10-Q 1 form10-q.htm
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

 

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2023

 

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the transition period from __________to__________

 

001-36312

(Commission File Number)

 

POWER REIT

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Maryland   45-3116572

(State or other jurisdiction

of incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

     
301 Winding Road, Old Bethpage, NY   11804
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)

 

(212) 750-0371

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

  N/A  
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class   Trading Symbol(s)   Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Shares   PW   NYSE American, LLC
         
7.75% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Perpetual Preferred Stock, Liquidation Preference $25 per Share   PW.A   NYSE American, LLC

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company    

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

 

Yes ☐ No

 

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.

 

3,389,661 common shares, $0.001 par value, outstanding at August 14, 2023.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page No.
     
PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION  
     
Item 1 – Financial Statements (Unaudited) 3
  Consolidated Balance Sheets as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 3
  Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 4
  Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity for the quarters ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 5
  Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 6
  Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements 7
     
Item 2 – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations 19
     
Item 3 – Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk 24
     
Item 4 – Controls and Procedures 24
     
PART II – OTHER INFORMATION
     
  Item 1 – Legal Proceedings 25
     
  Item 1A – Risk Factors 25
     
  Item 2 – Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds 27
     
  Item 3 – Defaults Upon Senior Securities 27
     
  Item 4 – Mine Safety Disclosures 27
     
  Item 5 – Other Information 27
     
  Item 6 – Exhibits 27
     
SIGNATURE 28

 

2

 

 

POWER REIT AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(Unaudited)

 

   June 30, 2023   December 31, 2022 
ASSETS        
Land  $7,826,135   $7,826,135 
Greenhouse cultivation and processing facilities, net of accumulated depreciation   45,367,659    46,577,077 
Net investment in direct financing lease - railroad   9,150,000    9,150,000 
           
Total real estate assets   62,343,794    63,553,212 
           
Cash and cash equivalents   3,272,933    2,847,871 
Restricted cash   1,000,000    1,000,000 
Accounts receivable   -    62,198 
Prepaid expenses and deposits   124,425    6,580 
Intangible lease asset, net of accumulated amortization   2,618,165    2,731,909 
Deferred debt issuance cost, net of amortization   -    46,023 
Deferred rent receivable   502,997    445,058 
Assets held for sale   13,717,499    15,504,072 
Other assets   1,480    - 
TOTAL ASSETS  $83,581,293   $86,196,923 
           
LIABILITIES AND EQUITY          
Accounts payable  $983,684   $1,416,085 
Accrued expenses   679,536    550,221 
Tenant security deposits   924,724    924,724 
Liabilities held for sale   781,049    717,988 
Current portion of long-term debt, net of unamortized discount   1,084,030    1,119,821 
Long-term debt, net of unamortized discount   36,956,146    37,217,841 
TOTAL LIABILITIES   41,409,169    41,946,680 
           
Series A 7.75% Cumulative Redeemable Perpetual Preferred Stock Par Value $25.00 (1,675,000 shares authorized; 336,944 issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022)   8,979,573    8,653,159 
           
Equity:          
Common Shares, $0.001 par value (98,325,000 shares authorized; 3,389,661 shares issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022)   3,389    3,389 
Additional paid-in capital   46,821,677    46,369,311 
Accumulated deficit   (13,632,515)   (10,775,616)
Total Equity   33,192,551    35,597,084 
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND EQUITY  $83,581,293   $86,196,923 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

3

 

 

POWER REIT AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(Unaudited)

 

   2023   2022   2023   2022 
   Three Months Ended June 30,   Six Months Ended June 30, 
   2023   2022   2023   2022 
REVENUE                    
Lease income from direct financing lease – railroad  $228,750   $228,750   $457,500   $457,500 
Rental income   (70,385)   1,698,889    624,307    3,117,624 
Rental income - related parties   -    305,310    -    643,326 
Other income   59,533    4    140,823    19 
TOTAL REVENUE   217,898    2,232,953    1,222,630    4,218,469 
                     
EXPENSES                    
Amortization of intangible assets   56,872    104,174    113,744    208,346 
General and administrative   464,504    335,829    891,788    627,112 
Property maintenance   509,784    -    1,035,496    - 
Property taxes   121,937    6,333    194,169    12,622 
Depreciation expense   604,710    388,520    1,209,418    677,057 
Interest expense   651,530    453,169    1,188,952    750,524 
TOTAL EXPENSES   2,409,337    1,288,025    4,633,567    2,275,661 
                     
OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE)                    
Gain on sale of property   -    -    1,040,452    - 
Loan modification expense   -    -    (160,000)   - 
TOTAL OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE)   -    -    880,452    - 
                     
NET (LOSS) / INCOME   (2,191,439)   944,928    (2,530,485)   1,942,808 
                     
Preferred Stock Dividends   (163,207)   (163,206)   (326,414)   (326,413)
                     
NET (LOSS) / INCOME ATTRIBUTABLE TO COMMON SHAREHOLDERS  $(2,354,646)  $781,722   $(2,856,899)  $1,616,395 
                     
Income (Loss) Per Common Share:                    
Basic  $(0.69)  $0.23   $(0.84)  $0.48 
Diluted   (0.69)   0.23    (0.84)   0.48 
                     
Weighted Average Number of Shares Outstanding:                    
Basic   3,389,661    3,367,261    3,389,661    3,367,396 
Diluted   3,389,661    3,367,261    3,389,661    3,367,396 
                     
Cash dividend per Series A Preferred Share  $-   $0.48   $-   $0.97 
Accumulated dividend accrued per Series A Preferred Shares:   0.48    -    0.97    - 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

4

 

 

POWER REIT AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY

For the Quarters Ended June 30, 2023 and 2022

(Unaudited)

 

   Shares   Amount   Capital   Deficit)   Equity 
           Additional   Retained Earnings   Total 
   Common Shares   Paid-in   (Accumulated   Shareholders’ 
   Shares   Amount   Capital   Deficit)   Equity 
                     
Balance at December 31, 2022   3,389,661   $3,389   $46,369,311   $(10,775,616)  $35,597,084 
Net Loss   -    -    -    (339,046)   (339,046)
Accrued Dividends on Preferred Stock   -    -    -    (163,207)   (163,207)
Stock-Based Compensation   -    -    227,009    -    227,009 
Balance at March 31, 2023   3,389,661   $3,389   $46,596,320   $(11,277,869)  $35,321,840 
Net Loss   -    -    -    (2,191,439)   (2,191,439)
Accrued Dividends on Preferred Stock   -    -    -    (163,207)   (163,207)
Stock-Based Compensation   -    -    225,357    -    225,357 
Balance at June 30, 2023   3,389,661   $3,389   $46,821,677   $(13,632,515)  $33,192,551 
                          
Balance at December 31, 2021   3,367,561   $3,367   $45,687,074   $4,130,694   $49,821,135 
Net Income   -    -    -    997,880    997,880 
Cash Dividends on Preferred Stock   -    -    -    (163,207)   (163,207)
Stock-Based Compensation   (300)   -    109,100    -    109,100 
Balance at March 31, 2022   3,367,261   $3,367   $45,796,174   $4,965,367   $50,764,908 
Net Income   -    -    -    944,928    944,928 
Cash Dividends on Preferred Stock   -    -    -    (163,206)   (163,206)
Stock-Based Compensation   -    -    109,100    -    109,100 
Balance at June 30, 2022   3,367,261   $3,367   $45,905,274   $5,747,089   $51,655,730 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

5

 

  

POWER REIT AND SUBSIDIARIES

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(Unaudited)

 

   2023   2022 
   Six Months Ended June 30, 
   2023   2022 
Operating activities          
Net (loss) income  $(2,530,485)  $1,942,808 
           
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash (used in) provided by operating activities:          
Amortization of intangible lease asset   113,744    208,346 
Amortization of debt costs   42,951    43,794 
Amortization of below market lease   -    (19,851)
Loan modification expense   160,000    - 
Stock-based compensation   452,366    218,200 
Depreciation   1,209,418    677,057 
Sale of property   (1,040,452)   - 
           
Changes in operating assets and liabilities          
Accounts receivable   62,198    - 
Deferred rent receivable   269,984    730,163 
Deferred rent liability   -    705,304 
Prepaid expenses and deposits   (34,595)   460,001 
Other assets   (1,480)   50,000 
Accounts payable   (499,140)   430,442 
Tenant security deposits   -    (382,000)
Accrued expenses   142,950    49,521 
Prepaid rent   (37,161)   96,261 
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities   (1,689,702)   5,210,046 
           
Investing activities          
Cash received for sale of property   2,409,178    - 
Cash paid for land, greenhouse cultivation and processing facilities   -    (11,193,345)
Cash paid for greenhouse cultivation and processing facilities - construction in progress   -    (6,843,038)
Net cash provided (used in) investing activities   2,409,178    (18,036,383)
           
Financing Activities          
Payment of debt issuance costs   -    (43,958)
Proceeds from long-term debt   -    11,500,000 
Principal payment on long-term debt   (294,414)   (282,885)
Cash dividends paid on preferred stock   -    (326,413)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities   (294,414)   10,846,744 
           
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents   425,062    (1,979,593)
           
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period  $3,847,871   $3,171,301 
           
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period  $4,272,933   $1,191,708 
           
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:          
Interest paid  $1,103,063   $657,209 
Reclass of deferred debt issuance costs to liability upon reduction of total loan commitment   46,023    175,759 
Dividends accrued on preferred stock   326,414    - 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited consolidated financial statements.

 

6

 

 

Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements

 

1 – GENERAL INFORMATION

 

Power REIT (the “Registrant” or the “Trust”, and together with its consolidated subsidiaries, “Power REIT”, unless the context requires otherwise) is a Maryland-domiciled, internally-managed real estate investment trust (a “REIT”) that owns a portfolio of real estate assets related to transportation, energy infrastructure and Controlled Environment Agriculture (“CEA”) in the United States.

 

The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information, and with the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Accordingly, these interim financial statements do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of the Trust, as defined below, these unaudited consolidated financial statements include all adjustments necessary to present fairly the information set forth herein. All such adjustments are of a normal recurring nature. Results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected for a full year.

 

These unaudited consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Trust’s audited consolidated financial statements and notes included in the Trust’s latest Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 filed with the SEC on March 31, 2023.

 

The Trust is structured as a holding company and owns its assets through twenty-four direct and indirect wholly-owned, special purpose subsidiaries that have been formed in order to hold real estate assets, obtain financing and generate lease revenue. As of June 30, 2023, the Trust’s assets consisted of approximately 112 miles of railroad infrastructure and related real estate which is owned by its subsidiary Pittsburgh & West Virginia Railroad (“P&WV”), approximately 501 acres of fee simple land leased to a number of utility scale solar power generating projects with an aggregate generating capacity of approximately 88 Megawatts (“MW”) and approximately 263 acres of land with approximately 2,211,000 square feet of CEA properties in the form of greenhouses.

 

On January 6, 2023, a wholly owned subsidiary of Power REIT, sold its interest in five ground leases related to utility scale solar farms located in Tulare County, California for gross proceeds of $2,500,000. The purchaser was an unaffiliated third party and the price was established based on an arm’s length negotiation. The properties were acquired by Power REIT in 2013 for $1,550,000.

 

During the six months ended June 30, 2023, the Trust accrued a quarterly dividend of approximately $326,000 ($0.484375 per share per quarter) on Power REIT’s 7.75% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Perpetual Preferred Stock.

 

The Trust has elected to be treated for tax purposes as a REIT, which means that it is exempt from U.S. federal income tax if a sufficient portion of its annual income is distributed to its shareholders, and if certain other requirements are met. In order for the Trust to maintain its REIT qualification, at least 90% of its ordinary taxable annual income must be distributed to shareholders. As of December 31, 2021, the last tax return completed to date, the Trust has a net operating loss of $24.8 million, which may reduce or eliminate this requirement.

 

7

 

 

2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

 

Cash

 

The Trust considers all highly liquid investments with original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Power REIT places its cash and cash equivalents with high-credit quality financial institutions; however, amounts are not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC. Amounts included in restricted cash represents funds held by the Trust related to debt service payment reserve required by the Debt Facility. See Note 6 for further discussion of the debt service payment reserve requirement. The following table provides a reconciliation of the Trust’s cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash that sums to the total of those amounts at the end of the periods presented on the Trust’s accompanying Consolidated Statements of Cash Flow:

 

   June 30, 2023   December 31, 2022 
         
Cash and cash equivalents  $3,272,933   $2,847,871 
Restricted cash   1,000,000    1,000,000 
Cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash  $4,272,933   $3,847,871 

 

Basis of Presentation

 

These unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”).

 

Principles of Consolidation

 

The accompanying consolidated financial statements include Power REIT and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances have been eliminated in consolidation.

 

Income (Loss) per Common Share

 

Basic net income (loss) per common share is computed by dividing net income (loss) available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted net income (loss) per common share is computed similar to basic net income (loss) per common share except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if the potential common shares had been issued and if the additional common shares were dilutive. The dilutive effect of the Trust’s options is computed using the treasury stock method.

 

The following table sets forth the computation of basic and diluted Income (loss) per share:

 

   2023   2022   2023   2022 
   Three Months Ended   Six Months Ended 
   June 30,   June 30, 
   2023   2022   2023   2022 
                 
Numerator:                    
                     
Net income (loss)  $(2,191,439)  $944,928   $(2,530,485)  $1,942,808 
Preferred Stock Dividends   (163,207)   (163,206)   (326,414)   (326,413)
Numerator for basic and diluted EPS - income (loss) available to common shareholders  $(2,354,646)  $781,722   $(2,856,899)  $1,616,395 
                     
Denominator:                    
Denominator for basic and diluted EPS - Weighted average shares   3,389,661    3,367,261    3,389,661    3,367,396 
                     
Basic and diluted income (loss) per common share  $(0.69)  $0.23   $(0.84)  $0.48 

 

8

 

 

Real Estate Assets and Depreciation of Investment in Real Estate

 

The Trust expects that most of its transactions will be accounted for as asset acquisitions. In an asset acquisition, the Trust is required to capitalize closing costs and allocates the purchase price on a relative fair value basis. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, the Trust acquired one property and the acquisition is accounted for as an asset acquisition. There were no acquisitions during the six months ended June 30, 2023. In making estimates of relative fair values for purposes of allocating purchase price, the Trust utilizes a number of sources, including independent appraisals that may be obtained in connection with the acquisition or financing of the respective property, its own analysis of recently acquired and existing comparable properties in our portfolio and other market data. The Trust also considers information obtained about each property as a result of its pre-acquisition due diligence, marketing and leasing activities in estimating the relative fair value of the tangible acquired. The Trust allocates the purchase price of acquired real estate to various components as follows:

 

  Land – Based on actual purchase if acquired as raw land. When property is acquired with improvements, the land price is established based on market comparables and market research to establish a value with the balance allocated to improvements for the land.
     
  Improvements – When a property is acquired with improvements, the land price is established based on market comparables and market research to establish a value with the balance allocated to improvements for the land. The Trust also evaluates the improvements in terms of replacement cost and condition to confirm that the valuation assigned to improvements is reasonable. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line method over the useful life of the improvements.
     
 

Lease Intangibles – The Trust recognizes lease intangibles when there’s an existing lease assumed with the property acquisitions. In determining the fair value of in-place leases (the avoided cost associated with existing in-place leases) management considers current market conditions and costs to execute similar leases in arriving at an estimate of the carrying costs during the expected lease-up period from vacant to existing occupancy. In estimating carrying costs, management includes reimbursable (based on market lease terms) real estate taxes, insurance, other operating expenses, as well as estimates of lost market rental revenue during the expected lease-up periods. The values assigned to in-place leases are amortized over the remaining term of the lease.

 

The fair value of above-or-below market leases is estimated based on the present value (using an interest rate which reflected the risks associated with the leases acquired) of the difference between contractual amounts to be received pursuant to the leases and management’s estimate of market lease rates measured over a period equal to the estimated remaining term of the lease. An above market lease is classified as an intangible asset and a below market lease is classified as an intangible liability. The capitalized above-market or below-market lease intangibles are amortized as a reduction of, or an addition to, rental income over the estimated remaining term of the respective leases.

 

Intangible assets related to leasing costs consist of leasing commissions and legal fees. Leasing commissions are estimated by multiplying the remaining contract rent associated with each lease by a market leasing commission. Legal fees represent legal costs associated with writing, reviewing, and sometimes negotiating various lease terms. Leasing costs are amortized over the remaining useful life of the respective leases.

     
  Construction in Progress (CIP) - The Trust classifies greenhouses or buildings under development and/or expansion as construction-in-progress until construction has been completed and certificates of occupancy permits have been obtained upon which the asset is then classified as an Improvement. The value of CIP is based on actual costs incurred.

 

Depreciation

 

Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of 20 years for greenhouses and 39 years for auxiliary buildings, except for PW CA Canndescent, LLC which was determined the buildings have a useful life of 37 years. For each of the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, approximately $1,209,000 and $677,000 depreciation expense was recorded, respectively.

 

9

 

 

Assets Held for Sale

 

Assets held for sale are measured at the lower of their carrying amount or estimated fair value less cost to sell. As of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Trust has three properties that are considered assets held for sale. See Note 7 for discussion of the Trust’s assets held for sale.

 

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

 

Real estate investments and related intangible assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the property might not be recoverable, which is referred to as a “triggering event.” A property to be held and used is considered impaired only if management’s estimate of the aggregate future cash flows, less estimated capital expenditures, to be generated by the property, undiscounted and without interest charges, are less than the carrying value of the property. This estimate takes into consideration factors such as expected future operating income, trends and prospects, as well as the effects of demand, competition and other factors.

 

If there is a triggering event in relation to a property to be held and used, the Trust will estimate the aggregate future cash flows, less estimated capital expenditures, to be generated by the property, undiscounted and without interest charges. In addition, this estimate may consider a probability weighted cash flow estimation approach when alternative courses of action to recover the carrying amount of a long-lived asset are under consideration or when a range of possible values is estimated.

 

The determination of undiscounted cash flows requires significant estimates by management, including the expected course of action at the balance sheet date that would lead to such cash flows. Subsequent changes in estimated undiscounted cash flows arising from changes in the anticipated action to be taken with respect to the property could impact the determination of whether an impairment exists and whether the effects could materially affect the Trust’s net income. To the extent estimated undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying value of the property, the loss will be measured as the excess of the carrying amount of the property over the estimated fair value of the property.

 

Assessment of the Trust’s ability to recover certain lease related costs must be made when it has a reason to believe that the tenant might not be able to perform under the terms of the lease as originally expected. This requires us to make estimates as to the recoverability of such costs. There is no impairment of long-lived assets during the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

The Railroad Lease (“P&WV Lease”) is treated as a direct financing lease. As such, income to P&WV under the Railroad Lease is recognized when received.

 

Lease revenue from solar land and CEA properties are accounted for as operating leases. Any such leases with rent escalation provisions are recorded on a straight-line basis when the amount of escalation in lease payments is known at the time Power REIT enters into the lease agreement, or known at the time Power REIT assumes an existing lease agreement as part of an acquisition (e.g., an annual fixed percentage escalation) over the initial lease term, subject to a collectability assessment, with the difference between the contractual rent receipts and the straight-line amounts recorded as “deferred rent receivable” or “deferred rent liability”. Collectability is assessed at quarter-end for each tenant receivable using various criteria including past collection issues, the current economic and business environment affecting the tenant and guarantees. If collectability of the contractual rent stream is not deemed probable, revenue will only be recognized upon receipt of cash from the tenant. During the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, the Trust wrote off a net amount of approximately $315,000 (which resulted in negative rental income for the three months ended June 30, 2023) and $302,000, respectively, in straight-line rent receivable against rental income based on its current assessment of collecting all remaining contractual rent on the greenhouse property leases. These tenants rent payments will be recorded as rental revenue on a cash basis. Expenses for which tenants are contractually obligated to pay, such as maintenance, property taxes and insurance expenses are not reflected in the Trust’s consolidated financial statements unless paid by the Trust.

 

10

 

 

Lease revenue from land that is subject to an operating lease without rent escalation provisions is recorded on a straight-line basis.

 

Intangibles

 

A portion of the acquisition price of the assets acquired by PW Tulare Solar, LLC (“PWTS”) have been allocated on the Trust’s consolidated balance sheets between Land and Intangibles fair values at the date of acquisition. The total amount of in-place lease intangible assets established was approximately $237,000, which was being amortized over a 24.6-year period prior to its sale during the first quarter of 2023. For each of the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, approximately $0 and $4,800 of the intangibles were amortized.

 

A portion of the acquisition price of the assets acquired by PW Regulus Solar, LLC (“PWRS”) have been allocated on The Trust’s consolidated balance sheets between Land and Intangibles’ fair values at the date of acquisition. The total amount of in-place lease intangible assets established was approximately $4,714,000, which is amortized over a 20.7-year period. For each of the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, approximately $113,700 of the intangibles was amortized.

 

A portion of the acquisition price of the assets acquired by PW CA Canndescent, LLC (“PW Canndescent”) have been allocated on the Trust’s consolidated balance sheets between Land, Improvements and Intangibles, fair values at the date of acquisition. The amount of in-place lease intangible assets established was approximately $808,000, which was to be amortized over a 4.5-year period. For the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, approximately $0 and $89,800 of amortization expense was recognized. A below-market lease intangible liability was recorded upon acquisition in the amount of approximately $179,000 and was to be amortized over a 4.5-year period. Addition to revenue for the amortization of the liability in the amount of approximately $0 and $19,900 was recognized for the six months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022, respectively. The lease intangibles for PW Canndescent were fully impaired during the last quarter of 2022 based upon tenant default.

 

Intangible assets are evaluated whenever events or circumstances indicate the carrying value of these assets may not be recoverable. There were no impairment charges recorded for the six months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022.

 

The following table provides a summary of the Intangible Assets and Liabilities:

 

   For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2023 
   Cost   Accumulated
Amortization
Through 12/31/22
   Accumulated
Amortization
1/1/23 - 6/30/23
   Net Book Value 
                     
Asset Intangibles - PWRS  $4,713,548   $1,981,639   $113,744   $2,618,165 

 

The following table provides a summary of the current estimate of future amortization of Intangible Assets for the subsequent years ending December 31:

 

      
2023 (6 months remaining)  $113,744 
2024  $227,488 
2025  $227,488 
2026  $227,488 
2027  $227,488 
Thereafter   1,594,469 
Total  $2,618,165 

 

11

 

 

Net Investment in Direct Financing Lease – Railroad

 

P&WV’s net investment in its leased railroad property, recognizing the lessee’s perpetual renewal options, was estimated to have a current value of $9,150,000, assuming an implicit interest rate of 10%.

 

Fair Value

 

Fair value represents the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. The Trust measures its financial assets and liabilities in three levels, based on the markets in which the assets and liabilities are traded and the reliability of the assumptions used to determine fair value.

 

  Level 1 – valuations for assets and liabilities traded in active exchange markets, or interest in open-end mutual funds that allow a company to sell its ownership interest back at net asset value on a daily basis. Valuations are obtained from readily available pricing sources for market transactions involving identical assets, liabilities or funds.
     
  Level 2 – valuations for assets and liabilities traded in less active dealer, or broker markets, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities or quoted prices in markets that are not active. Level 2 includes U.S. Treasury, U.S. government and agency debt securities, and certain corporate obligations. Valuations are usually obtained from third party pricing services for identical or comparable assets or liabilities.
     
  Level 3 – valuations for assets and liabilities that are derived from other valuation methodologies, such as option pricing models, discounted cash flow models and similar techniques, and not based on market exchange, dealer, or broker traded transactions. Level 3 valuations incorporate certain assumptions and projections in determining the fair value assigned to such assets or liabilities.

 

In determining fair value, the Trust utilizes valuation techniques that maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs to the extent possible as well as considering counterparty credit risk.

 

The carrying amounts of Power REIT’s financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, prepaid expenses, and accounts payable approximate fair value because of their relatively short-term maturities. The carrying value of long-term debt approximates fair value since the related rates of interest approximate current market rates. There are no financial assets and liabilities carried at fair value on a recurring basis as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022.

 

Other Income

 

Other income for the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 is $140,823 and $19, respectively which consists of interest income and forgiveness of accounts payable.

 

3 – GOING CONCERN

 

The Trust’s objectives when managing its capital are to ensure that there are adequate capital resources to safeguard the Trust’s ability to continue operating and maintain adequate levels of funding to support its ongoing operations and development such that it can continue to provide returns to shareholders. The Trust’s management evaluates whether there are conditions or events, considered in aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued.

 

For the six months ended June 30, 2023, the Trust determined that there was substantial doubt as to its ability to continue as a going concern as a result of net losses incurred, expected reduced revenue and increased property maintenance expenses. As of June 30, 2023, the Trust had approximately $3.3 million of non-restricted cash available and with the potential sale of certain assets, the Trust believes these resources will be sufficient to fund its operations and commitments. The focus on selling properties, the potential to enter into new leases and improve collections from existing tenants and the potential to raise capital in the form of debt or equity, should alleviate the substantial doubt about the Trust’s ability to continue as a going concern. However, the Trust cannot predict, with certainty, the outcome of its actions to generate liquidity and the failure to do so could negatively impact its future operations.

 

12

 

 

4 – ACQUISITION AND DISPOSITION

 

2023 Disposition

 

On January 6, 2023, a wholly owned subsidiary of Power REIT, sold its interest in five ground leases related to utility scale solar farms located in Tulare County, California for gross proceeds of $2,500,000. The purchaser is an unaffiliated third party and the price was established based on an arm’s length negotiation. The properties were acquired by Power REIT in 2013 for $1,550,000 and recognized a gain on sale of approximately $1,040,000.

 

      
Land   1,312,529 
Acquired lease intangible assets   237,471 
Total real estate investments   1,550,000 
Less acquired lease intangible amortization   (91,349)
Net book value of property upon sale   1,458,651 

 

2022 Acquisitions

 

On March 31, 2022, Power REIT completed its first acquisition with the focus of cultivation of food crops, through a newly formed wholly owned indirect subsidiary, PW MillPro NE LLC, (“PW MillPro”), and acquired a 1,121,513 square foot greenhouse cultivation facility (the “MillPro Facility”) on an approximately 86-acre property and a separate approximately 4.88-acre property with a 21-room employee housing building (the “Housing Facility”) for $9,350,000 and closing costs of approximately $91,000 located in O’Neill, Nebraska. As part of the transaction, the Trust agreed to fund $534,430 to upgrade the facility but as of June 30, 2023, $0 construction in progress has been funded, and the tenant has ceased operations at the property.

 

The following table summarizes the preliminary allocation of the purchase consideration for the PW MillPro properties based on the relative fair values of the assets when acquired:

 

   Greenhouse  Housing Facility 
Land  $344,000   $19,520 
Assets subject to depreciation:          
Improvements (Greenhouses /Processing Facilities)   8,794,445    283,399 
           
Total Assets Acquired  $9,138,445   $302,919 

 

5 – DIRECT FINANCING LEASES AND OPERATING LEASES

 

Information as Lessor Under ASC Topic 842

 

To generate positive cash flow, as a lessor, the Trust leases its facilities to tenants in exchange for payments. The Trust’s leases for its railroad, solar farms and greenhouse cultivation facilities have lease terms ranging between 5 and 99 years. Payments from the Trust’s leases are recognized on a straight-line basis over the terms of the respective leases or on a cash basis for tenants with collectability issues. During the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, the Trust wrote off a net amount of approximately $315,000 (which resulted in negative rental income for the three months ended June 30, 2023) and $302,000, respectively, in straight-line rent receivable against rental income. Total revenue from its leases recognized for the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 is approximately $1,082,000 and $4,218,000, respectively.

 

Due to significant price compression in the wholesale cannabis market, many of the Trust’s cannabis related tenants are currently experiencing financial challenges including an inability to pay rent. The Trust has offered certain of its cannabis tenants’ relief by amending leases whereby monthly cash payments are restructured over the course of the lease to lower near term rent payments and increase rent payments in the future.

 

13

 

 

Historically, the Trust’s revenue has been concentrated to a relatively limited number of investments, industries and lessees. During the six months ended June 30, 2023, Power REIT collected approximately 89% of its consolidated revenue from three properties. The tenants were Norfolk Southern Railway, Regulus Solar, LLC and NorthEast Kind Assets, LLC (“Sweet Dirt”), which represent 42%, 37% and 10% of consolidated revenue respectively. Comparatively, during the six months ended June 30, 2022, Power REIT collected approximately 65% of its consolidated revenue from five properties. The tenants were Sweet Dirt, Fiore Management LLC (“Canndescent”), Norfolk Southern Railway and Regulus Solar, LLC which represent 21%, 13%, 11% and 10% of consolidated revenue respectively. The fifth is an aggregate of properties owned in whole or in part and guaranteed by one party through three separate LLC’s that represent 10% of consolidated revenue.

 

The following is a schedule by years of minimum future rentals on non-cancelable operating leases as of June 30, 2023 for assets and assets held for sale where revenue recognition is considered on a straight-line basis:

 

   Assets   Assets Held for Sale 
2023 (6 months left)  $497,139   $      - 
2024   894,312    - 
2025   903,077    - 
2026   912,192    - 
2027   921,265    - 
Thereafter   6,545,296    - 
Total  $10,673,281   $- 

 

6 – LONG-TERM DEBT

 

On December 31, 2012, as part of the Salisbury land acquisition, PW Salisbury Solar, LLC (“PWSS”) assumed existing municipal financing (“Municipal Debt”). The Municipal Debt has approximately 9 years remaining. The Municipal Debt has a simple interest rate of 5.0% that is paid annually, due on February 1 of each year. The balance of the Municipal Debt as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 is approximately $51,000 and $58,000 respectively.

 

In July 2013, PWSS borrowed $750,000 from a regional bank (the “PWSS Term Loan”). The PWSS Term Loan carries a fixed interest rate of 5.0% for a term of 10 years and amortizes based on a 20-year principal amortization schedule. The loan is secured by PWSS’ real estate assets and a parent guarantee from the Trust. The balance of the PWSS Term Loan as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 is approximately $474,000 (net of approximately $0 of capitalized debt costs) and $490,000 (net of approximately $1,400 of capitalized debt costs), respectively.

 

On November 6, 2015, PWRS entered into a loan agreement (the “2015 PWRS Loan Agreement”) with a certain lender for $10,150,000 (the “2015 PWRS Loan”). The 2015 PWRS Loan is secured by land and intangibles owned by PWRS. PWRS issued a note to the benefit of the lender dated November 6, 2015 with a maturity date of October 14, 2034 and a 4.34% interest rate. The 2015 PWRS Loan is non-recourse to Power REIT. As of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the balance of the 2015 PWRS Loan was approximately $7,232,000 (net of unamortized debt costs of approximately $247,000) and $7,393,000 (net of unamortized debt costs of approximately $258,000), respectively.

 

On November 25, 2019, Power REIT, through a newly formed subsidiary, PW PWV Holdings LLC (“PW PWV”), entered into a loan agreement (the “PW PWV Loan Agreement”) with a certain lender for $15,500,000 (the “PW PWV Loan”). The PW PWV Loan is secured by pledge of PW PWV’s equity interest in P&WV, its interest in the Railroad Lease and a security interest in a deposit account (the “Deposit Account”) pursuant to a Deposit Account Control Agreement dated November 25, 2019 into which the P&WV rental proceeds are deposited. Pursuant to the Deposit Account Control Agreement, P&WV has instructed its bank to transfer all monies deposited in the Deposit Account to the escrow agent as a dividend/distribution payment pursuant to the terms of the PW PWV Loan Agreement. The PW PWV Loan is evidenced by a note issued by PW PWV to the benefit of the lender for $15,500,000, with a fixed interest rate of 4.62% and fully amortizes over the life of the financing which matures in 2054 (35 years). The PW PWV Loan is non-recourse to Power REIT. The balance of the loan as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 is $14,515,000 (net of approximately $280,000 of capitalized debt costs) and $14,615,000 (net of approximately $285,000 of capitalized debt costs).

 

14

 

 

On December 21, 2021, Power REIT entered into a debt facility with initial availability of $20 million (the “Debt Facility”). The facility is non-recourse to Power REIT and is structured without initial collateral but has springing liens to provide security against a significant number of Power REIT CEA portfolio properties in the event of default. The Debt Facility had a 12 month draw period and then converts to a term loan that is fully amortizing over five years. The interest rate on the Debt Facility was 5.52% and throughout the term of the loan, a debt service coverage ratio of equal to or greater than 2.00 to 1.00 must be maintained. On October 28, 2022, the terms of the Debt Facility were amended such that the amortization period was extended from 5 years to 10 years for the calculation of debt service coverage ratio and a 6-month debt service payment reserve requirement of $1 million was established. On March 13, 2023 the Debt Facility entered into an additional modification of which the terms are summarized as follows:

 

- The total commitment is reduced from $20 million to $16 million.
- The interest rate is changed to the greater of: (i) 1% above the Prime rate and (ii) 8.75%.
- Monthly payments on the Debt Facility will be interest only until maturity.
- A portion of the proceeds from the sale of assets within the Borrowing Base for the Debt Facility will be required to pay the outstanding loan amount.
- The maturity date of the Debt Facility is changed to December 21, 2025.
- The Debt Service Coverage ratio will be 1.50 to 1.00 and the test will be performed on an annual basis and is eliminated until the calendar year 2024.
- The definition of assets included in the Borrowing Base for the Debt Facility no longer eliminates assets where tenants are in default for failure to make timely rent payments.
- An agreed upon minimum liquidity amount shall be maintained in the amount of $1 million.
- A $160,000 fee will be charged by the bank for the modification.

 

As of June 30, 2023, $16,000,000 has been drawn against this Debt Facility. Debt issuance expenses of approximately $0 and $44,000 have been capitalized during the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Amortization of approximately $25,900 and $26,700 has been recognized for the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively and approximately $46,000 deferred debt issuance costs were re-classed as contra liability upon the loan commitment reduction for the six months ended June 30, 2023; approximately $176,000 deferred debt issuance costs were re-classed as contra liability upon the loan draw for the six months ended June 30, 2022. The balance of the loan as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 is approximately $15,768,000 (net of approximately $232,000 of unamortized debt costs) and approximately $15,735,000 (net of approximately $265,000 of unamortized debt costs). During the six months ended June 30, 2023, the Trust also recognized $160,000 loan modification expense in connection with the March 13, 2023 modification.

 

The Trust is in compliance of all loan covenants as of June 30, 2023.

 

The amount of principal payments remaining on Power REIT’s long-term debt as of June 30, 2023 including the modified repayment schedule for the Debt Facility is as follows:

 

      
2023 (6 months remaining)   867,961 
2024   715,777 
2025   16,755,634 
2026   797,628 
2027   841,452 
Thereafter   18,820,754 
Long term debt  $38,799,206 

 

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7 – ASSET HELD FOR SALE

 

The Trust has aggregated and classified the assets and liabilities of three properties (Canndescent, Walsenburg and Sweet Dirt) as held for sale in the Trust’s Consolidated Balance Sheets as of June 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022. The assets and liabilities of assets held for sale were as follows:

 

   June 30, 2023   December 31, 2022 
         
ASSETS          
Land   1,175,148    2,487,677 
Greenhouse cultivation and processing facilities, net of accumulated depreciation   12,542,351    12,542,351 
Intangible lease asset, net of accumulated amortization   -    146,121 
Accounts Receivable   -    - 
Deferred rent receivable   -    327,923 
TOTAL ASSETS - Held for sale   13,717,499    15,504,072 
           
LIABILITIES          
Accounts payable   77,088    143,827 
Tenant security deposits   537,000    537,000 
Prepaid rent   -    37,161 
Accrued Property Tax   166,961    - 
TOTAL LIABILITIES - Held for sale   781,049    717,988 

 

On January 27, 2023, PW SD and Sweet Dirt entered into a Purchase and Sale Agreement (the “PSA”) to sell the property leased to Sweet Dirt for total consideration of $7,037,000. On March 31, 2023, the Sweet Dirt lease was amended to restructure the timing of rent payments but maintain the same overall yield. On March 31, 2023, the Purchase and Sale Agreement was amended to allow for a 60-day extension for closing as well as an option to extend the closing for an additional 21 days. As part of the amendment, Sweet Dirt provided a $300,000 non-refundable deposit to the escrow agent. Sweet Dirt is currently in default with respect to the PSA for failure to close by June 21, 2023 which was the deadline based on Sweet Dirt’s exercise of the option to extend the closing deadline as well as for the failure to provide an additional non-refundable deposit that was required for the option to extend the closing date. In addition, Sweet Dirt is in default on its lease for failure to pay rent for May, June, July of 2023. As of the filing, PW SD and Sweet Dirt are in ongoing discussions related to a path forward. There can be no assurance as to when or if the sale will close.

 

8 – EQUITY AND LONG-TERM COMPENSATION

 

Summary of Stock Based Compensation Activity

 

Power REIT’s 2020 Equity Incentive Plan (the “Plan”), which superseded the 2012 Equity Incentive Plan, was adopted by the Board on May 27, 2020 and approved by shareholders on June 24, 2020. It provides for the grant of the following awards: (i) Incentive Stock Options; (ii) Nonstatutory Stock Options; (iii) SARs; (iv) Restricted Stock Awards; (v) RSU Awards; (vi) Performance Awards; and (vii) Other Awards. The Plan’s purpose is to secure and retain the services of Employees, Directors and Consultants, to provide incentives for such persons to exert maximum efforts for the success of the Trust and to provide a means by which such persons may be given an opportunity to benefit from increases in value of the common stock through the granting of awards. As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate number of shares of common stock that may be issued pursuant to outstanding awards is currently 150,917 which is subject to adjustment per the Plan.

 

Summary of Stock Based Compensation Activity – Options

 

On July 15, 2022, the Trust granted non-qualified stock options (“options”) to acquire 205,000 shares of common stock at a price of $13.44 to its independent trustees, officers and an employee. The term of each option is 10 years. The options vest over three years as follows: in a series of thirty-six (36) equal monthly installments measured from the Vesting Commencement Date on the same date of the month as the Vesting Commencement Date which is August 1, 2022.

 

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The Trust accounts for share-based payments using the fair value method. The Trust recognizes all share-based payments in its financial statements based on their grant date fair values and market closing price, calculated using the Black-Scholes option valuation model.

 

The following assumptions were made to estimate fair value:

 

Expected Volatility   63%
Expected Dividend Yield   0%
Expected Term (in years)   5.8 
Risk Free Rate   3.05%
Estimate of Forfeiture Rate   0%

 

The Trust uses historical data to estimate dividend yield and volatility and the “simplified method” as described in the SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin #110 to determine the expected term of the option grants. The risk-free interest rate for the expected term of the options is based on the U.S. treasury yield curve on the grant date. The Trust does not have historical data of forfeiture and used a 0% forfeiture rate in calculating unrecognized share-based compensation expense and will account for forfeitures as they occur. On January 31, 2023, 6,250 options and on April 30, 2023, 1,250 options were forfeited by an employee who is no longer employed by the Trust.

 

The summary of stock-based compensation activity for the six months ended June 30, 2023, with respect to the Trust’s stock options, is as follows:

 

Summary of Activity - Options

 

  

Number of


Options

  

Weighted


Average


Exercise Price

  

Aggregate


Intrinsic Value

 
Balance as of December 31, 2022   205,000   $13.44          - 
 Options Forfeited   (7,500)   13.44      
Balance as of June 30, 2023   197,500    13.44    - 
                
Options exercisable as of June 30, 2023   60,347   $13.44    - 

 

The weighted average remaining term of the options is 9.04 years.

 

Summary of Stock Based Compensation Activity – Restricted Stock

 

On July 15, 2022, the Trust granted 22,400 shares of restricted stock to its officer (20,000 shares) and independent trustees (600 shares each). The restricted stock vests over 36 months for the officer and quarterly over four quarters for the trustees and is valued based on the market price of the common stock on the grant date.

 

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The summary of stock-based compensation activity for the six months ended June 30, 2023, with respect to the Trust’s restricted stock, was as follows:

 

Summary of Activity - Restricted Stock

 

  

Number of
Shares of
Restricted
Stock

  

Weighted
Average
Grant Date
Fair Value

 
Balance as of December 31, 2022   28,182    21.64 
Plan Awards   -    - 
Restricted Stock Forfeited   -    - 
Restricted Stock Vested   (8,017)   23.65 
Balance as of June 30, 2023   20,165    20.83 

 

Stock-based Compensation

 

During the six months ended June 30, 2023, the Trust recorded approximately $190,000 of non-cash expense related to restricted stock and approximately $263,000 of non-cash expense related to options granted compared to approximately $218,000 of non-cash expense related to restricted stock for the six months ended June 30, 2022. As of June 30, 2023, there was approximately $420,000 of total unrecognized share-based compensation expense for restricted stock and approximately $1,088,000 of total unrecognized share-based expense for options, which expense will be recognized through the third quarter of 2025. The Trust does not currently have a policy regarding the repurchase of shares on the open market related to equity awards and does not currently intend to acquire shares on the open market.

 

Preferred Stock Dividends

 

During the six months ended June 30, 2023, the Trust accrued a total of approximately $326,000 of dividends to holders of Power REIT’s Series A Preferred Stock.

 

9 – RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

A wholly-owned subsidiary of Hudson Bay Partners, LP (“HBP”), an entity associated with the Trust’s CEO and Chairman of the Trust, David Lesser, provided the Trust and its subsidiaries with office space at no cost. Effective September 2016, the Board of Trustees approved reimbursing an affiliate of HBP $1,000 per month for administrative and accounting support based on a conclusion that it would pay more for such support from a third party. The amount paid was increased over time with the approval of the independent members of the Board of Trustees. Effective February 23, 2021, the monthly amount paid to the affiliate of HBP increased to $4,000. A total of $8,000 was paid pursuant to this arrangement during the six months ended June 30, 2022 compared to $0 paid during the six months ended June 30, 2023. During the first quarter of 2022, the Trust eliminated this recurring related party transaction and implemented payroll through Power REIT.

 

Power REIT has a relationship with Millennium Sustainable Ventures Corp., formerly Millennium Investment and Acquisition Company Inc. (“MILC’). David H. Lesser, Power REIT’s Chairman and CEO, is also Chairman and CEO of MILC. MILC, through subsidiaries or affiliates, established cannabis and food crop cultivation projects and entered into leases related to the Trust’s Oklahoma, Michigan and Nebraska properties and MILC is a lender to the tenant of one of the Trust’s Colorado properties. As of June 30, 2023, these properties are currently not operational and the Trust is evaluating alternatives related thereto. Total rental income recognized for the six months ended June 30, 2023 from the tenants that are affiliated with MILC in Colorado, Oklahoma, Michigan and Nebraska was $0 compared to total rental income recognized for the six months ended June 30, 2022 from the affiliated tenants in Colorado, Oklahoma, Michigan and Nebraska of $242,785, $125,695, $0 and $274,846 respectively.

 

Effective March 1, 2022, the Sweet Dirt Lease was amended (the “Sweet Dirt Lease Second Amendment”) to provide funding in the amount of $3,508,000 to add additional items to the property improvement budget for the construction of a Cogeneration / Absorption Chiller project to the Sweet Dirt Property. A portion of the property improvement budget, amounting to $2,205,000, will be supplied by IntelliGen Power Systems LLC (“IntelliGen”) which is owned by Hudson Bay Partners, LLC, an affiliate of David Lesser, Power REIT’s Chairman and CEO. On January 23, 2023, the Sweet Dirt lease was amended to restructure the timing of rent payments but maintain the same overall yield and eliminate the funding of remaining capital improvements for the cogeneration project, which includes eliminating payments that were expected to be paid to IntelliGen, a related party. As of June 30, 2023, $1,102,500 had been paid to IntelliGen for equipment supplied.

 

Under the Trust’s Declaration of Trust, the Trust may enter into transactions in which trustees, officers or employees have a financial interest, provided however, that in the case of a material financial interest, the transaction is disclosed to the Board of Trustees or the transaction shall be fair and reasonable. After consideration of the terms and conditions of the transaction with Hudson Bay Partners, IntelliGen Power Systems and the lease transactions with subsidiaries and affiliates of MILC, the independent trustees approved such arrangements having determined such arrangement are fair and reasonable and in the interest of the Trust.

 

10 – CONTINGENCIES

 

The Trust’s wholly-owned subsidiary, P&WV, is subject to various restrictions imposed by the Railroad Lease with NSC, including restrictions on share and debt issuance, including guarantees.

 

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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

 

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (this “Report”) includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements are those that predict or describe future events or trends and that do not relate solely to historical matters. You can generally identify forward-looking statements as statements containing the words “believe,” “expect,” “will,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “estimate,” “project,” “plan,” “assume” or other similar expressions, or negatives of those expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. All statements contained in this Report regarding our future strategy, future operations, projected financial position, estimated future revenues, projected costs, future prospects, the future of our industries and results that might be obtained by pursuing management’s current or future plans and objectives are forward-looking statements.

 

You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements because the matters they describe are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other unpredictable factors, many of which are beyond our control, including those identified below, under Part II, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Report, and those identified under Part I, Item 1A of the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 31, 2023 (the “2022 10-K”). Our forward-looking statements are based on the information currently available to us and speak only as of the date of the filing of this Report. New risks and uncertainties arise from time to time, and it is impossible for us to predict these matters or how they may affect us. Over time, our actual results, performance, financial condition or achievements may differ from the anticipated results, performance, financial condition or achievements that are expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements, and such differences may be significant and materially adverse to our security holders. Our forward-looking statements contained herein speak only as of the date hereof, and we make no commitment to update or publicly release any revisions to forward-looking statements in order to reflect new information or subsequent events, circumstances or changes in expectations.

 

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

 

Power REIT (the “Registrant” or the “Trust”, and together with its consolidated subsidiaries, “we”, “us”, or “Power REIT”, unless the context requires otherwise) is a Maryland-domiciled, internally-managed real estate investment trust (a “REIT”) that owns a portfolio of real estate assets related to transportation, energy infrastructure and Controlled Environment Agriculture (“CEA”) in the United States.

 

We are structured as a holding company and owns our assets through twenty-four direct and indirect wholly-owned, special purpose subsidiaries that have been formed in order to hold real estate assets, obtain financing and generate lease revenue. As of June 30, 2023, the Trust’s assets consisted of approximately 112 miles of railroad infrastructure and related real estate which is owned by its subsidiary Pittsburgh & West Virginia Railroad (“P&WV”), approximately 501 acres of fee simple land leased to a number of utility scale solar power generating projects with an aggregate generating capacity of approximately 88 Megawatts (“MW”) and approximately 263 acres of land with approximately 2,211,000 square feet of existing or under construction CEA properties in the form of greenhouses.

  

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During the six months ended June 30, 2023, the Trust accrued a quarterly dividend of approximately $326,000 ($0.484375 per share per quarter) on Power REIT’s 7.75% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Perpetual Preferred Stock.

 

Recent Developments

 

In 2019, we expanded the focus of our real estate activities to include CEA properties in the form of greenhouses in the United States. CEA is an innovative method of growing plants that involves creating optimized growing environments for a given crop indoors. Power REIT is focused on CEA in the form of a greenhouse which use approximately 70% less energy than indoor growing, 95% less water usage than outdoor growing, and does not have any agricultural runoff of fertilizers or pesticides. We believe greenhouse cultivation represents a sustainable solution from both a business and environmental perspective. Certain of our greenhouse properties are operated for the cultivation of cannabis by state-licensed operators. During 2022, we acquired a greenhouse focused on the cultivation of tomatoes. We typically enter into long-term “triple net” leases where our tenants are responsible for all costs related to the property, including insurance, taxes and maintenance.

 

Our primary objective is to maximize the long-term value of the Trust for our shareholders. To that end, our business goals are to obtain the best possible rental income at our properties in order to maximize our cash flows, net operating income, funds from operations, funds available for distribution to shareholders and other operating measures and results, and ultimately to maximize the values of our properties.

 

To achieve this primary goal, we have developed a business strategy focused on increasing the values of our properties, and ultimately of the Trust, which includes:

 

Raising capital by monetizing the embedded value in our portfolio to enhance our liquidity position and, as appropriate reducing debt levels to strengthen our balance sheet;

Selling off non-core properties and underperforming assets;

Seeking to re-lease properties that are vacant or have non-performing tenants

Raising the overall level of quality of our portfolio and of individual properties in our portfolio;

Improving the operating results of our properties; and

Taking steps to position the Company for future growth opportunities.

 

Improving Our Balance Sheet by Reducing Debt and Leverage; Maintaining Liquidity

 

Leverage

 

We continue to seek ways to reduce our leverage by improving our operating performance and through a variety of other means available to us. These means might include selling properties, raising capital or through other actions.

 

Liquidity

 

As of June 30, 2023, our consolidated balance sheet reflected $4.3 million of cash and cash equivalents which includes $1 million of restricted cash related to a credit facility. We believe that this amount and future net cash provided by operations, property sales, and other sources of capital, should provide sufficient liquidity to meet our liquidity requirements in the short term, including for one year from the filing of this Report.

 

Capital Recycling

 

In the later part of 2022, we commenced property reviews to establish a plan for the portfolio and, if appropriate, will seek to dispose of properties that we do not believe meet financial and strategic criteria given economic, market and other circumstances. Disposing of these properties can enable us to redeploy our capital to other uses, such as to repay debt, to reinvest in other real estate assets and development and redevelopment projects, and for other corporate purposes. Along these lines, in early 2023 we completed sales of assets for total gross proceeds of $2.5 million. We also have several properties that we are seeking to sell and/or lease which have been classified as “Assets Held for Sale.”

 

Improving Our Portfolio

 

We are currently seeking to refine our property holdings by selling properties and/or re-leasing them in an effort to improve the overall performance going forward.

 

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Taking Steps to Position the Company for Future Growth Opportunities

 

We are taking steps designed to position the Trust to create shareholder value. In connection therewith, we have implemented processes designed to ensure strong internal discipline in the use, harvesting and recycling of our capital, and these processes will be applied in connection with seeking to reposition properties.

 

We may continue to seek to acquire, in an opportunistic, selective and disciplined manner, properties that have operating metrics that are better than or equal to our existing portfolio averages, and that we believe have potential to generate cash flow and/or appreciation in value. Taking advantage of any acquisition opportunities would likely involve some use of debt or equity capital. We will pursue transactions that we expect can meet the financial and strategic criteria we apply, given economic, market and other circumstances. In addition, we are exploring the potential to use our existing corporate structure for strategic transactions including potentially merging assets or companies with the Trust.

 

On January 6, 2023, a wholly owned subsidiary of Power REIT, sold its interest in five ground leases related to utility scale solar farms located in Tulare County, California for gross proceeds of $2,500,000. The purchaser is an unaffiliated third party and the price was established based on an arm’s length negotiation. The properties were acquired by Power REIT in 2013 for $1,550,000.

 

The following table is a summary of the Trust’s properties as of August 2023:

 

Property Type/Name  Acres   Size1  

Lease

Start

  

Term

(yrs)2

  

Gross Book

Value3

  

Gross

Book

Value

Per SF

 
Railroad Property                              
P&WV - Norfolk Southern        112 miles    Oct-64    99   $9,150,000   $- 
                               
Solar Farm Land                              
Massachusetts                              
PWSS   54    5.7    Dec-11    22    1,005,538    - 
California                              
PWRS   447    82.0    Apr-14    20    9,183,548    - 
Solar Total   501    87.7             $10,189,086   $- 
                               
Greenhouse - Cannabis                              
Colorado                              
JAB - Mav 15,6   5.20    16,416    Jul-19    20    1,594,582    97 
Jackson Farms - Tam 184,5,6   2.11    12,996    Jul-19    20    1,075,000    83 
Mav 144,5,6   5.54    26,940    Feb-20    20    1,908,400    71 
Green Street (Chronic) - Sherman 65,6   5.00    26,416    Feb-20    20    1,995,101    76 
Fifth Ace - Tam 75,6   4.32    18,000    Sep-20    20    1,364,585    76 
Tam 194,5,6   2.11    18,528    Dec-20    20    1,311,116    71 
Apotheke - Tam 85,6   4.31    21,548    Jan-21    20    2,061,542    96 
Tam 144,5,6   2.09    24,360    Oct-20    20    2,252,187    92 
Elevate & Bloom - Tam 135,6   2.37    9,384    May-22    20    1,031,712    110 
Gas Station - Tam 35,6   2.20    24,512    Feb-21    20    2,080,414    85 
Tam 27 and 284,5,6   4.00    38,440    Apr-21    20    1,872,340    49 
Walsenburg Cannabis (Greenhouse)4,5,6,7   35.00    102,800    May-21    20    4,219,170    41 
Walsenburg Cannabis (MIP)5,6             Jan-22    10    636,351      
Sherman 21 and 224,5,6   10.00    24,880    Jun-21    20    1,782,136    72 
Jackson Farms - Mav 55,6   5.20    15,000    Nov-21    20    1,358,634    91 
Tam 4 and 54,5,6   4.41    27,988    Jan-22    20    2,239,870    80 
Maine                              
Sweet Dirt5,6,7   6.64    48,238    May-20    20    9,082,731    188 
California4,6,7   0.85    37,000    Jan-21    5    7,685,000    208 
Oklahoma4,6   9.35    40,000    Jun-21    20    2,593,313    65 
Michigan4,6   61.14    556,146    Sep-21    20    24,171,151    46 
                               
Greenhouse - Produce                              
Nebraska4   90.88    1,121,153    Apr-22    10    9,350,000    8 
Greenhouse Total   262.72    2,210,745             $81,665,335   $37 
                               
Total Portfolio                      $101,004,421      
                               
Impairment                       16,739,040      
Depreciation and Amortization                       5,585,923      
Net Book Value Net of Impairment, Depreciation and Amortization       $78,679,458      

 

1 Solar Farm Land size represents Megawatts and CEA property size represents greenhouse square feet

2 Not including renewal options

3 Gross Book Value for our Greenhouse Portfolio represents purchase price (excluding capitalized acquisition costs) plus improvements costs - does not include outstanding capital commitments

4Property is vacant

5Tenant is not current on rent/in default

6An impairment has been taken against this asset

7Asset held for sale

 

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Critical Accounting Estimates

 

The consolidated financial statements are prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP, which requires the use of estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses in the periods presented. We believe that the accounting estimates employed are appropriate and resulting balances are reasonable; however, due to inherent uncertainties in making estimates, actual results may differ from the original estimates, requiring adjustments to these balances in future periods. The critical accounting estimates that affect the consolidated financial statements and the judgments and assumptions used are consistent with those described under Part II, Item 7 of the 2022 10-K.

 

Results of Operations

 

Three Months Ended June 30, 2023 and 2022

 

Revenue during the three months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 was $217,898 and $2,232,953, respectively. Revenue during the three months ended June 30, 2023, consisted of revenue from direct financing lease of $228,750, total rental income (expense) of ($70,385), and other income of $59,533. The decrease in total revenue was primarily related to a decrease in rental income of $305,310 in rental income from related parties and $1,769,274 in rental income from unrelated parties due to defaulted leases related to the challenges within the cannabis industry and adjusting leases from straight-line to cash basis, which was offset by an increase in other income of $59,529. Expenses for the three months ended June 30, 2023 compared to 2022 increased by $1,121,312 due to an increase in property maintenance expense incurred of $509,784 and increase in property tax of $115,604 as a result of tenant defaults, an increase in general and administrative expenses of $128,675, an increase in interest expense of $198,361 due to the current interest rate environment, a decrease in amortization of intangible assets of $47,302 and an increase in depreciation expense of net $216,190. Net (loss)/income attributable to common shareholders during the three months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 was ($2,354,646) and $781,722, respectively. Net income attributable to common shares decreased by $3,136,368.

 

For the three months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022, we accrued a dividend to our holders of Series A Preferred Stock of $163,207 and paid a cash dividend of $163,206, respectively.

 

Six Months Ended June 30, 2023, and 2022

 

Revenue during the six months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022 was $1,222,630 and $4,218,469, respectively. Revenue during the six months ended June 30, 2023, consisted of rental income of $624,307, direct financing lease income of $457,500 and other income of $140,823. The decrease in total revenue was primarily related to a decrease in rental income of $643,326 from transactions with related parties, and $2,493,317 in rental income from unrelated parties due to defaulted leases related to the challenges within the cannabis industry, offset by an increase in other income of $140,804. Expenses for the six months ended June 30, 2023 increased $2,357,906 as compared to total expenses for the six months ended June 30, 2022 primarily due to an increase in property maintenance expense of $1,035,496 and an increase in property tax of $181,547 as a result of tenant defaults, an increase in general and administrative expenses of $264,676, an increase in depreciation expense of $532,361, an increase in interest expense of $438,428 and a decrease in amortization of intangible assets of $94,602. Other income increased by $880,452 due to a gain on disposal of the Tulare property netted with lease modification expense of $160,000. Net (loss)/income attributable to common shareholders during the six months ended June 30, 2023 and 2022 was ($2,856,899) and $1,616,395, respectively. Net income attributable to common shareholders decreased by $4,473,294.

 

For the six months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022, we accrued a dividend to our holders of Series A Preferred Stock of $326,414 and paid a cash dividend to our holders of Series A Preferred Stock of $326,413, respectively.

 

Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Our cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash totaled $4,272,933 as of June 30, 2023, an increase of $425,062 from December 31, 2022. During the six months ended June 30, 2023, the increase in cash was primarily due to the proceeds of $2,409,178 from the sale of the solar land property.

 

With the cash available as of August, 2023 and the sale and potential sale of certain assets, we believe these resources will be sufficient to fund our operations and commitments. Our cash outlays, other than acquisitions, property improvements, dividend payments and interest expense, are for property maintenance, property taxes and general and administrative (“G&A”) expenses, which consist principally of professional fees, consultant fees, NYSE American listing fees, insurance, shareholder service company fees and auditing costs as well as property related expenses that are not covered by tenants. To the extent we need to raise additional capital to meet our obligations, there can be no assurance that financing will be available when needed on favorable terms. If we are unable to sell certain assets when anticipated at prices anticipated, we may not have sufficient cash to fund operations and commitments.

 

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The Trust’s objectives when managing its capital are to seek to ensure that there are adequate capital resources to safeguard the Trust’s ability to continue operating and maintain adequate levels of funding to support its ongoing operations and development such that it can continue to provide returns to shareholders. Our management evaluates whether there are conditions or events, considered in aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued.

 

For the six months ended June 30, 2023, the Trust determined that there was substantial doubt as to its ability to continue as a going concern as a result of net losses incurred, expected reduced revenue and increased property maintenance expenses. As of June 30, 2023, the Trust had approximately $3.3 million of non-restricted cash available and with the potential sale of certain assets, we believe these resources will be sufficient to fund our operations and commitments. The focus on selling properties, the potential to enter into new leases and improve collections from existing tenants and the potential to raise capital in the form of debt or equity, should alleviate the substantial doubt about the Trust’s ability to continue as a going concern. However, we cannot predict, with certainty, the outcome of our actions to generate liquidity and the failure to do so could negatively impact our future operations.

 

FUNDS FROM OPERATIONS – NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES

 

We assess and measure our overall operating results based upon an industry performance measure referred to as Core Funds From Operations (“Core FFO”) which management believes is a useful indicator of our operating performance. Core FFO is a non-GAAP financial measure. Core FFO should not be construed as a substitute for net income (loss) (as determined in accordance with GAAP) for the purpose of analyzing our operating performance or financial position, as Core FFO is not defined by GAAP. The following is a definition of this measure, an explanation as to why we present it and, at the end of this section, a reconciliation of Core FFO to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure. Management believes that alternative measures of performance, such as net income computed under GAAP, or Funds From Operations computed in accordance with the definition used by the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (“NAREIT”), include certain financial items that are not indicative of the results provided by our asset portfolio and inappropriately affect the comparability of the Trust’s period-over-period performance. These items include non-recurring expenses, such as one-time upfront acquisition expenses that are not capitalized under ASC-805 and certain non-cash expenses, including stock-based compensation expense, amortization and certain up front financing costs. Therefore, management uses Core FFO and defines it as net income excluding such items. We believe that Core FFO is a useful supplemental measure for the investing community to employ, including when comparing us to other REITs that disclose similarly Core FFO figures, and when analyzing changes in our performance over time. Readers are cautioned that other REITs may use different adjustments to their GAAP financial measures than we use, and that as a result, our Core FFO may not be comparable to the FFO measures used by other REITs or to other non-GAAP or GAAP financial measures used by REITs or other companies.

 

A reconciliation of our Core FFO to net income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022 is included in the table below:

 

CORE FUNDS FROM OPERATIONS (FFO)

(Unaudited)

 

   Three Months ended June 30,   Six Months ending June 30, 
   2023   2022   2023   2022 
Revenue  $217,898   $2,232,953   $1,222,630   $4,218,469 
                     
Net Income (Loss)  $(2,191,439)  $944,928   $(2,530,485)  $1,942,808 
Stock-Based Compensation   225,357    109,100    452,366    218,200 
Interest Expense - Amortization of Debt Costs   21,476    21,818    42,951    43,794 
Amortization of Intangible Lease Asset   56,872    104,174    113,744    208,346 
Amortization of Intangible Lease Liability   -    (9,926)   -    (19,851)
Depreciation on Land Improvements   604,710    388,520    1,209,418    677,057 
Gain on sale of property   -    -    (1,040,452)   - 
Core FFO Available to Preferred and Common Stock   (1,283,024)   1,558,614    (1,752,458)   3,070,354 
                     
Preferred Stock Dividends   (163,207)   (163,206)   (326,414)   (326,413)
                     
Core FFO Available to Common Shares  $(1,446,231)  $1,395,408   $(2,078,872)  $2,743,941 
                     
Weighted Average Shares Outstanding (basic)   3,389,661    3,367,261    3,389,661    3,367,396 
                     
Core FFO per Common Share   (0.43)   0.41    (0.61)   0.81 

 

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Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

As a smaller reporting company as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act, we are not required to provide the information required by this Item.

 

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

 

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

 

Management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate disclosure controls and procedures (as defined Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act) (to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of our financial reporting and preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Our disclosure controls and procedures are also designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to management to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. A control system, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, internal controls over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. The design and operation of a control system must also reflect that there are resource constraints and management is necessarily required to apply its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls.

 

Our management, including our principal executive officer who is also our principal financial officer, assessed the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures. Based on our evaluation, we believe that our disclosure controls and procedures as of June 30, 2023 were effective.

 

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting:

 

During the fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2023, there were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) of the Exchange Act) that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

 

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PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

 

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

 

We are, from time to time, the subject of claims and suits arising out of matters related to our business. In general, litigation claims can be expensive, and time consuming to bring or defend against and could result in settlements or damages that could significantly affect financial results. It is not possible to predict the final resolution of the current litigation to which we are party to, and the impact of certain of these matters on our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be material. Regardless of the outcome, litigation has adversely impacted our business because of defense costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.

 

As previously disclosed, on April 8, 2022, JKL2 Inc., Chelsey Joseph, Alan Kane and Jill Lamoureux (collectively the “JKL Parties”) filed a complaint in District Court, Crowley County Colorado (Case Number: 2022CV30009) against PW CO CanRe JKL LLC, Power REIT and David H. Lesser (the “Power REIT parties”) and Crowley County Builders, LLC and Dean Hiatt (the “CC Parties”). The complaint is seeking a judgement against the Power REIT Parties for (i) fraudulent inducement (ii) breach of duty of good faith and fair dealing, (iii) civil conspiracy and (iv) unjust enrichment. On May 2, 2022, PW CO CanRe JKL LLC commenced an eviction process against JKL2 Inc. for failure to pay rent when due and has filed counter-claims seeking damages including for unpaid rent from the JKL Parties. The Trust does not believe it has material exposure to the claims brought by the JKL Parties beyond the costs associated with the litigation. Court hearings were held in May 2023 and we are awaiting a ruling from the court.

 

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

 

The Trust’s results of operations and financial condition are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties as described in the 2022 10-K, which risk factors are incorporated herein by reference. The following information updates, and should be read in conjunction with, the information disclosed in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” contained in the 2022 10-K. You should carefully consider the risks set forth in the 2022 10-K and the following risks, together with all the other information in this Report, including our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto. If any of the risks actually materialize, our operating results, financial condition and liquidity could be materially adversely affected. Except as disclosed below, there have been no material changes from the risk factors disclosed in the 2022 10-K.

 

The investment portfolio is, and in the future may continue to be, concentrated in its exposure to a relatively few numbers of investments, industries and lessees.

 

As of June 30, 2023, we owned twenty-four property investments, through our ownership of our twenty-four subsidiaries: Pittsburgh & West Virginia Railroad, PW PWV Holdings LLC, PW Salisbury Solar, LLC, PW Regulus Solar, LLC, PW CO CanRE JAB LLC, PW CanRE of Colorado Holdings LLC, PW CO CanRE Mav 5 LLC, PW CO CanRE Mav 14 LLC, PW CO CanRE Sherm 6 LLC, PW ME CanRE SD LLC, PW CO CanRE Tam 7 LLC, PW CO CanRE MF LLC, PW CO CanRE Tam 19 LLC, PW CO CanRE Grail LLC, PW CO CanRE Apotheke LLC, PW CA CanRE Canndescent LLC, PW CO CanRE Gas Station LLC, PW CO CanRE Cloud Nine LLC, PW CO CanRE Walsenburg LLC, PW CanRE OK Vinita LLC, PW CO CanRE JKL LLC, PW MI CanRE Marengo LLC, PW CanRE Holdings LLC, and PW MillPro NE LLC.

 

During the six months ended June 30, 2023, Power REIT collected approximately 89% of its consolidated revenue from three properties. The tenants were Norfolk Southern Railway, Regulus Solar, LLC and NorthEast Kind Assets, LLC (“Sweet Dirt”), which represent 42%, 37% and 10% of consolidated revenue respectively. Comparatively, during the six months ended June 30, 2022, Power REIT collected approximately 65% of its consolidated revenue from five properties. The tenants were Sweet Dirt, Fiore Management LLC (“Canndescent”), Norfolk Southern Railway and Regulus Solar, LLC which represent 21%, 13%, 11% and 10% of consolidated revenue respectively. The fifth is a aggregate of properties owned in whole or in part and guaranteed by one party through three separate LLC’s that represent 10% of consolidated

 

We are exposed to risks inherent in this sort of investment concentration. Financial difficulty or poor business performance on the part of any single lessee or a default on any single lease will expose us to a greater risk of loss than would be the case if we were more diversified and holding numerous investments, and the underperformance or non-performance of any of its assets may severely adversely affect our financial condition and results from operations. Our lessees could seek the protection of bankruptcy, insolvency or similar laws, which could result in the rejection and termination of our lease agreements and could cause a reduction in our cash flows. Furthermore, we intend to concentrate our investment activities in the CEA sector, which will subject us to more risks than if we were diversified across many sectors. At times, the performance of the infrastructure sector may lag the performance of other sectors or the broader market as a whole.

 

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If our acquisitions or our overall business performance fail to meet expectations, the amount of cash available to us to pay dividends may decrease and we could default on our loans, which are secured by collateral in our properties and assets.

 

We may not be able to achieve operating results that will allow us to pay dividends at a specific level or to increase the amount of these dividends from time to time. Also, restrictions and provisions in any credit facilities we enter into or any debt securities we issue may limit our ability to pay dividends. We cannot assure you that you will receive dividends at a particular time, or at a particular level, or at all.

 

PWRS, one of our subsidiaries, entered into the 2015 PWRS Loan Agreement (as defined below) that is secured by all of PWRS’ interest in the land and intangibles. As of June 30, 2023, the balance of the 2015 PWRS Loan was approximately $7,232,000 (net of unamortized debt costs of approximately $247,000). PWSS, one of our subsidiaries, borrowed $750,000 from a regional bank which loan is secured by PWSS’ real estate assets and is secured by a parent guarantee from the Trust. The balance of the PWSS term loan as of June 30, 2023 is approximately $474,000 (net of approximately $0 of capitalized debt costs which are being amortized over the life of the financing). PWV, one of our subsidiaries, entered into a Loan Agreement in the amount of $15,500,000 that is secured by our equity interest in our subsidiary PWV which is pledged as collateral. The balance of the loan as of June 30, 2023 is $14,515,000 (net of approximately $280,000 of capitalized debt costs). Power REIT entered into a Debt Facility with initial availability of $20 million. The facility is non-recourse to Power REIT and is structured without initial collateral but has springing liens to provide security against a significant number of Power REIT CEA portfolio properties in the event of default. A modification occurred on March 13, 2023 (see note 6). As of June 30, 2023, $16,000,000 was drawn on the Debt Facility. If we should fail to generate sufficient revenue to pay our outstanding secured debt obligations, the lenders could foreclose on the security pledged. In addition, Maryland law prohibits the payment of dividends if we are unable to pay our debts as they come due.

 

The issuance of securities with claims that are senior to those of our common shares, including our Series A Preferred Stock, may limit or prevent us from paying dividends on its common shares. There is no limitation on our ability to issue securities senior to the Trust’s common shares or incur indebtedness.

 

Our common shares are equity interests that rank junior to our indebtedness and other non-equity claims with respect to assets available to satisfy claims against us, and junior to our preferred securities that by their terms rank senior to our common shares in our capital structure, including our Series A Preferred Stock. As of June 30, 2023, we had outstanding debt in the principal amount of $39.0 million and have raised approximately $9 million from sales of our Series A Preferred Stock. This debt and these preferred securities rank senior to the Trust’s common shares in our capital structure. We expect that in due course we may incur more debt, and issue additional preferred securities as we pursue our business strategy.

 

In the case of indebtedness, specified amounts of principal and interest are customarily payable on specified due dates. In the case of preferred securities, such as our Series A Preferred Stock, holders are provided with a senior claim to distributions, according to the specific terms of the securities. In contrast, however, in the case of common shares, dividends are payable only when, as and if declared by the Trust’s board of trustees and depend on, among other things, the Trust’s results of operations, financial condition, debt service requirements, obligations to pay distributions to holders of preferred securities, such as the Series A Preferred Stock, other cash needs and any other factors that the board of trustees may deem relevant or that they are required to consider as a matter of law. The incurrence by the Trust of additional debt, and the issuance by the Trust of additional preferred securities, may limit or eliminate the amounts available to the Trust to pay dividends on our Series A Preferred Stock and common shares.

 

From time to time, our management team may own interests in our lessees or other counterparties, and may thereby have interests that conflict or appear to conflict with the Trust’s interests.

 

On occasion, our management may have financial interests that conflict, or appear to conflict with the Trust’s interests. For example, four of Power REIT’s properties were leased by tenants in which Millennium Sustainable Ventures Corp., formerly Millennium Investment & Acquisition Company (ticker: MILC) has controlling interests. David H. Lesser, Power REIT’s Chairman and CEO, is also Chairman and CEO of MILC. MILC established cannabis cultivation projects in Colorado (through a loan), Oklahoma, and Michigan which are related to our May 21, 2021, June 11, 2021, and September 3, 2021 acquisitions and a food crop cultivation project in Nebraska related to our March 31, 2022 acquisition. Total rental income recognized for the six months ended June 30, 2023 from the affiliated tenants in Colorado, Oklahoma, Michigan and Nebraska was $0. The above leases are currently in default and the Trust is evaluating the best path forward related thereto. Also, a portion of the property improvement budget for Sweet Dirt Lease Second Amendment, amounting to $2,205,000, would be supplied by IntelliGen Power Systems LLC which is owned by HBP, an affiliate of David Lesser, Power REIT’s Chairman and CEO. On January 23, 2023, the Sweet Dirt lease was amended to restructure the timing of rent payments but maintain the same overall yield and eliminate the funding of remaining capital improvements for the cogeneration project, which includes eliminating payments that were expected to be paid to IntelliGen, a related party. As of June 30, 2023, $1,102,500 had been paid to IntelliGen for equipment supplied.

 

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Although our Declaration of Trust permits this type of business relationship and a majority of our disinterested trustees must approve, and in those instances did approve, Power REIT’s involvement in such transactions, in any such circumstance, there may be conflicts of interest between Power REIT on one hand, and MILC, IntelliGen, Mr. Lesser and his affiliates and interests on the other hand, and such conflicts may be unfavorable to us.

 

We currently, and may in the future, have assets held at financial institutions that may exceed the insurance coverage offered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the loss of such assets would have a severe negative affect on our operations and liquidity.

 

We may maintain our cash assets at certain financial institutions in the U.S. in amounts that may be in excess of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) insurance limit of $250,000. In the event of a failure of any financial institutions where we maintain our deposits or other assets, we may incur a loss to the extent such loss exceeds the FDIC insurance limitation, which could have a material adverse effect upon our liquidity, financial condition and our results of operations.

 

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds.

 

None.

 

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities.

 

Not Applicable.

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

 

Not Applicable.

 

Item 5. Other Information.

 

None.

 

Item 6. Exhibits.

 

Exhibit

Number

  Exhibit Title
     
3.1   Declaration of Trust of Power REIT dated August 25, 2011, as amended and restated November 28, 2011 and as supplemented effective February 12, 2014, incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Annual Report on Form 10-K (File No. 000-54560) filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission as of April 1, 2014.
     
3.2   Bylaws of Power REIT dated October 20, 2011 incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registration Statement on Form S-4 (File No. 333-177802) filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission as of November 8, 2011.
     
3.3   Articles Supplementary 7.75% Series A cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock Liquidation Preference $25.00 Per Share, incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.3 to the Registrant’s Form 8-A (File Number 001-36312) filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission as of February 11, 2014.
     
Exhibit 31.1*   Section 302 Certification for David H. Lesser
     
Exhibit 32.1*   Section 906 Certification for David H. Lesser
     
101.INS*   Inline XBRL Instance Document
101.SCH*   Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document
101.CAL*   Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
101.DEF*   Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document
101.LAB*   Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document
101.PRE*   Inline XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document
104*   Cover Page Interactive Data File (embedded within the Inline XBRL document)

 

*Filed herewith

 

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SIGNATURE

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2023 to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.

 

POWER REIT
   
/s/ David H. Lesser  
David H. Lesser  
Chairman, CEO, CFO, Secretary and Treasurer  
   
Date: August 14, 2023  

 

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