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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
þ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                   to                  
Commission file number: 001-13425
RB Logo.jpg
RB Global, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Canada98-0626225
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
Two Westbrook Corporate Center, Suite 500,
Westchester, Illinois, USA 60154
(708) 492-7000
(Address of Principal Executive Offices and Zip Code)(Registrant’s Telephone Number, including Area Code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading SymbolName of Exchange on Which Registered
Common SharesRBANew York Stock Exchange
Common Share Purchase RightsN/ANew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: Restricted Share Units
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:
 Large accelerated filer þ
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o
Smaller reporting company o
  
Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. þ
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. o
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b). o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No þ
At June 30, 2023 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter), the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant (assuming for these purposes, but without conceding, that all executive officers and directors are "affiliates" of the registrant) was approximately $10,884,028,380. The number of common shares of the registrant outstanding as of February 27, 2024, was 183,016,770.



Documents Incorporated by Reference
Certain portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, in connection with the registrant’s 2023 Annual and Special Meeting of Shareholders, are incorporated herein by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


RB GLOBAL, INC.
FORM 10-K
For the year ended December 31, 2023
INDEX


Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
The information discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K of RB Global, Inc., formerly known as Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers Incorporated (collectively referred to as “RB Global”, the “Company”, “we”, or “us”) includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) and Canadian securities laws. Forward-looking statements are typically identified by such words as “aim”, “anticipate”, “believe”, “could”, “continue”, “estimate”, “expect”, “intend”, “may”, “ongoing”, “plan”, “potential”, “predict”, “will”, “should”, “would”, “could”, “likely”, “generally”, “future”, “long-term”, or the negative of these terms, and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and assumptions that are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially. These statements are based on our current expectations and estimates about our business and markets, and may include, among others, statements relating to:
our future strategy, objectives, targets, projections and performance;
our ability to drive shareholder value;
potential growth and market opportunities;
our internet initiatives and the level of participation in our auctions by internet bidders, and the success of our online marketplaces;
our ability to grow our businesses, acquire new customers, enhance our sector reach, drive geographic depth, and scale our operations;
the impact of our initiatives, services, investments, and acquisitions on us and our customers;
the acquisition or disposition of properties;
potential future mergers and acquisitions;
our ability to integrate acquisitions (including IAA, Inc. (“IAA”));
the impact of our new initiatives, services, investments, and acquisitions on us and our customers;
our future capital expenditures and returns on those expenditures;
our ability to add new business and information solutions, including, among others, our ability to maximize and integrate technology to enhance our existing services and support additional value-added service offerings;
the supply trend of equipment and vehicles in the market and the anticipated price environment, as well as the resulting effect on our business and Gross Transaction Value (“GTV”);
our compliance with all laws, rules, regulations, and requirements that affect our business;
effects of various economic, financial, industry, and market conditions or policies, including inflation, the supply and demand for property, equipment, or natural resources;
the behavior of commercial assets and vehicle pricing;
the relative percentage of GTV represented by straight commission or underwritten (guarantee and inventory) contracts, and its impact on revenues and profitability;
our future capital expenditures and returns on those expenditures;
the effect of any currency exchange and interest rate fluctuations on our results of operations;
the grant and satisfaction of equity awards pursuant to our compensation plans;
any future declaration and payment of dividends, including the tax treatment of any such dividends;
financing available to us from our credit facilities or other sources, our ability to refinance borrowings, and the sufficiency of our working capital to meet our financial needs; and
our ability to satisfy our present operating requirements and fund future growth through existing working capital, credit facilities and debt.
While we have not described all potential risks related to our business and owning our common shares, the factors discussed in “Part I, Item 1A: Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 are among those that may affect our performance materially or could cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by forward-looking statements. Except as required by applicable securities law and regulations of relevant securities exchanges, we do not intend to update publicly any forward-looking statements, even if our expectations have been affected by new information, future events or other developments. You should consider our forward-looking statements in light of the factors listed or referenced under “Risk Factors” herein.
SUMMARY OF RISK FACTORS
The following is a summary of the principal risks described below in “Part I, Item 1A: Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We believe that the risks described in the “Risk Factors” section are material to investors, but other factors not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also adversely affect us. The following summary should not be considered an exhaustive summary of the material risks facing us, and it should be read in conjunction with the “Risk Factors” section and the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K:
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Risks Related to Our Recently Completed Acquisition of IAA
Combining the businesses of Ritchie Bros. and IAA may be more difficult, costly or time-consuming than expected, and we may fail to realize the anticipated benefits of the acquisition, which may adversely affect our business results and negatively affect the value of our common shares.
We may be unable to realize the anticipated cost synergies and other opportunities expected from the acquisition of IAA, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Certain contractual counterparties may seek to modify contractual relationships with us, which could have an adverse effect on the Company’s business and operations.
We may be exposed to increased litigation, which could have an adverse effect on our business and operations.
We have incurred a substantial amount of debt to complete the acquisition of IAA, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows and financial condition.
Significant costs have been incurred and are expected to be incurred in connection with the consummation and integration of the acquisition of IAA.
Risks Related to Our Business
Our business and operating results would be adversely affected due to the loss of one or more significant suppliers, a reduction in significant volume from suppliers, an adverse change in our supplier relationships, or a disruption to our supply of damaged, total loss and low-value vehicles.
Our business and operating results would be adversely affected if we are unable to meet or exceed our buyer customers’ demand and expectations or due to a disruption in demand of damaged, total loss and low-value vehicles.
IAA’s market position and competitive advantage could be threatened by our competitors and/or disruptive new entrants.
If our facilities lack the capacity to accept additional vehicles, then our relationships with insurance companies or other vehicle suppliers could be adversely affected.
We may be unable to keep existing facilities or open new facilities in desirable locations and on favorable terms, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
Macroeconomic factors, including high fuel prices, high labor costs, rising inflation and changes in prices of assets transacted on our marketplaces, may have an adverse effect on our revenues and operating results.
Reliance on our subhaulers and trucking fleet operations could materially and adversely affect our business and reputation.
Weather-related and other events beyond our control may adversely impact operations.
An increase in the number of damaged and total loss vehicles we purchase could adversely affect our profitability.
A significant change in salvage values could impact the proceeds and revenue from the sale of damaged and total loss vehicles.
IAA assumes the settlement risk for vehicles sold through its marketplaces.
Changes in laws affecting the import and export of damaged and total loss vehicles may have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
We are subject to potential liabilities with respect to IAA’s prior separation from KAR Auction Services, Inc.
We may not realize the anticipated benefits of, and synergies from, acquisitions and may become responsible for certain liabilities and integration costs as a result.
Damage to our reputation could harm our business.
We may incur losses as a result of our guarantee and inventory contracts and advances to consignors.
The availability and performance of our technology infrastructure, including our websites, is critical to our business and continued growth.
Consumer behavior is rapidly changing, and if we are unable to successfully adapt to consumer preferences and develop and maintain a relevant and reliable inventory management and multichannel disposition experience for our customers, our financial performance and brand image could be adversely affected.
We rely on data provided by third parties, the loss of which could limit the functionality of certain of our platforms and disrupt our business.
Government regulation of the Internet and e-commerce is evolving, and unfavorable changes in this or other regulations could substantially harm our business and results of operations.
If our ability, or the ability of our third party service partners, cloud computing platform providers or third party data center hosting facilities, to safeguard the reliability, integrity and confidentiality of our and their information technology systems is compromised, if unauthorized access is obtained to our systems or customers’, suppliers', counterparties' and employees' confidential information, or if authorized access is blocked or disabled, we may incur significant reputational harm, legal exposure, or a negative financial impact.
Our future expenses may increase significantly and our operations and ability to expand may be limited as a result of licenses, laws and regulations governing auction sites, environmental protection, international trade and other matters.
Losing the services of one or more key personnel or the failure to attract, train and retain personnel could materially affect our business.
Failure to maintain safe sites could materially affect our business and reputation.
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Income and commodity tax amounts, including tax expense, may be materially different than expected and there is a trend by global tax collection authorities towards the adoption of more aggressive laws, regulations, interpretations and audit practices.
Our substantial international operations expose us to foreign exchange rate fluctuations that could harm our results of operations.
Our business operations may be subject to a number of federal and local laws, rules and regulations including export control regulations.
Failure to comply with anti-bribery, anti-corruption, and anti-money laundering laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA, the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act, or the CFPOA, and similar laws associated with our activities outside of the U.S. could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.
We are pursuing a long-term growth strategy that may include acquisitions and developing and enhancing an appropriate sales strategy, which requires upfront investment with no guarantee of long-term returns.
We are regularly subject to general litigation and other claims, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Privacy concerns and our compliance with current and evolving domestic or foreign laws and regulations regarding the processing of personal information and other data may increase our costs, impact our marketing efforts or decrease adoption and use of our products and services, and our failure to comply with those laws and regulations may expose us to liability and reputational harm.
Our business continuity plan may not operate effectively in the event of a significant interruption of our business.
Our insurance may be insufficient to cover losses that may occur as a result of our operations.
Certain global conditions may affect our ability to conduct successful events.
Financial Risks
Ineffective internal control over financial reporting could result in errors in our financial statements, reduce investor confidence, and adversely impact our stock price.
We have substantial indebtedness, and the degree to which we are leveraged may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our debt instruments have restrictive covenants that could limit our financial flexibility.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
We may be unable to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights, which could harm our reputation and adversely affect our growth prospects.
Risks Related to Our Industry
Competition could result in reductions in our future revenues and profitability.
Decreases in the supply of, demand for, or market values of used equipment, could harm our business.
Risks Related to Our Organization and Governance
Our articles, by-laws, shareholder rights plan and Canadian law contain provisions that may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control.
U.S. civil liabilities may not be enforceable against us, our directors, or our officers.
We are governed by the corporate laws of Canada, which in some cases have a different effect on shareholders than the corporate laws of Delaware.
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PART I
ITEM 1:    BUSINESS
Company Overview
RB Global, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively referred to as the “RB Global”, the “Company”, “we”, or “us”) (NYSE & TSX: RBA) is a leading global marketplace that connects sellers and buyers of commercial assets and vehicles. Through our omnichannel platform we facilitate transactions for customers in primarily the automotive, construction, and commercial transportation sectors. We also serve customers in the agriculture, energy, and natural resources sectors, as well as government entities. Our customers primarily include automotive insurance companies, as well as end users, dealers, fleet owners, and original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) of commercial assets and vehicles. We also provide our customers value-added marketplace services, technology solutions for vehicle merchandising, platforms for lifecycle management of assets, and a market data intelligence platform to help customers make more informed business decisions.
We have a global presence, primarily with operations in the United States, Canada and across Europe, and employ more than 7,900 full-time employees worldwide.
The Company changed its name from Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers Incorporated to RB Global, Inc. and moved its global headquarters to Westchester, Illinois, United States from Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada after the close of the acquisition of IAA in the first quarter of 2023.
Business Combinations
On March 20, 2023, we completed the acquisition of IAA, a leading global digital marketplace connecting vehicle buyers and sellers with operations throughout the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. IAA facilitates the marketing and sale of total loss, damaged and low-value vehicles for a full spectrum of sellers, including insurance companies, dealerships, fleet lease and rental car companies and charitable organizations. Additionally, IAA serves a global buyer base with vehicles, vehicle rebuild requirements, replacement part inventory or scrap demand.

As part of the acquisition, pursuant to the terms of an Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization with IAA, IAA stockholders received $12.80 per share in cash and 0.5252 shares of the Company for each share of IAA common stock they owned (the “Exchange Ratio”). As such, we paid approximately $1.7 billion in cash consideration and issued 70.3 million shares of our common stock to complete the acquisition. In addition, we repaid approximately $1.2 billion of IAA’s net debt and $500.0 million principal amount of its senior notes, and therefore acquired IAA debt free. We expect that the acquisition of IAA will accelerate our journey to become the trusted global marketplace for transaction solutions, insights, and services as well as diversify our customer base by providing us with a significant presence in the automotive sector, an industry with strong fundamentals and proven secular growth. Additionally, our management team has experience in the automotive and insurance ecosystem, which we expect will improve and shape our customers' experiences. With enhanced scale and an expanded addressable market, we expect to be able to drive additional GTV growth through our platforms and auction sites, and consistently over-deliver on the commitments we make to our customers.

On January 3, 2023, we also acquired a 75% controlling interest in VeriTread LLC ("VeriTread") for a total purchase price of $32.4 million. VeriTread is a transportation technology company in the United States that provides an online marketplace solution for open deck transport, connecting shippers and service providers. The acquisition of VeriTread is also aligned with our growth strategy and we expect to benefit from anticipated synergies from applying their transportation platform, network of carriers, equipment database and services to our customer base.

Further information regarding the business combinations are described in "Part II, Item 8: Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 4 Business Combinations."
Macroeconomic Conditions
Various macroeconomic factors can impact the behaviors of our customers, our business and our operating results, including inflation, interest rate volatility and foreign currency fluctuations.
Inflation - We continue to experience inflationary pressures on our business through elevated operating costs.
Interest rates - Interest rate volatility may impact our customers' preferences around disposal services and their ability to finance equipment or other assets. We are also exposed to interest rate volatility on approximately $1.7 billion of our long-term debt that has floating rates.
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Foreign currency - Foreign currency fluctuations may impact our global customers ability to buy and sell assets on our marketplace impacting our ability to generate revenue. Additionally, foreign currency fluctuations could impact our financial results given that we earn revenue and operate globally across multiple countries and in different currencies. On an annual basis, we expect the impact of fluctuations of currency on our revenues and operating expenses to largely offset and generally act as a natural hedge against exposure to fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar, our presentation currency. We also enter into forward contracts to protect against foreign exchange rate risks related to certain intercompany balances denominated in a currency other than the entity's functional or local currency. Accordingly, foreign currency fluctuations generally do not have a significant impact on our operating results.
Industry Trends

The volume of assets and average selling price sold in our auctions and marketplaces fluctuate on a quarterly basis. The volume of assets we sell and the demand for our services can be influenced by the utilization rate of assets by our customers in the commercial construction and transportation sector, and by the automotive loss ratio in the automotive sector. In addition, seasonality, timing of significant events and customer transactions, holiday calendars and severe or prolonged weather events may also impact our volumes.

The changes in global supply of new commercial assets and vehicles impacts our customers and their preferences around disposition services. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the lack of supply of new commercial assets and vehicles combined with a robust demand led to higher average selling prices of assets sold through our auctions and marketplaces.

In the automotive sector, fluctuations in supply and vehicle prices, combined with changes in vehicle repair costs, can impact the number of vehicles declared as a total loss by our insurance customers, and as such has an impact on the volume of vehicles disposed of through our transaction solutions. The demand for our services is further impacted by the number and age of the vehicles in service ("Car Parc"), the number of vehicle miles driven, the complexity of the design and technology content of vehicles, and the overall demand of recycled and automotive parts.
Competition
We encounter different competitors by region, sector, and service across the entire suite of solutions we offer to our customers.

Competition in the commercial construction and transportation sector for transaction solutions is highly fragmented geographically and by transaction format. We compete for sellers against online and physical auctioneers, brokers, OEMs and equipment dealers offering trade-in services. Some of our customers, including large fleet owners, may seek private sales instead of third-party transaction solutions. The market is constantly evolving and subject to change from new and existing competitors and technology-enabled selling solutions for sellers.

In the automotive sector, our sellers are comprised of insurance and non-insurance customers seeking transaction solutions for their damaged or low-value vehicles. We primarily compete with Copart, Inc., Total Resource Auctions, Inc., a subsidiary of Cox Enterprises, and certain independent used vehicle auction companies that regularly remarket damaged and total loss vehicles. We have contractual service level agreements and various supply agreements with our sellers, primarily automotive insurance customers. Our performance against service level agreements and gross returns to drive the best net returns are critical areas of competition, and we are taking decisive steps to improve the consistency of over-delivering against these commitments.

Competitive Advantages

Global platform - Our global platform allows us to connect buyers and sellers, offer insights and value-added services for commercial assets and vehicles through our omnichannel marketplace, both digitally and through our auction sites in 14 countries. This omnichannel approach offers unmatched choice and flexibility, tailoring transaction solutions to suit our customers' diverse and changing needs. We also offer our customers a full spectrum of value-added services, such as transportation and logistics, appraisal, inspection, refurbishing, and financial services.

Trusted customer relationships - Our seasoned sales teams boast long-standing customer relationships, acting as trusted advisors. We take a long-term view, offering unparalleled solutions to simplify their experience and cultivate partnerships that span generations.

Data, insights and services - Rich data and analytics are a cornerstone to the best customer experience. We invest in data science to deliver asset value predictions, generate user leads, prioritize marketing investments, interpret price trends, and more. Proprietary algorithmic asset pricing is used internally to set target values and optimize marketplace operations and externally to provide our customers with real-time asset values. In addition, our Rouse Services business and brand is the leading provider of construction equipment rental metrics, benchmarks, and construction equipment valuations to lenders,
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rental companies, contractors, and dealers. Our business model is built upon an extensive data ecosystem, proprietary analytics, data science techniques, and trusted customer relationships rooted in service and confidentiality.

Global presence - we achieve exceptional agility with our extensive global network of 354 locations, enabling us to be closer in proximity to our customers. This proximity helps minimize transportation costs and provides our customers with the choice of care, custody, and control of equipment and vehicles. The acquisition of IAA in 2023 significantly strengthened our geographic presence and increased the number of locations we have to service our customers.

Flexibility of yard space and teammates - Teammates working in different sectors can come together across multiple locations to meet our customers' needs when necessary. Specifically, in a catastrophic event impacting our automotive sector customers, we can increase the speed of our response and avoid incremental operating costs by leveraging all our teammates and unused capacity across all of our locations.

Global buyer base and demand engine - Our global presence and sophisticated approach to driving buyer demand allows us to generate deep pools of liquidity for transactions, enabling global market pricing for commercial assets and vehicle sellers and helping to deliver the best price realization. We serve customers in more than 170 countries across a variety of sectors.

Brand - Our well-established brands are well recognized and have a loyal customer base. The Company's marketplace brands include Ritchie Bros., the world's largest auctioneer of commercial assets and vehicles, and IAA, a leading global digital marketplace connecting vehicle buyers and sellers. RB Global's portfolio of brands also includes Rouse Services, which provides complete end-to-end asset management, data-driven intelligence, and performance benchmarking system, SmartEquip, an innovative technology platform that supports customers' management of the equipment lifecycle and integrates parts procurement with both original equipment manufacturers and dealers and VeriTread, an online marketplace for heavy haul transport.
Growth Strategy
We see significant opportunities to grow our business profitably by leveraging our existing platform and industry presence to become the trusted global marketplace for transaction solutions, insights, and services for commercial assets and vehicles.

We excel at partnering with customers who share our commitment to building trusted relationships. By understanding and responding to our customers changing needs and preferences, we cultivate lasting and robust relationships. This has fueled sustained growth across our diverse marketplace, where a vast range of sectors offers opportunities for expansion and success. We intend to grow our market share and become the partner of choice across all the sectors we serve. The core elements of the strategy are:

Best Customer Experience - We measure our success through the success of our customers. We have a long history, culture, and passion for being trusted partners to our customers. To us, being a good partner is over-delivering against the commitments we make to them. We do this by focusing on operational excellence and fostering a culture of continuous innovation and improvement by empowering our teammates. Central to this is investing in technology to develop new products and services and to make it easier for customers to interact with us and make the best business decisions.
Best Teammate Experience - We strive to create the best workplace for all employees and create a place where they want to build a career. We encourage open and honest dialogue and are committed to robust communications from management to employees and creating channels for sharing feedback. We also continue to invest in technology to improve our team members' work environment and experience.

Modern Architecture - We are transitioning to modern technology, based in the cloud, that allows us to create a single presence for our customers across all of our solutions. We expect that this will allow flexibility and agility for us to respond to our customer's evolving needs and enable a foundation for scalable growth.

We are committed to growing our business by prioritizing and focusing on the needs of our customers and our partners.
Service Offerings
We offer our customers multiple distinct, complementary, multi-channel brand solutions that address the range of their buying and selling needs for commercial assets, vehicles and other types of assets. Our global customer base has a variety of transaction options, breadth of services, and the widest selection of used equipment and vehicles available to them. The tables below illustrate the various channels and brand solutions available to our customers.
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SolutionBrand(s)Description
Transaction SolutionsRB AuctionOnsite and online marketplace for selling and buying used equipment
IronPlanetOnline marketplace for selling and buying used equipment
Marketplace-EOnline make offer/buy now format
GovPlanetOnline marketplace for the sale of government and military assets
IAA AuctionNow™Online auction bidding and buying solution, that features inventory located at physical branches and offsite locations. Available to a global buyer audience
IAA Buy Now™Online buy now format available between scheduled auctions, leveraging ML based pricing recommendations
IAA Custom Bid™Bidding tool that provides buyers focused on recycling the ability to set pre-bids in an auction based on vehicle attributes
IAA Timed Auctions™Timed auction format that allows for competitive bidding and sale prior to a scheduled auction
Ritchie Bros. Private TreatyConfidential, negotiated sale of large equipment
Financial ServicesRitchie Bros. Financial ServicesLoan origination service that uses a brokerage model to match loan applicants with appropriate financial lending institutions
IAA Loan Payoff™Service that mitigates the time-consuming process of managing a total loss claim requiring loan payoff and title release
Appraisal ServicesRouse AppraisalsUnbiased, certified appraisal services
Inspection ServicesRitchie Bros. InspectionsTruck and heavy equipment inspections
IAA Inspection Services®Remote inspections and appraisals for salvage vehicles
Listings ServicesRitchie List
Mascus
Online equipment listing service and B2B dealer portal
Refurbishing ServicesRitchie Bros. RefurbishingRepair, paint, and other make-ready services
Transportation & Logistics ServicesRitchie Bros. Logistics
End-to-end transportation and customs clearance solution for sellers and buyers with shipping needs
VeriTread TransportOnline transportation marketplace, connecting shippers and carriers
IAA Transport™Integrated shipping solution allowing buyers to schedule shipment of vehicles during the checkout process
IAA Tow App™Mobile dispatch solution that assists the tow network
Data ServicesRouse ServicesThe leading provider of construction equipment market intelligence
CSAToday®Online reporting and analysis tool that gives sellers the ability to manage their vehicle assets and monitor sales performance
IAA Market Value™A solution for sellers looking to estimate the values of their vehicles based on user-provided information and historical auction data
Parts ServicesSmartEquipOnline marketplace connecting equipment owners with parts manufacturers
Catastrophe Response ServicesCatastrophe (CAT) Services™Industry-leading strategic catastrophe response service focused on real estate capacity, operational execution, transportation logistics and vehicle merchandising and selling
Title ServicesIAA Title Services®Full suite of title services that facilitate the title documentation, settlement and retrieval process
Contract options
We offer consignors several contract options to meet their individual needs and sale objectives for selling used equipment or vehicles, which include:
Straight commission contracts, where the consignor receives the gross proceeds from the sale less a pre-negotiated commission rate;
Fixed commission contracts, where the consignor receives the gross proceeds from the sale less a pre-negotiated fixed commission fee;
Guarantee commission contracts, where the consignor receives a guaranteed minimum amount plus an additional amount if proceeds exceed a specified level; and
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Inventory contracts, where we purchase, take custody, and hold used equipment and other assets before they are resold in the ordinary course of business.
We collectively refer to guarantee and inventory contracts as underwritten or “at-risk” contracts.
Other value-added services
We also provide a wide array of value-added services to make the process of selling and buying equipment and vehicles convenient for our customers. In addition to the services listed in the table above, we also provide the following value-added services to our customers:
Conducting title searches, where registries are commercially available, to help ensure equipment sold through RB Global is free and clear of all liens and encumbrances (if we are not able to deliver clear title, we provide a full refund up to the purchase price to the buyer);
Making equipment available for inspection, testing, and comparison by prospective buyers;
Displaying high-quality, zoomable photographs of equipment on our website;
Providing 360-degree video inspection technology to increase buyer confidence in equipment being purchased;
Providing industry-leading professional equipment inspections and reports;
Providing free detailed equipment information on our website for most equipment;
Providing access to commercial transportation companies and customs brokerages through our logistical services;
Handling all pre-auction marketing, as well as collection and disbursement of proceeds;
Providing equipment sales and rental data intelligence and performance benchmarking solutions; and
Providing an innovative technology platform that supports customers' management of the equipment lifecycle and integrates parts procurement with both original equipment manufacturers and dealers.
Intellectual Property
We believe our intellectual property has significant value and is an important factor in marketing our organization, services, and website, as well as differentiating us from our competitors. We own or hold the rights to use valuable intellectual property such as trademarks, service marks, domain names and tradenames. We protect our intellectual property in Canada, the U.S., and internationally through federal, provincial, state, and common law rights, including registration of certain trademark and service marks for many of our brands, including our core brands. We also have secured patents for inventions and have registered our domain names.
We rely on contractual restrictions and rights to protect certain of our proprietary rights in products and services. Effective protection of our intellectual property can be expensive to maintain and may require litigation. We must protect our intellectual property rights and other proprietary rights in many jurisdictions throughout the world. In addition, we may, from time to time, be subject to intellectual property claims, including allegations of infringement, which can be costly to defend. For a discussion of the risks involved with intellectual property litigation and enforcement of our intellectual property rights, see the related information in “Part I, Item 1A: Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Environmental, Social & Governance
In 2023, RB Global continued to advance its Environmental, Social and Governance ("ESG") framework, which was developed in 2022, and also began to align its strategy with IAA's ESG program, which includes the integration of ESG approaches, resources, and capabilities.
Building on the foundation established in 2022, our ESG framework remains instrumental in guiding our actions and driving our ESG progress. We use our framework to establish our goals, targets and performance metrics. As we continue to develop our ESG program and integrate IAA into our operations and business processes, we intend to continue to adjust and enhance our strategy, goals and aspirations as needed.

Below is an overview of RB Global's commitment to ESG. Please see our website for our latest sustainability reports and further details on our initiatives and accomplishments.
Environmental

The Company is regulated by federal, state and international environmental laws governing the protection of the environment, health and safety, the use, transport and disposal of hazardous substances and control of emissions including greenhouse gases into the environment. Compliance with these existing laws has not had a material impact on our capital expenditures, earnings or global competitive position. However, climate change initiatives and changing laws and regulations governing the environment may affect the supply of, the demand for, and the market values of equipment in the future.
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We support the transition to a low-carbon world through enabling a circular economy of vehicles and equipment and through our efforts to manage our greenhouse gas emissions. We engage our customers to optimize the use and efficiency of equipment, to re-use, refurbish and recycle before disposition, as extending the life of heavy equipment and vehicles is core to our business model. In turn, we believe this reduces waste and lessens the need to extract natural resources to produce equipment.

In 2023, we took the opportunity to comprehensively evaluate our environmental impact, considering the impacts from the acquisition of IAA. This year has been a transition year for us in respect to our Scope 1, 2 and 3 inventory. To support our reporting and further meaningful action, we developed a baseline carbon inventory of Scopes 1 and 2 in 2022 and completed our Scope 3 inventory in 2023 using recognized standards such as the Greenhouse Gas ("GHG") protocol. This enabled us to gain a more complete understanding of our global carbon footprint and identify areas where we can make improvements. With this valuable data, we are well-equipped to establish achievable reduction targets, track our progress, and effectively manage and mitigate our environmental impact.
We continue our commitment to environmental management by ensuring availability of treatment systems to manage wastewater, a recycling system to promote waste management and air filtration systems when necessary. We also promote environmentally conscious facilities including vehicle electrification and electric vehicle charging stations at our sites and corporate offices.
Social
Human Capital
With the completion of the acquisition of IAA on March 20, 2023, we now employ approximately 7,900 full-time employees (up 182% from approximately 2,800 in 2022) and 1,700 part-time employees (up 21% from 1,400 in 2022) worldwide, representing approximately 82% and 18%, respectively, of our global workforce at December 31, 2023. We also periodically hire contractors as needed to support our auctions, various businesses, and other projects.
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Of our total full-time employees, 4,484 people work onsite at our auction sites to support our global operations and solution services (2022: 966) and 504 employees are focused on sales and solutions for our customers (2022: 421).
Development and Engagement
We believe that our people are our greatest asset and that engaged employees are paramount to the health and success of our business. We invest in a variety of training, development and engagement practices to deliver on our growth agenda and create more leaders.

In 2023, RB Global invested $1.7 million in employee development (2022: $2.0 million). All full-time employees are encouraged to have development plans that focus on functional and career growth. We have curated tools and resources and developed training programs to provide our leaders and employees with the skills to grow successfully. We provide all of our employees access to virtual instructor-led courses as well as access to a library of over 3,000 online courses and resources. Our newsletter, which goes directly to all of our employees, promotes our successes, shares our news stories, highlights our people and encourages internal career opportunities. Each newsletter ends with a reminder that employees can raise comments and ask questions directly to our leaders via email.

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During 2023, we achieved the following objectives to strengthen the development and engagement of our people:
We continue to hold quarterly performance conversations to drive performance and ongoing engagement, with a simplified year-end review process without performance ratings to allow for more meaningful conversations about accomplishments, values and opportunities.
We began to offer a six week Transition to Leadership Program to newly promoted and first-time managers, so they can gain the practical know-how and confidence needed to inspire, delegate, and communicate effectively in their new role.
We piloted a new Mentorship Program to help provide mentorship support to employees and encourage employees to learn from connections and meaningful relationships with experienced leaders.
We integrated certain training programs as a result of our acquisition of IAA:
a multi-course Customer Experience Program, culminated this year in a 3-tiered accreditation with each tier building on the last in skill level proficiency, and training application positively impacting Net Promoter Scores (NPS), and;
a researched-based Future of Work training program to build a customer centric focus across the organization focused on building role specific skills, tailored to key frontline positions, and developing skills that stand up to our evolving business needs.
We continued to execute our strategy of the sales coverage model, where the sales teams are focused on existing, new, and long-tail customers. Cohort-based multi-week boot camps were held, designed to accelerate the onboarding and development of new regional sales representatives.
In addition, we continued to offer our Diversity, Equity, Inclusion & Belonging virtual training program for our employees to help understand personal biases and help create an inclusive environment.
We continue to look for ways to create on the-job learning opportunities so that our employees feel invested and engaged. Employees are involved in strategic initiatives and finding ways to better serve our customers and each other.
Health & Safety
Safety is a top priority at RB Global and core to who we are. Our objective is to keep our people healthy and safe – to send everyone home, every day, the way they came to work. Our global Environmental, Health, Safety and Security ("EHSS") team is focused on creating a unified approach to policies, procedures and best practices with the goal of keeping our teammates and customers safe. The EHSS team is responsible for introducing operational updates to support our commitment to maintaining the highest level of environmental, health and safety standards.
All new employees are required to complete a safety onboarding training that captures our health and safety programs, our policy statement and provides an overview of our global Employee Health and Safety (“EHS”) policies and expectations. Our 2023 completion rate for the safety onboarding program was 93.2% (2022: 93.4%). We also have a risk management process to support our safety orientation programs and our health and safety commitment, which ensures that our employees are exposed to the lowest possible level of risk. Our risk management process begins with an annual review of all incidents from the prior year to identify trends and assess whether we need to address findings through changes in our policies and procedures.
In 2023, the risk identification process at our Ritchie Bros. auction sites involved conducting weekly field hazard assessments or completing risk identification cards to identify risks relating to the performance of their roles. These assessments are monitored by our yard managers and/or our regional operations managers and corrective action is taken to help ensure that the risk is reduced or eliminated. During 2023 we had over 19,000 (2022: 17,000) risk identification cards completed by our employees. This process has helped us lower incident rates and reinforce incident prevention practices. Beginning in 2024, all RB Global auction sites, including IAA's sites, will be required to complete monthly field hazard assessments, to identify risks and take the necessary corrective actions. In addition, we also require all of our global employees in operations to complete a mandatory annual safety training curriculum.
We measure our Total Recordable Injury Rate (“TRIR”), which is the number of reportable incidences per 100 full-time workers during the year. Our annual TRIR goal is to meet or do better by being below the industrial average. TRIR for 2023, inclusive of IAA's TRIR post acquisition and excluding the impact of COVID-19 reportable incidences, was 1.05 (2022: 1.14), which was below the industrial average.
Every region within our organization also has a Safety Steering team that provides feedback on our safety journey and assists in identifying issues or concerns that may arise. Our success in health and safety relies on everyone taking an active role in the development and implementation of our programs, participating in training and providing feedback on our progress in our safety journey.
Diversity, Equity, Inclusion & Belonging
Our success is not based on any one individual. It is rooted in the hard work and dedication of our 7,900 team members around the world.
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At RB Global:
We aspire to have a culture that fosters respect, inclusion, and opportunity for growth for all.
We value our team members and honor diverse perspectives based on individual experiences.
We foster a sense of belonging through our Employee Resource Network by building awareness, creating community, and supporting each other.
Gender Diversity and Equality
Representation of women at our most senior executive leadership level is at 10% (2022: 33%), with 1 out of 10 members of our Executive Leadership Team being women. Representation of women at the Board of Directors level is at 18% (2022: 44%), with 2 out of 11 Board members being women. Approximately 44% of our full-time employees are women and 56% are men (2022: 36% women and 64% men).
Gender Representation
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We will continue to measure and analyze our recruitment efforts and strive to increase the number of candidates and hires from underrepresented groups. We plan to improve our partnership with diversity-focused organizations and increase the number of outreach campaigns to candidates from underrepresented groups.

Employee Resource Network
In 2023, to further foster a sense of belonging at the organization and expand our efforts related to inclusion, we joined our previously discrete Employee Resource Groups ("ERG") together into the Employee Resource Network ("ERN"). All our employees are welcome to join any group in our ERN. We currently have over 350 members across all groups. While each group is unique, they share common objectives to support each other and our broader communities, to provide opportunities for networking and personal and professional development and to build awareness around key issues related to inclusion and belonging.

In 2023, we added a number of groups to our network, including:
#rbCares is a group that aims to remove the stigma around mental health through education, awareness, and resources and provide a network of support.
The Cancer Peer Support Group supports those who are battling or have battled cancer, are supporting or have supported others through it, lost loved ones to it, or have been impacted by cancer in any other way. In 2023, the group made a donation to Project Kennedy, a non-profit organization that raises awareness and provides services to cancer patients, their families, and communities.


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Each of our groups and their key accomplishments in 2023 are outlined below.

Women’s LINK, our first group established in 2018, focuses on gender diversity and equality and striving to provide empowerment and support for all through community and global sponsorships and creating connections and professional development opportunities.

Elevating Black Voices (previously the Black Lives Matter Committee) brings awareness to the accomplishments and ongoing challenges of the Black community. In 2023, the group made several donations to help students across the United States, launched a scholarship program, sponsored a Black History Month event in Georgia, United States celebrating the culture and contributions of the Black community, and brought awareness to Black History Month by spotlighting the achievements of notable Black figures throughout the month of February.

PRIDE fosters a welcoming and inclusive workplace for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning (LGBTQ+) employees. In 2023, PRIDE donated to numerous causes in support of the LGBTQ+ community, including Human Rights Watch, Global Action for Trans Equality (GATE), and the Trevor Project. The group continued to build awareness and celebrate Pride Month, and created RB Global digital PRIDE badges for employees to include in their email signatures and t-shirts to over 350 team members to show their support.

SERVE embraces our proud community of military service members and veterans, including those who have family or others close to them who have served or are serving, by building awareness and providing support to past or present military service members and their families.
Community Giving
RB Global has been rooted in community since our founding over 60 years ago and we are committed to use our global scale and
success to give back to our local communities. Our objective is to continue to engage in efforts to maintain community giving as our
employees are passionate about having a meaningful impact in their communities. During 2023, we were focused on addressing homelessness through continued sponsorship and fundraising, supporting inclusive communities through financial support, and providing our employees with training by partnering with SkillsUSA, a student-led collaboration between education and industry to help shape a skilled workforce of graduate. We also focused on disaster relief by providing unmatched level of response service to our customers in the automotive sector after a natural catastrophe.
Flexible Workplace
RB Global continues with flexible work arrangements based on the needs of our customers and business; on-site, remote and hybrid. We also continue to provide opportunities to build engagement and foster connections on-site and within the hybrid world through numerous gatherings and social events across all offices following the acquisition of IAA.
Ethical Conduct
RB Global is committed to a culture of excellence. We accomplish this through building a community with strong values of responsibility and integrity, continued investment in training and development, and by creating an open environment where honest communications are the expectation – not the exception. Our Code of Conduct contains guidelines for conducting business with the highest standards of ethical behavior. We want employees to feel comfortable in approaching their supervisor or manager in instances where they believe in good faith that violations of policies or standards have occurred. We also offer the RB Global Ethics Hotline, which is operated by an independent third party and is always available from any location around the world, as a resource through, which anonymous concerns can be raised.
Governance
We believe in doing the right thing for everyone involved in our business and seek to do business with third parties who follow the same core values. This is reflected in our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, which is delivered through annual training to our employees and supported by our third-party Ethics Hotline. With the exception of our CEO, our Board of Directors consists of elected independent members.
Oversight of our ESG enterprise strategy is provided by the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, while our ESG Steering Committee provides strategic direction and oversight of ESG across key business functions.
We will continue to integrate ESG across our teams and are working to dedicate additional roles to ESG to provide support and momentum behind our ESG programs.
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The Role of Technology
Building a modern architecture on which we can scale and grow profitably is a core element of our growth strategy. The role of technology in our business continues to evolve and becomes increasingly more important as our sellers and buyers adopt mobile and online channels to complete their transactions and fulfill their business needs. We continue to invest in technology to transition to a modern cloud-based architecture driven by microservices that allows for agility, flexibility and scalability of our solutions.
We remain focused on technology enablement to transform the way we compete, the way we work and the way we leverage technology to drive future profitable growth. We are in the development phase of providing our customers a modern unified payment system to process transaction solutions, as well as unite our various auction platforms to provide greater stability and simplify our processes. Our new platform is designed to provide an updated modern design, improved search functions and navigation capabilities to make it easier for our customers to bid at our auctions and process their transactions.
Our technology capabilities also deliver choices for our customers in the form of multiple channels for buyers and sellers, meeting customer’s asset management needs through information-rich software solutions and leveraging our rich data repository to drive strong sales and improved pricing decisions. We provide our customers with leading tools and capabilities to deliver full life-cycle asset management for used equipment and vehicles.
Revenue Mix Fluctuations
Our revenue is comprised of service revenue and inventory sales revenue. Service revenue includes: (1) commissions where a pre-negotiated commission or fixed fee is earned from our consignors or sellers, (2) buyer fees earned at our auctions, online marketplaces, and private brokerage services, and (3) marketplace services fees earned from various services provided to buyers and sellers, which include ancillary, parts procurement, data, towing, logistics, inspection, appraisal, online listing, financing and title and liens processing services, as well as auction-related services such as documentation and title search services. Inventory sales revenue relates to revenue earned through our inventory contracts and is recognized at the GTV of the assets sold, with the related cost recognized in cost of inventory sold.

Our revenue each period can fluctuate significantly based on the mix of sales arrangements, which is driven by customer preferences. Completed straight commission, fixed commission or guarantee commission contracts result in the commission being recognized as service revenue based on a percentage of gross transaction value or based on a fixed value, while completed inventory contracts result in the full GTV of the assets sold being recorded as inventory sales revenue. As a result, a change in the revenue mix between service revenue and revenue from inventory sales can have a significant impact on our revenue growth percentages.
Governmental Regulations and Environmental Laws
Our operations are subject to a variety of federal, provincial, state and local laws, rules, and regulations throughout the world. Compliance with these regulations and laws requires human level awareness, performance and expertise, and investments in our enterprise management systems to facilitate efficient workflow, data tracking and auditing capabilities to measure compliance. We believe that we are compliant in all material respects with those laws, rules, and regulations that affect our business, and that such compliance does not impose a material impediment on our ability to conduct our business.
We believe that, among other things, laws, rules, and regulations related to the following list of items affect our business:
Imports and exports of commercial assets. Particularly, there are restrictions in the U.S. and Europe that may affect the ability of equipment owners to transport certain equipment between specified jurisdictions. Also, engine emission standards in some jurisdictions limit the operation of certain trucks and equipment in those regions.
Development or expansion of auction sites. Such activities depend upon the receipt of required licenses, permits, and other governmental authorizations. We are also subject to various local zoning requirements pertaining to the location of our auction sites, which vary among jurisdictions.
The use, storage, discharge, and disposal of environmentally sensitive materials. Under such laws, an owner or lessee of, or other person involved in, real estate may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of certain hazardous or toxic substances located on or in, or emanating from, such property, as well as related costs of investigation and property damage. These laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or lessee or other person knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances.
Worker health and safety, privacy of customer information, and the use, storage, discharge, and disposal of environmentally sensitive materials.
The acquisition and sale of totaled and recovered theft vehicles are regulated by state or other local motor vehicle departments in each of the locations in which we operate.
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Some of the transport vehicles used at our marketplaces are regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation or similar regulatory agencies in the other countries in which we operate.
In many states and provinces, regulations require that a damaged and total loss vehicle be forever “branded” with a salvage notice in order to notify prospective purchasers of the vehicle’s previous salvage status.
Some state, provincial and local regulations limit who can purchase damaged and total loss vehicles, as well as determine whether a damaged and total loss vehicle can be sold as rebuildable or must be sold for parts or scrap only.
We are subject to various local zoning requirements with regard to the location of our auction and storage facilities, which requirements vary from location to location.
We are indirectly subject to the regulations of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010 due to our vendor relationships with financial institutions.
We deal with significant amounts of cash in our operations at certain locations and are subject to various reporting and anti-money laundering regulations.

Available Information
We file with the SEC reports on Form 10-K, Form 10-Q, Form 8-K, proxy materials and other filings required under the Exchange Act. Investors may access any materials we file with the SEC through the EDGAR database on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
In addition, investors and others should note that we announce material financial information using our company website (https://rbglobal.com) and investor relations website (https://investor.rbglobal.com), which host our SEC filings, press releases, public conference calls, and webcasts. Information about RB Global, Inc., its business, and its results of operations may also be announced by posts on LinkedIn (https://www.linkedin.com/company/rb-global-inc).
The information that we post on our LinkedIn page could be deemed to be material information. As a result, we encourage investors, the media, and others interested in RB Global, Inc. to review the information that we post on our LinkedIn page.
We are providing these website addresses solely for the information of investors, and the information on or accessible through our websites and social media channel is not incorporated by reference in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Also available for investors in the Governance section of our investor relations website are the Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for our directors, officers and employees (“Code of Conduct”), Board Mandate, Audit Committee Charter, Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee Charter, Compensation Committee Charter, Corporate Governance Guidelines, Diversity Policy, Shareholder Engagement Policy, Articles and Bylaws, and Board Chair Role and Description. Additional information related to RB Global, Inc. is also available on SEDAR at www.sedar.com.
As a Canada Business Corporations Act (“CBCA”) company with our principal place of business in Canada, U.S. civil liabilities may not be enforceable against us. Please see “Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors — U.S. civil liabilities may not be enforceable against us, our directors, or our officers.
ITEM 1A:    RISK FACTORS
An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. In addition to the other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, you should carefully consider each of the risks described below before purchasing our common shares. The risk factors set forth below are not the only risks that may affect our business. Our business could also be affected by additional risks not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could materially suffer. As a result, the trading price of our common shares could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Information in this section may be considered “forward-looking statements.” See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” for a discussion of certain qualifications regarding such statements.
Risks Related to Our Recently Completed Acquisition of IAA
Combining the businesses of Ritchie Bros. and IAA may be more difficult, costly or time-consuming than expected, and we may fail to realize the anticipated benefits of the acquisition, which may adversely affect our business results and negatively affect the value of our common shares.
The success of our acquisition of IAA will depend on, among other things, our ability to realize the anticipated benefits and operational scale efficiencies from combining the business of IAA with the Ritchie Bros. business. This success will depend largely on our ability to successfully integrate the business of IAA. If we are not able to successfully integrate IAA’s business within the anticipated time frame, or at all, the anticipated operational scale efficiencies and other benefits of the acquisition may not be realized fully, or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected. An inability to realize the full extent of the anticipated benefits of the
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acquisition of IAA, as well as any delays encountered in the integration process, could have an adverse effect upon our revenue, level of expenses and operating results, which may adversely affect the value of our common shares.

Until the completion of the acquisition, Ritchie Bros. and IAA operated independently, and there can be no assurances that the two businesses can be integrated successfully. It is possible that the integration process could result in the loss of key employees. If key employees terminate their employment, or if an insufficient number of employees are retained to maintain effective operations, our business activities may be adversely affected and management’s attention may be diverted from integrating the companies to hiring suitable replacements. Moreover, the integration process could result in the loss of customers or other key business relationships, the disruption of our ongoing business, inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies, unexpected integration issues, higher than expected integration costs and an overall post-completion integration process that takes longer than originally anticipated, any of which may cause our business to suffer.

The challenges involved in this integration, which will be complex and time-consuming, include the following:
●    Combining the companies’ businesses, operations and corporate functions;
●    Meeting our capital requirements in a manner that permits us to achieve any revenue opportunities or operational scale efficiencies anticipated to result from the acquisition, the failure of which would result in the anticipated benefits of the acquisition not being realized in the time frame currently anticipated or at all;
●    Integrating and retaining personnel;
●    Integrating the companies’ technologies;
●     Integrating and unifying the companies’ intellectual property;
●     Integrating operating licenses across our network of physical properties;
●    Identifying and eliminating redundant and underperforming functions and assets;
●    Harmonizing our operating practices, employee development and compensation programs, internal controls and other policies, procedures and processes;
●    Maintaining existing agreements with customers, business partners, suppliers, landlords and vendors, avoiding delays in entering into new agreements with prospective customers, business partners, suppliers, landlords and vendors, and leveraging relationships with such third parties for our benefit;
●    Addressing possible differences in business backgrounds, corporate cultures and management philosophies;
●    Consolidating our administrative and information technology infrastructure;
●    Coordinating sales strategies and go-to-market efforts; and
●    Coordinating geographically dispersed organizations.
In addition, at times, the attention of certain members of management and other key employees may be focused on the integration of the businesses of the two companies and diverted from day-to-day business operations or other opportunities that may have been beneficial to us, which may disrupt our ongoing business.

We may be unable to realize the anticipated cost synergies and other opportunities expected from the acquisition of IAA, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The success of our acquisition of IAA will depend, in part, on our ability to realize the anticipated cost synergies from combining the respective businesses of the two companies. Our ability to achieve such anticipated cost synergies in the time frame expected, or at all, is subject to various assumptions, which may or may not prove to be accurate. In addition, we will incur restructuring and integration costs in connection with the acquisition, and the amount of such costs may exceed our expectations. Consequently, we may not be able to realize the net benefits of these cost synergies within the time frame expected or at all. In addition, we may incur additional or unexpected costs in order to realize these benefits. Failure to achieve cost synergies could significantly reduce the expected benefits associated with the acquisition of IAA.

The acquisition of IAA also is expected to create revenue, growth, operational enhancement, expansion and other opportunities for us, including, among others, through cross-selling opportunities, accelerated marketplace innovation, cross-utilization of yards, strengthening IAA’s catastrophic event response and insurance carrier relationships, growing services attachment rates, and/or acceleration of IAA’s international expansion. The identification and scope of these opportunities is based on various assumptions, which may or may not prove to be accurate. These opportunities may not arise as expected, or we may not be able to realize the anticipated benefits from these opportunities, from the sources or in the amount, manner or time frame expected, or at all. In addition, we may incur additional or unexpected costs in order to pursue and/or realize these opportunities. Failure to realize these opportunities could significantly reduce the expected benefits associated with the acquisition of IAA.

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Certain contractual counterparties may seek to modify contractual relationships with us, which could have an adverse effect on the Company’s business and operations.
As a result of the acquisition of IAA, we may experience impacts on relationships with contractual counterparties (such as business partners, customers, vendors or other third party service providers) that may harm our business and results of operations. Certain counterparties may seek to terminate or modify contractual obligations following the acquisition whether or not contractual rights are triggered as a result of the acquisition. There can be no guarantee that our contractual counterparties will remain with or continue to have a relationship with Ritchie Bros. or IAA or do so on the same or similar contractual terms following the acquisition. If any contractual counterparties (such as business partners, vendors or other third party service providers) seek to terminate or modify contractual obligations or discontinue the relationship with us, our business and results of operations may be harmed.

We may be exposed to increased litigation, which could have an adverse effect on our business and operations.

We may be exposed to increased litigation from shareholders, customers, partners, suppliers, consumers and other third parties as a result of the acquisition of IAA. Such litigation may have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations and may cause disruptions to our operations.

We have incurred a substantial amount of debt to complete the acquisition of IAA, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows and financial condition.
We incurred significant debt to complete the acquisition of IAA, including $1.8 billion of borrowings under the Company’s Term Loan A Facility and the issuance of $550.0 million aggregate principal amount of 6.750% Senior Secured Notes due 2028 (the "2023 Secured Notes") and $800.0 million aggregate principal amount of 7.750% Senior Notes due 2031 ("the 2023 Unsecured Notes"). As of December 31, 2023, our Company and its subsidiaries, including IAA, had approximately $3.1 billion of indebtedness, excluding $724.7 million undrawn commitments under our revolving credit facility. Our ability to make payments on our debt, fund our other liquidity needs and make planned capital expenditures will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future. Our historical financial results have been, and we anticipate that our future financial results will be, subject to fluctuations. Our ability to generate cash is subject in part to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. We cannot guarantee that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from our operations or that future borrowings will be available to us in an amount sufficient to enable us to make payments of our debt, de-lever in the time frame expected or at all, fund other liquidity needs and make planned capital expenditures. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures or to dispose of material assets or operations, seek additional debt or equity capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness.

The degree to which we are currently leveraged could have important consequences for shareholders. For example, it could:
●    Limit our ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate requirements;
●    Require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to the payment of debt service, reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, dividends and other corporate purposes;
●    Increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic or industry conditions;
●    Expose us to the risk of increased interest rates for any borrowings at variable rates of interest;
●    Limit our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in our industry; and
●    Place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to businesses in our industry that have less debt.

Additionally, our debt agreements contain a number of covenants that impose operating and financial restrictions on us and may limit our ability to engage in acts that may be in our long-term best interests. Any failure to comply with covenants in the instruments governing our debt could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, would have a material adverse effect on us.

Significant costs have been incurred and are expected to be incurred in connection with the consummation and integration of the acquisition of IAA.
We have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, costs in connection with integrating the operations, products and personnel of Ritchie Bros. with those of IAA, in addition to costs related directly to completing the acquisition. Additional unanticipated costs may be incurred as we continue to integrate the two businesses. Although we expect that the elimination of duplicative costs, as well as the realization of other efficiencies related to the integration of the two businesses may offset incremental transaction and transaction-related costs over time, this net benefit may not be achieved in the near term, to the extent anticipated or at all. While we have
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assumed that certain expenses would be incurred in connection with the acquisition, there are many factors beyond our control that could affect the total amount or the timing of the integration and implementation expenses.
Risk Related to Our Business

Our business and operating results would be adversely affected due to the loss of one or more significant suppliers, a reduction in significant volume from suppliers, an adverse change in our supplier relationships, or a disruption to our supply of damaged, total loss and low-value vehicles.

With the acquisition of IAA, our business depends on suppliers of damaged, total loss and low-value vehicles. Approximately one-third of IAA’s revenue is associated with vehicles supplied by suppliers or sellers. IAA’s vehicle suppliers include insurance companies, used-vehicle dealers, rental car and fleet lease companies, auto lenders and charitable organizations, among others. IAA has established long-term relationships with virtually all of the major automobile insurance companies. During fiscal 2023, with the acquisition of IAA, approximately 19% of our consolidated revenues was associated with vehicles supplied by the Company's three largest provider customers. IAA’s agreements with insurance company suppliers are generally subject to cancellation by either party upon 30 to 90 days’ notice. There can be no assurance that IAA’s existing agreements will not be canceled or that we will be able to enter into future agreements on favorable terms with these suppliers. We work to develop strong relationships with our suppliers to better understand their needs. From time to time, however, we may experience the loss of suppliers or a reduction in volume from suppliers, including top vehicle suppliers. If we lose one or more of our significant suppliers, or if one or more of our large suppliers were to significantly reduce volume for any reason or favor competitors or new entrants, we may not be successful in replacing such business and our profitability and operating results could be materially adversely affected.

Generally, institutional and dealer suppliers make non-binding long-term commitments to IAA regarding consignment volumes. Changes in the consignment patterns of our key suppliers could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations. There are many factors that can adversely affect volume from suppliers, many of which are beyond our control. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following:
●    A decrease in the number of vehicles in operation or miles driven;
●    Mild weather conditions that cause fewer traffic accidents;
●    Reduction of policy writing by insurance providers that would affect the number of claims over a period of time;
●    Increases in fuel prices that could lead to a reduction in the miles driven per vehicle, which may reduce the accident rate;
●    Changes in vehicle technology, an increase in autonomous vehicles and vehicles equipped with advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS);
●    A decrease in the percentage of claims resulting in a total loss or elimination of automotive collision coverage by consumers;
●    Delays or changes in state title processing;
●    Government regulations on the standards for producing vehicles; and
●    Changes in direct repair procedures that would reduce the number of newer, less damaged total loss vehicles, which tend to have higher salvage values.

Furthermore, in periods when the supply of vehicles from the insurance sector declines, salvage operators have acquired and in the future may acquire vehicles on their own. Also, when used vehicle prices are high, used-vehicle dealers may retail more of their trade-in vehicles on their own rather than selling them at auction. If the supply or value of damaged, total loss and low-value vehicles coming to auction declines significantly, our revenues and profitability may be adversely affected.
Our business and operating results would be adversely affected if we are unable to meet or exceed our buyer customers’ demand and expectations or due to a disruption in demand of damaged, total loss and low-value vehicles.
We believe our future success depends in part on our ability to respond to changes in buyer requirements, our ability to meet service level expectations of both buyers and sellers and our ability to meet regulatory requirements for such customers. IAA’s buyer customers include automotive body shops, rebuilders, used car dealers, automotive wholesalers, exporters, dismantlers, recyclers, brokers, and the general public, among others. We work to develop strong relationships and interactive dialogue with our customers to better understand current trends and customer needs. If we are not successful in meeting our customers’ expectations, our customer relationships could be negatively affected and result in a loss of future business, which would adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

IAA’s market position and competitive advantage could be threatened by our competitors and/or disruptive new entrants.
IAA faces significant competition for the supply of damaged and total loss vehicles and the buyers of those vehicles. IAA’s principal sources of competition historically have come from (1) direct competitors, (2) new entrants, including new vehicle remarketing venues, and (3) existing alternative vehicle remarketing venues, including used-vehicle auctions and certain salvage buyer groups. Due
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to the increasing use of the Internet and other technology as marketing and distribution channels, we may face increasing competition from online wholesale and retail marketplaces (generally without any meaningful physical presence) and from our own customers, including insurance companies, when they sell directly to end users through such platforms rather than remarket vehicles through our marketplaces. Increased competition could result in price reductions, reduced margins or loss of market share.

Our future success also depends on our ability to respond to evolving industry trends, changes in customer requirements and new technologies. Some of IAA’s competitors may have greater financial and marketing resources than we do, may be able to respond more quickly to evolving industry dynamics and changes in customer requirements, or may be able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion and sale of new or emerging services and technologies. Our ability to successfully grow through investments in the area of emerging opportunities depends on many factors, including advancements in technology, regulatory changes and other factors that are difficult to predict, or that may significantly affect the future of electrification, autonomy, and mobility. If we are unable to compete successfully or to successfully adapt to industry changes, our business, revenues and profitability could be materially adversely affected.

If our facilities lack the capacity to accept additional vehicles, then our relationships with insurance companies or other vehicle suppliers could be adversely affected.
Capacity at our facilities varies from period to period and by region as a result of various factors, including natural disasters. We may not be able to reach agreements to purchase or lease storage facilities in markets where we have limited available capacity, and zoning restrictions or difficulties obtaining use permits may limit our ability to expand our capacity through acquisitions of new land. If we fail to have sufficient capacity at one or more of our facilities, our relationships with insurance companies or other vehicle suppliers could be adversely affected, which could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

We may be unable to keep existing facilities or open new facilities in desirable locations and on favorable terms, which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.
Local land use and zoning regulations, environmental regulations and other regulatory requirements may impact our ability to find suitable locations and influence the cost of our operations. Most of IAA’s salvage auction vehicle facilities are leased. The termination or expiration of leases at existing facilities may adversely affect us if the renewal terms of those leases are unacceptable to us and we are forced to close the facilities. If we determine to close a location, we may remain obligated under the applicable lease for the remaining lease term and may have to expense the unamortized portion of the right-of-use assets, in part or in full, as an impairment which may have a material impact on our consolidated results of operations and financial position. Also, if we are unable to maintain our existing facilities or open new facilities in desirable locations and on favorable terms, our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. Further, in an increasing number of markets where we experience significant capacity constraints together with pressing customer demand and a lack of viable alternatives for expansion due to zoning and land use restrictions, we may be required to purchase, lease or occupy industrial sites, which may contain significant environmental impacts.

In addition, some of the facilities on which we operate are impacted by significant recognized environmental concerns and pollution conditions. IAA has incurred, and we may in the future incur, expenditures relating to compliance and risk mitigation efforts, releases of hazardous materials, investigative, remedial or corrective actions, claims by third parties and other environmental issues, and such expenditures, individually or in the aggregate, could be significant. Federal and state environmental authorities are currently investigating IAA’s role in contributing to contamination at the Lower Duwamish Waterway Superfund Site in Seattle, Washington and the role of one of IAA’s subsidiaries in contributing to the Pyrite Canyon Plume in Jurupa Valley, California. Our potential liability at these sites cannot be estimated at this time.

Macroeconomic factors, including high fuel prices, high labor costs, rising inflation and changes in used car prices, may have an adverse effect on our revenues and operating results.
Macroeconomic factors that affect oil prices and the vehicle and commodity markets can have adverse effects on our revenue and operating results. Significant increases in the cost of fuel, whether due to inflationary pressures, the current war between Ukraine and Russia or Israel and Hamas or otherwise, could lead to a reduction in miles driven per car and a reduction in accident rates. A material reduction in accident rates, whether due to a reduction in miles driven or other factors, could reduce our vehicle assignment volumes, which in turn, could have a material adverse impact on our revenues. In addition, significant increases in the cost of fuel have resulted and could continue to result in an increase in the prices charged to us by our independent subhaulers and trucking fleet operators. Further, we have recently experienced labor shortages, which have resulted in an increase in associated costs, such as increased overtime to meet demand and increased wages to attract and retain employees. If these conditions or other inflationary pressures continue, our costs for towing and branch labor may continue to rise. To the extent we are unable to pass these costs on to our
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customers, the increase in prices charged by our independent subhaulers and trucking fleet operators and the increase in labor costs could negatively impact our profitability.

Volatility in salvage car prices could have a material adverse effect on our revenues in future periods.

Adverse economic conditions, including increases in interest rates and lease rates, real estate values and real estate development and construction costs, may increase the costs required to invest in capacity expansion or delay our ability to open new facilities, both of which could have a material impact on our consolidated results of operations and financial position.

Reliance on our subhaulers and trucking fleet operations could materially and adversely affect our business and reputation.
We rely on independent subhaulers and trucking fleet operations to pick up and deliver vehicles to and from our auction facilities. Consistent with the economy generally, we have recently experienced a shortage of towers and haulers, which has resulted in an increase in costs charged to us by towers and subhaulers for these services, and we cannot provide assurances that towers and subhaulers will be available in a timely manner to pick up and deliver vehicles. Failure to pick up and deliver vehicles in a timely manner could harm our brand and reputation, and adversely impact our overall business and results of operations. Further, an increase in fuel cost may lead to increased prices charged by our independent subhaulers and trucking fleet operators, which may significantly increase our cost. We may not be able to pass these costs on to our suppliers or buyers. We are also exposed to risks associated with inclement weather, disruptions in the transportation infrastructure and increase in the price of fuel, any of which could increase our operating costs. If we experience problems or are unable to negotiate or obtain favorable terms with our subhaulers, our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Weather-related and other events beyond our control may adversely impact operations.
Extreme weather or other events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, forest fires, floods, global pandemics or other health crises, terrorist attacks or war, may adversely affect the overall economic environment, the markets in which we compete, and our operations and profitability. These events, which may increase in frequency and magnitude as a result of climate change, may impact our physical auction facilities, causing a material increase in costs, or delays or cancellation of auction sales, which could have a material adverse impact on our revenues and profitability. In some instances, for example with the severe storms in August 2021 and September 2022 known as “Hurricane Ida” and “Hurricane Ian”, these events may result in a sharp influx in the available supply of damaged and total loss vehicles and there can be no assurance that our business will have sufficient resources to handle such extreme increases in supply. Our failure to meet our customers’ demands in such situations could negatively affect our relationships with such customers and result in a loss of future business, which would adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. In addition, revenues generated as a result of the total loss of vehicles associated with such a catastrophe are typically recognized subsequent to the incurrence of incremental costs and such revenues may not be sufficient to offset the costs incurred.

Mild weather conditions tend to result in a decrease in the available supply of damaged and total loss vehicles because traffic accidents decrease and fewer vehicles are damaged. Accordingly, mild weather can have an adverse effect on our damaged and total loss vehicle inventories, which would be expected to have an adverse effect on our revenue and operating results and related growth rates.

An increase in the number of damaged and total loss vehicles we purchase could adversely affect our profitability.
In certain countries, the salvage market typically operates on a principal basis, in which a vehicle is purchased and then resold, rather than on an agent basis, in which the auction acts as a sales agent for the owner of the vehicle. Operating on a principal basis exposes us to inventory risks, including losses from theft, damage and obsolescence. If we purchase vehicles, the increased costs associated with acquiring the vehicles could have a material adverse effect on our gross profit margin and operating results. Vehicles sold under purchase agreements were approximately 5.4% of IAA’s vehicles sold both domestically and internationally for fiscal year 2023. In addition, when vehicles are purchased, we are subject to changes in vehicle values, such as those caused by changes in commodity prices or changes in used car prices. Decreases in commodity prices, such as steel and platinum, may negatively affect vehicle values and demand at auctions. In addition, declines in used car prices, especially if they occur faster than anticipated, can lead to a significant gap between pre-accident value and sales price, which IAA recently experienced with respect to its UK business.

A significant change in used-vehicle prices could impact the proceeds and revenue from the sale of damaged and total loss vehicles.
The volume of new vehicle production, accuracy of lease residual estimates, interest rate fluctuations, customer demand and changes in regulations, among other things, all potentially affect the pricing of used vehicles. A sustained reduction in used-vehicle pricing could result in lower proceeds from the sale of damaged and total loss vehicles and a related reduction in revenue per vehicle, a
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potential loss of consignors and decreased profitability. Conversely, when used vehicle prices are high, used-vehicle dealers may retail more of their trade-in vehicles on their own rather than selling them at auction, which could adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

IAA assumes the settlement risk for vehicles sold through its marketplaces.
Typically, following the sale of a vehicle, IAA does not release the vehicle to a buyer until such time as it has received full payment for the vehicle. We may be obligated, however, to remit payment to a seller before receiving payment from a buyer and in those circumstances, we may not have recourse against sellers for any buyer’s failure to satisfy its payment obligations. Because we retain possession of the vehicle, we can resell the vehicle to mitigate any potential losses. Since revenue for most vehicles does not include the gross sales proceeds, failure to collect the receivables in full may result in a net loss up to the amount of gross sales proceeds on a per vehicle basis in addition to any expenses incurred to collect the receivables and to provide the services associated with the vehicle. If we are unable to collect payments on a large number of vehicles and we are unable to resell them and recover our costs, the resulting payment obligations to the seller and decreased fee revenues may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Changes in laws affecting the import and export of damaged and total loss vehicles may have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
Changes in laws, regulations and treaties that restrict the importation of damaged and total loss vehicles into foreign countries may reduce the demand for damaged and total loss vehicles and impact our ability to maintain or increase IAA’s international buyer base. The adoption of such laws or regulations in other jurisdictions that have the effect of reducing or curtailing our activities abroad could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition by reducing the demand for our products and services.

We are subject to potential liabilities with respect to IAA’s prior separation from KAR Auction Services, Inc.
On February 27, 2018, KAR Auction Services, Inc. (“KAR”) announced a plan to pursue the separation and spin-off (the “Separation”) of IAA (its salvage auction services business) into a separate public company. On June 28, 2019, KAR completed the distribution of 100% of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock of IAA to the holders of record of KAR’s common stock on June 18, 2019, on a pro rata basis (the “Distribution”). Under the terms of the Separation and Distribution, each of IAA and KAR is required to indemnify the other party from and with respect to certain liabilities. IAA’s and KAR’s ability to satisfy these indemnities, if called upon to do so, will depend respectively upon our and KAR’s future financial strength. If we are required to indemnify KAR, or if we are not able to collect on indemnification rights from KAR, our financial condition, liquidity or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
We may not realize the anticipated benefits of, and synergies from, acquisitions and may become responsible for certain liabilities and integration costs as a result.
We have acquired, and may continue to acquire, businesses that have previously operated independently from us. The integration of our operations with those of acquired businesses, including IAA, is intended to result in financial and operational benefits, including certain tax and run-rate synergies. There can be no assurance, however, regarding when or the extent to which we will be able to realize these and other benefits. Integration may also be difficult, unpredictable and subject to delay because of possible company culture conflicts and different opinions on future business development. We may be required to integrate or, in some cases, replace, numerous systems, including those involving management information, purchasing, accounting and finance, sales, billing, employee benefits, payroll and regulatory compliance, many of which may be dissimilar. Difficulties associated with the integration of acquired businesses could have a material adverse effect on our business.
In addition, in connection with acquisitions, we have assumed, and may assume in connection with future acquisitions, certain potential liabilities. To the extent such liabilities are not identified by us or to the extent indemnifications obtained from third parties are insufficient to cover such liabilities, these liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Damage to our reputation could harm our business.
One of our founding principles is that we operate a fair and transparent business, and consistently act with integrity. Maintaining a positive reputation is key to our ability to attract and maintain customers, investors and employees. Damage to our reputation could cause significant harm to our business. Harm to our reputation could arise in a number of ways, including, but not limited to, employee conduct which is not aligned with our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (and associated Company policies around
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behavioral expectations) or our Company’s core values, safety incidents, failure to maintain customer service standards, loss of trust in the fairness of our sales processes, and other technology or compliance failures.
We may incur losses as a result of our guarantee and inventory contracts and advances to consignors.
Our most common type of auction contract is a straight commission contract, under which we earn a pre-negotiated, fixed commission rate on the gross sales price of the consigned equipment at auction. We use straight commission contracts when we act as agent for consignors. In recent years, a majority of our annual business has been conducted on a straight commission basis. In certain other situations, we will enter into underwritten transactions and either offer to (a) guarantee a minimum level of sale proceeds to the consignor, regardless of the ultimate selling price of the consignment; or (b) purchase the equipment outright from the seller for sale through one of our sales channels.
We determine the level of guaranteed proceeds or inventory purchase price based on appraisals performed on equipment by our internal personnel. Inaccurate appraisals could result in guarantees or inventory values that exceed the realizable auction proceeds. In addition, a change in market values could also result in guarantee or inventory values exceeding the realizable auction proceeds. If auction proceeds are less than the guaranteed amount, our commission will be reduced, and we could potentially incur a loss, and, if auction proceeds are less than the purchase price we paid for equipment that we take into inventory temporarily, we will incur a loss. Because a majority of our auctions are unreserved, there is no way for us to protect against these types of losses by bidding on or acquiring any of the items at such auctions. In addition, we do not hold inventory indefinitely waiting for market conditions to improve. If our exposure to underwritten contracts increases, this risk would be compounded.
Occasionally, we advance to consignors a portion of the estimated auction proceeds prior to the auction. We generally make these advances only after taking possession of the assets to be auctioned and upon receipt of a security interest in the assets to secure the obligation. If we were unable to auction the assets or if auction proceeds were less than amounts advanced, we could incur a loss. Additionally, we have two vendor contracts with the U.S. Government’s Defense Logistics Agency (“DLA”) pursuant to which we acquire, manage and resell certain assets of the DLA. Each of the DLA contracts obliges the Company to purchase rolling and non-rolling stock assets in an amount and of a type over which we have limited ability to control. In many cases, the type of assets purchased are not what we typically sell through any of our other channels. Although the prices we pay for the non-rolling stock inventory are a fraction of the original acquisition value, we may not have the ability to attract buyers for those assets and we may be unable to sell those assets on a timely basis or at all. This would have an adverse effect on our financial results.
The availability and performance of our information technology ("IT") systems and infrastructure is critical to our business and continued growth.

The satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our websites, online bidding service, auction management systems, enterprise resource planning systems, transaction processing systems, network infrastructure and customer relationship management systems are important to our reputation, our business and our continued growth. We currently rely on our own proprietary systems, licensed on-premise systems, and third-party cloud computing applications and infrastructure located in the United States and other countries. The systems and infrastructure we rely on may experience service interruptions or degradation because of hardware or software defects or malfunctions, denial of service or ransomware attacks and other cybersecurity events, human error and natural events beyond our control. Additionally, as part of our management of these IT resources, we integrate, make updates to or initiate other types of changes to our systems and infrastructure to address ongoing availability and performance concerns or to improve the same, and the risk of disruption is increased when such changes are undertaken. Some of our systems are not fully redundant, and our recovery planning may not be sufficient for all possible disruptions. Further, the access to and use of needed hardware and software, including cloud computing resources, may not continue to be available at reasonable prices, on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Any loss of the right to access or use any of these components and resources, the degraded performance, or loss of the functionality, of our systems, or a failure to timely or successfully integrate and update our systems or infrastructure, could mean a failure to realize cost savings or operational benefits anticipated to be derived from an IT initiative, significantly increase our expenses, damage our reputation and otherwise result in delays in providing our services. Our business and results of operations would be particularly harmed if, for any reason, access to our online bidding service was lost or its functionality degraded, especially if such impact to the service prevented internet bidders from effectively participating in one of our auctions.
Consumer behavior is rapidly changing, and if we are unable to successfully adapt to consumer preferences and develop and maintain a relevant and reliable inventory management and multichannel disposition experience for our customers, our financial performance and brand image could be adversely affected.

Our business continues to evolve into a one-stop inventory management and multichannel disposition company where customers can buy, sell, or list equipment, when, how, and where they choose- both onsite and online, and manage their existing fleets and/or inventory using our online inventory management tools. As a result of this evolution, increasingly we interact with our customers
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across a variety of different channels, including live auction, online, through mobile technologies, including the Ritchie Bros. mobile app, social media, and inventory management systems. Our customers are increasingly using tablets and mobile phones to make purchases online and to get detailed equipment information for assets that they own or are interested in purchasing. Our customers also engage with us online, including through social media, by providing feedback and public commentary about all aspects of our business. Consumer shopping patterns are rapidly changing and our success depends on our ability to anticipate and implement innovations in customer experience and logistics in order to appeal to customers who increasingly rely on multiple channels to meet their equipment management and disposition needs. Our ability to provide a high quality and efficient customer experience is also dependent on external factors over which we may have little or no control, including, without limitation, the reliability and performance of the equipment sold in our marketplaces and the performance of third-party carriers who transport purchased equipment on behalf of buyers. If for any reason we are unable to implement our inventory management, data solutions, bidding tools and other multichannel initiatives, provide a convenient and consistent experience for our customers across all channels, or provide our customers the services they want, when and where they want them at a compelling value proposition, then our financial performance and brand image could be adversely affected.
We rely on data provided by third parties, the loss of which could limit the functionality of certain of our platforms and disrupt our business.

Our analytics teams rely on asset, pricing and other data, including personal data, provided to us by our customers and other third parties. Some of this data is provided to us pursuant to third-party data sharing policies and terms of use, under data sharing agreements by third-party providers or by customers with consent. Any of these parties could change their data sharing policies and terms of use, including by making them more restrictive, terminating or not renewing agreements, or, customers could revoke their consent, any of which could result in the loss of, or significant impairment to, our ability to collect and provide useful data or related services to our customers.
These third parties could also interpret our data collection and use policies or practices as being inconsistent with their policies or business objectives, or lose confidence in our data protection and privacy practices, which could result in the loss of our ability to collect this data. Any such changes could impair our ability to deliver our analytics service to our customers in the manner currently anticipated or at all, impairing the return on investment that our customers derive from using our analytics platform and related products, as well as adversely affecting our business and our ability to generate revenue.
Government regulation of the digital landscape is evolving, and unfavorable regulations could substantially harm our business and results of operations.

We are subject to federal, provincial, state and local laws, rules and regulations governing digital commerce and online services. Existing and future laws and regulations may impede the growth of digital commerce or other services, in particular online marketplace services, and increase the cost of doing business, including providing online disposition services. These regulations and laws may cover taxation, tariffs, user privacy, data protection, machine learning and automated decision making, pricing, content, intellectual property rights, electronic contracts, digital marketing communications, consumer protection, and the characteristics and quality of our disposition services. It is not always clear how existing laws governing issues such as property transfers, digital, sales and similar taxes, intellectual property rights, and user privacy and data protection apply to digital commerce and online services. Changes to laws, rules and regulations and unfavorable resolution of these issues may harm our business and results of operations.
If our ability, or the ability of our third party service partners, cloud computing providers or third party data center hosting facilities, to safeguard the reliability, integrity and confidentiality of our and their information technology systems is compromised, if unauthorized access is obtained to our systems or customers’, suppliers', counterparties' and employees' confidential information, or if authorized access is blocked or disabled, we may incur material reputational harm, legal exposure, or a negative financial impact.

We rely on IT resources to manage and operate our business, including maintaining proprietary databases containing sensitive and confidential information about our customers, suppliers, counterparties and employees (which may include personal information and credit information) and utilizing approved third-party technology providers to support the management and operation of IT systems and infrastructure. The malicious tools and techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to or impair IT systems and devices and the data processed thereby evolve frequently in terms of attack vectors and sophistication and we may not be able to anticipate these vectors or to timely implement adequate preventative and protective measures. Unauthorized parties have and may in the future attempt to gain access to our and our providers’ primary and backup systems or facilities through various means, including hacking into IT systems or facilities, fraud, trickery or other means of deceiving our and their employees or contractors. Ransomware attacks are becoming increasingly prevalent and severe, and can lead to significant interruptions in our operations, loss of data and income, reputational loss, and diversion of funds. Further, breaches experienced by other companies may also be leveraged against us and
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sophisticated actors can mask their attacks, making them increasingly difficult to identify and prevent. There can be no assurance that impacts from these incidents will not be material or significant in the future.
In addition, our limited control over our customers may affect the security and integrity of our IT systems and create financial or legal exposure. For example, our customers may accidentally disclose their passwords, use insecure passwords, or store them on a device that is lost or stolen, providing bad actors with access to a customer’s account with us and the possible means to redirect customer payments. Further, users of our services could have vulnerabilities on their own devices that are entirely unrelated to our systems and platforms but could mistakenly attribute their own vulnerabilities to us. Under credit card payment rules and our contracts with credit card processors, if there is a breach of payment card information used to process transactions, we could be liable to the payment card issuing banks for certain fraudulent credit card transactions and other payment disputes with customers, including the cost of issuing new cards and related expenses. If we were liable for a significant number of fraudulent transactions or unable to accept payment cards, our results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.
The information security measures we implement, maintain and follow that are designed to mitigate our risks with respect to IT-related cybersecurity incidents do not guarantee that our operations will not be disrupted, that we will prevent an attack from occurring in the future, or that our internal controls, for instance relating to user access management, will perform as intended to prevent unauthorized access to our systems and data. Any breach of our IT systems may have a material adverse impact on our business, the assessment of the performance of our internal control environment, results of operations, reputation, stock price and our ability to access capital markets, and may also be deemed to contribute to a material weakness in internal controls over financial reporting.
Security events, hacking or other malicious or surreptitious activity (or the perception that such activities have occurred), could damage our reputation, cause a loss of confidence in the security of our services and thereby a loss of customers, and expose us to a risk of loss, governmental investigations and enforcement actions or litigation and possible liability for damages. We may be required to make significant expenditures and divert management attention to monitor, detect and prevent security events, to remediate known or potential security vulnerabilities, or to alleviate problems caused by any security events. In addition, circumvention of our security measures may result in the loss or misappropriation of valuable business data, intellectual property or trade secret information, misappropriation of our customers’ or employees’ personal information, damage to our computing infrastructure, networks and stored data, service delays, key personnel being unable to perform duties or communicate throughout the organization, loss of sales, significant costs for data restoration and other adverse impacts on our business. Further, such a breach may require us to incur significant expenses to notify governmental agencies, individuals or other third parties pursuant to various privacy and security laws.
The costs of mitigating cybersecurity risks are significant and are likely to increase in the future. Our third-party service providers may be vulnerable to interruption or loss of valuable business data and information of our customers and employees (among others). Data stored by our third party providers might be improperly accessed or unavailable due to a variety of events beyond our control, including, but not limited to, employee error or negligence, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, telecommunications failures, computer viruses, hackers and other security issues. Additionally, if any of our third-party technology providers violate applicable laws or our contracts or policies, such violations may also put our customers’ information at risk and could in turn have a material and adverse effect on our business. These issues are likely to become costlier as we grow. Our insurance policies may not be adequate to reimburse us for losses caused by security breaches, and we may not be able to fully collect, if at all, under these insurance policies.
Our future expenses may increase significantly and our operations and ability to expand may be limited as a result of licenses, laws and regulations governing auction sites, environmental protection, international trade and other matters.

A variety of federal, provincial, state and local laws, rules and regulations throughout the world apply to our business, relating to, among other things, tax and accounting rules, the auction business, imports and exports of equipment, property ownership laws, licensing, worker safety, privacy and security of customer information, land use and the use, storage, discharge and disposal of environmentally sensitive materials. Complying with revisions to laws, rules and regulations could result in an increase in expenses and a deterioration of our financial performance. Failure to comply with applicable laws, rules and regulations could result in substantial liability to us, suspension or cessation of some or all of our operations, restrictions on our ability to expand at present locations or into new locations, requirements for the acquisition of additional equipment or other significant expenses or restrictions.
The development or expansion of auction sites depends upon receipt of required licenses, permits and other governmental authorizations. Our inability to obtain these required items could harm our business. Additionally, changes or concessions required by regulatory authorities could result in significant delays in, or prevent completion of, such development or expansion. International bidders and consignors could be deterred from participating in our auctions if governmental bodies impose additional export or import regulations or additional duties, taxes or other charges on exports or imports. Reduced participation by international bidders and consignors could reduce GTV and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Under some environmental laws, an owner, operator or lessee of, or other person involved in, real estate may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of hazardous or toxic substances located on or in, or emanating from, the real estate, and related costs of investigation and property damage. These laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner, operator, lessee or other person knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of the hazardous or toxic substances. Environmental contamination may exist at our owned or leased auction sites, or at other sites on which we may conduct auctions, or properties that we may be selling by auction, from prior activities at these locations or from neighboring properties. In addition, auction sites that we acquire or lease in the future may be contaminated, and future use of or conditions on any of our properties or sites could result in contamination. The costs related to claims arising from environmental contamination of any of these properties could harm our financial condition and results of operations.
There are restrictions in the United States, Canada, Europe and other jurisdictions in which we do business that may affect the ability of equipment owners to transport certain equipment between specified jurisdictions or the salability of older equipment. One example of these restrictions is environmental certification requirements in the United States, which prevent non-certified equipment from entering into commerce in the United States. In addition, engine emission standards in some jurisdictions limit the operation of certain trucks and equipment in those markets.
These restrictions, or the adoption of more stringent environmental laws, including laws enacted in response to climate change, could inhibit materially the ability of customers to ship equipment to or from our auction sites, reducing our GTV and harming our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Losing the services of one or more key personnel or the failure to attract, train and retain personnel could materially affect our business.

Our future success largely depends on our ability to attract, develop and retain skilled employees in all areas of our business, as well as to design an appropriate organization structure and plan effectively for succession. Although we actively manage our human resource risks, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in our efforts. If we fail to attract, develop and retain skilled employees in all areas of our business, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected, and we may not achieve our growth or performance objectives.
The growth and performance of our business depends to a significant extent on the efforts and abilities of our employees. Many of our key employees have extensive experience with our business. These employees have knowledge and an understanding of our company and industry that cannot be readily duplicated. The loss of any key personnel, or the inability to replace any lost personnel with equally trained personnel, could impair our ability to execute our business plan and growth strategy, cause us to lose customers and reduce our revenues. In addition, the success of our strategic initiatives to expand our business to complimentary service offerings will require new competencies in many positions, and our management and employees will have to adapt and learn new skills and capabilities. To the extent they are unable or unwilling to make these transformational changes or we are unable to attract new employees who are able to do so, we may be unable to realize the full benefits of our strategic initiatives. We do not maintain key person insurance on the lives of any of our executive officers or other key personnel. As a result, we would have no way to cover the financial loss if we were to lose the services of such employees. This uncertainty may adversely affect our ability to attract and retain key employees.
If any of our key personnel were to join a competitor or form a competing company, existing and potential customers could choose to form business relationships with that competitor instead of us. There can be no assurance that confidentiality, non-solicitation, non-competition or similar agreements signed by our former directors, officers, or employees will be effective in preventing a loss of business.
Failure to maintain safe sites could materially affect our business and reputation.

Our employees and customers are often in close proximity with mechanized equipment, moving vehicles and chemical and other industrial substances. Our auction sites and warehouses are, therefore, potentially dangerous places and involve the risk of accidents, environmental incidents and other incidents, which may expose us to investigations and litigation or could negatively affect the perception of customer and employee safety, health and security. Even in the absence of any incidents, unsafe site conditions could lead to employee turnover or harm our reputation generally, each of which would affect our financial performance. While safety is a primary focus of our business and is critical to our reputation and performance, our failure to implement safety procedures or implement ineffective safety procedures would increase this risk and our operations and results from operations may be adversely impacted.
Income and commodity tax amounts, including tax expense, may be materially different than expected, and there is a trend by global tax collection authorities towards the adoption of more aggressive laws, regulations, interpretations and audit practices.
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Our global operations are subject to tax interpretations, regulations, and legislation in the numerous jurisdictions in which we operate, all of which are subject to continual change.
We accrue and pay income taxes and have significant income tax assets, liabilities, and expense that are estimates based primarily on the application of those interpretations, regulations and legislation, and the amount and timing of future taxable income, as well as our use of applicable accounting principles. Accordingly, we cannot be certain that our estimates and reserves are sufficient. The timing concerning the monetization of deferred income tax amounts is uncertain, as they are dependent on our future earnings and other events. Our deferred income tax amounts are valued based upon enacted income tax rates in effect at the time, which can be changed by governments in the future.
The audit and review activities of tax authorities affect the ultimate determination of the actual amounts of commodity taxes payable or receivable, income taxes payable or receivable, deferred income tax assets and liabilities, and income tax expense.
There is no assurance that taxes will be payable as anticipated or that the amount or timing of receipt or use of the tax-related assets will be as currently expected. Our experience indicates that taxation authorities are increasing the frequency and depth of audits and reviews. The Canada Revenue Agency (“CRA”) has been conducting audits for our 2014, 2015, 2018, 2019 and 2020 taxation years. On February 13, 2023, the CRA issued a proposal letter to Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers (International) Ltd., asserting that one of its Luxembourg subsidiaries was resident in Canada from 2010 to 2015 and that its worldwide income should be subject to Canadian income taxation. In the event that the CRA issues a notice of assessment or reassessment and a court of competent jurisdiction makes a final determination that the income of the Luxembourg subsidiary for 2010 through 2015 was subject to Canadian income tax laws, the Company may ultimately be liable for additional total Canadian federal and provincial income tax, interest and penalties for such period, which could have a material negative effect on our operations. The CRA may also challenge the manner in which the Company has filed its tax returns and reported its income with respect to 2016 to 2020 taxation years and may assert that the income of the Luxembourg subsidiary was subject to Canadian income tax because the Luxembourg subsidiary was also resident in Canada during these years. The Company could then incur additional income taxes, penalties and interest, which could have a material negative effect on our operations. In addition, future tax authority determinations, including changes to tax interpretations, regulations, legislation or jurisprudence, could have a material impact to our financial position. The fact that we operate internationally increases our exposure in this regard given the multiple forms of taxation imposed upon us. Further and more generally, there has been increased political, media and tax authority focus on taxation in recent years; the intent of which appears to be to enhance transparency and address perceived tax avoidance. As such, in addition to tax risk from a financial perspective, our activities may expose us to reputational risk.
Our substantial international operations expose us to additional risks that could harm our business, including foreign exchange rate fluctuations that could harm our results of operations.

We conduct business in many countries around the world and intend to continue to expand our presence in international markets, including emerging markets.
Although we report our financial results in U.S. dollars, a significant portion of our revenues and expenses are generated outside the U.S., primarily in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. In particular, a significant portion of our revenues are earned, and expenses incurred, in the Canadian dollar and the Euro. The results of operations of our foreign subsidiaries are translated from local currency into U.S. dollars for financial reporting purposes. If the U.S. dollar weakens against foreign currencies, the translation of these foreign currency denominated revenues or expenses will result in increased U.S. dollar denominated revenues and expenses. Similarly, if the U.S. dollar strengthens against foreign currencies, particularly the Canadian dollar and the Euro, our translation of foreign currency denominated revenues or expenses will result in lower U.S. dollar denominated revenues and expenses. We do not currently engage in foreign currency hedging arrangements on any of our revenues or expenses. Fluctuating currency exchange rates may negatively affect our business in international markets and our related results of operations.
In addition, currency exchange rate fluctuations between the different countries in which we conduct our operations impact the purchasing power of buyers, the motivation of consignors, asset values and asset flows between various countries, including those in which we do not have operations. These factors and other global economic conditions may harm our business and our results of operations.
Other risks inherent in doing business internationally include, but are not limited to the following: (a) trade barriers, trade regulations, currency controls, import or export regulations, and other restrictions on doing business freely; (b) local labor, environmental, tax, and other laws and regulations, and the potential for adverse changes in such laws and regulations or the interpretations thereof; (c) difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations; (d) economic, political, social or labor instability or unrest; (e) terrorism, war, hostage-taking, or military repression; (f) corruption; (g) expropriation and nationalization, or difficulties in enforcing or protecting
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our property rights, including with respect to intellectual property; (h) increased exposure to high rates of inflation; and (i) unpredictability as to litigation in foreign jurisdictions and enforcement of local laws.
If we violate the complex foreign and U.S. laws and regulations that apply to our international operations, we may face fines, criminal actions or sanctions, prohibitions on the conduct of our business and damage to our reputation. These risks inherent in our international operations increase our costs of doing business internationally and may result in a material adverse effect on our operations or profitability.
Our business operations may be subject to a number of federal and local laws, rules and regulations governing international trade, including export control regulations.

Our business operations may be subject to a number of federal and local laws, rules and regulations, including the Export Administration Regulations, or EAR, maintained by the U.S. Department of Commerce, economic and trade sanctions maintained by the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC, and similar laws and regulations in Canada, the UK and the EU. These laws and regulations restrict us from providing services to, or otherwise engaging in direct or indirect transactions or dealings with, certain countries, territories, governments, and persons. We have implemented procedures designed to maintain compliance with these laws, including monitoring, on an automatic and manual basis, the identity and location of potential sellers and buyers. We can offer no assurances that these procedures will always be effective.
If we were to violate applicable export control or sanctions, we could be subject to administrative or criminal penalties ,which in certain circumstances, could be material. We could be subject to damages, financial penalties, denial of export privileges, incarceration of our employees, other restrictions on our operations, and reputational harm. Further, any action on the part of the U.S. Department of Commerce, OFAC or other applicable regulator against the company or any of our employees for potential violations of these laws could have a negative impact on our reputation, business, operating results and prospects.
Failure to comply with anti-bribery, anti-corruption, and anti-money laundering laws, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA, the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act, or the CFPOA, and similar laws associated with our activities outside of the U.S. could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.

We are subject to the FCPA, the CFPOA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. §201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, the United Kingdom Bribery Act of 2010, or the U.K. Bribery Act, and similar other anti-corruption, anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities or facilitate the buying and selling of equipment, including the EU. We face significant risks if we fail to comply with the FCPA, the CFPOA and other anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws that prohibit companies and their employees and third-party intermediaries from authorizing, offering or providing, directly or indirectly, improper payments or benefits to foreign government officials, political parties or candidates, employees of public international organizations, and private-sector recipients for the corrupt purpose of obtaining or retaining business, directing business to any person, or securing any advantage. In many foreign countries, particularly in countries with developing economies, it may be a local custom that businesses engage in practices that are prohibited by the FCPA, the CFPOA or other applicable laws and regulations. In addition, we leverage various third parties to sell our solutions and conduct our business abroad. We and our other third-party intermediaries may have direct or indirect interactions with officials and employees of government agencies or state-owned or affiliated entities. We may be held liable for the corrupt or other illegal activities of these third-party intermediaries, our employees, representatives, contractors, partners, and agents, even if we do not explicitly authorize such activities. Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics and other corporate policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws, which often carry substantial penalties.
Any violation of the FCPA, other applicable anti-bribery, anti-corruption laws, and anti-money laundering laws could result in whistleblower complaints, adverse media coverage, investigations, loss of export privileges, severe criminal or civil sanctions and, in the case of the FCPA, suspension or debarment from U.S. government contracts, which could have a material and adverse effect on our reputation, business, operating results and prospects. In addition, responding to any enforcement action may result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and significant defense costs and other professional fees.
We are pursuing a long-term growth strategy that may include acquisitions and developing and enhancing an appropriate sales strategy, which requires upfront investment with no guarantee of long-term returns.

We continue to pursue a long-term growth strategy, including developing and enhancing an appropriate sales strategy, that contemplates upfront investments, including (i) investments in emerging markets that may not generate profitable growth in the near term, (ii) adding new business and information solutions, and (iii) developing our people. Planning for future growth requires investments to be made now in anticipation of growth that may not materialize, and if our strategies do not successfully address the needs of current and potential customers, we may not be successful in maintaining or growing our GTV and our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely impacted. We may also not be able to improve our systems and controls as a result of
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increased costs, technological challenges, or lack of qualified employees. A large component of our selling, general and administrative expenses is considered fixed costs that we will incur regardless of any GTV growth. There can be no assurances that our GTV and revenues will be maintained or grow at a more rapid rate than our fixed costs.
Part of our long-term growth strategy includes growth through acquisitions, which poses a number of risks. We may not be successful in identifying appropriate acquisition candidates, consummating acquisitions on satisfactory terms or integrating any newly acquired or expanded business with our current operations. Additionally, significant costs may be incurred in connection with any acquisition and our integration of such businesses with our business, including legal, accounting, financial advisory and other costs. We may also not realize the anticipated benefits of, and synergies from, such acquisition. We cannot guarantee that any future business acquisitions will be pursued, that any acquisitions that are pursued will be consummated, or that we will achieve the anticipated benefits of completed acquisitions.
We are regularly subject to general litigation and other claims, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We are subject to general litigation and other claims that arise in the ordinary course of our business. The outcome and impact of such litigation cannot be predicted with certainty, but regardless of the outcome, these proceedings can have an adverse impact on us because of legal costs, diversion of management resources and other factors. While the results of these claims have not historically had a material effect on us, we may not be able to defend ourselves adequately against these claims in the future, and these proceedings may have a material adverse impact on our financial condition or results of operations.
Additionally, the outcome of a proceeding may differ materially from the Company's best estimate. For example, we currently have an ongoing dispute with Ms. Ann Fandozzi, former Chief Executive Officer, and current Director, regarding her departure from the Company. During the year ended December 31, 2023, the Company recorded an expense of $6.2 million reflecting the current best estimate of a settlement amount, net of a recapture of previously recognized compensation expense based on the terms of Ms. Fandozzi’s employment agreement following her resignation. Any changes to the estimated payment amount as a result of the settlement of the matter could be material and any such payment or our inability to resolve the dispute in a timely manner may adversely affect our business. See Part II, Item 8: Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 27 Contingencies for further information.
We may also be subject to intellectual property claims, which are extremely costly to defend, could require us to pay significant damages, and could limit our ability to use certain technologies in the future. Companies in the internet and technology industries are frequently subject to litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights.
Third-party intellectual property rights may cover significant aspects of our technologies or business methods or block us from expanding our offerings. Any intellectual property claim against us, with or without merit, could be time consuming and expensive to settle or litigate and could divert the attention of our management. Litigation regarding intellectual property rights is inherently uncertain due to the complex issues involved, and we may not be successful in defending ourselves in such matters.
Many potential litigants, including some patent-holding companies, have the ability to dedicate substantial resources to enforcing their intellectual property rights. Any claims successfully brought against us could subject us to significant liability for damages, and we may be required to stop using technology or other intellectual property alleged to be in violation of a third party’s rights. We also might be required to seek a license for third-party intellectual property. Such a license may be unavailable or may require us to pay significant royalties or submit to unreasonable terms, which would increase our operating expenses. We may also be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology, which could require significant time and expense. If we cannot license or develop technology for any allegedly infringing aspect of our business, we would be forced to limit our service and may be unable to compete effectively. Any of these results could harm our business.
Privacy concerns and our compliance with current and evolving domestic or foreign laws and regulations regarding the processing of personal information and other data may increase our costs, impact our marketing efforts, or decrease adoption and use of our products and services, and our failure to comply with those laws and regulations may expose us to liability and reputational harm.

Governments around the world continue to propose and adopt new, or modify existing, laws and regulations addressing data privacy, data protection, data sovereignty and the processing of data, generally. Although we monitor the regulatory environment and have invested in addressing these developments, such as through our cybersecurity and privacy readiness programs, these laws may require us to incur further compliance costs to make changes to our practices, products and services to enable us or our customers to meet the new legal requirements. In addition, if we are found to have breached any such laws or regulations, we may be subject to enforcement actions that require us to change our practices, products and services, which may negatively impact our revenue, as well as expose us to liability through new or higher potential penalties and fines for non-compliance, civil and criminal penalties, and litigation for
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alleged violations, as well as adverse publicity that could cause our customers to lose trust in us and negatively impact our reputation and business in a manner that harms our financial position. These new or proposed laws and regulations are subject to differing interpretations that may change over time resulting in further compliance costs, as well as diversion of resources to monitor and address developments. New and proposed laws and regulations may also be inconsistent among jurisdictions or conflict with other laws and regulations. As a result, these requirements and other potential self-regulatory standards and industry codes of conduct could require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts, restrict our ability to store, transfer and otherwise process data or, in some cases, impact our ability to offer certain services in certain locations, to deploy software or data solutions, to market to current and prospective customers, or to derive insights from customers’ online activity and data globally.
We believe that laws and regulations in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia the European Union and in other jurisdictions will be increasingly restrictive in the field of data privacy and protection and will in turn result in an increase in regulatory burdens for us to address to continue meeting our customers’ expectations, in particular in relation to the sharing of personal information with third parties, the use of machine learning and big data, and the tracking of online activities for advertising. As our capacity to process large volumes of data increases, customer sentiment towards increased transparency and control and further interpretive guidance from regulatory agencies may require us to change our operations and practices in a manner adverse to our business. In this uncertain and shifting regulatory and trust climate, even the perception that the privacy and security of personal information are not satisfactorily addressed or do not meet regulatory requirements could result in adverse publicity and reputation loss.
Our business continuity plan may not operate effectively in the event of a significant interruption of our business.

We have implemented a formal business continuity plan covering most significant aspects of our business that would take effect in the event of a significant interruption to our business, or the loss of key systems as a result of a natural or other disaster. Although we have tested our business continuity plan as part of the implementation, there can be no assurance that it will operate effectively or that our business, results of operations and financial condition will not be materially affected in the event of a significant interruption of our business. If we were subject to a disaster or serious security breach, it could materially damage our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our insurance may be insufficient to cover losses that may occur as a result of our operations.

We maintain property and general liability insurance. This insurance may not remain available to us at commercially reasonable rates, and the amount of our coverage may not be adequate to cover all liabilities that we may incur. Our auctions generally involve the operation of large equipment close to a large number of people, and despite our focus on safe work practices, an accident could damage our facilities, injure auction attendees and harm our reputation and our business. In addition, if we were held liable for amounts exceeding the limits of our insurance coverage or for claims outside the scope of our coverage, the resulting costs could harm our financial condition and results of operations.
Certain global conditions may affect our ability to conduct successful events.

Like most businesses with global operations, we are subject to the risk of certain global or regional adverse conditions, such as pandemics or other disease outbreaks, including COVID-19, or natural disasters including extreme weather or other events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, forest fires or floods that could hinder our ability to conduct our scheduled auctions, restrict our customers’ travel patterns or their desire to attend auctions or impact our online operations, including disrupting the internet or mobile networks or one or more of our service providers. If any of these conditions were to occur, we may not be able to generate sufficient equipment consignments to sustain our business or to attract enough bidders to our auctions to achieve world fair market values for the items we sell. This could harm our financial condition and results of operations. To the extent that climate change causes rising sea levels, increased intensity of weather, and increased frequency of extreme precipitation and flooding, the risks noted above may increase.
Financial Risk Factors
Ineffective internal control over financial reporting could result in errors in our financial statements, reduce investor confidence, and adversely impact our stock price.

As a public company, we are required to furnish a report by management on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. This assessment is required to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal
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control over financial reporting identified by our management. We are also required to have our independent registered public accounting firm issue an opinion on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting on an annual basis.
Any failure to maintain internal control over financial reporting could severely inhibit our ability to accurately report our financial condition or results of operations. If we are unable to conclude in the future that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm determines we have a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, our stock price could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the New York Stock Exchange, the SEC or other regulatory authorities. Failure to remedy any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, or to implement or maintain other effective control systems required of public companies, could also restrict our future access to the capital markets.
We have substantial indebtedness, and the degree to which we are leveraged may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

At December 31, 2023, we have $3.1 billion of total debt outstanding, consisting of:
$1.7 billion under an amended credit agreement (the "Credit Agreement") entered into in December 2022 with a syndicate of lenders; and
$550.0 million aggregate principal amount of 6.750% senior secured notes due March 15, 2028, and $800.0 million aggregate principal amount of 7.750% senior unsecured notes due March 15, 2031 (together the "2023 Notes")
There are no current drawings under our foreign credit facility, and we can borrow an additional $724.7 million under the Credit Agreement.
Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness, as well as any future debt that we may incur, will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future from operations, financings or asset sales. Our ability to generate cash is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. We may not generate sufficient funds to service our debt and meet our business needs, such as funding working capital or the expansion of our operations. If we are not able to repay or refinance our debt as it becomes due, we may be forced to take certain actions, including reducing spending on marketing, advertising and new product innovation, reducing future financing for working capital, capital expenditures and general corporate purposes, selling assets or dedicating an unsustainable level of our cash flow from operations to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness. In addition, our ability to withstand competitive pressures and to react to changes in our industry, including both the live and online auction industry, could be impaired.
The lenders who hold our debt could also accelerate amounts due in the event that we default, which could potentially trigger a default or acceleration of the maturity of our other debt. In addition, our leverage could put us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that are less leveraged. These competitors could have greater financial flexibility to pursue strategic acquisitions and secure additional financing for their operations. Our leverage could also impede our ability to withstand downturns in our industry or the economy in general. We may incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. The terms of the Credit Agreement and the indentures governing the Notes will limit, but not prohibit, us from incurring additional indebtedness. If we incur any additional indebtedness that has the same priority as the Notes and the guarantees thereof, the holders of that indebtedness will be entitled to share ratably with the holders of the Notes and the guarantees thereof in any proceeds distributed in connection with any insolvency, liquidation, reorganization, dissolution or other winding-up of the Company. Subject to restrictions in the Credit Agreement and the indenture governing the Notes, we also will have the ability to incur additional secured indebtedness that would be effectively senior to the Notes offered hereby, to the extent of the value of the assets securing such obligations. If new indebtedness is added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we now face could intensify.
Our debt instruments have restrictive covenants that could limit our financial flexibility.

The terms of the Credit Agreement and the 2023 Notes indentures contain financial and other restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interests. Our ability to borrow under our Credit Agreement is subject to compliance with a consolidated leverage ratio covenant and a consolidated interest coverage ratio covenant.
The Credit Agreement includes other restrictions that limit our ability in certain circumstances to: incur indebtedness; grant liens; engage in mergers, consolidations and liquidations; make asset dispositions, restricted payments and investments; enter into transactions with affiliates; and amend, modify or prepay certain indebtedness. The indentures governing the 2023 Notes contain covenants that limit our ability in certain circumstances to: incur additional indebtedness (including guarantees thereof); incur or create liens on their assets securing indebtedness; make certain restricted payments; make certain investments; dispose of certain assets; allow certain restrictions on the ability of our restricted subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other payments to us; engage in certain transactions with affiliates; and consolidate, amalgamate or merge with or into other companies.
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Our failure to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default that, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of substantially all of our funded debt. We do not have sufficient working capital to satisfy our debt obligations in the event of an acceleration of all or a significant portion of our outstanding indebtedness.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
We may be unable to adequately protect or enforce our intellectual property rights, which could harm our reputation and adversely affect our growth prospects.

We regard our proprietary technologies and intellectual property as integral to our success. We protect our proprietary technology through a combination of trade secrets, third-party confidentiality and nondisclosure agreements, additional contractual restrictions on disclosure and use, and patent, copyright, and trademark laws.
We are the registered owners of many Internet domain names internationally. As we seek to protect our domain names in an increasing number of jurisdictions, we may not be successful in doing so in certain jurisdictions. Our competitors may adopt trade names or domain names similar to ours, thereby impeding our ability to promote our marketplace and possibly leading to customer confusion. In addition, we could face trade name or trademark or service mark infringement claims brought by owners of other registered or unregistered trademarks or service marks, including trademarks or service marks that may incorporate variations of our brand names. The legal means we use to protect our proprietary technology and intellectual property do not afford complete protection and may not adequately protect our rights or permit us to gain or keep any competitive advantage. We cannot guarantee that: any of our present or future intellectual property rights will not lapse or be invalidated, circumvented, challenged or abandoned; our intellectual property rights will provide competitive advantages to us; our ability to assert our intellectual property rights against potential competitors or to settle current or future disputes will not be limited by our agreements with third parties; any of our pending or future patent applications will be issued or have the coverage originally sought; or our intellectual property rights will be enforced in jurisdictions where competition may be intense or where legal protection may be weak.
We also may allow certain of our registered intellectual property rights, or our pending applications or registrations for intellectual property rights, to lapse or to become abandoned if we determine that obtaining or maintaining the applicable registered intellectual property rights is not worthwhile. Further, although it is our practice to enter into confidentiality agreements and intellectual property assignment agreements with our employees and contractors, these agreements may not be enforceable or may not provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets or other proprietary information in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure or other breaches of the agreements.
Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy, reverse engineer, or otherwise obtain and use our products or technology. We cannot be certain that we will be able to prevent unauthorized use of our technology or infringement or misappropriation of our intellectual property, particularly in foreign countries where the laws may not protect our proprietary rights. Effective patent, copyright, trademark, service mark, trade secret, and domain name protection is time-consuming and expensive to maintain. Litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets, or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of our resources. In addition, our efforts may be met with defenses and counterclaims challenging the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights or may result in a court determining that our intellectual property rights are unenforceable. If we are unable to cost-effectively protect our intellectual property rights, then our business could be harmed. If competitors are able to use our technology or develop proprietary technology similar to ours or competing technologies, our ability to compete effectively and our growth prospects could be adversely affected.
Risk Related to Our Industry
Competition could result in reductions in our future revenues and profitability.

The global used equipment market, including the auction segment of that market, is highly fragmented. We compete for potential purchasers and sellers of equipment with other auction companies and with non-auction competitors such as equipment manufacturers, distributors and dealers, equipment rental companies, and other online marketplaces. When sourcing equipment to sell at our auctions or other marketplaces, we compete with other onsite and online auction companies, OEM and independent dealers, equipment brokers, other third parties, and equipment owners that have traditionally disposed of equipment in private sales.
Some of our competitors have significantly greater financial and marketing resources and name recognition than we do. New competitors with greater financial and other resources and/or different business models/strategies may enter the equipment auction market in the future. Additionally, existing or future competitors may succeed in entering and establishing successful operations in new geographic markets prior to our entry into those markets. They may also compete against us through internet-based services and other combined service offerings.
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If commission rates decline, or if our strategy to compete against our many competitors is not effective, our revenues, market share, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely impacted. We may be susceptible to loss of business if competing selling models become more appealing to customers. If our selling model becomes undesirable or we are not successful in adding services complementary to our existing selling model and business, we may not be successful increasing market penetration over the long-term, which could prevent us from achieving our long-term earnings growth targets.
Decreases in the supply of, demand for, or market values of used equipment, could harm our business.

Our revenues could decrease if there is significant erosion in the supply of, demand for, or market values of used equipment, which could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. We have no control over any of the factors that affect the supply of or demand for used equipment and the circumstances that cause market values for equipment to fluctuate including, among other things, economic uncertainty, the global geopolitical climate, disruptions to credit and financial markets, lower commodity prices, and our customers’ restricted access to capital. Recent economic conditions have caused fluctuations in the supply, mix and market values of used equipment available for sale, which has a direct impact on our revenues.
In addition, price competition and the availability of equipment directly affect the supply of, demand for, and market value of used equipment. Climate change initiatives, including significant changes to engine emission standards applicable to equipment, may also adversely affect the supply of, demand for our market values of equipment.
Risk Related to Our Organization and Governance
Our articles, by-laws, shareholder rights plan and Canadian law contain provisions that may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control.

Certain provisions of our articles of amalgamation and by-laws, as well as certain provisions of the Canada Business Corporations Act (the “CBCA”) and applicable Canadian securities law, could discourage potential acquisition proposals, delay or prevent a change in control or materially adversely impact the price that certain investors might be willing to pay for our common shares. For instance, our articles of amalgamation authorize our board of directors to determine the designations, rights and restrictions to be attached to, and to issue an unlimited number of, junior preferred shares and senior preferred shares. In addition, our by-laws contain provisions establishing that shareholders must give advance notice to us in circumstances where nominations of persons for election to our board of directors are made by our shareholders other than pursuant to either a requisition of a meeting made in accordance with the provisions of the CBCA or a shareholder proposal made in accordance with the provisions of the CBCA. Among other things, these advance notice provisions set a deadline by which shareholders must notify us in writing of an intention to nominate directors for election to the board of directors prior to any shareholder meeting at which directors are to be elected and set forth the information required in this notice for it to be valid.
Our board of directors has adopted a shareholder rights plan (the “Rights Plan”), pursuant to which we issued one right in respect of each common share outstanding. Under the Rights Plan, following a transaction in which any person becomes an “acquiring person” as defined in the Rights Plan, each right will entitle the holder to receive a number of common shares provided in the Rights Plan. The purposes of the Rights Plan are (i) to provide our board of directors time to consider value-enhancing alternatives to a take-over bid and to allow competing bids to emerge; (ii) to ensure that shareholders are provided equal treatment under a take-over bid; and (iii) to give adequate time for shareholders to properly assess a take-over bid without undue pressure. The Rights Plan can potentially impose a significant penalty on any person commencing a takeover bid that would result in the offeror becoming the beneficial owner of 20% or more of our outstanding common shares.
Any of these provisions, as well as certain provisions of the CBCA and applicable Canadian securities law, may discourage a potential acquirer from proposing or completing a transaction that may have otherwise presented a premium to our shareholders.
U.S. civil liabilities may not be enforceable against us, our directors, or our officers.

We are governed by the CBCA and our principal place of business is in Canada. Many of our directors and officers reside outside of the United States, and all or a substantial portion of their assets, as well as a substantial portion of our assets, are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon us and such directors and officers or to enforce judgments obtained against us or such persons, in U.S. courts, in any action, including actions predicated upon the civil liability provisions of U.S. federal securities laws or any other laws of the United States.
Additionally, rights predicated solely upon civil liability provisions of U.S. federal securities laws or any other laws of the United States may not be enforceable in original actions, or actions to enforce judgments obtained in U.S. courts, brought in Canadian courts, including courts in the Province of British Columbia.
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We are governed by the corporate laws of Canada which in some cases have a different effect on shareholders than the corporate laws of Delaware.

We are governed by the CBCA and other relevant laws, which may affect the rights of shareholders differently than those of a company governed by the laws of a U.S. jurisdiction, and may, together with our charter documents, have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of our company by means of a tender offer, a proxy contest or otherwise, or may affect the price an acquiring party would be willing to offer in such an instance.
ITEM 1B:    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not applicable.
ITEM 1C:    CYBERSECURITY
Risk Management & Strategy

RB Global recognizes the critical importance of assessing, identifying and managing material risks to our business associated with cybersecurity threats and incidents. Cybersecurity risks are identified through various means, including internal assessments of information technology initiatives and systems, cybersecurity assessments of third party providers, penetration testing using third party tools and techniques to test technical controls, vulnerability identification and management procedures, and monitoring emerging threat intelligence, as well as emerging laws and regulations. Our strategy to manage cybersecurity risk prioritizes threat prevention, as well as resiliency through established defense, detection and response mechanisms and processes. These mechanisms and processes include risk-based technical security controls, policy enforcement mechanisms, alert monitoring and other security tools (such as our security incident event management platform, which provides a centralized view of all alerts within our information systems environment), incident tracking and management (for both internal events and those reported by third party providers), employee training, and contractual arrangements with third parties that provide cybersecurity risk management services. Through these processes, we regularly monitor the efficacy of our protection, detection and response mechanisms to cybersecurity threats and implement changes as appropriate. Key metrics in relation to such monitoring include detection and remediation of incidents, vulnerability reporting and patching, detecting and takedowns relating to digital fraud, and outcomes of our phishing simulations. We continue to integrate our cybersecurity practices into our Enterprise Risk Management program, overseen by the Enterprise Risk Management Committee, which identifies and tracks cyber-related business and compliance risks across the Company and helps prioritize related activity for the internal audit team.

Additionally, management has established two cross-functional committees made up of appropriate personnel throughout the Company, the Data Privacy Committee ("DPC") and the Security Steering Committee ("SSC"), to frame, review and guide our processes. The DPC is responsible for developing strategies and policies relating to data privacy and protection and the SSC provides a forum for engaging stakeholders on security and risk reduction initiatives, setting security policies and assessing the effectiveness of Company efforts to monitor, prevent, prevent, and remediate security threats and incidents.
We maintain a comprehensive security program that includes physical, administrative and technical safeguards designed to prevent and timely and appropriately respond to cybersecurity threats or incidents. We have in the past, and may in the future, also engage third party consultants to assist in assessing, benchmarking, implementing, monitoring and enhancing our security program. We also continue to invest in dedicated information security resources and technology to strengthen our programs and controls around people and processes. In the event of a cybersecurity incident, we have established an incident response and breach management process led by our Chief Information Security Officer ("CISO") with the support of leaders from our legal, operations, and risk management departments. We have retainers with experienced breach coaches in multiple jurisdictions that have been pre-approved by our insurers and a reputable third-party incident response provider on call as necessary. Cybersecurity incidents, once identified, are evaluated, ranked by severity and prioritized for response and remediation. Incidents are evaluated to determine materiality, as well as operational, business and privacy impact.
Recognizing that our employees are a crucial line of defense against cybersecurity threats, RB Global conducts mandatory onboarding and annual security awareness training. We also designate October as Cybersecurity Awareness Month and emphasize through various information campaigns the importance of data and systems security and privacy. Additionally, we deploy phishing simulations to provide “experiential learning” on how to recognize phishing attempts and we measure the effectiveness of our training.

We are not aware of having experienced, directly or through our third-party providers, any risks from cybersecurity threats or incidents through the date of this Report that have materially affected the Company, its business strategy, results of operations or financial condition, or are reasonably likely to have such an effect. This does not guarantee that future incidents or threats will not
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have a material impact, or that we or our third-party providers are not currently the subject of an undetected incident or threat that may have such an impact. For more information on our cybersecurity related risks, see Item 1A Risk Factors of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Governance

The Board of Directors and management are actively involved and play an important part in the oversight of cybersecurity threats and incidents. Our Audit Committee reviews the Company’s cybersecurity strategy and readiness at least annually and receives a quarterly, or more often as needed, briefing from our Chief Product and Technology Officer ("CPTO") and CISO on cybersecurity matters and key performance indicators relating to the security program. The Audit Committee briefs the full Board of Directors on cybersecurity, and where necessary, management is available to provide further insight into such matters or other related cybersecurity matters. The Global Internal Audit department, which reports to the Audit Committee, annually tests the design and operating effectiveness of certain cybersecurity-related processes. Our Board members also engage in ad hoc conversations with management on cybersecurity-related news events and discuss any updates to our cybersecurity risk management and strategy processes as needed. Visibility and transparency regarding our cybersecurity program and cybersecurity threats and incidents provides the Board with the foundation for oversight over the Company's security operations, program status and cybersecurity risk management.

At the management level, our cybersecurity risk management and strategy processes are overseen by leaders from our Information Security, Information Technology, Product Management, Risk Management and Legal teams, including our CISO and CPTO. Such individuals have substantial work experience in roles involving information technology, including security, network management, application and systems engineering and architecture. These individuals remain informed about, and monitor the prevention, mitigation, detection and remediation of cybersecurity threats and incidents through their participation in, the cybersecurity risk management and strategy processes and their participation in the management committees described above.
ITEM 2:    PROPERTIES
We own and lease various properties globally, primarily in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia. We use the properties for our operations, primarily as auction sites and for storage purposes, and as administrative offices, which support our various businesses and brands.
After the acquisition of IAA on March 20, 2023, we changed our headquarters from Burnaby, Canada to Westchester, Illinois, United States, which is held through a lease until 2027. We also lease other administrative offices in the United States, Canada and the Netherlands. In total, we lease approximately 639,000 square feet of administrative office space.
We own and lease operating facilities primarily in the United States. The table below sets forth a summary of our owned and leased properties for operations, by region and acreage, at December 31, 2023:
LocationNumber of LocationsOwned AcreageLeased Acreage
United States242 3,052 6,356 
Canada29 871 353 
International35 748 283 
Total3064,6716,992

In addition, we lease two warehouses in the United States to support our GovPlanet operations.

To support our customers and our operations in catastrophe events, we also hold agreements that give us the option to lease specific properties within certain timeframes, should a catastrophic weather event occur close to these locations. The total acreage for these agreements is approximately 1,600 acres.
We generally attempt to establish locations that store commercial assets and vehicles in industrial areas close to major cities. Some of our locations are auction sites, and our proximity benefits our sellers who prefer to drop off their assets on the premises where we offer “care, custody and control", and also benefits our buyers who prefer to inspect and interact with the assets prior to bidding. In addition, we expect that our wide network of auction sites, and their proximity to major cities, helps enhance our services in the automotive sector by improving our agility to respond during catastrophic events while reducing our incremental costs.
We believe that our administrative offices and operating facilities are adequate and suitable to conduct our operations. We regularly evaluate our capacity in all our markets and where appropriate, seek to increase capacity through the acquisition of additional land and facilities. Capacity at our facilities varies from period to period and by region as a result of various factors, including natural disasters.
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In 2023, many of our employees continued to work remotely. The longer-term strategy with respect to our administrative offices and auction sites will reflect on-going review of business and customer needs, as well as consider employee preferences.
ITEM 3:    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We have no material legal proceedings pending, other than ordinary routine litigation incidental to the business, and we do not know of any material proceedings contemplated by governmental authorities.
ITEM 4:    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5:    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Outstanding Share Data

We are a public company and our common shares are listed under the symbol “RBA” on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) and the Toronto Stock Exchange (“TSX”). The Series A Senior Preferred Shares of the Company are not listed on any exchange and there is no established public trading market for the Series A Senior Preferred Shares. Holders of the Series A Senior Preferred Shares are entitled to vote together with the common shares on an as-converted basis on all matters permitted by applicable law, subject to certain exceptions to enable compliance with applicable antitrust law. As of February 27, 2024, each holder of Series A Senior Preferred Shares would be entitled to 0.0139696 vote per Series A Senior Preferred Share held. Series A Senior Preferred Shares represent, as of February 27, 2024, 6,775,252 votes, which is the number of common shares into which the Series A Senior Preferred Shares could be converted as of February 27, 2024. Such number of votes represents approximately 3.6% of the voting rights attached to the Company’s securities as of February 27, 2024.

In the event of a take-over bid for the common shares, a holder of Series A Senior Preferred Shares may participate in such take-over bid by exercising the conversion rights attached to such Series A Senior Preferred Shares. Each outstanding Series A Senior Preferred Share shall be convertible into common shares at the option of the holder, subject to the terms and conditions contained in the articles of the Company. Under certain circumstances prescribed under the articles of the Company, a holder of Series A Senior Preferred Shares may also have the right to require the Company to redeem all or any portion of such holder’s Series A Senior Preferred Shares for cash in the event of a take-over bid.

Financial information about our equity and share-based payments is set forth in our consolidated financial statements in "Part II, Item 8: Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 23 Temporary Equity, Stockholders' Equity and Dividends and Item 8: Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 24 Share-based Payments" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Market Information

Our common shares, without par value, are issued in registered form. The transfer agent for the shares is Computershare Trust Company of Canada, 100 University Avenue, 9th Floor, Toronto, Ontario M5J 2Y1. Our common shares trade on the NYSE and on the TSX under the symbol “RBA.” On February 28, 2024, there were 1,177 holders of record of our common shares that do not include the shareholders for whom shares are held in a nominee or street name.

Dividend Policy

We currently pay a regular quarterly cash dividend of $0.27 per common share. We currently intend to continue to declare and pay a regular quarterly cash dividend on our common shares; however, any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors, after considering our operating results, financial condition, cash requirements, financing agreement restrictions and any other factors our Board of Directors may deem relevant.

Because RB Global Inc. is a holding company with no material assets other than the shares of its subsidiaries, our ability to pay dividends on our common shares depends on the income and cash flow of our subsidiaries. No financing agreements to which our subsidiaries are party currently restrict those subsidiaries from paying dividends.

Pursuant to income tax legislation, Canadian resident individuals who receive “eligible dividends” in 2006 and subsequent years will be entitled to an enhanced gross-up and dividend tax credit on such dividends. All dividends that we pay are “eligible dividends” unless indicated otherwise.

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Comparison of Cumulative Return
The following graph compares the cumulative return on a $100 investment in our common shares over the last five fiscal years beginning December 31, 2018 through December 31, 2023, to that of the cumulative return on a $100 investment in the Russell Global Index (“Russell 2000”), the S&P / TSX Composite Index (“S&P/TSX”) and the Dow Jones Industrial Average Index (“DJIA”) for the same period. In calculating the cumulative return, reinvestment of dividends, if any, is assumed. The indices are included for comparative purpose only. This graph is not “soliciting material,” is not deemed filed with the SEC and is not to be incorporated by reference in any of our filings under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, whether made before or after the date hereof and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such filing.
3848290698092
Company / index201820192020202120222023
RBA (NYSE)$100.0 $133.9 $220.5 $197.0 $189.3 $227.5 
Russell 2000$100.0 $125.5 $150.5 $172.7 $137.4 $160.6 
S&P/TSX$100.0 $122.9 $129.8 $162.4 $153.1 $171.2 
DJIA$100.0 $125.3 $137.5 $166.3 $154.9 $180.0 


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Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
The following table sets forth information about the Company’s equity compensation plans at December 31, 2023.
Plan CategoryNumber of securities to be issued
upon exercise of options,
warrants and rights
(a)
Weighted average exercise
price of outstanding options,
warrants and rights
(b)
Number of securities remaining
available for future issuance under
equity compensation plans (excluding
securities reflected in column (a))
(c)
 
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders4,341,109
(1)
$59.89 
(2)
11,331,020
(3)
Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders— 
Total4,341,109$59.89 11,331,020
_____________________________________________________
(1)Reflects our 2023 Share Incentive Plan, which was approved by the Company's shareholders on May 8, 2023, as well as equity awards granted under our previous plans until expiration or settlement. This amount reflects 100% of target numbers of PSUs granted and includes dividend equivalent rights credited in connection with such PSUs. Under the Plan, the number of PSUs that vest is conditional upon specified market, service, and/or performance vesting conditions being met. For the August 2021 and June 2022 PSUs with market conditions, the market vesting condition is based on the total stockholder return performance of the Company relative to the performance of the S&P 500 index members at the date of grant. The August 2021 and June 2022 PSUs with market conditions can result in participants earning between 0% and 300% of the target number granted. For the August 2023 PSUs with market conditions, the market vesting condition is based on the total stockholder return performance of the Company relative to the performance of the Russell 3000 index members at the date of grant. The August 2023 PSUs with market conditions can result in participants earning between 0% and 200% of the target number granted. Share units granted under our Plan with no market vesting conditions are based on the achievement of specific performance measures and can result in participants earning between 0% and 200% of the target number of PSUs granted. Further, we have the option to choose whether to settle these PSUs without market vesting conditions in cash or in shares. For further discussion on the PSUs granted under our Plans, refer to "Part II, Item 8: Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 24 Share-based Payments".
(2)Weighted average exercise price does not include the effect of our outstanding share units. The remaining term of our stock options is 5.5 years.
(3) Consists of 8,511,523 common shares available for issuance under the 2023 Share Incentive Plan and 2,819,497 common shares available for issuance under the 2023 ESPP.
Exchange Controls
Canada has no system of exchange controls. There are no Canadian restrictions on the repatriation of capital or earnings of a Canadian public company to non-resident investors. There are no laws in Canada or exchange restrictions affecting the remittance of dividends and other payments to U.S. Resident Holders (as defined below) of our common shares, other than withholding tax.
There are no limitations under the laws of Canada or in our organizational documents on the right of foreigners to hold or vote our common shares, except that the Investment Canada Act may require review and approval by the Minister of Industry (Canada) of certain acquisitions of control of RB Global by a “non-Canadian”. “Non-Canadian” generally means an individual who is not a Canadian citizen, or a corporation, partnership, trust or joint venture that is ultimately controlled by non-Canadians.
Certain Canadian Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Residents
The following summarizes certain Canadian federal income tax consequences generally applicable under the Income Tax Act (Canada) and the regulations promulgated thereunder (collectively, the “Canadian Tax Act”) and the Canada-U.S. Income Tax Convention (1980) (the “Convention”) to the holding and disposition of common shares by a U.S. Resident Holder (as defined below).
This summary is restricted to beneficial owners of common shares each of whom, at all material times for the purposes of the Canadian Tax Act and the Convention, (i) is resident solely in the U.S., (ii) is entitled to the full benefits of the Convention, (iii) holds all common shares as capital property, (iv) holds no common shares that are “taxable Canadian property” (within the meaning of the Canadian Tax Act), (v) deals at arm’s length with and is not affiliated with RB Global, (vi) does not and is not deemed to use or hold any common shares in a business carried on in Canada, and (vii) is not an "authorized foreign bank" (as defined in the Canadian Tax Act) or an insurer that carries on business in Canada and elsewhere (each such holder, a “U.S. Resident Holder”).
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Certain U.S.-resident entities that are fiscally transparent for U.S. federal income tax purposes (including limited liability companies) may not be regarded by the CRA as entitled to the benefits of the Convention. Members of or holders of an interest in such an entity that holds common shares should consult their own tax advisers regarding the extent, if any, to which the CRA will extend the benefits of the Convention in respect of common shares held by such entity.
Generally, a U.S. Resident Holder’s common shares will be considered to be capital property of a U.S. Resident Holder provided that the U.S. Resident Holder does not acquire, hold or dispose of the common shares in one or more transactions considered to be an adventure or concern in the nature of trade and does not hold the common shares in the course of carrying on a business.
This summary is based on the provisions of the Canadian Tax Act and the Convention in effect on the date hereof, all specific proposals to amend the Canadian Tax Act and Convention publicly announced by or on behalf of the Minister of Finance (Canada) on or before the date hereof (the “Tax Proposals”), and the current published administrative policies of the CRA. It is assumed that the Tax Proposals will be enacted as currently proposed, and that there will be no other material change to any applicable law or administrative practice, whether by judicial, legislative, governmental or administrative decision or action, although no assurance can be given in these respects. Except as otherwise expressly provided, this summary does not take into account any provincial, territorial or foreign tax considerations, which may differ materially from those set out herein.
This summary is of a general nature only and it is not intended to be, nor should it be construed to be, legal or tax advice to any holder of common shares, and no representation with respect to Canadian federal income tax consequences to any holder of common shares is made herein. Accordingly, holders of common shares should consult their own tax advisers with respect to their individual circumstances.
Disposition of Common Shares
A U.S. Resident Holder will not be subject to tax under the Canadian Tax Act in respect of any capital gain realized by such U.S. Resident Holder on a disposition of common shares unless the common shares constitute “taxable Canadian property” (within the meaning of the Canadian Tax Act) of the U.S. Resident Holder at the time of disposition and the U.S. Resident Holder is not entitled under the Convention to an exemption from Canadian tax on the gain.
Generally, a U.S. Resident Holder’s common share will not constitute “taxable Canadian property” of the U.S. Resident Holder at the time of disposition provided that such share is listed on a “designated stock exchange” for purposes of the Canadian Tax Act (which currently includes the TSX and NYSE) unless at any time during the 60-month period immediately preceding the disposition both of the following conditions are true:
(i)the U.S. Resident Holder, any one or more persons with whom the U.S. Resident Holder does not deal at arm’s length, or any partnership in which the U.S. Resident Holder or persons with whom the U.S. Resident Holder did not deal at arm’s length holds a membership interest directly or indirectly through one or more partnerships, alone or in any combination, owned 25% or more of the issued shares of any class or series of our share capital; and
(ii)more than 50% of the fair market value of such common share was derived directly or indirectly from, or from any combination of, real or immovable property situated in Canada, “Canadian resource properties” (as defined in the Canadian Tax Act), “timber resource properties” (as defined in the Canadian Tax Act), or options in respect of, interests in or civil law rights in, such properties, whether or not such properties exist.
In certain circumstances set out in the Canadian Tax Act, a common share may be deemed to be “taxable Canadian property” for purposes of the Canadian Tax Act.
Even if the common shares constitute “taxable Canadian property” to a U.S. Resident Holder, under the Convention, such a U.S. Resident Holder will not be subject to tax under the Canadian Tax Act on any capital gain realized by such holder on a disposition of such common shares, provided the value of such common shares is not derived principally from real property situated in Canada (within the meaning of the Convention).
U.S. Resident Holders whose common shares may be taxable Canadian property should consult their own tax advisers
Dividends on Common Shares
Dividends paid or credited, or deemed to be paid or credited, on common shares to a U.S. Resident Holder will generally be subject to Canadian withholding tax. Under the Canadian Tax Act, the rate of withholding tax is 25% of the gross amount of such dividends, which rate may be subject to reduction under the provisions of an applicable income tax treaty or convention. Under the Convention, a U.S. Resident Holder who is a beneficial owner of a dividend will generally be subject to Canadian withholding tax at the rate of 15% of the gross amount of such dividend, unless the beneficial owner is a company which owns (or is deemed under the Convention to
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own) at least 10% of the voting shares of RB Global at that time, in which case the rate of Canadian withholding tax is generally reduced to 5%.
ITEM 6:    [RESERVED]
ITEM 7:    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
This section of the Form 10-K generally discusses 2023 and 2022 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2023 and 2022. Discussions of 2021 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2022 and 2021 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in “Part II, Item 7: Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022. This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in “Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties.
Our actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied in any forward-looking statements due to various factors, including those set forth under “Part I, Item 1A: Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“US GAAP”). Except for GTV, which is a measure of operational performance and not a measure of financial performance, liquidity, or revenue, the amounts discussed below are based on our consolidated financial statements. Unless indicated otherwise, all tabular dollar amounts, including related footnotes, presented below are expressed in millions of United States (“U.S.”) dollars.
In the accompanying analysis of financial information, we sometimes use information derived from consolidated financial data but not presented in our consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with US GAAP. Certain of these data are considered “non-GAAP financial measures” under the SEC rules. The definitions and reasons we use these non-GAAP financial measures and the reconciliations to their most directly comparable US GAAP financial measures are included either with the first use thereof or in the “Non-GAAP Measures” section within “Part II, Item 7: Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
Overview
Established in 1958, RB Global, Inc., formerly known as Ritchie Bros. Auctioneers Incorporated (NYSE and TSX: RBA), is a leading, omnichannel marketplace that provides value-added insights, services and transaction solutions for buyers and sellers of commercial assets and vehicles worldwide. Through our auction sites and digital platform, we have a wide global presence and serve customers across a variety of asset classes, including automotive, commercial transportation, construction, government surplus, lifting and material handling, energy, mining and agriculture. Our marketplace brands include Ritchie Bros., the world's largest auctioneer of commercial assets and vehicles offering online bidding, and IAA, Inc. ("IAA"), a leading global digital marketplace connecting vehicle buyers and sellers. Our portfolio of brands also includes Rouse Services ("Rouse"), which provides a complete end-to-end asset management, data-driven intelligence and performance benchmarking system; SmartEquip Inc. ("SmartEquip"), an innovative technology platform that supports customers' management of the equipment lifecycle and integrates parts procurement with both OEMs and dealers; and VeriTread LLC ("VeriTread"), an online marketplace for heavy haul transport.
On March 20, 2023, we completed the acquisition of IAA for a total purchase price of approximately $6.6 billion. IAA's stockholders received $12.80 per share in cash and 0.5252 shares of the Company for each share of IAA common stock they owned. As such, we paid approximately $1.7 billion in cash consideration and issued 70.3 million shares of our common stock. In addition, we repaid $1.2 billion of IAA's net debt. IAA facilitates the marketing and sale of total loss, damaged and low-value vehicles for a full spectrum of sellers, including insurance companies, dealerships, fleet lease and rental car companies and charitable organizations. IAA serves a global buyer base with vehicles, vehicle rebuild requirements, replacement part inventory or scrap demand. IAA maintains operations in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom, with more than 210 facilities. We believe the acquisition of IAA will accelerate our journey to become the trusted global marketplace for insights, services and transaction solutions, as well as diversify our customer base by providing us with a significant presence in the automotive vertical, an industry with strong fundamentals and proven secular growth.
Performance Overview and Consolidated Results

In 2023, we achieved a record-breaking $13.9 billion in GTV, primarily driven from the acquisition of IAA and strong organic growth from our strategic accounts.

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Net income available to common stockholders for 2023 decreased 45% to $174.9 million, compared to $319.7 million in 2022. Diluted earnings per share (“EPS”) available to stockholders decreased 64% to $1.04 from $2.86 per share. Diluted adjusted EPS available to stockholders increased 24% to $2.99 per share in 2023 as compared to $2.41 per share in 2022.
For the year ended December 31, 2023, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2022:
Total GTV increased 131% to $13.9 billion, mainly due to the inclusion of $7.0 billion from IAA
Total revenue increased 112% to $3.7 billion, mainly due to the inclusion of $1.8 billion from IAA.
Service revenue increased 160% to $2.7 billion, mainly due to the inclusion of $1.5 billion from IAA.
Inventory sales revenue increased 39% to $947.1 million, mainly due to the inclusion of $246.9 million from IAA.
Net income decreased 36% to $206.0 million.
Adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“Adjusted EBITDA”) increased 122% to $1.0 billion.
Cash on hand at December 31, 2023 was $747.9 million, of which $576.2 million was unrestricted.

Operational Highlights

In March 2023, we completed the acquisition of IAA, which was a key part of our growth strategy and vision of becoming the trusted global marketplace for transaction solutions, insights and services for commercial assets and vehicles. IAA has accelerated our expansion into an attractive, adjacent vertical, broadening our global footprint. We believe our combined yard footprint, marketplace infrastructure and comprehensive suite of innovative solutions will allow us to better serve our customers effectively and efficiently. In January 2023, we also acquired a controlling interest in VeriTread, a transportation technology company in the United States experienced in building heavy haul transportation platforms and solutions for industrial equipment, vehicles, and other assets. VeriTread adds to our suite of value-added services, supporting the needs of equipment owners throughout the equipment lifecycle by integrating transportation solutions directly into our marketplace technology.

In the beginning of August 2023, we appointed Jim Kessler, who was previously the Company's President and Chief Operating Officer as Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") and in December 2023, we announced the appointment of Eric J. Guerin as Chief Financial Officer ("CFO"), effective January 15, 2024.
In addition to our growth through two acquisitions this year, below are some other notable operational highlights during 2023:
Ritchie Bros. had strong operating results and record growth, resulting in a 15% year-over-year increase in total GTV and 11% year-over year increase in total revenues.
Since its acquisition at the end of March 2023, IAA contributed $7.0 billion to our total GTV and $1.8 billion to our total revenues in 2023, benefiting from higher average selling prices and higher volumes as a result of a higher number of vehicles declared as total losses.
In October 2023, the Company, along with Nations Capital, LLC (“Nations”), received bankruptcy court approval to be the agent and liquidator of Yellow Corporation’s transportation assets. The Company and Nations intend to utilize the expansive footprint of RB Global to manage the relocation, transportation, refurbishment, inventory, storage and sale of the rolling stock assets, including approximately 60,000 units of trucks, trailers and miscellaneous equipment located across the United States and Canada at over 300 terminal locations. The Company and Nations intend to implement a multi-faceted sales strategy, including private treaty and strategic bulk sales, as well as live and fully digital formats
SmartEquip released a major enhancement to its digital parts commerce product in September 2023. The new SmartEquip e-Commerce Store 2.0 platform helps dealers, fleet owners and authorized distributors in the industrial goods industry to set up a branded, digital parts shop quickly and easily and help them manage inventory, product support, sales and customers in one easy-to-use self-serve platform.
In August 2023, IAA released three product enhancements to its selling platform, IAA Vehicle Score™, IAA Vehicle Value™ and the IAA Sales Decision Center™, which all work together to provide vehicle sellers with information that is critical in helping to optimize their auction strategies for greater returns.
In April 2023, we made strategic real estate investments in the states of New York, Indiana, Connecticut and Delaware in the United States to meet growing demand and to secure our presence in prime locations. Accordingly, we opened two new IAA auction sites in Staten Island, New York, and Fort Wayne, Indiana.
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Results of Operations
Year ended December 31,
% Change
(in U.S. dollars in millions, except percentages)2023202220212023 over 20222022 over 2021
Service revenue$2,732.5 $1,050.6 $917.8 160 %14 %
Inventory sales revenue947.1 683.2 499.2 39 %37 %
Total revenue3,679.6 1,733.8 1,417.0 112 %22 %
Costs of services1,007.6 168.1 155.3 499 %%
Cost of inventory sold893.6 608.6 447.8 47 %36 %
Selling, general and administrative743.7 539.9 456.2 38 %18 %
Acquisition-related and integration costs216.1 37.3 30.2 479 %24 %
Depreciation and amortization352.2 97.2 87.9 262 %11 %
Total operating expenses3,213.2 1,451.1 1,177.4 121 %23 %
Gain on disposition of property, plant and equipment4.9 170.8 1.4 (97)%12100 %
Operating income471.3 453.5 241.0 %88 %
Net income206.0 319.8 151.9 (36)%111 %
Net income available to common stockholders174.9 319.7 151.9 (45)%110 %
Effective tax rate27.1 %21.2 %26.0 %590bps(480)bps
Total GTV$13,930.6 $6,025.9 $5,533.9 131 %%
Service GTV12,983.5 5,342.7 5,034.7 143 %%
Inventory GTV947.1 683.2 499.2 39 %37 %
Inventory return$53.5 $74.6 $51.4 (28)%45 %
Inventory rate5.6 %10.9 %10.3 %(530)bps60bps
Foreign exchange gain (loss) for the years ended 2022 and 2021 have been reclassified from operating income to a separate line below operating income, refer to our consolidated financial statements in "Part II, Item 8: Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 2 Significant Accounting Policies" of this document.
The following table presents the selected results of Ritchie Bros. and IAA during the year ended December 31, 2023, and includes the financial results of IAA since its acquisition on March 20, 2023:
Year ended December 31, 2023
(in U.S. dollars in millions)Ritchie Bros.IAATotal
Commissions$536.5 $275.9 $812.4 
Buyer fees382.3 1,144.4 1,526.7 
Marketplace services revenue303.7 89.7 393.4 
Total service revenue1,222.5 1,510.0 2,732.5 
Inventory sales revenue700.2 246.9 947.1 
Total revenue$1,922.7 $1,756.9 $3,679.6 
Service GTV$6,256.8 $6,726.7 $12,983.5 
Inventory GTV700.2 246.9 947.1 
Total GTV$6,957.0 $6,973.6 $13,930.6 

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Total GTV
Total GTV increased 131% to $13.9 billion as compared to 2022, of which IAA accounted for 88% of the increase. Excluding IAA, total GTV increased 15% to $7.0 billion as compared to 2022, and increased 16% when excluding the impact of foreign exchange.
In 2023, total GTV increased primarily due to the inclusion of IAA since its acquisition on March 20, 2023. IAA contributed $7.0 billion, or 50%, of total GTV, generating strong volumes and higher average selling prices in the automotive sector primarily across North America. Excluding IAA, the increase in total GTV was driven by higher lot volumes, mainly from rental and transportation customers, as the supply chain continues to normalize post-pandemic, partially offset by lower realized auction prices and an unfavorable asset mix. Total GTV increased across all regions, most notably in the United States as a result of strong execution by our strategic accounts team, as well as from positive year-over-year performances at our regional events and the addition of several new auction events. In Canada, GTV volume growth was driven by favorable year-over-year performances at our auction events in Western Canada mainly in the oil and gas sector, benefiting from higher performance from our regional sales team and increased imports from Asia Pacific and the United States. In International, we saw GTV volume growth primarily in Europe at its auction events.
Total Revenue
Total revenue increased 112% to $3.7 billion as compared to 2022, with total service revenue increasing by 160% and inventory sales revenue increasing by 39%. IAA contributed $1.8 billion, or 48% of total revenues in 2023 since its acquisition on March 20, 2023. Excluding IAA, total revenue increased 11% to $1.9 billion in 2023, with total service revenue increasing by 16% and inventory sales revenue increasing by 2%.
Service Revenue
Year ended December 31,
% Change
(in U.S. dollars in millions, except percentages)2023202220212023 over 20222022 over 2021
Commissions$812.4 $490.6 $473.4 66 %%
Buyer fees1,526.7 315.8 248.7 383 %27 %
Marketplace services revenue393.4 244.2 195.7 61 %25 %
Total service revenue$2,732.5 $1,050.6 $917.8 160 %14 %

Service revenue is comprised of commissions earned on service GTV, buyer fees earned on total GTV, as well as revenues earned from our marketplace services. Commissions include revenue earned from consignors or sellers from the sale of assets from straight, fixed or guarantee commission contracts. Buyer fees include buyer fees earned from purchasers on the sale of inventory or consigned assets. Marketplace services revenue includes fees earned from value-added services provided to customers such as refurbishment, parts procurement, data, transportation and logistics, inspection, appraisals, online listing, financing, title and liens processing, as well as other auction-related fees.
In 2023, total service revenue increased 160% in line with higher service GTV increase of 143%, with buyer fees increasing 383%, commissions increasing 66% and marketplace services revenue increasing 61%.
Buyer fees increased 383%, significantly exceeding the 131% increase in total GTV, mainly due to higher buyer fee rates and lot volumes with the inclusion of IAA. IAA contributed $1.1 billion, or 95% of the increase in buyer fees. Excluding IAA, the increase in buyer fees were driven by an increase in minimum buyer fee rates implemented in early 2023.

Commissions revenue increased 66%, less than the 143% increase in Service GTV, mainly due to the inclusion of IAA as IAA earns lower commission rates on Service GTV through its fixed fee commission contracts with its consignors. IAA contributed $276 million, or 86% of the increase in total commissions revenue. Excluding IAA, commissions revenue was also impacted by softer straight commission and guarantee performances across all regions, most notably in the United States. In the United States, these softer performances were mainly due to higher volumes sold from our strategic accounts team in the rental and transportation sectors. In Canada, we also saw several large strategic contracts contribute to softer guarantee and straight commissions revenues.

Marketplace services revenue increased 61%, driven partly by the inclusion of IAA, which contributed 60% of the increase from its auction-related buyer services and subscription fees and title and liens processing fees. Excluding IAA, marketplace services revenue increased across all regions due to higher ancillary revenue, in line with higher GTV volume, and higher document fees from rate increases introduced in early 2023 and from rate harmonization in our online marketplaces. We also benefited from the inclusion of
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transportation services revenue from the acquisition of VeriTread and higher listing fee revenue from increased online volumes in the United States.
Inventory Sales Revenue
In 2023, inventory sales revenue increased 39% primarily due to the inclusion of IAA, which contributed 94% of the increase. Excluding IAA, inventory sales revenue increased mainly due to higher volumes of inventory packages in the United States, sourced through our strategic accounts, and the addition of several new auction events. Despite the volume growth, we saw softer price realization on various inventory packages due to macroeconomic pressures on pricing. In International, we saw lower inventory volumes in Australia, partly due to a shift in its revenue mix and an auction event that did not repeat, partially offset by positive performances in Europe driven by an increase in locally sourced inventory packages.
Costs of Services
Costs of services increased 499% to $1.0 billion mainly due the inclusion of IAA, which accounted for 95% of the increase. IAA's cost of services includes direct expenses incurred for regular weekly auction events, primarily relating to tow costs, employee compensation, and operating lease costs for auction sites, as well as costs to provide title search. Excluding IAA, we saw higher costs of services from increased volumes in our ancillary business, mainly in repairs and hauling, in line with total GTV growth. We also incurred higher employee labor costs to support the growth in our service GTV, partly driven by higher volume of online transactions. In addition, we also incurred higher transportation costs from the inclusion of VeriTread since its acquisition in the beginning of the year.

Cost of Inventory Sold
Inventory rate decreased to 5.6% from 10.9%, mainly driven by unfavorable pricing conditions in most regions, particularly across North America, where prices declined faster than anticipated between the purchase and sale dates of inventory.

Cost of inventory sold increased 47% to $893.6 million, while inventory sales revenue increased 39%. Cost of inventory sold increased at a higher rate than inventory sales revenue as a result of softer performances on our inventory contracts, primarily in North America. These softer performances were driven by a higher proportion of inventory packages with unfavorable pricing conditions, some of which were signed strategically due to the competitive landscape, particularly in Canada.

Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased 38% to $743.7 million primarily due to the inclusion of IAA, which contributed 74% of the increase, and includes mainly employee compensation expenses, technology costs and professional fees for technology development activities. Excluding IAA, the remaining increase was primarily driven by higher employee compensation costs due to an increase in headcount to support our sales, operations and strategic growth initiatives, and higher severance and settlement costs relating to the departures of certain former executives. We also incurred higher technology costs as we continue to shift to modernized payment solutions and cloud-based solutions to improve customer and employee experiences. Further, we saw higher advertising and promotion costs to promote new sales initiatives and higher global travel costs. These increases were partially offset by lower incentive-based compensation expense.

Acquisition-related and Integration Costs
Acquisition-related and integration costs increased 479% to $216.1 million, primarily given the significant investment banking, consulting, legal and financing costs incurred to effect the acquisition of IAA. Since the acquisition of IAA we have also incurred significant severance costs to employees of the combined business as a result of restructuring and integrating the various business functions, including severance costs to certain key executives. To support our integration activities and help us achieve cost synergies, we have also incurred integration costs to third-party advisors and consultants. In addition, for the benefit of the combined business, we also recorded a net $16.3 million expense as settlement for the termination of a non-compete agreement bound by IAA prior to the acquisition.
Operating Income
Operating income increased 4%, primarily driven by the inclusion of revenues less operating expenses from IAA. In addition, excluding IAA, we also saw higher flow through from higher service revenue, partially offset by higher depreciation and amortization costs driven by the amortization of the acquired intangible assets from acquisition of IAA, the $169.1 million gain on the Bolton property in 2022 that did not recur this year, and higher acquisition-related and integration costs as discussed above.
Income Tax Expense and Effective Tax Rate
We recorded an income tax expense of $76.4 million in 2023, compared to $86.2 million in 2022. Our effective tax rate was 27.1%, compared to 21.2% in 2022. The increase in the effective tax rate over the comparative period was primarily attributable to the non-taxable portion of the gain on sale of the Bolton property in 2022 that did not recur in 2023, and an increase in non-deductible expense
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in the current period. The increase in the effective tax rate was partially offset by a higher benefit related to Foreign-Derived Intangible Income ("FDII") in the current period when compared to prior period.
Net Income
Net income attributable to controlling interests decreased 35% to $206.5 million, compared to $319.7 million in 2022. The decrease was primarily due to higher interest expense from higher debt to fund the acquisition of IAA and a rise in interest rates, partially offset by higher interest income, also due to a rise in interest rates, and lower income tax expense, as discussed above.
Diluted EPS
Diluted EPS available to stockholders decreased 64% to $1.04 per share compared to $2.86 in 2022, primarily due to the increase in the number of shares issued for the acquisition of IAA and by the decrease in net income as described above.

In February 2023, we issued $485.0 million of Series A Senior Preferred Shares and $15.0 million of common shares to Starboard. As the Series A Senior Preferred Shares are considered a participating security, we calculate diluted EPS using the two-class method, which includes the effects of the assumed conversion of the Series A Senior Preferred Shares to common shares, as well as the effect of any shares issuable under the Company’s stock-based incentive plans, if such effect is dilutive. Under this method, earnings are allocated to holders of common stock and holders of Series A Senior Preferred Shares based on dividends declared and their respective participation rights in undistributed earnings. As a result, our net income available to common stockholders is lower by the cumulative dividends and allocated earnings to Series A Senior Preferred shareholders.
Non-GAAP Measures
As part of management’s non-GAAP measures, we may eliminate the financial impact of certain items that we do not consider to be part of our normal operating results.
Adjusted operating income increased 127% to $905.3 million, compared to $399.4 million in 2022.
Adjusted net income available to common stockholders increased 86%, to $502.2 million, compared to $269.9 million in 2022.
Diluted adjusted EPS available to common stockholders increased 24% to $2.99 per share, compared to $2.41 per share in 2022.
Adjusted EBITDA increased 122% to $1.0 billion, compared to $465.2 million in 2022.
U.S. Dollar Exchange Rate Comparison
We conduct global operations in many different currencies, with our presentation currency being the U.S dollar. The following table presents the variance in select foreign exchange rates over the comparative reporting periods:
% Change
Value of one local currency to U.S. dollar2023202220212023 over
2022
2022 over
2021
Period-end exchange rate - December 31,
Canadian dollar0.75580.73780.7846%(6)%
Euro1.10671.06611.1322%(6)%
British pound sterling1.27341.20541.3497%(11)%
Australian dollar0.68260.67650.7250%(7)%
Average exchange rate - Year ended December 31,
Canadian dollar0.74110.76900.7977(4)%(4)%
Euro1.08201.05431.1834%(11)%
British pound sterling1.24341.23761.3757— %(10)%
Australian dollar0.66450.69490.7514(4)%(8)%
In 2023, approximately 29% of our revenues and 30% of our operating expenses were denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, compared to 42% and 34%, respectively, in 2022.
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We recognized $1.8 million in foreign exchange losses in 2023 and $1.0 million of gains in 2022. Foreign exchange had an unfavorable impact on total revenue and a favorable impact on expenses. These impacts were mainly due to the fluctuations in the Euro, Australian dollar and the Canadian dollar exchanges rates relative to the U.S. dollar during the year.
Key Operating Metrics
We regularly review a number of metrics, including the following key operating metrics, to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, and make operating decisions. We believe these key operating metrics are useful to investors because management uses these metrics to assess the growth of our business and the effectiveness of our operational strategies.
We define our key operating metrics as follows:
Gross transaction value: Represents total proceeds from all items sold at the Company’s auctions and online marketplaces. GTV is not a measure of financial performance, liquidity, or revenue, and is not presented in the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Total service revenue take rate: Total service revenue divided by total GTV.
Inventory return: Inventory sales revenue less cost of inventory sold.
Inventory rate: Inventory return divided by inventory sales revenue.
Total lots sold: A single asset to be sold, or a group of assets bundled for sale as one unit. Low value assets are sometimes bundled into a single lot, collectively referred to as “small value lots.”
Historically, we reported total lots sold excluding lots sold in our GovPlanet business. Commencing in the first quarter of 2023, as a result of a change in management organizational structure and the acquisition of IAA, management reviews all auction metrics of the combined businesses as a whole, which includes GovPlanet. In addition, the total bids per lot sold metric was historically used by management as a key metric. This metric has been discontinued since the first quarter of 2023 as it is no longer considered meaningful when reviewing the auction metrics of the combined business and of our one reportable segment.
We believe it is meaningful to consider revenue in relation to GTV. Total GTV and revenue by geography are presented below, along with comparative periods.
GTV by Geography
Year ended December 31,
% Change
(in U.S. dollars in millions, except percentages)2023202220212023 over 20222022 over
2021
Total GTV by Geography
United States$10,266.1 $3,432.4 $3,230.7 199 %%
Canada2,460.8 1,707.1 1,441.9 44 %18 %
International1,203.7 886.4 861.3 36 %%
Total GTV$13,930.6 $6,025.9 $5,533.9 131 %%
Service GTV by Geography
United States$9,795.2 $3,081.0 $3,029.6 218 %%
Canada2,341.3 1,636.7 1,410.3 43 %16 %
International847.0 625.0 594.8 36 %%
Total Service GTV1
$12,983.5 $5,342.7 $5,034.7 143 %%
1Service GTV is calculated as total GTV less inventory sales revenue

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Revenue by Geography
Year ended December 31,
% Change
(in U.S. dollars in millions, except percentages)2023202220212023 over 20222022 over 2021
United States
Service revenue$2,122.3 $619.5 $547.8 243 %13 %
Inventory sales revenue469.3 351.4 201.0 34 %75 %
Total revenue - United States2,591.6 970.9 748.8 167 %30 %
Canada
Service revenue432.3 305.2 249.4 42 %22 %
Inventory sales revenue119.2 70.4 31.7 69 %122 %
Total revenue - Canada551.5 375.6 281.1 47 %34 %
International
Service revenue177.9 125.9 120.6 41 %%
Inventory sales revenue358.6 261.4 266.5 37 %(2)%
Total revenue - International536.5 387.3 387.1 39 %— %
Total
Service revenue2,732.5 1,050.6 917.8 160 %14 %
Inventory sales revenue947.1 683.2 499.2 39 %37 %
Total revenue$3,679.6 $1,733.8 $1,417.0 112 %22 %

United States
Service revenue increased 243% primarily due to a 218% increase in Service GTV, driven mainly from the inclusion of IAA, which contributed 91% of the increase, as well as higher volumes from strong execution by our strategic accounts, particularly in rental and transportation sectors, as well as from increased volumes sourced by our regional sales teams. The majority of the contribution from IAA was primarily driven by higher buyer fees, as well as fixed fee commissions earned from the sale of vehicles. Excluding IAA, we saw an increase in marketplace service revenue, buyer fees and commissions. Marketplace service revenue increased mainly from higher activity in our ancillary services, specifically for refurbishment and repairs, in line with higher GTV volume. We also saw higher document fees from rate increases and online document fee harmonization, higher transportation service revenue from the inclusion of VeriTread from its acquisition in the beginning of 2023, and higher online listing fees. Buyer fees also increased driven by higher minimum buyer fee rates implemented in early 2023 and a higher proportion of low value lots. These increases were partially offset by softer straight commission and guarantee rate performances, partly due to a higher proportion of GTV sourced from our strategic accounts team.

Inventory sales revenue increased 34% mainly due to the inclusion of IAA, which contributed 76% of the increase. Excluding IAA, we saw a higher volume of inventory contracts, partly sourced from our strategic accounts team, and from the addition of several new auction events. Despite volume growth, we also saw softer rate performances on various inventory contracts and the non-repeat of a large inventory package dispersal of construction equipment.

Canada
Service revenue increased 42%, in line with the 43% increase in Service GTV, mainly from the inclusion of IAA of 85%, as well as from a strong execution at our auction events in Western Canada. Excluding IAA, we saw higher buyer fees driven by an increase in our minimum buyer fee rates, offset by softer guarantee and straight commission rate performances due to higher GTV sourced from our strategic contracts, as well as due to softer performances on several large packages sourced strategically for competitive purposes.

Inventory sales revenue increased 69% primarily due to the inclusion of IAA, partially offset by softer year-over-year performances on several large inventory packages.

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International
Service revenue increased 41%, primarily due to a 36% increase in Service GTV. This increase was partly driven by the inclusion of IAA, which contributed 59% of the increase. Excluding IAA, we also saw higher marketplace service revenue driven by higher ancillary service revenue, in line with higher GTV volume and higher buyer fees from minimum fee rates increases.

Inventory sales revenue increased 37% primarily driven by the inclusion of IAA, which contributed 120% of the increase. Excluding IAA, we saw softer year-over-year performances in Australia driven by lower activity and a shift in revenue mix, as well as due to the non-repeat of an auction event. These decreases were partially offset by positive year-over-year performances in Europe, mainly driven by an increased volume of locally sourced inventory contracts.
GTV by Sector
The following table illustrates the breakdown of total GTV by sector for the year ended December 31, 2023, December 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021.
The automotive sector includes all consumer automotive vehicles. The commercial construction and transportation sector includes heavy equipment such as excavators, dozers, lift and material handling, vocational and commercial trucks and trailers. The other sector primarily includes assets and equipment sold in the agricultural, forestry and energy industries, and government surplus assets, as well as smaller consumer recreational transportation items. All sectors include salvage and non-salvage transactions.
Year ended December 31,
% Change
(in U.S. dollars in millions, except percentages)2023202220212023 over 20222022 over 2021
Automotive$6,551.2 $186.0 $158.8 3,422 %17 %
Commercial construction and transportation5,449.8 4,252.9 3,941.3 28 %%
Other1,929.6 1,587.0 1,433.8 22 %11 %
$13,930.6 $6,025.9 $5,533.9 131 %%
In 2023, total GTV compared to 2022 increased by 3,422% in the automotive sector, due to the inclusion of IAA. GTV increased by 28% in the commercial construction and transportation sector mainly in the United States, primarily driven by volumes sourced from our strategic accounts and regional sales teams, partially offset by lower selling prices and an unfavorable asset mix. GTV increased 22% in the other sector mainly driven by an increase in volume of assets in consumer products and in the agricultural sector.

Total Lots Sold by Sector

The following table illustrates the breakdown of total lots sold by sector for the year ended December 31, 2023, December 31, 2022, and December 31, 2021.
Year ended December 31,
% Change
(in '000's of lots sold, except percentages)2023202220212023 over 20222022 over 2021
Automotive1,790.1 21.0 19.4 8,424 %%
Commercial construction and transportation314.5 181.5 180.9 73 %— %
Other500.2 415.3 395.7 20 %%
2,604.8 617.8 596.0 322 %%

In 2023, the total lots sold compared to 2022 increased by 8,424% in the automotive sector due to the inclusion of lots sold from IAA. Total lots sold increased by 73% in the commercial construction and transportation sector due to a higher proportion of low value lots sold primarily in the United States and from the inclusion of IAA. Total lots sold increased 20% in other sector mainly from the inclusion of IAA driven by an increase in volume of assets in consumer products.
Debt
Credit Facilities
We have a credit agreement (the "Credit Agreement"), which is comprised of multicurrency revolving facilities (the “Revolving
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Facilities”) and a delayed-draw term loan facility (the “DDTL Facility”), and the Term Loan A facility (the “TLA Facility” and together with the Revolving Facilities and DDTL Facility, the “Facilities”).

In connection with the IAA acquisition, the Company entered into a debt commitment letter with certain financial institutions that committed to provide, subject to its terms and conditions, a bridge loan facility in an aggregate principal amount of up to $2.8 billion and a backstop revolving facility in an aggregate principal amount of up to $750.0 million. The Company subsequently amended the terms of its Credit Agreement, which, among other things, permitted the acquisition of IAA and served to terminate the backstop commitments (including the revolving backstop facility and $88.9 million of bridge commitments that served as a backstop for its existing term loans under the credit agreement) and replaced an additional $1.8 billion of bridge commitments with the TLA Facility.

The Credit Agreement was amended in December 2022, which, among other things, (i) permitted the acquisition of IAA, (ii) provided commitments for the TLA Facility in an aggregate principal amount of up to $1.8 billion to be used to finance, in part, the IAA acquisition, and (iii) provided the Company the ability to borrow up to $200.0 million of the Revolving Facilities under the Credit Agreement on a limited conditionality basis to finance, in part, the IAA acquisition.

On March 20, 2023, the TLA Facility of $1.8 billion was funded with the acquisition of IAA. The TLA Facility is comprised of a facility denominated in US dollars (“USD TLA Facility”) and a facility denominated in Canadian dollars (“CAD TLA Facility”). The Company’s existing DDTL Facility of CAD $115.9 million was refinanced and converted to the CAD TLA Facility, an alternative currency term rate loan. During 2023, we made CAD $5.9 million of principal repayments on the CAD TLA Facility, all of which was mandatory, and $150.0 million of principal repayments on the USD TLA Facility, $68.4 million of which was mandatory and $81.6 million of which was voluntary, as permitted by the Credit Agreement.
Credit facilities at December 31, 2023 and 2022 were as follows:
(in U.S. dollars in millions, except percentages)December 31, 2023December 31, 2022% Change
Committed
DDTL Facility$— $85.5 (100)%
Term Loan A Facility (denominated in Canadian dollars)83.1 — 100 %
Term Loan A Facility (denominated in US dollars)1,675.0 — 100 %
Revolving credit facilities750.0 750.0 — %
Uncommitted
Revolving credit facilities5.0 10.0 (50)%
Total credit facilities$2,513.1 $845.5 197 %
Unused
Revolving credit facilities729.7 709.8 %
Total credit facilities unused$729.7 $709.8 %

Revolving Credit Facilities
At December 31, 2023, of the $755.0 million in revolving credit facilities, $750.0 million relates to our syndicated credit facility and $5.0 million relates to a foreign demand credit facility.
On December 31, 2023, we had $729.7 million of unused revolving credit facilities, which consisted of:
$724.7 million under our Credit Agreement that expires on September 21, 2026; and
$5.0 million under a foreign demand credit facility that has no maturity date.
Term Loan Facility
The amendment to the Credit Agreement made in September 2021 (i) extended the maturity date of the Facilities from October 27, 2023 to September 21, 2026, (ii) increased the total size of the Facilities provided under the Credit Agreement to up to $1.045 billion, including $295.0 million of commitments under the DDTL Facility, (iii) reduced the applicable margin for base rate loans and LIBOR loans at each pricing tier level, (iv) reduced the applicable percentage per annum used to calculate the commitment fee in respect of the unused commitments under the Facilities at each pricing tier level, and (v) included customary provisions to provide for the eventual replacement of LIBOR as a benchmark interest rate. Under the terms of the September 2021 amendment, mandatory principal repayments began in the third quarter of 2022 and were subject to an annual amortization rate of 5%, payable in quarterly installments, with the balance payable at maturity. The remaining $205.0 million commitment under the DDTL Facility was not drawn and accordingly expired on June 28, 2022.

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On March 20, 2023, under the terms of the December 2022 amendment to the Credit Agreement, with the close of the acquisition of IAA, certain amended terms became effective. Specifically, the Credit Agreement amendment (i) increased the total size of the Facilities provided under the Credit Agreement to up to $2.7 billion, including $1.9 billion of commitments under the TLA Facility, (ii) increased the appropriate margin for base rate loans, and SOFR loans at each pricing tier level, and (iii) increased the applicable percentage per annum used to calculate the various fees such as the commitment fees and letter of credit fees under the Facilities at each pricing tier level. In addition, on March 20, 2023, the Company converted its existing CAD DDTL Facility into the CAD TLA Facility, which continues to be subject to an annual amortization rate of 5% payable in quarterly installments, with the balance also payable at maturity. Under the amended terms, mandatory principal repayments on the USD TLA Facility began in the second quarter of 2023 and are subject to quarterly installments of 1.25% of the initial $1.8 billion principal amount, with the balance payable at maturity. In 2023 we repaid $150.0 million of principal on the USD TLA Facility, and as such, the next mandatory principal repayment amount is due on December 31, 2024.

Senior Secured and Unsecured Notes
At December 31, 2022, we had senior unsecured notes (the “2016 Notes”) outstanding that were to expire on January 15, 2025 for an aggregate principal amount of $500.0 million, bearing an interest rate of 5.375% per annum. The proceeds of the offering of the 2016 Notes were used to finance the IronPlanet acquisition. The 2016 Notes were redeemed on March 20, 2023 at 100.0% of the original offering price of the notes, plus accrued and unpaid interest. The Company fully expensed the associated remaining unamortized debt issue costs of $3.3 million in interest expense in the consolidated income statement during the first quarter of 2023.

On March 15, 2023, to finance the acquisition of IAA, we completed the offering of two series of senior notes: (i) $550.0 million aggregate principal amount of 6.750% senior secured notes due March 15, 2028 and (ii) $800.0 million aggregate principal amount of 7.750% senior unsecured notes due March 15, 2031 (together the “2023 Notes”).
Debt Covenants
We were in compliance with all financial and other covenants applicable to our credit facilities at December 31, 2023.

Our ability to borrow under our syndicated revolving credit facility is subject to compliance with financial covenants of a consolidated leverage ratio and a consolidated interest coverage ratio. In the event of sustained deterioration of global markets and economies, we expect the covenants pertaining to our leverage ratio would be the most restrictive to our ability to access funding under our Credit Agreement. We continue to evaluate courses of action to maintain current levels of liquidity and compliance with our debt covenants.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
On March 20, 2023, the Company closed the acquisition of IAA for total fair value consideration of $6.6 billion. This included cash consideration of $1.7 billion and repayment of approximately $1.2 billion of IAA’s debt, which was not legally assumed as part of the transaction. The acquisition was funded through a combination of cash from our balance sheet, proceeds of $1.8 billion from the TLA Facility and $1.4 billion proceeds from the completed offering of the 2023 Notes. As we repaid IAA’s net debt at acquisition, which included all borrowings under its existing credit agreement and senior notes, IAA was acquired debt-free. During the first quarter of 2023, we also completed the acquisition of VeriTread and paid $28.2 million cash consideration.

On February 1, 2023, we issued $485.0 million Series A Senior Preferred Shares, a participating security, convertible into common shares at a price of $73.00 per share and $15.0 million of common shares to Starboard.

In addition, we redeemed our 2016 Notes of $500.0 million principal at 100.0% of its original offering price, plus accrued and unpaid interest at the closing of the IAA acquisition.

Our short-term cash requirements include (i) payment of quarterly dividends to common shareholders on an as-declared basis, and payment of participating dividends and preferential dividends to holders of Series A Senior Preferred Shares, (ii) settlement of contracts with consignors and other suppliers, (iii) personnel expenditures, with a majority of bonuses paid annually in the first quarter following each fiscal year, (iv) income tax payments, primarily paid in quarterly installments, (v) payments on short-term debt and long-term debt, (vi) payment of amounts committed under certain service agreements to build our modern IT architecture, (vii) payments on our operating and finance lease obligations, (viii) other capital expenditures and working capital needs, and (ix) advances against our auction contracts, as well as advance charges paid on a seller's behalf. In the current high interest rate environment, the Company intends to continue to evaluate and pursue the most financially beneficial arrangements to fund future capital expenditures, which may include lease agreements or cash purchases.

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We believe that our existing working capital and availability under our credit facilities are sufficient to satisfy our present operating requirements and contractual obligations.

Our long-term cash requirements include scheduled principal repayments of long-term debt relating to the TLA Facility of $1.8 billion and the 2023 Notes of $1.4 billion, repayment of any drawn funds under our revolving credit facilities, as well as scheduled repayments of operating and finance lease obligations relating to the Company’s commercial leases for various auctions sites, branches and offices, operating leases for computer equipment, software, motor vehicles and small office equipment, and finance lease arrangements for certain vehicles, computers, yard equipment, fixtures, and office furniture. In addition, we also have scheduled repayments due on our equipment financing obligations. For more information on our debt and leases, see "Part II, Item 8: Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 15 Other Current Assets" and "Item 8: Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 18 Intangible Assets" respectively, in our consolidated financial statements.

Cash provided by operating activities can fluctuate significantly from period to period. We assess our liquidity based on our ability to generate cash and secure credit to fund operating, investing, and financing activities. Our liquidity is primarily affected by fluctuations in cash provided by operating activities, significant acquisitions of businesses, payment of dividends, our net capital spending1, and repayments of debt. We are also committed under various letters of credit and provide certain guarantees in the normal course of business. We believe our principal sources of liquidity, which include cash flow from operations and our unused capacity under our revolving credit facilities of $729.7 million, is sufficient to fund our current and planned operating activities.

In our automotive sector, we use separate bank accounts to record vehicle loan payoff receipts and disbursements and these bank accounts do not have the right of offset. As a result, outstanding payments for vehicle loan payoffs to sellers are classified as book overdrafts. Additionally, we typically transfer most of our available cash from operating bank accounts to interest-bearing deposit accounts at other banks. The operating banks do not have the right of offset against the deposit accounts held at other banks, and accordingly, outstanding payments that exceed the operating bank account balances are considered book overdrafts as well. Book overdrafts are recognized on our consolidated balance sheet within trade and other liabilities.

If we were to consider further acquisitions to deliver on our strategic growth drivers, we may seek financing through equity markets or additional debt markets. The issuance of additional equity securities may result in dilution to our shareholders. Issuance of preferred equity securities could provide for rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of our common stock. Further, this additional capital may not be available on reasonable terms, or at all.
Cash Flows
Year ended December 31,
% Change
(in U.S. dollars in millions, except percentages)2023202220212023 over 20222022 over 2021
Cash provided by (used in):
Operating activities$544.0 $463.1 $317.6 17 %46 %
Investing activities(3,108.3)77.2 (214.1)(4,126)%(136)%
Financing activities2,676.2 (1,258.1)960.9 (313)%(231)%
Effect of changes in foreign currency rates10.1 (18.8)(8.8)(154)%114 %
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$122.0 $(736.6)$1,055.6 (117)%(170)%
Net cash provided by operating activities was $544.0 million in 2023, as compared to net cash provided by operating activities of $463.1 million in 2022. Net cash provided by operating activities increased $80.9 million mainly due to net cash generated by the inclusion of IAA income from operations, partially offset by a net cash outflow from the change in operating assets and liabilities of $294.9 million. The net cash outflow from the change in operating assets and liabilities was primarily driven by the timing, size, and number of auctions, as well as higher outflows for operating lease payments from the inclusion of IAA since its acquisition. We also saw higher tax payments relating to the timing of installments paid, as well as higher taxable income, and taxes paid in 2023 for the gain on the sale of the Bolton property. As a result of the inclusion of IAA, we also saw higher outflows relating to prepaid consigned vehicle charges. These outflows were partially offset by the change in book overdrafts, higher accrued interest on higher debt levels, timing of incentive-based employee compensation, higher accruals for severance, and the receipt of certain leasehold improvement reimbursements.
_____________________________________
1 We calculate net capital spending as property, plant and equipment additions plus intangible asset additions less proceeds on disposition of property, plant and equipment.
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Net cash used in investing activities was $3.1 billion in 2023, as compared to net cash provided by investing activities of $77.2 million in 2022. Net cash used in investing activities increased $3.2 billion primarily due to approximately $2.8 billion of cash outflow for the acquisitions of IAA and VeriTread. We also saw higher cash outflows from property, plant and equipment additions of $195.9 million, primarily for the purchase of various parcels of land for our vehicle auction sites and operations in the United States, the purchase of a property under development in Canada, as well investments made in machinery, equipment, building and land improvements. In addition, we saw lower cash inflows in 2023 of $165.1 million due to the non-repeat of proceeds received for the sale of the Bolton property in 2022. We also continued to invest in software development to support our existing auction platforms and the development of a modern infrastructure, and therefore saw an increase in intangible asset additions of $78.3 million.

Net cash provided by financing activities was $2.7 billion in 2023, as compared to net cash used in financing activities of $1.3 billion in 2022. Net cash provided by financing activities increased $3.9 billion, mainly driven by financing raised through the TLA Facility for $1.8 billion and issuances of the 2023 Notes for $1.4 billion to fund the IAA acquisition in the first quarter of 2023. Further, we received $496.9 million of net proceeds from the issuance of $485.0 million of participating Series A Senior Preferred Shares and $15.0 million of common stock in the first quarter of 2023, net of issuance costs. We also repaid $654.4 million of long-term debt relating to the redemption of our 2016 Notes and repayment of $150.0 million on our USD TLA Facility, as compared to $1.1 billion of debt repaid in 2022. In addition, we received cash inflows from higher proceeds from the exercise of employee stock options, and from financing certain equipment purchases. These increases were partially offset by $213.2 million higher dividends paid during the year, primarily due to the payment of a special dividend, as well as due to a higher number of shares outstanding from the acquisition of IAA, and payment of quarterly dividends to holders of the Series A Senior Preferred Shares. We also incurred higher debt issuance costs in connection with the financing of the TLA Facility and the 2023 Notes compared to prior year.
Dividend Information
We declared and paid a regular cash dividend of $0.27 per common share for the quarters ended September 30, 2023, June 30, 2023, March 31, 2023, December 31, 2022 and September 30, 2022. On March 7, 2023, we declared a special cash dividend of $1.08 per share, contingent on the closing of the acquisition of IAA, payable to stockholders of record at the close of business on March 17, 2023, excluding holders of Series A Senior Preferred Shares (the “Special Dividend”). The Special Dividend was paid in cash on March 28, 2023 following the acquisition of IAA. We also recorded Preferential Dividends of $24.3 million, of which $1.1 million was accrued and unpaid at December 31, 2023, and Participating Dividends of $7.3 million to the holders of the Series A Senior Preferred Shares. We have declared, but not yet paid, a dividend of $0.27 per common share for the quarter ended December 31, 2023. All dividends that we pay are “eligible dividends” for Canadian income tax purposes unless indicated otherwise.
Critical Accounting Policies, Judgments, Estimates and Assumptions
In preparing our consolidated financial statements in conformity with US GAAP, we must make decisions that impact the reported amounts and related disclosures. Such decisions include the selection of the appropriate accounting principles to be applied and the assumptions on which to base accounting estimates. In reaching such decisions, we apply judgments based on our understanding and analysis of the relevant circumstances and historical experience.
The following discussion of critical accounting policies and estimates is intended to supplement the significant accounting policies presented in the notes to our consolidated financial statements included in “Part II, Item 8: Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” presented in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which summarize the accounting policies and methods used in the preparation of those consolidated financial statements. The policies and the estimates discussed below are included here because they require more significant judgments and estimates in the preparation and presentation of our consolidated financial statements than other policies and estimates. Actual amounts could differ materially from those estimated by us at the time our consolidated financial statements are prepared.
Business Combinations
Accounting for business combinations requires estimates with respect to the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Such estimates of fair value require valuation methods, which rely on significant estimates and assumptions, especially for intangible assets. In connection with the IAA purchase price allocation, the valuation of intangible assets required significant estimates and assumptions, and the valuations of property, plant, and equipment, and operating lease right-of-use assets also required estimates and assumptions.
The valuation of customer relationship intangible assets was performed using the multi-period excess earnings method of the income approach and required significant estimates and assumptions regarding revenue growth rates and discount rates, and the valuation of other acquired intangible assets was performed using the relief from royalty method of the income approach and required estimates and assumptions regarding revenue growth rates, royalty rates, customer attrition rates, and discount rates, as applicable. The Company based these estimates on historical and anticipated results, industry trends, economic analysis, and various other assumptions, including assumptions as to the occurrence of future events. The discount rates used to discount expected cash flows to
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present values were derived from a weighted average cost of capital analysis and adjusted to reflect inherent risks. The valuation of most acquired property, plant, and equipment, other than land, was performed using the replacement cost method of the cost approach and required certain estimates and assumptions regarding estimates of replacement cost and adjustments to account for physical deterioration and obsolescence. The fair value of most acquired land and the off-market component of right-of-use assets were estimated using sales comparison method of the market approach and included certain estimates and assumptions with respect to market value or market rents, growth rates, and discount rates, as applicable.

The IAA purchase price allocation is preliminary at December 31, 2023 and will be finalized in the first quarter of 2024. While we use our best estimates and assumptions to accurately value assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date, estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, we may record adjustments to the purchase price allocation. In addition, unanticipated market or macroeconomic events and circumstances may occur that could affect the accuracy or validity of the estimates and assumptions. If the estimates do not reflect future results or assumptions utilized in the valuation are inaccurate, then the estimated fair value of property, plant, and equipment, intangible assets, operating lease right-of-use assets, and goodwill could be misstated, or could result in future impairment.
Goodwill
Goodwill is not amortized, but it is tested annually for impairment at the reporting unit level as of December 31, and between annual tests if indicators of potential impairment exist. We determined our reporting units to be Ritchie Bros, IAA, Listings Services (includes Mascus and RitchieList brands), Rouse, SmartEquip and VeriTread.
We have the option of performing a qualitative assessment of a reporting unit to determine whether a quantitative impairment test is necessary. This involves an assessment of qualitative factors to determine the existence of events or circumstances that would indicate whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit to which goodwill belongs is less than its carrying value. If the qualitative assessment indicates it is not more likely than not that the reporting unit’s fair value is less than its carrying value, a quantitative impairment test is not required.
In the quantitative assessments performed, if estimates for future cash flows, which are driven by reporting units’ ability to generate revenue growth were to decline, the overall reporting units’ fair value would decrease, resulting in potential goodwill impairment charges. Fair value determinations require considerable judgment and are sensitive to changes in underlying assumptions. As a result, there can be no assurance that the estimates and assumptions made for purposes of impairment tests will prove to be an accurate prediction of the future.
If a quantitative impairment test is required, the procedure is to identify potential impairment by comparing the reporting unit’s fair value with its carrying amount, including goodwill. The reporting unit’s fair value is determined using various valuation approaches and techniques that involve assumptions based on what management believes a hypothetical marketplace participant would use in estimating fair value on the measurement date. An impairment loss is recognized as the difference between the reporting unit’s carrying amount and its fair value. If the difference between the reporting unit’s carrying amount and fair value is greater than the amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit, the impairment loss is restricted by the amount of the goodwill allocated to the reporting unit.
Ritchie Bros. reporting unit goodwill
For the year ended December 31, 2023, we performed a qualitative assessment of the Ritchie Bros. reporting unit and we concluded there were no indicators of impairment.
IAA reporting unit goodwill
For the year ended December 31, 2023, we performed a quantitative assessment of the IAA reporting unit using an income approach based on future estimated discounted cash flows. The fair value of the IAA reporting unit was measured based on the present value of the cash flows that we expect the reporting unit to generate. In estimating the IAA reporting unit's future cash flows, we estimated annual revenue growth rates of 4% to 8% and operating margins of 29% to 31% during 2024 to 2033, based on our best estimate of the reporting unit’s growth trajectory. Based on a weighted average cost of capital analysis we estimated a discount rate of 10.25% reflecting the risk premium, including company specific risk, on this reporting unit, and a terminal growth rate of 3% for the period beyond ten years, based on our best estimate of the cash flows and using market comparatives. As the estimated fair value of the IAA reporting unit was greater than its carrying amount, we concluded that IAA goodwill was not impaired at December 31, 2023. An increase of 0.25% to the discount rate used would not have resulted in a goodwill impairment.
Listings Services reporting unit goodwill
For the year ended December 31, 2023 we performed a qualitative assessment of the Listings Services reporting unit and we concluded there were no indicators of impairment.
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Rouse reporting unit goodwill
For the year ended December 31, 2023, we performed a quantitative assessment of the Rouse reporting unit using an income approach based on future estimated discounted cash flows. The fair value of the Rouse reporting unit was measured based on the present value of the cash flows that we expect the reporting unit to generate. In estimating the Rouse reporting unit's future cash flows, we estimated annual revenue growth rates of 3% to 20% and operating margins of 40% to 49% from 2024 to 2033, based on our best estimate of the reporting units’ growth trajectory. Based on a weighted average cost of capital analysis, we estimated a discount rate of