10-Q 1 qcom-20240324.htm 10-Q qcom-20240324
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
_____________________
FORM 10-Q
_____________________
(Mark one)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 24, 2024
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                      .
Commission File Number 0-19528
QUALCOMM Incorporated
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 95-3685934
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
5775 Morehouse Dr., San Diego, California
 92121-1714
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
(858) 587-1121
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value QCOM
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes  No 
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock was 1,116 million at April 29, 2024.



QUALCOMM Incorporated
Form 10-Q
For the Quarter Ended March 24, 2024
Page
3


Risk Factors Summary:
Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those described in the section labeled “Risk Factors” in “Part I, Item 2, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this Quarterly Report. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
RISKS RELATED TO OUR OPERATING BUSINESSES
We derive a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of customers and licensees, and particularly from their sale of premium tier handset devices. If revenues derived from these customers or licensees decrease or the timing of such revenues fluctuates, our business and results of operations could be negatively affected.
Our business, particularly our semiconductor business, may suffer as a result of our customers vertically integrating (i.e., developing their own integrated circuit products).
A significant portion of our business is concentrated in China, and the risks of such concentration are exacerbated by U.S./China trade and national security tensions.
RISKS RELATED TO NEW INITIATIVES
Our growth depends in part on our ability to extend our technologies and products into new and expanded product areas, and industries and applications beyond mobile handsets. Our research, development and other investments in these new and expanded product areas, industries and applications, and related technologies and products, as well as in our existing technologies and products, and new technologies, may not generate operating income or contribute to future results of operations that meet our expectations.
We may engage in acquisitions and other strategic transactions or make investments, or be unable to consummate planned strategic acquisitions, which could adversely affect our results of operations or fail to enhance stockholder value.
RISKS RELATED TO SUPPLY AND MANUFACTURING
We depend on a limited number of third-party suppliers for the procurement, manufacture, assembly and testing of our products manufactured in a fabless production model. If we fail to execute supply strategies that provide supply assurance, technology leadership and reasonable margins, our business and results of operations may be harmed. We are also subject to order and shipment uncertainties that could negatively impact our results of operations.
There are numerous risks associated with the operation and control of our manufacturing facilities, including a higher portion of fixed costs relative to a fabless model; environmental compliance and liability; impacts related to climate change; exposure to natural disasters, health crises, geopolitical conflicts and cyber-attacks; timely supply of equipment and materials; and various manufacturing issues.
RISKS RELATED TO CYBERSECURITY OR MISAPPROPRIATION OF OUR CRITICAL INFORMATION
Our business and operations could suffer in the event of security breaches of our IT systems, or other misappropriation of our technology, intellectual property or other proprietary or confidential information.
RISKS RELATED TO HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT
We may not be able to attract or retain qualified employees.
RISKS SPECIFIC TO OUR LICENSING BUSINESS
The continued and future success of our licensing programs requires us to continue to evolve our patent portfolio and to renew or renegotiate license agreements that are expiring.
Efforts by some OEMs to avoid paying fair and reasonable royalties for the use of our intellectual property may require the investment of substantial management time and financial resources and may result in legal decisions or actions by governments, courts, regulators or agencies, Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) or other industry organizations that harm our business.
Changes in our patent licensing practices, whether due to governmental investigations, legal challenges or otherwise, could adversely impact our business and results of operations.
4


RISKS RELATED TO REGULATORY AND LEGAL CHALLENGES
Our business may suffer as a result of adverse rulings in governmental investigations or proceedings or other legal proceedings.
RISKS RELATED TO INDUSTRY DYNAMICS AND COMPETITION
Our revenues depend on our customers’ and licensees’ sales of products and services based on CDMA, OFDMA and other communications technologies, including 5G, and customer demand for our products based on these technologies.
Our industry is subject to intense competition in an environment of rapid technological change. Our success depends in part on our ability to adapt to such change and compete effectively; and such change and competition could result in decreased demand for our products and technologies or declining average selling prices for our products or those of our customers or licensees.
RISKS RELATED TO PRODUCT DEFECTS OR SECURITY VULNERABILITIES
Failures in our products, or in the products of our customers or licensees, including those resulting from security vulnerabilities, defects or errors, could harm our business.
RISKS RELATED TO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
The enforcement and protection of our intellectual property may be expensive, could fail to prevent misappropriation or unauthorized use of our intellectual property, could result in the loss of our ability to enforce one or more patents, and could be adversely affected by changes in patent laws, by laws in certain foreign jurisdictions that may not effectively protect our intellectual property and by ineffective enforcement of laws in such jurisdictions.
Claims by other companies that we infringe their intellectual property could adversely affect our business.
Our use of open source software may harm our business.
GENERAL RISK FACTORS
We operate in the highly cyclical semiconductor industry, which is subject to significant downturns. We are also susceptible to declines in global, regional and local economic conditions generally. Our stock price and financial results are subject to substantial quarterly and annual fluctuations due to these dynamics, among others.
Geopolitical conflicts, natural disasters, pandemics and other health crises, and other factors outside of our control, could significantly disrupt our business.
Our business may suffer due to the impact of, or our failure to comply with, the various existing, new or amended laws, regulations, policies or standards to which we are subject.
There are risks associated with our debt.
Tax liabilities could adversely affect our results of operations.
5


PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEM 1. CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)

QUALCOMM Incorporated
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In millions, except par value amounts)
(Unaudited)
March 24,
2024
September 24,
2023
ASSETS
Current assets:  
Cash and cash equivalents$9,219 $8,450 
Marketable securities4,632 2,874 
Accounts receivable, net3,054 3,183 
Inventories6,087 6,422 
Held for sale assets 341 
Other current assets1,240 1,194 
Total current assets24,232 22,464 
Deferred tax assets3,978 3,310 
Property, plant and equipment, net4,724 5,042 
Goodwill10,760 10,642 
Other intangible assets, net1,331 1,408 
Held for sale assets 88 
Other assets8,142 8,086 
Total assets$53,167 $51,040 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:  
Trade accounts payable$2,314 $1,912 
Payroll and other benefits related liabilities1,253 1,685 
Unearned revenues253 293 
Short-term debt914 914 
Held for sale liabilities 333 
Other current liabilities4,409 4,491 
Total current liabilities9,143 9,628 
Unearned revenues135 99 
Income taxes payable526 1,080 
Long-term debt14,543 14,484 
Held for sale liabilities 38 
Other liabilities4,351 4,130 
Total liabilities28,698 29,459 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 5)
Stockholders’ equity:  
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 8 shares authorized; none outstanding
  
Common stock and paid-in capital, $0.0001 par value; 6,000 shares authorized; 1,118 and 1,114 shares issued and outstanding, respectively
66 490 
Retained earnings23,965 20,733 
Accumulated other comprehensive income
438 358 
Total stockholders’ equity24,469 21,581 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$53,167 $51,040 
See accompanying notes.
6


QUALCOMM Incorporated
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In millions, except per share data)
(Unaudited)
 Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Revenues:  
Equipment and services$7,950 $7,846 $16,266 $15,630 
Licensing1,439 1,429 3,059 3,108 
Total revenues9,389 9,275 19,325 18,738 
Costs and expenses:  
Cost of revenues4,106 4,153 8,418 8,197 
Research and development2,236 2,210 4,332 4,461 
Selling, general and administrative707 614 1,335 1,238 
Other (Note 2)
 208 (28)288 
Total costs and expenses7,049 7,185 14,057 14,184 
Operating income2,340 2,090 5,268 4,554 
Interest expense(172)(179)(350)(348)
Investment and other income (expense), net330 (16)542 60 
Income from continuing operations before income taxes2,498 1,895 5,460 4,266 
Income tax expense(223)(193)(373)(291)
Income from continuing operations2,275 1,702 5,087 3,975 
Discontinued operations, net of income taxes51 2 6 (36)
Net income$2,326 $1,704 $5,093 $3,939 
Basic earnings (loss) per share:
Continuing operations$2.03 $1.53 $4.55 $3.55 
Discontinued operations0.05  0.01 (0.03)
Net income$2.08 $1.53 $4.56 $3.52 
Diluted earnings (loss) per share:
Continuing operations$2.02 $1.52 $4.50 $3.52 
Discontinued operations0.04  0.01 (0.03)
Net income$2.06 $1.52 $4.51 $3.49 
Shares used in per share calculations:  
Basic1,117 1,116 1,116 1,119 
Diluted1,130 1,123 1,129 1,127 
See accompanying notes.
7


QUALCOMM Incorporated
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(In millions)
(Unaudited)
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Net income
$2,326 $1,704 $5,093 $3,939 
Other comprehensive income, net of income taxes:
Foreign currency translation (losses) gains
(62)72 21 234 
Net unrealized gains on available-for-sale debt securities6 21 38 36 
Net unrealized (losses) gains on derivative instruments
(13)16 4 134 
Other (losses) gains
(1)6  6 
Other reclassifications included in net income15 10 17 30 
 Total other comprehensive (loss) income
(55)125 80 440 
Comprehensive income$2,271 $1,829 $5,173 $4,379 
See accompanying notes.
8


QUALCOMM Incorporated
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In millions)
(Unaudited)
Six Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Operating Activities:
Net income from continuing operations$5,087 $3,975 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:  
Depreciation and amortization expense848 868 
Income tax provision less than income tax payments(1,764)(631)
Share-based compensation expense1,307 1,262 
Net gains on marketable securities and other investments
(273)(45)
Impairment losses on other investments62 101 
Other items, net(30)16 
Changes in assets and liabilities:  
Accounts receivable, net92 1,964 
Inventories328 (396)
Other assets221 615 
Trade accounts payable420 (2,358)
Payroll, benefits and other liabilities286 (672)
Unearned revenues10 (86)
Net cash used by operating activities from discontinued operations(91)(61)
Net cash provided by operating activities6,503 4,552 
Investing Activities:  
Capital expenditures(398)(851)
Purchases of debt and equity marketable securities(2,842)(22)
Proceeds from sales and maturities of debt and equity marketable securities1,178 491 
Acquisitions and other investments, net of cash acquired(165)(61)
Proceeds from sales of property, plant and equipment8 121 
Proceeds from other investments62 11 
Other items, net(38)(46)
Net cash used by investing activities
(2,195)(357)
Financing Activities:
Proceeds from short-term debt799 4,668 
Repayment of short-term debt(799)(4,668)
Proceeds from long-term debt 1,880 
Repayment of long-term debt (1,446)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock195 232 
Repurchases and retirements of common stock(1,515)(2,173)
Dividends paid(1,790)(1,676)
Payments of tax withholdings related to vesting of share-based awards(515)(332)
Other items, net4 (43)
Net cash used by financing activities(3,621)(3,558)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents5 46 
Net increase in total cash and cash equivalents
692 683 
Total cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period (including $77 and $326 classified as held for sale at September 24, 2023 and September 25, 2022, respectively)
8,527 3,099 
Total cash and cash equivalents at end of period (including $294 classified as held for sale at March 26, 2023)
$9,219 $3,782 
        
See accompanying notes.
9


QUALCOMM Incorporated
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In millions, except per share data)
(Unaudited)
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Total stockholders’ equity, beginning balance
$23,058 $18,810 $21,581 $18,013 
Common stock and paid-in capital:
Balance at beginning of period$ $ $490 $195 
Common stock issued under employee benefit plans193 194 195 232 
Repurchases and retirements of common stock
(731)(827)(1,504)(1,418)
Share-based compensation
748 656 1,377 1,323 
Tax withholdings related to vesting of share-based payments
(144)(23)(515)(332)
Common stock issued in acquisition
  23  
Balance at end of period
66  66  
Retained earnings:
Balance at beginning of period
22,565 18,517 20,733 17,840 
Net income2,326 1,704 5,093 3,939 
Repurchases and retirements of common stock (76)(11)(755)
Dividends(926)(865)(1,850)(1,744)
Balance at end of period
23,965 19,280 23,965 19,280 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss):
Balance at beginning of period
493 293 358 (22)
Other comprehensive (loss) income
(55)125 80 440 
Balance at end of period
438 418 438 418 
Total stockholders’ equity, ending balance$24,469 $19,698 $24,469 $19,698 
Dividends per share announced$0.80 $0.75 $1.60 $1.50 
See accompanying notes.
10


QUALCOMM Incorporated
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)

Note 1. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies Update
Financial Statement Preparation. These condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) for interim financial information and the instructions to Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and notes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, the interim financial information includes all normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair statement of the results for the interim periods. These condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited and should be read in conjunction with our Annual Report on Form 10-K for our fiscal year ended September 24, 2023. Operating results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of operating results for an entire fiscal year. We operate and report using a 52-53 week fiscal year ending on the last Sunday in September. Each of the three and six months ended March 24, 2024 and March 26, 2023 included 13 weeks and 26 weeks, respectively.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts and the disclosure of contingent amounts in our condensed consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements.
Segment Reporting Disclosures: In November 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued new requirements to disclose certain incremental segment information on an annual and interim basis, including (among other items) additional disclosure about significant segment expenses. We will adopt the new requirements for our annual periods starting in fiscal 2025 (and interim periods thereafter) on a retrospective basis.
Income Tax Disclosures: In December 2023, the FASB issued new requirements to disclose annually certain additional detailed income tax information related to the effective tax rate reconciliation and income taxes paid, among other items. We will adopt the new requirements starting in fiscal 2026 on a retrospective basis.
Note 2. Composition of Certain Financial Statement Items
Inventories (in millions)
March 24,
2024
September 24,
2023
Raw materials$157 $176 
Work-in-process3,670 4,096 
Finished goods2,260 2,150 
$6,087 $6,422 
Other Current Liabilities (in millions)
March 24,
2024
September 24,
2023
Customer incentives and other customer-related liabilities
$2,441 $1,821 
Income taxes payable
1,093 1,717 
Other
875 953 
$4,409 $4,491 
Revenues. We disaggregate our revenues by segment (Note 6), by products and services (as presented on our condensed consolidated statement of operations), and for our QCT (Qualcomm CDMA Technologies) segment, by revenue stream, which is based on the industry and application in which our products are sold (as presented below). In certain cases, the determination of QCT revenues by industry and application requires the use of certain assumptions. Substantially all of QCT’s revenues consist of equipment revenues that are recognized at a point in time, and substantially all of QTL’s (Qualcomm Technology Licensing) revenues represent licensing revenues that are recognized over time and are principally from royalties generated through our licensees’ sales of mobile handsets.
11


QUALCOMM Incorporated
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
QCT revenue streams were as follows (in millions):
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Handsets (1)$6,180 $6,105 $12,867 $11,860 
Automotive (2)603 447 1,201 903 
IoT (internet of things) (3)
1,243 1,390 2,381 3,071 
Total QCT revenues$8,026 $7,942 $16,449 $15,834 
(1) Includes revenues from products sold for use in mobile handsets.
(2) Includes revenues from products sold for use in automobiles, including connectivity, digital cockpit and advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and automated driving (AD).
(3) Primarily includes products sold for use in the following industries and applications: consumer (including computing, voice and music and extended reality (XR)), edge networking (including mobile broadband and wireless access points) and industrial (including handhelds, retail, tracking and logistics and utilities).
Revenues recognized from performance obligations satisfied (or partially satisfied) in previous periods generally include certain QCT sales-based royalty revenues related to system software, certain amounts related to QCT customer incentives and QTL royalty revenues recognized related to devices sold in prior periods (including adjustments to prior period royalty estimates, which includes the impact of the reporting by our licensees of actual royalties due) and were as follows (in millions):
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Revenues recognized from previously satisfied performance obligations$55 $170 $206 $337 
Unearned revenues (which are considered contract liabilities) consist primarily of certain customer contracts for which QCT received fees upfront and QTL license fees for intellectual property with continuing performance obligations. In the six months ended March 24, 2024 and March 26, 2023, we recognized revenues of $227 million and $241 million, respectively, that were recorded as unearned revenues at September 24, 2023 and September 25, 2022, respectively.
Remaining performance obligations, which are primarily included in unearned revenues (as presented on our condensed consolidated balance sheet), represent the aggregate amount of the transaction price of certain customer contracts yet to be recognized as revenues as of the end of the reporting period and exclude revenues related to (a) contracts that have an original expected duration of one year or less and (b) sales-based royalties (i.e., future royalty revenues) pursuant to our license agreements.
Concentrations. A significant portion of our revenues are concentrated with a small number of customers/licensees of our QCT and QTL segments. The comparability of customer/licensee concentrations for the interim periods presented are impacted by the timing of customer/licensee device launches and/or innovation cycles and other seasonal trends, among other fluctuations in demand. Revenues from each customer/licensee that were 10% or greater of total revenues were as follows:
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Customer/licensee (x)
24 %25 %21 %19 %
Customer/licensee (y)
19 27 22 31 
Customer/licensee (z)14 *14 *
*Less than 10%
12


QUALCOMM Incorporated
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
Other Income, Costs and Expenses. Other income and expenses in the three months ended March 26, 2023 and six months ended March 24, 2024 and March 26, 2023 included certain restructuring amounts (primarily related to accrued severance costs) from cost reduction actions initiated in fiscal 2023.
Investment and Other Income (Expense), Net (in millions)
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Interest and dividend income$160 $59 $312 $114 
Net (losses) gains on marketable securities
(3)9 8 20 
Net gains on other investments155  159  
Net gains on deferred compensation plan assets
62 21 126 47 
Impairment losses on other investments(50)(87)(62)(101)
Other6 (18)(1)(20)
$330 $(16)$542 $60 
Discontinued Operations. On June 1, 2023, SSW Partners completed the sale of Veoneer’s Active Safety business to Magna International Inc. for net cash proceeds of $1.5 billion. On March 1, 2024, SSW Partners completed the sale of Veoneer’s Restraint Control Systems (RCS) business (collectively with the Active Safety business, the Non-Arriver businesses) to American Industrial Partners Capital Fund VII. Through the date of disposition by SSW Partners, the assets and liabilities of the Non-Arriver businesses have been presented as held for sale on our condensed consolidated balance sheets, and the operating results (including the gain or loss on sale, the amounts of which were not material) and cash flows have been presented as discontinued operations. Cash flows from investing (which includes cash proceeds from the sale of the RCS business) and financing activities from discontinued operations reported for the periods presented were not material.
Note 3. Income Taxes
We estimate our annual effective income tax rate to be 7% for fiscal 2024, which is lower than the U.S. federal statutory rate, primarily due to (i) a significant portion of our income qualifying for preferential treatment as foreign-derived intangible income (FDII) at a 13% effective tax rate, which includes certain additional benefits from the requirement to capitalize research and development expenditures for federal income tax purposes, (ii) a benefit from our federal research and development tax credit and (iii) excess tax benefits associated with share-based awards. Our effective tax rate of 9% for the second quarter of fiscal 2024 was higher than our estimated annual effective tax rate of 7% primarily due to net discrete tax benefits realized in the first quarter of fiscal 2024. Our effective tax rate of 9% for the second quarter of fiscal 2024 was lower than our effective tax rate of 10% for the second quarter of fiscal 2023, in part reflecting the additional benefit from FDII deductions related to certain changes made in the second half of fiscal 2023 related to income attribution and sourcing of research and development expenditures.
Note 4. Capital Stock
Stock Repurchase Program. On October 12, 2021, we announced a $10.0 billion stock repurchase program. The stock repurchase program has no expiration date. At March 24, 2024, $3.6 billion remained authorized for repurchase under our stock repurchase program.
Shares Outstanding. Shares of common stock outstanding at March 24, 2024 were as follows (in millions):
Balance at September 24, 2023
1,114 
Issued15 
Repurchased(11)
Balance at March 24, 2024
1,118 
Dividends. On March 5, 2024, we announced an increase in our quarterly dividend per share of common stock from $0.80 to $0.85, which is effective for dividends payable after March 21, 2024. On April 17, 2024, we announced a cash dividend of $0.85 per share on our common stock, payable on June 20, 2024 to stockholders of record as of the close of business on May 30, 2024.
13


QUALCOMM Incorporated
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
Earnings Per Common Share. Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the reporting period. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing net income by the combination of the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding and the weighted-average number of dilutive common share equivalents, comprised of shares issuable under our share-based compensation plans, during the reporting period, using the treasury stock method. The following table provides information about the diluted earnings per share calculation (in millions):
 Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Dilutive common share equivalents included in diluted shares13 7 12 8 
Shares of common stock equivalents not included because the effect would be anti-dilutive or certain performance conditions were not satisfied at the end of the period 5 7 5 
Note 5. Commitments and Contingencies
Legal and Regulatory Proceedings.
Consolidated Securities Class Action Lawsuit: On January 23, 2017 and January 26, 2017, securities class action complaints were filed by purported stockholders of us in the United States District Court for the Southern District of California against us and certain of our then current and former officers and directors. The complaints alleged, among other things, that we violated Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and Rule 10b-5 thereunder, by making false and misleading statements and omissions of material fact in connection with certain allegations that we are or were engaged in anticompetitive conduct. The complaints sought unspecified damages, interest, fees and costs. The court consolidated the two actions, and on July 3, 2017, the plaintiffs filed a consolidated amended complaint asserting the same basic theories of liability and requesting the same basic relief. On May 23, 2022, the plaintiffs filed a motion for class certification, and on March 20, 2023, the court issued an order granting in part and denying in part the plaintiffs’ motion for class certification. The order denied class certification on the basis of alleged misrepresentations relating to our chip-level licensing practices, but certified a class on the basis of alleged misrepresentations relating to the separate operations of QCT and QTL. Trial is scheduled to begin on October 28, 2024. We intend to continue to vigorously defend ourselves in this matter.
Consumer Class Action Lawsuits: Beginning in January 2017, a number of consumer class action complaints were filed against us in the United States District Courts for the Southern and Northern Districts of California, each on behalf of a putative class of purchasers of cellular phones and other cellular devices. The cases filed in the Southern District of California were subsequently transferred to the Northern District of California. On July 11, 2017, the plaintiffs filed a consolidated amended complaint alleging that we violated California and federal antitrust and unfair competition laws by, among other things, refusing to license standard-essential patents to our competitors, conditioning the supply of certain of our baseband chipsets on the purchaser first agreeing to license our entire patent portfolio, entering into exclusive deals with companies, including Apple Inc., and charging unreasonably high royalties that do not comply with our commitments to standard setting organizations. The complaint sought unspecified damages and disgorgement and/or restitution, as well as an order that we be enjoined from further unlawful conduct. On September 27, 2018, the court certified the class. We appealed the court’s class certification order to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (Ninth Circuit). On September 29, 2021, the Ninth Circuit vacated the class certification order, ruling that the district court had failed to correctly assess the propriety of applying California law to a nationwide class, and remanded the case to the district court. On June 10, 2022, the plaintiffs filed an amended complaint, limiting the proposed class to California residents rather than a nationwide class. We filed a motion to dismiss the amended complaint, and on January 6, 2023, the court issued an order granting in part and denying in part our motion to dismiss. We subsequently filed a motion for summary judgment on the plaintiffs’ remaining claims. The court granted our motion in its entirety and, on October 5, 2023, entered final judgment in Qualcomm’s favor. On November 2, 2023, the plaintiffs filed a notice of appeal to the Ninth Circuit. We intend to continue to vigorously defend ourselves in this matter.
14


QUALCOMM Incorporated
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
Beginning in November 2017, several other consumer class action complaints were filed against us in Canada (in the Supreme Court of British Columbia and the Quebec Superior Court), Israel (in the Haifa District Court) and the United Kingdom (in the Competition Appeal Tribunal), each on behalf of a putative class of purchasers of cellular phones and other cellular devices, alleging violations of certain of those countries’ competition and consumer protection laws and seeking damages. The claims in these complaints are similar to those in the U.S. consumer class action complaints described above. These matters are at various stages of litigation, and we intend to continue to vigorously defend ourselves.
ParkerVision, Inc. v. QUALCOMM Incorporated: On May 1, 2014, ParkerVision filed a complaint against us in the United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida alleging that certain of our products infringed seven ParkerVision patents. On August 21, 2014, ParkerVision amended the complaint, alleging that we infringed 11 ParkerVision patents and sought damages and injunctive and other relief. ParkerVision subsequently reduced the number of patents asserted to three. The asserted patents are now expired, and injunctive relief is no longer available. ParkerVision continues to seek damages related to the sale of many of our radio frequency (RF) products sold between 2008 and 2018. On March 23, 2022, the court entered judgment in our favor on all claims and closed the case. On April 20, 2022, ParkerVision filed a notice of appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, and on November 6, 2023, the court held a hearing on the appeal. The court has not yet issued a ruling. We intend to continue to vigorously defend ourselves in this matter.
Arm Ltd. v. QUALCOMM Incorporated: On August 31, 2022, Arm Ltd. (Arm) filed a complaint against us in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware. Our subsidiaries Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and NuVia, Inc. (Nuvia) are also named in the complaint. The complaint alleges that following our acquisition of Nuvia, we and Nuvia breached Nuvia’s Architecture License Agreement with Arm (the Nuvia ALA) by failing to comply with the termination obligations under the Nuvia ALA. The complaint seeks specific performance, including that we cease all use of and destroy any technology that was developed under the Nuvia ALA, including processor core technology. Arm also contends that we violated the Lanham Act through trademark infringement and false designation of origin through unauthorized use of Arm’s trademarks and seeks associated injunctive and declaratory relief. Arm further seeks exemplary or punitive damages, costs, expenses and reasonable attorney’s fees, and equitable relief addressing any infringement occurring after entry of judgment.
On September 30, 2022, we filed our Answer and Counterclaim in response to Arm’s complaint denying Arm’s claims. Our counterclaim seeks a declaratory judgment that we did not breach the Nuvia ALA or the Technology License Agreement between Nuvia and Arm (together with the Nuvia ALA, the Arm-Nuvia Agreements) and that, following the acquisition of Nuvia, our architected cores (including all further developments, iterations or instantiations of the technology we acquired from Nuvia), server System-on-Chip (SoC) and compute SoC are fully licensed under our existing Architecture License Agreement with Arm (the Qualcomm ALA) and Technology License Agreement with Arm (together with the Qualcomm ALA, the Arm-Qualcomm Agreements). We further seek an order enjoining Arm from making any claim that our products are not licensed under the Arm-Qualcomm Agreements, are not Arm-compliant or that we are prohibited from using Arm’s marks in the marketing of any such products. On October 26, 2022, we filed an Amended Counterclaim seeking additional declaratory relief that certain statements Arm is making in the marketplace concerning our rights under the Arm-Qualcomm Agreements are false, and that Arm has no right to prevent us from shipping our products, which are validly licensed. On March 22, 2024, we filed a Second Amended Counterclaim asserting that Arm has breached the Arm-Nuvia Agreements by continuing to use Nuvia technology and by failing to return or destroy Nuvia confidential information after the Arm-Nuvia Agreements were terminated. The Second Amended Counterclaim seeks damages related to the asserted breaches. Trial is scheduled to begin on December 16, 2024. We intend to continue to vigorously defend ourselves against Arm’s claims in this matter.
On April 18, 2024, we filed a separate complaint (captioned QUALCOMM Incorporated v. Arm Ltd.) against Arm in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware. The complaint alleges that Arm has breached the Qualcomm ALA by failing to provide certain deliverables that Arm is obligated to provide. The complaint seeks an order that Arm comply with its contractual obligations, damages, and additional relief.
Contingent Losses and Other Considerations: Litigation and investigations are inherently uncertain, and we face difficulties in evaluating or estimating likely outcomes or ranges of possible loss, particularly in antitrust and trade regulation investigations. We have not recorded any accrual at March 24, 2024 for contingent losses associated with the pending matters described above based on our belief that losses, while reasonably possible, are not probable. Further, any possible amount or range of loss cannot be reasonably estimated at this time. The unfavorable resolution of one or more of these matters could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. We are engaged in numerous other legal actions not described above (for example, our 2010 European Commission matter relating to the Icera
15


QUALCOMM Incorporated
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
complaint, and other matters arising in the ordinary course of our business, including those relating to employment matters or the initiation or defense of proceedings relating to intellectual property rights) and, while there can be no assurance, we believe that the ultimate outcome of these other legal actions will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.
Note 6. Segment Information
We are organized on the basis of products and services and have three reportable segments. We conduct business primarily through our QCT semiconductor business and our QTL licensing business. QCT develops and supplies integrated circuits and system software based on 3G/4G/5G and other technologies, including RFFE (radio frequency front-end), for use in mobile devices; automotive systems for connectivity, digital cockpit and ADAS/AD; and IoT including consumer electronic devices, industrial devices, and edge networking products. QTL grants licenses or otherwise provides rights to use portions of our intellectual property portfolio, which includes certain patent rights essential to and/or useful in the manufacture and sale of certain wireless products. Our QSI (Qualcomm Strategic Initiatives) reportable segment makes strategic investments. We also have nonreportable segments, including QGOV (Qualcomm Government Technologies) and our cloud computing processing initiative.
The table below presents revenues and earnings (loss) before income taxes (EBT) for reportable segments (in millions):
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Revenues
QCT$8,026 $7,942 $16,449 $15,834 
QTL1,318 1,290 2,778 2,814 
QSI3 7 16 13 
Reconciling items42 36 82 77 
Total$9,389 $9,275 $19,325 $18,738 
EBT
QCT$2,288 $2,107 $4,881 $4,291 
QTL933 871 2,013 1,988 
QSI96 (53)107 (61)
Reconciling items(819)(1,030)(1,541)(1,952)
Total$2,498 $1,895 $5,460 $4,266 
Reconciling items for revenues and EBT in the previous table were as follows (in millions):
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Revenues
Nonreportable segments$42 $36 $82 $77 
EBT
Unallocated cost of revenues$(57)$(47)$(113)$(112)
Unallocated research and development expenses(584)(494)(1,116)(1,018)
Unallocated selling, general and administrative expenses(229)(126)(414)(292)
Unallocated other (expenses) income (Note 2)
 (208)28 (288)
Unallocated interest expense(172)(178)(350)(348)
Unallocated investment and other income, net228 36 434 123 
Nonreportable segments(5)(13)(10)(17)
$(819)$(1,030)$(1,541)$(1,952)
    
16


QUALCOMM Incorporated
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
Note 7. Fair Value Measurements and Marketable Securities
The following table presents our fair value hierarchy for assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis at March 24, 2024 (in millions):
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets    
Cash equivalents$6,197 $1,813 $ $8,010 
Marketable securities:    
Corporate bonds and notes 3,844  3,844 
U.S. Treasury securities and government-related securities217 39  256 
Mortgage- and asset-backed securities 402  402 
Equity securities130   130 
Total marketable securities347 4,285  4,632 
Derivative instruments 27  27 
Other investments889  33 922 
Total assets measured at fair value$7,433 $6,125 $33 $13,591 
Liabilities    
Derivative instruments$ $243 $ $243 
Other liabilities886   886 
Total liabilities measured at fair value$886 $243 $ $1,129 
Long-term Debt. At March 24, 2024, the aggregate fair value of our outstanding fixed-rate notes, based on Level 2 inputs, was approximately $14.8 billion.
Marketable Securities. At March 24, 2024 and September 24, 2023, our marketable securities were all classified as current and were primarily comprised of available-for-sale debt securities (substantially all of which were corporate bonds and notes).
The contractual maturities of available-for-sale debt securities were as follows (in millions):
March 24,
2024
Years to Maturity
Less than one year$1,728 
One to five years2,367 
Five to ten years5 
No single maturity date402 
Total$4,502 
Debt securities with no single maturity date included mortgage- and asset-backed securities.
17


ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
This information should be read in conjunction with the condensed consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in “Part I, Item 1” of this Quarterly Report and with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for the fiscal year ended September 24, 2023 contained in our 2023 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
This Quarterly Report (including but not limited to this section titled Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations) contains forward-looking statements. Words such as “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “believes,” “seeks,” “estimates,” “may,” “will,” “would” and similar expressions or variations of such words are intended to identify forward-looking statements, but are not the exclusive means of identifying forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report. Additionally, statements concerning future matters such as our future business, prospects, results of operations or financial condition; research and development or technology investments; new or enhanced products, services or technologies; emerging industries or business models; design wins or product launches; industry, market or technology trends, dynamics or transitions; our expectations regarding future demand or supply conditions; strategic investments or acquisitions, and the anticipated timing or benefits thereof; legal or regulatory matters; U.S./China trade or national security tensions; vertical integration by our customers; competition; annual effective tax rates; and other statements regarding matters that are not historical are also forward-looking statements.
Although forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report reflect our good faith judgment, such statements can only be based on facts and factors currently known by us. Consequently, forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties and actual results and outcomes may differ materially from the results and outcomes discussed in or anticipated by the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences in results and outcomes include without limitation those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” below, as well as those discussed elsewhere in this Quarterly Report. Readers are urged not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Quarterly Report. We undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements in order to reflect any event or circumstance that may arise after the date of this Quarterly Report. Readers are urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made in this Quarterly Report, which attempt to advise interested parties of the risks and factors that may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Second Quarter Fiscal 2024 Overview
Revenues for the second quarter of fiscal 2024 were $9.4 billion, an increase of 1% compared to the year ago quarter, with net income of $2.3 billion, an increase of 37% compared to the year ago quarter. Key items from the second quarter of fiscal 2024 included:
QCT revenues increased by 1% in the second quarter of fiscal 2024 compared to the year ago quarter, due to higher automotive and handsets revenues, partially offset by lower IoT revenues.
QTL revenues increased by 2% in the second quarter of fiscal 2024 compared to the year ago quarter, due to an increase in estimated sales of 3G/4G/5G-based multimode products.
Investment and other income (expense), net increased $346 million compared to the year ago quarter, primarily due to higher net gains on QSI investments and higher interest and dividend income.
Our Business and Operating Segments
We develop and commercialize foundational technologies and products used in mobile devices and other wireless products. We derive revenues principally from sales of integrated circuit products and licensing our intellectual property, including patents and other rights.
We are organized on the basis of products and services and have three reportable segments. We conduct business primarily through our QCT (Qualcomm CDMA Technologies) semiconductor business and our QTL (Qualcomm Technology Licensing) licensing business. Our QSI (Qualcomm Strategic Initiatives) reportable segment makes strategic investments. We also have nonreportable segments, including QGOV (Qualcomm Government Technologies) and our cloud computing processing initiative.
Our reportable segments are operated by QUALCOMM Incorporated and its direct and indirect subsidiaries. QTL is operated by QUALCOMM Incorporated, which owns the vast majority of our patent portfolio. Substantially all of our products and services businesses, including QCT, and substantially all of our engineering and research and development functions are operated by Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. (QTI), a wholly-owned subsidiary of QUALCOMM Incorporated,
18


and QTI’s subsidiaries. Neither QTI nor any of its subsidiaries has any right, power or authority to grant any licenses or other rights under or to any patents owned by QUALCOMM Incorporated.
Seasonality. Many of our products and much of our intellectual property are incorporated into consumer wireless devices, which are subject to seasonality and other fluctuations in demand. Our revenues have historically fluctuated based on consumer demand for devices, as well as on the timing of customer/licensee device launches and/or innovation cycles (such as the transition to the next generation of wireless technologies). This has resulted in fluctuations in QCT revenues in advance of and during device launches incorporating our products and in QTL revenues when licensees’ sales occur. These trends may or may not continue in the future. Further, the trends for QTL have been, and may in the future be, impacted by disputes and/or resolutions with licensees and/or governmental investigations or proceedings.
Results of Operations
Revenues (in millions)
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
ChangeMarch 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Change
Equipment and services$7,950 $7,846 $104 $16,266 $15,630 $636 
Licensing1,439 1,429 10 3,059 3,108 (49)
$9,389 $9,275 $114 $19,325 $18,738 $587 
Second quarter 2024 vs. 2023
The increase in revenues in the second quarter of fiscal 2024 was primarily due to $98 million in higher equipment and services revenues from our QCT segment.
First six months 2024 vs. 2023
The increase in revenues in the first six months of fiscal 2024 was primarily due to $624 million in higher equipment and services revenues from our QCT segment.
Costs and Expenses (in millions, except percentages)
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
ChangeMarch 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Change
Cost of revenues $4,106 $4,153 $(47)$8,418 $8,197 $221 
Gross margin56 %55 %56 %56 %
Second quarter 2024 vs. 2023
Gross margin percentage increased in the second quarter of fiscal 2024 primarily due to an increase in QCT gross margin.
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
ChangeMarch 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Change
Research and development$2,236 $2,210 $26 $4,332 $4,461 $(129)
% of revenues24 %24 %22 %24 %
Second quarter 2024 vs. 2023
The increase in research and development expenses in the second quarter of fiscal 2024 was primarily due to:
+    $42 million increase in share-based compensation expense
+    $23 million increase in expenses driven by revaluation of our deferred compensation obligation
-    $38 million decrease driven by lower costs related to the development of wireless and integrated circuit technologies (including 5G and application processor technologies). This was primarily driven by a decrease in employee-related costs as a result of certain restructuring actions initiated in fiscal 2023 (which were substantially completed by the first quarter of fiscal 2024) to fund continued investments in key growth and diversification opportunities, partially offset by higher employee cash incentive program costs.
19


First six months 2024 vs. 2023
The decrease in research and development expenses in the first six months of fiscal 2024 was primarily due to:
-    $194 million decrease driven by lower costs related to the development of wireless and integrated circuit technologies (including 5G and application processor technologies). This was primarily driven by a decrease in employee-related costs as a result of certain restructuring actions initiated in fiscal 2023 (which were substantially completed by the first quarter of fiscal 2024) to fund continued investments in key growth and diversification opportunities, partially offset by higher employee cash incentive program costs.
+    $48 million increase in expenses driven by revaluation of our deferred compensation obligation
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
ChangeMarch 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Change
Selling, general and administrative$707 $614 $93 $1,335 $1,238 $97 
% of revenues%%%%
Second quarter 2024 vs. 2023
The increase in selling, general and administrative expenses in the second quarter of fiscal 2024 included:
+    $30 million increase in share-based compensation expense
+    $15 million increase in expenses driven by revaluation of our deferred compensation obligation
+    $15 million increase in sales and marketing expenses
First six months 2024 vs. 2023
The increase in selling, general and administrative expenses in the first six months of fiscal 2024 included:
+    $30 million increase in expenses driven by revaluation of our deferred compensation obligation
+    $21 million increase in share-based compensation expense
+    $21 million increase in litigation costs
-    $26 million decrease in employee-related expenses (which included higher employee cash incentive program costs)
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
ChangeMarch 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Change
Other expense (income)
$— $208 $(208)$(28)$288 $(316)
Second quarter and first six months 2024 vs. 2023
Other income and expenses in the second quarter of fiscal 2023 and the first six months of fiscal 2024 and 2023 included certain restructuring amounts (primarily related to accrued severance costs) from cost reduction actions initiated in fiscal 2023.
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Interest Expense and Investment and Other Income, Net (in millions)
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
ChangeMarch 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Change
Interest expense$172 $179 $(7)$350 $348 $
Investment and other income (expense), net
Interest and dividend income$160 $59 $101 $312 $114 $198 
Net (losses) gains on marketable securities(3)(12)20 (12)
Net gains on other investments155 — 155 159 — 159 
Net gains on deferred compensation plan assets62 21 41 126 47 79 
Impairment losses on other investments(50)(87)37 (62)(101)39 
Other(18)24 (1)(20)19 
$330 $(16)$346 $542 $60 $482 
The increase in interest and dividend income in the second quarter and first six months of fiscal 2024 was primarily due to higher interest rates earned on higher balances of interest-bearing securities.
Net gains on other investments in the second quarter and first six months of fiscal 2024 was primarily driven by certain of our QSI non-marketable equity investments.
Income Tax Expense (in millions, except percentages)
The following table summarizes the primary factors that caused our income tax provision to differ from the expected income tax provision at the U.S. federal statutory rate:
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Expected income tax provision at federal statutory tax rate$525 $398 $1,147 $896 
Benefit from foreign-derived intangible income (FDII) deduction related to capitalizing research and development expenditures(133)(140)(323)(252)
Benefit from FDII deduction, excluding the impact of capitalizing research and development expenditures(145)(88)(309)(209)
Benefit related to the research and development tax credit(59)(68)(135)(122)
Foreign currency loss (gain) related to foreign withholding tax receivable41 17 (113)
Excess tax (benefit) deficiency associated with share-based awards(23)(51)(21)
Other17 72 42 112 
     Income tax expense$223 $193 $373 $291 
Effective tax rate%10 %%%
We estimate our annual effective income tax rate to be 7% for fiscal 2024, which is lower than the U.S. federal statutory rate. Our estimated annual, second quarter and first six months of fiscal 2024 effective tax rates reflect the additional benefit from FDII deductions related to certain changes made in the second half of fiscal 2023 related to income attribution and sourcing of research and development expenditures. Additional information regarding our annual effective income tax rate and income tax expense is provided in this Quarterly Report in “Notes to Condensed Consolidated Statements, Note 3. Income Taxes.”
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Discontinued Operations (in millions)
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
ChangeMarch 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Change
Discontinued operations, net of income taxes$51 $$49 $$(36)$42 
Discontinued operations in the second quarter and first six months of fiscal 2024 and 2023 related to the Non-Arriver businesses. Information regarding the Non-Arriver businesses is provided in this Quarterly Report in “Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, Note 2. Composition of Certain Financial Statement Items - Discontinued Operations.”
Segment Results
The following should be read in conjunction with our financial results for the second quarter of fiscal 2024 for each reportable segment included in this Quarterly Report in “Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, Note 6. Segment Information.”
QCT Segment (in millions, except percentages)
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
ChangeMarch 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Change
Revenues
Handsets $6,180 $6,105 $75 $12,867 $11,860 $1,007 
Automotive 603 447 156 1,201 903 298 
IoT (internet of things) 1,243 1,390 (147)2,381 3,071 (690)
Total revenues (1)$8,026 $7,942 $84 $16,449 $15,834 $615 
EBT (2)$2,288 $2,107 $181 $4,881 $4,291 $590 
EBT as a % of revenues29 %27 %2 points30 %27 %3 points
(1) Descriptions of our three QCT revenue streams can be found in this Quarterly Report in “Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, Note 2. Composition of Certain Financial Statement Items.”
(2) Earnings (loss) before income taxes.
Substantially all of QCT’s revenues consist of equipment and services revenues, which were $7.9 billion and $7.8 billion in the second quarter of fiscal 2024 and 2023, respectively, and $16.2 billion and $15.5 billion in the first six months of fiscal 2024 and 2023, respectively. QCT handsets, automotive and IoT revenues mostly relate to sales of our Snapdragon platforms (which include processors and modems), stand-alone Mobile Data Modems, radio frequency transceiver, power management and wireless connectivity integrated chipsets as well as sales of 4G, 5G sub 6 and 5G millimeter wave RFFE products.
Second quarter 2024 vs. 2023
The increase in QCT revenues in the second quarter of fiscal 2024 was primarily due to:
+    higher automotive revenues, primarily driven by an increase in demand for digital cockpit and connectivity products
+    higher handsets revenues, due to $384 million in higher revenues per chipset driven by favorable mix, partially offset by $328 million in lower chipset shipments driven by certain major OEMs
-    lower IoT revenues, primarily driven by unfavorable mix
QCT EBT as a percentage of revenues increased in the second quarter of fiscal 2024 primarily due to:
+    lower research and development expenses
+    higher gross margin percentage, primarily driven by lower net product reserve charges
First six months 2024 vs. 2023
The increase in QCT revenues in the first six months of fiscal 2024 was primarily due to:
+    higher handsets revenues, due to $549 million in higher revenues per chipset primarily driven by favorable mix and an increase in average selling prices, and $449 million in higher chipset shipments driven by certain major OEMs (primarily driven by the normalization of customer inventory levels, which were elevated in the prior year)
+    higher automotive revenues, primarily driven by an increase in demand for digital cockpit and connectivity products
-    lower IoT revenues, due to $411 million in lower revenues per unit primarily driven by unfavorable mix and $279 million decrease in demand (primarily in edge networking products)
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QCT EBT as a percentage of revenues increased in the first six months of fiscal 2024 primarily due to:
+    lower research and development expenses
+    higher revenues
QTL Segment (in millions, except percentages)
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
ChangeMarch 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Change
Licensing revenues$1,318 $1,290 $28 $2,778 $2,814 $(36)
EBT933 871 62 2,013 1,988 25 
EBT as a % of revenues71 %68 %3 points72 %71 %1 point
Second quarter 2024 vs. 2023
The increase in QTL licensing revenues in the second quarter of fiscal 2024 was primarily due to an increase in estimated sales of 3G/4G/5G-based multimode products.
QTL EBT as a percentage of revenues increased in the second quarter of fiscal 2024 primarily due to lower cost of sales driven by a decrease in amortization expense related to acquired patents.
First six months 2024 vs. 2023
The decrease in QTL licensing revenues in the first six months of fiscal 2024 was primarily due to:
-    $75 million decrease in estimated revenues per unit
-    $68 million decrease in revenues from the ending of the recognition of certain upfront license fee consideration in the first quarter of fiscal 2023 from our long-term license agreement with Nokia
+    $119 million increase in estimated sales of 3G/4G/5G-based multimode products
QTL EBT as a percentage of revenues increased in the first six months of fiscal 2024 primarily due to lower cost of sales driven by a decrease in amortization expense related to acquired patents.
QSI Segment (in millions)
Three Months EndedSix Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
ChangeMarch 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Change
Equipment and services revenues$$$(4)$16 $13 $
EBT
96 (53)149 107 (61)168 
Second quarter and first six months 2024 vs. 2023
QSI EBT increased in the second quarter and first six months of fiscal 2024 primarily due to net gains on certain of our non-marketable equity investments.
Looking Forward
We believe that 5G combined with high-performance, low-power processing and on-device intelligence will continue to drive adoption of certain technologies that are already commonly used in smartphones by industries and applications beyond mobile handsets, such as automotive and IoT. We believe it is important that we remain a leader in 5G technology development, standardization, intellectual property creation and licensing, and a leading developer and supplier of 5G integrated circuit products in order to sustain and grow our business long-term.
As we look forward to the next several quarters:
We expect certain IoT customers will continue to draw down on their inventory (which remains at elevated levels), which will continue to have a negative impact on our revenues, results of operations and cash flows.
Our inventory levels continue to be elevated, and we expect this will continue in the near term. If we overestimate future customer demand, it may result in increased excess or obsolete inventory or reserve charges, negatively impacting our results of operations and cash flows.
We expect transitions to new generations of leading process technology nodes to continue to drive product cost increases from certain of our key semiconductor wafer suppliers.
We expect continued intense competition, including from vertical integration by certain of our customers (for example, Samsung and Huawei).
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Current U.S./China trade relations and/or national security protection policies may negatively impact our business, growth prospects and results of operations. See “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report, including the Risk Factor titled “A significant portion of our business is concentrated in China, and the risks of such concentration are exacerbated by U.S./China trade and national security tensions.
We have recently extended, renewed or entered into license agreements with several key OEMs. We are currently pursuing negotiations with other key OEMs whose agreements expire in early fiscal 2025 (including Huawei). We also continue to engage in negotiations toward a comprehensive resolution with a growing, China-headquartered OEM that sells primarily in developing regions. See “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report, including the Risk Factor titled “The continued and future success of our licensing programs requires us to continue to evolve our patent portfolio and to renew or renegotiate license agreements that are expiring.
In addition to the foregoing business and market-based matters, we continue to devote resources to working with and educating participants in the wireless industry and governments as to the benefits of our licensing programs and our extensive technology investments in promoting a highly competitive and innovative wireless industry. However, we expect that certain companies may be dissatisfied with the need to pay reasonable royalties for the use of our technologies and not welcome the success of our licensing programs in enabling new, highly cost-effective competitors to their products. Accordingly, such companies and/or governments or regulators may continue to challenge our business model in various forums throughout the world.
Further discussion of risks related to our business is provided in the section titled “Risk Factors” included in this Quarterly Report.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our principal sources of liquidity are our existing cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, cash generated from operations and cash provided by our debt programs. The following tables present selected financial information related to our liquidity at March 24, 2024 and September 24, 2023 and for the first six months of fiscal 2024 and 2023 (in millions):
March 24,
2024
September 24,
2023
Change
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities
Cash and cash equivalents (1)$9,219 $8,450 $769 
Marketable securities4,632 2,874 1,758 
$13,851 $11,324 $2,527 
Debt (2)
$15,457 $15,398 $59 
(1) Excludes $77 million of cash and cash equivalents classified as held for sale at September 24, 2023.
(2) Includes our issued debt reported as long-term and $914 million reported as short-term debt (which matures in May 2024). As of March 24, 2024 and September 24, 2023, our credit facility was undrawn, and we had no commercial paper outstanding.
Six Months Ended
March 24,
2024
March 26,
2023
Change
Net cash provided by operating activities$6,503 $4,552 $1,951 
Net cash used by investing activities(2,195)(357)(1,838)
Net cash used by financing activities(3,621)(3,558)(63)
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. The net increase in cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities for the first six months of fiscal 2024 was primarily due to net cash provided by operating activities, partially offset by $1.8 billion in cash dividends paid, $1.5 billion in payments to repurchase 11 million shares of our common stock, $515 million in payments of tax withholdings related to the vesting of share-based awards and $398 million in capital expenditures.
During the first six months of fiscal 2024, income taxes paid were in excess of our provision, negatively impacting net cash provided by operating activities. This was driven primarily by our payment of $1.0 billion related to certain previously postponed U.S. federal income tax-payments from fiscal 2023, the adverse impact of the requirement to capitalize and amortize research and development expenditures for federal income tax purposes and an installment payment for a one-time U.S. repatriation tax accrued in fiscal 2018 of $414 million.
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Net changes in our operating assets and liabilities for the first six months of fiscal 2024 positively impacted our operating cash flows primarily from an increase in accrued customer incentives, which included the impact of timing of related payments, a decrease in inventory as we sold a portion of our elevated inventory and an increase in accounts payable due to timing and amount of inventory purchases. This was partially offset by approximately $360 million in severance payments related to restructuring actions initiated in fiscal 2023.
Capital Return Program. Our stock repurchase program is subject to periodic evaluations to determine when and if repurchases are in the best interests of our stockholders, and we may accelerate, suspend, delay or discontinue repurchases at any time.
On March 5, 2024, we announced an increase in our quarterly dividend per share of common stock from $0.80 to $0.85, which is effective for dividends payable after March 21, 2024. We currently intend to continue to use cash dividends as a means of returning capital to stockholders, subject to capital availability and our view that cash dividends are in the best interests of our stockholders, among other factors. Additional information regarding our capital returns is provided in this Quarterly Report in “Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, Note 4. Capital Stock.”
Additional Capital Requirements. Expected working and other capital requirements are described in our 2023 Annual Report on Form 10-K in “Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” At March 24, 2024, other than for the changes disclosed in the “Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements”, “Looking Forward” and “Liquidity and Capital Resources” in this Quarterly Report, there have been no other material changes to our expected working and other capital requirements described in our 2023 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Further, regulatory authorities in certain jurisdictions have investigated our business practices and instituted proceedings against us and they or other regulatory authorities may do so in the future. Additionally, certain of our direct and indirect customers and licensees have pursued, and they or others may in the future pursue, litigation, arbitration or other strategies against us related to our business. Unfavorable resolutions of one or more of these matters have had and could in the future have a material adverse effect on our business, revenues, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. See “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report.
We believe, based on our current business plan and the facts and factors known by us, our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, our expected cash flow generated from operations and our expected financing activities will satisfy our working and other capital requirements for at least the next 12 months and thereafter for the foreseeable future. See “Risk Factors” in this Quarterly Report.
Recent Accounting Guidance
Information regarding recent accounting guidance and the impact of such guidance on our condensed consolidated financial statements is provided in this Quarterly Report in “Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, Note 1. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies Update.”
Risk Factors
You should consider each of the following factors in evaluating our business and our prospects, any of which could negatively impact our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition, and require significant management time and attention. Further, the risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently consider immaterial may also negatively impact our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition, and require significant management time and attention. In such cases, the trading price of our common stock could decline. You should also consider the other information set forth in this Quarterly Report in evaluating our business and our prospects, including but not limited to our financial statements and the related notes, and “Part I, Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” References to “and,” “or” and “and/or” should be read to include the others, as appropriate.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR OPERATING BUSINESSES
We derive a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of customers and licensees, and particularly from their sale of premium tier handset devices. If revenues derived from these customers or licensees decrease or the timing of such revenues fluctuates, our business and results of operations could be negatively affected.
We derive a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of customers and licensees, and particularly from their sale of premium tier handset devices, and we expect this trend to continue in the foreseeable future. The mobile industry is experiencing and may continue to experience concentration of device share among a few companies, particularly at the premium tier, contributing to this trend. Certain Chinese original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have increased and may
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continue to increase their device share in China and in certain regions outside of China, and we derive a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of these OEMs as well. See also “Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements, Note 2. Composition of Certain Financial Statement Items - Concentrations.”
In addition, a number of our largest customers have developed, are developing or may develop their own integrated circuit products, or may choose our competitors’ integrated circuit products, which they have in the past utilized, currently utilize and may in the future utilize in some or all of their devices, rather than our products, which could significantly reduce the revenues we derive from these customers. See also the Risk Factor titled “Our business, particularly our semiconductor business, may suffer as a result of our customers vertically integrating (i.e., developing their own integrated circuit products).”
Further, political actions, including trade and/or national security protection policies, or other actions by governments, particularly the U.S. and Chinese governments, have in the past, currently are and could in the future limit or prevent us from transacting business with certain of our customers, limit, prevent or discourage those customers from transacting business with us, or make it more expensive to do so, any of which could also significantly reduce the revenues we derive from these customers. See also the Risk Factor titled “A significant portion of our business is concentrated in China, and the risks of such concentration are exacerbated by U.S./China trade and national security tensions.”
In addition, we spend a significant amount of engineering and development time, funds and resources in understanding our key customers’ feedback and/or specifications and attempt to incorporate such input into our product launches and technologies. These efforts may not require or result in purchase commitments from such customers or we may have lower purchases from such customers than expected, and consequently, we may not achieve the anticipated revenues from these efforts, or these efforts may result in non-recoverable costs.
The loss of any one of our significant customers, a reduction in the purchases of our products by any of these customers or the cancellation of significant purchases by any of these customers, whether due to the use of their own integrated circuit products or our competitors’ integrated circuit products, government restrictions, a decline in global, regional or local economic conditions, a decline in consumer demand (or a shift in consumer demand away from new devices in favor of refurbished or secondhand devices), elevated inventory levels at our customers or otherwise, would reduce our revenues and could harm our ability to achieve or sustain expected results of operations. A delay of significant purchases, even if only temporary, would reduce our revenues in the period of the delay. Any such reduction in revenues would also impact our cash resources available for other purposes, such as research and development.
Further, the concentration of device share among a few companies, and the corresponding purchasing power of these companies, may result in lower prices for our products, which could have an adverse effect on our revenues and margins. In addition, the timing and size of purchases by our significant customers may be impacted by the timing of such customers’ new or next generation product introductions, over which we have no control, and the timing and success of such introductions may cause our revenues and results of operations to fluctuate.
Apple purchases our MDM (or thin modem) products, which do not include our integrated application processor technology, and which have lower revenue and margin contributions than our combined modem and application processor products. Consequently, to the extent Apple takes device share from our customers who purchase our integrated modem and application processor products, our revenues and margins may be negatively impacted.
The mobile industry has also experienced slowing growth in the premium-tier device segment due to, among other factors, a maturing premium-tier smartphone industry in which demand is increasingly driven by new product launches and innovation cycles. A reduction in sales of premium-tier devices, a reduction in sales of our premium-tier integrated circuit products (which have a higher revenue and margin contribution than our lower-tier integrated circuit products), a shift in share away from OEMs that utilize our premium-tier products, or a shift in consumer demand in favor of refurbished or secondhand devices, would reduce our revenues and margins and may harm our ability to achieve or sustain expected financial results. Any such reduction in revenues would also impact our cash resources available for other purposes, such as research and development.
Further, while our product and revenue diversification strategies have resulted in an increasing portion of our revenues coming from outside of mobile handsets, e.g., from industries such as automotive and IoT, certain product categories within those industries may in themselves be subject to high levels of customer concentration.
Although we have more than 300 licensees, we derive a significant portion of our licensing revenues from a limited number of licensees, which includes a number of Chinese OEMs. In the event that one or more of our significant licensees fail to meet their reporting and payment obligations, or we are unable to renew or modify one or more of their license agreements under similar terms as their existing agreements, our revenues, results of operations and cash flows would be
26


adversely impacted. Moreover, the success of our core licensing business depends in part on the ability of our licensees to continue to develop, introduce and deliver high-volume products that achieve and sustain customer acceptance. We do not have control over the product development, sales efforts or pricing of products by our licensees, and our licensees might not be successful in these efforts. Reductions in sales of our licensees’ products, or reductions in the average selling prices of such products without a sufficient increase in the volumes sold, would generally have an adverse effect on our licensing revenues.
Our business, particularly our semiconductor business, may suffer as a result of our customers vertically integrating (i.e., developing their own integrated circuit products).
Certain of our largest customers (for example, Samsung) develop their own integrated circuit products, which they have in the past utilized, and currently utilize, in certain of their devices and we expect will in the future utilize in some or all of their devices, rather than our products (and they have and may continue to sell their integrated circuit products to third parties, discretely or together with certain of their other products, in competition with us).
Apple has utilized modem products of one of our competitors in some of its devices rather than our products, and solely utilized one of our competitors’ products in several of its prior device launches. In December 2019, Apple acquired Intel’s modem assets and is developing its own modem products using those assets. Accordingly, we expect Apple to use its own modem products, rather than our products, in some or all of its future devices.
Similarly, we derive a significant portion of our revenues from Chinese OEMs. Certain of our customers in China have developed, and others may in the future develop, their own integrated circuit products and use such integrated circuit products in their devices rather than our integrated circuit products, including due to pressure from or policies of the Chinese government (whose Made in China 2025 campaign targets 70% semiconductor self-sufficiency by 2025), concerns over losing access to our integrated circuit products as a result of actual, threatened or potential U.S. or Chinese government actions or policies, including trade protection or national security policies, or other reasons. See also the Risk Factor titled “A significant portion of our business is concentrated in China, and the risks of such concentration are exacerbated by U.S./China trade and national security tensions.”
In addition, periodic supply/capacity constraints within the semiconductor industry may further incentivize our customers to vertically integrate in an effort to secure additional control over their supply chains.
If our customers begin using their own integrated circuit products rather than our products in some or all of their devices, or increase their use of their own integrated circuit products from current levels, our business, revenues, results of operations, cash flows and financial position could be materially adversely impacted. See also the Risk Factor titled “We derive a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of customers and licensees, and particularly from their sale of premium tier handset devices. If revenues derived from these customers or licensees decrease or the timing of such revenues fluctuates, our business and results of operations could be negatively affected.”
A significant portion of our business is concentrated in China, and the risks of such concentration are exacerbated by U.S./China trade and national security tensions.
We derive a significant portion of our revenues from Chinese OEMs, and from non-Chinese OEMs that utilize our integrated circuit products in devices they sell into China, which has the largest number of smartphone users in the world. We also source certain critical integrated circuit products from suppliers in China.
Due to various factors, including pressure, encouragement or incentives from, or policies of, the Chinese government (including its Made in China 2025 campaign), concerns over losing access to our integrated circuit products as a result of actual, threatened or potential U.S. or Chinese government actions or policies, including trade protection or national security policies, or other reasons, some of our customers in China have developed, and others may in the future develop, their own integrated circuit products and use such integrated circuit products in their devices, or use our competitors’ integrated circuit products in their devices, rather than our products, which could materially harm our business, revenues, results of operations, cash flows and financial position. See also the Risk Factor titled “Our business, particularly our semiconductor business, may suffer as a result of our customers vertically integrating (i.e., developing their own integrated circuit products).”
Political actions, including trade protection and national security policies of the U.S. and Chinese governments, such as tariffs, bans or placing companies on restricted entity lists, have in the past, currently are and could in the future limit or prevent us from transacting business with certain of our Chinese customers or suppliers, limit, prevent or discourage certain of our Chinese customers or suppliers from transacting business with us, or make it more expensive to do so. Given our revenue concentration in China, if, due to actual, threatened or potential U.S. or Chinese government actions or policies: we were further limited in, or prohibited from, selling our integrated circuit products to Chinese customers; our non-Chinese OEM customers were limited in, or prohibited from, selling devices that incorporate our integrated circuit products into
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China; Chinese OEMs develop and use their own integrated circuit products or use our competitors’ integrated circuit products in some or all of their devices rather than our integrated circuit products; Chinese tariffs on our integrated circuit products or on devices which incorporate our integrated circuit products made purchasing such products or devices more expensive to our Chinese customers or Chinese consumers; or our Chinese licensees delay or cease making payments of license fees they owe us, our business, revenues, results of operations, cash flows and financial position could be materially harmed. Similarly, if, due to U.S. or Chinese government actions or policies, we were limited in or prohibited from obtaining critical integrated circuit products from our suppliers in China, our business, revenues, results of operations, cash flows and financial position could be materially harmed. See also the Risk Factors titled “We derive a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of customers and licensees, and particularly from their sale of premium tier handset devices. If revenues derived from these customers or licensees decrease or the timing of such revenues fluctuates, our business and results of operations could be negatively affected” and “Our business, particularly our semiconductor business, may suffer as a result of our customers vertically integrating (i.e., developing their own integrated circuit products).”
For example, we currently have export licenses from the U.S. Department of Commerce that allow us to sell 4G and other integrated circuit products, including Wi-Fi products, but excluding 5G products, to Huawei. Recent news reports have indicated that the Department of Commerce is considering not granting any new licenses for sales to Huawei. Further, Huawei recently launched new 5G-capable devices using its own integrated circuit products. While we have continued to sell integrated circuit products to Huawei under our licenses, we do not expect to receive product revenues from Huawei beyond the current calendar year. Additionally, to the extent that Huawei’s 5G devices take share from Chinese OEMs that utilize our 5G products or from non-Chinese OEMs that utilize our 5G products in devices they sell into China, our revenues, results of operations and cash flows could be further impacted.
Finally, government policies in China that regulate the amount and timing of funds that may flow out of the country have impacted and may continue to impact the timing of our receipt of, and/or ability to receive, payments from our customers and licensees in China, which may negatively impact our cash flows.
RISKS RELATED TO NEW INITIATIVES
Our growth depends in part on our ability to extend our technologies and products into new and expanded product areas, and industries and applications beyond mobile handsets. Our research, development and other investments in these new and expanded product areas, industries and applications, and related technologies and products, as well as in our existing technologies and products, and new technologies, may not generate operating income or contribute to future results of operations that meet our expectations.
While we continue to invest significant resources toward advancements primarily in support of 5G-based technologies, we also invest in new and expanded product areas, and industries and applications beyond mobile handsets, by utilizing our existing technical and business expertise and through acquisitions or other strategic transactions.
In particular, our future growth depends in part on new and expanded product areas, and industries and applications beyond mobile handsets, such as automotive and IoT; our ability to develop leading and cost-effective technologies and products for these new and expanded product areas, industries and applications; and third parties incorporating our technologies and products into devices used in these product areas, industries and applications. Accordingly, we intend to continue to make substantial investments in these new and expanded product areas, industries and applications, and in developing related products and technologies. Our growth also depends significantly on our ability to develop and patent 5G and next-generation wireless technologies, and to develop and commercialize products using these technologies.
However, our research, development and other investments in these new and expanded product areas, industries and applications, and corresponding technologies and products, as well as in our existing technologies and products and new technologies in mobile handsets, may not succeed because, among other reasons: we may not be issued patents on the technologies we develop; the technologies we develop may not be incorporated into relevant standards; new and expanded product areas, industries and applications beyond mobile handsets, and consumer demand therein, may not develop or grow as anticipated; we may be unable to attract or retain employees with the necessary skills in such new and expanded product areas, industries and applications; our strategies or the strategies of our customers, licensees or partners may not be successful; alternate technologies or products may be better or may reduce the advantages we anticipate from our investments; competitors’ technologies or products may be more cost effective, have more capabilities or fewer limitations or be brought to market faster than our new technologies or products; we may not be able to develop, or our competitors may have more established and/or stronger, customer, vendor, distributor or other channel relationships; and competitors may have longer operating histories in industries and applications that are new to us. We may also underestimate the costs of, or overestimate the future revenues or margins that could result from, these investments, and these investments may not, or may take many years to, generate material returns.
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For example, the automotive industry is subject to long design-in time frames, long product life cycles and a high degree of regulatory and safety requirements, necessitating suppliers to the industry to comply with stringent qualification processes, very low defect rates and high reliability standards, all of which results in significant barriers to entry and increased costs. Additionally, certain customers have adopted, and other customers may adopt, policies that require us to achieve certain sustainability, climate or other environmental, social and governance (ESG)-related targets, such as our 2040 net-zero global GHG emissions commitment and our interim GHG emissions reduction goals. If we fail to achieve ESG-related targets that meet our customers’ requirements or expectations, these customers may not purchase products or services from us.
If our products fail to perform to specifications, compete with the product quality of our competitors or meet quality or regulatory standards (including product safety and information security standards, which may differ by region, geography and industry, and which are particularly stringent in the automotive industry) or other standards (including sustainability or other ESG-related standards) of a particular industry or application, we may be unable to successfully expand our business in that industry or application, and our growth could be limited.
In addition, in order to successfully extend our technologies and products into new and expanded product areas, and industries and applications beyond mobile handsets, we may need to transition to new business models or transform aspects of our organization, and we may not be successful in doing so.
If we are not successful in extending our technologies and products into new and expanded product areas, and industries and applications beyond mobile handsets, if our new technologies and products are not successful, or if we are not successful in the time frames we anticipate, we may incur significant costs and asset impairments, our business and revenues may not grow or grow as anticipated, our revenues and margins may be negatively impacted, our stock price may decline and our reputation may be harmed.
We may engage in acquisitions and other strategic transactions or make investments, or be unable to consummate planned strategic acquisitions, which could adversely affect our results of operations or fail to enhance stockholder value.
We engage in acquisitions and other strategic transactions, including joint ventures, and make investments, which we believe are important to the future of our business. We routinely acquire businesses and other assets, including patents, technology and other intangible assets, enter into joint ventures or other strategic transactions, and purchase minority equity interests in or make loans to companies, including those that may be private and early-stage. Our strategic activities are generally focused on opening or expanding opportunities for our products and technologies, supporting the design and introduction of new products (or enhancing existing products) for mobile handsets, and furthering our growth and diversification strategy in industries and applications beyond mobile handsets. Many of our strategic activities entail a high degree of risk and require the use of significant amounts of capital, and investments may not become liquid for several years after the date of the investment, if at all. Our strategic activities may not be successful, generate financial returns or result in increased adoption or continued use of our technologies or products. We may underestimate the costs or overestimate the benefits, including product, revenue, cost and other synergies and growth opportunities that we expect to realize, and we may not achieve those benefits. In some cases, we may be required to consolidate or record our share of the earnings or losses of companies in which we have acquired ownership or variable interests. In addition, we have in the past recorded, and may in the future record, impairment or other charges related to our strategic activities. Any losses or impairment charges that we incur related to strategic activities will have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition, and we may continue to incur new or additional losses related to strategic assets or investments that we have not fully impaired or exited.
Achieving the anticipated benefits of business acquisitions depends in part upon our ability to integrate the businesses in an efficient and effective manner and achieve anticipated synergies, and we may not be successful in these efforts. Such integration is complex and time consuming and involves significant challenges, including, among others: retaining key employees; successfully integrating new employees, facilities, technology, products, processes, operations (including supply and manufacturing operations), sales and distribution channels, business models and business systems; retaining customers and suppliers of the businesses; consolidating research and development operations; minimizing the diversion of management’s attention from ongoing business matters; consolidating corporate and administrative infrastructures; and managing the increased scale, complexity and globalization of our business, operations and employee base. We may not derive any commercial value from acquired technologies or products or from future technologies or products based on these technologies, and we may become subject to liabilities, including liabilities arising as a result of litigation, that are not covered by any indemnification protection that we may obtain. Additionally, we may not be successful in entering or expanding into new sales or distribution channels, business or operational models, geographic regions, industries and applications served by or adjacent to the associated businesses or in addressing potential new opportunities that may arise out of our strategic acquisitions.
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Many of our acquisitions and other strategic investments require approval by the United States and/or foreign government agencies. Certain agencies in the past have, and may in the future, deny the transaction or fail to approve in a timely manner, resulting in us not realizing the anticipated benefits of the proposed transaction. Future acquisitions or other strategic investments may be more difficult, complex or expensive to the extent that our reputation for our ability to consummate acquisitions has been or is in the future harmed. Further, if U.S./China relations remain strained, our ability to consummate any transaction that would require approval from the relevant regulatory agency(ies) in China may be severely impacted. In addition, acquisitions that we have completed could subsequently be reviewed and/or challenged by government agencies, which could result in fines, penalties or other liability, or requirements to divest all or a portion of an acquired business.
If we do not achieve the anticipated benefits of business acquisitions or other strategic activities, or if we are unable to consummate acquisitions or strategic investments that we consider important to the future of our business, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected, our growth and diversification strategy may not be successful, our stock price may decline and our reputation may be harmed.
RISKS RELATED TO SUPPLY AND MANUFACTURING
We depend on a limited number of third-party suppliers for the procurement, manufacture, assembly and testing of our products manufactured in a fabless production model. If we fail to execute supply strategies that provide supply assurance, technology leadership and reasonable margins, our business and results of operations may be harmed. We are also subject to order and shipment uncertainties that could negatively impact our results of operations.
We primarily utilize a fabless production model, which means that we do not own or operate foundries for the production of silicon wafers from which our integrated circuits are made. Other than the facilities we own that manufacture certain of our RFFE modules and RF (radio frequency) filter products, we rely on third-party suppliers to perform the manufacturing and assembly, and most of the testing, of our integrated circuits. Our suppliers are also responsible for the procurement of most of the raw materials used in the production of our integrated circuits. There are a limited number of such third-party suppliers, and even fewer who are capable of manufacturing at the leading process technology nodes, or who are willing to operate at older process technology nodes necessary for certain of our integrated circuit products. The semiconductor manufacturing foundries that supply our products are primarily located in Asia, as are the primary warehouses where we store finished goods for fulfillment of customer orders.
The following issues related to our third-party suppliers could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet customer demand and negatively impact our revenues, business operations, profitability and cash flows:
our suppliers’ failure or inability to react to shifts in product demand, including situations where demand for integrated circuits exceeds suppliers’ capacity to meet that demand;
a failure or inability by our suppliers to procure raw materials or allocate adequate raw materials for our products, or an increase in prices for raw materials or components;
an inability to procure or utilize raw materials, components or products from our suppliers due to government prohibitions or restrictions on transactions with certain countries and/or companies, and alternative suppliers, raw material sources or raw materials are not available or not available in acceptable time frames or upon acceptable terms;
a failure by our suppliers to allocate adequate manufacturing, assembly or test capacity for our products;
our suppliers’ failure or inability to develop or maintain, or a delay in developing or building out, manufacturing capacity for leading process technologies, including transitions to smaller geometry process technologies;
the loss of a supplier or the failure or inability of a supplier to meet performance, quality or yield specifications or delivery schedules;
additional expense or production delays as a result of qualifying a new supplier and commencing volume production or testing in the event of a loss of, or a decision to add or change, a supplier;
natural disasters, the effects of climate change, acts of war or other geopolitical conflicts impacting the regions in which our suppliers and their manufacturing foundries or assembly, test or other facilities are located;
health crises, including epidemics or pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and government and business responses thereto, which impact our suppliers, including as a result of quarantines or closures;
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cyber-attacks on our suppliers’ information technology (IT) systems, including those related to their manufacturing foundries or assembly, test or other facilities;
trade or national security protection policies, particularly U.S. or Chinese government policies, that limit or prevent us from transacting business with suppliers of critical integrated circuit products, or that limit or prevent such suppliers from transacting business with us or from procuring materials, machinery or technology necessary to manufacture goods for us; and
any other reduction, interruption, delay or limitation in our product supply sources.
We rely on sole- or limited-source suppliers for certain products, which may exacerbate the risks identified above, and subject us to other significant risks, including poor product performance and reduced control over delivery schedules, manufacturing capability and yields, quality assurance, quantity and costs. While we have established and may in the future establish alternate suppliers for certain products, these suppliers may require significant amounts of time and levels of support to bring such products to production, both of which may increase for complex or leading process technologies. As a result, we may invest a significant amount of effort and resources and incur higher costs to support and maintain such alternate suppliers. Further, the elimination or limitation of a foundry supplier’s ability to manufacture components or products for us due to trade or national security protection policies could increase our vulnerability to sole- or limited-source arrangements and limit or prevent us from procuring critical components or products from those suppliers. Future consolidation of foundry suppliers could also increase our vulnerability to sole- or limited-source arrangements and reduce our suppliers’ willingness to negotiate pricing, which could negatively impact our ability to achieve cost reductions, increase our manufacturing costs and limit the amount of capacity available to us. Our arrangements with our suppliers may obligate us to incur costs to manufacture, assemble and test our products that do not decrease at the same rate as decreases in pricing to our customers. Our ability, and that of our suppliers, to develop or maintain leading process technologies, including transitions to smaller geometry process technologies (which adds risk to manufacturing yields and reliability), and to effectively compete with the manufacturing processes and performance of our competitors, could impact our ability to introduce new products and meet customer demand, could increase our costs (possibly decreasing our margins) and could subject us to the risk of excess inventories. Any of the above could negatively impact our business, results of operations and cash flows.
Although we have long-term contracts with our suppliers, some of these contracts do not provide for long-term capacity commitments. To the extent we do not have firm commitments from our suppliers over a specific time period or for any specific quantity, our suppliers may allocate, and in the past have allocated, capacity to the manufacture, assembly and testing of products for their other customers (including our competitors) while reducing or limiting capacity to manufacture, assemble or test our products, and such capacity may be limited based on our suppliers’ ability and willingness to invest in the capital required to manufacture in the leading process technologies. Our suppliers or potential alternate suppliers may also manufacture their own integrated circuits that compete with our products. Such suppliers have in the past allocated and may again allocate raw materials and manufacturing capacity to their own products and reduce or limit the production of our products. To the extent we do obtain long-term capacity commitments, we may incur additional costs related to those commitments or make non-refundable payments for capacity commitments that are not used. Further, certain of our suppliers have in the past attempted, and may in the future attempt, to unilaterally reduce their capacity commitments to us. Accordingly, capacity for our products may not be available when we need it. Finally, we may not receive reasonable pricing, manufacturing or delivery terms from our suppliers, and our ability to obtain favorable terms may be diminished during times of high demand and/or limited manufacturing capacity for integrated circuit products.
We cannot guarantee that the actions of our suppliers will not cause disruptions in our operations that could harm our ability to meet our delivery obligations to our customers or increase our cost of sales. To the extent we are unable to obtain adequate supply to meet our delivery obligations, we may be obligated to make payments to our customers for such shortfalls. From time to time, the global semiconductor industry experiences demand for integrated circuits that exceeds the industry’s capacity to meet that demand. Our ability to meet increased demand for our products has been in the past and may in the future be limited due to the inability to obtain the additional manufacturing, assembly and test capacity necessary to fully meet such demand. If we are unable to fully meet customer demand, this could result in lost sales opportunities, reduced revenue growth and harm to our customer relationships. These issues may be exacerbated if customers overstate their expected demand requirements in order to procure additional supply, which could negatively impact our ability to forecast and to allocate supply appropriately among our customers. The above issues may also be exacerbated with respect to our platform solutions, which already entail a great deal of complexity due to differing lead-times, technologies and suppliers for each integrated circuit product included in such solutions. Additionally, our suppliers have in the past and may in the future increase their prices during periods of capacity constraints, or for other reasons, thus increasing our costs.
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While capacity constraints have largely abated, we expect to continue to see product cost increases from certain of our key semiconductor wafer suppliers, which, without corresponding increases in the prices of our products, could negatively impact our margins.
We place orders with our suppliers using our and our customers’ forecasts of demand for our products, which are based on a number of assumptions and estimates. As we move to smaller geometry process technologies, the manufacturing lead-time increases. As a result, the orders we place with our suppliers are generally only partially covered by commitments from our customers. If we, or our customers, overestimate demand, or if demand is impacted by factors outside of our or our customers’ control, and such demand is not covered by a binding commitment from our customers, we may experience increased excess or obsolete inventory or reserve charges, which would negatively impact our results of operations. Further, to the extent our customers procure supply of our integrated circuit products beyond their current needs (i.e., build up inventory of our integrated circuit products), whether due to concerns over supply, overestimating demand and/or a decline in macroeconomic conditions, or otherwise, they may not purchase expected quantities of our products in subsequent quarters, which may negatively impact our revenues, results of operations and cash flows in such quarters.
See also the Risk Factor below titled “There are numerous risks associated with the operation and control of our manufacturing facilities, including a higher portion of fixed costs relative to a fabless model; environmental compliance and liability; impacts related to climate change; exposure to natural disasters, health crises, geopolitical conflicts and cyber-attacks; timely supply of equipment and materials; and various manufacturing issues” as similar risks, as well as additional risks, may be applicable to our third-party suppliers’ manufacturing facilities, which could result in disruptions to our business or additional costs to us, and negatively impact our results of operations.
There are numerous risks associated with the operation and control of our manufacturing facilities, including a higher portion of fixed costs relative to a fabless model; environmental compliance and liability; impacts related to climate change; exposure to natural disasters, health crises, geopolitical conflicts and cyber-attacks; timely supply of equipment and materials; and various manufacturing issues.
We operate various facilities that manufacture certain of our RFFE modules and RF filter products. Our manufacturing facilities are characterized by a higher portion of fixed costs relative to a fabless model. We may be faced with a decline in the utilization rates of our manufacturing facilities due to decreases in demand for our products, including in less favorable industry or macroeconomic environments, or due to our failure to win and/or retain designs with OEMs. As a result, from time to time our manufacturing facilities operate at lower capacity levels, while the fixed costs associated with such facilities continue to be incurred, resulting in lower gross profit. Due to the factors above, we are currently experiencing, and expect to continue to experience in the near term, such underutilization of capacity at our manufacturing facilities.
We are subject to many complex environmental, health and safety laws, regulations and rules in each jurisdiction in which we operate our manufacturing (and research and development) facilities. The regulatory landscape in these areas continues to evolve, and we anticipate additional laws, regulations and rules in the future. In particular, new, or changes in, environmental and climate change laws, regulations or rules, including relating to greenhouse gas emissions, could lead to new or additional investments in production processes and could increase environmental compliance expenditures. In addition, certain environmental laws impose strict, and in certain circumstances joint and several, liability on current or previous owners or operators of real property, or parties who arranged for hazardous substances to be sent to disposal or treatment facilities, for the cost of investigation, removal or remediation of hazardous substances. As a result, we may incur clean-up costs in connection with any such removal or remediation efforts, as well as other third-party claims in connection with contaminated sites. In addition, we could be held liable for consequences arising out of human exposure to hazardous substances or other environmental damage. If we, or companies or facilities we acquire or have acquired, in the past failed or in the future fail to comply with any such laws and regulations, then we could incur regulatory penalties, fines and legal liabilities; suspension of production; significant compliance requirements; alteration of our manufacturing, assembly or test processes; restriction on our ability to modify or expand our facilities; damage to our reputation; and restrictions on our operations or sales. We are also required to obtain and maintain environmental permits from governmental authorities for certain of our operations. We cannot make assurances that we will at all times be in compliance with such laws, regulations, rules and permits. See also the risk factor titled “Our business may suffer due to the impact of, or our failure to comply with, the various existing, new or amended laws, regulations, policies or standards to which we are subject.”
Climate change concerns and the potential resulting environmental impact may result in new environmental, health and safety laws and regulations that may affect us, our suppliers and our customers. Such laws or regulations could cause us to incur additional direct costs for compliance, including costs associated with changes to manufacturing processes or the procurement of raw materials used in manufacturing processes, as well as increased indirect costs resulting from our customers, suppliers or both incurring additional compliance costs that are passed on to us. These costs may adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, climate change could cause certain natural disasters, such as
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drought, wildfires, storms, flooding or rising sea levels, to occur more frequently or with greater intensity, which could pose physical risks to our manufacturing facilities or our suppliers’ facilities, could disrupt the availability of water necessary for the operation of such facilities, and could increase or decrease temperatures resulting in increased operating costs and/or business disruption.
We have manufacturing facilities in Asia and Europe, and the primary warehouses where we store finished goods are located in Asia. If tsunamis, flooding, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, drought or other natural disasters, effects of climate change, acts of war or other geopolitical conflicts were to damage, destroy or disrupt any of these facilities, it could disrupt our operations, cease or delay production and shipments of inventory and result in costly repairs, replacements or other costs and lost business. In addition, natural disasters, effects of climate change, acts of war or other geopolitical conflicts may result in disruptions in transportation, distribution channels and supply chains and significant increases in the prices of raw materials. Further, health crises, including epidemics or pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and government and business responses thereto, could affect our manufacturing facilities, including by resulting in quarantines and/or closures, which could result in disruptions to and potential closures of our manufacturing operations. Our manufacturing operations could also be disrupted by cyber-attacks on our IT systems, as described in the Risk Factor below titled “Our business and operations could suffer in the event of security breaches of our IT systems, or other misappropriation of our technology, intellectual property or other proprietary or confidential information.”
Our manufacturing operations depend on securing raw materials, equipment and other supplies in adequate quality and quantity in a timely manner from multiple suppliers, and in some cases, we rely on a limited number of suppliers, including in some cases sole suppliers, particularly in Asia. There may be cases where supplies of raw materials, equipment and other products are interrupted or limited by natural disaster, geopolitical conflict, accident or some other event affecting a supplier or source of raw materials; supply is suspended due to quality or other issues; there is a shortage of supply due to a rapid increase in demand; and/or we or our suppliers are prohibited from utilizing certain raw materials, or products or components that incorporate such raw materials, due to government restrictions related to the countries from which such raw materials originate, and acceptable alternative suppliers, raw materials or raw materials sources are not available or not available in acceptable time frames or upon acceptable terms, among others, which could impact production and prevent us from supplying our products to our customers. If the supply-demand balance is disrupted, it may considerably increase costs of manufacturing due to increased prices we pay for raw materials. From time to time, suppliers may extend lead times, limit amounts supplied to us or increase prices due to capacity constraints or other factors. Additionally, supply and costs of raw materials, equipment and other products may be negatively impacted by trade and/or national security protection policies, such as tariffs, or actions by governments that limit or prevent us from transacting business with certain countries or companies or that limit or prevent certain companies from transacting business with us, or trade tensions, particularly with countries in Asia. Further, it may be difficult or impossible to substitute one piece of equipment for another or replace one type of material with another. A failure by our suppliers to deliver our requirements could result in disruptions to our manufacturing operations.
Our manufacturing processes are highly complex, require advanced and costly equipment and must be continuously modified to improve yields and performance. Difficulties in the production process can reduce yields or interrupt production, and as a result, we may not be able to deliver our products or do so in a timely, cost-effective or competitive manner. Further, to remain competitive and meet customer demand, we may be required to improve our facilities and process technologies and carry out extensive research and development, each of which may require investment of significant amounts of capital and may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
From time to time, we purchase equipment to meet expected customer demand in advance of any purchase orders or long-term purchase commitments. Further, we typically begin manufacturing our products using our or our customers’ forecasts of demand for our products, which are based on a number of assumptions and estimates and may not be covered by long-term purchase commitments. As a result, we may incur increased inventory and manufacturing costs and/or record impairment charges to the extent anticipated sales ultimately do not materialize or are lower than expected. If we or our customers overestimate demand, or if demand is impacted by factors outside of our or our customers’ control, and such demand is not covered by a binding commitment from our customers, we may experience higher inventory carrying and operating costs and/or increased excess or obsolete inventory or reserve charges, which would negatively impact our results of operations.
RISKS RELATED TO CYBERSECURITY OR MISAPPROPRIATION OF OUR CRITICAL INFORMATION
Our business and operations could suffer in the event of security breaches of our IT systems, or other misappropriation of our technology, intellectual property or other proprietary or confidential information.
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Third parties regularly attempt to gain unauthorized access to our IT systems, and many such attacks are increasingly more sophisticated. These attacks, which might be related to industrial, corporate or other espionage, criminal hackers or state-sponsored intrusions, include trying to covertly introduce malware to our computers and networks, including those in our manufacturing operations, exploiting vulnerabilities in hardware, software or other IT infrastructure and impersonating authorized users, among others. We are also subject to ransom-style cyber-attacks, which could expose our confidential or proprietary information, demand payment of money and/or impact our IT systems and cause widespread disruption to our business, including our manufacturing operations. Third parties that store and/or process our confidential information, or that provide products, software or services used in our IT infrastructure, may be subject to similar attacks, which could also result in malware being introduced into our IT infrastructure, e.g., through the third parties’ software and/or software updates. Such attacks could result in the misappropriation, theft, misuse, disclosure, loss or destruction of the technology, intellectual property, or the proprietary, confidential or personal information, of us or our employees, customers, licensees, suppliers or other third parties, as well as damage to or disruptions in our IT systems. We believe that we have a robust cybersecurity program that is aligned to international cybersecurity frameworks, and that we leverage industry best practices across people, processes and technologies in an attempt to mitigate cybersecurity threats. However, we cannot anticipate, detect, repel or implement fully effective preventative measures against all cybersecurity threats, particularly because the techniques used are increasingly sophisticated and constantly evolving. For example, as AI continues to evolve, cyber-attackers could also use AI to develop malicious code and sophisticated phishing attempts. As part of our cybersecurity program, we seek to identify and remediate vulnerabilities in our IT systems and software (including third party software used in our IT systems) that could be exploited by hackers or other malicious actors. However, we may not be aware of all such vulnerabilities, and we may fail to identify and/or remediate such vulnerabilities before they are exploited. Attempts to gain unauthorized access to our IT systems or other attacks have in the past, in certain instances and to certain degrees, been successful (but have not caused significant harm), and may in the future be successful, and in some cases, we might be unaware of an incident or its magnitude and effects.
In addition, employees and former employees, in particular former employees who become employees of our competitors, customers, licensees or other third parties, including state actors, have in the past and may in the future misappropriate, wrongfully use, publish or provide to our competitors, customers, licensees or other third parties, including state actors, our technology, intellectual property or other proprietary or confidential information. This risk is exacerbated as competitors for talent, particularly engineering talent, increasingly attempt to hire our employees. See also the Risk Factor titled “We may not be able to attract or retain qualified employees.” Similarly, we provide access to certain of our technology, intellectual property and other proprietary or confidential information to our direct and indirect customers and licensees and certain of our consultants, who have in the past and may in the future wrongfully use such technology, intellectual property or information, or wrongfully disclose such technology, intellectual property or information to third parties, including our competitors or state actors. We also provide access to certain of our technology, intellectual property and other proprietary or confidential information to certain of our joint venture partners, including those affiliated with state actors and including in foreign jurisdictions where ownership restrictions may require us to take a minority ownership interest in the joint venture. Such joint venture partners may wrongfully use such technology, intellectual property or information, or wrongfully disclose such technology, intellectual property or information to third parties, including our competitors or state actors. Our technology, intellectual property and other proprietary or confidential information that we have provided to customers, licensees or other business partners could also be wrongfully obtained by third parties through cyber-attacks on such customers’, licensees’ or other business partners’ IT systems.
The misappropriation, theft, misuse, disclosure, loss or destruction of the technology, intellectual property, or the proprietary, confidential or personal information, of us or our employees, customers, licensees, suppliers or other third parties, could harm our competitive position, reduce the value of our investment in research and development and other strategic initiatives, cause us to lose business, damage our reputation, subject us to legal or regulatory proceedings, cause us to incur other loss or liability and otherwise adversely affect our business. We expect to continue to devote significant resources to the security of our IT systems, and our technology, intellectual property and proprietary and confidential information.
Further, certain countries in which we operate have implemented, and other countries or regions may implement, cybersecurity laws that require our overall IT security environment to meet certain standards and/or be certified. Such laws may be complex, ambiguous and subject to interpretation, which may create uncertainty regarding compliance. As a result, our efforts to comply with such laws may be expensive and may fail, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, our contracts with certain of our customers require us to obtain cybersecurity certifications for our IT systems. Failure to obtain or maintain the necessary cybersecurity certifications could result in loss of future revenues, damage to our customer relationships and reputation, and a shift of business to our competitors.
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RISKS RELATED TO HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT
We may not be able to attract or retain qualified employees.
Our future success depends upon the continued service of our executive officers and other key management and technical personnel, and on our ability to continue to identify, attract, retain and motivate them. Implementing our business strategy requires specialized engineering and other talent, as our revenues are highly dependent on technological and product innovations. In addition, in order to extend our business into certain new and expanded product areas and industries and applications beyond mobile handsets, we need to attract, retain and motivate engineering and other technical personnel with specialized skills in these areas, and these skills are in high demand among our competitors. The market for employees in our industry is extremely competitive, and competitors for talent, particularly engineering talent, increasingly attempt to hire, and to varying degrees have been successful in hiring, our employees or employment candidates, including by establishing or expanding local offices near our headquarters in San Diego, California. Further, the increased availability of remote working arrangements has expanded the pool of companies that can compete for our employees and employment candidates. A number of such competitors for talent are significantly larger than us and/or offer compensation in excess of what we offer or other benefits that we do not offer. Further, existing immigration laws make it more difficult for us to recruit and retain highly skilled foreign national graduates of universities in the United States, making the pool of available talent even smaller.
The COVID-19 pandemic caused us to modify our workforce practices, including having the vast majority of our employees work from home. Upon the reopening of our offices, we initially operated under a hybrid work model, meaning that the majority of our employees had the flexibility to work remotely at least some of the time. In fiscal 2023, we implemented changes to our hybrid work model that require the majority of our employees to spend the majority of their working time in the office. This requirement for greater in-office attendance may not meet the needs or expectations of our employees and could negatively impact our ability to attract and retain employees, particularly if it is perceived as less favorable compared to other companies’ remote work policies.
If we are unable to attract or retain qualified employees or fail to maintain employee productivity due to any of the factors described above or for other reasons, our business could be adversely impacted.
RISKS SPECIFIC TO OUR LICENSING BUSINESS
The continued and future success of our licensing programs requires us to continue to evolve our patent portfolio and to renew or renegotiate license agreements that are expiring.
We own a very strong portfolio of issued and pending patents related to 3G, 4G, 5G and other technologies. It is critical that we continue to evolve our patent portfolio, particularly in 5G. If we do not maintain a strong portfolio that is applicable to current and future standards, products and services, our future licensing revenues could be negatively impacted.
Our patent license agreements in effect that generate a significant portion of our licensing revenues are effective for a specified term. To receive royalties after the expiration date of the specified term, we will need to extend or modify such license agreements or enter into new license agreements with such licensees. We might not be able to extend or modify license agreements, or enter into new license agreements, in the future without negatively affecting the material terms and conditions of our license agreements with such licensees, and such modifications or new agreements may negatively impact our revenues. In some circumstances, we may extend, modify or enter into new license agreements as a result of arbitration or litigation, and terms imposed by arbitrators or courts may be less favorable to us than existing terms, and may impact the financial or other terms of license agreements not subject to the litigation or arbitration. If there is a delay in extending, modifying or entering into a new license agreement with a licensee, there would be a delay in our ability to recognize revenues related to that licensee’s product sales. Further, if we are unable to reach agreement on such modifications or new agreements, it could result in patent infringement litigation with such licensees. Finally, certain of our license agreements contain binding renewal provisions which provide that if the parties are unable to agree upon the terms and conditions of a new license agreement by a specified date, either party may initiate binding arbitration proceedings to establish such terms and conditions. Such new license agreement would become effective immediately after the expiration of the prior agreement. Nonetheless, in either event, we may not be able to recognize some or any revenues related to that licensee’s product sales until such new license agreement is finalized.
Efforts by some OEMs to avoid paying fair and reasonable royalties for the use of our intellectual property may require the investment of substantial management time and financial resources and may result in legal decisions or actions by governments, courts, regulators or agencies, Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) or other industry organizations that harm our business.
From time to time, companies initiate various strategies to attempt to negotiate, renegotiate, reduce and/or eliminate their need to pay royalties to us for the use of our intellectual property. These strategies have included: (i) litigation, often alleging
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infringement of patents held by such companies, patent misuse, patent exhaustion, patent invalidity or unenforceability of our patents or licenses, alleging that we do not license our patents on fair, reasonable and nondiscriminatory (FRAND) terms, or alleging some form of unfair competition or competition law violation; (ii) taking positions contrary to our understanding (and/or the plain language) of their contracts with us; (iii) appeals to governmental authorities; (iv) collective actio