10-Q 1 ptn_10q.htm FORM 10-Q ptn_10q.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

            QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the quarterly period ended December 31, 2023

 

or

 

            TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from ___________ to __________

 

Commission file number: 001-15543

 

ptn_10qimg19.jpg

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware

 

95-4078884

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

 

 

 

4B Cedar Brook Drive

Cranbury, New Jersey

 

08512

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

(609) 495‑2200

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

Trading Symbol

Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered

Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share

PTN

NYSE American

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.   ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No ☒

 

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date (February 13, 2024): 16,136,640

 

 

 

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

 

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.

Financial Statements (Unaudited)

 

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2023 and June 30, 2023

5

 

Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Three and Six Months Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

6

 

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders Deficiency for the Three and Six Months Ended December 31, 2023

 7

 

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock and  Stockholders  Equity for the Three and Six Months Ended December 31,  2022

8

 

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Six Months Ended December 31, 2023 and 2022

9

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

10

Item 2.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

23

Item 3.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

27

Item 4.

Controls and Procedures

27

 

PART II – OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1.

Legal Proceedings

28

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

28

Item 2.

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

48

Item 3.

Defaults Upon Senior Securities

48

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

48

Item 5.

Other Information

48

Item 6.

Exhibits

49

 

 

 

Signatures

50

 

 
2

Table of Contents

 

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

 

In this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (this “Quarterly Report”) references to “we,” “our,” “us,” the “Company” or “Palatin” mean Palatin Technologies, Inc. and its subsidiary.

 

Statements in this Quarterly Report, as well as oral statements that may be made by us or by our officers, directors, or employees acting on our behalf, that are not historical facts constitute “forward-looking statements,” which are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). The forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report do not constitute guarantees of future performance. Investors are cautioned that statements that are not strictly historical facts contained in this Quarterly Report, including, without limitation, the following are forward looking statements:

 

 

·

our significant operating losses since our inception and our need to obtain additional financing has caused management to determine there is substantial doubt regarding our ability to continue as a going concern;

 

 

 

 

·

our ability to obtain additional financing on terms acceptable to us, or at all, including unavailability of funds or delays in receiving funds as a result of economic disruptions;

 

 

 

 

·

our expectation that we will incur losses for the foreseeable future and may never achieve or maintain profitability;

 

 

 

 

·

our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be adversely affected by increases in costs of and delays in conducting human clinical trials and the performance of our contractors and suppliers, reduction in our productivity or the productivity of our contractors and suppliers, supply chain constraints, and labor shortages;

 

 

 

 

·

the ability of Cosette Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Cosette”), which acquired Vyleesi® (the trade name for bremelanotide) for the treatment of premenopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (“HSDD”) from us, to increase sales and make sales-based milestone payments to Palatin;

 

 

 

 

·

the results of clinical trials with our late-stage products, including

 

 

o

PL9643, an ophthalmic peptide solution for dry eye disease (“DED”), which entered Phase 3 clinical trials in the fourth quarter of calendar year 2021, with top line results from the first Phase 3 clinical trial to be announced in the second half of February, 2024;

 

 

 

 

o

PL8177, an oral peptide formulation for treatment of ulcerative colitis, which entered Phase 2 clinical trials in the third quarter of calendar year 2022; and

 

 

 

 

o

a proof-of-concept melanocortin agonist clinical trial for diabetic nephropathy, which entered a Phase 2 clinical in the fourth quarter of calendar year 2022;

 

 

·

estimates of our expenses, future revenue and capital requirements;

 

 

 

 

·

our ability to achieve profitability;

 

 

 

 

·

our ability to advance product candidates into, and successfully complete, clinical trials;

 

 

 

 

·

the initiation, timing, progress and results of future preclinical studies and clinical trials, and our research and development programs;

 

 

 

 

·

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals;

 

 

 

 

·

our expectations regarding the clinical efficacy and utility of our melanocortin agonist product candidates for treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune related diseases and disorders, including ocular indications;

 

 

 

 

·

our ability to compete with other products and technologies treating the same or similar indications as our product candidates;

 

 

 

 

·

the ability of our third-party collaborators to timely carry out their duties under their agreements with us;

 

 

 

 

·

the ability of our contract manufacturers to perform their manufacturing activities for us in compliance with applicable regulations;

 

 

 

 

·

our ability to recognize the potential value of our licensing arrangements with third parties;

 

 

 

 

·

the potential to achieve revenues from the sale of our product candidates;

 

 
3

Table of Contents

 

 

·

our ability to obtain adequate reimbursement from private insurers and other healthcare payers;

 

 

 

 

·

our ability to maintain product liability insurance at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts, if at all;

 

 

 

 

·

the performance and retention of our management team, senior staff professionals, other employees, and third-party contractors and consultants;

 

 

 

 

·

the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our product candidates and technology in the United States and throughout the world;

 

 

 

 

·

our compliance with federal and state laws and regulations;

 

 

 

 

·

the timing and costs associated with obtaining regulatory approval for our product candidates;

 

 

 

 

·

the impact of fluctuations in foreign exchange rates;

 

 

 

 

·

the impact of any geopolitical instability, economic uncertainty, financial markets volatility, or capital markets disruption resulting from the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, and any resulting effects on our revenue, financial condition, or results of operations;

 

 

 

 

·

the impact of legislative or regulatory healthcare reforms in the United States;

 

 

 

 

·

our ability to adapt to changes in global economic conditions as well as competing products and technologies;

 

 

 

 

·

our ability to timely recognize and identify any material weaknesses in our accounting controls and procedures; and

 

 

 

 

·

our ability to remain listed on the NYSE American stock exchange.

 

Such forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause our actual results to be materially different from historical results or from any results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Our future operating results are subject to risks and uncertainties and are dependent upon many factors, including, without limitation, the risks identified under the caption “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report, and any of those made in our other reports filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Except as required by law, we do not intend, and undertake no obligation, to publicly update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this document or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

 

 
4

Table of Contents

 

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

Item 1.  Financial Statements.

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

Consolidated Balance Sheets

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 31, 2023

 

 

June 30, 2023

 

ASSETS

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$9,485,252

 

 

$7,989,582

 

Marketable securities

 

 

-

 

 

 

2,992,890

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

2,346,163

 

 

 

2,915,760

 

Inventories

 

 

-

 

 

 

526,000

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

413,954

 

 

 

1,897,281

 

Total current assets

 

 

12,245,369

 

 

 

16,321,513

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

550,465

 

 

 

684,910

 

Right-of-use assets - operating leases

 

 

702,003

 

 

 

876,101

 

Other assets

 

 

56,916

 

 

 

56,916

 

Total assets

 

$13,554,753

 

 

$17,939,440

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIENCY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$1,593,476

 

 

$4,303,527

 

Accrued expenses

 

 

5,614,247

 

 

 

6,511,059

 

Short-term operating lease liabilities

 

 

363,718

 

 

 

354,052

 

Short-term finance lease liabilities

 

 

99,912

 

 

 

106,392

 

Other current liabilities

 

 

3,528,050

 

 

 

3,856,800

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

11,199,403

 

 

 

15,131,830

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Long-term operating lease liabilities

 

 

357,744

 

 

 

544,323

 

Long-term finance lease liabilities

 

 

-

 

 

 

46,014

 

Other long-term liabilities

 

 

1,106,700

 

 

 

2,083,200

 

Warrant liabilities

 

 

11,852,232

 

 

 

1,850,544

 

Total liabilities

 

 

24,516,079

 

 

 

19,655,911

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commitments and contingencies (Note 13)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contingently redeemable warrants

 

 

423,100

 

 

 

263,400

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ deficiency:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock of $0.01 par value – authorized 10,000,000 shares: shares issued and outstanding designated as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Series A Convertible: authorized 4,030 shares as of December 31, 2023: issued and outstanding 4,030 shares as of December 31, 2023 and June 30, 2023

 

 

40

 

 

 

40

 

Common stock of $0.01 par value – authorized 300,000,000 shares:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

issued and outstanding  14,305,137 shares as of December 31, 2023 and 11,656,714 shares as of June 30, 2023

 

 

143,051

 

 

 

116,567

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

413,552,953

 

 

 

409,933,959

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(425,080,470)

 

 

(412,030,437)

Total stockholders’ deficiency

 

 

(11,384,426)

 

 

(1,979,871)

Total liabilities and stockholders’ deficiency

 

$13,554,753

 

 

$17,939,440

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

 
5

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

Consolidated Statements of Operations

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended December 31,

 

 

Six Months Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REVENUES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product revenue, net

 

$2,034,113

 

 

$1,026,416

 

 

$4,140,090

 

 

$1,896,070

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OPERATING EXPENSES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of products sold

 

 

97,637

 

 

 

98,707

 

 

 

97,637

 

 

 

185,203

 

Research and development

 

 

5,554,200

 

 

 

4,367,538

 

 

 

10,568,830

 

 

 

10,394,569

 

Selling, general and administrative

 

 

3,032,613

 

 

 

3,174,344

 

 

 

6,232,857

 

 

 

6,683,142

 

Gain on sale of Vyleesi

 

 

(7,823,482)

 

 

-

 

 

 

(7,823,482)

 

 

-

 

Gain on purchase commitment

 

 

-

 

 

 

(1,027,322)

 

 

-

 

 

 

(1,027,322)

Total operating expenses

 

 

860,968

 

 

 

6,613,267

 

 

 

9,075,842

 

 

 

16,235,592

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income (loss) from operations

 

 

1,173,145

 

 

 

(5,586,851)

 

 

(4,935,752)

 

 

(14,339,522)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Investment income

 

 

62,026

 

 

 

186,473

 

 

 

133,656

 

 

 

274,962

 

Foreign currency (loss) gain 

 

 

(306,697)

 

 

(693,231)

 

 

(146,947)

 

 

(274,855)

Interest expense

 

 

(1,605)

 

 

(5,487)

 

 

(12,487)

 

 

(15,089)

Offering expenses

 

 

(696,912)

 

 

(1,115,765)

 

 

(696,912)

 

 

(1,115,765)

Change in fair value of warrant liabilities

 

 

(8,073,991)

 

 

5,247,308

 

 

 

(7,391,591)

 

 

5,247,308

 

Total other income (expense), net

 

 

(9,017,179)

 

 

3,619,298

 

 

 

(8,114,281)

 

 

4,116,561

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Loss) Income before income taxes

 

 

(7,844,034)

 

 

(1,967,553)

 

 

(13,050,033)

 

 

(10,222,961)

Income tax benefit

 

 

-

 

 

 

4,674,999

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

4,674,999

 

NET (LOSS) INCOME

 

$(7,844,034)

 

$2,707,446

 

 

$(13,050,033)

 

$(5,547,962)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic and diluted net (loss) income per common share

 

$(0.56)

 

$0.25

 

 

$(0.99)

 

$(0.54)

Weighted average number of common shares outstanding used in computing basic and diluted net (loss) income per common share

 

 

14,097,757

 

 

 

10,802,863

 

 

 

13,134,228

 

 

 

10,215,616

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

 
6

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ (Deficiency) Equity

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended December 31, 2023

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders' (Deficiency) Equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contingently Redeemable Warrants

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Additional Paid-in Capital

 

 

Accumulated Deficit

 

 

Total

 

Balance September 30, 2023

 

$263,400

 

 

 

4,030

 

 

$40

 

 

 

11,946,646

 

 

$119,466

 

 

$410,796,364

 

 

$(417,236,436)

 

$(6,320,566)

Stock-based compensation

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

549,971

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

549,971

 

Conversion of liability classified warrants upon warrant exercise

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

2,358,491

 

 

 

23,585

 

 

 

2,366,318

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

2,389,903

 

Reclassification of contingently redeemable warrants

 

 

159,700

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(159,700)

 

 

-

 

 

 

(159,700)

Net loss

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(7,844,034)

 

 

(7,844,034)

Balance December 31, 2023

 

 

423,100

 

 

 

4,030

 

 

 

40

 

 

 

14,305,137

 

 

 

143,051

 

 

 

413,552,953

 

 

 

(425,080,470)

 

 

(11,384,426)

 

Six Months Ended December 31, 2023

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders' (Deficiency) Equity

 

 

 

 

 

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contingently Redeemable Warrants

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Additional Paid-in Capital

 

 

Accumulated Deficit

 

 

Total

 

Balance June 30, 2023

 

$263,400

 

 

 

4,030

 

 

$40

 

 

 

11,656,714

 

 

$116,567

 

 

$409,933,959

 

 

$(412,030,437)

 

 

(1,979,871)

Stock-based compensation

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

98,372

 

 

 

984

 

 

 

939,323

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

940,307

 

Withholding taxes related to restricted stock units

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(25,467)

 

 

(255)

 

 

(56,146)

 

 

-

 

 

 

(56,401)

Sale of common stock, net of costs

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

217,027

 

 

 

2,170

 

 

 

529,199

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

531,369

 

Conversion of liability classified warrants upon warrant exercise

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

2,358,491

 

 

 

23,585

 

 

 

2,366,318

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

2,389,903

 

Reclassification of contingently redeemable warrants

 

 

159,700

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(159,700)

 

 

-

 

 

 

(159,700)

Net loss

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(13,050,033)

 

 

(13,050,033)

Balance December 31, 2023

 

 

423,100

 

 

 

4,030

 

 

 

40

 

 

 

14,305,137

 

 

 

143,051

 

 

 

413,552,953

 

 

 

(425,080,470)

 

 

(11,384,426)

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

 

 
7

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock and Stockholders Equity

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three Months Ended December 31, 2022

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock

 

 

Stockholders' Equity

 

 

 

Contingently Redeemable

 

 

Series B

 

 

Series C

 

 

 Escrowed

 

 

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

Additional Paid-in

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

 

 

 

Warrants

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

 Proceeds

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Capital

 

 

Deficit

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance September 30, 2022

 

$-

 

 

 

8,100,000

 

 

$13,500,000

 

 

 

900,000

 

 

$1,500,000

 

 

$(15,000,000)

 

 

4,030

 

 

$40

 

 

 

9,290,504

 

 

$92,905

 

 

$404,605,503

 

 

$(396,249,104)

 

$8,449,344

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

64,462

 

 

 

645

 

 

 

618,059

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

618,704

 

Withholding taxes related to restricted stock units

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(20,468)

 

 

(205)

 

 

(145,857)

 

 

-

 

 

 

(146,062)

Redemption of convertible series B & series C preferred stock

 

 

-

 

 

 

(8,100,000)

 

 

(13,500,000)

 

 

(900,000)

 

 

(1,500,000)

 

 

15,000,000

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

Sale of common stock and warrants, net of costs

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

1,020,000

 

 

 

10,200

 

 

 

155,154

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

165,354

 

Reclassification of contingently redeemable warrants

 

 

263,400

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(263,400)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(263,400)

Net loss

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

2,707,446

 

 

 

2,707,446

 

Balance December 31, 2022

 

$263,400

 

 

 

-

 

 

$-

 

 

$-

 

 

$-

 

 

$-

 

 

 

4,030

 

 

$40

 

 

 

10,354,498

 

 

$103,545

 

 

$404,969,459

 

 

$(393,541,658)

 

$11,531,386

 

 

Six Months Ended December 31, 2022

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock

 

 

Stockholders' Equity

 

 

 

Contingently Redeemable

 

 

Series B

 

 

Series C

 

 

 Escrowed

 

 

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock

 

 

Common Stock

 

 

Additional Paid-in

 

 

 Accumulated

 

 

 

 

 

 

Warrants

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

 Proceeds

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

Capital

 

 

 Deficit

 

 

Total

 

 Balance, June 30, 2022

 

 

-

 

 

 

 8,100,000

 

 

 

 13,500,000

 

 

 

 900,000

 

 

 

 1,500,000

 

 

 

 (15,000,000

 

 

 4,030

 

 

 

 40

 

 

 

 9,270,947

 

 

 

 92,709

 

 

 

 404,168,822

 

 

 

 (387,993,696

 

 

 16,267,875

 

 Cumulative effect of accounting change

 

 

 -

 

 

 

 -

 

 

 

 -

 

 

 

 -

 

 

 

 -

 

 

 

 -

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

84,062

 

 

 

841

 

 

 

1,054,740

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

1,055,581

 

Withholding taxes related to restricted stock units

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(20,468)

 

 

(205)

 

 

(145,857)

 

 

-

 

 

 

(146,062)

Redemption of convertible series B & series C preferred stock

 

 

-

 

 

 

(8,100,000)

 

 

(13,500,000)

 

 

(900,000)

 

 

(1,500,000)

 

 

15,000,000

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

Sale of common stock and warrants, net of costs

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

1,020,000

 

 

 

10,200

 

 

 

155,154

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

165,354

 

Reverse stock split fractional shares

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(43)

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

Reclassification of contingently redeemable warrants

 

 

263,400

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(263,400)

 

 

 

 

 

 

(263,400)

Net loss

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(5,547,962)

 

 

(5,547,962)
Balance, December 31, 2022

 

$263,400

 

 

 

-

 

 

$-

 

 

 

-

 

 

$-

 

 

$-

 

 

 

4,030

 

 

$40

 

 

 

10,354,498

 

 

$103,545

 

 

$404,969,459

 

 

$(393,541,658)

 

$11,531,386

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements

 

 
8

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(unaudited)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Six Months Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$(13,050,033)

 

$(5,547,962)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

used in operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

172,060

 

 

 

129,403

 

Decrease in right-of-use asset

 

 

174,098

 

 

 

184,736

 

Unrealized foreign currency transaction gain

 

 

146,947

 

 

 

274,855

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

940,307

 

 

 

1,055,581

 

 Change in fair value of liability classified warrants

 

 

7,391,591

 

 

 

(5,247,308)

Gain on sale of Vyleesi

 

 

(7,823,482)

 

 

-

 

Gain on purchase commitment

 

 

-

 

 

 

(1,027,322)

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

569,597

 

 

 

(26,970)

Other receivables

 

 

-

 

 

 

(4,674,999)

Prepaid expenses and other assets

 

 

1,047,164

 

 

 

(194,776)

Inventories

 

 

(1,154,355)

 

 

185,203

 

Accounts payable

 

 

(2,710,051)

 

 

(2,373,682)

Accrued expenses

 

 

(896,812)

 

 

(809,395)

Operating lease liabilities

 

 

(176,913)

 

 

(184,629)

Other liabilities

 

 

(1,012,197)

 

 

-

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(16,382,079)

 

 

(18,257,265)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maturity of marketable securities

 

 

2,992,890

 

 

 

-

 

Proceeds from sale of Vyleesi

 

 

9,500,000

 

 

 

-

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(37,615)

 

 

(264,656)

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities

 

 

12,455,275

 

 

 

(264,656)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Payment of withholding taxes related to restricted

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

stock units

 

 

(56,401)

 

 

(146,062)

Proceeds from the sale of common stock and warrants,

 

 

5,531,266

 

 

 

9,961,462

 

Payment of finance lease obligations

 

 

(52,494)

 

 

(49,794)

Proceeds from exercise of warrants

 

 

103

 

 

 

-

 

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

5,422,474

 

 

 

9,765,606

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NET DECREASE IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS

 

 

1,495,670

 

 

 

(8,756,315)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS, beginning of period

 

 

7,989,582

 

 

 

29,939,154

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS, end of period

 

$9,485,252

 

 

$21,182,839

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUPPLEMENTAL CASH FLOW INFORMATION:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash paid for interest

 

$12,487

 

 

$15,089

 

Conversion of liability classified warrants upon warrant exercise

 

 

2,389,903

 

 

 

-

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements

 

 
9

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

(1) ORGANIZATION

 

Nature of Business - Palatin Technologies, Inc. (“Palatin” or the “Company”) is a biopharmaceutical company developing first-in-class medicines based on molecules that modulate the activity of the melanocortin receptor system. The Company’s product candidates are targeted, receptor-specific therapeutics for the treatment of diseases with significant unmet medical need and commercial potential.

 

Melanocortin Receptor System. The melanocortin receptor system has effects on food intake, metabolism, sexual function, inflammation, and immune system responses. There are five melanocortin receptors, MC1r through MC5r. Modulation of these receptors, through use of receptor-specific agonists, which activate receptor function, or receptor-specific antagonists, which block receptor function, can have significant pharmacological effects.

 

The Company’s prior commercial product, Vyleesi®, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) in June 2019 for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (“HSDD”) in premenopausal women.  As disclosed in Note 5, this product was acquired by Cosette Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Cosette”) on December 19, 2023.

 

The Company’s new product development activities focus primarily on MC1r agonists, with potential to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as dry eye disease, which is also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, and inflammatory bowel disease. The Company believes that the MC1r agonist peptides in development have broad anti-inflammatory effects and appear to utilize mechanisms engaged by the endogenous melanocortin system in regulation of the immune system and resolution of inflammatory responses. The Company is also developing peptides that are active at more than one melanocortin receptor, and MC4r peptide and small molecule agonists with potential utility in obesity and metabolic-related disorders, including rare disease and orphan indications.

 

Business Risks and Liquidity – The Company has incurred operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception and will need additional funding to complete its planned product development efforts. As shown in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, the Company had an accumulated deficit as of December 31, 2023 of $425,080,470 net loss for the three and six months ended December 31, 2023 of $7,844,034 and $13,050,033, respectively, and the Company anticipates incurring significant expenses in the future as a result of spending on its development programs and will require substantial additional financing or revenues to continue to fund its planned activities. To achieve sustained profitability, if ever, the Company, alone or with others, must successfully develop and commercialize its technologies and proposed products, conduct successful preclinical studies and clinical trials, obtain required regulatory approvals, and successfully manufacture and market such technologies and proposed products. The time required to reach sustained profitability is highly uncertain, and the Company may never be able to achieve profitability on a sustained basis, if at all.

 

As of December 31, 2023, the Company’s cash and cash equivalents were $9,485,252 and current liabilities were $11,199,403. Management intends to utilize existing capital resources for general corporate purposes and working capital, including clinical development of the Company’s MC1r and MC4r programs, and development of other portfolio products.

 

The Company follows the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 205-40, Presentation of Financial Statements — Going Concern, which requires management to assess the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for one year after the date the consolidated financial statements are issued. While the Company has raised funding in the past, the ability to raise funding in future periods is not considered probable, as defined under the accounting standards. As such, under the requirements of ASC 205-40, management may not consider the potential for future funding in their assessment of the Company’s ability to meet its obligations for the next year.

 

Based on our available cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2023 and $9,224,056 received in February 2024, management has concluded that substantial doubt exists about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for one year from the date these consolidated financial statements are issued. The Company is evaluating strategies to obtain additional funding for future operations which include but are not limited to obtaining equity financing, issuing debt, or reducing planned expenses. A failure to raise additional funding or to effectively implement cost reductions could harm the Company’s business, results of operations, and future prospects. If the Company is not able to secure adequate additional funding in future periods, the Company would be forced to make additional reductions in certain expenditures. This may include liquidating assets and suspending or curtailing planned programs. The Company may also have to delay, reduce the scope of, suspend, or eliminate one or more research and development programs or its commercialization efforts or pursue a strategic transaction. If the Company is unable to raise capital when needed or enter into a strategic transaction, then the Company may be required to cease operations, which could cause its stockholders to lose all or part of their investment. The consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming the Company will continue as a going concern, which contemplates the continuity of operations, the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. Assuming no additional funding and based on its current operating and development plans, the Company expects that existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities as of the date of this filing will be sufficient to fund currently anticipated operating expenses into the second half of calendar year 2024.

 

 
10

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

The Company may receive contingent, sales-based milestone payments of up to $159 million on sales of Vyleesi by Cosette and its licensees.

 

Concentrations – Concentrations in the Company’s assets and operations subject it to certain related risks. Financial instruments that subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk primarily consist of cash, cash equivalents, and accounts receivable. The Company’s cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities are primarily invested in one investment account sponsored by a large financial institution.

 

 (2) BASIS OF PRESENTATION

 

The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnote disclosures required to be presented for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, these consolidated financial statements contain all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for fair presentation. The results of operations for the three and six months ended December 31, 2023, may not necessarily be indicative of the results of operations expected for the full fiscal year.

 

The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2023, filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), which includes consolidated financial statements as of June 30, 2023 and 2022 and for the fiscal years then ended.

 

(3) SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

Principles of Consolidation – The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned inactive subsidiary. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

 

Revision of Previously Issued Financial Statements - The Company has revised certain prior period amounts on the consolidated financial statements to correct a misstatement with respect to improperly classifying warrants as equity instead of as a warrant liability that is adjusted to the income statement each quarter to reflect changes in the fair value of the warrants, under the guidance of ASC 815-40, Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity. The Company recorded an adjustment to record a liability for the warrants of $1,850,544 million as of June 30, 2023, and adjusted contingently redeemable warrants for $263,400, decreased additional paid-in capital for $5,619,090 and increased accumulated deficit for $3,505,146.   

  

The Company also recorded a gain of $5,247,308 as a result in the change in fair value of the warrant liabilities offset by $1,115,765 of offering expenses for the three and six months ended December 31, 2022.  As a result of these adjustments, the cash flow from operations decreased by $852,345 and cash flows from financing activities increased by $852,345 for the six months ended December 31, 2022.

 

The Company has assessed the impact of improperly classifying the warrants within equity rather than as a warranty liability that is adjusted through charges or credits to the income statement to reflect changes in the fair value of the warrants, and determined the impact is not material, quantitatively or qualitatively, to any prior period impacted. Accordingly, the Company will adjust prior periods as those financial statements are presented for comparative purposes in future filings.

 

 
11

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

Use of Estimates – The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

 

Cash, Cash Equivalents – Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, cash in banks, and all highly liquid investments with a purchased maturity of less than three months. Cash equivalents consisted of $8,463,019 in a money market account at December 31, 2023, and $5,789,218 in a money market account and treasury bills at June 30, 2023.

 

Marketable Securities - The Company’s marketable securities consist of debt securities with original maturities of greater than 90 days that are classified as available for sale securities.

 

Fair Value of Financial Instruments – The Company’s financial instruments consist primarily of cash equivalents, marketable securities, accounts receivable, accounts payable and warrants. Management believes that the carrying values of cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and warrants are representative of their respective fair values based on the short-term nature of these instruments.

 

Credit Risk – Financial instruments which potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash, cash equivalents, and accounts receivable. Total cash and cash equivalent balances have exceeded balances insured by the Federal Depository Insurance Company. Currently, product revenues and related accounts receivable are generated primarily from one specialty pharmacy.

 

Trade Accounts Receivable - Trade accounts receivable are amounts owed to the Company by its customers for product that has been delivered. The trade accounts receivable is recorded at the invoice amount, less prompt pay and other discounts, chargebacks, and an allowance for credit losses, if any. Credit losses have not been significant to date.

 

Property and Equipment – Property and equipment consists of office and laboratory equipment, office furniture, and leasehold improvements and includes assets acquired under finance leases. Property and equipment are recorded at cost. Depreciation is recognized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the related assets, generally five years for laboratory and computer equipment, seven years for office furniture and equipment, and the lesser of the term of the lease or the useful life for leasehold improvements. Amortization of assets acquired under finance leases is included in depreciation expense. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred while expenditures that extend the useful life of an asset are capitalized.

 

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets – The Company reviews its long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable. To determine recoverability of a long-lived asset, management evaluates whether the estimated future undiscounted net cash flows from the asset are less than its carrying amount. If impairment is indicated, the long-lived asset would be written down to fair value. Fair value is determined by an evaluation of available price information at which assets could be bought or sold, including quoted market prices, if available, or the present value of the estimated future cash flows based on reasonable and supportable assumptions.

 

Leases - At lease inception, the Company determines whether an arrangement is or contains a lease. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets, short-term operating lease liabilities, and long-term operating lease liabilities in the consolidated financial statements. Finance leases are included in property and equipment for ROU assets, short-term finance lease liabilities, and long-term finance lease liabilities in the consolidated financial statements. ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use leased assets over the term of the lease. Lease liabilities represent the Company’s contractual obligation to make lease payments over the lease term. ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized at the commencement date. The lease liability is measured as the present value of the lease payments over the lease term. The Company uses the rate implicit in the lease if it is determinable. When the rate implicit in the lease is not determinable, the Company uses an estimate based on a hypothetical rate provided by a third party as the Company currently does not have issued debt. Lease terms may include renewal or extension options to the extent they are reasonably certain to be exercised. The assessment of whether renewal or extension options are reasonably certain to be exercised is made at lease commencement. Factors considered in determining whether an option is reasonably certain of exercise include, but are not limited to, the value of any leasehold improvements, the value of renewal rates compared to market rates, and the presence of factors that would cause incremental costs to the Company if the option were not exercised.

 

 
12

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

The ROU asset is initially measured at cost, which comprises the initial amount of the lease liability adjusted for lease payments made at or before the lease commencement date, plus any initial direct costs incurred less any lease incentives received. For operating leases, the ROU asset is subsequently measured throughout the lease term at the carrying amount of the lease liability, plus initial direct costs, plus (minus) any prepaid (accrued) lease payments, less the unamortized balance of lease incentives received. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. For finance leases, the ROU asset is subsequently amortized using the straight-line method from the lease commencement date to the earlier of the end of its useful life or the end of the lease term unless the lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset to the Company or the Company is reasonably certain to exercise an option to purchase the underlying asset. In those cases, the ROU asset is amortized over the useful life of the underlying asset. Amortization of the ROU asset is recognized and presented as an operating expense separately from interest expense on the lease liability.

 

The Company has elected not to recognize an ROU asset and obligation for leases with an initial term of 12 months or less. The expense associated with short-term leases is included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the statements of operations. To the extent a lease arrangement includes both lease and non-lease components, the Company has elected to account for the components as a single lease component.

 

Revenue Recognition – The Company recognizes product revenues in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The provisions of ASC Topic 606 require the following steps to determine revenue recognition: (1) Identify the contract(s) with a customer; (2) Identify the performance obligations in the contract; (3) Determine the transaction price; (4) Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (5) Recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation.

 

In accordance with ASC Topic 606, the Company recognizes product revenue when its performance obligation is satisfied by transferring control of the product to a customer. Per the Company’s contracts with customers, control of the product is transferred upon the conveyance of title, which occurs when the product is sold to and received by a customer. Trade accounts receivable due to the Company from contracts with its customers are stated separately in the consolidated balance sheet, net of various allowances as described in the Trade Accounts Receivable policy above.

 

Product revenues consist of sales of Vyleesi in the United States. The Company sold Vyleesi to specialty pharmacies at the wholesale acquisition cost and payment is currently made within approximately 30 days.

 

The Company records product revenues net of allowances for direct and indirect fees, discounts, co-pay assistance programs, estimated chargebacks and rebates. Product sales are also subject to return rights, which have not been significant to date.

 

Gross product sales offset by product sales allowances for the three and six months ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 are as follows:

 

 

 

Three Months Ended December 31,

 

 

Six Months Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gross product sales

 

$4,288,003

 

 

$2,616,090

 

 

$8,875,153

 

 

$4,908,540

 

     Product sales allowances and accruals

 

 

(2,253,890)

 

 

(1,589,674)

 

 

(4,735,063)

 

 

(3,012,470)

Net sales

 

$2,034,113

 

 

$1,026,416

 

 

$4,140,090

 

 

$1,896,070

 

 

For licenses of intellectual property, the Company assesses at contract inception whether the intellectual property is distinct from other performance obligations identified in the arrangement. If the licensing of intellectual property is determined to be distinct, revenue is recognized for nonrefundable, upfront license fees when the license is transferred to the customer and the customer can use and benefit from the license. If the licensing of intellectual property is determined not to be distinct, then the license is bundled with other promises in the arrangement into one performance obligation. The Company needs to determine if the bundled performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time. If the Company concludes that the nonrefundable, upfront license fees will be recognized over time, the Company will need to assess the appropriate method of measuring proportional performance.

 

 
13

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

Regulatory milestone payments are excluded from the transaction price due to the inability to estimate the probability of reversal. Revenue relating to achievement of these milestones is recognized in the period in which the milestone is achieved.

 

Sales-based royalty and milestone payments resulting from customer contracts solely or predominately for the license of intellectual property will only be recognized upon occurrence of the underlying sale or achievement of the sales milestone in the future and such sales-based royalties and milestone payments will be recognized in the same period earned.

 

The Company recognizes revenue for reimbursements of research and development costs under collaboration agreements as the services are performed. The Company records these reimbursements as revenue and not as a reduction of research and development expenses as the Company is the principal in the research and development activities based upon its control of such activities, which is considered part of its ordinary activities.

 

Development milestone payments are generally due 30 business days after the milestone is achieved. Sales milestone payments are generally due 45 business days after the calendar year in which the sales milestone is achieved. Royalty payments are generally due on a quarterly basis 20 business days after being invoiced.

 

Research and Development Costs – The costs of research and development activities are charged to expense as incurred, including the cost of equipment for which there is no alternative future use.

 

Accrued Expenses – Third parties perform a significant portion of the Company’s development activities. The Company reviews the activities performed under all contracts each quarter and accrues expenses and the amount of any reimbursement to be received from its collaborators based upon the estimated amount of work completed considering milestones achieved. Estimating the value or stage of completion of certain services requires judgment based on available information. If the Company does not identify services performed for it but not billed by the service-provider, or if it underestimates or overestimates the value of services performed as of a given date, reported expenses will be understated or overstated.

 

Stock-Based Compensation – The Company charges to expense the fair value of stock options and other equity awards granted to employees and nonemployees for services. Compensation costs for stock-based awards with time-based vesting are determined using the quoted market price of the Company’s common stock on the grant date or for stock options, the value determined utilizing the Black-Scholes option pricing model, and are recognized on a straight-line basis, while awards containing a market condition are valued using multifactor Monte Carlo simulations and are recognized over the derived service period. Compensation costs for awards containing a performance condition are determined using the quoted price of the Company’s common stock on the grant date or for stock options, the value determined utilizing the Black Scholes option pricing model and are recognized based on the probability of achievement of the performance condition over the service period. Forfeitures are recognized as they occur.

 

Income Taxes – The Company and its subsidiary file consolidated federal and separate-company state income tax returns. Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences or operating loss and tax credit carryforwards are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company has recorded and continues to maintain a full valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets based on the history of losses incurred and lack of experience projecting future product revenue and sales-based royalty and milestone payments.

 

Net Loss per Common Share Basic and diluted loss per common share (“EPS”) are calculated in accordance with the provisions of FASB ASC Topic 260, Earnings per Share.

 

For the three months ended December 31, 2023, and 2022, no additional common shares were added to the computation of diluted EPS because to do so would have been anti-dilutive. The potential number of common shares excluded from diluted EPS during the three months ended December 31, 2023, and 2022 was 6,595,422 and 3,429,015, respectively.

 

 
14

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

Included in the weighted average common shares used in computing basic and diluted net loss per common share are 279,700 vested restricted stock units that had not been issued as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively, due to a provision in the restricted stock unit agreements to delay delivery.

 

Translation of foreign currencies – Transactions denominated in currencies other than the Company’s functional currency (US Dollar) are recorded based on exchange rates at the time such transactions arise. Subsequent changes in exchange rates result in transaction gains and losses, which are reflected in the consolidated statements of operations as unrealized (based on the applicable period-end exchange rate) or realized upon settlement of the transactions.

 

(4) NEW AND RECENTLY ADOPTED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS

 

In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which requires an entity to measure and recognize expected credit losses for certain financial instruments held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. This update to the standard requires immediate recognition of credit losses expected to occur over the remaining life of many financial instruments. The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 as of July 1, 2023. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements for the six months ended December 31, 2023.

 

(5) ASSET PURCHASE AGREEMENT

 

On December 19, 2023, the Company entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Cosette pursuant to which Cosette acquired from the Company worldwide rights to Vyleesi®. 

 

Under the terms of the Purchase Agreement, the Company sold certain assets (the “Purchased Assets”) to Cosette, comprising the exclusive right to market and sell Vyleesi for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women, and contracts relating manufacturing and distribution of Vyleesi.  The Purchased Assets include applicable intellectual property pertaining to the marketing and sale of Vyleesi, including patents, patent applications, trademarks and copyrights.  In addition, Cosette acquired records pertaining to the historical sales and distribution of Vyleesi, as well as quality control and pharmacovigilance records and other records.  The Company will receive up to $171,000,000, consisting of an upfront purchase price of $9,500,000, $2,500,000 payable upon the settlement of certain purchase commitments, and sales-based milestone payments of up to $159,000,000. The closing of the transaction took place simultaneously with the signing of the Purchase Agreement.   As a result of the transaction, the Company recorded a gain of $7,823,482 on the sale of Vyleesi for the three and six months ended December 31, 2023. 

 

The Purchase Agreement includes customary representations, warranties and covenants, as well as standard mutual indemnities covering losses arising from any material breach of the Purchase Agreement or inaccuracy of representations and warranties.

 

The parties have also entered into a transition service agreement pursuant to which the Company will provide certain transition services to Cosette for a period time and the Company will be reimbursed for the costs of the transition services.

 

The Company is also eligible to receive regulatory approval milestones associated previous licensing of Vyleesi to Fosun for China (see Note 7) and Kwangdong for the Republic of Korea (“Korea)” (See Note 8).

 

(6) MANUFACTURING SUPPLY AGREEMENTS FOR VYLEESI

 

The Company has agreed to transfer to Cosette it’s right, title and interest in contracts and agreements to manufacture Vyleesi, including manufacturing contracts with Catalent Belgium S.A. (“Catalent”), a subsidiary of Catalent Pharma Solutions, Inc., to manufacture drug product and prefilled syringes and assemble prefilled syringes into an auto-injector device; Ypsomed AG (“Ypsomed”), to manufacture the auto-injector device (the “Ypsomed Agreement”); and Lonza Ltd. (“Lonza”), to manufacture the active pharmaceutical ingredient peptide (the “Lonza Agreement”). 

 

In September 2020, the Company and Catalent entered into a new Vyleesi manufacturing agreement (the “Catalent Agreement”) which includes reduced minimum annual purchase requirements (see Note 13) as compared to the original Catalent agreement and modified other financial terms. The Catalent Agreement provides that Catalent will provide manufacturing and supply services to Palatin related to production of Vyleesi, including that Catalent will supply specified minimums of Palatin’s requirements for Vyleesi during the term of the Catalent Agreement through August 21, 2025, unless earlier terminated in accordance with the terms of the Catalent Agreement. The initial term of the Catalent Agreement will be automatically extended for one 24-month period unless either party notifies the other of its desire to terminate as of the end of the initial term. The Catalent Agreement also includes customary terms and conditions relating to forecasting and minimum commitments, ordering, delivery, inspection and acceptance, and termination, among other matters (see Note 13).

 

 
15

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

The initial term of the Ypsomed Agreement is through December 31, 2025, with automatic renewal for successive one-year periods unless either party terminates the Ypsomed Agreement by ten months’ written notice prior to the expiration of the Ypsomed Agreement or any automatic renewal period. There are specified minimum purchase requirements under the Ypsomed Agreement, and under specified circumstances, termination fees may be payable upon termination of the Ypsomed Agreement by the Company (see Note 13).

 

The term of the Lonza Agreement was set to expire on December 31, 2022. In November 2022, Lonza and the Company amended the Lonza Agreement to extend contract peptide manufacturing services until June 30, 2024. The Company intends to seek to extend contract peptide manufacturing services with Lonza past June 30, 2024, and is also actively evaluating potential new contract manufacturers. Establishing a new contractual relationship and establishing and validating manufacturing in a manner that complies with FDA regulations is a time-consuming and costly process. The amendment reduced certain minimum purchase commitments that were previously accrued for. As a result, the Company recorded a gain on the purchase commitment of $1,027,322 upon the reversal of the accrual in the three months ended December 31, 2022 (see Note 13).

 

(7) AGREEMENT WITH FOSUN

 

On September 6, 2017, the Company entered into a license agreement with Shanghai Fosun Pharmaceutical Industrial Development Co. Ltd. (“Fosun”) for exclusive rights to commercialize Vyleesi in China (the “Fosun License Agreement”). Under the terms of the Fosun License Agreement, the Company received $4,500,000 in October 2017, which consisted of an upfront payment of $5,000,000 less $500,000 that was withheld in accordance with tax withholding requirements in China and recorded as an expense during the year ended June 30, 2018. The Company has agreed to assign the Fosun License Agreement to Cosette, provided that the Company retains the right to receive a $7,500,000 milestone payment upon regulatory approval in China.

 

(8) AGREEMENT WITH KWANGDONG

 

On November 21, 2017, the Company entered into a license agreement with Kwangdong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (“Kwangdong”) for exclusive rights to commercialize Vyleesi in Korea (the “Kwangdong License Agreement”). Under the terms of the Kwangdong License Agreement, the Company received $417,500 in December 2017, consisting of an upfront payment of $500,000, less $82,500, which was withheld in accordance with tax withholding requirements in Korea and recorded as an expense during the year ended June 30, 2018. The Company has agreed to assign the Kwangdong License Agreement to Cosette, provided that the Company retains the right to receive a $3,000,000 milestone payment based on the first commercial sale in Korea.

 

(9) PREPAID EXPENSES AND OTHER CURRENT ASSETS

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets consist of the following:

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

June 30,

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2023

 

Clinical / regulatory costs

 

$126,188

 

 

$141,512

 

Insurance premiums

 

 

166,284

 

 

 

342,645

 

Vyleesi contractual advances

 

 

-

 

 

 

816,750

 

Other

 

 

121,482

 

 

 

596,374

 

 

 

$413,954

 

 

$1,897,281

 

 

(10) FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS

 

The fair value of cash equivalents is classified using a hierarchy prioritized based on inputs. Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. Level 2 inputs are quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly through market corroboration, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument. Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs based on management’s own assumptions used to measure assets and liabilities at fair value. A financial asset’s or liability’s classification within the hierarchy is determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement.

 

 
16

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

The following table provides the assets carried at fair value:

 

 

 

Carrying Value

 

 

Quoted prices in

active markets

(Level 1)

 

 

Other quoted/observable inputs (Level 2)

 

 

Significant unobservable inputs

(Level 3)

 

December 31, 2023:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash equivalents - Money market funds

 

$8,463,019

 

 

$8,463,019

 

 

$-

 

 

$-

 

June 30, 2023:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash equivalents - Money market funds

 

$2,808,598

 

 

$2,808,598

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

Cash equivalents - Treasury bill

 

 

2,980,620

 

 

 

2,980,620

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

    Marketable securities - Treasury bill

 

 

2,992,890

 

 

 

2,992,890

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

Total

 

$8,782,108

 

 

$8,782,108

 

 

$-

 

 

$-

 

 

(11) INVENTORIES

 

Inventories consist of raw materials and work-in-process related to Vyleesi. The following table summarizes the components of inventories:

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

June 30,

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2023

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raw materials

 

$-

 

 

$526,000

 

Finished goods

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

$-

 

 

$526,000

 

 

(12) ACCRUED EXPENSES

 

Accrued expenses consist of the following:

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

June 30,

 

 

 

2023

 

 

2023

 

Clinical / regulatory costs

 

$2,227,530

 

 

$2,960,126

 

Other research related expenses

 

 

136,761

 

 

 

121,121

 

Professional Services

 

 

188,623

 

 

 

339,258

 

Personnel costs

 

 

-

 

 

 

1,563,847

 

Selling expenses

 

 

2,983,090

 

 

 

1,266,653

 

Other

 

 

78,243

 

 

 

260,054

 

 

 

$5,614,247

 

 

$6,511,059

 

 

(13) COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES

 

Inventory Purchases - The Company has certain supply agreements with manufacturers and suppliers, including the Catalent Agreement, Ypsomed Agreement, and Lonza Agreement. The Company is required to make certain payments for the manufacture and supply of Vyleesi.

 

The following table summarizes the contractual obligations under the New Catalent Agreement, Ypsomed Agreement, and Lonza Agreement as of December 31, 2023:

 

 

 

Total

 

 

Current

 

 

1 - 3 Years

 

 

4 - 5 Years

 

Inventory purchase commitments

 

$5,188,100

 

 

$4,081,400

 

 

$1,106,700

 

 

$-

 

 

 
17

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

As of December 31, 2023, the Company has $3,528,050 and $1,106,700 accrued within other current and long-term liabilities, respectively, in the consolidated balance sheet related to estimated losses for firm commitment contractual obligations under these agreements. As of June 30, 2023, $3,856,800 and $2,083,200 was accrued within other current and long-term liabilities, respectively. Losses on these firm commitment contractual obligations are recognized based upon the terms of the respective agreement and similar factors considered for the write-down of inventory, including expected sales requirements as determined by internal sales forecasts.

 

The commitment contractual obligation amounts above are denominated in Swiss Francs and Euros and have been translated using period end exchange rates. The Company may experience a negative impact on future earnings and equity solely as a result of future foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.

 

Contingencies - The Company accounts for litigation losses in accordance with ASC 450-20, Loss Contingencies. In addition, the Company is subject to other contingencies, such as product liability, arising in the ordinary course of business. Loss contingency provisions are recorded for probable losses when management is able to reasonably estimate the loss. Any outcome upon settlement that deviates from the Company’s best estimate may result in additional expense or in a reduction in expense in a future accounting period. The Company records legal expenses associated with such contingencies as incurred.

 

The Company is involved, from time to time, in various claims and legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of its business. The Company is not currently a party to any such claims or proceedings that, if decided adversely to it, would either individually or in the aggregate have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, or results of operations.

 

(14) REDEEMABLE CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK, ESCROWED PROCEEDS, AND STOCKHOLDERS’ (DEFICIENCY) EQUITY

 

Series B and C Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock – On May 11, 2022, Palatin entered into a securities purchase agreement with institutional investors, and on May 12, 2022, Palatin issued and sold 8,100,000 shares of Series B Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock (“Series B Preferred Stock”) and 900,000 shares of Series C Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock (“Series C Preferred Stock”). Each share of Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock had a purchase price of $1.67. The investors in the Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock also received warrants to purchase up to 66,666 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $12.50 per share, which expire 48 months following issuance. Total gross proceeds from the offering, before expenses, was $15,000,000 which was deposited in an escrow account. The escrowed proceeds were presented as a deduction to the Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet. In November 2022, the investors provided the Company with Notices of Redemption, electing to have the Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock redeemed in cash. Accordingly, the Company and investors directed the escrow agent for the escrow account to release $15,750,000 to the investors, comprising the total gross proceeds from the offering of $15,000,000 and a fee of $750,000.

 

Given that the fee and other costs were not refundable to the Company as of June 30, 2022, regardless of the election selected by the investors, the $750,000 fee, the fair value of the warrants ($234,443), and other costs of $150,995 were recorded as expenses within selling, general and administrative expenses during the year ended June 30, 2022.

 

The Company called a meeting of stockholders on June 24, 2022, to seek approval of, among other things, an amendment to its certificate of incorporation authorizing a reverse stock split. Except as otherwise required by law, holders of the Series B Preferred Stock and Series C Preferred Stock were entitled to vote only on the reverse stock split and any adjournment of the meeting relating to the reverse stock split. The Company’s common stock, outstanding Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, the Series B Preferred Stock and the Series C Preferred Stock voted as a single class on an as-if converted basis. The holders of Series B Preferred Stock had votes equal to the number of shares of common stock into which the Series B Preferred Stock is convertible. The holders of Series C Preferred Stock were entitled to 20,000 votes per share of common stock into which the Series C Preferred Stock is convertible but could only vote in the same proportion as the shares of common stock, Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, and Series B Preferred Stock were voted on the reverse stock split or any adjournment of the stockholder meeting relating thereto. The holders of the Series B Preferred Stock agreed to vote in favor of the reverse stock split, which was approved and ultimately became effective on August 30, 2022.

 

 
18

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

Series A Convertible Preferred Stock – As of June 30, 2023, 4,030 shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock were outstanding. Each share of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock is convertible at any time, at the option of the holder, into the number of shares of common stock equal to $100 divided by the Series A Conversion Price. As of December 31, 2023, the Series A Conversion Price was $87.85, and each share of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock is convertible into approximately 1.14 shares of common stock. The Series A Conversion Price is subject to adjustment, under certain circumstances, upon the sale or issuance of common stock for consideration per share less than either (i) the Series A Conversion Price in effect on the date of such sale or issuance, or (ii) the market price of the common stock as of the date of such sale or issuance. The Series A Conversion Price is also subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of a merger, reorganization, consolidation, reclassification, stock dividend or stock split which will result in an increase or decrease in the number of shares of common stock outstanding. Shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock have a preference in liquidation, including certain merger transactions, of $100 per share, or $403,000 in the aggregate as of December 31, 2023. Additionally, the Company may not pay a dividend or make any distribution to holders of any class of stock unless the Company first pays a special dividend or distribution of $100 per share to holders of the Series A Convertible Preferred Stock.

 

Financing Transactions – On October 20, 2023, the Company entered into a securities purchase agreement (the “October 2023 Purchase Agreement”) with a certain institutional investor, to sell in a registered direct offering (the “October 2023 RD Offering”), an aggregate of (i) 1,325,000 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share (the “October 2023 Shares”), of the Company and (ii) pre-funded warrants (the “October 2023 Pre-Funded Warrants”) to purchase up to 1,033,491 shares of the Company’s common stock (the “October 2023 Pre-Funded Warrant Shares”). The October 2023 Purchase Agreement also provides that the Company will issue unregistered warrants (the “October 2023 Private Warrants”) to purchase up to 2,358,491 shares of the Company’s common stock (the “October 2023 Private Warrant Shares”) in a concurrent private placement (the “October 2023 Private Offering” and together with the October 2023 RD Offering, the “October 2023 Offering”). The October 2023 Shares and accompanying October 2023 Private Warrants were offered at a combined offering price of $2.12. The October 2023 Pre-Funded Warrants and accompanying October 2023 Private Warrants were offered at a combined offering price of $2.1199. The October 2023 Offering closed on October 24, 2023.

 

The October 2023 Private Warrants will be exercisable on the six-month anniversary of issuance for a period of five and one-half years from the issuance date, at an exercise price equal to $2.12 per October 2023 Private Warrant Share. The October 2023 Private Warrants will be exercisable for cash, or, solely during any period when a registration statement for the issuance or resale of the October 2023 Private Warrant Shares issuable upon exercise of the October 2023 Private Warrants to or by the holder of such October 2023 Private Warrants is not in effect, on a cashless basis.

 

The October 2023 Pre-Funded Warrants have an exercise price of $0.0001 per October 2023 Pre-Funded Warrant Share, were exercisable upon issuance, and have been exercised in full. There is no established public trading market for the October 2023 Pre-Funded Warrants and the Company does not intend to list the October 2023 Pre-Funded Warrants on any national securities exchange or nationally recognized trading system.  During the three months ended December 31, 2023, the institutional investor exercised the outstanding Pre-Funded Warrants to purchase 1,033,491 shares of the Company’s common stock.

 

The net proceeds from the October 2023 Offering, after deducting the placement agent fees and offering expenses, were $4,573,948.

 

On October 31, 2022, the Company entered into a securities purchase agreement with a certain institutional investor to sell, in a registered direct offering (the “October 2022 RD Offering”), an aggregate of (i) 1,020,000 shares of the Company’s common stock, (ii) prefunded warrants (the “October 2022 Pre-Funded Warrants”) to purchase up to 798,182 shares of the Company’s common stock, and (iii) common stock warrants (the “October 2002 Common Warrants”) to purchase up to 1,818,182 shares of the Company’s common stock. Each share of common stock was offered with one accompanying October 2022 Common Warrant with a combined offering price of $5.50. Each October 2022 Pre-Funded Warrant was offered with one accompanying October 2022 Common Warrant with a combined offering price of $5.4999. The Offering was completed on November 2, 2022.

 

The October 2022 Common Warrants have an exercise price of $5.83 per share, are exercisable beginning six months after the date of issuance and will expire five and one-half years from the date of issuance. The October 2022 Pre-Funded Warrants had an exercise price of $0.0001 per share, were exercisable upon issuance, and have been exercised in full. The October 2022 Common Warrants will be exercisable for cash, or, solely during any period when a registration statement for the issuance or resale of the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the October 2022 Common Warrants to or by the holder of such October 2022 Common Warrants is not in effect, on a cashless basis. During the year ended June 30, 2023, the institutional investor exercised the outstanding October 2022 Pre-Funded Warrants to purchase 798,182 shares of the Company’s common stock.

 

 
19

Table of Contents

 

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

The proceeds from the October 2022 Offering, after deducting the placement agent fees and expenses and other estimated offering expenses, were $9,109,117.

 

The private warrants and common warrants meet the definition of a derivative instrument under ASC Subtopic 815-40 and are reported as liabilities at December 31, 2023 and June 30, 2023 since the warrants do not meet the criteria for equity classification. Therefore, we report these warrants at their fair value on our balance sheets with changes in the fair value of the warrants recorded as a non-cash charge or gain in the consolidated statements of operations. 

 

The placement agent warrants were issued to non-employees in exchange for services related to the offering are accounting for in accordance ASC 718 which requires the fair value of the warrants to be recognized as an offering expense.  The placement agent warrants contain certain contingent cash settlement features that are not probable of occurring and not within the control of Company, therefore the placement agent warrants are classified out of permanent equity.

 

On April 12, 2023, the Company entered into a new equity distribution agreement (the “2023 Equity Distribution Agreement”) with Canaccord Genuity LLC (“Canaccord”), pursuant to which the Company may, from time to time, sell shares of the Company’s common stock at market prices by methods deemed to be an “at-the-market offering” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. The 2023 Equity Distribution Agreement and related prospectus is limited to sales of up to an aggregate maximum $50.0 million of shares of the Company’s common stock. The Company pays Canaccord 3.0% of the gross proceeds as a commission.

 

Proceeds raised under the 2023 Equity Distribution Agreement are as follows:  

 

 

 

Three Months Ended December 31, 2023

 

 

Six Months Ended December 31, 2023

 

 

Cumulative from inception

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Proceeds

 

 

Shares

 

 

Proceeds

 

 

Shares

 

 

Proceeds

 

Gross proceeds

 

 

-

 

 

$-

 

 

 

217,027

 

 

$547,803

 

 

 

721,061

 

 

$1,744,542

 

Fees

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(16,434)

 

 

-

 

 

 

(52,336)

Expenses

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(126,800)

Net proceeds

 

 

-

 

 

$-

 

 

 

217,027

 

 

$531,369

 

 

 

721,061

 

 

$1,565,406

 

 

As of December 31, 2023, the Company had outstanding warrants for shares of common stock as follows:

 

 

 

Shares of Common

 

 

Exercise Price per

 

 

Latest Expiration

 

Description

 

Stock

 

 

Share

 

 

Date

 

May 2022 Warrants

 

 

66,666

 

 

$12.50

 

 

May 11, 2026

 

October 2022 Private Warrants

 

 

1,818,182

 

 

$5.83

 

 

May 2, 2028

 

October 2022 Placement Agent Warrants

 

 

90,909

 

 

$6.88

 

 

October 31, 2027

 

October 2023 Private Warrants

 

 

2,358,491

 

 

$2.12

 

 

October 29, 2028

 

October 2023 Placement Agent Warrants

 

 

117,925

 

 

$2.65

 

 

October 29, 2028

 

 

The fair value of the warrants was determined using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model and are classified as a Level 2 financial instrument.  The key assumptions used to determine the fair value was the term of the warrants, the risk-free rate and volatility. The weighted average assumptions used in the Black-Scholes model in estimating the fair value of the warrants issued for the periods presented were as follows:

 

 

 

December 31, 2023

 

 

June 30, 2023

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expected term

 

 

4.89

 

 

 

4.84

 

Volatility

 

 

85.74%

 

 

82.35%

Risk-free rate

 

 

3.87%

 

 

4.16%

 

Stock Options – For the three and six months ended December 31, 2023, the Company recorded stock-based compensation related to stock options of $205,223 and $410,540, respectively. For the three and six months ended December 31, 2022, the Company recorded stock-based compensation related to stock options of $121,584 and $382,541, respectively.

 

 
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PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

A summary of stock option activity is as follows:

 

 

 

Number of Shares

 

 

Weighted Average Exercise Price

 

 

Weighted Average Remaining Term in Years

 

 

Aggregate Intrinsic Value

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding - June 30, 2023

 

 

1,550,600

 

 

$8.27

 

 

 

8.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Granted

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forfeited

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercised

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expired

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outstanding - December 31, 2023

 

 

1,550,600

 

 

$8.27

 

 

 

7.9

 

 

$1,215,066

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercisable at December 31, 2023

 

 

559,459

 

 

$14.17

 

 

 

6.0

 

 

$-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expected to vest at December 31, 2023

 

 

991,141

 

 

$4.94

 

 

 

8.9

 

 

$1,215,066

 

 

On December 16, 2022, Carl Spana, President and CEO of the Company, and Stephen T. Wills, CFO, COO and Executive Vice President of the Company, voluntarily contributed stock options previously issued to them to purchase 143,360 and 124,220 shares, respectively, of the Company’s common stock to the 2011 Stock Incentive Plan. The stock options were forfeited and cancelled without payment of any consideration by the Company.

 

Stock options granted to the Company’s executive officers and employees generally vest over a 48-month period, while stock options granted to its non-employee directors vest over a 12-month period.

 

Included in the outstanding options in the table above are 318,813 and 57,999 unvested performance-based stock options granted to executive officers and other employees, respectively, which were granted in June 2020, 2021, 2022 and 2023. Grants in June 2020, 2021, 2022 and 2023 were 87,303, 95,167, 60,566, and 238,838, respectively. The performance-based stock options vest on annual performance criteria through the fiscal years ending June 30, 2027, relating to advancement of MC1r programs, including initiation of clinical trials and licensing of Vyleesi in additional countries or regions.

 

Restricted Stock Units – For the three and six months ended December 31, 2023, the Company recorded stock-based compensation related to restricted stock units of $185,019 and $370,038, respectively. For the three and six months ended December 31, 2022, the Company recorded stock-based compensation related to restricted stock units of $233,700 and $409,620, respectively.

 

A summary of restricted stock unit activity is as follows:

 

Outstanding at June 30, 2023

 

 

987,521

 

Granted

 

 

-

 

Forfeited

 

 

(2,302)

Expired

 

 

(18,000)

Vested

 

 

(98,372)

Outstanding at December 31, 2023

 

 

868,847

 

 

Included in outstanding restricted stock units in the table above are 279,700 vested shares that have not been issued as of December 31, 2023, due to a provision in the restricted stock unit agreements to delay delivery.

 

Time-based restricted stock units granted to the Company’s executive officers, employees, and non-employee directors generally vest over 48 months, 48 months, and 12 months, respectively.

 

 
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PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

and Subsidiary

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

Included in the outstanding restricted stock units in the table above are 217,833 and 37,116 unvested performance-based restricted stock units granted to executive officers and other employees, respectively, which were granted in June 2020, 2021, 2022, and 2023. Grants in June 2020, 2021, 2022, and 2023 were 52,679, 22,343, 40,707, and 152,432 restricted stock units, respectively. The performance-based restricted stock units vest on annual performance criteria through the fiscal years ending June 30, 2026, relating to advancement of MC1r programs, including initiation of clinical trials, and licensing of Vyleesi in additional countries or regions.

 

In connection with the vesting of restricted share units during the six months ended December 31, 2023, the Company withheld 25,467 shares, with aggregate value $56,401, in satisfaction of minimum tax withholding obligations.

 

(15) INCOME TAXES

 

The Company has participated in the State of New Jersey’s Technology Business Tax Certificate Transfer Program (the “Program”) sponsored by The New Jersey Economic Development Authority. The Program enables approved biotechnology companies with unused Net Operating Losses (“NOLs”) and unused research and development credits (“R&D credits”) to sell these tax benefits for at least 80% of the value of the tax benefits to unaffiliated, profitable corporate taxpayers in the State of New Jersey.  The Company received final approval in December 2022 for the sale of NOLs and R&D credits that resulted in the receipt of $4,674,999 in January 2023.  As a result, the Company recorded an income tax benefit for the three and six months ended December 31, 2022 and a corresponding receivable as of December 31, 2022.

 

(16) SUBSEQUENT EVENTS

 

On January 24, 2024, the Company and warrant holders amended the terms of Warrants related to the October 2022 and October 2023 financings.  As a result, all liability classified warrants are expected to be reclassified to additional paid-in capital upon amendment.

 

On January 29, 2024, the Company entered into a securities purchase agreement (the “January 2024 Purchase Agreement”) to sell in a registered direct offering (the “January 2024 RD Offering”), an aggregate of 1,831,503 shares of common stock, $0.01 par value per share (the “Shares”), of the Company. Pursuant to the January 2024 Purchase Agreement, the Company issued to the investors in the January 2024 RD Offering unregistered warrants (the “January 2024 Private Warrants”) to purchase up to 1,831,503 shares of the Company’s common stock (the “January 2024 Private Warrant Shares”) in a concurrent private placement (the “Private Offering” and together with the January 2024 RD Offering, the “Offering”). The Shares and accompanying January 2024 Private Warrants were offered at a combined offering price of $5.46.

 

 The January 2024 Private Warrants are exercisable on the six-month anniversary of the issuance date for a period of four years from the issuance date, at an exercise price equal to $5.46 per January 2024 Private Warrant Share. The January 2024 Private Warrants are exercisable for cash, or, solely during any period when a registration statement for the issuance or resale of the January 2024 Private Warrant Shares issuable upon exercise of the January 2024 Private Warrants to or by the holder of such January 2024 Private Warrants is not in effect, on a cashless basis.

 

The Company paid the placement agent a cash fee equal to 7.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds of the Offering and for certain expenses and legal fees in connection with the Offering. In addition, the Company also issued to the placement agent or its designees warrants (the “2024 Placement Agent Warrants”) to purchase up to 91,575 shares of the Company’s common stock (the “January 2024 Placement Agent Warrant Shares”) as part of the compensation payable to the placement agent. The January 2024 Placement Agent Warrants have substantially the same terms as the January 2024 Private Warrants, except that the January 2024 Placement Agent Warrants have an exercise price of $6.825 per share.

 

The gross proceeds from the Offering totaled $10,000,006, with net proceeds from the Offering, after deducting the placement agent fees and offering expenses, amounting to $9,224,056. The Company intends to use the net proceeds received from the Offering for general working capital purposes

 

 

 
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Item 2.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

 

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes to the consolidated financial statements filed as part of this report and the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2023.

 

The following discussion and analysis contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. You are urged to carefully review our description and examples of forward-looking statements included earlier in this Quarterly Report immediately prior to Part I, under the heading “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” Forward-looking statements are subject to risk that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements. You are urged to carefully review the disclosures we make concerning risks and other factors that may affect our business and operating results, including those made in this Quarterly Report and our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2023, as well as any of those made in our other reports filed with the SEC. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements included herein, which speak only as of the date of this document. We do not intend, and undertake no obligation, to publish revised forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this document or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

 

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

 

Our significant accounting policies, which are described in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included in this report and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2023, have not changed during the three and six months ended December 31, 2023. We believe that our accounting policies and estimates relating to the carrying value of inventory, revenue recognition, accrued expenses, purchase commitment liabilities, warrants and stock-based compensation are the most critical.

 

Our Business

 

We are a biopharmaceutical company developing first-in-class medicines based on molecules that modulate the activity of the melanocortin and natriuretic peptide receptor systems. Our product candidates are targeted, receptor-specific therapeutics for the treatment of diseases with significant unmet medical need and commercial potential.

 

Melanocortin Receptor System. The melanocortin receptor (“MCr”) system has effects on food intake, metabolism, sexual function, inflammation, and immune system responses. There are five melanocortin receptors, MC1r through MC5r. Modulation of these receptors, through use of receptor-specific agonists, which activate receptor function, or receptor-specific antagonists, which block receptor function, can have significant pharmacological effects.

 

Our prior commercial product, Vyleesi®, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) in June 2019 and was being marketed in the United States by AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“AMAG”) for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (“HSDD”) in premenopausal women pursuant to a license agreement between them for Vyleesi for North America, which was entered into on January 8, 2017 (the “AMAG License Agreement”). The AMAG License Agreement was terminated effective July 24, 2020, and we commenced marketing Vyleesi in North America. As disclosed in Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, effective December 19, 2023, Cosette acquired all rights to Vyleesi.

 

Our new product development activities focus primarily on MC1r agonists, with potential to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as dry eye disease, which is also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, and inflammatory bowel disease. We believe that the MC1r agonist peptides in development have broad anti-inflammatory effects and appear to utilize mechanisms engaged by the endogenous melanocortin system in regulation of the immune system and resolution of inflammatory responses. We are also developing peptides that are active at more than one melanocortin receptor, and MC4r peptide and small molecule agonists with potential utility in obesity and metabolic-related disorders, including rare disease and orphan indications.

 

 
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Pipeline Overview

 

The following chart illustrates the status of our drug development programs.

 

ptn_10qimg20.jpg

 

 
24

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Our Strategy

 

Key elements of our business strategy include:

 

 

·

Maintaining a team to create, develop and commercialize MCr products addressing unmet medical needs;

 

 

 

 

·

Entering into strategic alliances and partnerships with pharmaceutical companies to facilitate the development, manufacture, marketing, sale, and distribution of product candidates that we are developing;

 

 

 

 

·

Partially funding our product development programs with the cash flow generated from the sale of Vyleesi to Cosette and existing license agreements, as well as any future research, collaboration, or license agreements; and

 

 

 

 

·

Completing development and seeking regulatory approval of certain of our other product candidates.

 

Corporate Information

 

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware on November 21, 1986 and commenced operations in the biopharmaceutical area in 1996. Our corporate offices are located at 4B Cedar Brook Drive, Cedar Brook Corporate Center, Cranbury, New Jersey 08512, and our telephone number is (609) 495-2200. We maintain an Internet site, where among other things, we make available free of charge on and through this website our Forms 3, 4 and 5, annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) and Section 16 of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Our website and the information contained in it or connected to it are not incorporated into this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The reference to our website is an inactive textual reference only.

 

The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC (www.sec.gov).

 

Results of Operations

 

Three and Six Months Ended December 31, 2023, Compared to the Three and Six Months Ended December 31, 2022:

 

 

Revenues – For the three and six months ended December 31, 2023, we recognized $2,034,113 and $4,140,090 in product revenue, net of allowances, respectively. For the three and six months ended December 31, 2022, we recognized $1,026,416 and 1,896,070, in product revenue, net of allowances, respectively. The increase in net revenue was the result of increased sales volume and reduced product sales allowances as a percentage of gross sales during the three and six months ended December 31, 2023, compared to the three and six months ended December 31, 2022.

  

Cost of Products Sold – Cost of products sold was $97,637 for the three and six months ended December 31, 2023. Cost of products sold was $98,707 and $185,203 for the three and six months ended December 31, 2022, respectively.  The decrease is as a result of the sale of fully reserved inventory during the three months ended September 30, 2023.

 

Research and Development – Research and development expenses were $5,554,200 and $10,568,830 for the three and six months ended December 31, 2023, respectively, compared to $4,367,538 and $10,394,569 for the three and six months ended December 31, 2022, respectively. The increase for the three months ended December 31, 2023, was related to the overall increase in spending on our MCr programs.

 

Research and development expenses related to our Vyleesi, MCr programs and other preclinical programs were $3,828,383 and $7,287,971 for the three and six months ended December 31, 2023, respectively, compared to $2,895,268 and $7,258,451 for the three and six months ended December 31, 2022, respectively. The increase was primarily related to an increase in spending on our MCr programs.

 

The amounts of project spending above exclude general research and development spending, which was $1,725,817 and $3,280,859 for the three and six months ended December 31, 2023, respectively compared to $1,472,270 and $3,136,118 for the three and six months ended December 31, 2022, respectively. The increase in general research and development spending for the three and six months ended December 31, 2023, compared to the three and six months ended December 31, 2022, is primarily attributable to an increase in compensation related expenses.

 

Cumulative spending from inception to December 31, 2023, was approximately $311,900,000 on our Vyleesi program and approximately $222,000,000 on all our other programs (which include PL3994, melanocortin receptor agonists, other discovery programs and terminated programs). Due to various risk factors described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2023, under “Risk Factors,” including the difficulty in currently estimating the costs and timing of future Phase 1 clinical trials and larger-scale Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials for any product under development, we cannot predict with reasonable certainty when, if ever, a program will advance to the next stage of development or be successfully completed, or when, if ever, related net cash inflows will be generated.

 

 
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Table of Contents

 

Selling, General and Administrative – Selling, general and administrative expenses, which consist mainly of compensation and related costs, were $3,032,613 and $6,232,857 for the three and six months ended December 31, 2023, respectively, compared to $3,174,344 and $6,683,142 for the three and six months ended December 31, 2022, respectively.  The decrease in selling, general and administrative expenses for the six months ended December 31, 2023 was primarily attributable to a decrease in selling expenses relating to Vyleesi of $802,742 and $1,912,243 for the three and six months ended December 31, 2023 respectively, compared to $1,022,687 and $2,269,254 for the three and six months ended December 31, 2022, respectively. 

 

Gain on Sale of Vyleesi – On December 19, 2023, the Company entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Cosette pursuant to which Cosette acquired from the Company worldwide rights to Vyleesi.  As a result of the transaction, the Company recorded a gain of $7,823,482 on the sale of Vyleesi for the three and six months ended December 31, 2023.   The gain represents the upfront purchase price of $9,500,000 less the cost of net assets transferred to the purchaser. 

 

Other Income (Expense) - For the three and six month ended December 31, 2023, Other income (expense) was ($9,017,179) and ($8,114,281), respectively.  For the three and six months ended December 31, 2022, Other Income (expense) was $3,619,298 and $4,116,561, respectively.   The decrease in other income (expense) for the three and six months ended December 31, 2023 compared to the three and six months ended December 31, 2022 was driven primarily by a decrease in the change in fair values of the warrant liability. 

 

Income Tax BenefitIncome tax benefit for the three and six months ended December 31, 2022 was $4,674,999 as a result of the Company’s sale of NOLs and R&D credits.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Since inception, we have generally incurred net operating losses, primarily related to spending on our research and development programs. We have financed our net operating losses primarily through debt and equity financings and amounts received under collaborative and license agreements.

 

Our product candidates are at various stages of development and will require significant further research, development, and testing and some may never be successfully developed or commercialized. We may experience uncertainties, delays, difficulties, and expenses commonly experienced by early-stage biopharmaceutical companies, which may include unanticipated problems and additional costs relating to:

 

 

·

the development and testing of products in animals and humans;

 

 

 

 

·

product approval or clearance;

 

 

 

 

·

regulatory compliance;

 

 

 

 

·

good manufacturing practices (“GMP”) compliance;

 

 

 

 

·

intellectual property rights;

 

 

 

 

·

product introduction;

 

 

 

 

·

marketing, sales, and competition; and

 

 

 

 

·

obtaining sufficient capital.

 

Failure to enter into or successfully perform under collaboration agreements and obtain timely regulatory approval for our product candidates and indications would impact our ability to generate revenues and could make it more difficult to attract investment capital for funding our operations. Any of these possibilities could materially and adversely affect our operations and require us to curtail or cease certain programs.

 

During the six months ended December 31, 2023, net cash used in operating activities was $16,382,079 compared to $18,257,265 for the six months ended December 31, 2022. The decrease in cash used in operations for the six months ended December 31, 2023, compared to the six months ended December 31, 2022, was primarily related to a decrease in the fair value of liability classified warrants offset by the gain on sale of Vyleesi and working capital changes.

 

During the six months ended December 31, 2023, net cash provided by investing activities was $12,455,275 compared to cash used in investing activities of $264,656 for the six months ended December 31, 2022.  The increase was primarily related to proceeds from the sale of Vyleesi and the maturity of marketable securities. 

 

During the six months ended December 31, 2023, net cash provided by financing activities was $5,422,474 which consisted of proceeds from the sale of common stock of $5,531,266 and proceeds from the exercise of warrants of $103 offset by $56,401 for payment of withholding taxes related to restricted stock units and $52,494 for payment of finance lease obligations.  During the six months ended December 31, 2022, net cash provided by financing activities was $9,765,606, which consisted of proceeds from the sale of common stock of $9,961,462, offset by $146,062 for payment of withholding taxes related to restricted stock units and $49,794 for payment of finance lease obligations. 

 

 
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Table of Contents

 

We have incurred cumulative negative cash flows from operations since our inception, and have expended substantial funds to complete our planned product development efforts. Continued operations are dependent upon our ability to complete equity or debt financing activities and to enter into additional licensing or collaboration arrangements. As of December 31, 2023, our cash and cash equivalents were $9,485,252, and our current liabilities were $11,199,403.

 

Our obligations include aggregate lease obligations of $463,630 for the year ending December 31, 2024, and $357,744 for the years ending September 30, 2025, 2026 and 2027, and aggregate inventory purchase commitments of $4,634,750 which include $3,528,050 in current liabilities as of December 31, 2023, and $1,106,700 included in other long-term liabilities.

 

We intend to utilize existing capital resources for general corporate purposes and working capital requirements, including preclinical and clinical development of our MC1r and MC4r programs, and development of other portfolio products.

 

Based on our available cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2023 and $9,224,056 received in February 2024, the Company has concluded that substantial doubt exists about our ability to continue as a going concern for one year from the date our consolidated financial statements are issued. We are evaluating strategies to obtain additional funding for future operations which include but are not limited to obtaining equity financing, issuing debt, or reducing planned expenses. A failure to raise additional funding or to effectively implement cost reductions could harm our business, results of operations, and future prospects. If we are not able to secure adequate additional funding in future periods, we would be forced to make additional reductions in certain expenditures. This may include liquidating assets and suspending or curtailing planned programs. We may also have to delay, reduce the scope of, suspend, or eliminate one or more research and development programs or its commercialization efforts or pursue a strategic transaction. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or enter into a strategic transaction, then we may be required to cease operations, which could cause our stockholders to lose all or part of their investment. Based on our current operating and development plans, we expect that our existing cash and cash equivalents as of the date of this filing will be sufficient to enable the Company to fund its operations into the second half of the calendar year 2024.

 

We will need additional funding to complete required clinical trials for our product candidates and development programs and, if those clinical trials are successful (which we cannot predict), to complete submission of required regulatory applications to the FDA. However, current economic conditions may negatively impact our operations, including possible effects on our financial condition, ability to access the capital markets on attractive terms or at all, liquidity, operations, suppliers, industry, and workforce. We will continue to evaluate the impact that these events could have on the operations, financial position, and the results of operations and cash flows during fiscal year 2024 and beyond.

 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

None.

 

Contractual Obligations

 

There have been no material changes outside the ordinary course of business to our contractual obligations and commitments, as disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended June 30, 2023.

 

Item 3.  Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

 

Not required to be provided by smaller reporting companies.

 

Item 4.  Controls and Procedures.

 

Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e), as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective due to a material weakness in our controls over the accounting for complex financial instruments. Our controls to evaluate the accounting for complex financial instruments, such as warrants, did not operate effectively to appropriately apply the provisions of U.S. GAAP. Notwithstanding this material weakness, Company management concluded that the consolidated financial statements included in the Form 10-K, present fairly, in all material respects, our financial position as of June 30, 2023 and June 30, 2022, and our results of operations and cash flows for each of the years then ended. Accordingly, the Company will adjust prior periods as those financial statements are presented for comparative purposes in future filings.  We are improving these processes to ensure that the nuances of such significant or unusual transactions are effectively evaluated in the context of the appropriate accounting standards. There were no other changes in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during our most recent fiscal quarter that materially affected, or that are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting. 

 

 
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PART II – OTHER INFORMATION

 

Item 1.  Legal Proceedings.

 

We may be involved, from time to time, in various claims and legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not currently a party to any claim or legal proceeding.

 

Item 1A.  Risk Factors.

 

This report and other documents we file with the SEC contain forward-looking statements that are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about us, our future performance, our business, our beliefs, and our management’s assumptions. These statements are not guarantees of future performance, and they involve certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties facing our business.

 

Risks Related to Our Financial Results and Need for Financing

 

Our management has determined that there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern, which may hinder our ability to obtain future financing.

 

Our management has determined that there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern because of our need to raise significant additional financing to complete clinical trials and development of our product candidates. Because we have not yet generated sufficient revenues from our operations, our ability to continue as a going concern is currently heavily dependent upon our ability to obtain additional financing to sustain our operations. Such financing may take the form of the issuance of common or preferred stock or debt securities or may involve bank financing. Our independent registered public accounting firm has issued their report, which includes an explanatory paragraph for going concern uncertainty on our consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended June 30, 2023. The existence of a “going concern” conclusion may hinder our ability to obtain additional financing in the future. While we have completed additional financings in October 2023 and January 2024, we have no commitments to obtain any additional financing, and there can be no assurance that financing will be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all.

 

We have a history of substantial net losses, including a net loss of $24.0. million for the year ended June 30, 2023. We expect to incur substantial net losses over the next few years, and we may never achieve or maintain profitability.

 

As of June 30, 2023, we had an accumulated deficit of $412.0 million. We had $24.0 million in net loss for the year ended June 30, 2023, compared to $36.2 million in net loss for the year ended June 30, 2022. We may not achieve or sustain profitability in future years, depending on numerous factors, including whether and when we enter into license agreements for any of our products under development, regulatory actions by the FDA and other regulatory bodies, the performance of our licensees, and market acceptance of our products.

 

We expect to incur significant expenses as we continue our development of MC1r and MCr products. These expenses, among other things, have had and will continue to have an adverse effect on our stockholders’ equity, total assets and working capital.

 

Until we commenced selling Vyleesi in July 2020 upon termination of our license agreement with AMAG, we had not had any product available for commercial sale since 2005 and we have not received any revenues from the sale of our product candidates. On December 19, 2023 our Vyleesi product was acquired by Cosette Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Cosette”).  For the foreseeable future, we will have to fund our operations and capital expenditures from license, royalty and contract revenue under license agreements, milestone payments by Cosette based on its sales of Vyleesi, existing cash balances and outside sources of financing, which may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. We will not have product revenue from our products in development unless and until we receive approval from the FDA or other equivalent regulatory authorities outside the United States. We have devoted substantially all of our efforts to research and development, including preclinical and clinical trials. Because of the numerous risks associated with developing drugs, we are unable to predict the extent of future losses, whether or when any of our product candidates will become commercially available, or when we will become profitable, if at all.

 

 
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We will need additional funding, including funding to complete clinical trials for our product candidates, which may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.

 

We intend to focus future efforts on our MC1r product candidates, primarily for ocular indications. As of December 31, 2023, we had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $9.5 million, with current liabilities of $11.2 million. Based on our available cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, we have concluded that substantial doubt exists about our ability to continue as a going concern for one year from the date our consolidated financial statements are issued and we are seeking additional funding to complete development activities and required clinical trials for our MC1r product candidates and, if those clinical trials are successful (which we cannot predict), to complete submission of required regulatory applications to the FDA.

 

We may raise additional funds through public or private equity or debt financings, collaborative arrangements on our product candidates, or other sources. However, such financing arrangements may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. To obtain additional funding, we may need to enter into arrangements that require us to develop only certain of our product candidates or relinquish rights to certain technologies, product candidates and/or potential markets.

 

If we are unable to raise sufficient additional funds when needed, we may be required to curtail operations significantly, cease clinical trials and decrease staffing levels. We may seek to license, sell or otherwise dispose of our product candidates, technologies and contractual rights on the best possible terms available. Even if we are able to license, sell or otherwise dispose of our product candidates, technologies and contractual rights, it is likely to be on unfavorable terms and for less value than if we had the financial resources to develop or otherwise advance our product candidates, technologies and contractual rights ourselves.

 

Our future capital requirements depend on many factors, including:

 

 

·

the expense and timing of obtaining regulatory approvals for our product candidates;

 

·

the number and characteristics of any product candidates we develop or acquire;

 

·

the scope, progress, results and costs of researching and developing our product candidates, and conducting preclinical and clinical trials;

 

·

the cost of commercialization activities if any product candidates are approved for sale, including marketing, sales and distribution costs;

 

·

the cost of manufacturing any product candidates and any products we successfully commercialize;

 

·

our ability to establish and maintain strategic collaborations, licensing or other arrangements and the terms and timing of such arrangements;

 

·

the degree and rate of market acceptance of any approved products;

 

·

the emergence, approval, availability, perceived advantages, relative cost, relative safety and relative efficacy of alternative and competing products or treatments;

 

·

any product liability or other lawsuits related to our products;

 

·

the expenses needed to attract and retain skilled personnel;

 

·

the costs involved in preparing, filing, prosecuting, maintaining, defending and enforcing patent claims, including litigation costs and the outcome of such litigation; and

 

·

the timing, receipt and amount of sales of, or royalties on, future approved products, if any.

 

We have a limited operating history upon which to base an investment decision.

 

Our operations are primarily focused on acquiring, developing and securing our proprietary technology, conducting preclinical and clinical studies and formulating and manufacturing, through contract manufacturers, our principal product candidates on a small-scale basis. These operations provide a limited basis for stockholders to assess our ability to commercialize our product candidates.

 

 
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While we completed Phase 3 clinical trials on Vyleesi for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (“HSDD”) in premenopausal women, together with AMAG filed an NDA on Vyleesi for HSDD with the FDA, and received approval on Vyleesi from the FDA, we have not yet demonstrated our ability to perform the functions necessary for the successful commercialization of any of our current product candidates. The successful commercialization of our product candidates will require us to perform a variety of functions, including:

 

 

·

continuing to conduct preclinical development and clinical trials;

 

·

participating in regulatory approval processes;

 

·

formulating and manufacturing products, or having third parties formulate and manufacture products;

 

·

post-approval monitoring and surveillance of our products;

 

·

conducting sales and marketing activities, either alone or with a partner; and

 

·

obtaining additional capital.

 

If we are unable to obtain regulatory approval of any of our product candidates, to successfully commercialize any products for which we receive regulatory approval or to obtain additional capital, we may not be able to recover our investment in our development efforts.

 

The clinical and commercial success of our product candidates will depend on a number of factors, including the following:

 

 

·

the ability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms, or at all;

 

·

timely completion of our clinical trials, which may be significantly slower or cost more than we currently anticipate and will depend substantially upon the performance of third-party contractors;

 

·

whether we are required by the FDA or similar foreign regulatory agencies to conduct additional clinical trials beyond those planned to support the approval and commercialization of our product candidates or any future product candidates;

 

·

acceptance of our proposed indications and primary endpoint assessments relating to the proposed indications of our product candidates by the FDA and similar foreign regulatory authorities;

 

·

our ability to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA and similar foreign regulatory authorities, the safety and efficacy of our product candidates or any future product candidates;

 

·

the prevalence, duration and severity of potential side effects experienced with our product candidates or future approved products, if any;

 

·

the timely receipt of necessary marketing approvals from the FDA and similar foreign regulatory authorities;

 

·

achieving and maintaining, and, where applicable, ensuring that our third-party contractors achieve and maintain, compliance with our contractual obligations and with all regulatory requirements applicable to our product candidates or any future product candidates or approved products, if any;

 

·

the ability of third parties with whom we contract to manufacture clinical trial and commercial supplies of our product candidates or any future product candidates, remain in good standing with regulatory agencies and develop, validate and maintain commercially viable manufacturing processes that are compliant with the FDA’s current GMP regulations;

 

·

a continued acceptable safety profile and efficacy during clinical development and following approval of our product candidates or any future product candidates;

 

·

our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates or any future product candidates in the United States and internationally, if approved for marketing, sale and distribution in such countries and territories, whether alone or in collaboration with others;

 

·

acceptance by physicians and patients of the benefits, safety and efficacy of our product candidates or any future product candidates, if approved, including relative to alternative and competing treatments;

 

·

our and our partners’ ability to establish and enforce intellectual property rights in and to our product candidates or any future product candidates;

 

·

our and our partners’ ability to avoid third-party patent interference or intellectual property infringement claims; and

 

·

our ability to develop, in-license or acquire additional product candidates or commercial-stage products that we believe can be successfully developed and commercialized.

 

If we do not achieve one or more of these factors, many of which are beyond our control, in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to obtain regulatory approvals or commercialize our product candidates. Even if regulatory approvals are obtained, we may never be able to successfully commercialize any of our product candidates. Accordingly, we cannot assure our investors that we will be able to generate sufficient revenue through the sale of our product candidates or any future product candidates to continue our business.

 

 
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Raising additional capital may cause dilution to existing stockholders, restrict our operations, or require us to relinquish rights.

 

We will seek the additional capital necessary to fund our operations through public or private equity offerings, collaboration agreements, debt financings, licensing arrangements or combinations of the foregoing. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, existing stockholders’ ownership interests will be diluted, and the terms may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect their rights as a stockholder. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures, or declaring dividends. If we raise additional funds through collaborations and licensing arrangements with third parties, we may have to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies or product candidates or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us.

 

Risks Related to Our Business, Strategy, and Industry

 

Our ability to finance our company and generate revenue will be impacted by our preclinical and clinical results with our future product candidates.

 

Our near-term prospects, including our ability to finance our Company and generate revenue, will be impacted by preclinical and clinical results with our future product candidates. The clinical and commercial success of our product candidates will depend on a number of factors, including the following:

 

 

·

timely completion of, or need to conduct additional clinical trials and studies, for our product candidates, which may be significantly slower or cost more than we currently anticipate and will depend substantially upon the accurate and satisfactory performance of third-party contractors;

 

·

the ability to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA the safety and efficacy of future product candidates through clinical trials;

 

·

whether we or our licensees are required by the FDA or other similar foreign regulatory agencies to conduct additional clinical trials to support future product candidates;

 

·

the prevalence and severity of adverse events experienced with any future product candidates or approved products;

 

·

the timely receipt of necessary marketing approvals from the FDA and similar foreign regulatory authorities;

 

·

our ability to raise additional capital on acceptable terms to achieve our goals;

 

·

achieving and maintaining compliance with all regulatory requirements applicable to any future product candidates or approved products;

 

·

the availability, perceived advantages, relative cost, relative safety and relative efficacy of alternative and competing treatments;

 

·

the effectiveness of our own or our future potential strategic collaborators’ marketing, sales and distribution strategy and operations;

 

·

the ability to manufacture clinical trial supplies of any future product candidates and to develop, validate and maintain a commercially viable manufacturing process that is compliant with current GMP;

 

·

our ability to successfully commercialize any future product candidates, if approved for marketing and sale, whether alone or in collaboration with others;

 

·

our ability to enforce our intellectual property rights in and to any future product candidates;

 

·

our ability to avoid third-party patent interference or intellectual property infringement claims;

 

·

acceptance of any future product candidates, if approved, as safe and effective by patients and the medical community; and

 

·

a continued acceptable safety profile and efficacy of any future product candidates following approval.

 

If we fail to satisfy any one of these prerequisites to our commercial success, many of which are beyond our control, in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to successfully commercialize our product candidates. In addition to preventing us from executing our current business plan, any delays in our clinical trials, or inability to successfully commercialize our products could impair our reputation in the industry and the investment community and could hinder our ability to fulfill our existing contractual commitments. As a result, our share price would likely decline significantly, and we would have difficulty raising necessary capital for future projects.

 

 
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The commercial success of Vyleesi for HSDD is a component of our corporate strategy, but Cosette, which acquired Vyleesi from us, may never successfully commercialize Vyleesi for HSDD or obtain approvals in countries other than the United States.

 

Under our sales agreement with Cosette, we can receive up to $159 million in contingent, sales-based milestone payments. We have no control over the sales strategy that Cosette employs, and cannot predict whether Cosette will meet sales milestones, ranging from annual net sales of $15 million to $200 million. We cannot predict whether Cosette will be able successfully manufacture Vyleesi for worldwide markets or will be successful in educating physicians and patients about the benefits, administration and use of Vyleesi for HSDD.

 

Both we and Cosette rely on contract manufacturers to make products, there is uncertainty regarding the contract manufacturer of prefilled autoinjectors that may adversely affect our revenue or results of operation. 

 

A facility of Catalent, Inc. located in Brussels, Belgium performs drug formulation and fills autoinjectors for the Vyleesi product and may be used by us to fill other products we are developing for autoinjector administration. On February 5, 2024, Catalent announced that it was being acquired by Novo Holdings, with the closing anticipated towards the end of calendar year 2024. It was also announced that shortly after the closing Novo Holdings intends to sell the Catalent fill-finish site in Brussels, Belgium to Novo Nordisk.  This may have an adverse impact on the ability of Cosette to manufacture the Vyleesi product, which in turn can adversely affect sales-base milestone payments.  In addition, we planned to use the Catalent facility to manufacture bremelanotide autoinjector devices for use in other applications, and may not be able to find alternative manufacturers at an acceptable cost or at all.

 

The ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine could cause geopolitical instability, economic uncertainty, financial markets volatility and capital markets disruption, which may adversely affect our revenue, financial condition, or results of operations.

 

The current military conflict between Russia and Ukraine may disrupt or otherwise adversely impact our operations and those of third parties upon which we rely. Related sanctions, export controls or other actions that have already been initiated or may in the future be initiated by nations including the U.S., the European Union or Russia (e.g., potential cyberattacks, disruption of energy flows, etc.) can adversely affect our business, our contract research organizations, and other third parties with which we conduct business. Resulting volatility, disruption, or deterioration in the credit and financial markets may further make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult and more costly. Failure to secure any necessary financing in a timely manner and on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our business strategy, financial performance, and stock price and could require us to delay or abandon clinical development plans. In addition, there is a risk that one or more of our current service providers, manufacturers, or other partners may be adversely impacted by deteriorating economic conditions, which could directly affect our ability to attain our operating goals and to accurately forecast and plan our future business activities.

 

Our product candidates, including PL9643 for dry eye disease and PL8177 for the treatment of ulcerative colitis, are still in the early stages of development and remain subject to clinical testing and regulatory approval. If we are unable to successfully develop and test our product candidates, we will not be successful.

 

Our product candidates, including PL9643 for dry eye disease and PL8177 for the treatment of ulcerative colitis, are at various stages of research and development, will require regulatory approval, and may never be successfully developed or commercialized. Our product candidates will require significant further research, development and testing before we can seek regulatory approval to market and sell them. We must demonstrate that our product candidates are safe and effective for use in patients in order to receive regulatory approval for commercial sale. Preclinical studies in animals, using various doses and formulations, must be performed before we can begin human clinical trials. Even if we obtain favorable results in the preclinical studies, the results in humans may be different. Numerous small-scale human clinical trials may be necessary to obtain initial data on a product candidate’s safety and efficacy in humans before advancing to large scale human clinical trials. We face the risk that the results of our trials in later phases of clinical trials may be inconsistent with those obtained in earlier phases. Adverse or inconclusive results could delay the progress of our development programs and may prevent us from filing for regulatory approval of our product candidates. Additional factors that could inhibit the successful development of our product candidates include:

 

 

·

lack of effectiveness of any product candidate during clinical trials or the failure of our product candidates to meet specified endpoints;

 

·

failure to design appropriate clinical trial protocols;

 

·

uncertainty regarding proper dosing;

 

·

for injectable products, inability to develop or obtain a supplier for a suitable autoinjector device that meets the FDA’s medical device requirements;

 

·

insufficient data to support regulatory approval;

 

·

inability or unwillingness of medical investigators to follow our clinical protocols;

 

·

inability to add a sufficient number of clinical trial sites; or

 

·

the availability of sufficient capital to sustain operations and clinical trials.

 

 
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You should evaluate us in light of these uncertainties, difficulties and expenses commonly experienced by early stage biopharmaceutical companies, as well as unanticipated problems and additional costs relating to:

 

 

·

product approval or clearance;

 

·

regulatory compliance;

 

·

good manufacturing practices;

 

·

intellectual property rights;

 

·

product introduction; and

 

·

marketing and competition.

 

If clinical trials for our product candidates are prolonged or delayed, we may be unable to commercialize our product candidates on a timely basis, which would require us to incur additional costs and delay our receipt of any revenue from potential product sales.

 

We may be unable to commercialize our product candidates on a timely basis due to unexpected delays in our human clinical trials. Potential delaying events include:

 

 

·

discovery of serious or unexpected toxicities or side effects experienced by study participants or other safety issues;

 

·

slower than expected rates of subject recruitment and enrollment rates in clinical trials resulting from numerous factors, including the prevalence of other companies’ clinical trials for their product candidates for the same indication, or clinical trials for indications for which patients do not as commonly seek treatment;

 

·

difficulty in retaining subjects who have initiated a clinical trial but may withdraw at any time due to adverse side effects from the therapy, insufficient efficacy, fatigue with the clinical trial process or for any other reason;

 

·

difficulty in obtaining IRB approval for studies to be conducted at each site;

 

·

delays in manufacturing or obtaining, or inability to manufacture or obtain, sufficient quantities of materials for use in clinical trials;

 

·

inadequacy of or changes in our manufacturing process or the product formulation or method of delivery;

 

·

changes in applicable laws, regulations and regulatory policies;

 

·

delays or failure in reaching agreement on acceptable terms in clinical trial contracts or protocols with prospective contract research organizations (“CROs”), clinical trial sites and other third-party contractors;

 

·

failure of our CROs or other third-party contractors to comply with contractual and regulatory requirements or to perform their services in a timely or acceptable manner;

 

·

failure by us, our employees, our CROs or their employees or any partner with which we may collaborate or their employees to comply with applicable FDA or other regulatory requirements relating to the conduct of clinical trials or the handling, storage, security and recordkeeping for drug, medical device and biologic products;

 

·

delays in the scheduling and performance by the FDA of required inspections of us, our CROs, our suppliers, or our clinical trial sites, and violations of law or regulations discovered in the course of FDA inspections;

 

·

scheduling conflicts with participating clinicians and clinical institutions; or

 

·

difficulty in maintaining contact with subjects during or after treatment, which may result in incomplete data.

 

Any of these events or other delaying events, individually or in the aggregate, could delay the commercialization of our product candidates and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

 
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We may not be able to secure and maintain relationships with research institutions and other organizations to conduct our clinical trials.

 

We rely on research institutions and other organizations to conduct our clinical trials, and we therefore have limited control over the timing and cost of clinical trials and our ability to recruit subjects. If we are unable to reach agreements with suitable research institutions or organizations on acceptable terms, or if any such agreement is terminated, we may be unable to quickly replace the research institution or organization with another qualified institution or organization on acceptable terms. We may not be able to secure and maintain suitable research institutions or organizations to conduct our clinical trials.

 

Even if our product candidates receive regulatory approval, they may never achieve market acceptance, in which case our business, financial condition and results of operation will be materially adversely affected.

 

Regulatory approval for the marketing and sale of any of our product candidates does not assure the product’s commercial success. Any approved product will compete with other products manufactured and marketed by major pharmaceutical and other biotechnology companies. If any of our product candidates are approved by the FDA and do not achieve adequate market acceptance, our business, financial condition, and results of operations will be materially adversely affected. The degree of market acceptance of any such product will depend on a number of factors, including:

 

 

·

perceptions by members of the healthcare community, including physicians, about the safety and effectiveness of any such product;

 

·

cost-effectiveness relative to competing products and technologies;

 

·

availability of reimbursement for our products from third-party payers such as health insurers, HMOs and government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid; and

 

·

advantages over alternative treatment methods.

 

Even if our product candidates receive regulatory approval in the United States, we may never receive approval or commercialize our products outside of the United States.

 

In order to market any products outside of the United States, we must establish and comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements of other countries regarding safety and efficacy. Approval procedures vary among countries and can involve additional product testing and additional administrative review periods. The time required to obtain approval in other countries might differ from that required to obtain FDA approval. The regulatory approval process in other countries may include all of the risks detailed above regarding FDA approval in the United States as well as other risks. Regulatory approval in one country does not ensure regulatory approval in another, but a failure or delay in obtaining regulatory approval in one country may have a negative effect on the regulatory process in others. Failure to obtain regulatory approval in other countries or any delay or setbacks in obtaining such approval would impair our ability to develop foreign markets for our product candidates and may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

 

If side effects emerge that can be linked any of our product candidates (either while they are in development or after they are approved and on the market), we may be required to perform lengthy additional clinical trials, change the labeling of any such products, or withdraw such products from the market, any of which would hinder or preclude our ability to generate revenues.

 

If we identify side effects or other problems occur in future clinical trials, we may be required to terminate or delay clinical development of the product candidate. Furthermore, even if any of our product candidates receive marketing approval, as greater numbers of patients use a drug following its approval, if the incidence of side effects increases or if other problems are observed after approval that were not seen or anticipated during pre-approval clinical trials, or if the incidence of side effects increase or other problems are observed with any of our product candidates, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including:

 

 

·

regulatory authorities may withdraw their approval of the product;

 

·

we may be required to reformulate such products or change the way the product is manufactured;

 

·

we may become the target of lawsuits, including class action suits; and

 

·

our reputation in the marketplace may suffer resulting in a significant drop in the sales of such products.

 

Any of these events could substantially increase the costs and expenses of developing, commercializing, and marketing any such product candidates or could harm or prevent sales of any approved products.

 

 
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We may not be able to keep up with the rapid technological change in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, which could make any future approved products obsolete and reduce our revenue.

 

Biotechnology and related pharmaceutical technologies have undergone and continue to be subject to rapid and significant change. Our future will depend in large part on our ability to maintain a competitive position with respect to these technologies. Our competitors may render our technologies obsolete by advances in existing technological approaches or the development of new or different approaches, potentially eliminating the advantages in our drug discovery process that we believe we derive from our research approach and proprietary technologies. In addition, any future products that we develop, including our clinical product candidates, may become obsolete before we recover expenses incurred in developing those products, which may require that we raise additional funds to continue our operations.

 

Competing products and technologies may make our proposed products noncompetitive.

 

There are a number of products approved for use in treating inflammatory diseases and indications, and other products are being developed, including products in clinical trials. The dry eye disease and ocular inflammatory disease markets are highly competitive, with a number of marketed products and products reported to be in late-stage clinical trials. Similarly, the inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis markets are highly competitive, with a number of marketed products and products reported to be in late-stage clinical trials.

 

In general, the biopharmaceutical industry is highly competitive. We are likely to encounter significant competition with respect to our, MC1r product candidates and MCr product candidates. Most of our competitors have substantially greater financial and technological resources than we do. Many of them also have significantly greater experience in research and development, marketing, distribution, and sales than we do. Accordingly, our competitors may succeed in developing, marketing, distributing, and selling products and underlying technologies more rapidly than we can. These competitive products or technologies may be more effective and useful or less costly than our MC1r product candidates and MCr product candidates. In addition, academic institutions, hospitals, governmental agencies, and other public and private research organizations are also conducting research and may develop competing products or technologies on their own or through strategic alliances or collaborative arrangements.

 

We rely on third parties over whom we have no control to conduct preclinical studies, clinical trials and other research for our product candidates and their failure to timely perform their obligations could significantly harm our product development.

 

We have limited research and development staff. We rely on third parties and independent contractors, such as researchers at CROs and universities, in certain areas that are particularly relevant to our research and product development plans. We engage such researchers to conduct our preclinical studies, clinical trials and associated tests. These outside contractors are not our employees and may terminate their engagements with us at any time. In addition, we have limited control over the resources that these contractors devote to our programs, and they may not assign as great a priority to our programs or pursue them as diligently as we would if we were undertaking such programs ourselves. There is also competition for these relationships, and we may not be able to maintain our relationships with our contractors on acceptable terms. If our third-party contractors do not carry out their duties under their agreements with us, fail to meet expected deadlines or fail to comply with appropriate standards for preclinical or clinical research, our ability to develop our product candidates and obtain regulatory approval on a timely basis, if at all, may be materially adversely affected.

 

Production and supply of our product candidates depend on contract manufacturers over whom we have no control, with the risk that we may not have adequate supplies of our product candidates or products.

 

We do not have the facilities to manufacture our early-stage potential products such as PL8177, PL9643, PL9654 and other melanocortin receptor agonist compounds for use in preclinical studies and clinical trials. Contract manufacturers must perform these manufacturing activities in a manner that complies with FDA regulations. Our ability to control third-party compliance with FDA requirements is limited to contractual remedies and rights of inspection. The manufacturers of our potential products and their manufacturing facilities will be subject to continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA and other authorities where applicable, and must comply with ongoing regulatory requirements, including FDA regulations concerning GMP. Failure of third-party manufacturers to comply with GMP, medical device QSR, or other FDA requirements may result in enforcement action by the FDA. Failure to conduct their activities in compliance with FDA regulations could delay our development programs or negatively impact our ability to receive FDA approval of our potential products. Establishing relationships with new suppliers, who must be FDA-approved, is a time-consuming and costly process.

 

 
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If we are unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities within our organization or enter into and maintain agreements with third parties to market and sell our product candidates, we may be unable to generate product revenue.

 

We have limited experience in sales, marketing, and distribution of pharmaceutical products. If any of our products candidates are approved by the FDA or other regulatory authorities, we must enter into agreements with third parties to market these product candidates or develop marketing, distribution and selling capacity and expertise, which will be costly and time consuming, or enter into agreements with other companies to provide these capabilities. We may not be able to enter into suitable agreements on acceptable terms, if at all. Engaging a third party to perform these services could delay the commercialization of any of our product candidates, if approved for commercial sale. If we are unable to establish adequate sales, marketing, and distribution capabilities, whether independently or with third parties, we may not be able to generate product revenue and our business would suffer. In addition, if we enter into arrangements with third parties to perform sales, marketing and distribution services, our product revenues are likely to be lower than if we could market and sell any products that we develop ourselves.

 

We may need to hire additional employees in order to commercialize our product candidates in the future. Any inability to manage future growth could harm our ability to commercialize our product candidates, increase our costs and adversely impact our ability to compete effectively.

 

To commercialize our product candidates, we will need to hire or contract with experienced sales and marketing personnel to sell and market those product candidates that we decide to commercialize, and we will need to expand the number of our managerial, operational, financial and other employees to support commercialization. Competition exists for qualified personnel in the biopharmaceutical field.

 

Future growth will impose significant added responsibilities on members of management, including the need to identify, recruit, maintain and integrate additional employees. Our future financial performance and our ability to commercialize our product candidates and to compete effectively will depend, in part, on our ability to manage any future growth effectively.

 

Our ability to achieve revenues from the sale of our products will depend, in part, on our ability to obtain adequate reimbursement from private insurers and other healthcare payers.

 

Our ability to successfully commercialize our products in development, will depend, in significant part, on the extent to which we or our marketing partners can obtain reimbursement for our products and also reimbursement at appropriate levels for the cost of our products. Obtaining reimbursement from governmental payers, insurance companies, HMOs and other third-party payers of healthcare costs is a time-consuming and expensive process.

 

Even if we receive regulatory approval for our products in Europe, we may not be able to secure adequate pricing and reimbursement in Europe for us or any strategic partner to achieve profitability.

 

Even if one or more of our products are approved in Europe, we may be unable to obtain appropriate pricing and reimbursement for such products. In most European markets, demand levels for healthcare in general and for pharmaceuticals in particular are principally regulated by national governments. Therefore, pricing and reimbursement for our products will have to be negotiated on a “Member State by Member State” basis according to national rules, as there does not exist a centralized European process. As each Member State has its own national rules governing pricing control and reimbursement policy for pharmaceuticals, there are likely to be uncertainties attaching to the review process, and the level of reimbursement that national governments are prepared to accept. In the current economic environment, governments and private payers or insurers are increasingly looking to contain healthcare costs, including costs on drug therapies. If we are unable to obtain adequate pricing and reimbursement for our products in Europe, we or a potential strategic partner or collaborator may not be able to cover the costs necessary to manufacture, market and sell the product, limiting or preventing our ability to achieve profitability.

 

We may incur substantial liabilities and may be required to limit commercialization of our products in response to product liability lawsuits.

 

The testing and marketing of medical products entails an inherent risk of product liability. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against product liability claims, we may incur substantial liabilities or be required to limit commercialization of our products or cease clinical trials. Our inability to obtain sufficient product liability insurance at an acceptable cost to protect against potential product liability claims could prevent or inhibit the commercialization of pharmaceutical products we develop, alone or with corporate collaborators. We currently carry $10.0 million liability insurance in the aggregate as to certain product liability and commercialization risks and certain clinical trial risks. We, or any corporate collaborators, may not in the future be able to obtain insurance at a reasonable cost or in sufficient amounts, if at all. Even if our agreements with any future corporate collaborators entitle us to indemnification against losses, such indemnification may not be available or adequate should any claim arise.

 

 
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Our internal computer systems, or those of our third-party contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer security breaches, which could result in a material disruption of our product development programs.

 

In the ordinary course of our business, we collect, store and transmit confidential information. Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems and those of our third-party contractors and consultants are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. We rely on industry accepted measures and technology to secure confidential and proprietary information maintained on our computer systems. However, these measures and technology may not adequately prevent security breaches. While we do not believe that we have experienced any such system failure, accident, or security breach to date, if such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a loss of clinical trial data for our product candidates that could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. Cyberattacks are increasing in their frequency, sophistication, and intensity. Cyberattacks could include the deployment of harmful malware, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering, and other means to affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. Significant disruptions of our information technology systems or security breaches could adversely affect our business operations and/or result in the loss, misappropriation, and/or unauthorized access, use or disclosure of, or the prevention of access to, confidential information (including trade secrets or other intellectual property, proprietary business information and personal information), and could result in financial, legal, business, and reputational harm to us. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss of or damage to our data or applications or other data or applications relating to our technology, intellectual property, research and development or product candidates, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liabilities and the further development of our product candidates could be delayed.

 

We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants, or independent contractors have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information of third parties or that our employees have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their former employers.

 

We may in the future employ individuals who were previously employed at universities or other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies, including our competitors or potential competitors. Although we try to ensure that our employees, consultants, and independent contractors do not use the proprietary information or know-how of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or our employees, consultants or independent contractors have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed intellectual property, including trade secrets or other proprietary information, of any of our employee’s former employer or other third parties. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. If we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights or personnel, which could adversely impact our business. Even if we are successful in defending against such claims, litigation could result in substantial costs and be a distraction to management and other employees.

 

We may be subject, directly or indirectly, to federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws, false claims laws, and health information privacy and security laws. If we are unable to comply, or have not fully complied, with such laws, we could face substantial penalties.

 

As we begin commercializing any of our products in the United States, our operations may be directly, or indirectly through our customers, subject to various federal and state fraud and abuse laws, including, without limitation, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the federal False Claims Act, and physician sunshine laws and regulations. These laws may impact, among other things, our proposed sales, marketing, and education programs. In addition, we may be subject to patient privacy regulation by both the federal government and the states in which we conduct our business. The laws that may affect our ability to operate include:

 

 

·

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons or entities from soliciting, receiving, offering or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, in return for or to induce either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase order or recommendation of, any item or services for which payment may be made under a federal health care program such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs;

 

·

federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalty laws, which prohibit, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment from Medicare, Medicaid, or other third-party payors that are false or fraudulent;

 

 
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·

HIPAA, which created new federal criminal statutes that prohibit executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program and making false statements relating to healthcare matters;

 

·

HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology and Clinical Health Act, and its implementing regulations, which imposes certain requirements relating to the privacy, security, and transmission of individually identifiable health information;

 

·

The federal physician sunshine requirements under the Affordable Care Act, which require manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics, and medical supplies to report annually to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians, other healthcare providers, and teaching hospitals, and ownership and investment interests held by physicians and other healthcare providers and their immediate family members and applicable group purchasing organizations; and

 

·

state law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws that may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including commercial insurers, state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government, or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws that require drug manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures; and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts.

 

Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. In addition, recent health care reform legislation has strengthened these laws. For example, the Affordable Care Act, among other things, amends the intent requirement of the federal anti-kickback and criminal healthcare fraud statutes. A person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of this statute or specific intent to violate it. Moreover, the Affordable Care Act provides that the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal anti-kickback statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the False Claims Act.

 

If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, exclusion from participation in government health care programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, imprisonment, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.

 

We are highly dependent on our management team, senior staff professionals and third-party contractors and consultants, and the loss of their services could materially adversely affect our business.

 

We rely on our relatively small management team and staff as well as various contractors and consultants to provide critical services. Our ability to execute our PL8177, PL9643 and our other preclinical programs for MC1r and MC4r peptide or small molecule drug candidates depends on our continued retention and motivation of our management and senior staff professionals, including executive officers and senior members of product development and management, including commercialization, who possess significant technical expertise and experience and oversee our development and commercialization programs. If we lose the services of existing key personnel, our development programs could be adversely affected if suitable replacement personnel are not recruited quickly. Our success also depends on our ability to develop and maintain relationships with contractors, consultants, and scientific advisors.

 

There is competition for qualified personnel, contractors, and consultants in the pharmaceutical industry, which makes it difficult to attract and retain the qualified personnel, contractors and consultants necessary for the development and growth of our business. Our failure to attract and retain such personnel, contractors and consultants could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

 

 
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Risks Related to Government Regulation

 

Both before and after marketing approval, our product candidates are subject to ongoing regulatory requirements and, if we fail to comply with these continuing requirements, we could be subject to a variety of sanctions and the sale of any approved commercial products could be suspended.

 

Both before and after regulatory approval to market a particular product candidate, the manufacturing, labeling, packaging, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising and promotion and record keeping related to the product candidates are subject to extensive regulatory requirements. If we fail to comply with the regulatory requirements of the FDA and other applicable U.S. and foreign regulatory authorities, we could be subject to administrative or judicially imposed sanctions, including:

 

 

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restrictions on the products or manufacturing process;

 

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warning letters;

 

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civil or criminal penalties;

 

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fines;

 

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injunctions;

 

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imposition of a Corporate Integrity Agreement requiring heightened monitoring of our compliance functions, overseen by outside monitors, and enhanced reporting requirements to, and oversight by, the FDA and other government agencies;

 

·

product seizures or detentions and related publicity requirements;

 

·

suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals;

 

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regulators or IRBs may not authorize us or any potential future collaborators to commence a clinical trial or conduct a clinical trial at a prospective trial site;

 

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total or partial suspension of production; and

 

·

refusal to approve pending applications for marketing approval of new product candidates.

 

Changes in the regulatory approval policy during the development period, changes in or the enactment of additional regulations or statutes, or changes in the regulatory review for each submitted product application may cause delays in the approval or rejection of an application. Even if the FDA approves a product candidate, the approval may impose significant restrictions on the indicated uses, conditions for use, labeling, advertising, promotion, marketing and/or production of such product, and may impose ongoing requirements for post-approval studies, including additional research and development and clinical trials. The approval may also impose REMS on a product if the FDA believes there is a reason to monitor the safety of the drug in the marketplace. REMS may include requirements for additional training for health care professionals, safety communication efforts and limits on channels of distribution, among other things. The sponsor would be required to evaluate and monitor the various REMS activities and adjust them if need be. The FDA also may impose various civil or criminal sanctions for failure to comply with regulatory requirements, including withdrawal of product approval.

 

Furthermore, the approval procedure and the time required to obtain approval varies among countries and can involve additional testing beyond that required by the FDA. Approval by one regulatory authority does not ensure approval by regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions. The FDA has substantial discretion in the approval process and may refuse to accept any application or may decide that our data are insufficient for approval and require additional preclinical, clinical or other studies.

 

In addition, varying interpretations of the data obtained for preclinical and clinical testing could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval of a product candidate. Even if we submit an application to the FDA for marketing approval of a product candidate, it may not result in marketing approval from the FDA.

 

We do not expect to receive regulatory approval for the commercial sale of any of our product candidates that are in development in the near future, if at all. The inability to obtain FDA approval or approval from comparable authorities in other countries for our product candidates would prevent us or any potential future collaborators from commercializing these product candidates in the United States or other countries.

 

 
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The regulatory approval process is lengthy, expensive and uncertain, and may prevent us from obtaining the approvals that we require.

 

Government authorities in the United States and other countries extensively regulate the advertising, labeling, storage, record-keeping, safety, efficacy, research, development, testing, manufacture, promotion, marketing, and distribution of drug products. Drugs are subject to rigorous regulation in the United States by the FDA and similar regulatory bodies in other countries. The steps ordinarily required by the FDA before a new drug may be marketed in the United States include:

 

 

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completion of non-clinical tests including preclinical laboratory and formulation studies and animal testing and toxicology;

 

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submission to the FDA of an IND application, which must become effective before clinical trials may begin, and which may be placed on “clinical hold” by the FDA, meaning the trial may not commence, or must be suspended or terminated prior to completion;

 

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performance of adequate and well-controlled Phase 1, 2 and 3 human clinical trials to establish the safety and efficacy of the drug for each proposed indication, and potentially post-approval or Phase 4 studies to further define the drug’s efficacy and safety, generally or in specific patient populations;

 

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submission to the FDA of an NDA that must be accompanied by a substantial “user fee” payment;

 

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FDA review and approval of the NDA before any commercial marketing or sale; and

 

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compliance with post-approval commitments and requirements.

 

Satisfaction of FDA pre-market approval requirements for new drugs typically takes a number of years and the actual time required for approval may vary substantially based upon the type, complexity and novelty of the product or disease to be treated by the drug. The results of product development, preclinical studies and clinical trials are submitted to the FDA as part of an NDA. The NDA also must contain extensive manufacturing information, demonstrating compliance with applicable GMP requirements. Once the submission has been accepted for filing, the FDA generally has twelve months to review the application and respond to the applicant. Such response may be an approval or may be a “complete response letter” outlining additional data or steps that must be completed prior to further FDA review of the NDA. The review process is often significantly extended by FDA requests for additional information or clarification. Success in early-stage clinical trials does not assure success in later stage clinical trials. Data obtained from clinical trials is not always conclusive and may be susceptible to varying interpretations that could delay, limit or prevent regulatory approval. The FDA may refer the NDA to an advisory committee for review, evaluation and recommendation as to whether the application should be approved, but the FDA is not bound by the recommendation of the advisory committee. The FDA may deny or delay approval of applications that do not meet applicable regulatory criteria or if the FDA determines that the clinical data do not adequately establish the safety and efficacy of the drug. Therefore, our proposed products could take a significantly longer time than we expect or may never gain approval. If regulatory approval is delayed or never obtained, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.

 

Some of our products or product candidates may be used in combination with a drug delivery device, such as an injector or other delivery system. Medical products containing a combination of new drugs, biological products or medical devices are regulated as “combination products” in the United States. A combination product generally is defined as a product comprised of components from two or more regulatory categories (e.g., drug/device, device/biologic, drug/biologic). Each component of a combination product is subject to the requirements established by the FDA for that type of component, whether a new drug, biologic or device. In order to facilitate pre-market review of combination products, the FDA designates one of its centers to have primary jurisdiction for the pre-market review and regulation of the overall product based upon a determination by the FDA of the primary mode of action of the combination product. The determination whether a product is a combination product or two separate products is made by the FDA on a case-by-case basis. Our product candidates intended for use with such devices, or expanded indications that we may seek for our products used with such devices, may not be approved or may be substantially delayed in receiving approval if the devices do not gain and/or maintain their own regulatory approvals or clearances. Where approval of the drug product and device is sought under a single application, the increased complexity of the review process may delay approval. In addition, because these drug delivery devices are provided by single source unaffiliated third-party companies, we are dependent on the sustained cooperation and effort of those third-party companies both to supply the devices, maintain their own regulatory compliance, and, in some cases, to conduct the studies required for approval or other regulatory clearance of the devices. We are also dependent on those third-party companies continuing to maintain such approvals or clearances once they have been received. Failure of third-party companies to supply the devices, to successfully complete studies on the devices in a timely manner, or to obtain or maintain required approvals or clearances of the devices, and maintain compliance with all regulatory requirements, could result in increased development costs, delays in or failure to obtain regulatory approval and delays in product candidates reaching the market or in gaining approval or clearance for expanded labels for new indications.

 

Upon approval, a product candidate may be marketed only in those dosage forms and for those indications approved by the FDA. Once approved, the FDA may withdraw the product approval if compliance with regulatory requirements is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the marketplace. In addition, the FDA may require postmarketing studies, referred to as Phase 4 studies, to monitor the approved products in a specific subset of patients or a larger number of patients than were required for product approval and may limit further marketing of the product based on the results of these post-market studies. The FDA has broad post-market regulatory and enforcement powers, including the ability to seek injunctions, levy fines and civil penalties, criminal prosecution, withdraw approvals and seize products or request recalls.

 

 
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If regulatory approval of any of our product candidates is granted, it will be limited to certain disease states or conditions, patient populations, duration, or f