets. Debt and equity securities for which market quotations are not readily available are valued with the assistance of an independent valuation service using a documented valuation policy and a valuation process that is consistently applied under the direction of our Board of Directors. For a discussion of the risks inherent in determining the value of securities for which readily available market values do not exist, see “Risk Factors – Risks Relating to Our Business – Most of our portfolio investments are recorded at fair value as determined in good faith under the direction of our Board of Directors and, as a result, there is uncertainty as to the value of our portfolio investments.”
The factors that may be taken into account in valuing such investments include, as relevant, the portfolio company’s ability to make payments, its estimated earnings and projected discounted cash flows, the nature and realizable value of any collateral, the financial environment in which the portfolio company operates, comparisons to securities of similar publicly traded companies, changes in interest rates for similar debt instruments and other relevant factors. Due to the inherent uncertainty of determining the fair value of investments that do not have readily available market quotations, the fair value of these investments may differ significantly from the values that would have been used had such market quotations existed for such investments, and any such differences could be material.
As part of the fair valuation process, the independent valuation firms engaged by the Board of Directors perform a review of each debt and equity investment requiring fair valuation and provide a range of values for each investment, which, along with management’s valuation recommendations, is reviewed by our Audit Committee. Management and the independent valuation firms may adjust their preliminary evaluations to reflect comments provided by our Audit Committee. The Audit Committee reviews the final valuation reports and management’s valuation recommendations and makes a recommendation to the Board of Directors based on its analysis of the methodologies employed and the various weights that should be accorded to each portion of the valuation as well as factors that the independent valuation firms and management may not have included in their evaluation processes. The Board of Directors then evaluates the Audit Committee recommendations and undertakes a similar analysis to determine the fair value of each investment in the portfolio in good faith.
Determination of fair values involves subjective judgments and estimates. Accordingly, under current accounting standards, the notes to our financial statements will refer to the uncertainty with respect to the possible effect of such valuations, and any change in such valuations, on our financial statements.
Common Stock Dividend Reinvestment and Direct Stock Purchase Plan
We have adopted a common stock dividend reinvestment and direct stock purchase plan (the “Plan” or the “DRIP”) that provides for reinvestment of our common stock dividends or distributions on behalf of our common stockholders, unless a common stockholder elects to receive cash as provided below, and the ability to purchase additional shares of common stock by
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making optional cash investments. On April 17, 2020, our Board of Directors approved amendments to our DRIP, effective on May 21, 2020. These amendments principally provide for the number of newly-issued shares of common stock to be credited to a stockholder’s account to be determined by dividing (i) the total dollar amount of the dividend payable to such stockholder by (ii) 95% of the closing market price per share of our common stock on the date fixed by our Board of Directors for such distribution (thereby providing a 5% discount to the market price of our common stock on such date). As a result, when our Board of Directors authorizes, and we declare, a cash dividend or distribution, then our common stockholders who have not (or whose broker through which they hold shares of our common stock have not) “opted out” of our DRIP will have their cash dividends or distributions automatically reinvested in additional shares of our common stock, rather than receiving the cash dividends or distributions.
Common stockholders who purchased shares of our common stock through or hold shares in the name of a broker or financial institution should consult with a representative of their broker or financial institution with respect to their participation in our DRIP. Even if such stockholders have elected to automatically reinvest their shares with their broker, the broker may have “opted out” of our DRIP (which utilizes DTC’s dividend reinvestment service), and such stockholders may therefore not be receiving the 5% pricing discount. Many common stockholders have been “opted out” of our DRIP by their brokers who instead implement a “synthetic” dividend reinvestment plan in which such broker purchases shares in the open market with no discount, using the funds from cash dividends. Common stockholders interested in participating in our DRIP should contact their brokers to make sure each such DRIP participation election has been made for the benefit of such stockholder. In making such DRIP election, each such common stockholder should specify to his or her broker the desire to participate in the “Prospect Capital Corporation DRIP through DTC” that issues shares of our common stock based on 95% of the market price (a 5% discount to the market price) and not the broker's own “synthetic” dividend reinvestment plan (if any) that offers no such discount. Common stockholders may need to make such election proactively with their broker.
If you are not a current common stockholder and want to enroll or have “opted out” and wish to rejoin, you may also purchase shares directly through the Plan or opt in by enrolling online or submitting to the Plan administrator a completed enrollment form and, if you are not a current stockholder, making an initial investment of at least $250.
No action is required on the part of a directly registered common stockholder to have their cash dividend or distribution reinvested in shares of our common stock. A directly registered common stockholder may elect to receive an entire dividend or distribution in cash by notifying the Plan administrator and our transfer agent and registrar, in writing so that such notice is received by the Plan administrator no later than the record date for dividends to stockholders. The Plan administrator will set up a dividend reinvestment account for shares acquired pursuant to the Plan for each stockholder who has not so elected to receive dividends and distributions in cash or who has enrolled in the Plan as described herein (each, a “Participant”). The Plan administrator will hold each Participant’s shares, together with the shares of other Participants, in non-certificated form in the Plan administrator’s name or that of its nominee. Upon request by a Participant to terminate their participation in the Plan and liquidate their Plan account, received in writing, via the Internet or the Plan administrator’s toll free number no later than 3 business days prior to a dividend or distribution payment date, such dividend or distribution will be paid out in cash and not be reinvested. If such request is received fewer than 3 business days prior to a dividend or distribution payment date, such dividend or distribution will be reinvested but all subsequent dividends and distributions will be paid to the stockholder in cash on all balances. Upon such termination of the Participant’s participation in the Plan and liquidation of their plain account, all whole shares owned by the Participant will be issued to the Participant in certificated form and a check will be issued to the Participant for the proceeds of fractional shares less a transaction fee of $15. Those stockholders whose shares are held by a broker or other financial intermediary may receive dividends or distributions in cash by notifying their broker or other financial intermediary of their election.
We primarily use newly-issued shares of our common stock to implement reinvestment of dividends and distributions under the DRIP, whether our shares are trading at a premium or at a discount to net asset value. However, we reserve the right to purchase shares of our common stock in the open market in connection with the implementation of reinvestment of dividends or distributions under the DRIP. The number of newly-issued shares of common stock to be credited to a stockholder’s account will be determined by dividing the total dollar amount of the dividend or distribution payable to such stockholder by 95% of the market price per share of our common stock at the close of regular trading on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on the date fixed by the Board for Directors for such distribution. Market price per share on that date will be the closing price for such shares on the NASDAQ Global Select Market or, if no sale is reported for such day, at the average of their reported bid and asked prices. The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after giving effect to payment of the dividend or distribution cannot be established until the value per share at which additional shares will be issued has been determined and elections of our stockholders have been tabulated. Common stockholders who do not elect to receive dividends and distributions in shares of common stock may experience accretion to the net asset value of their shares if our shares are trading at a premium at the time we issue new shares under the Plan and dilution if our shares are trading at a discount. The level of accretion or discount would depend on various factors, including the proportion of our common stockholders who participate in
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the Plan, the level of premium or discount at which our shares are trading and the amount of the dividend or distribution payable to a common stockholder.
There are no brokerage charges or other charges to common stockholders who participate in reinvestment of dividends or distributions under the Plan. The Plan administrator’s fees under the Plan are paid by us. If a participant elects by written notice to the Plan administrator to have the Plan administrator sell part or all of the shares held by the Plan administrator in the participant’s account and remit the proceeds to the participant, the Plan administrator is authorized to deduct a $15 transaction fee plus a $0.10 per share brokerage commissions from the proceeds.
Common stockholders who receive dividends or distributions in the form of stock are subject to the same U.S. federal, state and local tax consequences as are common stockholders who elect to receive their dividends or distributions in cash. A common stockholder’s basis for determining gain or loss upon the sale of stock received in a dividend or distribution from us will be equal to the total dollar amount of the dividend or distribution payable to the stockholder. Any stock received in a dividend or distribution will have a new holding period for tax purposes commencing on the day following the day on which the shares of common stock are credited to the U.S. Stockholder’s account (as defined below).
Participants in the Plan have the option of making additional cash payments to the Plan administrator for investment in the shares at the then current market price. Such payments may be made in any amount from $25 to $10,000 per transaction. Participants in the Plan may also elect to have funds electronically withdrawn from their checking or savings account each month. Direct debit of cash will be performed on the 10th of each month. Participants may elect this option by submitting a written authorization form or by enrolling online at the Plan administrator’s website. The Plan administrator will use all funds received from participants since the prior investment of funds to purchase shares of our common stock in the open market. We will not use newly-issued shares of our common stock to implement such purchases. Purchase orders will be submitted daily. The Plan administrator may, at its discretion, submit purchase orders less frequently but no later than 30 days after receipt. The Plan administrator will charge each stockholder who makes such additional cash payments $2.50, plus a $0.10 per share brokerage commission. Cash dividends and distributions payable on all shares credited to your Plan account will be automatically reinvested in additional shares pursuant to the terms of the Plan. Brokerage charges for some purchases are expected to be less than the usual brokerage charge for such transactions. Instructions sent by a participant to the Plan administrator in connection with such participant’s cash payment may not be rescinded.
Participants may terminate their participation in and liquidate their accounts under the Plan by notifying the Plan administrator in writing prior to a dividend or distribution payment date via its website at www.astfinancial.com or by filling out the transaction request form located at the bottom of their statement and sending it to the Plan administrator at American Stock Transfer & Trust Company, P.O. Box 922, Wall Street Station, New York, NY 10269-0560 or by calling the Plan administrator’s Interactive Voice Response System at (888) 888-0313. Upon termination and liquidation, the stockholder will receive certificates for the full shares credited to your Plan account. If you elect to receive cash, the Plan administrator sells such shares and delivers a check for the proceeds, less the $0.10 per share brokerage commission and the Plan administrator’s transaction fee of $15. In every case of termination, fractional shares credited to a terminating Plan account are paid in cash at the then-current market price, less any commission and transaction fee.
The Plan may be terminated by us upon notice in writing mailed to each participant at least 30 days prior to any payable date for the payment of any dividend by us or distribution pursuant to any additional cash payment made. All correspondence concerning the Plan should be directed to the Plan administrator by mail at American Stock Transfer and Trust Company LLC, 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219, or by telephone at 888-888-0313.
Preferred Stock Dividend Reinvestment Plan
We have adopted a preferred stock dividend reinvestment plan (the “Preferred Stock Plan” or the “Preferred Stock DRIP”) that provides for reinvestment of our dividends declared by our Board of Directors on shares of our 5.50% Series A1 Preferred Stock (the “Series A1 Preferred Stock”), 5.50% Series M1 Preferred Stock (the “Series M1 Preferred Stock”), the 5.50% Series M2 Preferred Stock (the “Series M2 Preferred Stock,” and together with the Series M1 Preferred Stock, the “Series M Preferred Stock”), 5.50% Series AA1 Preferred Stock (the “Series AA1 Preferred Stock”), the 5.50% Series MM1 Preferred Stock (the “Series MM1 Preferred Stock”) and 5.50% Series A2 Preferred Stock (the “Series A2 Preferred Stock”, and all such series of preferred stock referred to collectively as “5.50% Preferred Stock”) on behalf of our preferred stockholders.
Eligibility of Existing Holders of 5.50% Preferred Stock
If you are a current holder of record of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock, you may participate in the Preferred Stock Plan. Eligible holders of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock may enroll in the Preferred Stock Plan online through
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www.computershare.com/investor. Alternatively, you may enroll by completing an enrollment form and delivering it to Computershare Trust Company, N.A. (“Computershare”), the administrator for the Preferred Stock Plan.
If you own shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock that are registered in someone else’s name (for example, a bank, broker, or trustee) and you want to participate in the Preferred Stock Plan, you may be able to arrange for that person to handle the reinvestment of your dividends. If not, your shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock should be withdrawn from “street name” or other form of registration and should be registered in your own name. Alternatively, your broker or bank may offer a program that allows you to participate in a plan without having to withdraw your shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock from “street name.”
If you are already a participant in the Preferred Stock Plan, you need not take any further action in order to maintain your present participation.
Administration
Computershare Trust Company, N.A. administers the Preferred Stock Plan. Certain administrative support will be provided to Computershare by its designated affiliates. If you have questions regarding the Preferred Stock Plan, please write to Computershare at the following address: Computershare Trust Company, N.A., P.O. Box 505013, Louisville, KY 40233-5013 or call Computershare at 1-877-373-6374. An automated voice response system is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Customer service representatives are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except holidays). In addition, you may visit Computershare’s website at www.computershare.com/investor. At this website, you can enroll in the Preferred Stock Plan, obtain information, and perform certain transactions on your Preferred Stock Plan account.
Purchases and Pricing of Shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock
With respect to reinvested dividends, the Stated Value for purchases of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock directly from us will be $25.00 per share, and the investment date will be the dividend payment date for the month. Dividend payment dates generally occur on the first business day of each month. Your account will be credited with a full and fractional number of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock, subject to operating procedures of the Depository Trust Company, equal to the total amount to be invested by you, divided by the applicable purchase price per share.
There are no fees or other charges on shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock purchased through the Preferred Stock Plan.
Participation
Any eligible holder of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock may enroll in the Preferred Stock Plan online through www.computershare.com/investor. Alternatively, you may enroll in the Preferred Stock Plan by completing an enrollment form and returning it to Computershare at the address set forth above.
If Computershare receives your enrollment form by the record date for the payment of the next dividend (approximately 10 days in advance of the dividend payment date), that dividend will be invested in additional shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock for your Preferred Stock Plan account; provided, however, that the first dividend payable with respect to newly-issued shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock pursuant to our primary offering will be paid in cash, with subsequent dividends reinvested pursuant to the Preferred Stock Plan. If the enrollment form is received in the period after any dividend record date, that dividend will be paid by check or automatic deposit to a U.S. bank account that you designate and your initial dividend reinvestment will commence with the following dividend.
By enrolling in the Preferred Stock Plan, you direct Computershare to apply all, but not less than all, dividends to the purchase of additional shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock in accordance with the Preferred Stock Plan’s terms and conditions. Unless otherwise instructed, Computershare will thereafter automatically reinvest all, but not less than all, dividends declared on shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock held under the Preferred Stock Plan. If you want to discontinue the reinvestment of all dividends paid on your shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock, you must provide notice to Computershare.
Cost
We will pay all fees, the annual cost of administration and, unless provided otherwise in the Preferred Stock Plan, all other charges incurred in connection with the purchase of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock acquired under the Preferred Stock Plan, if any.
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Number of Shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock to be Purchased for the Participant
The number of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock purchased under the Preferred Stock Plan will depend on the amount of your dividend. Shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock purchased under the Preferred Stock Plan will be credited to your account. Both full and fractional shares will be purchased.
Shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock received through the Preferred Stock Plan will be of the same series and have the same original issue date for purposes of the Holder Optional Conversion Fee and for other terms of the 5.50% Preferred Stock based on issuance date as the 5.50% Preferred Stock for which the dividend was declared.
The aggregate number of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock, including shares issued under the Preferred Stock Plan, shall not exceed 1,000,000. We cannot assure you there will be enough shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock to meet the requirements under the Preferred Stock Plan. If we do not have a sufficient number of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock to meet the 5.50% Preferred Stock Plan requirements during any month, the portion of any reinvested dividends received by Computershare but not invested in shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock under the Preferred Stock Plan will be returned to participants without interest.
Source of Shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock Purchased Under the Preferred Stock Plan
Shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock purchased under the Preferred Stock Plan will come from our authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock.
Method for Changing Preferred Stock Plan Election
You may change your Preferred Stock Plan election at any time online through www.computershare.com/investor, by telephone or by notifying Computershare in writing. To be effective with respect to a particular dividend, any such change must be received by Computershare prior to the record date for such dividend.
Withdrawal by Participant
You may discontinue the reinvestment of your dividends at any time by providing written or telephone notice to Computershare. Alternatively, you may change your dividend election online through www.computershare.com/investor. If Computershare receives your notice of withdrawal prior to the record date for the payment of the next dividend, Computershare, in its sole discretion, will distribute such dividends in cash. If the request is received after the record date for the payment of the next dividend, then that dividend will be reinvested. However, all subsequent dividends will be paid out in cash on all balances. Computershare will continue to hold your shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock in your Preferred Stock Plan account.
Generally, an eligible holder of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock may again become a participant in the Preferred Stock Plan. However, we reserve the right to reject the enrollment of a previous participant in the Preferred Stock Plan on grounds of excessive joining and termination. This reservation is intended to minimize administrative expense and to encourage use of the Preferred Stock Plan as a long-term investment service.
Share Certificates and Safekeeping
Shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock that you acquire under the Preferred Stock Plan will be maintained in your Preferred Stock Plan account in non-certificated form. This protects your shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock against loss, theft or accidental destruction and also provides a convenient way for you to keep track of your shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock.
Reports to Participants
Statements of your account activity will be sent to you after each transaction, which will simplify your record keeping. Each Preferred Stock Plan account statement will show the amount invested, the purchase price and the number of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock purchased. The statement will include specific cost basis information in accordance with applicable law. Please notify Computershare promptly either in writing, by telephone or through the Internet if your address changes. In addition, you will receive copies of the same communications sent to all other holders of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock, if any. You also will receive any U.S. Internal Revenue Service, or the “IRS,” information returns, if required. Please retain all account statements for your records. The statements contain important tax and other information.
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Suspension, Modification or Termination of the Preferred Stock Plan
We reserve the right to suspend, modify or terminate the Preferred Stock Plan at any time. Participants will be notified of any suspension, modification or termination of the Preferred Stock Plan. Upon our termination of the Preferred Stock Plan any whole book-entry shares owned will continue to be credited to a participant’s account unless specifically requested otherwise.
U.S. Federal Income tax Consequences of Participating in the Preferred Stock Plan
Preferred stockholders who receive dividends or distributions in the form of stock are subject to the same U.S. federal, state and local tax consequences as are preferred stockholders who elect to receive their dividends or distributions in cash. A preferred stockholder’s basis for determining gain or loss upon the sale of stock received in a dividend or distribution from us will be equal to the total dollar amount of the dividend or distribution payable to the stockholder. Any stock received in a dividend or distribution will have a new holding period for tax purposes commencing on the day following the day on which the shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock are credited to the U.S. Stockholder’s account.
Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations
The following discussion is a general summary of the material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to us and to an investment in our common shares. This summary does not purport to be a complete description of the income tax considerations applicable to us or our investors on such an investment. For example, we have not described tax consequences that we assume to be generally known by investors or certain considerations that may be relevant to certain types of holders subject to special treatment under U.S. federal income tax laws, including stockholders subject to the alternative minimum tax, tax-exempt organizations, insurance companies, dealers in securities, pension plans and trusts, financial institutions, U.S. Stockholders (as defined below) whose functional currency is not the U.S. dollar, persons who mark-to-market our shares, persons who hold our shares as part of a “straddle,” “hedge” or “conversion” transaction, and persons that own or have owned, actually or constructively, 5% or more of any class or series of our stock. This summary assumes that investors hold our common stock as capital assets (within the meaning of the Code). The discussion is based upon the Code, Treasury regulations, and administrative and judicial interpretations, each as of the date of this Annual Report and all of which are subject to change, possibly retroactively, which could affect the continuing validity of this discussion. This summary does not discuss any aspects of U.S. estate or gift tax or foreign, state or local tax. It does not discuss the special treatment under U.S. federal income tax laws that could result if we invested in tax-exempt securities or certain other investment assets.
A “U.S. Stockholder” is a beneficial owner of shares of our common stock that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes:
A citizen or individual resident of the United States;
A corporation, or other entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States or any state thereof or the District of Columbia;
An estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or
A trust if (1) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of such trust and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) it has a valid election in place to be treated as a U.S. person.
A “Non-U.S. Stockholder” is a beneficial owner of shares of our common stock that is not a partnership and is not a U.S. Stockholder.
If a partnership (including an entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) holds shares of our common stock, the tax treatment of a partner in the partnership will generally depend upon the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. A prospective stockholder that is a partner of a partnership holding shares of our common stock should consult its tax advisor with respect to the purchase, ownership and disposition of shares of our common stock.
Tax matters are very complicated and the tax consequences to an investor of an investment in our shares will depend on the facts of his, her or its particular situation. We encourage investors to consult their own tax advisors regarding the specific consequences of such an investment, including tax reporting requirements, the applicability of U.S. federal, state, local and foreign tax laws, eligibility for the benefits of any applicable tax treaty and the effect of any possible changes in the tax laws.
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Election to be Taxed as a RIC
As a business development company, we have elected and intend to continue to qualify to be treated as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. As a RIC, we generally are not subject to corporate-level U.S. federal income taxes on any ordinary income or capital gains that we distribute to our stockholders as dividends. To qualify as a RIC, we must, among other things, meet certain source-of-income and asset diversification requirements (as described below). In addition, to obtain RIC tax treatment, we must distribute to our stockholders, for each taxable year, at least 90% of our “investment company taxable income,” which is generally our ordinary income plus the excess of realized net short-term capital gains over realized net long-term capital losses (the “Annual Distribution Requirement”).
Taxation as a RIC
In order to qualify as a RIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we must, among other things:
1.Qualify to be treated as a business development company or be registered as a management investment company under the 1940 Act at all times during each taxable year;
2.Derive in each taxable year at least 90% of our gross income from dividends, interest, payments with respect to certain securities loans, gains from the sale or other disposition of stock or other securities or currencies or other income derived with respect to our business of investing in such stock, securities or currencies and net income derived from an interest in a “qualified publicly traded partnership” (as defined in the Code) (the “90% Income Test”); and
3.Diversify our holdings so that at the end of each quarter of the taxable year:
a.At least 50% of the value of our assets consists of cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities, securities of other RICs, and other securities if such other securities of any one issuer do not represent more than 5% of the value of our assets or more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of the issuer (which for these purposes includes the equity securities of a “qualified publicly traded partnership”); and
b.No more than 25% of the value of our assets is invested in the securities, other than U.S. government securities or securities of other RICs, (i) of one issuer (ii) of two or more issuers that are controlled, as determined under applicable tax rules, by us and that are engaged in the same or similar or related trades or businesses or (iii) of one or more “qualified publicly traded partnerships,” (the “Diversification Tests”).
To the extent that we invest in entities treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes (other than a “qualified publicly traded partnership”), we generally must include the items of gross income derived by the partnerships for purposes of the 90% Income Test, and the income that is derived from a partnership (other than a “qualified publicly traded partnership”) will be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the 90% Income Test only to the extent that such income is attributable to items of income of the partnership which would be qualifying income if realized by us directly. In addition, we generally must take into account our proportionate share of the assets held by partnerships (other than a “qualified publicly traded partnership”) in which we are a partner for purposes of the Diversification Tests. If the partnership is a “qualified publicly traded partnership,” the net income derived from such partnership will be qualifying income for purposes of the 90% Income Test, and interests in the partnership will be “securities” for purposes of the Diversification Tests. We monitor our investments in equity securities of entities that are treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes to prevent our disqualification as a RIC.
In order to meet the 90% Income Test, we may establish one or more special purpose corporations to hold assets from which we do not anticipate earning dividend, interest or other qualifying income under the 90% Income Test. Any such special purpose corporation would generally be subject to U.S. federal income tax, and could result in a reduced after-tax yield on the portion of our assets held by such corporation.
Provided that we qualify as a RIC and satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement, we will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the portion of our investment company taxable income and net capital gain (which we define as net long-term capital gains in excess of net short-term capital losses) we timely distribute to stockholders. We will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the regular corporate rates on any income or capital gain not distributed (or deemed distributed) to our stockholders. Any undistributed taxable income is subject to U.S. federal income tax.
We will be subject to a 4% non-deductible U.S. federal excise tax on certain undistributed income of RICs unless we distribute in a timely manner an amount at least equal to the sum of (i) 98% of our ordinary income recognized during the calendar year, (ii) 98.2% of our capital gain net income, as defined by the Code, recognized for the one year period ending October 31 in that calendar year and (iii) any income recognized, but not distributed, in preceding years.
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We may be required to recognize taxable income in circumstances in which we do not receive cash. For example, if we hold debt obligations that are treated under applicable tax rules as having original issue discount, we must include in income each year a portion of the original issue discount that accrues over the life of the obligation, regardless of whether cash representing such income is received by us in the same taxable year. Because any original issue discount accrued will be included in our investment company taxable income for the year of accrual, we may be required to make a distribution to our stockholders in order to satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement, even though we will not have received any corresponding cash amount.
Gain or loss realized by us from warrants acquired by us as well as any loss attributable to the lapse of such warrants generally will be treated as capital gain or loss. Such gain or loss generally will be long-term or short-term, depending on how long we held a particular warrant. As a RIC, we are not allowed to carry forward or carry back a net operating loss for purposes of computing our investment company taxable income in other taxable years.
Guidance from the IRS generally permits publicly offered RICs to pay cash/stock dividends consisting of up to 80% stock if certain requirements are met. Any dividends paid in stock in accordance with such guidance will be taxable to the shareholder as if the dividend had been paid in cash and we will receive a dividend paid deduction for such distribution.
Although we do not presently expect to do so, we are authorized to borrow funds and to sell assets in order to satisfy distribution requirements. However, under the 1940 Act, we are not permitted to make distributions to our stockholders while our debt obligations and other senior securities are outstanding unless certain “asset coverage” tests are met. See “Regulation as a Business Development Company – Senior Securities.” Moreover, our ability to dispose of assets to meet our distribution requirements may be limited by (1) the illiquid nature of our portfolio and/or (2) other requirements relating to our status as a RIC, including the Diversification Tests. If we dispose of assets in order to meet the Annual Distribution Requirement or to avoid the excise tax, we may make such dispositions at times that, from an investment standpoint, are not advantageous.
If we fail to satisfy the Annual Distribution Requirement or otherwise fail to qualify as a RIC in any taxable year, we would be subject to tax on all of our taxable income at regular corporate rates. We would not be able to deduct distributions to stockholders, nor would we be required to make distributions. Distributions would generally be taxable to our individual and other non-corporate taxable stockholders as ordinary dividend income eligible for the reduced maximum rate applicable to qualified dividend income to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits, provided certain holding period and other requirements are met. Subject to certain limitations under the Code, corporate distributees would be eligible for the dividends-received deduction. To qualify again to be taxed as a RIC in a subsequent year, we would be required to distribute to our stockholders our accumulated earnings and profits attributable to non-RIC years. In addition, if we failed to qualify as a RIC for a period greater than two taxable years, then, in order to qualify as a RIC in a subsequent year, we would be required to elect to recognize and pay tax on any net built-in gain (the excess of aggregate gain, including items of income, over aggregate loss that would have been realized if we had been liquidated) or, alternatively, be subject to taxation on such built-in gain recognized for a period of five years. The remainder of this discussion assumes we will qualify for taxation as a RIC.
Certain of our investment practices may be subject to special and complex U.S. federal income tax provisions that may, among other things, (i) disallow, suspend or otherwise limit the allowance of certain losses or deductions, (ii) convert lower taxed long-term capital gain and qualified dividend income into higher taxed short-term capital gain or ordinary income, (iii) convert an ordinary loss or a deduction into a capital loss (the deductibility of which is more limited), (iv) cause us to recognize income or gain without a corresponding receipt of cash, (v) adversely affect the time as to when a purchase or sale of stock or securities is deemed to occur, (vi) adversely alter the characterization of certain complex financial transactions, and (vii) produce income that will not be qualifying income for purposes of the 90% Income Test. We will monitor our transactions and may make certain tax elections in order to mitigate the effect of these provisions.
We may invest in preferred securities or other securities the U.S. federal income tax treatment of which may be unclear or may be subject to recharacterization by the IRS. To the extent the tax treatment of such securities or the income from such securities differs from the expected tax treatment, it could affect the timing or character of income recognized, requiring us to purchase or sell securities, or otherwise change our portfolio, in order to comply with the tax rules applicable to RICs under the Code.
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Taxation of U.S. Stockholders
Distributions by us generally are taxable to U.S. Stockholders as ordinary income or capital gains. Distributions of our “investment company taxable income” (which is, generally, our ordinary income plus realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses) will be taxable as ordinary income to U.S. Stockholders to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits, whether paid in cash or reinvested in additional common stock. Provided that certain holding period and other requirements are met, such distributions (if properly reported by us) may qualify (i) for the dividends received deduction available to corporations, but only to the extent that our income consists of dividend income from U.S. corporations and (ii) in the case of individual stockholders, as qualified dividend income eligible to be taxed at long-term capital gain rates to the extent that we receive qualified dividend income (generally, dividend income from taxable domestic corporations and certain qualified foreign corporations). There can be no assurance as to what portion, if any, of our distributions will qualify for favorable treatment as qualified dividend income.
Certain U.S. Stockholders are limited in their ability to deduct interest expense described in Section 163(j) of the Code. If Section 163(j) applies, the business interest expense deduction allowed for the tax year is generally limited to the sum of: (1) business interest income, (2) 30% of the taxpayer’s adjusted taxable income, and (3) the taxpayer’s “floor plan financing interest expense.” Properly reported dividends paid by us that are attributable to our net business interest income may be treated as Section 163(j) interest dividends, provided that certain holding period and other requirements are satisfied and subject to certain limitations. There can be no assurance as to what portion, if any, of our distributions will qualify for such interest income.
Distributions of our net capital gain (which is generally our realized net long-term capital gains in excess of realized net short-term capital losses) properly reported by us as “capital gain dividends” will be taxable to a U.S. Stockholder as long-term capital gains, regardless of the U.S. Stockholder’s holding period for its common stock and regardless of whether paid in cash or reinvested in additional common stock. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits first will reduce a U.S. Stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in such stockholder’s common stock and, after the adjusted basis is reduced to zero, will constitute capital gains to such U.S. Stockholder. In determining the extent to which a distribution will be treated as being made from our earnings and profits, our earnings and profits will be allocated, on a pro rata basis, first to distributions with respect to our preferred stock, and then to our common stock. In addition, the IRS currently requires a RIC that has two or more classes of shares outstanding to designate to each such class proportionate amounts of each type of its income (e.g., ordinary income, capital gain dividends, qualified dividend income, dividends eligible for the dividends received deduction) for each tax year based upon the percentage of total dividends distributed to each class for such year.
Properly reported dividends paid by us that are attributable to our “qualified REIT dividends” (generally, ordinary income dividends paid by a REIT, not including capital gain dividends or dividends treated as qualified dividend income) may be eligible for the 20% deduction described in Section 199A of the Code in the case of non-corporate U.S. Stockholders, provided that certain holding period and other requirements are met by us and by such stockholder. There can be no assurance as to what portion, if any, of our distributions will qualify for such deduction. Subject to any future regulatory guidance to the contrary, any distribution of income attributable to income from our investment in a master limited partnership (“MLP”) will not qualify for the 20% deduction for “qualified PTP income” that would generally be available to a non-corporate U.S. Stockholder were the stockholder to own such MLP directly. As a result, it is possible that a non-corporate U.S. Stockholder will be subject to a higher effective tax rate on any such distributions received from us compared to the effective rate applicable to any income the U.S. Stockholder would receive if the stockholder invested directly in an MLP.
Although we currently intend to distribute any long-term capital gains at least annually, we may in the future decide to retain some or all of our long-term capital gains, and designate the retained amount as a “deemed distribution.” In that case, among other consequences, we will pay tax on the retained amount, and we may elect for each U.S. Stockholder to include his, her or its proportionate share of the deemed distribution in income as if it had been actually distributed to the U.S. Stockholder, in which case the U.S. Stockholder would be entitled to claim a credit equal to its allocable share of the tax paid thereon by us. The amount of the deemed distribution net of such tax will be added to the U.S. Stockholder’s tax basis for his, her or its common stock. The amount of tax that individual stockholders would be treated as having paid and for which they will receive a credit may exceed the tax they owe on the retained net capital gain. Such excess generally may be claimed as a credit against the U.S. Stockholder’s other U.S. federal income tax obligations or may be refunded to the extent it exceeds a stockholder’s liability for U.S. federal income tax. A stockholder that is not subject to U.S. federal income tax or otherwise required to file a U.S. federal income tax return would be required to file a U.S. federal income tax return on the appropriate form in order to claim a refund for the taxes we paid. In order to utilize the deemed distribution approach, we must provide written notice to our stockholders prior to the expiration of 60 days after the close of the relevant taxable year. We cannot treat any of our investment company taxable income as a “deemed distribution.”
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For purposes of determining (1) whether the Annual Distribution Requirement is satisfied for any year and (2) the amount of capital gain dividends paid for that year, we may, under certain circumstances, elect to treat a dividend that is paid during the following taxable year as if it had been paid during the taxable year in question. If we make such an election, the U.S. Stockholder will still be treated as receiving the dividend in the taxable year in which the distribution is made. However, any dividend declared by us in October, November or December of any calendar year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date in any such month and actually paid during January of the following year, will be treated as if it had been received by our U.S. Stockholders on December 31 of the year in which the dividend was declared.
If a U.S. Stockholder purchases shares of our common stock shortly before the record date of a distribution, the price of the shares will include the value of the distribution and the investor will be subject to tax on the distribution even though it represents a return of its investment.
A U.S. Stockholder generally will recognize taxable gain or loss if such U.S. Stockholder sells or otherwise disposes of its shares of our common stock. Any gain or loss arising from such sale or taxable disposition generally will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Stockholder has held his, her or its shares for more than one year. Otherwise, it would be classified as short-term capital gain or loss. However, any capital loss arising from the sale or taxable disposition of shares of our common stock held for six months or less will be treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of the amount of capital gain dividends received, or undistributed capital gain deemed received, with respect to such shares. In addition, all or a portion of any loss recognized upon a taxable disposition of shares of our common stock may be disallowed if other substantially identical shares are purchased (whether through reinvestment of distributions or otherwise) within 30 days before or after the disposition. Capital losses are deductible only to the extent of capital gains (subject to an exception for individuals under which a limited amount of capital losses may be offset against ordinary income).
In general, individual U.S. Stockholders currently are subject to a preferential rate on their net capital gain, or the excess of realized net long-term capital gain over realized net short-term capital loss for a taxable year, including long-term capital gain derived from an investment in our shares. Such rate is lower than the maximum rate on ordinary income currently payable by individuals. Corporate U.S. Stockholders currently are subject to U.S. federal income tax on net capital gain at ordinary income rates.
Certain U.S. Stockholders who are individuals, estates or trusts and whose income exceeds certain thresholds will be required to pay a 3.8% Medicare tax on all or a portion of their “net investment income,” which includes dividends received from us and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of our stock.
We will make available to each of our U.S. Stockholders, as promptly as possible after the end of each calendar year, a notice detailing, on a per share basis, the amounts includible in such U.S. Stockholder’s taxable income for such year as ordinary income and as long-term capital gain on form 1099-DIV. In addition, the amount and the U.S. federal tax status of each year’s distributions generally will be reported to the IRS. Distributions may also be subject to additional state, local and foreign taxes depending on a U.S. Stockholder’s particular situation.
Payments of dividends, including deemed payments of constructive dividends, or the proceeds of the sale or other taxable disposition of our common stock generally are subject to information reporting unless the U.S. Stockholder is an exempt recipient. Such payments may also be subject to U.S. federal backup withholding at the applicable rate if the recipient of such payment fails to supply a taxpayer identification number and otherwise comply with the rules for establishing an exemption from backup withholding. Backup withholding is not an additional tax, and any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules generally will be allowed as a refund or credit against the holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, provided that certain information is provided timely to the IRS.
Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders
Whether an investment in our common stock is appropriate for a Non-U.S. Stockholder will depend upon that person’s particular circumstances. An investment in our common stock by a Non-U.S. Stockholder may have adverse tax consequences. Non-U.S. Stockholders should consult their tax advisers before investing in our common stock.
Distributions of our “investment company taxable income” to Non-U.S. Stockholders that are not “effectively connected” with a U.S. trade or business conducted by the Non-U.S. Stockholder, will generally be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a rate of 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits.
Properly reported distributions to Non-U.S. Stockholders are generally exempt from U.S. federal withholding tax where they (i) are paid in respect of our “qualified net interest income” (generally, our U.S.-source interest income, other than certain contingent interest and interest from obligations of a corporation or partnership in which we are at least a 10% stockholder,
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reduced by expenses that are allocable to such income) or (ii) are paid in respect of our “qualified short-term capital gains” (generally, the excess of our net short-term capital gain over our long-term capital loss for such taxable year). However, depending on our circumstances, we may report all, some or none of our potentially eligible dividends as such qualified net interest income or as qualified short-term capital gains, and/or treat such dividends, in whole or in part, as ineligible for this exemption from withholding. In order to qualify for this exemption from withholding, a Non-U.S. Stockholder needs to comply with applicable certification requirements relating to its non-U.S. status (including, in general, furnishing an IRS Form W-8BEN, W-8BEN-E or substitute form). In the case of shares held through an intermediary, the intermediary may withhold even if we report the payment as qualified net interest income or qualified short-term capital gain. Non-U.S. Stockholders should contact their intermediaries with respect to the application of these rules to their accounts. There can be no assurance as to what portion of our distributions will qualify for favorable treatment as qualified net interest income or qualified short-term capital gains.
Actual or deemed distributions of our net capital gain to a Non-U.S. Stockholder, and gains recognized by a Non-U.S. Stockholder upon the sale of our common stock, that are not effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by the Non-U.S. Stockholder, will generally not be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax and generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless (i) the Non-U.S. Stockholder is a nonresident alien individual and is physically present in the United States for 183 or more days during the taxable year and meets certain other requirements, or (ii) subject to certain exceptions, we are or during prescribed testing periods have been a “United States real property holding corporation” or, in the case of certain distributions, a “qualified investment entity,” each within the meaning of the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980. Although we do not expect to be a “United States real property holding corporation” or “qualified investment entity,” no assurances can be given in that regard.
Distributions of our “investment company taxable income” and net capital gain (including deemed distributions) to Non-U.S. Stockholders, and gains realized by Non-U.S. Stockholders upon the sale of our common stock, that are effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business conducted by the Non-U.S. Stockholder, will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at the graduated rates applicable to U.S. citizens, residents and domestic corporations. In addition, if such Non-U.S. Stockholder is a foreign corporation, it may also be subject to a 30% (or lower applicable treaty rate) branch profits tax on its effectively connected earnings and profits for the taxable year, subject to adjustments, if its investment in our common stock is effectively connected with its conduct of a U.S. trade or business.
If we distribute our net capital gain in the form of deemed rather than actual distributions (which we may do in the future), a Non-U.S. Stockholder will be entitled to a U.S. federal income tax credit or tax refund equal to the stockholder’s allocable share of the tax we pay on the capital gains deemed to have been distributed. In order to obtain the refund, the Non-U.S. Stockholder must obtain a U.S. taxpayer identification number and file a U.S. federal income tax return even if the Non-U.S. Stockholder would not otherwise be required to obtain a U.S. taxpayer identification number or file a U.S. federal income tax return.
In addition, withholding at a rate of 30% will be required on dividends in respect of our stock held by or through certain foreign financial institutions (including investment funds), unless such institution enters into an agreement with the Secretary of the Treasury to report, on an annual basis, information with respect to interests in, and accounts maintained by, the institution to the extent such interests or accounts are held by certain U.S. persons or by certain non-U.S. entities that are wholly or partially owned by U.S. persons and to withhold on certain payments. Accordingly, the entity through which our shares are held will affect the determination of whether such withholding is required. Similarly, dividends in respect of our shares held by an investor that is a non-financial non-U.S. entity that does not qualify under certain exemptions will be subject to withholding at a rate of 30%, unless such entity either (i) certifies that such entity does not have any “substantial United States owners” or (ii) provides certain information regarding the entity’s “substantial United States owners,” which we or the applicable withholding agent will in turn provide to the IRS. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country, or future Treasury regulations or other guidance, may modify these requirements. We will not pay any additional amounts to stockholders in respect of any amounts withheld. Non-U.S. Stockholders are encouraged to consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of the legislation on their investment in our shares.
A Non-U.S. Stockholder generally will be required to comply with certain certification procedures to establish that such holder is not a U.S. person in order to avoid backup withholding with respect to payments of dividends, including deemed payments of constructive dividends, or the proceeds of a disposition of our common stock. In addition, we are required to annually report to the IRS and each Non-U.S. Stockholder the amount of any dividends or constructive dividends treated as paid to such Non-U.S. Stockholder, regardless of whether any tax was actually withheld. Copies of the information returns reporting such dividend or constructive dividend payments and the amount withheld may also be made available to the tax authorities in the country in which a Non-U.S. Stockholder resides under the provisions of an applicable income tax treaty. Backup withholding is not an additional tax, and any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules generally will be allowed as a refund or credit
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against a Non-U.S. Stockholder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, provided that certain required information is provided timely to the IRS.
Non-U.S. persons should consult their tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal income tax and withholding tax, and state, local and foreign tax consequences of an investment in our common stock.
The discussion set forth herein does not constitute tax advice, and potential investors should consult their own tax advisors concerning the tax considerations relevant to their particular situation.
Regulation as a Business Development Company
General
We are a closed-end, non-diversified investment company that has filed an election to be treated as a BDC under the 1940 Act and has elected to be treated as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. The 1940 Act contains prohibitions and restrictions relating to transactions between business development companies and their affiliates (including any investment advisers or sub-advisers), principal underwriters and affiliates of those affiliates or underwriters and requires that a majority of the directors be persons other than “interested persons,” as that term is defined in the 1940 Act. In addition, the 1940 Act provides that we may not change the nature of our business so as to cease to be, or to withdraw our election as, a business development company unless approved by a majority of our outstanding voting securities.
We may invest up to 100% of our assets in securities acquired directly from issuers in privately negotiated transactions. With respect to such securities, we may, for the purpose of public resale, be deemed an “underwriter” as that term is defined in the Securities Act of 1933. Our intention is to not write (sell) or buy put or call options to manage risks associated with the publicly traded securities of our portfolio companies, except that we may enter into hedging transactions to manage the risks associated with interest rate, foreign currency and other market fluctuations. However, in connection with an investment or acquisition financing of a portfolio company, we may purchase or otherwise receive warrants to purchase the common stock of the portfolio company. Similarly, in connection with an acquisition, we may acquire rights to require the issuers of acquired securities or their affiliates to repurchase them under certain circumstances. We also do not intend to acquire securities issued by any investment company that exceed the limits imposed by the 1940 Act. Under these limits, except with respect to money market funds, we generally cannot acquire more than 3% of the voting stock of any regulated investment company, invest more than 5% of the value of our total assets in the securities of one investment company or invest more than 10% of the value of our total assets in the securities of more than one investment company. With regard to that portion of our portfolio invested in securities issued by investment companies, it should be noted that such investments subject our stockholders indirectly to additional expenses. None of these policies are fundamental and may be changed without stockholder approval.
Qualifying Assets
Under the 1940 Act, a business development company may not acquire any asset other than assets of the type listed in Section 55(a) of the 1940 Act, which are referred to as qualifying assets, unless, at the time the acquisition is made, qualifying assets represent at least 70% of the company’s total assets. The principal categories of qualifying assets relevant to our business are the following:
1.Securities purchased in transactions not involving any public offering from the issuer of such securities, which issuer (subject to certain limited exceptions) is an eligible portfolio company, or from any person who is, or has been during the preceding 13 months, an affiliated person of an eligible portfolio company, or from any other person, subject to such rules as may be prescribed by the SEC. An “eligible portfolio company” is defined in the 1940 Act and rules adopted pursuant thereto as any issuer which:
a.is organized under the laws of, and has its principal place of business in, the United States;
b.is not an investment company (other than a small business investment company wholly-owned by the business development company) or a company that would be an investment company but for certain exclusions under the 1940 Act for certain financial companies such as banks, brokers, commercial finance companies, mortgage companies and insurance companies; and
c.satisfies any of the following:
i.does not have any class of securities with respect to which a broker or dealer may extend margin credit;
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ii.is controlled by a business development company or a group of companies including a business development company and the business development company has an affiliated person who is a director of the eligible portfolio company;
iii.is a small and solvent company having total assets of not more than $4 million and capital and surplus of not less than $2 million;
iv.does not have any class of securities listed on a national securities exchange; or
v.has a class of securities listed on a national securities exchange, but has an aggregate market value of outstanding voting and non-voting common equity of less than $250 million.
2.Securities in companies that were eligible portfolio companies when we made our initial investment if certain other requirements are satisfied.
3.Securities of any eligible portfolio company which we control.
4.Securities purchased in a private transaction from a U.S. issuer that is not an investment company or from an affiliated person of the issuer, or in transactions incident thereto, if the issuer is in bankruptcy and subject to reorganization or if the issuer, immediately prior to the purchase of its securities was unable to meet its obligations as they came due without material assistance other than conventional lending or financing agreements.
5.Securities of an eligible portfolio company purchased from any person in a private transaction if there is no ready market for such securities and we already own 60% of the outstanding equity of the eligible portfolio company.
6.Securities received in exchange for or distributed on or with respect to securities described in (1) through (4) above, or pursuant to the exercise of warrants or rights relating to such securities.
7.Cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities or high-quality debt securities maturing in one year or less from the time of investment.
In addition, a business development company must have been organized and have its principal place of business in the United States and must be operated for the purpose of making investments in the types of securities described in (1), (2), (3) or (4) above.
Managerial Assistance to Portfolio Companies
In order to count portfolio securities as qualifying assets for the purpose of the 70% test, a business development company must either control the issuer of the securities or must offer to make available to the issuer of the securities (other than small and solvent companies described above) significant managerial assistance; except that, where the business development company purchases such securities in conjunction with one or more other persons acting together, one of the other persons in the group may make available such managerial assistance. “Making available significant managerial assistance” refers to any arrangement whereby we provide significant guidance and counsel concerning the management, operations, or business objectives and policies of a portfolio company. We are also deemed to be providing managerial assistance to all portfolio companies that we control, either by ourselves or in conjunction with others. The nature and extent of significant managerial assistance provided by us will vary according to the particular needs of each portfolio company. Examples of such activities include advice on marketing, operations, fulfillment and overall strategy, capital budgeting, managing relationships with financing sources, recruiting management personnel, evaluating acquisition and divestiture opportunities, participating in board and management meetings, consulting with and advising officers of portfolio companies, and providing other organizational and financial guidance. We provide significant managerial assistance to all portfolio companies that we control, either by ourselves or in conjunction with others. Prospect Administration provides such managerial assistance on our behalf to portfolio companies, including controlled companies, when we are required to provide this assistance, utilizing personnel from Prospect Capital Management.
Temporary Investments
Pending investment in other types of “qualifying assets,” as described above, our investments may consist of cash, cash equivalents, including money market funds, U.S. government securities or high quality debt securities maturing in one year or less from the time of investment, which we refer to, collectively, as temporary investments, so that 70% of our assets are qualifying assets. Typically, we will invest in money market funds, U.S. Treasury bills or in repurchase agreements that are fully collateralized by cash or securities issued by the U.S. government or its agencies. A repurchase agreement involves the
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purchase by an investor, such as us, of a specified security and the simultaneous agreement by the seller to repurchase it at an agreed upon future date and at a price which is greater than the purchase price by an amount that reflects an agreed-upon interest rate. There is no percentage restriction on the proportion of our assets that may be invested in such repurchase agreements. However, if more than 25% of our total assets constitute repurchase agreements from a single counterparty, we would not meet the Diversification Tests in order to qualify as a RIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Thus, we do not intend to enter into repurchase agreements with a single counterparty in excess of this limit. The Investment Adviser will monitor the creditworthiness of the counterparties with which we enter into repurchase agreement transactions.
Senior Securities
Business development companies are generally able to issue senior securities such that their asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 200% of gross assets less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by senior securities, after each issuance of senior securities. In March 2018, the Small Business Credit Availability Act added Section 61(a)(2) to the 1940 Act, a successor provision to Section 61(a)(1) referenced therein, which reduces the asset coverage requirement applicable to business development companies from 200% to 150% so long as the business development company meets certain disclosure requirements and obtains certain approvals. On March 30, 2020, our Board of Directors approved, and on May 5, 2020, at a special meeting of our stockholders, our stockholders approved, the application to us of the reduced asset coverage requirements in Section 61(a) of the 1940 Act. The application of the reduced asset coverage requirement, which became effective on May 6, 2020, permits us, provided certain requirements are satisfied, to double the maximum amount of leverage that it is permitted to incur by reducing the asset coverage requirement applicable to us from 200% to 150% (a 2:1 debt to equity ratio, as opposed to a 1:1 debt to equity ratio), as provided for in Section 61(a)(2) of the 1940 Act. In other words, under the 1940 Act, the Company is now able to borrow $2 for investment purposes for every $1 of investor equity, as opposed to borrowing $1 for investment purposes for every $1 of investor equity. As a result, the Company may incur additional indebtedness and investors in the Company may face increased investment risk. In addition, the Company’s management fee payable to the Investment Adviser is based on the Company’s average adjusted gross assets, which includes leverage and, as a result, if the Company incurs additional leverage, management fees paid to the Investment Adviser would increase. As of June 30, 2022, our asset coverage ratio stood at 273.3% based on the outstanding principal amount of our senior securities representing indebtedness of $2.8 billion and our asset coverage ratio on our senior securities that are stock was 215.6%.
We may also borrow amounts up to 5% of the value of our total assets for temporary or emergency purposes without regard to asset coverage. For a discussion of the risks associated with leverage, see “Risk Factors – Risks Relating to Our Securities.”
Code of Ethics
We, Prospect Capital Management and Prospect Administration have each adopted a code of ethics pursuant to Rule 17j-1 under the 1940 Act that establishes procedures for personal investments and restricts certain personal securities transactions. Personnel subject to each code may invest in securities for their personal investment accounts, including securities that may be purchased or held by us, so long as such investments are made in accordance with the code’s requirements. For information on how to obtain a copy of each code of ethics, see “Available Information.”
Compliance Policies and Procedures
We and the Investment Adviser have adopted and implemented written policies and procedures reasonably designed to prevent violation of the U.S. federal securities laws and are required to review these compliance policies and procedures annually for their adequacy and the effectiveness of their implementation and to designate a Chief Compliance Officer to be responsible for administering the policies and procedures. Kristin L. Van Dask serves as our Chief Compliance Officer.
Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures
We have delegated our proxy voting responsibility to Prospect Capital Management. The Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures of Prospect Capital Management are set forth below. The guidelines are reviewed periodically by Prospect Capital Management and our independent directors, and, accordingly, are subject to change.
Introduction.    
As an investment adviser registered under the Advisers Act, Prospect Capital Management has a fiduciary duty to act solely in the best interests of its clients. As part of this duty, Prospect Capital Management recognizes that it must vote client securities in a timely manner free of conflicts of interest and in the best interests of its clients.
These policies and procedures for voting proxies for Prospect Capital Management’s Investment Advisory clients are intended to comply with Section 206 of, and Rule 206(4)-6 under, the Advisers Act.
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Proxy policies.    
These policies are designed to be responsive to the wide range of subjects that may be the subject of a proxy vote. These policies are not exhaustive due to the variety of proxy voting issues that Prospect Capital Management may be required to consider. In general, Prospect Capital Management will vote proxies in accordance with these guidelines unless: (1) Prospect Capital Management has determined to consider the matter on a case-by-case basis (as is stated in these guidelines), (2) the subject matter of the vote is not covered by these guidelines, (3) a material conflict of interest is present, or (4) Prospect Capital Management might find it necessary to vote contrary to its general guidelines to maximize stockholder value and vote in its clients’ best interests. In such cases, a decision on how to vote will be made by the Proxy Voting Committee (as described below). In reviewing proxy issues, Prospect Capital Management will apply the following general policies:
Elections of directors.    
In general, Prospect Capital Management will vote in favor of the management-proposed slate of directors. If there is a proxy fight for seats on the Board of Directors or Prospect Capital Management determines that there are other compelling reasons for withholding votes for directors, the Proxy Voting Committee will determine the appropriate vote on the matter. Prospect Capital Management believes that directors have a duty to respond to stockholder actions that have received significant stockholder support. Prospect Capital Management may withhold votes for directors that fail to act on key issues such as failure to implement proposals to declassify boards, failure to implement a majority vote requirement, failure to submit a rights plan to a stockholder vote and failure to act on tender offers where a majority of stockholders have tendered their shares. Finally, Prospect Capital Management may withhold votes for directors of non-U.S. issuers where there is insufficient information about the nominees disclosed in the proxy statement.
Appointment of auditors.    
Our Audit Committee and Board of Directors believe that the company remains in the best position to choose the auditors and will generally support management’s recommendation.
Changes in capital structure.    
Changes in a company’s charter, articles of incorporation or by-laws may be required by state or U.S. federal regulation. In general, Prospect Capital Management will cast its votes in accordance with the company’s management on such proposal. However, the Proxy Voting Committee will review and analyze on a case-by-case basis any proposals regarding changes in corporate structure that are not required by state or U.S. federal regulation.
Corporate restructurings, mergers and acquisitions.    
Prospect Capital Management believes proxy votes dealing with corporate reorganizations are an extension of the investment decision. Accordingly, the Proxy Voting Committee will analyze such proposals on a case-by-case basis.
Proposals affecting the rights of stockholders.    
Prospect Capital Management will generally vote in favor of proposals that give stockholders a greater voice in the affairs of the company and oppose any measure that seeks to limit those rights. However, when analyzing such proposals, Prospect Capital Management will weigh the financial impact of the proposal against the impairment of the rights of stockholders.
Corporate governance.    
Prospect Capital Management recognizes the importance of good corporate governance in ensuring that management and the Board of Directors fulfill their obligations to the stockholders. Prospect Capital Management favors proposals promoting transparency and accountability within a company.
Anti-takeover measures.    
The Proxy Voting Committee will evaluate, on a case-by-case basis, proposals regarding anti-takeover measures to determine the measure’s likely effect on stockholder value dilution.
Stock splits.    
Prospect Capital Management will generally vote with the management of the Company on stock split matters.
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Limited liability of directors.    
Prospect Capital Management will generally vote with management on matters that would affect the limited liability of directors.
Social and corporate responsibility.    
The Proxy Voting Committee may review and analyze on a case-by-case basis proposals relating to social, political and environmental issues to determine whether they will have a financial impact on stockholder value. Prospect Capital Management may abstain from voting on social proposals that do not have a readily determinable financial impact on stockholder value.
Proxy voting procedures.    
Prospect Capital Management will generally vote proxies in accordance with these guidelines. In circumstances in which (1) Prospect Capital Management has determined to consider the matter on a case-by-case basis (as is stated in these guidelines), (2) the subject matter of the vote is not covered by these guidelines, (3) a material conflict of interest is present, or (4) Prospect Capital Management might find it necessary to vote contrary to its general guidelines to maximize stockholder value and vote in its clients’ best interests, the Proxy Voting Committee will vote the proxy.
Proxy voting committee.    
Prospect Capital Management has formed a proxy voting committee to establish general proxy policies and consider specific proxy voting matters as necessary. In addition, members of the committee may contact the management of the company and interested stockholder groups as necessary to discuss proxy issues. Members of the committee will include relevant senior personnel. The committee may also evaluate proxies where we face a potential conflict of interest (as discussed below). Finally, the committee monitors adherence to guidelines, and reviews the policies contained in this statement from time to time.
Conflicts of interest.    
Prospect Capital Management recognizes that there may be a potential conflict of interest when it votes a proxy solicited by an issuer that is its advisory client or a client or customer of one of our affiliates or with whom it has another business or personal relationship that may affect how it votes on the issuer’s proxy. Prospect Capital Management believes that adherence to these policies and procedures ensures that proxies are voted with only its clients’ best interests in mind. To ensure that its votes are not the product of a conflict of interests, Prospect Capital Management requires that: (i) anyone involved in the decision making process (including members of the Proxy Voting Committee) disclose to the chairman of the Proxy Voting Committee any potential conflict that he or she is aware of and any contact that he or she has had with any interested party regarding a proxy vote; and (ii) employees involved in the decision making process or vote administration are prohibited from revealing how Prospect Capital Management intends to vote on a proposal in order to reduce any attempted influence from interested parties.
Proxy voting.    
Each account’s custodian will forward all relevant proxy materials to Prospect Capital Management, either electronically or in physical form to the address of record that Prospect Capital Management has provided to the custodian.
Proxy recordkeeping.   
 Prospect Capital Management must retain the following documents pertaining to proxy voting:
copies of its proxy voting policies and procedures;
copies of all proxy statements;
records of all votes cast by Prospect Capital Management;
copies of all documents created by Prospect Capital Management that were material to making a decision how to vote proxies or that memorializes the basis for that decision; and
copies of all written client requests for information with regard to how Prospect Capital Management voted proxies on behalf of the client as well as any written responses provided.
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All of the above-referenced records will be maintained and preserved for a period of not less than five years from the end of the fiscal year during which the last entry was made. The first two years of records must be maintained at our office.
Proxy voting records.    
Clients may obtain information about how Prospect Capital Management voted proxies on their behalf by making a written request for proxy voting information to: Compliance Officer, Prospect Capital Management LLC, 700 S Rosemary Ave, Suite 204, West Palm Beach, FL 33401.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 imposes a variety of regulatory requirements on publicly-held companies. In addition to our Chief Executive and Chief Financial Officers’ required certifications as to the accuracy of our financial reporting, we are also required to disclose the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as well as report on our assessment of our internal controls over financial reporting, the latter of which must be audited by our independent registered public accounting firm.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 also requires us to continually review our policies and procedures to ensure that we remain in compliance with all rules promulgated thereunder.
Available Information
We file with or submit to the SEC annual, quarterly and current periodic reports, proxy statements and other information meeting the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). This information is available free of charge by contacting us at (212) 448-0702 or on our website at www.prospectstreet.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report or other documents we file with or furnish to the SEC, and you should not consider such information to be part of this Annual Report or other documents we file with or furnish to the SEC. You also may inspect and copy these reports, proxy statements and other information, as well as the Annual Report and related exhibits and schedules, at the Public Reference Room of the SEC at 100 F Street NE, Washington, D.C. 20549. Such information is also available from the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. You also can obtain copies of such information, after paying a duplicating fee, by sending a request by e-mail to publicinfo@sec.gov or by writing the SEC’s Public Reference Branch, Office of Consumer Affairs and Information Services, Securities and Exchange Commission, Washington, D.C. 20549. You may obtain information on the operation of the SEC’s Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at (202) 551-8090 or (800) SEC-0330.
We intend to use our website as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Those disclosures will be included on our website in the “Investors” or “News” section. Accordingly, investors should monitor our website, in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report, before you decide whether to make an investment in our securities. The risks set forth below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, or not presently deemed material by us, may also impair our operations and performance. If any of the adverse events or conditions described below occurs, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected. In such case, our NAV, and the trading price of our common stock could decline, or the value of our preferred stock, debt securities, and warrants, if any are outstanding, may decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. The risk factors described below are the principal risk factors associated with an investment in our securities as well as those factors generally associated with an investment company with investment objectives, investment policies, capital structure or trading markets similar to ours.
Our $60.5 million of 4.95% convertible notes due 2022 are referred to as the “2022 Notes”. Our $156.2 million of 6.375% convertible notes due 2025 are referred to as the “2025 Notes”, and collectively with the 2022 Notes, are the “Convertible Notes”. Our $284.2 million of 5.875% unsecured notes due 2023 are referred to as the “2023 Notes”. Our $81.2 million of 6.375% unsecured notes due 2024 are referred to as the “6.375% 2024 Notes”. Our $400.0 million of 3.706% unsecured notes due 2026 are referred to as the “2026 Notes”. Our $300.0 million of 3.364% unsecured notes due 2026 are referred to as the “3.364% 2026 Notes”. Our $300.0 million of 3.437% unsecured notes due 2028 are referred to as the “3.437% 2028 Notes”, and collectively with the 2023 Notes, the 6.375% 2024 Notes, the 2026 Notes, and the 3.364% 2026 Notes are the “Public Notes”. Any corporate notes issued pursuant to our medium term notes program with InspereX LLC are referred to as “Prospect
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Capital InterNotes®”. The Convertible Notes, Public Notes, and Prospect Capital InterNotes® are collectively referred to as the “Unsecured Notes”.
The summary below provides an overview of many of the risks we face that are described in this section. Additional risks, beyond those summarized below or discussed in this section, may also materially and adversely impact our business, financial conditions and results of operation. Consistent with the foregoing, the risks we face include, but are not limited to, the following:
Risks Relating to Our Business
The prolonged Russian invasion of Ukraine and the resulting international response may have a material adverse impact on us and our portfolio companies.
We are subject to risks related to corporate social responsibility.
Inflation can adversely impact our cost of capital and the value of our portfolio investments.
Capital markets may experience periods of disruption and instability, and we cannot predict when these conditions occur. Such market conditions may materially and adversely affect debt and equity capital markets in the United States and abroad, which may have a negative impact on our business and operations.
Global economic, political and market conditions, including uncertainty about the financial or political stability of the United States, could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Events outside of our control, including public health crises, may have a negative impact on our portfolio companies and our business and operations.
Legislative or other actions relating to taxes could have a negative effect on us.
Rising interest rates may adversely affect the value of our portfolio investments which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes relating to the LIBOR calculation process, and the discontinuation of LIBOR, may adversely affect the value of the LIBOR-indexed, floating-rate debt securities in our portfolio or issued by us.
Volatility in the global financial markets resulting from relapse of the Eurozone crisis, geopolitical developments in Eastern Europe, turbulence in the Chinese stock markets and global commodity markets, the United Kingdom’s vote to leave the European Union or otherwise could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our financial condition and results of operations will depend on our ability to manage our future growth effectively.
We fund a portion of our investments with borrowed money, which magnifies the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and may increase the risk of investing in us.
We need to raise additional capital to grow because we must distribute most of our income.
Our business model depends upon the development and maintenance of strong referral relationships with other asset managers and investment banking firms.
Risks Relating to Our Operation as a Business Development Company
If we do not invest a sufficient portion of our assets in qualifying assets, we could fail to qualify as a BDC or be precluded from investing according to our current business strategy.
If we fail to qualify as a RIC, we will have to pay corporate-level taxes on our income, and our income available for distribution would be reduced.
We may have difficulty paying our required distributions if we recognize income before or without receiving cash representing such income.
Regulations governing our operation as a BDC affect our ability to raise, and the way in which we raise, additional capital. These constraints may hinder our Investment Adviser’s ability to take advantage of attractive investment opportunities and to achieve our investment objective.
Securitization of our assets subjects us to various risks.
Our ability to invest in public companies may be limited in certain circumstances.
Risks Relating to Our Investments
We may not realize gains or income from our investments.
Most of our portfolio investments are recorded at fair value as determined in good faith under the direction of our Board of Directors and, as a result, there is uncertainty as to the value of our portfolio investments.
Price declines and illiquidity in the corporate debt markets have adversely affected, and may in the future adversely affect, the fair value of our portfolio investments, reducing our net asset value through increased net unrealized depreciation.
Our investments in prospective portfolio companies may be risky and we could lose all or part of our investment.
The lack of liquidity in our investments may adversely affect our business.
Economic recessions or downturns could impair our portfolio companies and harm our operating results.
Investments in equity securities, many of which are illiquid with no readily available market, involve a substantial degree of risk.
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Our portfolio contains a limited number of portfolio companies, some of which comprise a substantial percentage of our portfolio, which subjects us to a greater risk of significant loss if any of these companies defaults on its obligations under any of its debt securities.
Our investments in CLOs may be riskier and less transparent to us and our stockholders than direct investments in the underlying companies.
Risks Relating to Our Securities
Our credit ratings may not reflect all risks of an investment in our debt securities.
Senior securities, including debt and preferred equity, expose us to additional risks, including the typical risks associated with leverage and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We have entered into dealer manager agreements and underwriting agreements pursuant to which we intend to sell shares of preferred stock, the terms of which could result in significant dilution to existing common stockholders.
Holders of any preferred stock we might issue would have the right to elect members of the board of directors and class voting rights on certain matters.
The trading market or market value of our publicly traded preferred stock may fluctuate.
In addition to regulatory restrictions that restrict our ability to raise capital, our credit facility contains various covenants which, if not complied with, could accelerate repayment under the facility, thereby materially and adversely affecting our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.
Failure to refinance our existing Unsecured Notes could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial position.
The trading market or market value of our publicly issued debt securities may fluctuate.
Our shares of common stock currently trade at a discount from net asset value and may continue to do so in the future, which could limit our ability to raise additional equity capital.
Investing in our securities may involve a high degree of risk and is highly speculative.
General Risk Factors
We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly results.

Provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law and of our charter and bylaws could deter takeover attempts and have an adverse impact on the price of our common stock.

Risks Relating to Our Business
The prolonged Russian invasion of Ukraine and the resulting international response may have a material adverse impact on us and our portfolio companies.
As a result of Russia's military invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, the United States and other countries imposed broad-reaching political and economic sanctions on Russia, certain Russian allies believed to be providing them military or financial support, on private and public companies domiciled in Russia, including public issuers and banking and financial institutions, and on a variety of individuals. These sanctions, combined with equivalent measures taken by foreign businesses ceasing operations in Russia, continue to adversely impact global financial markets, disrupt global supply chains, and impair the value and liquidity of issuers that continue to maintain exposure to Russia and its allies, Russian investments and sectors that can be impacted by restrictions on Russian imports and exports, such as the oil and gas industry.
It is not possible to predict the duration or extent of longer-term consequences of this conflict, which could include further sanctions, retaliatory measures taken by Russia, embargoes, regional instability, geopolitical shifts and adverse effects on or involving macroeconomic conditions, supply chains, inflation, security conditions, currency exchange rates and financial markets around the globe. However, the consequences of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine could result in a worsening economic downturn and/or recession, globally and/or locally in the U.S. or other economies, reduce business activity, spawn additional conflicts (whether in the form of traditional military action, reignited "cold" wars or in the form of virtual warfare such as cyberattacks) with similar and perhaps wider ranging impacts and consequences and have an adverse impact on our returns and net asset value. Such consequences also may increase our funding cost or limit our access to the capital markets.
We are subject to risks related to corporate social responsibility.
Our business faces increasing public scrutiny related to environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) activities. We risk damage to our brand and reputation if we fail to act responsibly in a number of areas, such as environmental stewardship, corporate governance and transparency and considering ESG factors in our investment processes. Adverse incidents with respect to ESG activities could impact the value of our brand, the cost of our operations and relationships with investors, all of
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which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Additionally, new regulatory initiatives related to ESG could adversely affect our business, our portfolio companies and the value of your investment in our business.
Inflation can adversely impact our cost of capital and the value of our portfolio investments.
Inflation risk is the risk that the value of assets or income from investments will be worth less in the future as inflation decreases the value of money. Recently, inflation levels have been at their highest point in nearly 40 years and the Federal Reserve has begun an aggressive campaign to raise certain benchmark interest rates in an effort to combat inflation. As inflation increases, the real value of our common stock and distributions therefore may decline. In addition, during any periods of rising inflation, the interest rates of debt securities we issue would likely increase, which would tend to further reduce returns to common stockholder; likewise, as interest rates increase, the value of our debt investments would decrease, though this effect can be less pronounced for floating rate instruments. This could also lead to decreased asset coverage for our outstanding debt and preferred stock. Inflation rates may change frequently and significantly as a result of various factors, including unexpected shifts in the domestic or global economy and changes in economic policies, and our investments may not keep pace with inflation, which may result in losses to our stockholders. This risk is greater for fixed-income instruments with longer maturities.
Capital markets may experience periods of disruption and instability, and we cannot predict when these conditions occur. Such market conditions may materially and adversely affect debt and equity capital markets in the United States and abroad, which may have a negative impact on our business and operations.
From time to time, capital markets may experience periods of disruption and instability, including as recently as 2020 as a result of the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic. For example, between 2007 and 2009, the global capital markets were unstable as evidenced by periodic disruptions in liquidity in the debt capital markets, significant write-offs in the financial services sector, the re-pricing of credit risk and the failure of major financial institutions. Despite actions of the United States federal government and foreign governments, these events contributed to worsening general economic conditions that materially and adversely impacted the broader financial and credit markets and reduced the availability of debt and equity capital for the market as a whole and financial services firms in particular. Global financial markets also experienced significant volatility following the downgrade by Standard & Poor’s on August 5, 2011 of the long-term credit rating of U.S. Treasury debt from AAA to AA+. These types of market conditions have historically had, and could again have, a material adverse effect on debt and equity capital markets in the United States and Europe, which could have a materially negative impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We and other companies in the financial services sector may have to access, if available, alternative markets for debt and equity capital. Equity capital may be difficult to raise during such periods of adverse or volatile market conditions because subject to some limited exceptions, as a BDC, we are generally not able to issue additional shares of our common stock at a price less than net asset value without general approval by our stockholders, which we currently have until June 10, 2023, and approval of the specific issuance by our Board of Directors. In addition, our ability to incur indebtedness or issue preferred stock is limited by applicable regulations such that our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, must equal at least 150% immediately after each time we incur indebtedness or issue preferred stock. The debt capital that may be available, if at all, may be at a higher cost and on less favorable terms and conditions in the future. Any inability to raise capital could have a negative effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Market conditions may in the future make it difficult to extend the maturity of or refinance our existing indebtedness, including the final maturity of our revolving credit facility in September 2024, and any failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business. The re-appearance of market conditions similar to those experienced during portions of 2020 and from 2007 through 2009 for any substantial length of time or worsened market conditions, including as a result of U.S. government shutdowns or the perceived creditworthiness or stability of the United States, could make it difficult to extend the maturity of, or refinance, our existing indebtedness, or obtain new indebtedness with similar terms and any failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business. The debt capital that will be available to us in the future, if at all, may be at a higher cost and on less favorable terms and conditions than what we currently experience. Further, if we are unable to raise or refinance debt, then our equity investors may not benefit from the potential for increased returns on equity resulting from leverage and we may be limited in our ability to make new commitments or to fund existing commitments to our portfolio companies.
The illiquidity of our investments may make it difficult for us to sell such investments, if required. As a result, we may realize significantly less than the value at which we have recorded our investments if forced to liquidate quickly.
Given the extreme volatility and dislocation that the capital markets have historically experienced, many BDCs have faced, and may in the future face, a challenging environment in which to raise capital. We may in the future have difficulty accessing debt and equity capital, and a severe disruption in the global financial markets or deterioration in credit and financing conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, significant changes in the capital markets, including the extreme volatility and disruption, have had, and may in the future have, a negative
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effect on the valuations of our investments and on the potential for liquidity events involving our investments. An inability to raise capital, and any required sale of our investments for liquidity purposes, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The Investment Adviser does not know how long the financial markets will continue to be affected by these events and cannot predict the effects of these or similar events in the future on the United States economy and securities markets or on our investments. The Investment Adviser monitors developments and seeks to manage our investments in a manner consistent with achieving our investment objective, but there can be no assurance that it will be successful in doing so; and the Investment Adviser may not timely anticipate or manage existing, new or additional risks, contingencies or developments, including regulatory developments in the current or future market environment.
We are required to record certain of our assets at fair value, as determined in good faith by our Board of Directors in accordance with our valuation policy. As a result, volatility in the capital markets may have a material adverse effect on our investment valuations and our net asset value, even if we plan to hold investments to maturity.

Global economic, political and market conditions, including uncertainty about the financial or political stability of the United States, could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Downgrades by rating agencies to the U.S. government’s credit rating or concerns about its credit and deficit levels in general could cause interest rates and borrowing costs to rise, which may negatively impact both the perception of credit risk associated with our debt portfolio and our ability to access the debt markets on favorable terms. In addition, a decreased U.S. government credit rating could create broader financial turmoil and uncertainty, which may weigh heavily on our financial performance and the value of our common stock.
Deterioration in the economic conditions in the Eurozone and globally, including instability in financial markets, may pose a risk to our business. In recent years, financial markets have been affected at times by a number of global macroeconomic and political events, including the following: large sovereign debts and fiscal deficits of several countries in Europe and in emerging markets jurisdictions, levels of non‑performing loans on the balance sheets of European banks, the potential effect of any European country leaving the Eurozone, the effect of the United Kingdom leaving the European Union (the “EU”), and market volatility and loss of investor confidence driven by political events. The decision made in the United Kingdom to leave the EU has led to volatility in global financial markets and may lead to weakening in consumer, corporate and financial confidence in the United Kingdom and Europe. Market and economic disruptions have affected, and may in the future affect, consumer confidence levels and spending, personal bankruptcy rates, levels of incurrence and default on consumer debt and home prices, among other factors. We cannot assure you that market disruptions in Europe, including the increased cost of funding for certain governments and financial institutions, will not impact the global economy, and we cannot assure you that assistance packages will be available, or if available, be sufficient to stabilize countries and markets in Europe or elsewhere affected by a financial crisis. To the extent uncertainty regarding any economic recovery in Europe negatively impacts consumer confidence and consumer credit factors, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be significantly and adversely affected.
The Chinese capital markets have also experienced periods of instability over the past several years. The current political climate has also intensified concerns about a potential trade war between the U.S. and China in connection with each country’s recent or proposed tariffs on the other country’s products. These market and economic disruptions and the potential trade war with China have affected, and may in the future affect, the U.S. capital markets, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The current global financial market situation, as well as various social and political circumstances in the U.S. and around the world (including wars and other forms of conflict, terrorist acts, security operations and catastrophic events such as fires, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes and global health epidemics and pandemics), may contribute to increased market volatility and economic uncertainties or deterioration in the U.S. and worldwide, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. For example, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in many countries continues to adversely impact global commercial activity, and has contributed to significant volatility in financial markets. The occurrence of events similar to those in recent years, such as localized wars, instability, new and ongoing pandemics (such as COVID-19), epidemics or outbreaks of infectious diseases in certain parts of the world, natural/environmental disasters, terrorist attacks in the U.S. and around the world, social and political discord, debt crises, sovereign debt downgrades, increasingly strained relations between the U.S. and a number of foreign countries, new and continued political unrest in various countries, the exit or potential exit of one or more countries from the EU or the EMU, continued changes in the balance of political power among and within the branches of the U.S. government, and government shutdowns, among others, may have a material adverse impact on the ability of our portfolio companies to fulfill their end customers’ orders due to supply chain delays, limited access to key commodities or technologies or other events that impact their manufacturers or their suppliers. See “—Events outside of
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our control, including public health crises, may have a negative impact on our portfolio companies and our business and operations.” Such events have affected, and may in the future affect, the global and U.S. capital markets, and our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Additionally, the U.S. government’s credit and deficit concerns, the European sovereign debt crisis, and the potential trade war with China could cause further volatility in interest rates, which may negatively impact our and our portfolio companies’ ability to access the debt markets on favorable terms.
Events outside of our control, including public health crises, may have a negative impact on our portfolio companies and our business and operations.
As of the filing date of this Annual Report, there is a continued outbreak of COVID-19, which the World Health Organization has declared a global pandemic and the United States has declared a national emergency.
In response to the COVID-19 outbreak, many states, including those in which we and our portfolio companies operate, issued orders that required the closure of non-essential businesses and/or required or encouraged residents to stay at home as to contain or mitigate its spread, which resulted in business shutdowns, cancellations of and restrictions on events and travel, significant reductions in demand for certain goods and services, reductions in and restrictions on business activity and financial transactions, supply chain interruptions and overall economic and financial market instability both globally and in the United States. Such effects will likely continue for the duration of the pandemic, which is uncertain, and for some period thereafter. While many countries, including the United States, have relaxed or eliminated the early public health restrictions, the outbreak of new, mutated or worsening strains of COVID-19 may result in a resurgence in the number of reported cases and hospitalizations related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Such increases in cases could lead to the re-introduction of restrictions and business shutdowns in certain states, counties and cities in the United States and globally. Despite the greater availability of vaccines within the United States, it remains unclear how quickly the vaccines will be distributed globally or whether “herd immunity” will be achieved. Additionally, various areas of everyday life continue to be impacted by detailed COVID-related protocols, and the continuations of these protocols could extend the social and economic impacts of the pandemic described above. These factors, among others, could lead people to continue to self-isolate and not participate in the economy at pre-pandemic levels for a prolonged period of time.
Even after the COVID-19 pandemic subsides, the U.S. economy and most other major global economies may continue to experience a recession, and our business and operations, as well as the business and operations of our portfolio companies, could be materially adversely affected by a prolonged economic recession in the United States and other major markets. Potential consequences of the current unprecedented measures taken in response to the spread of COVID-19, and current market disruptions and volatility that may impact our business include, but are not limited to:
sudden, unexpected and/or severe declines in the market price of our securities or net asset value;
inability of the Company to accurately or reliably value its portfolio;
inability of the Company to comply with certain asset coverage ratios that would prevent the Company from paying dividends to our stockholders and that could result in breaches of covenants or events of default under our credit agreement or debt indentures;
inability of the Company to pay any dividends and distributions or service its debt;
inability of the Company to maintain its status as a regulated investment company under the Code;
potentially severe, sudden and unexpected declines in the value of our investments;
increased risk of default or bankruptcy by the companies in which we invest;
increased risk of companies in which we invest being unable to endure an extended cessation of normal economic activity and thereby impairing their ability to continue functioning as a going concern;
reduced economic demand resulting from changes in consumer behavior, mass employee layoffs or furloughs in response to governmental action taken to slow the spread of COVID-19, which could impact the continued viability of the companies in which we invest;
companies in which we invest being disproportionally impacted by governmental action aimed at slowing the spread of COVID-19 or mitigating its economic effects;
limited availability of new investment opportunities;
inability for us to replace our existing leverage when it becomes due or replace it on terms as favorable as our existing leverage;
a reduction in interest rates, including interest rates based on LIBOR and similar benchmarks, which may adversely impact our ability to lend money at attractive rates; and
general threats to the Company’s ability to continue investment operations and to operate successfully as a business development company.
The COVID-19 pandemic (including the preventative measures taken in response thereto) has to date (i) created significant business disruption issues for certain of our portfolio companies, and (ii) materially and adversely impacted the value and performance of certain of our portfolio companies. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a particularly adverse impact on
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industries in which certain of our portfolio companies operate, including aircraft leasing, energy, hospitality, travel, retail and restaurants. Certain of our portfolio companies in other industries have also been significantly impacted. The COVID-19 pandemic is continuing as of the filing date of this Annual Report, and its extended duration may have further adverse impacts on our portfolio companies after June 30, 2022, including for the reasons described below. Although on March 27, 2020, the U.S. government enacted the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”), which contains provisions intended to mitigate the adverse economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is uncertain whether, or how much, our portfolio companies have benefited, or if they will be able to benefit, from the CARES Act or any other subsequent legislation intended to provide financial relief or assistance. As a result of this disruption and the pressures on their liquidity, certain of our portfolio companies have been, or may continue to be, incentivized to draw on most, if not all, of the unfunded portion of any revolving or delayed draw term loans made by us, subject to availability under the terms of such loans.
The effects described above on our portfolio companies have, for certain of our portfolio companies to date, impacted their ability to make payments on their loans on a timely basis and in some cases have required us to amend certain terms, including payment terms. In addition, an extended duration of the COVID-19 pandemic may impact the ability of our portfolio companies to continue making their loan payments on a timely basis or meeting their loan covenants. The inability of portfolio companies to make timely payments or meet loan covenants may in the future require us to undertake similar amendment actions with respect to other of our investments or to restructure our investments. The amendment or restructuring of our investments may include the need for us to make additional investments in our portfolio companies (including debt or equity investments) beyond any existing commitments, exchange debt for equity, or change the payment terms of our investments to permit a portfolio company to pay a portion of its interest through payment-in-kind, which would defer the cash collection of such interest and add it to the principal balance, which would generally be due upon repayment of the outstanding principal.
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted the fair value of some of our investments as of June 30, 2022, and the values assigned as of this date may differ materially from the values that we may ultimately realize with respect to our investments. The impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may not yet be fully reflected in the valuation of our investments as our valuations, and particularly valuations of private investments and private companies, are inherently uncertain, may fluctuate over short periods of time and are often based on estimates, comparisons and qualitative evaluations of private information that is often from a time period earlier, generally two to three months, than the period for which we are reporting. Additionally, we may not have yet received information or certifications from our portfolio companies that indicate any or the full extent of declining performance or non-compliance with debt covenants, as applicable, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, our valuations at June 30, 2022 may not show the complete or continuing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting measures taken in response thereto. In addition, write downs in the value of some of our investments have reduced, and any additional write downs may further reduce, our net asset value (and, as a result, our asset coverage calculation). Accordingly, we may incur net unrealized losses or may incur realized losses after June 30, 2022, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The volatility and disruption to the global economy from the COVID-19 pandemic has affected, and is expected to continue to affect, the pace of our investment activity, which may have a material adverse impact on our results of operations. Such volatility and disruption have also led to the increased credit spreads in the private debt capital markets.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Prospect Capital Management L.P. instituted a work from home policy. Although certain employees are currently allowed to return to the office in certain circumstances, subject to health and safety protocols, it is expected that most employees will continue to work remotely for the foreseeable future. Extended period of remote working by our Investment Adviser and/or its affiliate’s employees could strain our technology resources and introduce operational risks, including heightened cybersecurity risk. Remote working environments may be less secure and more susceptible to hacking attacks, including phishing and social engineering attempts that seek to exploit the COVID-19 pandemic.
Despite actions of the U.S. federal government and foreign governments, the uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic and other factors has contributed to significant volatility and declines in the global public equity markets and global debt capital markets, including the market price of shares of our common stock and the trading prices of our issued debt securities. Shares of our common stock are trading below our net asset value as of the filing date of this Annual Report. Market conditions may make it difficult for us to raise equity capital because, subject to some limited exceptions, as a BDC, we are generally not able to issue additional shares of our common stock at a price less than net asset value without general approval by our stockholders, which we currently have until June 10, 2023, and approval of the specific issuance by our Board of Directors. Moreover, these market conditions may make it difficult to access or obtain new indebtedness with similar terms to our existing indebtedness or otherwise have a negative effect on our cost of capital. See “Capital markets may experience periods of disruption and instability. Such market conditions may materially and adversely affect debt and equity capital markets in the United States and abroad, which may have a negative impact on our business and operations” above.
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It is virtually impossible to determine the ultimate impact of COVID-19 at this time. Further, the extent and strength of any economic recovery after the COVID-19 pandemic abates, including following any additional “waves” or other intensifying of the pandemic, is uncertain and subject to various factors and conditions. Accordingly, an investment in the Company is subject to an elevated degree of risk as compared to other market environments.
Legislative or other actions relating to taxes could have a negative effect on us.
The rules dealing with U.S. federal income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act made substantial changes to the Code. Among those changes were a significant permanent reduction in the generally applicable corporate tax rate, changes in the taxation of individuals and other non-corporate taxpayers that generally but not universally reduce their taxes on a temporary basis subject to “sunset” provisions, the elimination or modification of various previously allowed deductions (including substantial limitations on the deductibility of interest and, in the case of individuals, the deduction for personal state and local taxes), certain additional limitations on the deduction of net operating losses, certain preferential rates of taxation on certain dividends and certain business income derived by non-corporate taxpayers in comparison to other ordinary income recognized by such taxpayers, and significant changes to the international tax rules. In addition, on August 16, 2022, the Biden administration signed into law the Inflation Reduction Act, which modifies key aspects of the Code, including by creating an alternative minimum tax on certain corporations and an excise tax on stock repurchases by certain corporations. The effect of these changes on the value of our assets or our common shares or market conditions generally, is uncertain.
Rising interest rates may adversely affect the value of our portfolio investments which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our debt investments may be based on floating rates, such as London Interbank Offer Rate (“LIBOR”), Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), EURIBOR, the Federal Funds Rate or the Prime Rate. General interest rate fluctuations may have a substantial negative impact on our investments, the value of our common stock and our rate of return on invested capital. A reduction in the interest rates on new investments relative to interest rates on current investments could also have an adverse impact on our net interest income. An increase in interest rates could decrease the value of any investments we hold which earn fixed interest rates, including subordinated loans, senior and junior secured and unsecured debt securities and loans and high-yield bonds, and also could increase our interest expense, thereby decreasing our net investment income. Also, an increase in interest rates available to investors could make investment in our common stock less attractive if we are not able to increase our dividend rate, which could reduce the value of our common stock.
Because we have borrowed money, and intend to issue preferred stock to finance investments, our net investment income depends, in part, upon the difference between the rate at which we borrow funds or pay distributions on preferred stock and the rate that our investments yield. As a result, we can offer no assurance that a significant change in market interest rates will not have a material adverse effect on our net investment income. In periods of rising interest rates, our cost of funds would increase except to the extent we have issued fixed rate debt or preferred stock, which could reduce our net investment income.
You should also be aware that a change in the general level of interest rates can be expected to lead to a change in the interest rate we receive on many of our debt investments. Accordingly, a change in the interest rate could make it easier for us to meet or exceed the performance threshold and may result in a substantial increase in the amount of incentive fees payable to our Investment Adviser with respect to the portion of the Incentive Fee based on income.
Interest rates have risen in recent months, and the risk that they may continue to do so is pronounced.
Changes relating to the LIBOR calculation process, and the discontinuation of LIBOR, may adversely affect the value of the LIBOR-indexed, floating-rate debt securities in our portfolio or issued by us.
In July 2017, the head of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority announced the desire to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. LIBOR can no longer be used to calculate new deals as of December 31, 2021. Since December 31, 2021, all sterling, euro, Swiss franc and Japanese yen LIBOR settings and the 1-week and 2-month U.S. dollar LIBOR settings have ceased to be published or are no longer representative, and after June 30, 2023, the overnight, 1-month, 3-month, 6-month and 12-month U.S. dollar LIBOR settings will cease to be published or will no longer be representative. Various financial industry groups have begun planning for the transition away from LIBOR, but there are challenges to converting certain securities and transactions to a new reference rate. Neither the effect of the LIBOR transition process nor its ultimate success can yet be known.
As an alternative to LIBOR, the FRS, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large U.S. financial institutions recommended replacing U.S. dollar LIBOR with the SOFR, an index calculated
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by short-term repurchase agreements, backed by Treasury securities. Abandonment of, or modifications to, LIBOR could have adverse impacts on newly issued financial instruments and our existing financial instruments which reference LIBOR. While some instruments may contemplate a scenario where LIBOR is no longer available by providing an alternative rate setting methodology, not all instruments may have such provisions and there is significant uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of any such alternative methodologies. On March 15, 2022, President Biden signed into law the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2022, which among other things, provides for the use of interest rates based on SOFR in certain contracts currently based on LIBOR and a safe harbor from liability for utilizing SOFR-based interest rates as a replacement for LIBOR. Given the inherent differences between LIBOR and SOFR, or any other alternative benchmark rate that may be established, there are many uncertainties regarding a transition from LIBOR, including but not limited to the need to amend all contracts with LIBOR as the referenced rate and how this will impact the cost of variable rate debt and certain derivative financial instruments. In addition, SOFR or other replacement rates may fail to gain market acceptance. Any failure of SOFR or alternative reference rates to gain market acceptance could adversely affect the return on, value of and market for securities linked to such rates. The elimination of LIBOR or any other changes or reforms to the determination or supervision of LIBOR could have an adverse impact on the market value of and/or transferability of any LIBOR-linked securities, loans, and other financial obligations or extensions of credit held by or due to us or on our overall financial condition or results of operations.
Neither the effect of the LIBOR transition process nor its ultimate success can yet be known. The transition process might lead to increased volatility and illiquidity in markets for, and reduce the effectiveness of, new hedges placed against, instruments whose terms currently include LIBOR. While some existing LIBOR-based instruments may contemplate a scenario where LIBOR is no longer available by providing for an alternative rate-setting methodology, there may be significant uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of any such alternative methodologies to replicate LIBOR. Not all existing LIBOR-based instruments may have alternative rate-setting provisions and there remains uncertainty regarding the willingness and ability of issuers to add alternative rate-setting provisions in certain existing instruments. Moreover, these alternative rate-setting provisions may not be designed for regular use in an environment where LIBOR ceases to be published, and may be an ineffective fallback following the discontinuation of LIBOR.
Recently, the CLOs we are invested in have included, or have been amended to include, language permitting the CLO investment manager to implement a market replacement rate (like SOFR) upon the occurrence of certain material disruption events. However, we cannot ensure that all CLOs in which we are invested will have such provisions, nor can we ensure the CLO investment managers will undertake the suggested amendments when able. We believe that because CLO managers and other CLO market participants have been preparing for an eventual transition away from LIBOR, we do not anticipate such a transition to have a material impact on the liquidity or value of any of our LIBOR-referenced CLO investments. However, because the future of LIBOR at this time is uncertain and the specific effects of a transition away from LIBOR cannot be determined with certainty as of the date of this filing, a transition away from LIBOR could:
adversely impact the pricing, liquidity, value of, return on and trading for a broad array of financial products, including any LIBOR-linked CLO investments;
require extensive changes to documentation that governs or references LIBOR or LIBOR-based products, including, for example, pursuant to time-consuming renegotiations of existing documentation to modify the terms of outstanding investments;
result in inquiries or other actions from regulators in respect of our preparation and readiness for the replacement of LIBOR with one or more alternative reference rates;
result in disputes, litigation or other actions with CLO investment managers, regarding the interpretation and enforceability of provisions in our LIBOR-based CLO investments, such as fallback language or other related provisions, including, in the case of fallbacks to the alternative reference rates, any economic, legal, operational or other impact resulting from the fundamental differences between LIBOR and the various alternative reference rates;
require the transition and/or development of appropriate systems and analytics to effectively transition our risk management processes from LIBOR-based products to those based on one or more alternative reference rates, which may prove challenging given the limited history of the proposed alternative reference rates; and
cause us to incur additional costs in relation to any of the above factors.
In addition, the effect of a phase out of LIBOR on U.S. senior secured loans, the underlying assets of the CLOs in which we invest, is currently unclear, even if certain statutory regimes may apply, e.g., N.Y. Gen. Oblig. Law § 18-401 or the Adjustable Interest Rate (LIBOR) Act. To the extent that any replacement rate utilized for senior secured loans differs from that utilized for a CLO that holds those loans, the CLO would experience an interest rate mismatch between its assets and liabilities which could have an adverse impact on our net investment income and portfolio returns.
Many underlying corporate borrowers can elect to pay interest based on 1-month LIBOR, 3-month LIBOR and/or other rates in respect of the loans held by CLOs in which we are invested, in each case plus an applicable spread, whereas CLOs generally
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pay interest to holders of the CLO’s debt tranches based on 3-month LIBOR plus a spread. The 3-month LIBOR currently exceeds the 1-month LIBOR, which may result in many underlying corporate borrowers electing to pay interest based on 1-month LIBOR. This mismatch in the rate at which CLOs earn interest and the rate at which they pay interest on their debt tranches negatively impacts the cash flows on a CLO’s equity tranche, which may in turn adversely affect our cash flows and results of operations. Unless spreads are adjusted to account for such increases, these negative impacts may worsen as the amount by which the 3-month LIBOR exceeds the 1-month LIBOR increases.
The senior secured loans underlying the CLOs in which we invest typically have floating interest rates. A rising interest rate environment may increase loan defaults, resulting in losses for the CLOs in which we invest. In addition, increasing interest rates may lead to higher prepayment rates, as corporate borrowers look to avoid escalating interest payments or refinance floating rate loans. Further, a general rise in interest rates will increase the financing costs of the CLOs. However, since many of the senior secured loans within CLOs have LIBOR floors, if LIBOR is below the average LIBOR floor, there may not be corresponding increases in investment income resulting in smaller distributions to equity investors in these CLOs.
The actual effects of the establishment of alternative reference rates or any other reforms to LIBOR or other reference rates (including whether LIBOR will continue to be an acceptable market benchmark) cannot be predicted at this time, and the transition away from LIBOR and other current reference rates to alternative reference rates is complex and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Factors such as the pace of the transition to replacement or reformed rates, the specific terms and parameters for and market acceptance of any alternative reference rate, prices of and the liquidity of trading markets for products based on alternative reference rates, and our ability to transition and develop appropriate systems and analytics for one or more alternative reference rates could also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Volatility in the global financial markets resulting from relapse of the Eurozone crisis, geopolitical developments in Eastern Europe, turbulence in the Chinese stock markets and global commodity markets, the United Kingdom’s vote to leave the European Union or otherwise could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Volatility in the global financial markets could have an adverse effect on the economic recovery in the United States and could result from a number of causes, including a relapse in the Eurozone crisis, geopolitical developments in Eastern Europe, turbulence in the Chinese stock markets and global commodity markets or otherwise. In 2010, a financial crisis emerged in Europe, triggered by high budget deficits and rising direct and contingent sovereign debt in Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain, which created concerns about the ability of these nations to continue to service their sovereign debt obligations. While the financial stability of many of such countries has improved significantly, risks resulting from any future debt crisis in Europe or any similar crisis could have a detrimental impact on the global economic recovery, sovereign and non-sovereign debt in these countries and the financial condition of European financial institutions. Market and economic disruptions have affected, and may in the future affect, consumer confidence levels and spending, personal bankruptcy rates, levels of incurrence of and default on consumer debt and home prices, among other factors. We cannot assure you that market disruptions in Europe, including the increased cost of funding for certain governments and financial institutions, will not impact the global economy, and we cannot assure you that assistance packages will be available or, if available, be sufficient to stabilize countries and markets in Europe or elsewhere affected by a financial crisis. To the extent uncertainty regarding any economic recovery in Europe negatively impacts consumer confidence and consumer credit factors, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be significantly and adversely affected.
In the second quarter of 2015, stock prices in China experienced a significant drop, resulting primarily from continued sell-off of shares trading in Chinese markets. In addition, in August 2015, Chinese authorities sharply devalued China’s currency. Since then, the Chinese capital markets have continued to experience periods of instability. The current political climate has also intensified concerns about a potential trade war between the United States and China. These market and economic disruptions and the potential trade war with China have affected, and may in the future affect, the U.S. capital markets, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Pursuant to an agreement setting out the terms on which the United Kingdom may leave the European Union (the “EU”)(“Brexit”), the United Kingdom formally withdrew from the EU, effective January 31, 2020, and the United Kingdom remained in the EU’s customs union and single market until December 31, 2020. The United Kingdom and the EU have entered into a Trade and Cooperation Agreement (the “TCA”), which came into full force on May 1, 2021 and set out the foundation of the economic and legal framework for trade between the United Kingdom and the EU. As the TCA is a new legal framework, its implementation may result in uncertainty in its application and periods of volatility in both the United Kingdom and wider European markets. Moreover, while the TCA regulates a number of important areas, significant parts of the United Kingdom economy are not addressed in detail by the TCA, including in particular the services sector, which represents the largest component of the United Kingdom’s economy. Due to political uncertainty, it is not possible to anticipate the form or nature of
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the future trading relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU. While certain measures have been proposed and/or implemented within the United Kingdom and at the EU level or at the member state level, which are designed to minimize disruption in the financial markets, it is not currently possible to determine whether such measures would achieve their intended effects. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the extent of the impact of the withdrawal and the resulting economic arrangements in the United Kingdom and in global markets as well as any associated adverse consequences remain unclear and may lead to ongoing political and economic uncertainty and periods of exacerbated volatility in both the United Kingdom and in wider European markets for some time. For example, during this period of uncertainty, the negative impact on not only the United Kingdom and European economies, but the broader global economy, could be significant, potentially resulting in increased market and currency volatility (including volatility of the value of the British pound sterling relative to the United States dollar and other currencies and volatility in global currency markets generally), and illiquidity and lower economic growth for companies that rely significantly on Europe for their business activities and revenues. Additional risks associated with Brexit include macroeconomic risk to the United Kingdom and European economies, impetus for further disintegration of the EU and related political stresses (including those related to sentiment against cross border capital movements and activities of investors like us), prejudice to financial services businesses that are conducting business in the EU and which are based in the United Kingdom, legal uncertainty regarding achievement of compliance with applicable financial and commercial laws and regulations, and the unavailability of timely information as to expected legal, tax and other regimes. Any further exits from the EU, or the possibility of such exits, would likely cause additional market disruption globally and introduce new legal and regulatory uncertainties.
The occurrence of global events similar to those in recent years, such as the aftermath of the war in Iraq, instability in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Egypt, Libya, Syria, Russia, Ukraine, North Korea and the Middle East, instability, new and ongoing pandemics (such as COVID-19), epidemics or outbreaks of infectious diseases in certain parts of the world, natural/environmental disasters in certain parts of the world, terrorist attacks in the U.S. and around the world, trade or tariff arrangements, social and political discord, debt crises (such as the Greek crisis), sovereign debt downgrades, increasingly strained relations between the United States and a number of foreign countries including traditional allies, such as certain European countries, and historical adversaries, such as North Korea, Iran, China and Russia, and the international community generally, new and continued political unrest in various countries, such as Venezuela and Spain, the exit or potential exit of one or more countries from the EU or the Economic and Monetary Union, continued changes in the balance of political power among and within the branches of the U.S. government, and government shutdowns, among others, may result in market volatility, may have long-term effects on the United States and worldwide financial markets, and may cause further economic uncertainties in the United States and worldwide.
Periods of volatility still remain, and risks to a robust resumption of growth persist. Federal Reserve policy, including with respect to certain interest rates, may adversely affect the value, volatility and liquidity of dividend and interest paying securities. Market volatility, dramatic changes to interest rates and/or a return to unfavorable economic conditions may lower the Company’s performance or impair the Company’s ability to achieve its investment objective
The occurrence of any of these above events could have a significant adverse impact on the value and risk profile of our portfolio. We do not know how long the securities markets may be affected by similar events and cannot predict the effects of similar events in the future on the U.S. economy and securities markets. Non-investment grade and equity securities tend to be more volatile than investment-grade fixed income securities; therefore, these events and other market disruptions may have a greater impact on the prices and volatility of non-investment grade and equity securities than on investment-grade fixed income securities. There can be no assurances that similar events and other market disruptions will not have other material and adverse implications.
Economic sanction laws in the United States and other jurisdictions may prohibit us and our affiliates from transacting with certain countries, individuals and companies.
Economic sanction laws in the United States and other jurisdictions may prohibit us or our affiliates from transacting with certain countries, individuals and companies. In the United States, the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control administers and enforces laws, executive orders and regulations establishing U.S. economic and trade sanctions, which prohibit, among other things, transactions with, and the provision of services to, certain non-U.S. countries, territories, entities and individuals. These types of sanctions may significantly restrict or completely prohibit investment activities in certain jurisdictions, and if we, our portfolio companies or other issuers in which we invest were to violate any such laws or regulations, we may face significant legal and monetary penalties.
The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, and other anti-corruption laws and regulations, as well as anti-boycott regulations, may also apply to and restrict our activities, our portfolio companies and other issuers of our investments. If an issuer or we were to violate any such laws or regulations, such issuer or we may face significant legal and monetary penalties. The U.S. government has indicated that it is particularly focused on FCPA enforcement, which may increase the risk that an
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issuer or us becomes the subject of such actual or threatened enforcement. In addition, certain commentators have suggested that private investment firms and the funds that they manage may face increased scrutiny and/or liability with respect to the activities of their underlying portfolio companies. As such, a violation of the FCPA or other applicable regulations by us or an issuer of our portfolio investments could have a material adverse effect on us. We are committed to complying with the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws and regulations, as well as anti-boycott regulations, to which we are subject. As a result, we may be adversely affected because of our unwillingness to enter into transactions that violate any such laws or regulations.
Our financial condition and results of operations will depend on our ability to manage our future growth effectively.
Prospect Capital Management has been registered as an investment adviser since March 31, 2004, and we have been organized as a closed-end investment company since April 13, 2004. Our ability to achieve our investment objective depends on our ability to grow, which depends, in turn, on the Investment Adviser’s ability to continue to identify, analyze, invest in and monitor companies that meet our investment criteria. Accomplishing this result on a cost-effective basis is largely a function of the Investment Adviser’s structuring of investments, its ability to provide competent, attentive and efficient services to us and our access to financing on acceptable terms. As we continue to grow, Prospect Capital Management will need to continue to hire, train, supervise and manage new employees. Failure to manage our future growth effectively could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are dependent upon Prospect Capital Management’s key management personnel for our future success.
We depend on the diligence, skill and network of business contacts of the senior management of the Investment Adviser. We also depend, to a significant extent, on the Investment Adviser’s access to the investment professionals and the information and deal flow generated by these investment professionals in the course of their investment and portfolio management activities. The senior management team of the Investment Adviser evaluates, negotiates, structures, closes, monitors and services our investments. Our success depends to a significant extent on the continued service of the senior management team, particularly John F. Barry III and M. Grier Eliasek. The departure of any of the senior management team could have a materially adverse effect on our ability to achieve our investment objective. In addition, we can offer no assurance that Prospect Capital Management will remain the Investment Adviser or that we will continue to have access to its investment professionals or its information and deal flow.
We operate in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities.
A number of entities compete with us to make the types of investments that we make in middle-market companies. We compete with other BDCs, public and private funds, commercial and investment banks, commercial financing companies, insurance companies, hedge funds, and, to the extent they provide an alternative form of financing, private equity funds. Many of our competitors are substantially larger and have considerably greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do. Some competitors may have a lower cost of funds and access to funding sources that are not available to us. In addition, some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish more relationships than us. Furthermore, many of our competitors are not subject to the regulatory restrictions that the 1940 Act imposes on us as a BDC and that the Code imposes on us as a RIC. We cannot assure you that the competitive pressures we face will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, as a result of this competition, we may not be able to pursue attractive investment opportunities from time to time.
We do not seek to compete primarily based on the interest rates we offer and we believe that some of our competitors may make loans with interest rates that are comparable to or lower than the rates we offer. Rather, we compete with our competitors based on our existing investment platform, seasoned investment professionals, experience and focus on middle-market companies, disciplined investment philosophy, extensive industry focus and flexible transaction structuring.
We may lose investment opportunities if we do not match our competitors’ pricing, terms and structure. If we match our competitors’ pricing, terms and structure, we may experience decreased net interest income and increased risk of credit loss. As a result of operating in such a competitive environment, we may make investments that are on less favorable terms than what we may have originally anticipated, which may impact our return on these investments.
We fund a portion of our investments with borrowed money, which magnifies the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and may increase the risk of investing in us.
Borrowings and other types of financing, also known as leverage, magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and, therefore, increase the risks associated with investing in our securities. Our lenders have fixed dollar claims on our assets that are superior to the claims of our common stockholders or any preferred stockholders. If the value of our assets increases,
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then leveraging would cause the net asset value to increase more sharply than it would have had we not leveraged. Conversely, if the value of our assets decreases, leveraging would cause net asset value to decline more sharply than it otherwise would have had we not leveraged. Similarly, any increase in our income in excess of consolidated interest payable on the borrowed funds would cause our net income to increase more than it would without the leverage, while any decrease in our income would cause net income to decline more sharply than it would have had we not borrowed. Such a decline could negatively affect our ability to make common stock dividend payments. Leverage is generally considered a speculative investment technique.
We need to raise additional capital to grow because we must distribute most of our income.
We need additional capital to fund growth in our investments. A reduction in the availability of new capital could limit our ability to grow. We must distribute at least 90% of our ordinary income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses, if any, to our stockholders to maintain our status as a RIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a result, such earnings are not available to fund investment originations. We have sought additional capital by borrowing from financial institutions and may issue debt securities or additional equity securities. If we fail to obtain funds from such sources or from other sources to fund our investments, we could be limited in our ability to grow, which may have an adverse effect on the value of our common stock. In addition, as a BDC, we generally may not borrow money or issue debt securities or issue preferred stock unless immediately thereafter our ratio of total assets to total borrowings and other senior securities is at least 150%. This may restrict our ability to obtain additional leverage in certain circumstances.
Our most recent NAV was calculated on June 30, 2022 and our NAV when calculated effective September 30, 2022 and thereafter may be higher or lower.
Our NAV per common share is $10.48 as of June 30, 2022. NAV per common share as of September 30, 2022 may be higher or lower than $10.48 based on potential changes in valuations, issuances of securities, repurchases of securities, dividends paid and earnings for the quarter then ended. Our Board of Directors has not yet determined the fair value of portfolio investments at any date subsequent to June 30, 2022. Our Board of Directors determines the fair value of our portfolio investments on a quarterly basis in connection with the preparation of quarterly financial statements and based on input from independent valuation firms, the Investment Adviser, the Administrator and the Audit Committee of our Board of Directors.
Our business model depends upon the development and maintenance of strong referral relationships with other asset managers and investment banking firms.
We are substantially dependent on our informal relationships, which we use to help identify and gain access to investment opportunities. If we fail to maintain our relationships with key firms, or if we fail to establish strong referral relationships with other firms or other sources of investment opportunities, we will not be able to grow our portfolio of equity investments and achieve our investment objective. In addition, persons with whom we have informal relationships are not obligated to inform us of investment opportunities, and therefore such relationships may not lead to the origination of equity or other investments. Any loss or diminishment of such relationships could effectively reduce our ability to identify attractive portfolio companies that meet our investment criteria, either for direct equity investments or for investments through private secondary market transactions or other secondary transactions.
The Investment Adviser’s liability is limited under the Investment Advisory Agreement, and we are required to indemnify the Investment Adviser against certain liabilities, which may lead the Investment Adviser to act in a riskier manner on our behalf than it would when acting for its own account.
The Investment Adviser has not assumed any responsibility to us other than to render the services described in the Investment Advisory Agreement, and it will not be responsible for any action of our Board of Directors in declining to follow the Investment Adviser’s advice or recommendations. Pursuant to the Investment Advisory Agreement, the Investment Adviser and its members and their respective officers, managers, partners, agents, employees, controlling persons and members and any other person or entity affiliated with it will not be liable to us for their acts under the Investment Advisory Agreement, absent willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard in the performance of their duties. We have agreed to indemnify, defend and protect the Investment Adviser and its members and their respective officers, managers, partners, agents, employees, controlling persons and members and any other person or entity affiliated with it with respect to all damages, liabilities, costs and expenses resulting from acts of the Investment Adviser not arising out of willful misfeasance, bad faith, gross negligence or reckless disregard in the performance of their duties under the Investment Advisory Agreement. These protections may lead the Investment Adviser to act in a riskier manner when acting on our behalf than it would when acting for its own account.
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Potential conflicts of interest could impact our investment returns.
Our executive officers and directors, and the executive officers of the Investment Adviser, may serve as officers, directors or principals of entities that operate in the same or related lines of business as we do or of investment funds managed by our affiliates. Accordingly, they may have obligations to investors in those entities, the fulfillment of which might not be in our best interests or those of our stockholders. Nevertheless, it is possible that new investment opportunities that meet our investment objective may come to the attention of one of these entities in connection with another investment advisory client or program, and, if so, such opportunity might not be offered, or otherwise made available, to us. However, as an investment adviser, Prospect Capital Management has a fiduciary obligation to act in the best interests of its clients, including us. To that end, if Prospect Capital Management or its affiliates manage any additional investment vehicles or client accounts in the future, Prospect Capital Management will endeavor to allocate investment opportunities in a fair and equitable manner over time so as not to discriminate unfairly against any client. If Prospect Capital Management chooses to establish another investment fund in the future, when the investment professionals of Prospect Capital Management identify an investment, they will have to choose which investment fund should make the investment.
In the course of our investing activities, under the Investment Advisory Agreement we pay base management and incentive fees to Prospect Capital Management and reimburse Prospect Capital Management for certain expenses it incurs. As a result of the Investment Advisory Agreement, there may be times when the senior management team of Prospect Capital Management has interests that differ from those of our stockholders, giving rise to a conflict.
The Investment Adviser receives a quarterly income incentive fee based, in part, on our pre-incentive fee net investment income, if any, for the immediately preceding calendar quarter. This income incentive fee is subject to a fixed quarterly hurdle rate before providing an income incentive fee return to Prospect Capital Management. This fixed hurdle rate was determined when then current interest rates were relatively low on a historical basis. Thus, if interest rates rise, it would become easier for our investment income to exceed the hurdle rate and, as a result, more likely that Prospect Capital Management will receive an income incentive fee than if interest rates on our investments remained constant or decreased. Subject to the receipt of any requisite stockholder approval under the 1940 Act, our Board of Directors may adjust the hurdle rate by amending the Investment Advisory Agreement.
The income incentive fee payable by us is computed and paid on income that may include interest that has been accrued but not yet received in cash. If a portfolio company defaults on a loan that has a deferred interest feature, it is possible that interest accrued under such loan that has previously been included in the calculation of the income incentive fee will become uncollectible. If this happens, we will reverse the interest that was recorded but Prospect Capital Management is not required to reimburse us for any such income incentive fee payments that were received in the past but would reduce the current period incentive fee for the effects of the reversal, if any. If we do not have sufficient liquid assets to pay this incentive fee or distributions to stockholders on such accrued income, we may be required to liquidate assets in order to do so. This fee structure could give rise to a conflict of interest for Prospect Capital Management to the extent that it may encourage Prospect Capital Management to favor debt financings that provide for deferred interest, rather than current cash payments of interest.

We have entered into a royalty-free license agreement with Prospect Capital Management. Under this agreement, Prospect Capital Management agrees to grant us a non-exclusive license to use the name “Prospect Capital.” Under the license agreement, we have the right to use the “Prospect Capital” name for so long as Prospect Capital Management or one of its affiliates remains our investment adviser. In addition, we rent office space from Prospect Administration, an affiliate of Prospect Capital Management, and pay Prospect Administration our allocable portion of overhead and other expenses incurred by Prospect Administration in performing its obligations as Administrator under the Administration Agreement, including rent and our allocable portion of the costs of our Chief Financial Officer and Chief Compliance Officer and their respective staffs. This may create conflicts of interest that our Board of Directors monitors.

Our incentive fee could induce Prospect Capital Management to make speculative investments.
The incentive fee payable by us to Prospect Capital Management may create an incentive for the Investment Adviser to make investments on our behalf that are more speculative or involve more risk than would be the case in the absence of such compensation arrangement. The way in which the incentive fee payable is determined (calculated as a percentage of the return on invested capital) may encourage the Investment Adviser to use leverage to increase the return on our investments. Increased use of leverage and this increased risk of replacement of that leverage at maturity would increase the likelihood of default, which would disfavor holders of our common stock. Similarly, because the Investment Adviser will receive an incentive fee based, in part, upon net capital gains realized on our investments, the Investment Adviser may invest more than would otherwise be appropriate in companies whose securities are likely to yield capital gains, as compared to income producing
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securities. Such a practice could result in our investing in more speculative securities than would otherwise be the case, which could result in higher investment losses, particularly during economic downturns.
The incentive fee payable by us to Prospect Capital Management could create an incentive for the Investment Adviser to invest on our behalf in instruments, such as zero coupon bonds, that have a deferred interest feature. Under these investments, we would accrue interest income over the life of the investment but would not receive payments in cash on the investment until the end of the term. Our net investment income used to calculate the income incentive fee, however, includes accrued interest. For example, accrued interest, if any, on our investments in zero coupon bonds will be included in the calculation of our incentive fee, even though we will not receive any cash interest payments in respect of payment on the bond until its maturity date. Thus, a portion of this incentive fee would be based on income that we may not have yet received in cash in the event of default may never receive.
We may be obligated to pay our Investment Adviser incentive compensation even if we incur a loss.
The Investment Adviser is entitled to incentive compensation for each fiscal quarter based, in part, on our pre-incentive fee net investment income if any, for the immediately preceding calendar quarter above a performance threshold for that quarter. Accordingly, since the performance threshold is based on a percentage of our net asset value, decreases in our net asset value make it easier to achieve the performance threshold. Our pre-incentive fee net investment income for incentive compensation purposes excludes realized and unrealized capital losses or depreciation that we may incur in the fiscal quarter, even if such capital losses or depreciation result in a net loss on our statement of operations for that quarter. Thus, we may be required to pay the Investment Adviser incentive compensation for a fiscal quarter even if there is a decline in the value of our portfolio or we incur a net loss for that quarter. In addition, increases in interest rates may increase the amount of incentive fees we pay to our Investment Adviser even though our performance relative to the market has not increased.
The Investment Adviser and the Administrator have the right to resign on 60 days’ notice, and we may not be able to find a suitable replacement within that time, resulting in a disruption in our operations that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Investment Adviser and the Administrator have the right, under the Investment Advisory Agreement and the Administration Agreement, respectively, to resign at any time upon not less than 60 days’ written notice, whether we have found a replacement or not. If the Investment Adviser or the Administrator resigns, we may not be able to find a replacement or hire internal management or administration with similar expertise and ability to provide the same or equivalent services on acceptable terms within 60 days, or at all. If we are unable to do so quickly, our operations are likely to experience a disruption, our business, financial condition and results of operations as well as our ability to pay distributions are likely to be adversely affected and the market price of our shares may decline. In addition, the coordination of our internal management and investment activities or our internal administration activities, as applicable, is likely to suffer if we are unable to identify and reach an agreement with a single institution or group of executives having the expertise possessed by the Investment Adviser and its affiliates or the Administrator and its affiliates. Even if we are able to retain comparable management or administration, whether internal or external, the integration of such management or administration and their lack of familiarity with our investment objective may result in additional costs and time delays that may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in the laws or regulations governing our business or the businesses of our portfolio companies and any failure by us or our portfolio companies to comply with these laws or regulations could negatively affect the profitability of our operations or the profitability of our portfolio companies.
We are subject to changing rules and regulations of federal and state governments, as well as the stock exchange on which our common stock is listed. These entities, including the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, the SEC, the NASDAQ Global Select Market and the New York Stock Exchange LLC (“NYSE”), have issued a significant number of new and increasingly complex requirements and regulations over the course of the last several years and continue to develop additional regulations. In particular, changes in the laws or regulations or the interpretations of the laws and regulations that govern BDCs, RICs or non-depository commercial lenders could significantly affect our operations and our cost of doing business. We are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations and are subject to judicial and administrative decisions that affect our operations, including our loan originations, maximum interest rates, fees and other charges, disclosures to portfolio companies, the terms of secured transactions, cybersecurity preparedness, collection and foreclosure procedures and other trade practices. If these laws, regulations or decisions change, or if we expand our business into jurisdictions that have adopted more stringent requirements than those in which we currently conduct business, we may have to incur significant expenses in order to comply, or we might have to restrict our operations. In addition, if we do not comply with applicable laws, regulations and decisions, we may lose licenses needed for the conduct of our business and be subject to civil fines and criminal penalties, any of which could have a material adverse effect upon our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Foreign and domestic political risk may adversely affect our business.
We are exposed to political risk to the extent that Prospect Capital Management, on its behalf and subject to its investment guidelines, transacts in securities in the U.S. and foreign markets. The governments in any of these jurisdictions could impose restrictions, regulations or other measures, which may have a material adverse impact on our strategy.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud. As a result, stockholders could lose confidence in our financial and other public reporting, which would harm our business and the trading price of our common stock.
Effective internal controls over financial reporting are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and, together with adequate disclosure controls and procedures, are designed to prevent fraud. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. In addition, any testing by us conducted in connection with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the subsequent testing by our independent registered public accounting firm (when undertaken, as noted below), may reveal deficiencies in our internal controls over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses or that may require prospective or retroactive changes to our consolidated financial statements or identify other areas for further attention or improvement. Inferior internal controls could also cause investors and lenders to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the trading price of our common stock.
We may experience cyber-security incidents and are subject to cyber-security risks. The failure in cyber-security systems, as well as the occurrence of events unanticipated in our disaster recovery systems and management continuity planning, could impair our ability to conduct business effectively.
Our business operations rely upon secure information technology systems for data processing, storage and reporting. We are dependent on the effectiveness of the information and cybersecurity policies, procedures and capabilities maintained by our Investment Adviser and other service providers to protect their computer and telecommunications systems and the data that reside on or are transmitted through them. Our portfolio companies similarly are dependent on the effectiveness of the information and cybersecurity policies that they and their service providers maintain. Despite careful security and controls design, implementation and updating, our information technology systems could become subject to cyber-attacks and unauthorized access, such as physical and electronic break-ins or unauthorized tampering. Cyber-attacks include, but are not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems (e.g., through “hacking” or malicious software coding) for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. Cyber-attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as causing denial-of-service attacks on websites (i.e., efforts to make network services unavailable to intended users). Network, system, application and data breaches could result in operational disruptions or information misappropriation, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Like other companies, we may experience threats to our data and systems, including malware and computer virus attacks, unauthorized access, system failures and disruptions. Moreover, the increased use of mobile and cloud technologies could heighten these and other operational risks as certain aspects of the security of such technologies may be complex and unpredictable. Reliance on mobile or cloud technology or any failure by mobile technology and cloud service providers to adequately safeguard their systems and prevent cyber-attacks could disrupt our operations, the operations of a portfolio company or the operations of our or their service providers and result in misappropriation, corruption or loss of personal, confidential or proprietary information or the inability to conduct ordinary business operations. In addition, there is a risk that encryption and other protective measures may be circumvented, particularly to the extent that new computing technologies increase the speed and computing power available. There have been a number of recent highly publicized cases of companies reporting the unauthorized disclosure of client or customer information, as well as cyber-attacks involving the dissemination, theft and destruction of corporate information or other assets, as a result of failure to follow procedures by employees or contractors or as a result of actions by third parties, including actions by terrorist organizations and hostile foreign governments. If one or more of these cyber-attacks occurs, it could potentially jeopardize the confidential, proprietary and other information processed and stored in, and transmitted through, our computer systems and networks, or otherwise cause interruptions or malfunctions in our operations, which could result in damage to our reputation, financial losses, litigation, increased costs, regulatory penalties and/or customer dissatisfaction or loss.
The occurrence of a disaster, such as a cyber-attack, a natural catastrophe, an industrial accident, a terrorist attack or war, events unanticipated in our disaster recovery systems, or a support failure from external providers, could have an adverse effect on our ability to conduct business and on our results of operations and financial condition, particularly if those events affect our computer-based data processing, transmission, storage, and retrieval systems or destroy data. If a significant number of our managers were unavailable in the event of a disaster, our ability to effectively conduct our business could be severely compromised.
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Cyber-security failures or breaches by the Investment Adviser, any future sub-adviser(s), the Administrator and other service providers (including, but not limited to, accountants, custodians, transfer agents and administrators), and the issuers of securities in which we invest, have the ability to cause disruptions and impact business operations, potentially resulting in financial losses, interference with our ability to calculate our net asset value, impediments to trading, the inability of our stockholders to transact business, violations of applicable privacy and other laws, regulatory fines, penalties, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensation costs, or additional compliance costs. We and our Investment Adviser’s employees have been and expect to continue to be the target of fraudulent calls, emails and other forms of activities. In addition, substantial costs may be incurred in order to prevent any cyber incidents in the future. The costs related to cyber or other security threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified by other means. While we have established a business continuity plan in the event of, and risk management systems to prevent, such cyber-attacks, there are inherent limitations in such plans and systems including the possibility that certain risks have not been identified. Furthermore, we cannot control the cyber-security plans and systems put in place by our service providers and issuers in which we invest. We and our stockholders could be negatively impacted as a result. Cyber-security has become a top priority for regulators around the world, and some jurisdictions have enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals of data security breaches involving certain types of personal data. In addition, state and federal laws and regulations related to BDC and RIC cyber-security compliance continue to evolve and change. These changes may require substantial investments in new technology, software and personnel, which could affect our profitability. These changes may also result in enhanced and unforeseen consequences for cyber-related breaches and incidents, which may further adversely affect our profitability. If we fail to comply with the relevant laws and regulations, we could suffer financial losses, a disruption of our business, liability to investors, regulatory intervention or reputational damage.
We are dependent on information systems and systems failures could significantly disrupt our business, which may, in turn, negatively affect the market price of our common stock and our ability to pay dividends.
Our business is dependent on our and third parties’ communications and information systems. Further, in the ordinary course of our business we or our Investment Adviser may engage certain third party service providers to provide us with services necessary for our business. Any failure or interruption of those systems or services, including as a result of the termination or suspension of an agreement with any third-party service providers, could cause delays or other problems in our business activities. Our financial, accounting, data processing, backup or other operating systems and facilities may fail to operate properly or become disabled or damaged as a result of a number of factors including events that are wholly or partially beyond our control and adversely affect our business. There could be:
sudden electrical or telecommunications outages;
natural disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes and hurricanes;
disease epidemics or pandemics;
events arising from local or larger scale political or social matters, including terrorist acts; and
cyber-attacks.

These events, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and negatively affect the market price of our common stock and our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders.
Risks Relating to Our Operation as a Business Development Company
If we do not invest a sufficient portion of our assets in qualifying assets, we could fail to qualify as a BDC or be precluded from investing according to our current business strategy.
As a BDC, we may not acquire any assets other than “qualifying assets” unless, at the time of and after giving effect to such acquisition, at least 70% of our total assets are qualifying assets. We may be precluded from investing in what we believe are attractive investments if such investments are not qualifying assets for purposes of the 1940 Act. If we do not invest a sufficient portion of our assets in qualifying assets, we could be found to be in violation of the 1940 Act provisions applicable to BDCs, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Similarly, these rules could prevent us from making follow-on investments in existing portfolio companies (which could result in the dilution of our position) or could require us to dispose of investments at inappropriate times in order to come into compliance with the 1940 Act. Because most of our investments will be in private companies, and therefore will be relatively illiquid, any such dispositions could be made at disadvantageous prices and could result in substantial losses.
If we fail to qualify as a RIC, we will have to pay corporate-level taxes on our income, and our income available for distribution would be reduced.
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To maintain our qualification for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code and obtain RIC tax treatment, we must meet certain source of income, annual distribution and asset diversification requirements.
The source of income requirement is satisfied if we derive at least 90% of our annual gross income from interest, dividends, payments with respect to certain securities loans, gains from the sale or other disposition of securities or options thereon or foreign currencies, or other income derived with respect to our business of investing in such securities or currencies, and net income from interests in “qualified publicly traded partnerships,” as defined in the Code.
The annual distribution requirement for a RIC will generally be satisfied if we distribute at least 90% of our ordinary income and net short-term capital gains in excess of net long-term capital losses, if any, to our stockholders on an annual basis. Because we use debt financing, we are subject to certain asset coverage ratio requirements under the 1940 Act and financial covenants that could, under certain circumstances, restrict us from making distributions necessary to qualify for RIC tax treatment. If we are unable to obtain cash from other sources, we may fail to qualify for RIC tax treatment and, thus, may be subject to corporate-level income tax on all of our taxable income.
To maintain our qualification as a RIC, we must also meet certain asset diversification requirements at the end of each quarter of our taxable year. Failure to meet these tests may result in our having to dispose of certain investments quickly in order to prevent the loss of RIC status. Because most of our investments are in private companies, any such dispositions could be made at disadvantageous prices and may result in substantial losses.
If we fail to qualify as a RIC for any reason or become subject to corporate income tax, the resulting corporate taxes would substantially reduce our net assets, the amount of income available for distribution, and the actual amount of our distributions. Such a failure could have a materially adverse effect on us and our stockholders. For additional information regarding asset coverage ratio and RIC requirements, see “Business—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” and “Business— Regulation as a Business Development Company.”
We may have difficulty paying our required distributions if we recognize income before or without receiving cash representing such income.
For U.S. federal income tax purposes, we include in income certain amounts that we have not yet received in cash, such as original issue discount or payment-in-kind interest, which represents contractual interest added to the loan balance and due at the end of the loan term. Such amounts could be significant relative to our overall investment activities. We also may be required to include in taxable income certain other amounts that we do not receive in cash. While we focus primarily on investments that will generate a current cash return, our investment portfolio currently includes, and we may continue to invest in, securities that do not pay some or all of their return in periodic current cash distributions.
Since in some cases we may recognize taxable income before or without receiving cash representing such income, we may have difficulty distributing at least 90% of our ordinary income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses, if any, as required to maintain RIC tax treatment. Accordingly, we may have to sell some of our investments at times we would not consider advantageous, raise additional debt or equity capital or reduce new investment originations to meet these distribution requirements. If we are not able to obtain cash from other sources, we may fail to qualify for RIC treatment and thus become subject to corporate-level income tax. See “Business—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” and “Business—Regulation as a Business Development Company.”
Regulations governing our operation as a BDC affect our ability to raise, and the way in which we raise, additional capital. These constraints may hinder our Investment Adviser’s ability to take advantage of attractive investment opportunities and to achieve our investment objective.
We have incurred indebtedness under our revolving credit facility and through the issuance of the Unsecured Notes and, in the future, may issue preferred stock or debt securities and/or borrow additional money from banks or other financial institutions, which we refer to collectively as “senior securities,” up to the maximum amount permitted by the 1940 Act. Under the provisions of the 1940 Act, we are permitted, as a BDC, to incur indebtedness or issue senior securities only in amounts such that our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 150% after each issuance of senior securities. If the value of our assets declines, we may be unable to satisfy this test, which would prohibit us from paying dividends in cash or other property and could prohibit us from qualifying as a RIC. If we cannot satisfy this test, we may be required to sell a portion of our investments or sell additional shares of common stock at a time when such sales may be disadvantageous in order to repay a portion of our indebtedness or otherwise increase our net assets. Sales of common stock at prices below net asset value per share dilute the interests of existing stockholders, have the effect of reducing our net asset value per share and may reduce our market price per share. In addition, continuous sales of common stock below net asset value may have a negative impact on total returns and could have a negative impact on the market price of our shares of common stock. If we raise additional funds
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by issuing common stock or senior securities convertible into, or exchangeable for, our common stock, then the percentage ownership of our stockholders at that time will decrease, and you may experience dilution.
As a BDC regulated under provisions of the 1940 Act, we are not generally able to issue and sell our common stock at a price below the current net asset value per share without stockholder approval. If our common stock trades at a discount to net asset value, this restriction could adversely affect our ability to raise capital. We may, however, sell our common stock, or warrants, options or rights to acquire our common stock, at a price below the current net asset value of our common stock in certain circumstances, one of which is if (i)(1) the holders of a majority of our shares (or, if less, at least 67% of a quorum consisting of a majority of our shares) and a similar majority of the holders of our shares who are not affiliated persons of us approve the sale of our common stock at a price that is less than the current net asset value (which has currently occurred and is effective through June 10, 2023), and (2) a majority of our Directors who have no financial interest in the transaction and a majority of our independent Directors (a) determine that such sale is in our and our stockholders’ best interests and (b) in consultation with any underwriter or underwriters of the offering, make a good faith determination as of a time either immediately prior to the first solicitation by us or on our behalf of firm commitments to purchase such shares, or immediately prior to the issuance of such shares, that the price at which such shares are to be sold is not less than a price which closely approximates the market value of such shares, less any distributing commission or discount or (ii) a majority of the number of the beneficial holders of our common stock entitled to vote at our annual meeting, without regard to whether a majority of such shares are voted in favor of the proposal, approve the sale of our common stock at a price that is less than the current net asset value per share.
To generate cash for funding new investments, we pledged a substantial portion of our portfolio investments under our revolving credit facility. These assets are not available to secure other sources of funding or for securitization. Our ability to obtain additional secured or unsecured financing on attractive terms in the future is uncertain.
Alternatively, we may securitize our future loans to generate cash for funding new investments. See “Securitization of our assets subjects us to various risks.”
Securitization of our assets subjects us to various risks.
We may securitize assets to generate cash for funding new investments. We refer to the term securitize to describe a form of leverage under which a company such as us (sometimes referred to as an “originator” or “sponsor”) transfers income producing assets to a single-purpose, bankruptcy-remote subsidiary (also referred to as a “special purpose entity” or “SPE”), which is established solely for the purpose of holding such assets and entering into a structured finance transaction. The SPE then issues notes secured by such assets. The special purpose entity may issue the notes in the capital markets either publicly or privately to a variety of investors, including banks, non-bank financial institutions and other investors. There may be a single class of notes or multiple classes of notes, the most senior of which carries less credit risk and the most junior of which may carry substantially the same credit risk as the equity of the SPE.
An important aspect of most debt securitization transactions is that the sale and/or contribution of assets into the SPE be considered a true sale and/or contribution for accounting purposes and that a reviewing court would not consolidate the SPE with the operations of the originator in the event of the originator’s bankruptcy based on equitable principles. Viewed as a whole, a debt securitization seeks to lower risk to the note purchasers by isolating the assets collateralizing the securitization in an SPE that is not subject to the credit and bankruptcy risks of the originator. As a result of this perceived reduction of risk, debt securitization transactions frequently achieve lower overall leverage costs for originators as compared to traditional secured lending transactions.
In accordance with the above description, to securitize loans, we may create a wholly-owned subsidiary and contribute a pool of our assets to such subsidiary. The SPE may be funded with, among other things, whole loans or interests from other pools and such loans may or may not be rated. The SPE would then sell its notes to purchasers who we would expect to be willing to accept a lower interest rate and the absence of any recourse against us to invest in a pool of income producing assets to which none of our creditors would have access. We would retain all or a portion of the equity in the SPE. An inability to successfully securitize portions of our portfolio or otherwise leverage our portfolio through secured and unsecured borrowings could limit our ability to grow our business and fully execute our business strategy, and could decrease our earnings. However, the successful securitization of portions of our portfolio exposes us to a risk of loss for the equity we retain in the SPE and might expose us to greater risk on our remaining portfolio because the assets we retain may tend to be those that are riskier and more likely to generate losses. A successful securitization may also impose financial and operating covenants that restrict our business activities and may include limitations that could hinder our ability to finance additional loans and investments or to make the distributions required to maintain our status as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. The 1940 Act may also impose restrictions on the structure of any securitizations.
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Interests we hold in the SPE, if any, will be subordinated to the other interests issued by the SPE. As such, we will only receive cash distributions on such interests if the SPE has made all cash interest and other required payments on all other interests it has issued. In addition, our subordinated interests will likely be unsecured and rank behind all of the secured creditors, known or unknown, of the SPE, including the holders of the senior interests it has issued. Consequently, to the extent that the value of the SPE’s portfolio of assets has been reduced as a result of conditions in the credit markets, or as a result of defaults, the value of the subordinated interests we retain would be reduced. Securitization imposes on us the same risks as borrowing except that our risk in a securitization is limited to the amount of subordinated interests we retain, whereas in a borrowing or debt issuance by us directly we would be at risk for the entire amount of the borrowing or debt issuance.
If the SPE is not consolidated with us, our only interest will be the value of our retained subordinated interest and the income allocated to us, which may be more or less than the cash we receive from the SPE, and none of the SPE’s liabilities will be reflected as our liabilities. If the assets of the SPE are not consolidated with our assets and liabilities, then our interest in the SPE may be deemed not to be a qualifying asset for purposes of determining whether 70% of our assets are qualifying assets and the leverage incurred by such SPE may or may not be treated as borrowings by us for purposes of the requirement that we not issue senior securities in an amount in excess of our net assets.
We may also engage in transactions utilizing SPEs and securitization techniques where the assets sold or contributed to the SPE remain on our balance sheet for accounting purposes. If, for example, we sell the assets to the SPE with recourse or provide a guarantee or other credit support to the SPE, its assets will remain on our balance sheet. Consolidation would also generally result if we, in consultation with the SEC, determine that consolidation would result in a more accurate reflection of our assets, liabilities and results of operations. In these structures, the risks will be essentially the same as in other securitization transactions but the assets will remain our assets for purposes of the limitations described above on investing in assets that are not qualifying assets and the leverage incurred by the SPE will be treated as borrowings incurred by us for purposes of our limitation on the issuance of senior securities.
The Investment Adviser may have conflicts of interest with respect to potential securitizations in as much as securitizations that are not consolidated may reduce our assets for purposes of determining its investment advisory fee although in some circumstances the Investment Adviser may be paid certain fees for managing the assets of the SPE so as to reduce or eliminate any potential bias against securitizations.
Our ability to invest in public companies may be limited in certain circumstances.
As a BDC, we must not acquire any assets other than “qualifying assets” specified in the 1940 Act unless, at the time the acquisition is made, at least 70% of our total assets are qualifying assets (with certain limited exceptions). Subject to certain exceptions for follow-on investments and distressed companies, an investment in an issuer that has outstanding securities listed on a national securities exchange may be treated as qualifying assets only if such issuer has a market capitalization that is less than $250 million at the time of such investment.
Risks Relating to Our Investments
We may not realize gains or income from our investments.
We seek to generate both current income and capital appreciation. However, the securities we invest in may not appreciate and, in fact, may decline in value, and the issuers of debt securities we invest in may default on interest and/or principal payments. Accordingly, we may not be able to realize gains from our investments, and any gains that we do realize may not be sufficient to offset any losses we experience. See “Business—Our Investment Objective and Policies.”
Most of our portfolio investments are recorded at fair value as determined in good faith under the direction of our Board of Directors and, as a result, there is uncertainty as to the value of our portfolio investments.
A large percentage of our portfolio investments consist of securities of privately held companies. Hence, market quotations are generally not readily available for determining the fair values of such investments. The determination of fair value, and thus the amount of unrealized losses we may incur in any year, is to a degree subjective, and the Investment Adviser has a conflict of interest in making the determination. We value these securities quarterly at fair value as determined in good faith by our Board of Directors based on input from the Investment Adviser, our Administrator, a third party independent valuation firm and our Audit Committee. Our Board of Directors utilizes the services of an independent valuation firm to aid it in determining the fair value of any securities. The types of factors that may be considered in determining the fair values of our investments include the nature and realizable value of any collateral, the portfolio company’s ability to make payments and its earnings, the markets in which the portfolio company does business, comparison to publicly traded companies, discounted cash flow, current market interest rates and other relevant factors.
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Because such valuations, and particularly valuations of private securities and private companies, are inherently uncertain, the valuations may fluctuate significantly over short periods of time due to changes in current market conditions. The determinations of fair value by our Board of Directors may differ materially from the values that would have been used if an active market and market quotations existed for these investments. Our net asset value could be adversely affected if the determinations regarding the fair value of our investments were materially higher than the values that we ultimately realize upon the disposal of such securities.
In addition, decreases in the market values or fair values of our investments are recorded as unrealized depreciation. Declines in prices and liquidity in the corporate debt markets experienced during a financial crisis will result in significant net unrealized depreciation in our portfolio. The effect of all of these factors increases the net unrealized depreciation in our portfolio and reduces our NAV. Depending on market conditions, we could incur substantial realized losses which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We have no policy regarding holding a minimum level of liquid assets. As such, a high percentage of our portfolio generally is not liquid at any given point in time. See “—The lack of liquidity in our investments may adversely affect our business.”
Price declines and illiquidity in the corporate debt markets have adversely affected, and may in the future adversely affect, the fair value of our portfolio investments, reducing our net asset value through increased net unrealized depreciation.
As a BDC, we are required to carry our investments at market value or, if no market value is ascertainable, at fair value as determined in good faith by or under the direction of our Board of Directors. As part of the valuation process, the types of factors that we may take into account in determining the fair value of our investments include, as relevant and among other factors: available current market data, including relevant and applicable market trading and transaction comparables, applicable market yields and multiples, security covenants, call protection provisions, information rights, the nature and realizable value of any collateral, the portfolio company’s ability to make payments, its earnings and discounted cash flows, the markets in which the portfolio company does business, comparisons of financial ratios of peer companies that are public, merger and acquisition comparables, our principal market (as the reporting entity) and enterprise values of our portfolio companies. Decreases in the market values or fair values of our investments are recorded as unrealized depreciation. The effect of all of these factors on our portfolio can reduce our net asset value by increasing net unrealized depreciation in our portfolio. Depending on market conditions, we could incur substantial realized losses and may suffer additional unrealized losses in future periods, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our investments in prospective portfolio companies may be risky and we could lose all or part of our investment.
Some of our portfolio companies have relatively short or no operating histories. These companies are and will be subject to all of the business risks and uncertainties associated with any new business enterprise, including the risk that these companies may not reach their investment objective, and the value of our investment in them may decline substantially or fall to zero. In addition, investment in the middle-market companies that we are targeting involves a number of other significant risks, including:
These companies may have limited financial resources and may be unable to meet their obligations under their securities that we hold, which may be accompanied by a deterioration in the value of their securities or of any collateral with respect to any securities, and a reduction in the likelihood of our realizing on any guarantees we may have obtained in connection with our investment.
They may have shorter operating histories, narrower product lines and smaller market shares than larger businesses, which tend to render them more vulnerable to competitors’ actions and market conditions as well as general economic downturns.
Because many of these companies are privately held companies, public information is generally not available about these companies. As a result, we will depend on the ability of the Investment Adviser to obtain adequate information to evaluate these companies in making investment decisions. If the Investment Adviser is unable to uncover all material information about these companies, it may not make a fully informed investment decision, and we may lose money on our investments.
They are more likely to depend on the management talents and efforts of a small group of persons; therefore, the death, disability, resignation or termination of one or more of these persons could have a materially adverse impact on our portfolio company and, in turn, on us.
They may have less predictable operating results, may from time to time be parties to litigation, may be engaged in changing businesses with products subject to a risk of obsolescence and may require substantial additional capital to support their operations, finance expansion or maintain their competitive position.
They may have difficulty accessing the capital markets to meet future capital needs.
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Changes in laws and regulations, as well as their interpretations, may adversely affect their business, financial structure or prospects.
Increased taxes, regulatory expense or the costs of changes to the way they conduct business due to the effects of climate change may adversely affect their business, financial structure or prospects.

We acquire majority interests in operating companies engaged in a variety of industries. When we acquire these companies we generally seek to apply financial leverage to them in the form of debt. In most cases all or a portion of this debt is held by us, with the obligor being either the operating company itself, a holding company through which we own our majority interest or both. The level of debt leverage utilized by these companies makes them susceptible to the risks identified above.
In addition, our executive officers, directors and the Investment Adviser could, in the ordinary course of business, be named as defendants in litigation arising from proposed investments or from our investments in the portfolio companies and may, as a result, incur significant costs and expenses in connection with such litigation.
The lack of liquidity in our investments may adversely affect our business.
We make investments in private companies. A portion of these investments may be subject to legal and other restrictions on resale, transfer, pledge or other disposition or will otherwise be less liquid than publicly traded securities. The illiquidity of our investments may make it difficult for us to sell such investments if the need arises. In addition, if we are required to liquidate all or a portion of our portfolio quickly, we may realize significantly less than the value at which we have previously recorded our investments. In addition, we face other restrictions on our ability to liquidate an investment in a business entity to the extent that we or the Investment Adviser has or could be deemed to have material non-public information regarding such business entity.
Economic recessions or downturns could impair our portfolio companies and harm our operating results.
Many of our portfolio companies may be susceptible to economic slowdowns or recessions and may be unable to repay our loans or meet other obligations during these periods. Therefore, our non-performing assets are likely to increase, and the value of our portfolio is likely to decrease, during these periods. Adverse economic conditions also may decrease the value of collateral securing some of our loans and the value of our equity investments. Economic slowdowns or recessions could lead to financial losses in our portfolio and a decrease in revenues, net income and assets. Unfavorable economic conditions also could increase our funding costs, limit our access to the capital markets or result in a decision by lenders not to extend credit to us. These events could prevent us from increasing investments and harm our operating results.
A portfolio company’s failure to satisfy financial or operating covenants imposed by us or other lenders could lead to defaults and, potentially, termination of its loans and foreclosure on its secured assets, which could trigger cross-defaults under other agreements and jeopardize a portfolio company’s ability to meet its obligations under the debt or equity securities that we hold. We may incur expenses to the extent necessary to seek recovery upon default or to negotiate new terms, which may include the waiver of certain financial covenants, with a defaulting portfolio company. In addition, if one of our portfolio companies were to go bankrupt, even though we may have structured our interest as senior debt or preferred equity, depending on the facts and circumstances, including the extent to which we actually provided managerial assistance to that portfolio company, a bankruptcy court might recharacterize our debt or equity holding and subordinate all or a portion of our claim to those of other creditors.
U.S. GDP growth has been reported as negative for the last two completed calendar quarters in 2022, which has traditionally been interpreted to signal a recession for the U.S. economy. Therefore, the recessionary risks discussed above and elsewhere in these risk factors are more pronounced in the current economic environment.
Investments in equity securities, many of which are illiquid with no readily available market, involve a substantial degree of risk.
We may purchase common and other equity securities. Although common stock has historically generated higher average total returns than fixed income securities over the long-term, common stock has significantly more volatility in those returns and may significantly underperform relative to fixed income securities. The equity securities we acquire may fail to appreciate and may decline in value or become worthless and our ability to recover our investment will depend on our portfolio company’s success. Investments in equity securities involve a number of significant risks, including:
Any equity investment we make in a portfolio company could be subject to further dilution as a result of the issuance of additional equity interests and to serious risks as a junior security that will be subordinate to all indebtedness (including trade creditors) or senior securities in the event that the issuer is unable to meet its obligations or becomes subject to a bankruptcy process.
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To the extent that the portfolio company requires additional capital and is unable to obtain it, we may not recover our investment.
In some cases, equity securities in which we invest will not pay current dividends, and our ability to realize a return on our investment, as well as to recover our investment, will be dependent on the success of the portfolio company. Even if the portfolio company is successful, our ability to realize the value of our investment may be dependent on the occurrence of a liquidity event, such as a public offering or the sale of the portfolio company. It is likely to take a significant amount of time before a liquidity event occurs or we can otherwise sell our investment. In addition, the equity securities we receive or invest in may be subject to restrictions on resale during periods in which it could be advantageous to sell them.

There are special risks associated with investing in preferred securities, including:
Preferred securities may include provisions that permit the issuer, at its discretion, to defer distributions for a stated period without any adverse consequences to the issuer. If we own a preferred security that is deferring its distributions, we may be required to report income for tax purposes before we receive such distributions.
Preferred securities are subordinated to debt in terms of priority to income and liquidation payments, and therefore will be subject to greater credit risk than debt.
Preferred securities may be substantially less liquid than many other securities, such as common stock or U.S. government securities.
Generally, preferred security holders have no voting rights with respect to the issuing company, subject to limited exceptions.

Additionally, when we invest in first lien senior secured loans (including unitranche loans), second lien senior secured loans or unsecured debt, we may acquire warrants or other equity securities as well. Our goal is ultimately to dispose of such equity interests and realize gains upon our disposition of such interests. However, the equity interests we receive may not appreciate in value and, in fact, may decline in value. Accordingly, we may not be able to realize gains from our equity interests and any gains that we do realize on the disposition of any equity interests may not be sufficient to offset any other losses we experience.
We may invest, to the extent permitted by law, in the equity securities of investment funds that are operating pursuant to certain exceptions to the 1940 Act and in advisers to similar investment funds and, to the extent we so invest, will bear our ratable share of any such company’s expenses, including management and performance fees. We will also remain obligated to pay management and incentive fees to Prospect Capital Management with respect to the assets invested in the securities and instruments of such companies. With respect to each of these investments, each of our common stockholders will bear his or her share of the management and incentive fee of Prospect Capital Management as well as indirectly bearing the management and performance fees and other expenses of any such investment funds or advisers.
There may be circumstances where our debt investments could be subordinated to claims of other creditors or we could be subject to lender liability claims.
If one of our portfolio companies were to go bankrupt, even though we may have structured our interest as senior debt, depending on the facts and circumstances, a bankruptcy court might recharacterize our debt holding as an equity investment and subordinate all or a portion of our claim to that of other creditors. In addition, lenders can be subject to lender liability claims for actions taken by them where they become too involved in the borrower’s business or exercise control over the borrower. For example, we could become subject to a lender’s liability claim, if, among other things, we actually render significant managerial assistance.
Our portfolio companies may incur debt or issue equity securities that rank equally with, or senior to, our investments in such companies.
Our portfolio companies may have, or may be permitted to incur, other debt or issue other equity securities that rank equally with or senior to our investments. By their terms, such instruments may provide that the holders are entitled to receive payment of dividends, interest or principal on or before the dates on which we are entitled to receive payments in respect of our investments. These debt instruments would usually prohibit the portfolio companies from paying interest on or repaying our investments in the event and during the continuance of a default under such debt. Also, in the event of insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or bankruptcy of a portfolio company, holders of securities ranking senior to our investment in that portfolio company typically are entitled to receive payment in full before we receive any distribution in respect of our investment. After repaying such holders, the portfolio company may not have any remaining assets to use for repaying its obligation to us. In the case of securities ranking equally with our investments, we would have to share on an equal basis any
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distributions with other security holders in the event of an insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization or bankruptcy of the relevant portfolio company.
The rights we may have with respect to the collateral securing any junior priority loans we make to our portfolio companies may also be limited pursuant to the terms of one or more intercreditor agreements (including agreements governing “first out” and “last out” structures) that we enter into with the holders of senior debt. Under such an intercreditor agreement, at any time that senior obligations are outstanding, we may forfeit certain rights with respect to the collateral to the holders of the senior obligations. These rights may include the right to commence enforcement proceedings against the collateral, the right to control the conduct of such enforcement proceedings, the right to approve amendments to collateral documents, the right to release liens on the collateral and the right to waive past defaults under collateral documents. We may not have the ability to control or direct such actions, even if as a result our rights as junior lenders are adversely affected.
This risk is characteristic of many of the majority-owned operating companies in our portfolio in that any debt to us from a holding company and the holding company’s substantial equity investments in the related operating company are subordinated to any creditors of the operating company.
When we are a debt or minority equity investor in a portfolio company, we are often not in a position to exert influence on the entity, and other debt holders, other equity holders and/or portfolio company management may make decisions that could decrease the value of our portfolio holdings.
When we make debt or minority equity investments, we are subject to the risk that a portfolio company may make business decisions with which we disagree and the other equity holders and management of such company may take risks or otherwise act in ways that do not serve our interests. As a result, a portfolio company may make decisions that could decrease the value of our investment. In addition, when we hold a subordinate debt position, other more senior debt holders may make decisions that could decrease the value of our investment.
Our portfolio companies may be highly leveraged.
Some of our portfolio companies may be highly leveraged, which may have adverse consequences to these companies and to us as an investor. These companies may be subject to restrictive financial and operating covenants and the leverage may impair these companies’ ability to finance their future operations and capital needs. As a result, these companies’ flexibility to respond to changing business and economic conditions and to take advantage of business opportunities may be limited. Further, a leveraged company’s income and net assets will tend to increase or decrease at a greater rate than if borrowed money were not used.
Our portfolio contains a limited number of portfolio companies, some of which comprise a substantial percentage of our portfolio, which subjects us to a greater risk of significant loss if any of these companies defaults on its obligations under any of its debt securities.
A consequence of the limited number of investments in our portfolio is that the aggregate returns we realize may be significantly adversely affected if one or more of our significant portfolio company investments perform poorly or if we need to write down the value of any one significant investment. Beyond our income tax diversification requirements, we do not have fixed guidelines for diversification, and our portfolio could contain relatively few portfolio companies.
Our failure to make follow-on investments in our existing portfolio companies could impair the value of our portfolio.
Following an initial investment in a portfolio company, we may make additional investments in that portfolio company as “follow-on” investments, in order to: (1) increase or maintain in whole or in part our equity ownership percentage; (2) exercise warrants, options or convertible securities that were acquired in the original or subsequent financing or (3) attempt to preserve or enhance the value of our investment.
We may elect not to make follow-on investments, may be constrained in our ability to employ available funds, or otherwise may lack sufficient funds to make those investments. We have the discretion to make any follow-on investments, subject to the availability of capital resources. The failure to make follow-on investments may, in some circumstances, jeopardize the continued viability of a portfolio company and our initial investment, or may result in a missed opportunity for us to increase our participation in a successful operation. Even if we have sufficient capital to make a desired follow-on investment, we may elect not to make a follow-on investment because we may not want to increase our concentration of risk, because we prefer other opportunities, or because we are inhibited by compliance with BDC requirements or the desire to maintain our tax status.
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We may be unable to invest the net proceeds raised from offerings and repayments from investments on acceptable terms, which would harm our financial condition and operating results.
Until we identify new investment opportunities, we intend to either invest the net proceeds of future offerings and repayments from investments in interest-bearing deposits or other short-term instruments or use the net proceeds from such offerings to reduce then-outstanding obligations under our revolving credit facility. We cannot assure you that we will be able to find enough appropriate investments that meet our investment criteria or that any investment we complete using the proceeds from an offering or repayments will produce a sufficient return.
We may have limited access to information about privately-held companies in which we invest.
We invest primarily in privately-held companies. Generally, little public information exists about these companies, and we are required to rely on the ability of the Investment Adviser’s investment professionals to obtain adequate information to evaluate the potential returns from investing in these companies. These companies and their financial information are not subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and other rules that govern public companies. If we are unable to uncover all material information about these companies, we may not make a fully informed investment decision, and we may lose money on our investment.
We may not be able to fully realize the value of the collateral securing our debt investments.
Although a substantial amount of our debt investments are protected by holding security interests in the assets or equity interests of the portfolio companies, we may not be able to fully realize the value of the collateral securing our investments due to one or more of the following factors:
Our debt investments may be in the form of unsecured loans, therefore our liens on the collateral, if any, are subordinated to those of the senior secured debt of the portfolio companies, if any. As a result, we may not be able to control remedies with respect to the collateral.
The collateral may not be valuable enough to satisfy all of the obligations under our secured loan, particularly after giving effect to the repayment of secured debt of the portfolio company that ranks senior to our loan.
Bankruptcy laws may limit our ability to realize value from the collateral and may delay the realization process.
Our rights in the collateral may be adversely affected by the failure to perfect security interests in the collateral.
The need to obtain regulatory and contractual consents could impair or impede how effectively the collateral would be liquidated and could affect the value received.
Some or all of the collateral may be illiquid and may have no readily ascertainable market value. The liquidity and value of the collateral could be impaired as a result of changing economic conditions, competition, and other factors, including the availability of suitable buyers.
Our investments in foreign securities may involve significant risks in addition to the risks inherent in U.S. investments.
Our investment strategy contemplates potential investments in securities of foreign companies, including those located in emerging market countries. Investing in foreign companies may expose us to additional risks not typically associated with investing in U.S. companies. These risks include changes in exchange control regulations, political and social instability, expropriation, imposition of foreign taxes, less liquid markets and less available information than is generally the case in the United States, higher transaction costs, less government supervision of exchanges, brokers and issuers, less developed bankruptcy laws, difficulty in enforcing contractual obligations, lack of uniform accounting and auditing standards and greater price volatility. Such risks are more pronounced in emerging market countries.
Although currently substantially all of our investments are, and we expect that most of our investments will be, U.S. dollar-denominated, investments that are denominated in a foreign currency will be subject to the risk that the value of a particular currency will change in relation to one or more other currencies. Among the factors that may affect currency values are trade balances, the level of short-term interest rates, differences in relative values of similar assets in different currencies, long-term opportunities for investment and capital appreciation, and political developments.
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We may expose ourselves to risks if we engage in hedging transactions.
We may employ hedging techniques to minimize certain investment risks, such as fluctuations in interest and currency exchange rates, but we can offer no assurance that such strategies will be effective. If we engage in hedging transactions, we may expose ourselves to risks associated with such transactions. We may utilize instruments such as forward contracts, currency options and interest rate swaps, caps, collars and floors to seek to hedge against fluctuations in the relative values of our portfolio positions from changes in currency exchange rates and market interest rates. Hedging against a decline in the values of our portfolio positions does not eliminate the possibility of fluctuations in the values of such positions or prevent losses if the values of such positions decline. However, such hedging can establish other positions designed to gain from those same developments, thereby offsetting the decline in the value of such portfolio positions. Such hedging transactions may also limit the opportunity for gain if the values of the portfolio positions should increase. Moreover, it may not be possible to hedge against an exchange rate or interest rate fluctuation that is so generally anticipated that we are not able to enter into a hedging transaction at an acceptable price. Furthermore, our ability to engage in hedging transactions may also be adversely affected by rules adopted by the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission, or the “CFTC”. The Dodd-Frank Act has made broad changes to the OTC derivatives market, granted significant new authority to the CFTC and the SEC to regulate OTC derivatives (swaps and security-based swaps) and participants in these markets. The Dodd-Frank Act is intended to regulate the OTC derivatives market by requiring many derivative transactions to be cleared and traded on an exchange, expanding entity registration requirements, imposing business conduct requirements on dealers and requiring banks to move some derivatives trading units to a non-guaranteed affiliate separate from the deposit-taking bank or divest them altogether. The CFTC has implemented mandatory clearing and exchange-trading of certain OTC derivatives contracts including many standardized interest rate swaps and credit default index swaps. The CFTC continues to approve contracts for central clearing. Exchange-trading and central clearing are expected to reduce counterparty credit risk by substituting the clearinghouse as the counterparty to a swap and increase liquidity, but exchange-trading and central clearing do not make swap transactions risk-free. Uncleared swaps, such as non-deliverable foreign currency forwards, are subject to certain margin requirements that mandate the posting and collection of minimum margin amounts. This requirement may result in the portfolio and its counterparties posting higher margin amounts for uncleared swaps than would otherwise be the case. Certain rules require centralized reporting of detailed information about many types of cleared and uncleared swaps. Reporting of swap data may result in greater market transparency, but may subject a portfolio to additional administrative burdens, and the safeguards established to protect trader anonymity may not function as expected. In addition, on October 28, 2020, the SEC adopted new regulations governing the use of derivatives by BDCs (“Rule 18f-4”). As a result, we are required to implement and comply with the Rule 18f-4 limits on the amount of derivatives we can enter into, eliminate the asset segregation framework we previously used to comply with Section 18 of the 1940 Act, treat derivatives as senior securities so that a failure to comply with the limits would result in a statutory violation and require us, if our use of derivatives is more than a limited specified exposure amount (10% of net assets), to establish and maintain a comprehensive derivatives risk management program and appoint a derivatives risk manager. Future CFTC or SEC rulemakings could potentially limit or completely restrict our ability to use these instruments as a part of our investment strategy, increase the costs of using these instruments or make them less effective. Limits or restrictions applicable to the counterparties with which we engage in derivative transactions could also prevent us from using these instruments or affect the pricing or other factors relating to these instruments, or may change availability of certain investments.
The success of our hedging transactions depends on our ability to correctly predict movements, currencies and interest rates. Therefore, while we may enter into such transactions to seek to reduce currency exchange rate and interest rate risks, unanticipated changes in currency exchange rates or interest rates may result in poorer overall investment performance than if we had not engaged in any such hedging transactions. The degree of correlation between price movements of the instruments used in a hedging strategy and price movements in the portfolio positions being hedged may vary. Moreover, for a variety of reasons, we may not seek to establish a perfect correlation between such hedging instruments and the portfolio holdings being hedged. Any such imperfect correlation may prevent us from achieving the intended hedge and expose us to risk of loss. In addition, it may not be possible to hedge fully or perfectly against currency fluctuations affecting the value of securities denominated in non-U.S. currencies. We have no current intention of engaging in any of the hedging transaction described above, although we reserve the right to do so in the future.
Our Board of Directors may change our operating policies and strategies without prior notice or stockholder approval, the effects of which may be adverse to us and could impair the value of our stockholders’ investment.
Our Board of Directors has the authority to modify or waive our current operating policies and our strategies without prior notice and without stockholder approval. We cannot predict the effect any changes to our current operating policies and strategies would have on our business, financial condition, and value of our common stock. However, the effects might be adverse, which could negatively impact our ability to pay dividends and cause stockholders to lose all or part of their investment.
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Investments in the energy sector are subject to many risks.
We have made certain investments in and relating to the energy sector. The operations of energy companies are subject to many risks inherent in the transporting, processing, storing, distributing, mining or marketing of natural gas, natural gas liquids, crude oil, coal, refined petroleum products or other hydrocarbons, or in the exploring, managing or producing of such commodities, including, without limitation: damage to pipelines, storage tanks or related equipment and surrounding properties caused by hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, fires and other natural disasters or by acts of terrorism, inadvertent damage from construction and farm equipment, leaks of natural gas, natural gas liquids, crude oil, refined petroleum products or other hydrocarbons, and fires and explosions. These risks could result in substantial losses due to personal injury or loss of life, severe damage to and destruction of property and equipment and pollution or other environmental damage, and may result in the curtailment or suspension of their related operations, any and all of which could adversely affect our portfolio companies in the energy sector. In addition, the energy sector commodity prices have experienced significant volatility at times, which may occur in the future, and which could negatively affect the returns on any investment made by us in this sector. In addition, valuation of certain investments includes the probability weighting of future events which are outside of management’s control. The final outcome of such events could increase or decrease the fair value of the investment in a future period.
Our investments in CLOs may be riskier and less transparent to us and our stockholders than direct investments in the underlying companies.
We invest in CLOs. Generally, there may be less information available to us regarding the underlying debt investments held by CLOs than if we had invested directly in the debt of the underlying companies. As a result, our stockholders will not know the details of the underlying securities of the CLOs in which we will invest. Our CLO investments are subject to the risk of leverage associated with the debt issued by such CLOs and the repayment priority of senior debt holders in such CLOs. Additionally, CLOs in which we invest are often governed by a complex series of legal documents and contracts. As a result, the risk of dispute over interpretation or enforceability of the documentation may be higher relative to other types of investments. For example, some documents governing the loans underlying our CLO investments may allow for “priming transactions,” in connection with which majority lenders or debtors can amend loan documents to the detriment of other lenders, amend loan documents in order to move collateral, or amend documents in order to facilitate capital outflow to other parties/subsidiaries in a capital structure, any of which may adversely affect the rights and security priority of the CLOs in which we are invested.
The accounting and tax implications of such investments are complicated. In particular, reported earnings from the equity tranche investments of these CLO vehicles are recorded under GAAP based upon an effective yield calculation. Current taxable earnings on these investments, however, will generally not be determinable until after the end of the fiscal year of each individual CLO vehicle that ends within the Company’s fiscal year, even though the investments are generating cash flow. In general, the tax treatment of these investments may result in higher distributable earnings in the early years and a capital loss at maturity, while for reporting purposes the totality of cash flows are reflected in a constant yield to maturity.
Some instruments issued by CLO vehicles may not be readily marketable and may be subject to restrictions on resale. Securities issued by CLO vehicles are generally not listed on any U.S. national securities exchange and no active trading market may exist for the securities of CLO vehicles in which we may invest. Although a secondary market may exist for our investments in CLO vehicles, the market for our investments in CLO vehicles may be subject to irregular trading activity, wide bid/ask spreads and extended trade settlement periods. As a result, these types of investments may be more difficult to value.
Our investments in portfolio companies may be risky, and we could lose all or part of our investment.
Failure by a CLO vehicle in which we are invested to satisfy certain tests will harm our operating results.
The failure by a CLO investment in which we invest to satisfy financial covenants, including with respect to adequate collateralization and/or interest coverage tests, could lead to a reduction in its payments to us. In the event that a CLO fails certain tests, holders of debt senior to us would be entitled to additional payments that would, in turn, reduce the payments we would otherwise be entitled to receive. Separately, we may incur expenses to the extent necessary to seek recovery upon default or to negotiate new terms with a defaulting CLO or any other investment we may make. If any of these occur, it could materially and adversely affect our operating results and cash flows.
CLOs typically will have no significant assets other than their underlying senior secured loans; payments on CLO investments are and will be payable solely from the cash flows from such senior secured loans.
CLOs typically will have no significant assets other than their underlying senior secured loans. Accordingly, payments on CLO investments are and will be payable solely from the cash flows from such senior secured loans, net of all management fees and
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other expenses. Payments to us as a holder of CLO junior securities are and will be made only after payments due on the senior secured notes, and, where appropriate, the junior secured notes, have been made in full. This means that relatively small numbers of defaults of senior secured loans may adversely impact our returns.
Our CLO investments are exposed to leveraged credit risk.
Generally, we are in a subordinated position with respect to realized losses on the senior secured loans underlying our investments in CLOs. The leveraged nature of CLOs, in particular, magnifies the adverse impact of senior secured loan defaults. CLO investments represent a leveraged investment with respect to the underlying senior secured loans. Therefore, changes in the market value of the CLO investments could be greater than the change in the market value of the underlying senior secured loans, which are subject to credit, liquidity and interest rate risk.
There is the potential for interruption and deferral of cash flow from CLO investments.
If certain minimum collateral value ratios and/or interest coverage ratios are not met by a CLO, primarily due to senior secured loan defaults, then cash flow that otherwise would have been available to pay distributions to us on our CLO investments may instead be used to redeem any senior notes or to purchase additional senior secured loans, until the ratios again exceed the minimum required levels or any senior notes are repaid in full. This could result in an elimination, reduction or deferral in the distribution and/or principal paid to the holders of the CLO investments, which would adversely impact our returns.
Investments in foreign securities may involve significant risks in addition to the risks inherent in U.S. investments.
Our CLO investment strategy allows investments in foreign CLOs. Investing in foreign entities may expose us to additional risks not typically associated with investing in U.S. issuers. These risks include changes in exchange control regulations, political and social instability, expropriation, imposition of foreign taxes, less liquid markets and less available information than is generally the case in the United States, higher transaction costs, less government supervision of exchanges, brokers and issuers, less developed bankruptcy laws, difficulty in enforcing contractual obligations, lack of uniform accounting and auditing standards and greater price volatility. Further, we, and the CLOs in which we invest, may have difficulty enforcing creditor’s rights in foreign jurisdictions. In addition, the underlying companies of the CLOs in which we invest may be foreign, which may create greater exposure for us to foreign economic developments.
The payment of underlying portfolio manager fees and other charges on CLO investments could adversely impact our returns.
We may invest in CLO investments where the underlying portfolio securities may be subject to management, administration and incentive or performance fees, in addition to those payable by us. Payment of such additional fees could adversely impact the returns we achieve.
The inability of a CLO collateral manager to reinvest the proceeds of the prepayment of senior secured loans at equivalent rates may adversely affect us.
There can be no assurance that for any CLO investment, in the event that any of the senior secured loans of a CLO underlying such investment are prepaid, the CLO collateral manager will be able to reinvest such proceeds in new senior secured loans with equivalent investment returns. If the CLO collateral manager cannot reinvest in new senior secured loans with equivalent investment returns, the interest proceeds available to pay interest on the rated liabilities and investments may be adversely affected.
Our CLO investments are subject to prepayments and calls, increasing re-investment risk.
Our CLO investments and/or the underlying senior secured loans may prepay more quickly than expected, which could have an adverse impact on our value. Prepayment rates are influenced by changes in interest rates and a variety of economic, geographic and other factors beyond our control and consequently cannot be predicted with certainty. In addition, for a CLO collateral manager there is often a strong incentive to refinance well performing portfolios once the senior tranches amortize. The yield to maturity of the investments will depend on the amount and timing of payments of principal on the loans and the price paid for the investments. Such yield may be adversely affected by a higher or lower than anticipated rate of prepayments of the debt.
Furthermore, our CLO investments generally do not contain optional call provisions, other than a call at the option of the holders of the equity tranches for the senior notes and the junior secured notes to be paid in full after the expiration of an initial period in the deal (referred to as the “non-call period”).
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The exercise of the call option is by the relevant percentage (usually a majority) of the holders of the equity tranches and, therefore, where we do not hold the relevant percentage we will not be able to control the timing of the exercise of the call option. The equity tranches also generally have a call at any time based on certain tax event triggers. In any event, the call can only be exercised by the holders of equity tranches if they can demonstrate (in accordance with the detailed provisions in the transaction) that the senior notes and junior secured notes will be paid in full if the call is exercised.
Early prepayments and/or the exercise of a call option otherwise than at our request may also give rise to increased re-investment risk with respect to certain investments, as we may realize excess cash earlier than expected. If we are unable to reinvest such cash in a new investment with an expected rate of return at least equal to that of the investment repaid, this may reduce our net income and, consequently, could have an adverse impact on our ability to pay dividends.
We have limited control of the administration and amendment of senior secured loans owned by the CLOs in which we invest.
We are not able to directly enforce any rights and remedies in the event of a default of a senior secured loan held by a CLO vehicle. In addition, the terms and conditions of the senior secured loans underlying our CLO investments may be amended, modified or waived only by the agreement of the underlying lenders. Generally, any such agreement must include a majority or a super majority (measured by outstanding loans or commitments) or, in certain circumstances, a unanimous vote of the lenders. Consequently, the terms and conditions of the payment obligations arising from senior secured loans could be modified, amended or waived in a manner contrary to our preferences.
We have limited control of the administration and amendment of any CLO in which we invest.
The terms and conditions of target securities may be amended, modified or waived only by the agreement of the underlying security holders. Generally, any such agreement must include a majority or a super majority (measured by outstanding amounts) or, in certain circumstances, a unanimous vote of the security holders. Consequently, the terms and conditions of the payment obligation arising from the CLOs in which we invest be modified, amended or waived in a manner contrary to our preferences.
Senior secured loans of CLOs may be sold and replaced resulting in a loss to us.
The senior secured loans underlying our CLO investments may be sold and replacement collateral purchased within the parameters set out in the relevant CLO indenture between the CLO and the CLO trustee and those parameters may typically only be amended, modified or waived by the agreement of a majority of the holders of the senior notes and/or the junior secured notes and/or the equity tranche once the CLO has been established. If these transactions result in a net loss, the magnitude of the loss from the perspective of the equity tranche would be increased by the leveraged nature of the investment.
Our financial results may be affected adversely if one or more of our significant equity or junior debt investments in a CLO vehicle defaults on its payment obligations or fails to perform as we expect.
We expect that a majority of our portfolio will consist of equity and junior debt investments in CLOs, which involve a number of significant risks. CLOs are typically highly levered up to approximately 10 times, and therefore the junior debt and equity tranches that we will invest in are subject to a higher risk of total loss. In particular, investors in CLOs indirectly bear risks of the underlying debt investments held by such CLOs. We will generally have the right to receive payments only from the CLOs, and will generally not have direct rights against the underlying borrowers or the entities that sponsored the CLOs. Although it is difficult to predict whether the prices of indices and securities underlying CLOs will rise or fall, these prices, and, therefore, the prices of the CLOs will be influenced by the same types of political and economic events that affect issuers of securities and capital markets generally.
The investments we make in CLOs are thinly traded or have only a limited trading market. CLO investments are typically privately offered and sold, in the primary and secondary markets. As a result, investments in CLOs may be characterized as illiquid securities. In addition to the general risks associated with investing in debt securities, CLOs carry additional risks, including, but not limited to: (i) the possibility that distributions from the underlying senior secured loans will not be adequate to make interest or other payments; (ii) the quality of the underlying senior secured loans may decline in value or default; and (iii) the complex structure of the security may not be fully understood at the time of investment and may produce disputes with the CLO or unexpected investment results. Further, our investments in equity and junior debt tranches of CLOs are subordinate to the senior debt tranches thereof.
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Investments in structured vehicles, including equity and junior debt instruments issued by CLOs, involve risks, including credit risk and market risk. Changes in interest rates and credit quality may cause significant price fluctuations. Additionally, changes in the underlying senior secured loans held by a CLO may cause payments on the instruments we hold to be reduced, either temporarily or permanently. Structured investments, particularly the subordinated interests in which we invest, are less liquid than many other types of securities and may be more volatile than the senior secured loans underlying the CLOs in which we invest.
Non-investment grade debt involves a greater risk of default and higher price volatility than investment grade debt.
The senior secured loans underlying our CLO investments typically are BB or B rated (non-investment grade) and in limited circumstances, unrated, senior secured loans. Non-investment grade securities are predominantly speculative with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal when due and therefore involve a greater risk of default and higher price volatility than investment grade debt.
We will have no influence on management of underlying investments managed by non-affiliated third party CLO collateral managers.
We are not responsible for and have no influence over the asset management of the portfolios underlying the CLO investments we hold as those portfolios are managed by non-affiliated third party CLO collateral managers. Similarly, we are not responsible for and have no influence over the day-to-day management, administration or any other aspect of the issuers of the individual securities. As a result, the values of the portfolios underlying our CLO investments could decrease as a result of decisions made by third party CLO collateral managers.
The application of the risk retention rules under Section 941 of the Dodd-Frank Act to CLOs may have broader effects on the CLO and loan markets in general, potentially resulting in fewer or less desirable investment opportunities for us.
Section 941 of the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank Act”) added a provision to the Exchange Act, requiring the seller, sponsor or securitizer of a securitization vehicle to retain no less than five percent of the credit risk in assets it sells into a securitization and prohibiting such securitizer from directly or indirectly hedging or otherwise transferring the retained credit risk. The responsible federal agencies adopted final rules implementing these restrictions on October 22, 2014. The risk retention rules became effective with respect to CLOs two years after publication in the Federal Register. Under the final rules, the asset manager of a CLO is considered the sponsor of a securitization vehicle and is required to retain five percent of the credit risk in the CLO, which may be retained horizontally in the equity tranche of the CLO or vertically as a five percent interest in each tranche of the securities issued by the CLO. Although the final rules contain an exemption from such requirements for the asset manager of a CLO if, among other things, the originator or lead arranger of all of the loans acquired by the CLO retain such risk at the asset level and, at origination of such asset, takes a loan tranche of at least 20% of the aggregate principal balance, it is possible that the originators and lead arrangers of loans in this market will not agree to assume this risk or provide such retention at origination of the asset in a manner that would provide meaningful relief from the risk retention requirements for CLO managers.
We believe that the U.S. risk retention requirements imposed for CLO managers under Section 941 of the Dodd-Frank Act has created some uncertainty in the market in regard to future CLO issuance. Given that certain CLO managers may require capital provider partners to satisfy this requirement, we believe that this may create additional risks for us in the future.
On February 9, 2018, a panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit ruled (the “D.C. Circuit Ruling”) that the federal agencies exceeded their authority under the Dodd-Frank Act in adopting the final rules as applied to asset managers of open-market CLOs. On April 5, 2018, the United States District Court for the District of Columbia entered an order implementing the D.C. Circuit Ruling and thereby vacated the U.S. Risk Retention Rules insofar as they apply to CLO managers of “open market CLOs”.
As of the date of hereof, there has been no petition for writ of certiorari filed requesting the case to be heard by the United States Supreme Court. Since there hasn’t been a successful challenge to the D.C. Circuit Ruling and the United States District Court for the District of Columbia has issued the above described order implementing the D.C. Circuit Ruling, collateral managers of open market CLOs are no longer required to comply with the U.S. Risk Retention Rules at this time. As such, it is possible that some collateral managers of open market CLOs will decide to dispose of the notes constituting the “eligible vertical interest” or “eligible horizontal interest” they were previously required to retain, or decide to take other action with respect to such notes that is not otherwise permitted by the U.S. risk retention rules. As a result of this decision, certain CLO managers of “open market CLOs” will no longer be required to comply with the U.S. risk retention rules solely because of their
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roles as managers of “open market CLOs”, and there may be no “sponsor” of such securitization transactions and no party may be required to acquire and retain an economic interest in the credit risk of the securitized assets of such transactions.
There can be no assurance or representation that any of the transactions, structures or arrangements currently under consideration by or currently used by CLO market participants will comply with the U.S. risk retention rules to the extent such rules are reinstated or otherwise become applicable to open market CLOs. The ultimate impact of the U.S. risk retention rules on the loan securitization market and the leveraged loan market generally remains uncertain, and any negative impact on secondary market liquidity for securities comprising a CLO may be experienced due to the effects of the U.S. risk retention rules on market expectations or uncertainty, the relative appeal of other investments not impacted by the U.S. risk retention rules and other factors.
Changes in credit spreads may adversely affect our profitability and result in realized and unrealized depreciation on our investments.
The performance of our CLO equity investments will depend, in a large part, upon the spread between the rate at which the CLO borrows funds and the rate at which it lends these funds. Any reduction of the spread between the rate at which the CLO invests and the rate at which it borrows may adversely affect the CLO equity investor’s profitability. Additionally, changes in credit spreads could lead to refinancing (paying off the existing senior secured loan with the proceeds from a new loan) or repricing (reducing the interest rate on an existing senior secured loan) of the senior secured loans that make up a CLO’s portfolio, which would result in a decline in the yield to the CLO’s equity investors and a corresponding loss on investment.
Because CLO equity investors are paid the residual income after the CLO debt tranches receive contractual interest payments, a reduction in the weighted average spread of the senior secured loans underlying a CLO will reduce the income flowing to CLO equity investors. As a result, CLO investors will experience realized and unrealized depreciation in periods of prolonged spread compression. If these conditions continue, the CLO investors, such as us, may lose some or all of their investment.
With respect to our online consumer lending initiative, we are dependent on the business performance and competitiveness of marketplace lending platforms and our ability to assess loan underwriting performance and, if the marketplace lending platforms from which we currently purchase consumer loans are unable to maintain or increase consumer loan originations, or if such marketplace lending platforms do not continue to sell consumer loans to us, or we are unable to otherwise purchase additional loans, our business and results of operations will be adversely affected.
With respect to our online consumer lending initiative, we invest primarily in marketplace loans through marketplace lending platforms. We do not conduct loan origination activities ourselves. Therefore, our ability to purchase consumer loans, and our ability to grow our portfolio of consumer loans, is directly influenced by the business performance and competitiveness of the marketplace loan origination business of the marketplace lending platforms from which we purchase consumer loans.
In addition, our ability to analyze the risk-return profile of consumer loans is significantly dependent on the marketplace platforms’ ability to effectively evaluate a borrower’s credit profile and likelihood of default. The platforms from which we purchase such loans utilize credit decisioning and scoring models that assign each such loan offered a corresponding interest rate and origination fee. Our returns are a function of the assigned interest rate for each such particular loan purchased less any defaults over the term of the applicable loan. We evaluate the credit decisioning and scoring models implemented by each platform on a regular basis and leverage the additional data on loan history experience, borrower behavior, economic factors and prepayment trends that we accumulate to continually improve our own decisioning model. If we are unable to effectively evaluate borrowers’ credit profiles or the credit decisioning and scoring models implemented by each platform, we may incur unanticipated losses which could adversely impact our operating results. Further, if the interest rates for consumer loans available through marketplace lending platforms are set too high or too low, it may adversely impact our ability to receive returns on our investment that are commensurate with the risks we incur in purchasing the loans.
With respect to our online consumer lending initiative, we rely on the marketplace lending platforms to service loans including pursuing collections against borrowers. Personal loans facilitated through the marketplace lending platforms are not secured by any collateral, are not guaranteed or insured by any third-party and are not backed by any governmental authority in any way. Marketplace lending platforms are therefore limited in their ability to collect on the loans if a borrower is unwilling or unable to repay. A borrower’s ability to repay can be negatively impacted by increases in their payment obligations to other lenders under mortgage, credit card and other loans, including student loans and home equity lines of credit. These changes can result from increases in base lending rates or structured increases in payment obligations and could reduce the ability of the borrowers to meet their payment obligations to other lenders and under the loans purchased by us. If a borrower defaults on a loan, the marketplace lending platforms may outsource subsequent servicing efforts to third-party collection agencies, which may be unsuccessful in their efforts to collect the amount of the loan. Marketplace lending platforms make payments ratably on an
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investor’s investment only if they receive the borrower’s payments on the corresponding loan. If they do not receive payments on the corresponding loan related to an investment, we are not entitled to any payments under the terms of the investment.
As servicers of the loans we purchase as part of our online consumer lending initiative, the marketplace lending platforms have the authority to waive or modify the terms of a consumer loan without our consent or allow the postponement of strict compliance with any such term or in any manner grant any other indulgence to any borrower. If the marketplace lending platforms approve a modification to the terms of any consumer loan it may adversely impact our revenues.
To continue to grow our online consumer lending initiative business, we rely on marketplace lending platforms from which we purchase loans to maintain or increase their consumer loan originations and to agree to sell their consumer loans to us. However, we do not have any exclusive arrangements with any of the marketplace lending platforms and have no agreements with them to provide us with a guaranteed source of supply. There can be no assurance that such marketplace lending platforms will be able to maintain or increase consumer loan originations or will continue to sell their consumer loans to us, or that we will be able to otherwise purchase additional loans and, consequently, there can be no assurance that we will be able to grow our business through investment in additional loans. The consumer marketplace lending platforms could elect to become investors in their own marketplace loans which would limit the amount of supply available for our own investments. An inability to expand our business through investments in additional consumer loans would reduce the return on investment that we might otherwise be able to realize from an increased portfolio of such investments. If we are unable to expand our business relating to our online consumer lending initiative, this may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Additionally, if marketplace lending platforms are unable to attract qualified borrowers and sufficient investor commitments or borrowers and investors do not continue to participate in marketplace lending at current rates, the growth of loan originations will slow or loan originations will decrease. As a result of any of these factors, we may be unable to increase our consumer loan investments and our revenue may grow more slowly than expected or decline, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Marketplace lending platforms on which we rely as part of the online consumer lending initiative by NPRC depend on issuing banks to originate all loans and to comply with various federal, state and other laws.
Typically, the contracts between marketplace lending platforms and their loan issuing banks are non-exclusive and do not prohibit the issuing banks from working with other marketplace lending platforms or from offering competing services. Issuing banks could decide that working with marketplace lending platforms is not in their interests, could make working with marketplace lending platforms cost prohibitive or could decide to enter into exclusive or more favorable relationships with other marketplace lending platforms that do not provide consumer loans to us. In addition, issuing banks may not perform as expected under their agreements. Marketplace lending platforms could in the future have disagreements or disputes with their issuing banks. Any of these factors could negatively impact or threaten our ability to obtain consumer loans and consequently could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Issuing banks are subject to oversight by the FDIC and the states where they are organized and operate and must comply with complex rules and regulations, as well as licensing and examination requirements, including requirements to maintain a certain amount of regulatory capital relative to their outstanding loans. If issuing banks were to suspend, limit or cease their operations or the relationship between the marketplace lending platforms and the issuing bank were to otherwise terminate, the marketplace lending platforms would need to implement a substantially similar arrangement with another issuing bank, obtain additional state licenses or curtail their operations. If the marketplace lending platforms are required to enter into alternative arrangements with a different issuing bank to replace their existing arrangements, they may not be able to negotiate a comparable alternative arrangement. This may result in their inability to facilitate loans through their platform and accordingly our inability to operate the business of our online consumer lending initiative. If the marketplace lending platforms were unable to enter into an alternative arrangement with a different issuing bank, they would need to obtain a state license in each state in which they operate in order to enable them to originate loans, as well as comply with other state and federal laws, which would be costly and time-consuming and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. If the marketplace lending platforms are unsuccessful in maintaining their relationships with the issuing banks, their ability to provide loan products could be materially impaired and our operating results could suffer.
Credit and other information that is received about a borrower may be inaccurate or may not accurately reflect the borrower’s creditworthiness, which may cause the loans to be inaccurately priced and affect the value of our portfolio.
The marketplace lending platforms obtain borrower credit information from consumer reporting agencies, such as TransUnion, Experian or Equifax, and assign loan grades to loan requests based on credit decisioning and scoring models that take into account reported credit scores and the requested loan amount, in addition to a variety of other factors. A credit score or loan
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grade assigned to a borrower may not reflect that borrower’s actual creditworthiness because the credit score may be based on incomplete or inaccurate consumer reporting data, and typically, the marketplace lending platforms do not verify the information obtained from the borrower’s credit report. Additionally, there is a risk that, following the date of the credit report that the models are based on, a borrower may have:
become delinquent in the payment of an outstanding obligation;
defaulted on a pre-existing debt obligation;
taken on additional debt; or
sustained other adverse financial events.
Borrowers supply a variety of information to the marketplace lending platforms based on which the platforms price the loans. In a number of cases, marketplace lending platforms do not verify all of this information, and it may be inaccurate or incomplete. For example, marketplace lending platforms do not always verify a borrower’s stated tenure, job title, home ownership status or intention for the use of loan proceeds. Moreover, we do not, and will not, have access to financial statements of borrowers or to other detailed financial information about the borrowers. If we invest in loans through the marketplace provided by the marketplace lending platforms based on information supplied by borrowers or third parties that is inaccurate, misleading or incomplete, we may not receive expected returns on our investments and this could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects and our reputation may be harmed.
Marketplace lending is a relatively new lending method and the platforms of marketplace lending platforms have a limited operating history relative to established consumer banks. Borrowers may not view or treat their obligations under any such loans we purchase as having the same significance as loans from traditional lending sources, such as bank loans.
The return on our investment in consumer loans depends on borrowers fulfilling their payment obligations in a timely and complete manner under the corresponding consumer loan. Borrowers may not view their obligations originated on the lending platforms that the marketplace lending platforms provide as having the same significance as other credit obligations arising under more traditional circumstances, such as loans from banks or other commercial financial institutions. If a borrower neglects his or her payment obligations on a consumer loan or chooses not to repay his or her consumer loan entirely, we may not be able to recover any portion of our investment in the consumer loans. This will adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks affecting investments in real estate.
NPRC invests in commercial multi-family residential and student-housing real estate. A number of factors may prevent each of NPRC’s properties and assets from generating sufficient net cash flow or may adversely affect their value, or both, resulting in less cash available for distribution, or a loss, to us. These factors include, but are not limited to:
national economic conditions;
regional and local economic conditions (which may be adversely impacted by plant closings, business layoffs, industry slow-downs, weather conditions, natural disasters, and other factors);
local real estate conditions (such as over-supply of or insufficient demand for office space);
changing demographics;
perceptions by prospective tenants of the convenience, services, safety, and attractiveness of a property;
the ability of property managers to provide capable management and adequate maintenance;
the quality of a property’s construction and design;
increases in costs of maintenance, insurance, and operations (including energy costs and real estate taxes);
changes in applicable laws or regulations (including tax laws, zoning laws, or building codes);
potential environmental and other legal liabilities;
the level of financing used by NPRC in respect of its properties, increases in interest rate levels on such financings and the risk that NPRC will default on such financings, each of which increases the risk of loss to us;
the availability and cost of refinancing;
the ability to find suitable tenants for a property and to replace any departing tenants with new tenants;
potential instability, default or bankruptcy of tenants in the properties owned by NPRC;
potential limited number of prospective buyers interested in purchasing a property that NPRC wishes to sell; and
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the relative illiquidity of real estate investments in general, which may make it difficult to sell a property at an attractive price or within a reasonable time frame.
In addition, the full extent of the impact and effects of the recent outbreak of COVID-19 on the future financial performance of NPRC are uncertain at this time. The outbreak could have a continued adverse impact on economic and market conditions and trigger a period of global economic slowdown.
To the extent original issue discount (“OID”) and payment in kind (“PIK”) interest constitute a portion of our income, we will be exposed to typical risks associated with such income being required to be included in taxable and accounting income prior to receipt of cash representing such income.
Our investments may include OID instruments and PIK interest arrangements, which represents contractual interest added to a loan balance and due at the end of such loan’s term. To the extent OID or PIK interest constitute a portion of our income, we are exposed to typical risks associated with such income being required to be included in taxable and accounting income prior to receipt of cash, including the following:
The higher interest rates of OID and PIK instruments reflect the payment deferral and increased credit risk associated with these instruments, and OID and PIK instruments generally represent a significantly higher credit risk than coupon loans.
Even if the accounting conditions for income accrual are met, the borrower could still default when our actual collection is supposed to occur at the maturity of the obligation.
OID and PIK instruments may have unreliable valuations because their continuing accruals require continuing judgments about the collectability of the deferred payments and the value of any associated collateral. OID and PIK income may also create uncertainty about the source of our cash distributions.

For accounting purposes, any cash distributions to stockholders representing OID and PIK income are not treated as coming from paid-in capital, even if the cash to pay them comes from offering proceeds. As a result, despite the fact that a distribution representing OID and PIK income could be paid out of amounts invested by our stockholders, the 1940 Act does not require that stockholders be given notice of this fact by reporting it as a return of capital.
Capitalizing PIK interest to loan principal increases our gross assets, thus increasing our Investment Adviser’s future base management fees, and increases future investment income, thus increasing our Investment Adviser’s future income incentive fees at a compounding rate.
Market prices of zero-coupon or PIK securities may be affected to a greater extent by interest rate changes and may be more volatile than securities that pay interest periodically and in cash.
For accounting purposes, any cash distributions to stockholders representing OID and PIK income are not designated as paid-in capital, even if the cash to pay them derives from offering proceeds. As a result, despite the fact that a distribution representing OID and PIK income could be paid out of amounts invested by our stockholders, the 1940 Act does not require that stockholders be given notice of this fact by reporting it as a return of capital.
Risks Relating to Our Securities
Our credit ratings may not reflect all risks of an investment in our debt or preferred equity securities.
Our credit ratings are an assessment by third parties of our ability to pay our obligations. Consequently, real or anticipated changes in our credit ratings will generally affect the market value of our debt and preferred equity securities. Our credit ratings, however, may not reflect the potential impact of risks related to market conditions generally or other factors discussed above on the market value of or trading market for the publicly issued debt or preferred equity securities.
Senior securities, including debt and preferred equity, expose us to additional risks, including the typical risks associated with leverage and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We use our revolving credit facility to leverage our portfolio and we expect in the future to borrow from and issue senior debt securities to banks and other lenders and may securitize certain of our portfolio investments. We also have the Unsecured Notes outstanding and have launched a convertible preferred share offering program, which are forms of leverage and are senior in payment rights to our common stock.
Business development companies are generally able to issue senior securities such that their asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 200% of gross assets less all liabilities and indebtedness not represented by senior securities, after each
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issuance of senior securities. In March 2018, the Small Business Credit Availability Act added Section 61(a)(2) to the 1940 Act, a successor provision to Section 61(a)(1) referenced therein, which reduces the asset coverage requirement applicable to business development companies from 200% to 150% so long as the business development company meets certain disclosure requirements and obtains certain approvals. On May 5, 2020, the Company’s stockholders voted to approve the application of the reduced asset coverage requirements in Section 61(a)(2) to the Company effective as of May 6, 2020. As a result of the stockholder approval, effective May 6, 2020, the asset coverage ratio under the 1940 Act applicable to the Company decreased to 150% from 200%. In other words, under the 1940 Act, the Company is now able to borrow $2 for investment purposes for every $1 of investor equity, as opposed to borrowing $1 for investment purposes for every $1 of investor equity. As a result, the Company will be able to incur additional indebtedness in the future and investors in the Company may face increased investment risk. In addition, the Company’s management fee payable to the Investment Adviser is based on the Company’s average adjusted gross assets, which includes leverage and, as a result, if the Company incurs additional leverage, management fees paid to the Investment Adviser would increase.
With certain limited exceptions, as a BDC, we are only allowed to borrow amounts or otherwise issue senior securities such that our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, is at least 150% after such borrowing or other issuance. The amount of leverage that we employ will depend on the Investment Adviser’s and our Board of Directors’ assessment of market conditions and other factors at the time of any proposed borrowing. There is no assurance that a leveraging strategy will be successful. Leverage involves risks and special considerations for stockholders, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations, including the following:
A likelihood of greater volatility in the net asset value and market price of our common stock;
Diminished operating flexibility as a result of asset coverage or investment portfolio composition requirements required by lenders or investors that are more stringent than those imposed by the 1940 Act;
The possibility that investments will have to be liquidated at less than full value or at inopportune times to comply with debt covenants or to pay interest or dividends on the leverage;
Increased operating expenses due to the cost of leverage, including issuance and servicing costs;
Convertible or exchangeable securities, such as the Convertible Notes outstanding or those issued in the future (including the Preferred Stock (as defined herein)), may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our common stock including, the case of the Preferred Stock, the statutory right under the 1940 Act to vote, as a separate class, on the election of two of our directors and approval of certain fundamental transactions in certain circumstances;
Subordination to lenders’ superior claims on our assets as a result of which lenders will be able to receive proceeds available in the case of our liquidation before any proceeds will be distributed to our stockholders;
Difficulty meeting our payment and other obligations under the Unsecured Notes and our other outstanding debt or preferred equity;
The occurrence of an event of default if we fail to comply with the financial and/or other restrictive covenants contained in our debt agreements, including the credit agreement and each indenture governing the Unsecured Notes, which event of default could result in all or some of our debt becoming immediately due and payable;
Reduced availability of our cash flow to fund investments, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes, and limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for these purposes;
The risk of increased sensitivity to interest rate increases on our indebtedness with variable interest rates, including borrowings under our amended senior credit facility; and
Reduced flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, and increasing our vulnerability to, changes in our business, the industry in which we operate and the general economy.

For example, the amount we may borrow under our revolving credit facility is determined, in part, by the fair value of our investments. If the fair value of our investments declines, we may be forced to sell investments at a loss to maintain compliance with our borrowing limits. Other debt facilities we may enter into in the future may contain similar provisions. Any such forced sales would reduce our net asset value and also make it difficult for the net asset value to recover. The Investment Adviser and our Board of Directors in their best judgment nevertheless may determine to use leverage if they expect that the benefits to our stockholders of maintaining the leveraged position will outweigh the risks.
In addition, our ability to meet our payment and other obligations of the Preferred Stock, the Unsecured Notes and our credit facility depends on our ability to generate significant cash flow in the future. This, to some extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative and regulatory factors as well as other factors that are beyond our control. We cannot provide assurance that our business will generate cash flow from operations, or that future
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borrowings will be available to us under our existing credit facility or otherwise, in an amount sufficient to enable us to meet our payment obligations under the Preferred Stock, the Unsecured Notes and our other debt and to fund other liquidity needs. If we are not able to generate sufficient cash flow to service our debt and preferred equity obligations, we may need to refinance or restructure our debt or preferred equity, including the Unsecured Notes, sell assets, reduce or delay capital investments, or seek to raise additional capital. If we are unable to implement one or more of these alternatives, we may not be able to meet our payment obligations under the Preferred Stock, the Unsecured Notes and our other debt.

Illustration.    The following tables illustrate the effect of leverage on returns from an investment in our common stock assuming various annual returns, net of interest expense. The calculations in the tables below are hypothetical and actual returns may be higher or lower than those appearing below.
The below calculation assumes (i) $8.7 billion in total assets, (ii) an average cost of funds of 4.64% (including preferred dividend payments), (iii) $2.6 billion in debt outstanding, (iv) $1.75 billion in liquidation preference of the 5.50% Preferred Stock outstanding, (v) $0.15 billion in 5.35% Preferred Stock outstanding, and (vi) $4.0 billion of common stockholders’ equity.
Assumed Return on Our Portfolio (net of expenses)(10)%(5)%0%5%10%
Corresponding Return to Common Stockholder(1)(27.2)%(16.3)%(5.5)%5.4%16.3%
The below calculation assumes (i) $8.7 billion in total assets, (ii) an average cost of funds of 4.12% (including preferred dividend payments), (iii) $2.6 billion in debt outstanding, (iv) $0.15 billion in 5.35% Preferred Stock outstanding, and (v) $5.8 billion of common stockholders’ equity.
Assumed Return on Our Portfolio (net of expenses)(10)%(5)%0%5%10%
Corresponding Return to Common Stockholder(2)(17.1)%(9.6)%(2.1)%5.4%12.9%

(1) Assumes no conversion of 5.50% Preferred Stock to common stock.
(2) Assumes the conversion of $1.75 billion in 5.50% Preferred Stock at a conversion rate based on the 5-day VWAP of our common stock on June 30, 2022, which was $7.05, and a Holder Optional Conversion Fee (as defined in the prospectus supplement relating to the applicable offering) of 9.00% on Series A1 Preferred Stock and Series AA1 Preferred Stock of the maximum public offering price disclosed within the applicable prospectus supplements. The actual 5-day VWAP of our common stock on a Holder Conversion Exercise Date may be more or less than $7.05, which may result in more or less shares of common stock issued.
The assumed portfolio return is required by regulation of the SEC and is not a prediction of, and does not represent, our projected or actual performance. Actual returns may be greater or less than those appearing in the table.
Pursuant to SEC regulations, this table is calculated as of June 30, 2022. As a result, it has not been updated to take into account any changes in assets or leverage since June 30, 2022.
The Convertible Notes and the Public Notes present other risks to holders of our common stock, including the possibility that such notes could discourage an acquisition of us by a third party and accounting uncertainty.
Certain provisions of the Convertible Notes and the Public Notes could make it more difficult or more expensive for a third party to acquire us. Upon the occurrence of certain transactions constituting a fundamental change, holders of the Convertible Notes and the Public Notes will have the right, at their option, to require us to repurchase all of their notes or any portion of the principal amount of such notes in integral multiples of $1,000. We may also be required to increase the conversion rate or provide for conversion into the acquirer’s capital stock in the event of certain fundamental changes with respect to the Convertible Notes. These provisions could discourage an acquisition of us by a third party.
The accounting for convertible debt securities is subject to frequent scrutiny by the accounting regulatory bodies and is subject to change. We cannot predict if or when any such change could be made and any such change could have an adverse impact on our reported or future financial results. Any such impacts could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
The Convertible Notes and Public Notes present other risks to holders of our preferred stock.
Our obligations to pay dividends or make distributions and, upon liquidation of the Company, liquidation payments in respect of our preferred stock is subordinate to our obligations to make any principal and interest payments due and owing with respect to our outstanding Convertible Notes and Public Notes. Accordingly, our Convertible Notes and Public Notes have the effect of creating special risks for our preferred stockholders that would not be present in a capital structure that did not include such securities.
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We fund a portion of our investments with preferred stock, which magnifies the potential for gain or loss and the risks of investing in us in the same way as our borrowings.
Preferred stock, which is another form of leverage, has the same risks to our common stockholders as borrowings because the dividends on any preferred stock we issue must be cumulative. Payment of such dividends and repayment of the liquidation preference of such preferred stock must take preference over any dividends or other payments to our common stockholders, and preferred stockholders are not subject to any of our expenses or losses and are not entitled to participate in any income or appreciation in excess of their stated preference.
We have entered into dealer manager agreements and underwriting agreements pursuant to which we intend to sell shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock, the terms of which could result in significant dilution to existing common stockholders.
On August 3, 2020, we entered into a Dealer Manager Agreement with Preferred Capital Securities, LLC (“PCS”) (the “Original Dealer Manager Agreement”), amended and restated on February 25, 2021 and further amended on June 9, 2022 (as so amended, the “Amended and Restated Dealer Manager Agreement”), pursuant to which PCS has agreed to serve as the Company’s agent, principal distributor and exclusive dealer manager for the Company’s offering of up to 60,000,000 shares, par value $0.001 per share, of preferred stock, with a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share. The terms of the Amended and Restated Dealer Manager Agreement are substantially similar to the terms of the Original Dealer Manager Agreement, except that provisions have been made permit the preferred stock to be offered outside of the United States as well. Under the Amended and Restated Dealer Manager Agreement, the preferred stock is being issued in multiple series, including the Series A1 Preferred Stock, the Series M1 Preferred Stock, and the Series M2 Preferred Stock, and the Company may offer any future series of preferred stock, provided that the aggregate number of shares issued across all series of preferred stock under the Amended and Restated Dealer Manager Agreement shall not exceed 60,000,000 shares.
On October 30, 2020, and amended on February 18, 2022, we entered into a Dealer Manager Agreement with InspereX LLC (“InspereX Dealer Manager Agreement”), pursuant to which InspereX LLC has agreed to serve as the Company’s agent and dealer manager for the Company’s offering of up to 10,000,000 shares, par value $0.001 per share, of 5.50% Series AA1 Preferred Stock and 5.50% Series MM1 Preferred Stock, with a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share. The Company may offer any future series of preferred stock, provided that the aggregate number of shares issued across all series of preferred stock offered pursuant to the InspereX Dealer Manager Agreement shall not exceed 10,000,000 shares.
On May 19, 2021, we entered into an Underwriting Agreement with UBS Securities LLC, relating to the offer and sale of 187,000 shares, par value $0.001 per share, of Series A2 Preferred Stock, with a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share.
At any time prior to the listing of the 5.50% Preferred Stock on a national securities exchange, shares of the 5.50% Preferred Stock will be convertible, at the option of the holder of the 5.50% Preferred Stock (the “Holder Optional Conversion”). We will settle any Holder Optional Conversion by paying or delivering, as the case may be, (A) any portion of the Settlement Amount (as defined below) that we elect to pay in cash and (B) a number of shares of our common stock at a conversion rate equal to (1) (a) the Settlement Amount, minus (b) any portion of the Settlement Amount that we elect to pay in cash, divided by (2) the arithmetic average of the daily volume weighted average price of shares of our common stock over each of the five consecutive trading days ending on the Holder Conversion Exercise Date (as defined herein) (such arithmetic average, the “5-day VWAP”). For the Series A1 Preferred Stock, the Series AA1 Preferred Stock, and the Series A2 Preferred Stock, “Settlement Amount” means (A) $25.00 per share (the “Stated Value”), plus (B) unpaid dividends accrued to, but not including, the Holder Conversion Exercise Date, minus (C) the Holder Optional Conversion Fee (as described in the prospectus supplements relating to the Series A1 Preferred Stock, the Series AA1 Preferred Stock, or the Series A2 Preferred Stock, as applicable) applicable on the respective Holder Conversion Deadline (as defined in the applicable prospectus supplement). For the Series M1 Preferred Stock, Series M2 Preferred Stock and Series MM1 Preferred Stock (collectively, the “Series M Preferred Stock”), “Settlement Amount” means (A) the Stated Value, plus (B) unpaid dividends accrued to, but not including, the Holder Conversion Exercise Date, minus (C) the applicable Series M Clawback, if any (as described in the prospectus supplements relating to the Series M Preferred Stock. “Series M Clawback”, if applicable, means an amount equal to the aggregate amount of all dividends, whether paid or accrued, on such share of Series M Stock in the three full months prior to the Holder Conversion Exercise Date. Subject to certain limited exceptions, we will not pay any portion of the Settlement Amount in cash (other than cash in lieu of fractional shares of our common stock) until the five year anniversary of the date on which a share of 5.50% Preferred Stock has been issued. Beginning on the five year anniversary of the date on which a share of 5.50% Preferred Stock is issued, we may elect to settle all or a portion of any Holder Optional Conversion in cash without limitation or restriction. The right of holders to convert a share of 5.50% Preferred Stock will terminate upon the listing of such share on a national securities exchange.
Holders of 5.50% Preferred Stock may elect to convert their shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock at any time by delivering a notice of conversion (the “Holder Conversion Notice”). A Holder Conversion Notice will be effective as of the 15th day of the month (or, if the 15th day of the month is not a business day, then on the business day immediately preceding the 15th day) or the last
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business day of the month, whichever occurs first after a Holder Conversion Notice is duly received (each such date, a “Holder Conversion Deadline”). Any Holder Conversion Notice received after 5:00 p.m. Eastern time on a Holder Conversion Deadline will be effective as of the next Holder Conversion Deadline. For all shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock duly submitted to us for conversion on or before a Holder Conversion Deadline, we will determine the Settlement Amount on any business day after such Holder Conversion Deadline but before the next Holder Conversion Deadline (such date, the “Holder Conversion Exercise Date”). Within such period, we may select the Holder Conversion Exercise Date in our sole discretion. We may, in our sole discretion, permit a holder to revoke their Holder Conversion Notice at any time prior to 5:00 pm, Eastern time, on the business day immediately preceding the Holder Conversion Exercise Date.
Subject to certain limited exceptions allowing earlier redemption, beginning on the earlier of the five year anniversary of the date on which a share of 5.50% Preferred Stock has been issued, or, for listed shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock, five years from the earliest date on which any series that has been listed was first issued (the earlier of such dates, the “Redemption Eligibility Date”), such share of 5.50% Preferred Stock may be redeemed at any time or from time to time at our option (the “Issuer Optional Redemption”) upon not less than 10 calendar days nor more than 90 calendar days written notice to the holder prior to the date fixed for redemption thereof, at a redemption price of 100% of the Stated Value of the shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock to be redeemed plus unpaid dividends accrued to, but not including, the date fixed for redemption.
Subject to certain limitations, each share of 5.50% Preferred Stock will be convertible at our option, upon not less than 30 calendar days nor more than 90 calendar days written notice to the holder (the “Issuer Optional Conversion”) prior to the date fixed for conversion thereof. We will settle any Issuer Optional Conversion by paying or delivering, as the case may be, (A) any portion of the IOC Settlement Amount (as defined below) that we elect to pay in cash and (B) a number of shares of our common stock at a conversion rate equal to (1) (a) the IOC Settlement Amount, minus (b) any portion of the IOC Settlement Amount that we elect to pay in cash, divided by (2) the 5-day VWAP, subject to our ability to obtain or maintain any stockholder approval that may be required under the 1940 Act to permit us to sell our common stock below net asset value if the 5-day VWAP represents a discount to our net asset value per share of common stock. For the 5.50% Preferred Stock, “IOC Settlement Amount” means (A) the Stated Value, plus (B) unpaid dividends accrued to, but not including, the date fixed for conversion. Subject to certain limited exceptions, we will not exercise an Issuer Optional Conversion with respect to a share of 5.50% Preferred Stock until after the date set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to the 5.50% Preferred Stock. In connection with an Issuer Optional Conversion, we will use commercially reasonable efforts to obtain or maintain any stockholder approval that may be required under the 1940 Act to permit us to sell our common stock below net asset value. If we do not have or obtain any required stockholder approval under the 1940 Act to sell our common stock below net asset value and the 5-day VWAP is at a discount to our net asset value per share of common stock, we will settle any conversions in connection with an Issuer Optional Conversion by paying or delivering, as the case may be, (A) any portion of the IOC Settlement Amount that we elect to pay in cash and (B) a number of shares of our common stock at a conversion rate equal to (1) (a) the IOC Settlement Amount, minus (b) any portion of the IOC Settlement Amount that we elect to pay in cash, divided by (2) the NAV per share of common stock at the close of business on the business day immediately preceding the date of conversion (the "NAV-Based Conversion Rate"). We will not pay any portion of the IOC Settlement Amount from an Issuer Optional Conversion in cash (other than cash in lieu of fractional shares of our common stock) until the Redemption Eligibility Date. Beginning on the Redemption Eligibility Date, we may elect to settle any Issuer Optional Conversion in cash without limitation or restriction. In the event that we exercise an Issuer Optional Conversion with respect to any shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock, the holder of such 5.50% Preferred Stock may instead elect a Holder Optional Conversion with respect to such 5.50% Preferred Stock provided that the date of conversion for such Holder Optional Conversion would occur prior to the date of conversion for an Issuer Optional Conversion.
On June 12, 2020 and June 11, 2021, we obtained stockholder approval under Section 63 of the 1940 Act to issue shares of common stock below net asset value until June 11, 2022. On June 10, 2022, at a special meeting of our stockholders, our stockholders again authorized us to issue shares of our common stock below net asset value during the next 12 months until June 10, 2023. We believe that pursuant to this approval any shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock issued prior to June 10, 2023 may be converted into shares of common stock pursuant to the Issuer Optional Conversion using the 5-day VWAP to determine the conversion rate at any time, including after June 10, 2023. We believe any shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock issued after June 10, 2023 may be converted into shares of common stock pursuant to the Issuer Optional Conversion using the 5-day VWAP to determine the conversion rate only if we have obtained stockholder approval for the period in which such shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock were issued (assuming the 5-day VWAP results in a price below net asset value).
The application of Section 63 of the 1940 Act with respect to the conversion of the 5.50% Preferred Stock under the Issuer Optional Conversion is unclear. It is possible the SEC will assert a position that stockholder approval to issue shares of common stock below net asset value must be obtained for the year in which the Issuer Optional Conversion is exercised, instead of the time at which the 5.50% Preferred Stock is issued. If the SEC asserted this position and prevailed, we would be required to obtain stockholder approval under the 1940 Act for the years in which we exercise the Issuer Optional Conversion. Obtaining
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this approval may cause us to incur additional costs and there can be no assurance such stockholder approval will be obtained. If we cannot obtain stockholder approval required by the 1940 Act to issue shares of common stock below net asset value at the time of an Issuer Optional Conversion, then the Issuer Optional Conversion will be effected at the NAV-Based Conversion Rate.
An investment in shares of the 5.50% Preferred Stock involves certain additional risks, including the risks discussed herein. For additional information on the 5.50% Preferred Stock, including the risks involved in investing in the 5.50% Preferred Stock, please refer to the applicable prospectus supplement pursuant to which such sale is made.
The price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly during the period used to calculate any 5-day VWAP with respect to the 5.50% Preferred Stock, and this may make it difficult for holders of the 5.50% Preferred Stock to resell the 5.50% Preferred Stock or common stock issuable upon conversion of the 5.50% Preferred Stock when such holder wants or at prices such holder finds attractive.
The price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market constantly changes. We expect that the market price of our common stock will continue to fluctuate. Because the 5.50% Preferred Stock is convertible into our common stock based on the 5-day VWAP, volatility or declining prices for our common stock during the period used to determine the 5-day VWAP or during the period between when a holder delivers a Holder Conversion Notice and the related Holder Conversion Exercise Date, could have a similar effect on the value of the 5.50% Preferred Stock or the trading price thereof when and if the 5.50% Preferred Stock is ever listed.
Our stock price may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include:
quarterly variations in our investment results;
operating results that vary from the expectations of management, securities analysts and investors;
changes in expectations as to our future financial performance;
the operating and securities price performance of other companies that investors believe are comparable to us;
future sales of our equity or equity‑related securities;
the rate at which investors purchase, sell, short sell or otherwise transact in shares of our common stock;
changes in general conditions in our industry and in the economy and the financial markets; and
departures of key personnel.

In addition, in recent years, the stock market in general has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. This volatility has had a significant effect on the market price of securities issued by many companies for reasons often unrelated to their operating performance. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect our stock price, regardless of our operating results.
With respect to the 5.50% Preferred Stock, the consideration paid upon a Holder Optional Conversion and Issuer Optional Conversion is uncertain.
Under the terms of the 5.50% Preferred Stock, we or holders of shares of the 5.50% Preferred Stock may choose to convert shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock at a time when the market price of common stock has dropped significantly. If we elect to settle conversions in shares of our common stock, this may cause significant dilution to the net asset value per share of our outstanding shares of common stock, including shares of common stock owned by holders of 5.50% Preferred Stock that had previously converted their 5.50% Preferred Stock into common stock. With respect to any conversion of the 5.50% Preferred Stock, we may elect, at our sole discretion and subject to certain restrictions and limitations, to pay any portion (or no portion) of the amount owed in cash and settle the remaining portion in shares of our common stock. We will not pay any portion of the conversion proceeds for a share of 5.50% Preferred Stock from a Holder Optional Conversion in cash (other than cash in lieu of fractional shares of our common stock) until the five year anniversary of the date on which such share of 5.50% Preferred Stock has been issued, unless our Board of Directors determines, in its sole discretion, that the issuance of common stock in satisfaction of a Holder Optional Conversion would be materially detrimental to, and not in the best interest of, existing common stockholders. Beginning on the five year anniversary of the date on which a share of 5.50% Preferred Stock is issued, we may elect to settle all or a portion of any Holder Optional Conversion in cash without limitation or restriction.
The conversion rates for the Holder Optional Conversion and, assuming we have the necessary approval under the 1940 Act, the Issuer Optional Conversion are both based on the 5-day VWAP, which may represent a discount to the NAV per share of our common stock. If we do not have or obtain any required stockholder approval under the 1940 Act to sell our common stock
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below net asset value, 5.50% Preferred Stock may be converted into common stock in connection with an Issuer Optional Conversion at a conversion rate based on our NAV per share of common stock if the 5-day VWAP represents a discount to the NAV per share of our common stock. In this circumstance, there may be fewer shares of common stock issued upon conversion of the shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock; while this would reduce dilution to existing common stockholders, including former holders of 5.50% Preferred Stock who had previously converted their holdings to common stock, it would also reduce the proportionate interest in the Company (and thus the economic benefit to the holder of 5.50% Preferred Stock) for holders of 5.50% Preferred Stock subject to such an Issuer Optional Conversion. Conversely, a conversion rate based on the 5-day VWAP, if it represents a discount to our net asset value per share of common stock, would result in greater dilution to existing common stockholders (including former holders of 5.50% Preferred Stock who had previously converted their holdings to common stock), and this outcome may be more likely given that the notice period for a Holder Optional Conversion is shorter than the notice period for an Issuer Optional Conversion, so holders of 5.50% Preferred Stock can supersede any Issuer Optional Conversion and obtain a conversion rate based on the 5-day VWAP (assuming the 5.50% Preferred Stock is settled in shares of our common stock and not cash).
There is no cap on the number of shares of common stock that can be issued upon the conversion of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock. The conversion of the 5.50% Preferred Stock into shares of common stock could cause the price of common stock to decline significantly.
There is no cap on the number of shares of common stock that can be issued upon the conversion of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock. Because the number of shares of common stock issued upon conversion of the 5.50% Preferred Stock will be based on the price of shares of common stock, the lower the price of our common stock at the time of conversion, the more shares of our common stock into which the 5.50% Preferred Stock is convertible and the greater the dilution that will be experienced by holders of our common stock. Accordingly, there is no limit on the amount of dilution that may be experienced by holders of our common stock.
The issuance of the 5.50% Preferred Stock may be followed by a decline in the price of our common stock, creating additional dilution to the existing holders of the common stock. Such a price decline may allow holders of 5.50% Preferred Stock to convert shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock into large amounts of the Company’s common stock. As these shares of common stock are issued upon conversion of the 5.50% Preferred Stock, our common stock price may decline further.
Additionally, the issuance of the 5.50% Preferred Stock could result in our failure to comply with the Nasdaq Global Select Market’s listing standards. The Nasdaq Global Select Market’s listing standards that may be affected by the issuance of the 5.50% Preferred Stock include voting rights rules, bid price requirements, listing of additional shares rules, change in control rules and the Nasdaq Global Select Market’s discretionary authority rules. Failure to comply with any of these rules could result in the delisting of the Company’s common stock from the Nasdaq Global Select Market or impact the ability to list the 5.50% Preferred Stock on a national securities exchange.
The potential decline in the price of our common stock described above may negatively affect the price of our common stock and our ability to obtain financing in the future. In addition, the issuance of the 5.50% Preferred Stock may provide incentives for holders thereof that intend to convert their shares to seek to cause a decline in the price of our common stock (including through selling our common stock short) in order to receive an increased number of shares of our common stock upon such conversion of the 5.50% Preferred Stock, and may encourage other investors to sell short or otherwise dispose of our common stock.
Our charter currently authorizes us to issue approximately 1.35 billion shares of common stock, in addition to our shares of common stock currently outstanding or reserved for issuance upon conversion of the Convertible Notes, and after reflecting the reclassification of 227.9 million shares of common stock as Preferred Stock. Although the Board of Directors can increase the amount of our authorized common stock and reclassify unissued preferred stock as common stock without stockholder approval, if they did not do so for any reason and our 5-day VWAP fell below approximately $1.30 per share of common stock (assuming we issued all 70,187,000 shares of the 5.50% Preferred Stock available pursuant to the respective offerings), we would be required to settle any conversion of 5.50% Preferred Stock in cash (to the extent we had cash available) or list the 5.50% Preferred Stock on a national securities exchange and the value of our shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock would then equal their market price, which may be less than $25.00 per share.
Future sales of our common stock in the public market or the issuance of securities senior to our common stock could adversely affect the trading price of our common stock and our ability to raise funds in new stock offerings, and may affect the value of the 5.50% Preferred Stock.
Future sales of substantial amounts of our common stock or equity‑related securities in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could adversely affect prevailing trading prices of our common stock and could impair our ability to
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raise capital through future offerings of equity or equity‑related securities, and may affect the value of the 5.50% Preferred Stock. No prediction can be made as to the effect, if any, that future sales of shares of common stock or the availability of shares of common stock for future sale, will have on the trading price of our common stock or the value of the 5.50% Preferred Stock.
Shares of common stock, which shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock may be converted into, rank junior to the 5.50% Preferred Stock with respect to dividends and upon liquidation.
We may choose to convert the 5.50% Preferred Stock to shares of our common stock. Holders of 5.50% Preferred Stock may also choose to convert their 5.50% Preferred Stock, subject to our election to settle conversions in cash or shares of our common stock or a combination thereof. The rights of the holders of shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock rank senior to the rights of the holders of shares of our common stock as to dividends and payments upon liquidation. Unless full cumulative dividends on our shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock for all past dividend periods have been declared and paid (or set apart for payment), we will not declare or pay dividends with respect to any shares of our common stock for any period. Upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, the holders of shares of our 5.50% Preferred Stock are entitled to receive the Stated Value of $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to any accumulated, accrued and unpaid dividends at the applicable rate, after provision is made for our senior liabilities, but prior and in preference to any distribution to the holders of shares of our common stock or any other class of our equity securities junior to any and all shares of our preferred stock outstanding (“Preferred Stock”).
Holders of our Preferred Stock have the right to elect members of the board of directors and class voting rights on certain matters.
Holders of our Preferred Stock, voting separately as a single class, have the right to elect two members of the board of directors at all times and in the event dividends become two full years in arrears, have the right to elect a majority of the directors until such arrearage is completely eliminated. In addition, Preferred Stockholders have class voting rights on certain matters, including changes in fundamental investment restrictions, conversion to open-end status, and plans of reorganization that adversely affect the Preferred Stock and accordingly can veto any such changes. Restrictions imposed on the declarations and payment of dividends or other distributions to the holders of our common stock and Preferred Stock, both by the 1940 Act and by requirements imposed by rating agencies or the terms of our credit facilities, might impair our ability to maintain our qualification as a RIC for federal income tax purposes. While we would intend to redeem our Preferred Stock to the extent necessary to enable us to distribute our income as required to maintain our qualification as a RIC, there can be no assurance that such actions could be effected in time to meet the tax requirements.
The trading market or market value of our publicly traded preferred stock may fluctuate.
The 5.35% Series A Fixed Rate Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock (the “5.35% Preferred Stock”) is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “PSEC PRA” and has a limited trading history. Additionally, we may list the 5.50% Preferred Stock on a national securities exchange upon notice to holders of 5.50% Preferred Stock. We cannot accurately predict the trading patterns of our Preferred Stock, including the effective costs of trading the stock, and a liquid secondary market may not develop. There is also a risk that our publicly traded preferred stock may be thinly traded, and the market for such shares may be relatively illiquid compared to the market for other types of securities, with the spread between the bid and asked prices considerably greater than the spreads of other securities with comparable terms and features. The trading price of any publicly traded preferred stock would depend on many factors, including:
prevailing interest rates;
the market for similar securities;
general economic and financial market conditions;
our issuance of debt or other preferred equity securities; and
our financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
In addition, the Preferred Stock pays dividends at a fixed rate. Prices of fixed income investments tend to vary inversely with changes in market yields. The market yields on securities comparable to the Preferred Stock may increase, which would likely result in a decline in the value of the Preferred Stock. Additionally, if interest rates rise, securities comparable to the Preferred Stock may pay higher dividend rates and holders of the Preferred Stock may not be able to sell the Preferred Stock at the Stated Value or Liquidation Preference (as defined in the applicable prospectus supplement) and reinvest the proceeds at market rates. The Company may be subject to a greater risk of rising interest rates due to the current period of historically low interest rates. There is a possibility that interest rates may rise, which would likely drive down the prices of income- or dividend-paying securities.
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Holders of the 5.35% Preferred Stock may not be permitted to exercise conversion rights upon a Change of Control Triggering Event. If exercisable, the Change of Control Triggering Event conversion feature of the 5.35% Preferred Stock may not adequately compensate such preferred stockholders, and the Change of Control Triggering Event conversion and redemption features of the 5.35% Preferred Stock may make it more difficult for a party to take over the Company or discourage a party from taking over the Company.
Upon the occurrence of a Change of Control Triggering Event (as defined in the applicable prospectus supplement), holders of 5.35% Preferred Stock will have the right to convert some or all of their 5.35% Preferred Stock into our common stock (or equivalent value of alternative consideration). Upon such a conversion, the holders will be limited to a maximum number of shares of our common stock equal to the Share Cap (as defined in the applicable prospectus supplement) multiplied by the number of shares of 5.35% Preferred Stock converted. Notwithstanding that we generally may not redeem the 5.35% Preferred Stock prior to July 19, 2026, we have a special optional redemption right to redeem the 5.35% Preferred Stock in the event of a Change of Control Triggering Event, and holders of 5.35% Preferred Stock will not have the right to convert any shares that we have elected to redeem prior to the “Change of Control Conversion Date” (i.e., the date the shares of 5.35% Preferred Stock are to be converted, which will be a business day selected by us that is no fewer than 20 days nor more than 35 days after the date on which we provide notice). In addition, those features of the 5.35% Preferred Stock may have the effect of inhibiting a third party from making an acquisition proposal for the Company or of delaying, deferring or preventing a change of control of the Company under circumstances that otherwise could provide the holders of our common stock and Preferred Stock with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then-current market price or that stockholders may otherwise believe is in their best interest.
In addition to regulatory restrictions that restrict our ability to raise capital, our credit facility contains various covenants which, if not complied with, could accelerate repayment under the facility, thereby materially and adversely affecting our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.
The agreement governing our credit facility requires us to comply with certain financial and operational covenants. These covenants include:
Restrictions on the level of indebtedness that we are permitted to incur in relation to the value of our assets;
Restrictions on our ability to incur liens; and
Maintenance of a minimum level of stockholders’ equity.

As of June 30, 2022, we were in compliance with these covenants. However, our continued compliance with these covenants depends on many factors, some of which are beyond our control. Accordingly, there are no assurances that we will continue to comply with the covenants in our credit facility. Failure to comply with these covenants would result in a default under this facility which, if we were unable to obtain a waiver from the lenders thereunder, could result in an acceleration of repayments under the facility and thereby have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Failure to extend our existing credit facility, the revolving period of which is currently scheduled to expire on September 9, 2023, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial position and our ability to pay expenses and make distributions.
The revolving period for our credit facility with a syndicate of lenders is currently scheduled to terminate on September 9, 2023, with an additional one year amortization period (with distributions allowed) after the completion of the revolving period. During such one year amortization period, all principal payments on the pledged assets will be applied to reduce the balance. At the end of the one year amortization period, the remaining balance will become due, if required by the lenders. If the credit facility is not renewed or extended by the participant banks by September 9, 2023, we will not be able to make further borrowings under the facility after such date and the outstanding principal balance on that date will be due and payable on September 9, 2024. As of June 30, 2022, we had $839.5 million of outstanding borrowings under our credit facility. Interest on borrowings under the credit facility is one-month LIBOR plus 220 basis points with a minimum LIBOR floor of zero. Additionally, the lenders charge a fee on the unused portion of the credit facility equal to either 50 basis points if more than 60% of the credit facility is drawn, or 100 basis points if more than 35% and an amount less than or equal to 60% of the credit facility is drawn, or 150 basis points if an amount less than or equal to 35% of the credit facility is drawn.
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The credit facility requires us to pledge assets as collateral in order to borrow under the credit facility. If we are unable to extend our facility or find a new source of borrowing on acceptable terms, we will be required to pay down the amounts outstanding under the facility during the two-year term-out period through one or more of the following: (1) principal collections on our securities pledged under the facility, (2) at our option, interest collections on our securities pledged under the facility and cash collections on our securities not pledged under the facility, or (3) possible liquidation of some or all of our loans and other assets, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial position and may force us to decrease or stop paying certain expenses and making distributions until the facility is repaid. In addition, our stock price could decline significantly, we would be restricted in our ability to acquire new investments and, in connection with our year-end audit, and our independent registered accounting firm could raise an issue as to our ability to continue as a going concern.
In July 2017, the head of the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority announced the desire to phase out the use of LIBOR by the end of 2021. See “Risks Relating to Our business—Changes relating to the LIBOR calculation process, and the discontinuation of LIBOR, may adversely affect the value of the LIBOR-indexed, floating-rate debt securities in our portfolio or issued by us.”
Failure to refinance our existing Unsecured Notes could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial position.
The Unsecured Notes mature at various dates from July 15, 2022 to March 15, 2052. If we are unable to refinance the Unsecured Notes or find a new source of borrowing on acceptable terms, we will be required to pay down the amounts outstanding at maturity under the facility during the two-year term-out period through one or more of the following: (1) borrowing additional funds under our then current credit facility, (2) issuance of additional common stock or (3) possible liquidation of some or all of our loans and other assets, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial position. In addition, our stock price could decline significantly; we would be restricted in our ability to acquire new investments and, in connection with our year-end audit, our independent registered accounting firm could raise an issue as to our ability to continue as a going concern.
The trading market or market value of our publicly issued debt securities may fluctuate.
Our publicly issued debt securities may or may not have an established trading market. We cannot assure our noteholders that a trading market for our publicly issued debt securities will ever develop or be maintained if developed. In addition to our creditworthiness, many factors may materially adversely affect the trading market for, and market value of, our publicly issued debt securities. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following:
the time remaining to the maturity of these debt securities;
the outstanding principal amount of debt securities with terms identical to these debt securities;
the ratings assigned by national statistical ratings agencies;
the general economic environment;
the supply of debt securities trading in the secondary market, if any;
the redemption or repayment features, if any, of these debt securities;
the level, direction and volatility of market interest rates generally; and
market rates of interest higher or lower than rates borne by the debt securities.

Our noteholders should also be aware that there may be a limited number of buyers when they decide to sell their debt securities. This too may materially adversely affect the market value of the debt securities or the trading market for the debt securities.
Terms relating to redemption may materially adversely affect our noteholders’ or Preferred Stockholders’, as applicable, return on any debt or preferred equity securities that we may issue.
If our debt securities or Preferred Stock are redeemable at our option, we may choose to redeem such securities at times when prevailing interest rates are lower than the interest rate paid by our noteholders or our Preferred Stockholders on their respective securities. In addition, if our debt securities or Preferred Stock are subject to mandatory redemption, or optional redemption triggers in advance of a general no-call deadline, we may be required to, or choose to, redeem such respective securities also at times when prevailing interest rates are lower than the interest rate paid by our noteholders or our Preferred Stockholders on their respective securities. In this circumstance, our noteholders or Preferred Stockholders, as applicable, may not be able to reinvest the redemption proceeds in a comparable security at an effective interest rate as high as their securities being redeemed.
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Our shares of common stock currently trade at a discount from net asset value and may continue to do so in the future, which could limit our ability to raise additional equity capital.
Shares of closed-end investment companies frequently trade at a market price that is less than the net asset value that is attributable to those shares. This characteristic of closed-end investment companies is separate and distinct from the risk that our net asset value per share may decline. It is not possible to predict whether any shares of our common stock will trade at, above, or below net asset value. The stocks of BDCs as an industry, including shares of our common stock, currently trade below net asset value as a result of concerns over liquidity, interest rate changes, leverage restrictions and distribution requirements.
Under the 1940 Act, when our common stock is trading below its net asset value per share, we will not be able to issue additional shares of our common stock at its market price without first obtaining approval for such issuance from our stockholders and our independent directors. On June 10, 2022, at a special meeting of stockholders, our stockholders reauthorized us to sell shares of our common stock (during the following 12 months) at a price or prices below our net asset value per share at the time of sale in one or more offerings subject to certain conditions as set forth in the proxy statement relating to the special meeting (including that the number of shares sold on any given date does not exceed 25% of its outstanding common stock immediately prior to such sale).
On June 12, 2020, we entered into equity distribution agreements with each of RBC Capital Markets, LLC, Barclays Capital Inc., and KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc. pursuant to which we may offer and sell, by means of at-the-market offerings, up to 50,000,000 shares of our $0.001 par value common stock. Sales by us of our common stock at a discount from net asset value per share pose potential risks for our existing stockholders whether or not they participate in the offering, as well as for new investors who participate in the offering. Any sale of common stock at a price below net asset value per share will result in an immediate dilution to many of our existing common stockholders even if they participate in such sale. For additional information and hypothetical examples of these risks, including actual dilution illustrations specific to an offering, please refer to the corresponding prospectus supplement pursuant to which such sales by means of at-the-market offerings are made.
There is a risk that investors in our common stock may not receive dividends or that our dividends may not grow over time and investors in our debt securities or preferred equity may not receive all of the interest or dividend income to which they are entitled. In addition, if the current period of capital market disruption and instability continues for an extended period of time, there is a risk that investors in our common stock may not receive distributions consistent with historical levels or at all or that our distributions may not grow over time and a portion of our distributions may be a return of capital.
We intend to make distributions on a monthly basis to our stockholders out of assets legally available for distribution. We cannot assure you that we will achieve investment results that will allow us to make a specified level of cash distributions or year-to-year increases in cash distributions. If we declare a dividend and if more stockholders opt to receive cash distributions rather than participate in our dividend reinvestment plan, we may be forced to sell some of our investments in order to make cash dividend payments.
In addition, due to the asset coverage test applicable to us as a BDC, we may be limited in our ability to make distributions. Further, if we invest a greater amount of assets in equity securities that do not pay current dividends, it could reduce the amount available for distribution.
The above-referenced restrictions on distributions may also inhibit our ability to make required interest or dividend payments to holders of our debt and preferred equity, as applicable, which may cause a default under the terms of our debt agreements. Such a default could materially increase our cost of raising capital, as well as cause us to incur penalties under the terms of our debt agreements.
Moreover, while we have declared common stock distributions through October 2022 at the same rate as the 60 months prior to such declaration, we cannot assure you that we will achieve investment results that will allow us to make a specified level of cash distributions or year-to-year increases in cash distributions. Our ability to pay common stock distributions might be adversely affected by the impact of one or more of the risk factors described in this Annual Report, including the COVID-19 pandemic described above. For example, if the temporary closure in 2020 of many corporate offices, retail stores, and manufacturing facilities and factories in the jurisdictions, including the United States, affected by the COVID-19 pandemic is reintroduced it could result in reduced cash flows to us from our existing portfolio companies, which could reduce cash available for distribution to our stockholders. In addition, if we are unable to satisfy the asset coverage test applicable to us under the 1940 Act as a business development company or if we violate certain covenants under our existing or future credit facilities or other leverage, we may be limited in our ability to make common stock distributions. If we declare a common stock distribution and if more stockholders opt to receive cash distributions rather than participate in our dividend reinvestment plan, we may be forced to sell some of our investments in order to make cash distribution payments. To the extent we make common
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stock distributions to stockholders that include a return of capital, such portion of the distribution essentially constitutes a return of the stockholder’s investment. Although such return of capital may not be taxable, such distributions would generally decrease a stockholder’s basis in our common stock and may therefore increase such stockholder’s tax liability for capital gains upon the future sale of such stock. A return of capital distribution may cause a stockholder to recognize a capital gain from the sale of our common stock even if the stockholder sells its shares for less than the original purchase price.
Investing in our securities may involve a high degree of risk and is highly speculative.
The investments we make in accordance with our investment objective may result in a higher amount of risk than alternative investment options and volatility or loss of principal. Our investments in portfolio companies may be speculative and aggressive, and therefore, an investment in our shares may not be suitable for someone with low risk tolerance.
Our stockholders may experience dilution in their ownership percentage if they opt out of our dividend reinvestment plan.
All dividends declared in cash payable to stockholders that are participants in our DRIP with respect to dividends declared by our Board of Directors on shares of our common stock, are automatically reinvested in shares of our common stock based on a 5% discount to the market price of our common stock on the date fixed by our Board of Directors for such distribution. As a result, our stockholders that opt out of our DRIP will experience dilution in their ownership percentage of our common stock over time. Stockholders who (or whose broker through which they hold shares) do not elect to receive distributions in shares of common stock may experience accretion to the net asset value of their shares if our shares are trading at a premium and dilution if our shares are trading at a discount. The level of accretion or discount would depend on various factors, including the proportion of our stockholders who participate in the Plan, the level of premium or discount at which our shares are trading and the amount of the distribution payable to a stockholder.
Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market may have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock, or the availability of such common stock for sale (including as a result of the conversion of the 5.50% Preferred Stock or of the Convertible Notes into common stock), could adversely affect the prevailing market prices for our common stock. If this occurs and continues, it could impair our ability to raise additional capital through the sale of securities should we desire to do so.
If we sell shares of our common stock or securities to subscribe for or are convertible into shares of our common stock at a discount to our net asset value per share, stockholders who do not participate in such sale will experience immediate dilution in an amount that may be material.
On June 10, 2022, at a special meeting of stockholders, our stockholders authorized us to sell shares of our common stock (during the following 12 months) at a price or prices below our net asset value per share at the time of sale in one or more offerings subject to certain conditions as set forth in the proxy statement relating to the special meeting (including that the number of shares sold on any given date does not exceed 25% of its outstanding common stock immediately prior to such sale).
Our stockholders approved our ability to issue warrants, options or rights to acquire our common stock at our 2008 annual meeting of stockholders for an unlimited time period and in accordance with the 1940 Act which provides that the conversion or exercise price of such warrants, options or rights may be less than net asset value per share at the date such securities are issued or at the date such securities are converted into or exercised for shares of our common stock. The issuance or sale by us of shares of our common stock or securities to subscribe for or are convertible into shares of our common stock at a discount to net asset value poses a risk of dilution to our stockholders. In particular, stockholders who do not purchase additional shares of common stock at or below the discounted price in proportion to their current ownership will experience an immediate decrease in net asset value per share (as well as in the aggregate net asset value of their shares of common stock if they do not participate at all). These stockholders will also experience a disproportionately greater decrease in their participation in our earnings and assets and their voting power than the increase we experience in our assets, potential earning power and voting interests from such issuance or sale. In addition, such sales may adversely affect the price at which our common stock trades. We have sold shares of our common stock at prices below net asset value per share in the past and may do so to the future.
In addition, we may issue additional shares of preferred stock or debt securities that are convertible into shares of our common stock. The net effect of both types of offerings would be to increase the number of shares of our common stock outstanding or available, which could negatively impact the market price of our common stock and cause the market value of our common stock to become more volatile. Further, to the extent that shares of our common stock are offered or converted at a price below the then net asset value per share, existing stockholders who do not participate in such offerings would experience dilution of their interest (both voting and economic, in terms of net asset value) in the Company.
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Our ability to enter into transactions with our affiliates is restricted.
We are prohibited under the 1940 Act from knowingly participating in certain transactions with our affiliates without the prior approval of our independent directors. Any person that owns, directly or indirectly, 5% or more of our outstanding voting securities is our affiliate for purposes of the 1940 Act and we are generally prohibited from buying or selling any security or other property from or to such affiliate, absent the prior approval of our independent directors. The 1940 Act also prohibits “joint” transactions with an affiliate, which could include investments in the same portfolio company (whether at the same or different times), without prior approval of our independent directors. Subject to certain limited exceptions, we are prohibited from buying or selling any security or other property from or to the Investment Adviser and its affiliates and persons with whom we are in a control relationship, or entering into joint transactions with any such person, absent the prior approval of the SEC.
On January 13, 2020 (amended on August 2, 2022), we received an exemptive order from the SEC (the “Order”), which superseded a prior co-investment exemptive order granted on February 10, 2014, that gave us the ability to negotiate terms other than price and quantity of co-investment transactions with other funds managed by the Investment Adviser or certain affiliates, including Priority Income Fund, Inc. and Prospect Sustainable Income Fund, Inc. (f/k/a Prospect Flexible Income Fund, Inc.), where co-investing would otherwise be prohibited under the 1940 Act, subject to the conditions included therein. Under the terms of the relief permitting us to co-invest with other funds managed by our Investment Adviser or its affiliates, a “required majority” (as defined in Section 57(o) of the 1940 Act) of our independent directors must make certain conclusions in connection with a co-investment transaction, including that (1) the terms of the proposed transaction, including the consideration to be paid, are reasonable and fair to us and our stockholders and do not involve overreaching of us or our stockholders on the part of any person concerned and (2) the transaction is consistent with the interests of our stockholders and is consistent with our investment objective and strategies. In certain situations where co-investment with one or more funds managed by the Investment Adviser or its affiliates is not covered by the Order, such as when there is an opportunity to invest in different securities of the same issuer, the personnel of the Investment Adviser or its affiliates will need to decide which fund will proceed with the investment. Such personnel will make these determinations based on policies and procedures, which are designed to reasonably ensure that investment opportunities are allocated fairly and equitably among affiliated funds over time and in a manner that is consistent with applicable laws, rules and regulations. Moreover, except in certain circumstances, when relying on the Order, we will be unable to invest in any issuer in which one or more funds managed by the Investment Adviser or its affiliates has previously invested.
The market price of our securities may fluctuate significantly.
The market price and liquidity of the market for our securities may be significantly affected by numerous factors, some of which are beyond our control and may not be directly related to our operating performance. These factors include:
significant volatility in the market price and trading volume of securities of BDCs or other companies in the energy industry, which are not necessarily related to the operating performance of these companies;
price and volume fluctuations in the overall stock market from time to time;
changes in regulatory policies or tax guidelines, particularly with respect to RICs or business development companies;
loss of RIC qualification;
changes or perceived changes in earnings or variations in operating results;
changes or perceived changes in the value of our portfolio of investments;
changes in accounting guidelines governing valuation of our investments;
any shortfall in revenue or net income or any increase in losses from levels expected by investors or securities analysts;
departure of one or more of Prospect Capital Management’s key personnel;
operating performance of companies comparable to us;
short-selling pressure with respect to shares of our common stock or BDCs generally;
future sales of our securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for our common stock or the conversion of such securities, including the 5.50% Preferred Stock and the Convertible Notes;
the occurrence of one or more natural disasters, pandemic outbreaks or other health crises (including but not limited to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic);
concerns regarding European sovereign debt;
changes in prevailing interest rates;
prolonged inflation;
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litigation matters;
general economic trends and other external factors, including the current COVID-19 pandemic; and
loss of a major funding source.

In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has, from time to time, been brought against that company.
If our stock price fluctuates significantly, we may be the target of securities litigation in the future. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources from our business.
There is a risk that you may not receive distributions or that our distributions may not grow over time.
We have made and intend to continue to make distributions on a monthly basis to our common stockholders out of assets legally available for distribution. We cannot assure you that we will achieve investment results or maintain a tax status that will allow or require any specified level of cash distributions or year-to-year increases in cash distributions. In addition, due to the asset coverage test applicable to us as a BDC, we may be limited in our ability to make distributions.
Provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law and of our charter and bylaws could deter takeover attempts and have an adverse impact on the price of our common stock.
Our charter and bylaws and the Maryland General Corporation Law contain provisions that may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for our stockholders or otherwise be in their best interest. These provisions may prevent stockholders from being able to sell shares of our common stock at a premium over the current of prevailing market prices.
Our charter provides for the classification of our Board of Directors into three classes of directors, serving staggered three-year terms, which may render a change of control or removal of our incumbent management more difficult. Furthermore, any and all vacancies on our Board of Directors will be filled generally only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the remaining directors in office, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any director elected to fill a vacancy will serve for the remainder of the full term until a successor is elected and qualifies.
Our Board of Directors is authorized to create and issue new series of shares, to classify or reclassify any unissued shares of stock into one or more classes or series, including preferred stock and, without stockholder approval, to amend our charter to increase or decrease the number of shares of common stock that we have authority to issue, which could have the effect of diluting a stockholder’s ownership interest. Prior to the issuance of shares of common stock of each class or series, including any reclassified series, our Board of Directors is required by our governing documents to set the terms, preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption for each class or series of shares of stock.
Our charter and bylaws also provide that our Board of Directors has the exclusive power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws, and to make new bylaws. The Maryland General Corporation Law also contains certain provisions that may limit the ability of a third party to acquire control of us, such as:
The Maryland Business Combination Act, which, subject to certain limitations, prohibits certain business combinations between us and an “interested stockholder” (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of the common stock or an affiliate thereof) for five years after the most recent date on which the stockholder becomes an interested stockholder and, thereafter, imposes special minimum price provisions and special stockholder voting requirements on these combinations.
The Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act, which provides that “control shares” of a Maryland corporation (defined as shares of common stock which, when aggregated with other shares of common stock controlled by the stockholder, entitles the stockholder to exercise one of three increasing ranges of voting power in electing directors, as described more fully below) acquired in a “control share acquisition” (defined as the direct or indirect acquisition of ownership or control of “control shares”) have no voting rights except to the extent approved by stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding all interested shares of common stock.

The provisions of the Maryland Business Combination Act will not apply, however, if our Board of Directors adopts a resolution that any business combination between us and any other person will be exempt from the provisions of the Maryland Business Combination Act. Our Board of Directors has adopted a resolution that any business combination between us and any
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other person is exempted from the provisions of the Maryland Business Combination Act, provided that the business combination is first approved by the Board of Directors, including a majority of the directors who are not interested persons as defined in the 1940 Act. There can be no assurance that this resolution will not be altered or repealed in whole or in part at any time. If the resolution is altered or repealed, the provisions of the Maryland Business Combination Act may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us.
As permitted by Maryland law, our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the Maryland Control Share Acquisition Act any and all acquisitions by any person of our common stock. Although our bylaws include such a provision, such a provision may also be amended or eliminated by our Board of Directors at any time in the future.
Your interest in us may be diluted if you do not fully exercise your subscription rights in any rights offering. In addition, if the subscription price is less than our net asset value per share, then you will experience an immediate dilution of the aggregate net asset value of your shares.
In the event we issue subscription rights, stockholders who do not fully exercise their subscription rights should expect that they will, at the completion of a rights offering pursuant to the applicable prospectus, own a smaller proportional interest in us than would otherwise be the case if they fully exercised their rights. We cannot state precisely the amount of any such dilution in share ownership because we do not know at this time what proportion of the shares will be purchased as a result of such rights offering.
In addition, if the subscription price is less than the net asset value per share of our common stock, then our stockholders would experience an immediate dilution of the aggregate net asset value of their shares as a result of the offering. The amount of any decrease in net asset value is not predictable because it is not known at this time what the subscription price and net asset value per share will be on the expiration date of a rights offering or what proportion of the shares will be purchased as a result of such rights offering. Such dilution could be substantial.
We may in the future choose to pay dividends in our own stock, in which case our stockholders may be required to pay tax in excess of the cash they receive.
We may distribute taxable dividends that are payable in part in our stock. In accordance with guidance issued by the Internal Revenue Service, subject to the satisfaction of certain guidelines, a publicly traded RIC should generally be eligible to treat a distribution of its own stock as fulfilling its RIC distribution requirements if each stockholder is permitted to elect to receive his or her distribution in either cash or stock of the RIC, even where there is a limitation on the percentage of the aggregate distribution payable in cash, provided that the limitation is at least 20%. If too many stockholders elect to receive cash, each stockholder electing to receive cash generally must receive a portion of his or her distribution in cash (with the balance of the distribution paid in stock). If these and certain other requirements are met, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the amount of the distribution paid in stock generally will be a taxable distribution in an amount equal to the amount of cash that could have been received instead of stock. Taxable stockholders receiving such dividends would be required to include the full amount of the dividend as ordinary income (or as long-term capital gain to the extent such distribution is properly designated as a capital gain dividend) to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits for United States federal income tax purposes. As a result, a U.S. Stockholder (as defined in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations”) may be required to pay tax with respect to such dividends in excess of any cash received. If a U.S. Stockholder sells the stock it receives as a dividend in order to pay this tax, it may be subject to transaction fees (e.g., broker fees or transfer agent fees) and the sales proceeds may be less than the amount included in income with respect to the dividend, depending on the market price of its stock at the time of the sale. Furthermore, with respect to Non-U.S. Stockholders (as defined in “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations”), we may be required to withhold U.S. tax with respect to such dividends, including in respect of all or a portion of such dividend that is payable in stock. In addition, if a significant number of our stockholders determine to sell shares of our stock in order to pay taxes owed on dividends, it may put downward pressure on the trading price of our stock. It is unclear whether and to what extent we will be pay dividends in cash and our stock.
General Risk Factors
We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly results.
We could experience fluctuations in our quarterly operating results due to a number of factors, including the level of structuring fees received, the interest or dividend rates payable on the debt or equity securities we hold, the default rate on debt securities, the level of our expenses, variations in and the timing of the recognition of realized and unrealized gains or losses, the degree to which we encounter competition in our markets, and general economic conditions. As a result of these factors, results for any period should not be relied upon as being indicative of performance in future periods.
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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.
Item 2. Properties
We do not own any real estate or other physical properties materially important to our operation. We are located at 10 East 40th Street, New York, New York 10016, where we occupy our office space pursuant to our Administration Agreement with Prospect Administration. The office facilities are leased by our Administrator. We believe that our office facilities are suitable and adequate for our business as currently conducted.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
(All figures in this item are in thousands)
From time to time, we may become involved in various investigations, claims and legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business. These matters may relate to intellectual property, employment, tax, regulation, contract or other matters. The resolution of such matters as may arise will be subject to various uncertainties and, even if such claims are without merit, could result in the expenditure of significant financial and managerial resources.
We are not aware of any material legal proceedings as of June 30, 2022.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.



PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
(All figures in this item are in thousands, except share and per share data)
Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “PSEC.”
The following table sets forth, for the quarterly reporting periods indicated, the net asset value per common share of our common stock and the high and low sales prices for our common stock, as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market. Our common stock historically has traded at prices both above and below its net asset value. There can be no assurance, however, that such premium or discount, as applicable, to net asset value will be maintained. See also “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in Part I of this Annual Report for additional information about the risks and uncertainties we face.

    Stock Price Premium (Discount)
of High to NAV
 Premium
(Discount)
of Low to NAV
 
  NAV(1) High(2) Low(2) 
Year Ended June 30, 2021           
First quarter$8.40 $5.17 $4.69 (38.5)%(44.2)% 
Second quarter8.96 5.60 4.95 (37.5)%(44.8)% 
Third quarter9.38 7.98 5.51 (14.9)%(41.3)% 
Fourth quarter9.81 9.227.62 (6.0)%(22.3)% 
Year Ended June 30, 2022           
First quarter $10.12  $8.46  $7.69  (16.4)% (24.0)% 
Second quarter 10.60  9.00  7.83  (15.1)% (26.1)% 
Third quarter10.81 8.89 7.86 (17.8)%(27.3)%
Fourth quarter  10.48  8.48 6.68  (19.1)% (36.3)% 
(1) Net asset value per common share is determined as of the last day in the relevant quarter and therefore may not reflect the net asset value per common share on the date of the high or low sales price. The NAVs shown are based on outstanding shares of our common stock at the end of each period.
(2) The High/Low Stock Price is calculated as of the closing price on a given day in the applicable quarter.
As of September 2, 2022, there were 173 stockholders of record of our common stock. This figure does not include a substantially greater number of beneficial holders of our common stock, whose shares are held in the names of brokers, dealers and clearing agencies.
Recent Sales of Common Stock Below Net Asset Value
At our 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 annual meeting of stockholders, and at special meetings of stockholders held on June 12, 2020, June 11, 2021, and June 10, 2022 our stockholders approved our ability to sell shares of our common stock at a price or prices below our NAV per common share at the time of sale in one or more offerings. The current approval to sell shares of our common stock below our NAV per common share is valid until June 10, 2023 and subject to certain conditions as set forth in the proxy statement relating to the special meeting (including that the number of shares sold on any given date does not exceed 25% of our outstanding common stock immediately prior to such sale). Accordingly, we may make offerings of our common stock without any limitation on the total amount of dilution to stockholders. Our prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus relating to this offering contains additional information about these offerings. Pursuant to the authority granted by our stockholders and the approval of our Board of Directors, we have made the following offerings below NAV per common share:
Date of OfferingPrice Per Share to InvestorsShares IssuedEstimated Net Asset Value per Common Share(1)Percentage Dilution
June 15, 2020 to June 22, 2020(2)$5.29 - $5.401,158,222$7.93 - 7.940.10%
(1) The data for sales of common shares below NAV per common share pursuant to our equity distribution agreements are estimates based on our last reported NAV per common share adjusted for capital events occurring during the period since the last calculated NAV per common share. All amounts presented are approximations based on the best available data at the time of issuance.
(2) At the market offering. Dates of offering represent the sales dates of the stock. The settlement dates are two business days later than the sale dates.


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Distribution Policy
Through March 2010, we made quarterly distributions to our stockholders out of assets legally available for distribution. In June 2010, we changed our distribution policy from a quarterly payment to a monthly payment. To the extent prudent and practicable, we currently intend to continue making distributions on a monthly basis. Our ability to pay distributions could be affected by future business performance, liquidity, capital needs, alternative investment opportunities and loan covenants. Our distributions, if any, will be determined by our Board of Directors. Certain amounts of the monthly distributions may from time to time be paid out of our capital rather than from earnings for the quarter as a result of our deliberate planning or by accounting reclassifications.
As a RIC, we generally are not subject to U.S. federal income tax on income and gains we distribute each taxable year to our stockholders, provided that in such taxable year, we distribute an amount equal to at least 90% of our investment company taxable income (as defined by the Code) to our stockholders. Any undistributed taxable income is subject to U.S. federal income tax. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% non-deductible U.S. federal excise tax on certain undistributed income unless we distribute in a timely manner an amount at least equal to the sum of (i) 98% of our ordinary income recognized during the calendar year, (ii) 98.2% of our capital gain net income, as defined by the Code, recognized for the one year period ending October 31 in that calendar year and (iii) any income recognized, but not distributed, in preceding years.
We did not have an excise tax liability for the calendar year ended December 31, 2021. As of June 30, 2022, we do not expect to have any excise tax due for the 2022 calendar year. Tax characteristics of all distributions will be reported to stockholders, as appropriate, on Form 1099-DIV after the end of the calendar year.
In addition, although we currently intend to distribute realized net capital gains (which we define as net long-term capital gains in excess of short-term capital losses), if any, at least annually out of the assets legally available for such distributions, we may decide in the future to retain such capital gains for investment. In such event, the consequences of our retention of net capital gains are described under “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.” We can offer no assurance that we will achieve results that will permit the payment of any cash distributions and, if we issue senior securities, we may be prohibited from making distributions if doing so causes us to fail to maintain the asset coverage ratios stipulated by the 1940 Act or if distributions are limited by the terms of any of our borrowings.
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During the years ended June 30, 2022 and June 30, 2021, we distributed approximately $281.4 million and $276.1 million, respectively, to our common stockholders. The following table summarizes our distributions declared and payable for the years ended June 30, 2021 and June 30, 2022:
Declaration DateRecord DatePayment DateAmount Per ShareAmount Distributed (in thousands)
5/8/20207/31/20208/20/2020$0.060000 $22,515 
5/8/20208/31/20209/17/20200.060000 22,619 
8/25/20209/30/202010/22/20200.060000 22,727 
8/25/202010/30/202011/19/20200.060000 22,836 
11/6/202011/30/202012/24/20200.060000 22,942 
11/6/202012/31/20201/21/20210.060000 23,046 
11/6/20201/29/20202/18/20210.060000 23,140 
2/9/20212/26/20213/18/20210.060000 23,219 
2/9/20213/31/20214/22/20210.060000 23,244 
2/9/20214/30/20215/20/20210.060000 23,265 
5/7/20215/27/20216/17/20210.060000 23,286 
5/7/20216/28/20217/22/20210.060000 23,306 
Total declared and payable for the year ended June 30, 2021$276,145 
5/7/20217/28/20218/19/2021$0.060000 $23,325 
5/7/20218/27/20219/23/20210.060000 23,348 
8/24/20219/28/202110/21/20210.060000 23,370 
8/24/202110/27/202111/18/20210.060000 23,392 
11/5/202111/26/202112/23/20210.060000 23,413 
11/5/202112/29/20211/20/20220.060000 23,435 
11/5/20211/27/20222/17/20220.060000 23,457 
2/7/20222/24/20223/22/20220.060000 23,479 
2/7/20223/29/20224/20/20220.060000 23,503 
2/7/20224/27/20225/19/20220.060000 23,529 
5/6/20225/27/20226/21/20220.060000 23,554 
5/6/20226/28/20227/20/20220.060000 23,589 
Total declared and payable for the year ended June 30, 2022$281,394 
Dividends and distributions to common stockholders are recorded on the ex-dividend date. As such, the table above includes distributions with record dates during the years ended June 30, 2022 and June 30, 2021. It does not include distributions previously declared to common stockholders of record on any future dates, as those amounts are not yet determinable. The following dividends were previously declared and will be recorded and payable subsequent to June 30, 2022:
$0.06 per share for July 2022 to holders of record on July 27, 2022 with a payment date of August 18, 2022; and
$0.06 per share for August 2022 to holders of record on August 29, 2022 with a payment date of September 21, 2022.
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Dividend Reinvestment Plan
We maintain an “opt out” common stock dividend reinvestment and direct stock purchase plan for our common stockholders. As a result, if we declare a distribution (as discussed above), common stockholders’ cash distributions will be automatically reinvested in additional shares of our common stock, unless they (or their broker through which they hold shares) opt out of the Plan so as to receive cash distributions. Stockholders who receive distributions in the form of stock are subject to the same U.S. federal, state and local tax consequences as are stockholders who elect to receive their distributions in cash. Stockholders are advised to consult with their brokers or financial institutions, as appropriate, with respect to the administration of their dividends and related instructions. See also “Common Stock Dividend Reinvestment and Direct Stock Purchase Plan” in Part I of this Annual Report for additional information.
We primarily use newly-issued shares of our common stock to implement the plan, whether our shares are trading at a premium or at a discount to net asset value. However, we reserve the right to purchase shares of our common stock in the open market in connection with the implementation of the plan. Our Board of Directors determines how the common stock to be distributed as part of the plan is made available.
During the years ended June 30, 2022 and June 30, 2021, we distributed 4,524,956 and 14,871,092 shares of our common stock, respectively, in connection with the Plan. All of the shares of common stock distributed to our stockholders were new issues. The following table summarizes the shares issued through the reinvestment of dividends in the years ended June 30, 2021 and June 30, 2022:
Record DatePayment DateShares IssuedValue of Shares
(in thousands)
% of Distribution
6/30/20207/23/20201,716,619 $8,235 36.7 %
7/31/20208/20/20201,742,536 8,476 37.6 %
8/31/20209/17/20201,779,304 8,570 37.9 %
9/30/202010/22/20201,815,585 8,797 38.7 %
10/30/202011/19/20201,772,218 8,856 38.8 %
11/30/202012/24/20201,732,884 8,988 39.2 %
12/31/20201/21/20211,563,270 9,104 39.5 %
1/31/20212/18/20211,324,683 9,199 39.8 %
2/28/20213/18/2021404,974 2,997 12.9 %
3/31/20214/22/2021357,521 2,741 11.8 %
4/30/20215/20/2021344,487 2,706 11.6 %
5/27/20216/17/2021317,011 2,677 11.5 %
Total issued in the year ended June 30, 202114,871,092 $81,346 
6/28/20217/22/2021339,245 $2,672 11.5 %
7/28/20218/19/2021360,741 2,772 11.9 %
8/27/20219/23/2021379,182 2,846 12.2 %
9/28/202110/21/2021357,734 2,831 12.1 %
10/27/202111/18/2021346,308 2,912 12.4 %
11/26/202112/23/2021365,384 2,891 12.3 %
12/29/20211/20/2022357,288 3,017 12.9 %
1/27/20222/17/2022378,344 3,026 12.9 %
2/24/20223/22/2022384,588 3,007 12.8 %
3/29/20224/20/2022379,212 3,033 12.9 %
4/27/20225/19/2022413,450 (1)3,001 12.8 %
5/27/20226/21/2022463,480 (1)2,986 12.7 %
Total issued in the year ended June 30, 20224,524,956 $34,994 
(1) Number of newly-issued common shares to be credited to a common stockholder’s account to be determined by dividing (i) the total dollar amount of the dividend payable to such common stockholder by (ii) 95% of the closing market price per share of our stock on the date fixed by the Board of Directors for such distribution (thereby providing a 5% discount to the market price of our common stock on such date).
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Registered common stockholders who opt out of the Plan must notify the Plan administrator prior to the payment date in order for that distribution to be paid in cash. As such, the table above includes distributions with payment dates during the years ended June 30, 2022 and June 30, 2021. It does not include distributions previously declared and recorded as payable to common stockholders on any future dates, as those amounts are not yet determinable.
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Purchases of equity securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers
On August 24, 2011, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase plan (the “Repurchase Program”) under which we may repurchase up to $100,000 of our common stock at prices below our net asset value per share. Prior to any repurchase, we are required to notify stockholders of our intention to purchase our common stock.
We did not repurchase any shares of our common stock under the Repurchase Program for the years ended June 30, 2022 and June 30, 2021.
As of June 30, 2022, the approximate dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the plan is $65.9 million.
During the year ended June 30, 2022, Prospect officers and directors purchased 102,315 shares of our common stock, or 0.03% of total outstanding shares as of June 30, 2022, through shares issued in connection with our common stock dividend reinvestment plan.
The following table summarizes the shares purchased by Prospect officers during the year ended June 30, 2022:
PeriodTotal Number of Shares Purchased in Open MarketAverage price paid per shareTotal Number of Shares Purchased Through Dividend Reinvestment Plan
July 1, 2021 - July 31, 2021— — 8,041 
August 1, 2021 - August 31, 2021— — 8,367 
September 1, 2021 - September 30, 2021— — 8,552 
October 1, 2021 - October 31, 2021— — 8,206 
November 1, 2021 - November 30, 2021— — 7,758 
December 31, 2021 - December 31, 2021— — 8,272 
January 1, 2022 - January 31, 2022— — 7,842 
February 1, 2022 - February 28, 2022— — 8,353 
March 1, 2022 - March 31, 2022— — 8,547 
April 1, 2022 - April 30, 2022— — 8,443 
May 1, 2022 - May 30, 2022— — 9,454 
June 1, 2022 - June 30, 2022— — 10,480 
Total 102,315 

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Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares a stockholder’s cumulative total return for the last five fiscal years as if such amounts had been invested in: (i) our common stock; (ii) the stocks included in the S&P 500 Index; (iii) the stocks included in the S&P BDC Index; and (iv) the stocks included in the S&P/LSTA U.S. Leveraged Loan 100 Index. The graph and other information furnished under the heading “Stock Performance Graph” shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference and shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C under, or to the liabilities of Section 18 of, the Exchange Act.
In the following graph we have made the following updates from the stock performance graph we disclosed within our Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2021: (i) we have replaced the S&P 500 Financials Sector Index with the S&P BDC Index as we believe the S&P BDC Index to be more representative of companies that are similar to PSEC; (ii) we have added the S&P/LSTA Leveraged Loan Total Return Index as we invest primarily in senior and secured debt of private companies; and (iii) we have removed our customized BDC Peer Group composed of Apollo Investment Corporation, Ares Capital Corporation, BlackRock Capital Investment Corporation, Gladstone Capital Corporation, and MVC Capital, Inc because we believe the S&P BDC Index to be more representative of the performance of all BDCs.
Both of the below graphs are based on historical stock prices and measures total stockholder return, which takes into account both changes in stock price and dividends. The total return assumes that dividends were reinvested daily and is based on a $100 investment on June 30, 2017. These stock performance graphs are not necessarily indicative of future stock performance. Index performance is shown for illustrative purposes only and does not reflect any deduction for fees or expenses. It is not possible to invest directly in an unmanaged index.
chart-ef996ec1717d4cb7a0ca.jpg
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The following graph compares a stockholder’s cumulative total return for the last five fiscal years as if such amounts had been invested in: (i) our common stock; (ii) the stocks included in the S&P 500 Financials Index; and (iii) the stocks included our customized BDC Peer Group. MVC Capital, Inc. is not included within the BDC Peer Group because it underwent a merger and was not the surviving entity. The Company has included this graph as a comparative disclosure because the S&P 500 Financials Index and our customized BDC Peer Group were included in the stock performance graph for the Form 10-K filed for the fiscal period ending June 30, 2021.
chart-ac1a001158014770b42a.jpg
Fees and Expenses
The following tables are intended to assist you in understanding the costs and expenses that an investor will bear directly or indirectly. We caution you that some of the percentages indicated in the table below are estimates and may vary. These tables are based on our assets and common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2022, except that we assume that we have issued $1.75 billion in 5.50% Preferred Stock paying dividends of 5.50% per annum, in addition to our $0.15 billion of 5.35% Preferred Stock paying dividends of 5.35% per annum, and that we have borrowed $1.5 billion under our credit facility, which is the maximum amount available under the credit facility with the current levels of other debt, in addition to our other indebtedness of $1.9 billion. Except where the context suggests otherwise, any reference to fees or expenses paid by “you” or “us” or that “we” will pay fees or expenses, the Company will pay such fees and expenses out of our net assets and, consequently, you will indirectly bear such fees or expenses as an investor in the Company’s common stock. However, you will not be required to deliver any money or otherwise bear personal liability or responsibility for such fees or expenses.
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Stockholder transaction expenses:A1 SharesM1 and M2 SharesAA1 Shares and MM1 Shares
Sales Load (as a percentage of offering price)10.00% (1)3.00% (2)5.00% (3)
Offering expenses borne by the Company (as a percentage of offering price)(4)(4)(5)
Preferred Stock Dividend reinvestment plan expenses (6)NoneNoneNone
Total stockholder transaction expenses (as a percentage of offering price):11.5%4.5%6.0%
Annual expenses (as a percentage of net assets applicable to common stock):
Management fees (7)4.69%
Incentive fees payable under Investment Advisory Agreement (20% of realized capital gains and 20% of pre-incentive fee net investment income) (8)1.99%
Total advisory fees6.68%
Total interest expenses (9)3.64%
Other expenses (10)0.73%
Total annual expenses (8)(10)(11)11.05%
Dividends on Preferred Stock(12)2.61%
Total annual expenses after dividends on Preferred Stock (13)13.66%
Example
The following table demonstrates the projected dollar amount of cumulative expenses we would pay out of net assets and that you would indirectly bear over various periods with respect to a hypothetical investment in our common stock. In calculating the following expense amounts, we have assumed we have issued $1.75 billion in 5.50% Preferred Stock paying dividends of 5.50% per annum, in addition to our $0.15 billion of 5.35% Preferred Stock paying dividends of 5.35% per annum, we have borrowed $1.5 billion available under our line of credit, in addition to our other indebtedness of $1.9 billion, and that our annual operating expenses would remain at the levels set forth in the table above and that we would pay the costs shown in the table above.
  1 Year 3 Years 5 Years 10 Years
Ongoing Preferred Stock Offerings(1) - You would pay the following expenses on a $1,000 investment in shares of our common stock, assuming a 5% annual return on our portfolio*
 $156  $354  $527  $871 
Ongoing Preferred Stock Offerings(1) - You would pay the following expenses on a $1,000 investment in shares of our common stock, assuming a 5% annual return on our portfolio**
$166 $378 $559 $906 
(1)     Represents the highest level of expenses from all ongoing Preferred Stock offerings referenced in the Fee and Expenses table above, assuming the maximum number of shares of Preferred Stock offered in each offering is sold. Presently a maximum of 60 million A1, M1 and M2 shares may be sold, and a maximum of 10 million AA1 and MM1 shares may be sold.

* Assumes that we will not realize any capital gains computed net of all realized capital losses and unrealized capital depreciation on our portfolio.
** Assumes no unrealized capital depreciation or realized capital losses and 5% annual return on our portfolio resulting entirely from net realized capital gains (and therefore subject to the capital gains incentive fee).
While the example assumes, as required by the SEC, a 5% annual return on our portfolio, our performance will vary and may result in a return greater or less than 5%. The income incentive fee under our Investment Advisory Agreement with Prospect Capital Management is unlikely to be material assuming a 5% annual return on our portfolio and is not included in the example. If we achieve sufficient returns on our portfolio, including through the realization of capital gains, to trigger an incentive fee of a material amount, our distributions to our common stockholders and our expenses would likely be higher. In addition, while the example assumes reinvestment of all dividends and other distributions at NAV, common stockholders that participate in our common stock dividend reinvestment plan will receive a number of shares of our common stock determined by dividing the total dollar amount of the distribution payable to a participant by 95% of the market price per share of our common stock at the close of trading on the valuation date for the distribution.
This example and the expenses in the table above should not be considered a representation of our future expenses. Actual expenses (including the cost of debt, if any, and other expenses) may be greater or less than those shown.
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(1)    Includes up to a 7.0% selling commission on the $25.00 per share (the “Stated Value”) paid by the Company and a dealer manager fee equal to 3.0% of the Stated Value paid by the Company. Reductions in selling commissions will be reflected in reduced public offering prices as described in the “Plan of Distribution” section of the applicable prospectus supplement and the net proceeds to us will not be impacted by such reductions; therefore, we will bear a reduction in net proceeds to us up to 7.0% of the Stated Value on all A1 Shares although the selling commission compensation paid by us to our dealer manager may represent less than 7.0% of the Stated Value. We may, through the Holder Optional Conversion Fee, recoup a portion of the Sales Load if stockholders exercise a Holder Optional Conversion (as defined in the prospectus supplement relating to the applicable offering) of their Preferred Stock prior to the 5-year anniversary of the original issue date. The Holder Optional Conversion Fee is 9.00% of the maximum public offering price disclosed herein prior to the first anniversary of the issuance of such Preferred Stock, 8.00% of the maximum public offering price disclosed herein on or after the first anniversary but prior to the second anniversary, 7.00% of the maximum public offering price disclosed herein on or after the second anniversary but prior to the third anniversary, 6.00% of the maximum public offering price disclosed herein on or after the third anniversary but prior to the fourth anniversary, 5.00% of the maximum public offering price disclosed herein on or after the fourth anniversary but prior to the fifth anniversary and 0.00% on or after the fifth anniversary.

(2)    Includes a dealer manager fee equal to 3.0% of the Stated Value paid by the Company.

(3)    Includes up to a 4.875% selling commission on the $25.00 per share (the “Stated Value”) paid by the Company and a dealer manager fee equal to 0.125% of the Stated Value paid by the Company. For the AA1 Shares we may, through the Holder Optional Conversion Fee, recoup a portion of the Sales Load if stockholders exercise a Holder Optional Conversion (as defined in the prospectus supplement relating to the applicable offering) of their Preferred Stock prior to the 5-year anniversary of the original issue date. The Holder Optional Conversion Fee is 9.00% of the maximum public offering price disclosed herein prior to the first anniversary of the issuance of such Preferred Stock, 8.00% of the maximum public offering price disclosed herein on or after the first anniversary but prior to the second anniversary, 7.00% of the maximum public offering price disclosed herein on or after the second anniversary but prior to the third anniversary, 6.00% of the maximum public offering price disclosed herein on or after the third anniversary but prior to the fourth anniversary, 5.00% of the maximum public offering price disclosed herein on or after the fourth anniversary but prior to the fifth anniversary and 0.00% on or after the fifth anniversary.

(4)    The selling commission and dealer manager fee, when combined with organization and offering expenses (including due diligence expenses and fees for establishing servicing arrangements for new stockholder accounts), are not expected to exceed 11.5% of the gross offering proceeds. Our Board of Directors may, in its discretion, authorize the Company to incur underwriting and other offering expenses in excess of 11.5% of the gross offering proceeds. In no event will the combined selling commission, dealer manager fee and offering expenses exceed FINRA’s limit on underwriting and other offering expenses.

(5)    The selling commission and dealer manager fee, when combined with organization and offering expenses (including due diligence expenses), are not expected to exceed 6.0% of the gross offering proceeds. Our Board of Directors may, in its discretion, authorize the Company to incur underwriting and other offering expenses in excess of 6.0% of the gross offering proceeds. In no event will the combined selling commission, dealer manager fee and offering expenses exceed FINRA’s limit on underwriting and other offering expenses.

(6)    The expenses of the Preferred DRIP are included in “other expenses.” See “Capitalization” in the applicable prospectus supplement.

(7)    Our base management fee is 2% of our gross assets (which include any amount borrowed, i.e., total assets without deduction for any liabilities, including any borrowed amounts for non-investment purposes, for which purpose we have not and have no intention of borrowing). Although no plans are in place to borrow the full amount under our line of credit, assuming that we borrowed $1.5 billion, the 2% management fee of gross assets equals approximately 4.69% of net assets.

(8)    Based on our net investment income and realized capital gains, less realized and unrealized capital losses, earned on our portfolio for the year ended June 30, 2022, all of which consisted of an income incentive fee. This historical amount has been adjusted to reflect the issuance of 70,187,000 shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock. The capital gain incentive fee is paid without regard to pre-incentive fee income. For a more detailed discussion of the calculation of the two-part incentive fee, see “Management Services-Investment Advisory Agreement” in the applicable prospectus.

(9)    As of June 30, 2022, we had $1.9 billion outstanding of Unsecured Notes (as defined above) in various maturities, ranging from July 15, 2022 to March 15, 2052, and interest rates, ranging from 1.50% to 6.625%, some of which are convertible into shares of the Company’s common stock at various conversion rates.
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(10)    “Other expenses” are based on estimated amounts for the current fiscal year. The amount shown above represents annualized expenses during our year ended June 30, 2022 representing all of our estimated recurring operating expenses (except fees and expenses reported in other items of this table) that are deducted from our operating income and reflected as expenses in our Statement of Operations. The estimate of our overhead expenses, including payments under an administration agreement with Prospect Administration, or the Administration Agreement is based on our projected allocable portion of overhead and other expenses incurred by Prospect Administration in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement. See “Business-Management Services-Administration Agreement” in the applicable prospectus.

(11)    If all 70,187,000 shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock were converted into common stock and assuming all the Series A1 and Series AA1 Preferred Stock pay a Holder Optional Conversion Fee of 9.00% and all the Series A2 Preferred Stock pay a Holder Optional Conversion Fee of 8.50% of the maximum public offering price disclosed within the applicable prospectus supplement and are converted at a conversion rate based on the 5-day VWAP of our common stock on June 30, 2022, which was $7.05, then management fees would be 3.26%, incentive fees payable under our Investment Advisory Agreement would be 1.38%, total advisory fees would be 4.64%, total interest expenses would be 2.53%, other expenses would be 0.52%, and total annual expenses would be 7.68% of net assets applicable to our common stock. The actual 5-day VWAP of our common stock on a conversion date may be more or less than $7.05, which may result in fees that are higher or lower than those described herein. These figures are based on the same assumptions described in the other notes to this fee table.

(12)    Based on the 5.50% per annum dividend rate applicable to the A1 Shares, M1 Shares, M2 Shares, AA1 Shares, MM1 Shares, and A2 Shares. Also based on the 5.35% per annum dividend rate applicable to the A Shares. Other series of preferred stock, including other series of preferred stock being sold in different offerings, may bear different annual dividend rates. No dividend will be paid on shares of 5.50% Preferred Stock after they have been converted to shares of common stock.

(13)     The indirect expenses associated with the Company’s investments in collateralized loan obligations are not included in the fee table presentation, but if such expenses were included in the fee table presentation then the Company’s total annual expenses would have been 11.61%, or 14.22% after dividends on Preferred Stock.
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Item 6. [Reserved]

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
(All figures in this item are in thousands except share, per share and other data.)
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes and other financial information appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report. In addition to historical information, the following discussion and other parts of this Annual Report contain forward-looking information that involves risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ significantly from any results expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements due to the factors discussed in Part I, “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and “Forward-Looking Statements” appearing elsewhere herein.
Overview
The terms “Prospect,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” mean Prospect Capital Corporation and its subsidiaries unless the context specifically requires otherwise.

Prospect is a financial services company that primarily lends to and invests in middle-market privately-held companies. We are a closed-end investment company incorporated in Maryland. We have elected to be regulated as a business development company (“BDC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the “1940 Act”). As a BDC, we have elected to be treated as a regulated investment company (“RIC”), under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (the “Code”). We were organized on April 13, 2004, and were funded in an initial public offering completed on July 27, 2004.

On May 15, 2007, we formed a wholly owned subsidiary Prospect Capital Funding LLC (“PCF”), a Delaware limited liability company and a bankruptcy remote special purpose entity, which holds certain of our portfolio loan investments that are used as collateral for the revolving credit facility at PCF. Our wholly owned subsidiary Prospect Small Business Lending, LLC (“PSBL”) was formed on January 27, 2014, and purchased small business whole loans from online small business loan originators, including On Deck Capital, Inc. (“OnDeck”). On September 30, 2014, we formed a wholly-owned subsidiary Prospect Yield Corporation, LLC (“PYC”) and effective October 23, 2014, PYC holds a portion of our collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”), which we also refer to as subordinated structured notes (“SSNs”). Each of these subsidiaries have been consolidated since operations commenced.
We consolidate certain of our wholly owned and substantially wholly owned holding companies formed by us in order to facilitate our investment strategy. The following companies are included in our consolidated financial statements and are collectively referred to as the “Consolidated Holding Companies”: CP Holdings of Delaware LLC (“CP Holdings”); Credit Central Holdings of Delaware, LLC (“Credit Central Delaware”); Energy Solutions Holdings Inc.; First Tower Holdings of Delaware LLC (“First Tower Delaware”); MITY Holdings of Delaware Inc. (“MITY Delaware”); Nationwide Acceptance Holdings LLC; NMMB Holdings, Inc. (“NMMB Holdings”); NPH Property Holdings, LLC (“NPH”); Prospect Opportunity Holdings I, Inc. (“POHI”); SB Forging Company, Inc. (“SB Forging”); STI Holding, Inc.; UTP Holdings Group Inc. (“UTP Holdings”); Valley Electric Holdings I, Inc. (“Valley Holdings I”); and Valley Electric Holdings II, Inc. (“Valley Holdings II”).
We are externally managed by our investment adviser, Prospect Capital Management L.P. (“Prospect Capital Management” or the “Investment Adviser”). Prospect Administration LLC (“Prospect Administration”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Investment Adviser, provides administrative services and facilities necessary for us to operate.
Our investment objective is to generate both current income and long-term capital appreciation through debt and equity investments. We invest primarily in senior and subordinated secured debt and equity of private companies in need of capital for acquisitions, divestitures, growth, development, recapitalizations and other purposes. We work with the management teams or financial sponsors to seek investments with historical cash flows, asset collateral or contracted pro-forma cash flows.
We currently have four primary strategies that guide our origination of investment opportunities: (1) lending to companies, including companies controlled by private equity sponsors and not controlled by private equity sponsors, and including both directly-originated loans and syndicated loans, (2) lending to companies and purchasing controlling equity positions in such companies, including both operating companies and financial services companies, (3) purchasing controlling equity positions and lending to real estate companies, and (4) investing in structured credit. We may also invest in other strategies and opportunities from time to time that we view as attractive. We continue to evaluate other origination strategies in the ordinary course of business with no specific top-down allocation to any single origination strategy.
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Lending to Companies - We make directly-originated agented loans to companies, including companies which are controlled by private equity sponsors and companies that are not controlled by private equity sponsors (such as companies that are controlled by the management team, the founder, a family or public shareholders). This debt can take the form of first lien, second lien, unitranche or unsecured loans. These loans typically have equity subordinate to our loan position. We may also purchase selected equity co-investments in such companies. In addition to directly-originated, agented loans, we also invest in senior and secured loans, syndicated loans and high yield bonds that have been sold to a club or syndicate of buyers, both in the primary and secondary markets. These investments are often purchased with a long term, buy-and-hold outlook, and we often look to provide significant input to the transaction by providing anchoring orders. Historically, this strategy has comprised approximately 40%-60% of our portfolio.
Lending to Companies and Purchasing Controlling Equity Positions in Such Companies - This strategy involves purchasing senior and secured yield-producing debt and controlling equity positions in operating companies across various industries. We believe this strategy provides enhanced certainty of closure to sellers and the opportunity for management to continue on in their current roles. These investments are often structured in tax-efficient partnerships, enhancing returns. Historically, this strategy has comprised approximately 15%-25% of our portfolio.
Purchasing Controlling Equity Positions and Lending to Real Estate Companies - We purchase debt and controlling equity positions in tax-efficient real estate investment trusts (“REIT” or “REITs”). The real estate investments of National Property REIT Corp. (“NPRC”) are in various classes of developed and occupied real estate properties that generate current yields, including multi-family properties, and student housing. NPRC seeks to identify properties that have historically significant occupancy rates and recurring cash flow generation. NPRC generally co-invests with established and experienced property management teams that manage such properties after acquisition. Additionally, NPRC makes investments in rated secured structured notes (primarily debt of structured credit). NPRC also purchases loans originated by certain consumer loan facilitators. It purchases each loan in its entirety (i.e., a “whole loan”). The borrowers are consumers, and the loans are typically serviced by the facilitators of the loans. Historically, this overall investment strategy has comprised approximately 10%-20% of our business.
Investing in Structured Credit - We make investments in structured credit, often taking a significant position in subordinated structured notes (equity) and rated secured structured notes (debt). The underlying portfolio of each structured credit investment is diversified across approximately 100 to 200 broadly syndicated loans and does not have direct exposure to real estate, mortgages, or consumer-based credit assets. The structured credit portfolios in which we invest are managed by established collateral management teams with many years of experience in the industry. Historically, this overall strategy has comprised approximately 10%-20% of our portfolio.
We invest primarily in first and second lien secured loans and unsecured debt, which in some cases includes an equity component. First and second lien secured loans generally are senior debt instruments that rank ahead of unsecured debt of a given portfolio company. These loans also have the benefit of security interests on the assets of the portfolio company, which may rank ahead of or be junior to other security interests. Our investments in structured credit are subordinated to senior loans and are generally unsecured. We invest in debt and equity positions of structured credit which are a form of securitization in which the cash flows of a portfolio of loans are pooled and passed on to different classes of owners in various tranches. Our structured credit investments are derived from portfolios of corporate debt securities which are generally risk rated from BB to B.
We hold many of our control investments in a two-tier structure consisting of a holding company and one or more related operating companies for tax purposes. These holding companies serve various business purposes including concentration of management teams, optimization of third party borrowing costs, improvement of supplier, customer, and insurance terms, and enhancement of co-investments by the management teams. In these cases, our investment, which is generally equity in the holding company, the holding company’s equity investment in the operating company and any debt from us directly to the operating company structure represents our total exposure for the investment. As of June 30, 2022, as shown in our Consolidated Schedule of Investments, the cost basis and fair value of our investments in controlled companies was $2,732,906 and $3,438,317, respectively. This structure gives rise to several of the risks described in our public documents and highlighted elsewhere in this Annual Report. We consolidate all wholly-owned and substantially wholly-owned holding companies formed by us for the purpose of holding our controlled investments in operating companies. There is no significant effect of consolidating these holding companies as they hold minimal assets other than their investments in the controlled operating companies. Investment company accounting prohibits the consolidation of any operating companies.
On June 10, 2022, at a special meeting of stockholders, our stockholders authorized us to sell shares of our common stock (during the next 12 months) at a price or prices below our net asset value per share at the time of sale in one or more offerings subject to certain conditions as set forth in the proxy statement relating to the special meeting (including that the number of shares sold on any given date does not exceed 25% of its outstanding common stock immediately prior to such sale).
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Fourth Quarter Highlights
Investment Transactions
We seek to be a long-term investor with our portfolio companies. During the three months ended June 30, 2022, we acquired $211,761 of new investments, completed follow-on investments in existing portfolio companies totaling approximately $242,064, funded $1,500 of revolver advances, and recorded PIK interest of $22,094, resulting in gross investment originations of $477,420. During the three months ended June 30, 2022, we received full repayments on investments totaling $98,580, received $50,705 in partial prepayments, $1,759 in sales, and revolver paydowns of $41, resulting in net repayments of $151,085.
Debt Issuances and Redemptions
During the three months ended June 30, 2022, we repaid $337 aggregate principal amount of Prospect Capital InterNotes® at par in accordance with the Survivor’s Option, as defined in the InterNotes® Offering prospectus. As a result, we recorded a loss in the amount of the unamortized debt issuance costs. The net loss on the extinguishment of Prospect Capital InterNotes® in the three months ended June 30, 2022 was $8.
During the three months ended June 30, 2022, we issued $7,127 aggregate principal amount of Prospect Capital InterNotes® with a weighted average stated interest rate of 4.49%, to extend our borrowing base. The newly issued notes mature between April 15, 2027 and May 15, 2032 and generated net proceeds of $7,035.
Equity Issuances
On April 20, 2022, May 19, 2022, and June 21, 2022, we issued 379,212, 413,450, and 463,480 shares of our common stock in connection with the dividend reinvestment plan, respectively.
During the three months ended June 30, 2022, 46,325 shares of our Series A1 Preferred Stock and 12,800 shares of our Series M1 Preferred Stock were converted to 190,159 shares of our common stock, in connection with Holder Optional Conversions and Option Redemptions Following Death of a Holder.
During the three months ended June 30, 2022, we issued 4,441,202 shares of our Series A1 Preferred Stock for net proceeds of $99,927, and 1,258,734 shares of our Series M1 Preferred Stock for net proceeds of $30,524, each excluding offering costs and preferred stock dividend reinvestments.
In connection with our Preferred Stock Dividend Reinvestment Plan, we issued additional Series A1 Preferred Stock and Series M1 Preferred Stock of 1,043 shares, 2,096 shares, and 2,515 shares throughout April, May and June 2022.
Investment Holdings
At June 30, 2022, we have $7,602,510, or 184.6%, of our net assets applicable to common shares invested in 129 long-term portfolio investments and CLOs.
Our annualized current yield was 11.1% and 11.7% as of June 30, 2022 and June 30, 2021, respectively, across all performing interest bearing investments, excluding equity investments and non-accrual loans. Our annualized current yield was 8.7% and 9.2% as of June 30, 2022 and June 30, 2021, respectively, across all investments. In many of our portfolio companies we hold equity positions, ranging from minority interests to majority stakes, which we expect over time to contribute to our investment returns. Some of these equity positions include features such as contractual minimum internal rates of returns, preferred distributions, flip structures and other features expected to generate additional investment returns, as well as contractual protections and preferences over junior equity, in addition to the yield and security offered by our cash flow and collateral debt protections.
We are a non-diversified company within the meaning of the 1940 Act. As required by the 1940 Act, we classify our investments by level of control. As defined in the 1940 Act, “Control Investments” are those where there is the ability or power to exercise a controlling influence over the management or policies of a company. Control is generally deemed to exist when a company or individual possesses or has the right to acquire within 60 days or less, a beneficial ownership of 25% or more of the voting securities of an investee company. Under the 1940 Act, “Affiliate Investments” are defined by a lesser degree of influence and are deemed to exist through the possession outright or via the right to acquire within 60 days or less, beneficial ownership of 5% or more of the outstanding voting securities of another person. “Non-Control/Non-Affiliate Investments” are those that are neither Control Investments nor Affiliate Investments.
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As of June 30, 2022, we own controlling interests in the following portfolio companies: CP Energy Services Inc. (“CP Energy”); Credit Central Loan Company, LLC (“Credit Central”); Echelon Transportation, LLC (“Echelon”); First Tower Finance Company LLC (“First Tower Finance”); Freedom Marine Solutions, LLC (“Freedom Marine”); InterDent, Inc. (“InterDent”); Kickapoo Ranch Pet Resort (“Kickapoo”); MITY, Inc. (“MITY”); NPRC; Nationwide Loan Company LLC (“Nationwide”); NMMB, Inc. (“NMMB”); Pacific World Corporation (“Pacific World”); R-V Industries, Inc. (“R-V”); Universal Turbine Parts, LLC (“UTP”); USES Corp. (“United States Environmental Services” or “USES”); and Valley Electric Company, Inc. (“Valley Electric”). In June 2019, CP Energy purchased a controlling interest of the common equity of Spartan Energy Holdings, Inc. (“Spartan Holdings”), which owns 100% of Spartan Energy Services, LLC (“Spartan”), a portfolio company of Prospect with $26,648 in senior secured term loans (the “Spartan Term Loan A”) due to us as of June 30, 2022. As a result of CP Energy’s purchase, and given Prospect’s controlling interest in CP Energy, we report our investments in Spartan as control investment. Spartan remains the direct borrow and guarantor to Prospect for the Spartan Term Loan A.
As of June 30, 2022, we also own affiliated interests in Nixon, Inc. (“Nixon”), PGX Holdings, Inc. (“PGX”), RGIS Services, LLC (“RGIS”), and Targus Cayman HoldCo Limited (“Targus”).
The following shows the composition of our investment portfolio by level of control as of June 30, 2022 and June 30, 2021:
June 30, 2022June 30, 2021
Level of ControlCost% of PortfolioFair Value% of PortfolioCost% of PortfolioFair Value% of Portfolio
Control Investments$2,732,906 38.0 %$3,438,317 45.2 %$2,482,431 41.0 %$2,919,717 47.1 %
Affiliate Investments242,101 3.4 %393,264 5.2 %202,943 3.3 %356,734 5.8 %
Non-Control/Non-Affiliate Investments4,221,824 58.6 %3,770,929