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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the transition period from to
Commission File Number 001-38267
RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware82-1669692
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

6500 Chase Oaks Boulevard, Suite 100, Plano, Texas 75023
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip code)
(978614-8100
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
N/A
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001RBBNThe Nasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x    No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filerNon-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act) o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐    No x
As of May 10, 2024, there were 173,909,887 shares of the registrant's common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, outstanding.






RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
FORM 10-Q
QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED MARCH 31, 2024
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ItemPage
PART I FINANCIAL INFORMATION
1.
PART II OTHER INFORMATION






Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This report contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, which are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this report, including statements regarding impacts from the war in Israel, our future expenses and restructuring activities, results of operations and financial position, capital structure and the anticipated refinancing of our credit facility, expected impacts from the war in Ukraine and the financial sanctions and trade restrictions imposed in connection therewith, beliefs about our business strategy, availability of components for the manufacturing of our products, ongoing litigation, plans and objectives of management for future operations and manufacturing are forward-looking statements. Without limiting the foregoing, the words "anticipates", "believes", "could", "estimates", "expects", "intends", "may", "plans", "seeks" and other similar language, whether in the negative or affirmative, are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations and assumptions regarding our business, the economy and other future conditions. Because forward-looking statements relate to the future, they are subject to inherent uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are unknown and/or difficult to predict and that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, supply chain disruptions resulting from component availability and/or geopolitical instabilities and disputes (including those related to the wars in Israel and Ukraine); the closure, on a temporary basis, of our offices or those of our contract manufacturer in Israel as a result of the war and the impact of military call-ups of our employees in Israel; material litigation; unpredictable fluctuations in quarterly revenue and operating results; the impact of fluctuations in interest rates; our ability to refinance our credit facility; our ability to operate as a going concern; material cybersecurity and data intrusion incidents, including any security breaches resulting in the theft, transfer, or unauthorized disclosure of customer, employee, or company information; our ability to comply with applicable domestic and foreign information security and privacy laws, regulations and technology platform rules or other obligations related to data privacy and security; failure to compete successfully against telecommunications equipment and networking companies; failure to grow our customer base or generate recurring business from our existing customers; credit risks; the timing of customer purchasing decisions and our recognition of revenues; macroeconomic conditions, including inflation; the impact of restructuring and cost-containment activities; our ability to adapt to rapid technological and market changes; our ability to generate positive returns on our research and development; our ability to protect our intellectual property rights and obtain necessary licenses; our ability to maintain partner, reseller, distribution and vendor support and supply relationships; the potential for defects in our products; risks related to the terms of our credit agreement; higher risks in international operations and markets; increases in tariffs, trade restrictions or taxes on our products; currency fluctuations; unanticipated adverse changes in legal, regulatory or tax laws; future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies; and/or failure or circumvention of our controls and procedures. We therefore caution you against relying on any of these forward-looking statements.

Additional important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in these forward-looking statements are also discussed in Part I, Item 2, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and Part I, Item 1A and Part II, Item 7A, "Risk Factors" and "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk," respectively, of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. Any forward-looking statement made by us in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q speaks only as of the date on which this report was first filed. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.


3





PART I FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements
RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
(unaudited)
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$30,931 $26,630 
Accounts receivable, net212,498 268,421 
Inventory80,758 77,521 
Other current assets44,943 46,146 
Total current assets369,130 418,718 
Property and equipment, net40,758 41,820 
Intangible assets, net224,880 238,087 
Goodwill300,892 300,892 
Deferred income taxes72,438 69,761 
Operating lease right-of-use assets37,110 39,783 
Other assets33,252 35,092 
$1,078,460 $1,144,153 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
Current liabilities:
Current portion of term debt$228,168 $35,102 
Accounts payable66,847 85,164 
Accrued expenses and other84,491 91,687 
Operating lease liabilities14,213 15,739 
Deferred revenue110,596 113,381 
Total current liabilities504,315 341,073 
Long-term debt, net of current 197,482 
Warrant liability5,927 5,295 
Preferred stock liability, $0.01 par value per share; 10,000,000 shares authorized, 55,000 shares issued and outstanding ($56,650 liquidation preference)
56,204 53,337 
Operating lease liabilities, net of current36,768 38,711 
Deferred revenue, net of current14,019 19,218 
Deferred income taxes5,616 5,616 
Other long-term liabilities30,953 30,658 
Total liabilities653,802 691,390 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 19)
Stockholders' equity:
Common stock, $0.0001 par value per share; 240,000,000 shares authorized; 172,714,429 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2024; 172,083,667 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2023
17 17 
Additional paid-in capital1,962,602 1,958,909 
Accumulated deficit(1,550,311)(1,519,950)
Accumulated other comprehensive income12,350 13,787 
Total stockholders' equity424,658 452,763 
$1,078,460 $1,144,153 

See notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
4





RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(in thousands, except per share data)
(unaudited)

 Three months ended
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Revenue:
Product$87,610 $93,318 
Service92,054 92,841 
Total revenue179,664 186,159 
Cost of revenue:
Product45,794 62,063 
Service35,364 35,305 
Amortization of acquired technology6,551 7,389 
Total cost of revenue87,709 104,757 
Gross profit91,955 81,402 
Operating expenses:
Research and development45,763 51,304 
Sales and marketing34,716 35,399 
General and administrative15,191 14,045 
Amortization of acquired intangible assets6,706 7,264 
Acquisition-, disposal- and integration-related 1,642 
Restructuring and related3,065 6,937 
Total operating expenses105,441 116,591 
Loss from operations(13,486)(35,189)
Interest expense, net(5,987)(6,422)
Other (expense) income, net(7,513)4,772 
Loss before income taxes(26,986)(36,839)
Income tax provision(3,375)(1,466)
Net loss$(30,361)$(38,305)
Loss per share:
Basic$(0.18)$(0.23)
Diluted$(0.18)$(0.23)
Weighted average shares used to compute loss per share:
Basic172,428 168,541 
Diluted172,428 168,541 

See notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

5





RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss
(in thousands)
(unaudited)


Three months ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Net loss$(30,361)$(38,305)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
Unrealized loss on interest rate swap, net of reclassifications and amortization into earnings(1,321)(5,900)
Reclassification of gain to other income (expense), net upon sale of interest rate swap (5,099)
Foreign currency translation adjustments(116)(151)
Other comprehensive loss, net of tax(1,437)(11,150)
Comprehensive loss, net of tax$(31,798)$(49,455)

See notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.


6





RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity
(in thousands, except shares)
(unaudited)

Three months ended March 31, 2024
Accumulated
AdditionalotherTotal
Common stockpaid-inAccumulatedcomprehensivestockholders'
SharesAmountcapitaldeficit(loss) incomeequity
Balances, January 1, 2024172,083,667 $17 $1,958,909 $(1,519,950)$13,787 $452,763 
Exercise of stock options8,624 17 17 
Vesting of restricted stock awards and units888,189 — 
Vesting of performance-based stock units31,282 — 
Shares of restricted stock returned to the Company under net share settlements to satisfy tax withholding obligations(297,333)(846)(846)
Stock-based compensation expense4,522 4,522 
Other comprehensive loss(1,437)(1,437)
Net loss(30,361)(30,361)
Balances, March 31, 2024172,714,429 $17 $1,962,602 $(1,550,311)$12,350 $424,658 


Three months ended March 31, 2023
Accumulated
AdditionalotherTotal
Common stockpaid-inAccumulatedcomprehensivestockholders'
SharesAmountcapitaldeficitincomeequity
Balances, January 1, 2023168,324,995 $17 $1,941,569 $(1,453,744)$30,585 $518,427 
Exercise of stock options573 1 1 
Vesting of restricted stock awards and units1,020,277 — 
Vesting of performance-based stock units381,071 — 
Shares of restricted stock returned to the Company under net share settlements to satisfy tax withholding obligations(496,937)(1,893)(1,893)
Stock-based compensation expense5,848 5,848 
Other comprehensive loss(11,150)(11,150)
Net loss(38,305)(38,305)
Balances, March 31, 2023169,229,979 $17 $1,945,525 $(1,492,049)$19,435 $472,928 





See notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.






7



RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(in thousands)
(unaudited)
Three months ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net loss$(30,361)$(38,305)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to cash flows provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization of property and equipment3,394 3,510 
Amortization of intangible assets13,257 14,653 
Amortization of debt issuance costs716 1,065 
Amortization of accumulated other comprehensive gain related to interest rate swap(1,756) 
Stock-based compensation4,522 5,848 
Deferred income taxes(2,620)(6,048)
Gain on sale of swap (7,301)
Change in fair value of warrant liability632  
Change in fair value of preferred stock liability1,512  
Dividends accrued on preferred stock liability1,355  
Foreign currency exchange (gains) losses1,144 (2,185)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable55,384 19,742 
Inventory(4,379)(2,917)
Other operating assets7,923 15,031 
Accounts payable(17,837)(10,405)
Accrued expenses and other long-term liabilities(11,800)11,521 
Deferred revenue(7,986)6,924 
Net cash provided by operating activities13,100 11,133 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchases of property and equipment(2,513)(2,413)
Purchases of software licenses(150) 
Net cash used in investing activities(2,663)(2,413)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Borrowings under revolving line of credit15,000  
Principal payments on revolving line of credit(15,000) 
Principal payments of term debt(5,014)(80,015)
Payment of debt issuance costs (1,562)
Proceeds from issuance of preferred stock and warrant liabilities 53,350 
Proceeds from the exercise of stock options17 1 
Payment of tax obligations related to vested stock awards and units(846)(1,893)
Net cash used in financing activities(5,843)(30,119)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents(293)171 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents4,301 (21,228)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year26,630 67,262 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period$30,931 $46,034 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:
Interest paid$6,322 $4,757 
Income taxes paid$3,138 $1,517 
Income tax refunds received$474 $289 
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing activities:
Capital expenditures incurred, but not yet paid$1,889 $1,579 
Inventory transfers to property and equipment$507 $656 
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash financing activities:
Fair value of vested restricted and performance-based stock grants$2,610 $5,332 

See notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
8


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(unaudited)

(1) BASIS OF PRESENTATION

Business

Ribbon Communications Inc. ("Ribbon" or the "Company") is a leading global provider of communications technology to service providers and enterprises. The Company provides a broad range of software and high-performance hardware products, network solutions, and services that enable the secure delivery of data and voice communications, and high-bandwidth networking and connectivity for residential consumers and for small, medium, and large enterprises and industry verticals such as finance, education, government, utilities, and transportation. Ribbon's mission is to create a recognized global technology leader providing cloud-centric solutions that enable the secure exchange of information, with unparalleled scale, performance, and elasticity. The Company is headquartered in Plano, Texas, and has a global presence with research and development, or sales and support locations in over thirty countries around the world.

Basis of Presentation

In the opinion of management, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring items, necessary for their fair presentation with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP") and with the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC").

Interim results are not necessarily indicative of results for a full year or any future interim period. The information included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q should be read in conjunction with the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, as amended (the "Annual Report"), which was filed with the SEC on February 28, 2024.

Operating Segments

The Company's chief operating decision maker (the "CODM") is its president and chief executive officer. The CODM assesses the Company's performance based on the performance of two separate organizations within Ribbon: the Cloud and Edge segment ("Cloud and Edge") and the IP Optical Networks segment ("IP Optical Networks").

Significant Accounting Policies

The Company's significant accounting policies are disclosed in Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in the Annual Report. There were no material changes to the significant accounting policies during the three months ended March 31, 2024.

Principles of Consolidation

The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Ribbon and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. Intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.

Use of Estimates and Judgments

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. Significant estimates and judgments relied upon in preparing these condensed consolidated financial statements include revenue recognition for multiple element arrangements, inventory valuations, assumptions used to determine the fair value of stock-based compensation and the Preferred Stock and Warrants, intangible asset and goodwill valuations, including impairments, warranty accruals, legal contingencies and recoverability of Ribbon's net deferred tax assets and the related valuation allowances. Ribbon regularly assesses these estimates and records changes in estimates in the period in which they become known. Ribbon bases its
9


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Transfers of Financial Assets

The Company's IP Optical Networks segment maintains customer receivables factoring agreements with a number of financial institutions. Under the terms of these agreements, the Company may transfer receivables to the financial institutions, on a non-recourse basis, provided that the financial institutions approve the receivables in advance. The Company maintains credit insurance policies from major insurance providers or obtains letters of credit from the customers for a majority of its factored trade receivables. The Company accounts for the factoring of its financial assets as a sale of the assets and records the factoring fees, when incurred, as a component of interest expense in the condensed consolidated statements of operations, and the proceeds from the sales of receivables are included in cash from operating activities in the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.

Factoring of accounts receivable and associated fees for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 were as follows (in thousands):

Three months ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Accounts receivable sold20,992 21,061 
Less factoring fees(391)(455)
Net cash proceeds20,601 20,606 

Going Concern Assessment and Management Plans

The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP applicable to a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business.

The Company's 2020 Credit Facility (as defined in Note 9) requires quarterly payments of $10.0 million each in the second, third and fourth quarters of 2024, with the remaining balance of $200.4 million due on March 3, 2025. The Company does not have sufficient cash on hand or available liquidity to repay the $200.4 million due on March 3, 2025. In response to these conditions, management's plans include refinancing the 2020 Credit Facility. The Company has entered into a binding commitment letter to refinance the 2020 Credit Facility. See Note 20 - Subsequent Event. The refinance contemplated by the binding commitment letter is expected to close no later than June 30, 2024. However, because the credit facility contemplated by the commitment letter has not yet been finalized, it cannot be deemed to be within the Company's control. As a result, such plans cannot be deemed probable and do not alleviate the substantial doubt raised about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern.

The condensed consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded asset amounts or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

In December 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the "FASB") issued ASU 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures (“ASU 2023-09”), which increases the disclosure requirements around rate reconciliation information and certain types of income taxes companies are required to pay. ASU 2023-09 will be effective for the Company beginning in 2025, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this accounting standard update on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures (“ASU 2023-07”), which improves reportable segment disclosure requirements, including enhancement of the
10


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
disclosures of significant segment expenses and interim disclosure requirements, to enable investors to better understand an entity's overall performance and assess potential future cash flows. ASU 2023-07 will be effective for the Company annually beginning in 2024 and on an interim basis beginning in 2025, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this accounting standard update on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

In October 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-06, Disclosure Improvements: Codification Amendments in Response to the SEC's disclosure Update and Simplification Initiative (“ASU 2023-06”), which amends the disclosure or presentation requirements related to various subtopics in the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. This ASU was issued in response to, and to align GAAP with, the SEC's August 2018 final rule that updates and simplifies disclosure requirements. The effective date for the Company for each amendment will be the date on which the SEC's removal of that related disclosure requirement becomes effective, with early adoption prohibited. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this accounting standard update on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

On February 1, 2023, the FASB staff noted that they believe that the Pillar 2 tax, established by the OECD and intended to apply for tax years beginning in 2024, would be an alternative minimum tax and therefore deferred tax assets would not need to be recognized related to this parallel taxing system. On February 2, 2023, the OECD issued administrative guidance providing transition and safe harbor rules around the implementation of the Pillar 2 global minimum tax. Under an additional transitional safe harbor released July 17, 2023, the undertaxed profits rule top-up tax will not be applied by any constituent entity's jurisdiction of residence with respect to income earned by a company's ultimate parent entity in its jurisdiction of residence, if the ultimate parent entity's jurisdiction has a corporate tax rate of at least 20%. This transition safe harbor will apply to fiscal years beginning on or before December 31, 2025 and ending before December 31, 2026. The Company is closely monitoring developments and evaluating the impacts these new rules will have on its tax rate, including eligibility to qualify for these safe harbor rules. Based upon preliminary calculations for calendar year 2024, the Company anticipates that it will meet the safe harbors in most jurisdictions, and any remaining top-up tax should be immaterial.


(2) EARNINGS (LOSS) PER SHARE

Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. For periods in which the Company reports net income, diluted net earnings per share is determined by using the weighted average number of common and dilutive common equivalent shares outstanding during the period, unless the effect is antidilutive.

The shares used to compute loss per share were as follows (in thousands):
 Three months ended
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Weighted average shares outstanding - basic172,428 168,541 
Potential dilutive common shares  
Weighted average shares outstanding - diluted172,428 168,541 


Options to purchase the Company's common stock and unvested restricted and performance-based stock units aggregating 12.1 million and 11.9 million shares were excluded from the computation of diluted loss per share for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, because their effect would have been antidilutive.

On March 28, 2023, the Company issued 55,000 shares of newly designated Series A Preferred Stock (the "Preferred Stock") to investors in a private placement offering at a price of $970 per share, along with 4.9 million warrants (the "Warrants") to purchase shares of the Company's common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the "Private Placement"), at the exercise price of $3.77 per share. The proceeds from the Private Placement were approximately $53.4 million, including approximately $10 million from existing related party stockholders (See Note 11).

As of March 31, 2024, the potential number of dilutive shares from the Warrants totaled 4.9 million shares. However, there
11


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
was no impact on weighted average shares outstanding from these Warrants for the three months ended March 31, 2024 as the average share price of the Company's common stock was below the exercise price of $3.77 per share and their effect would have been antidilutive. For the three months ended March 31, 2023, the potential effect from the Warrants on weighted average shares outstanding for the calculation of diluted earnings (loss) per share was de minimis.

Dividends payable on the Preferred Stock are not an adjustment to net income (loss) used for the calculation of diluted earnings (loss) per share as these dividends are included in the fair value adjustment of the Preferred Stock which is reflected in Other (expense) income, net.


(3) INVENTORY

Inventory at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 consisted of the following (in thousands):
 March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
On-hand final assemblies and finished goods inventories$98,290 $93,077 
Deferred cost of goods sold1,927 3,269 
100,217 96,346 
Less noncurrent portion (included in Other assets)(19,459)(18,825)
Current portion$80,758 $77,521 


(4) INTANGIBLE ASSETS AND GOODWILL

The Company's intangible assets at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2024Weighted average amortization period
(years)
CostAccumulated
amortization
Net
carrying value
Developed technology7.84$340,380 $245,163 $95,217 
Customer relationships11.86268,140 141,423 126,717 
Trade names3.885,000 4,927 73 
Software licenses3.005,486 2,613 2,873 
9.50$619,006 $394,126 $224,880 

December 31, 2023Weighted average amortization period
(years)
CostAccumulated
amortization
Net
carrying value
Developed technology7.84$340,380 $239,066 $101,314 
Customer relationships11.86268,140 134,743 133,397 
Trade names3.885,000 4,901 99 
Software licenses3.005,436 2,159 3,277 
9.51$618,956 $380,869 $238,087 


12


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
Estimated future amortization expense for the Company's intangible assets at March 31, 2024 was as follows (in thousands):
Years ending December 31,
Remainder of 2024$37,557 
202544,105 
202639,056 
202733,939 
202823,400 
202918,379 
Thereafter28,444 
$224,880 

There were no changes to the carrying value of the Company's goodwill in the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. The components of goodwill at both March 31, 2024 and 2023 were as follows (in thousands):
Cloud and EdgeIP Optical NetworksTotal
  Goodwill$392,302 $191,996 $584,298 
  Accumulated impairment losses(167,406)(116,000)(283,406)
$224,896 $75,996 $300,892 


(5) FAIR VALUE HIERARCHY

The carrying amounts of the Company's cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and borrowings under a revolving credit facility in the condensed consolidated balance sheets approximates fair value due to the immediate or short-term nature of these financial instruments. Ribbon's term debt balance as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 of $230.4 million and $235.4 million, respectively, had a fair value of approximately $231.5 million and $235.1 million, respectively. Our Preferred Stock and Warrants liabilities had a combined fair value of $62.1 million as of March 31, 2024, including cumulative dividends on the Preferred Stock of $5.3 million.

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or a liability. The three-tier fair value hierarchy is based on the level of independent, objective evidence surrounding the inputs used to measure fair value. A financial instrument's categorization within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The fair value hierarchy is as follows:

Level 1. Level 1 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. The Company had no assets or liabilities fair valued using Level 1 input at March 31, 2024 or December 31, 2023.

Level 2. Level 2 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are inputs that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets or quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets). At December 31, 2023, the Company determined the fair value of its defined benefit plans' assets using Level 2 input. There were no significant changes to the Company's defined benefit plans' assets during the three months ended March 31, 2024 that required the calculation of their fair value as of March 31, 2024.

Level 3. Level 3 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology that are significant to the measurement of the fair value of the assets or liabilities. At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the fair value of the Company's Preferred Stock and Warrants were determined using Level 3 input.

13


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)

(6) ACCRUED EXPENSES AND OTHER
Accrued expenses at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 consisted of the following (in thousands):
 March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Employee compensation and related costs$29,505 $33,682 
Professional fees19,148 19,702 
Taxes payable3,653 8,383 
Other32,185 29,920 
$84,491 $91,687 


(7) WARRANTY ACCRUALS

The changes in the Company's accrual balance in the three months ended March 31, 2024 were as follows (in thousands):
Balance at January 1, 2024$12,243 
Current period provisions1,347 
Settlements(1,334)
Balance at March 31, 2024$12,256 


(8) RESTRUCTURING AND FACILITIES CONSOLIDATION INITIATIVES

The Company recorded restructuring and related expense aggregating $3.1 million and $6.9 million in the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. Restructuring and related expense includes restructuring expense (primarily severance and related costs), estimated future variable lease costs for vacated properties with no intent or ability of sublease, and accelerated rent amortization expense.

For restructuring events that involve lease assets and liabilities, the Company applies lease reassessment and modification guidance and evaluates the right-of-use assets for potential impairment. If the Company plans to exit all or distinct portions of a facility and does not have the ability or intent to sublease, the Company will accelerate the amortization of each of those lease components through the vacate date. The accelerated amortization is recorded as a component of Restructuring and related expense in the Company's condensed consolidated statements of operations. Related variable lease expenses will continue to be expensed as incurred through the vacate date, at which time the Company will reassess the liability balance to ensure it appropriately reflects the remaining liability associated with the premises and record a liability for the estimated future variable lease costs.

Accelerated amortization of lease assets is recognized from the date that the Company commences the plan to fully or partially vacate a facility, for which there is no intent or ability to enter into a sublease, through the final vacate date. Accelerated amortization of lease assets that are included as a component of restructuring and related expense are excluded from the restructuring accrual activity tables below, as the liability for lease payments for these facilities is included as a component of current and noncurrent Operating lease liabilities in the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 (see Note 16). The Company may incur additional future expense if it is unable to sublease other locations included in the Company's facilities consolidation initiatives.

Restructuring and related expense for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was comprised of the following (in thousands):
14


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
Three months ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Severance and related costs$1,616 $5,708 
Variable and other facilities-related costs1,449 $1,006 
Accelerated amortization of lease assets due to cease-use $223 
$3,065 $6,937 
2023 Restructuring Plan

On February 22, 2023, the Company's Board of Directors approved a strategic restructuring program (the "2023 Restructuring Plan") to streamline the Company's operations in order to support the Company's investment in critical growth areas. The 2023 Restructuring Plan includes, among other things, charges related to a workforce reduction. Any potential positions eliminated in countries outside the United States are subject to local law and consultation requirements.

In connection with the 2023 Restructuring Plan, the Company recorded restructuring and related expense of $1.6 million and $5.7 million in the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, consisting entirely of severance related costs. A summary of the 2023 Restructuring Plan accrual activity for the three months ended March 31, 2024 is as follows (in thousands):

Balance at
January 1,
2024
Initiatives
charged to
expense
Cash
payments
Net transfer to operating lease accountsBalance at
March 31, 2024
Severance$671 $1,616 $(1,284)$ $1,003 

2022 Restructuring Plan

On February 14, 2022, the Company's Board of Directors approved a strategic restructuring program (the "2022 Restructuring Plan") to streamline the Company's operations in order to support the Company's investment in critical growth areas. The 2022 Restructuring Plan includes, among other things, charges related to a consolidation of facilities and a workforce reduction. Any positions eliminated in countries outside the United States are subject to local law and consultation requirements.

The Company recorded restructuring and related expense of $1.4 million and $1.2 million in the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, in connection with the 2022 Restructuring Plan. The amount for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was comprised of $1.4 million for facilities-related costs. The amount for the three months ended March 31, 2023 was comprised of $1.0 million for variable and other facilities-related costs and $0.2 million for accelerated amortization of lease assets no longer being used with no ability or intent to sublease. A summary of the 2022 Restructuring Plan accrual activity for the three months ended March 31, 2024 is as follows (in thousands):

Balance at
January 1,
2024
Initiatives
charged to
expense
Cash
payments
Balance at
March 31, 2024
Variable and other facilities-related costs$468 1,449 (1,495)$422 

Balance Sheet Classification

The current portions of accrued restructuring were $1.4 million and $1.1 million at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively, and are included as components of Accrued expenses in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. The long-term portions of accrued restructuring are included as components of Other long-term liabilities in the condensed consolidated balance sheets. The long-term portions of accrued restructuring were $1.0 million and $1.1 million at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.
15


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)


(9) DEBT

2020 Credit Facility

On March 3, 2020, the Company entered into a Senior Secured Credit Facilities Credit Agreement (as amended, the "2020 Credit Facility"), by and among the Company, as a guarantor, Ribbon Communications Operating Company, Inc., as the borrower ("Borrower"), Citizens Bank, N.A. ("Citizens"), Santander Bank, N.A., and others as lenders ("Lenders"). The proceeds from the Credit Agreement were used, in part, to pay off in full all obligations of the Company under the 2019 Credit Facility.

The 2020 Credit Facility originally provided for $500 million of commitments from the Lenders to the Borrower, comprised of $400 million in term loans (the "2020 Term Loan Facility") and a $100 million facility available for revolving loans (the "2020 Revolving Credit Facility"). Under the 2020 Revolving Credit Facility, a $30 million sublimit was originally available for letters of credit and a $20 million sublimit remains available for swingline loans.

The indebtedness and other obligations under the 2020 Credit Facility are unconditionally guaranteed on a senior secured basis by the Company, Edgewater Networks, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, and GENBAND Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company (together, the "Guarantors"). The 2020 Credit Facility is secured by first-priority liens on substantially all of the assets of the Borrower and the Guarantors, including substantially all of the assets of the Company.

The 2020 Credit Facility requires compliance with certain financial covenants, including a minimum Consolidated Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio and a maximum Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio (each as defined in the 2020 Credit Facility, and each tested on a quarterly basis).

On August 18, 2020, the Company entered into the First Amendment to the 2020 Credit Facility in which $75 million of the 2020 Term Loan Facility was assigned from Citizens to a new lender and designated as the Term B Loan. The remaining $325 million of the 2020 Term Loan Facility was deemed the Term A Loan.

The Term A Loan and the 2020 Revolving Credit Facility mature in March 2025 and originally bore interest at the Borrower's option at either the LIBOR rate plus a margin ranging from 1.50% to 3.50% per year, or the base rate plus 0.50%, or the prime rate plus a margin ranging from 0.50% to 2.50% per year (the "Applicable Margin"). The Applicable Margin varied depending on the Company's Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio (as defined in the 2020 Credit Facility).

The Term B Loan was scheduled to mature in March 2026 and bore interest, at the Borrower's option, at either the LIBOR rate plus a margin of 7.50% per year, or the base rate (the highest of the Federal Funds Effective Rate (as defined in the First Amendment) plus 0.50%, or the prime rate.

On December 1, 2020, the Company entered into the Second Amendment to the 2020 Credit Facility to obtain consent for an equity exchange with AVCT in connection with the sale of our Kandy Communications business, as well as to amend certain other provisions of the 2020 Credit Facility.

On March 3, 2021, the Company entered into the Third Amendment to the 2020 Credit Facility which provided for an incremental term loan facility in the principal amount of $74.6 million, the proceeds of which were used to consummate an open market purchase of all outstanding amounts under the Term B Loan, resulting in the assignment and immediate cancellation of the Term B Loan, such that the outstanding amount under the Term A Loan and incremental term loan facility were combined and held by the Lenders (the "2020 Term Loan") with the same terms as the Term A Loan. The Company wrote off $2.5 million of capitalized debt issuance costs in connection with the Third Amendment.

On March 10, 2022, the Company entered into the Fourth Amendment to the 2020 Credit Facility to increase the Maximum Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio (as defined in the 2020 Credit Facility) and in conjunction the Company made a $15.0 million prepayment that was applied to the final payment due on the maturity date.

16


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
On June 30, 2022, the Company entered into the Fifth Amendment to the 2020 Credit Facility (the "Fifth Amendment") to increase the Maximum Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio (as defined in the 2020 Credit Facility) for 2022, with the fourth quarter of 2022 increased to 4.75:1.00, the first and second quarters of 2023 declining to 3.25:1.00, and in all subsequent quarters the ratio was to be fixed at 3.00:1.00. Also, the Fifth Amendment reduced the minimum Consolidated Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio (as defined in the 2020 Credit Facility) in 2022, with the fourth quarter of 2022 reduced to 1.10:1.00 and in all subsequent quarters the ratio was to be fixed at 1.25:1.00. In addition, the Fifth Amendment increased the maximum rate at which loans were to bear interest if the Company's Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio for any quarter was greater than 4.50:1.00. Specifically, loans incurred would bear interest, at the Borrower’s option, at either LIBOR plus a margin ranging from 1.50% to 4.50% per year, or the base rate plus 0.50%, or the prime rate plus a margin ranging from 0.50% to 3.50% per year. The Fifth Amendment also allows the Company to incur junior secured or unsecured debt in an amount no less than $50 million, subject to certain conditions, including the requirement that 50% of the aggregate amount of such incurred debt (net of certain costs, fees and other amounts) must be applied to prepay the 2020 Credit Facility, and compliance with certain leverage ratio-based covenant exceptions. In connection with the Fifth Amendment, the Company made a $10.0 million voluntary prepayment that was applied to the final payment due on the maturity date. Subsequent to the Fifth Amendment, the Company is required to make quarterly principal payments on the 2020 Term Loan aggregating approximately $5.0 million per quarter through March 31, 2024 and $10.0 million in each of the three quarters thereafter, with the remaining and final payment due on the maturity date in March 2025.

On March 24, 2023, the Company entered into the Sixth Amendment to the 2020 Credit Facility (the “Sixth Amendment”) effective March 30, 2023. The Sixth Amendment, among other things, increased the Maximum Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio (as defined in the 2020 Credit Facility), with the first, second and third quarters of 2023 increasing to 4.50:1.00. In the fourth quarter of 2023 and the first quarter of 2024, the Maximum Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio declines to 4.25:1.00 and 4.00:1.00, respectively. In all subsequent quarters, the Maximum Consolidated Senior Net Leverage Ratio will be fixed at 3.00:1.00 and the Maximum Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio will be fixed at 4.00:1.00. Also, the Sixth Amendment reduced the minimum Consolidated Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio (as defined in the 2020 Credit Facility) to 1.10:1.00 through the first quarter of 2024 and in all subsequent quarters the ratio will be fixed at 1.25:1.00. The Sixth Amendment reduced the maximum borrowings allowed under the 2020 Revolving Credit Facility from $100 million to $75 million and the sublimit available for letters of credit was reduced from $30 million to $20 million. In addition, the Sixth Amendment replaced LIBOR with the Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") as the alternative rate that may be used by the Company for calculating interest owed under the 2020 Credit Facility with the margin now fixed at 4.5%. In conjunction with the Sixth Amendment, the Company made a $75 million prepayment that was applied to the final payment due upon maturity in March 2025 of approximately $200.4 million. The $75 million prepayment was almost entirely funded with the net proceeds from the Private Placement and the sales of our interest rate swap. Debt issuance costs associated with the Sixth Amendment totaled $1.7 million and are being amortized on a straight-line basis over the remaining life of the 2020 Credit Facility to Interest expense, net.

The Company's interest rates under the 2020 Term Loan for the three months ended March 31, 2023 benefited from a hedge instrument that was in place, specifically a fixed rate swap, which was sold in March 2023 (see Note 10). As a result of the fixed rate swap sold in March 2023, the ongoing interest rate is based upon U.S. dollar SOFR plus a fixed margin of 4.5%. The Company was in compliance with all covenants of the 2020 Credit Facility at both March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, including the current Consolidated Net Leverage Ratio calculation that considers the Company's debt to include Preferred Stock.

The Company had the following outstanding borrowings, unamortized debt issuance costs, letters of credit, interest rates, and remaining borrowing capacity under the 2020 Credit Facility as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023:

17


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
 March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Current portion of Term Debt$228,168$35,102
Long-term Debt, net of Current:
Long-term Debt, net of Current (Face Amount)$$200,293
Unamortized Debt Issuance Costs - Contra-Liability(2,811)
Long-term Debt, net of Current$$197,482
Total Face Amount of Borrowings$230,381$235,395
Unamortized Debt Issuance Costs:
Other Assets$439$557
Current Portion of Term Debt - Contra Liability2,213
Long-Term Debt - Contra Liability2,811
Total Unamortized Debt Issuance Costs$2,652$3,368
Letters of Credit Outstanding$2,711$2,711
Remaining Borrowing Capacity$72,289$72,289
Average Interest Rates:
Term Loan9.9 %10.0 %
Letters of Credit4.5 %4.5 %

The Company's debt maturities as of March 31, 2024 were as follows:

Years ending December 31,
Remainder of 2024$30,087 
2025200,294 
$230,381 

Letters of Credit and Other Guarantees

The Company uses letters of credit and performance and bid bonds in the course of its business. At March 31, 2024, the Company had $9.7 million of letters of credit, bank guarantees, and performance and bid bonds outstanding (collectively, "Guarantees"), comprised of the $2.7 million of letters of credit under the 2020 Credit Facility described above (the "Letters of Credit") and $7.0 million of bank guarantees and performance and bid bonds (collectively, the "Other Guarantees") under various uncommitted facilities. At December 31, 2023, the Company had Guarantees aggregating $7.9 million, comprised of the $2.7 million of Letters of Credit noted above and $5.2 million of Other Guarantees.


(10) DERIVATIVE INSTRUMENTS AND HEDGING ACTIVITIES

The Company is exposed to financial market risk related to foreign currency fluctuations and changes in interest rates. These exposures are actively monitored by management. To manage the volatility related to the exposure to changes in interest rates, the Company may enter into derivative financial instruments. Management's objective has been to reduce, where it is deemed appropriate to do so, fluctuations in earnings and cash flows associated with changes in interest rates. Ribbon's policies and practices are to use derivative financial instruments only to the extent necessary to manage exposures. Ribbon does not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes.

18


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
The Company records derivatives on the balance sheet at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of derivatives depends on the intended use of the derivative, whether the Company has elected to designate a derivative in a hedging relationship and apply hedge accounting and whether the hedging relationship has satisfied the criteria necessary to apply hedge accounting. Derivatives designated and qualifying as a hedge of the exposure to changes in the fair value of an asset, liability, or firm commitment attributable to a specific risk, such as interest rate risk, are considered fair value hedges. Derivatives designated and qualifying as a hedge of the exposure to variability in expected future cash flows, or other types of forecasted transactions, are considered cash flow hedges. Derivatives may also be designated as hedges of the foreign currency exposure of a net investment in a foreign operation. Hedge accounting generally provides for the matching of the timing of gain or loss recognition on the hedging instrument with the recognition of the changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk in a fair value hedge, or the earnings effect of the hedged forecasted transactions in a cash flow hedge. The Company may enter into derivative contracts that are intended to economically hedge certain of its risk even though hedge accounting does not apply or the Company elects not to apply hedge accounting.

Cash Flow Hedge of Interest Rate Risk

The 2020 Term Loan Facility had outstanding balances of $230.4 million and $235.4 million at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. The 2020 Revolving Credit Facility was undrawn at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. Borrowings under the 2020 Credit Facility have variable interest rates based on LIBOR or SOFR (see Note 9). As a result of exposure to interest rate movements, during March 2020, the Company entered into an interest rate swap arrangement, which effectively converted its $400 million term loan with its variable interest rate based upon one-month LIBOR to an aggregate fixed rate of 0.904%, plus a leverage-based margin as defined in the 2020 Credit Facility.

On July 22, 2022, the Company sold $30 million of the notional amount of its interest rate swap back to its counterparty for $1.5 million, reducing the notional amount of this swap to $370 million. On August 16, 2022 the Company sold another $30 million of the notional amount of its interest rate swap back to its counterparty for $1.6 million, reducing the notional amount to $340 million, which approximated the current level of our term loan debt then outstanding. The gain in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income related to the $60 million notional amount sold of $3.1 million is being released into earnings on a straight line basis over the remaining term of the 2020 Credit Facility as a decrease to interest expense, the amortization of which totaled $0.2 million and $0.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.

On March 24, 2023, the Company received $9.4 million, consisting of $0.4 million of interest and $9.0 million for the sale of $170 million of its $340 million notional amount interest rate swap back to its counterparty, reducing the notional amount to $170 million. On March 27, 2023, the Company received $9.8 million, consisting of $0.4 million of interest and $9.4 million for the sale of the remaining $170 million of its interest rate swap back to its counterparty. The portion of the gain in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income related to the term loan debt prepaid on the date of the final sale of our swap totaled $7.3 million and was released into earnings immediately as Other expense, net. The portion of the gain in accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income related to our remaining term loan debt balance was $12.0 million and is being released into earnings on a straight line basis over the remaining term of the 2020 Credit Facility as a decrease to interest expense, the amortization of which totaled $1.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024.

The Company’s objectives in using interest rate derivatives have been to add stability to interest expense and to manage its exposure to interest rate movements. To accomplish this objective, the Company has used an interest rate swap as part of its interest rate risk management strategy. Interest rate swaps designated as cash flow hedges involve the receipt of variable amounts from a counterparty in exchange for the Company making fixed-rate payments over the life of the related agreements without exchange of the underlying notional amount.

The effective portion of changes in the fair value of designated derivatives that qualify as cash flow hedges is recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income in the condensed consolidated balance sheet and is subsequently reclassified into earnings in the period that the hedged forecasted transactions affect earnings. During the three months ended March 31, 2023, such a derivative was used to hedge the variable cash flows associated with the outstanding borrowings under the 2020 Credit Facility and the Company has accounted for this derivative as an effective hedge until the final portion of the swap was sold on March 27, 2023. Any ineffective portion of the change in the fair value of the derivative was recognized directly in earnings.

19


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
Amounts reported in accumulated other comprehensive income related to the Company's derivative are reclassified to interest expense as interest is accrued on the Company’s variable-rate debt. The impact of the Company’s derivative financial instrument on its condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive (loss) income for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was as follows, net of tax (in thousands):

Three months ended
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Gain (loss) recognized in other comprehensive income (loss) on swap, net of tax$ $(2,715)
Amount reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income to other expense, net upon sale of swap, net of tax (5,099)
Amount reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income to interest expense(1,321)(3,185)
Unrealized gain (loss) on interest rate swap, net of reclassifications and amortization$(1,321)$(10,999)

The Company had no derivative assets or liabilities at March 31, 2024 or December 31, 2023.


(11) PREFERRED STOCK AND WARRANTS

On March 28, 2023, the Company issued 55,000 shares of Preferred Stock to investors in the Private Placement at a price of $970 per share, along with 4,858,090 Warrants with an exercise price of $3.77 per share.

The Company accounts for the Preferred Stock and Warrants as liability-classified instruments based on an assessment of their specific terms in accordance with ASC Topic 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity. The fair value option was elected for the Preferred Stock, as the Company considers fair value to best reflect its expected future economic value. These liabilities are remeasured to fair value at each reporting date using the same valuation methodology applied upon issuance using current input assumptions.

The value of the Preferred Stock is calculated using the Black-Derman-Toy (BDT) stochastic yield lattice model to capture the optimal timing of repayment, increasing dividend rate and other features and the value of the Warrants is calculated using the Black-Scholes Pricing Model.

Changes in the fair value of the Preferred Stock and Warrants are reported as Other expense, net in the Company's condensed consolidated statements of operations.

The Company determined the fair value of the Preferred Stock and Warrants using Level 3 input. The key assumptions into the models utilized were as follows as of March 31, 2024:

Preferred Stock (BDT)
Face value per share$1,000
Interest payments per year4
Dividend rate - year 1 (paid in-kind)9.25%
Dividend rate - year 2 (paid in-kind or in cash at the Company's choice)9.75%
Dividend rate - thereafter (paid in cash)12.00%
Yield volatility25.0%
Time to maturity (in years)1.5

20


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
Warrants (Black-Scholes)
Stock price$3.20
Strike price$3.77
Risk-free rate4.35%
Volatility59.2%
Dividend yield0.0%
Time to expiration (years)3.0


The changes in the Company's Preferred Stock and Warrant liabilities the three months ended March 31, 2024 were as follows (in thousands):

Preferred stock liability
Balance at January 1, 2024$53,337 
Payable in-kind dividends1,355 
Fair value change1,512 
Balance at March 31, 2024$56,204 


Warrant liability
Balance at January 1, 2024$5,295 
Fair value change632 
Balance at March 31, 2024$5,927 

The Preferred Stock is subordinate to Company indebtedness and senior to the Company’s common stock or other equity. Holders of the Preferred Stock are entitled to cumulative dividends that accrue quarterly through the September 30, 2025 maturity date. Dividends are payable in-kind during the first year at a rate of 9.25%. At the Company’s option, the dividends are payable in-kind or in cash during the second year at a rate of 9.75%. Dividends thereafter are payable in cash at a rate of 12.00%. The proceeds from the Preferred Stock issuance were approximately $53.4 million, including $10.0 million from existing related party stockholders. Offering costs paid by the Company of approximately $3.5 million were recorded in Other expense, net in the year ended December 31, 2023. The net proceeds from the Private Placement were used for the repayment of debt. The Preferred Stock is redeemable on or after the first and second anniversaries of the closing date at a rate of 103% and 102%, respectively.

The Warrants, which expire March 30, 2027, are immediately exercisable and upon an event such as a merger, consolidation, asset sale or similar change of control, may be exercised and the holders may vote the underlying shares of common stock. In connection with the Private Placement, the Company provided the investors with certain registration rights relating to the Preferred Stock, the Warrants and the shares of the Company’s common stock underlying the Warrants, that required the Company to file a registration statement on Form S-3 with the SEC within 30 days following the closing date of the Private Placement. The registration requirement was completed on May 19, 2023.


(12) REVENUE RECOGNITION

The Company derives revenue from two primary sources: products and services. Product revenue includes the Company's hardware and software that function together to deliver the products' essential functionality. Software and hardware are also sold on a standalone basis. Services include customer support (software updates, upgrades and technical support), consulting, design services, installation services and training. Generally, contracts with customers contain multiple performance obligations, consisting of products and services. For these contracts, the Company accounts for individual performance
21


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
obligations separately if they are considered distinct.

When an arrangement contains more than one performance obligation, the Company will allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis. The Company utilizes the observable price of goods and services when they are sold separately to similar customers in order to estimate standalone selling price.

The Company's software licenses typically provide a perpetual right to use the Company's software. The Company also sells term-based software licenses that expire and Software-as-a-Service ("SaaS")-based software which are referred to as subscription arrangements. The Company does not customize its software nor are installation services required, as the customer has a right to utilize internal resources or a third-party service company. The software and hardware are delivered before related services are provided and are functional without professional services or customer support. The Company has concluded that its software licenses are functional intellectual property that are distinct, as the user can benefit from the software on its own. Product revenue is typically recognized upon transfer of control or when the software is made available for download, as this is the point the user of the software can direct the use of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the functional intellectual property. The Company begins to recognize software revenue related to the renewal of subscription software licenses at the start of the subscription period.

The Company offers warranties on its products. Certain of the Company's warranties are considered to be assurance-type in nature, ensuring the product is functioning as intended. Assurance-type warranties do not represent separate performance obligations. The Company also sells separately-priced maintenance service contracts which qualify as service-type warranties and represent separate performance obligations. The Company does not allow and has no history of accepting product returns.

Services revenue includes revenue from customer support and other professional services. Customer support includes software updates on a when-and-if-available basis, telephone support, integrated web-based support and bug fixes or patches. The Company sells its customer support contracts at a percentage of list or net product price. Customer support revenue is recognized ratably over the term of the customer support agreement, which is typically one year.

The Company's professional services include consulting, technical support, resident engineer services, design services and installation services. Because control transfers over time, revenue is recognized based on progress toward completion of the performance obligation. The method to measure progress toward completion requires judgment and is based on the nature of the products or services to be provided. The Company generally uses the input method to measure progress for its contracts because it believes such method best depicts the transfer of assets to the customer, which occurs as the Company incurs costs for the contracts. However, in some instances, the Company uses the output method because it best depicts the transfer of asset to the customer. Under the cost-to-cost measure of progress, the progress toward completion is measured based on the ratio of costs incurred to date to the total estimated costs at completion of the performance obligation. When the measure of progress is based upon expended labor, progress toward completion is measured as the ratio of labor time expended to date versus the total estimated labor time required to complete the performance obligation. Revenue is recorded proportionally as costs are incurred or as labor is expended. Costs to fulfill these obligations include internal labor as well as subcontractor costs.

Customer training includes courses offered by the Company. The related revenue is typically recognized as the training services are performed.

22


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
The Company's typical performance obligations include the following:
Performance ObligationWhen Performance Obligation is Typically SatisfiedWhen Payment is Typically Due
Software and Product Revenue
Software licenses (perpetual or term)Upon transfer of control; typically, when made available for download (point in time)Generally, within 30 days of invoicing except for term licenses, which may be paid for over time
Software licenses (subscription)Upon activation of hosted site (over time)Generally, within 30 days of invoicing
HardwareWhen control of the hardware passes to the customer; typically, upon delivery (point in time)Generally, within 30 days of invoicing
Software upgradesUpon transfer of control; typically, when made available for download (point in time)Generally, within 30 days of invoicing
Customer Support Revenue
Customer supportRatably over the course of the support contract (over time)Generally, within 30 days of invoicing
Professional Services
Other professional services (excluding training services)As work is performed (over time)Generally, within 30 days of invoicing (upon completion of services)
TrainingWhen the class is taught (point in time)Generally, within 30 days of services being performed

Significant Judgments

The Company's contracts with customers often include promises to transfer multiple products and services to the customer. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately versus together may require significant judgment.

Judgment is required to determine the standalone selling price ("SSP") for each distinct performance obligation. The Company typically has more than one SSP for individual products and services due to the stratification of those products and services by customers and circumstances. In these instances, the Company may use information such as the size of the customer and geographic region in determining the SSP.

Deferred Revenue

Deferred revenue is a contract liability representing amounts collected from or invoiced to customers in excess of revenue recognized. This results primarily from the billing of annual customer support agreements where the revenue is recognized over the term of the agreement. The value of deferred revenue will increase or decrease based on the timing of recognition of revenue.

Disaggregation of Revenue

The Company disaggregates its revenue from contracts with customers based on the nature of the products and services and the geographic regions in which each customer is domiciled. The Company's revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was disaggregated as follows:
23


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
Three months ended March 31, 2024Product revenueService revenue (maintenance)Service revenue (professional services)Total revenue
United States$26,607 $32,847 $11,660 $71,114 
Europe, Middle East and Africa41,689 17,696 7,698 67,083 
Asia Pacific16,633 10,241 2,927 29,801 
Other2,681 7,597 1,388 11,666 
$87,610 $68,381 $23,673 $179,664 

Three months ended March 31, 2023Product revenueService revenue (maintenance)Service revenue (professional services)Total revenue
United States$38,067 $33,073 $10,853 $81,993 
Europe, Middle East and Africa27,435 20,127 6,575 54,137 
Asia Pacific25,615 9,372 3,144 38,131 
Other2,201 8,016 1,681 11,898 
$93,318 $70,588 $22,253 $186,159 


The Company's product revenue from indirect sales through its channel partner program and from its direct sales program for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was as follows (in thousands):
Three months ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Indirect sales through channel partner program$45,675 $35,914 
Direct sales41,935 57,404 
$87,610 $93,318 

The Company's product revenue from sales to enterprise customers and from sales to service provider customers for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was as follows (in thousands):
Three months ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Sales to enterprise customers$37,870 $27,412 
Sales to service provider customers49,740 65,906 
$87,610 $93,318 

The Company's product revenue and service revenue components by segment for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 were as follows (in thousands):
24


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
Three months ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Product revenue:
  Cloud and Edge$31,513 $42,839 
  IP Optical Networks56,097 50,479 
    Total product revenue$87,610 $93,318 
Service revenue:
  Maintenance:
    Cloud and Edge$53,196 $54,810 
    IP Optical Networks15,185 15,778 
      Total maintenance revenue68,381 70,588 
  Professional services:
    Cloud and Edge16,960 16,831 
    IP Optical Networks6,713 5,422 
      Total professional services revenue23,673 22,253 
        Total service revenue$92,054 $92,841 

Revenue Contract Balances

The timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections results in billed accounts receivable; unbilled receivables, which are contract assets; and customer advances and deposits, which are contract liabilities, in the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets. Amounts are billed as work progresses in accordance with agreed-upon contractual terms, either at periodic intervals or upon achievement of contractual milestones. Completion of services and billing may occur subsequent to revenue recognition, resulting in contract assets. The Company may receive advances or deposits from its customers before revenue is recognized, resulting in contract liabilities that are classified as deferred revenue. These assets and liabilities are reported in the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets on a contract-by-contract basis as of the end of each reporting period. Changes in the contract asset and liability balances during the three months ended March 31, 2024 were not materially impacted by any factors other than billing and revenue recognition. Nearly all of the Company's deferred revenue balance is related to services revenue, primarily customer support contracts. Unbilled receivables stem primarily from engagements where services have been performed; however, billing cannot occur until services are completed.

In some arrangements, the Company allows customers to pay for term-based software licenses and products over the term of the software license. The Company also sells SaaS-based software under subscription arrangements, with payment terms over the term of the SaaS agreement. Amounts recognized as revenue in excess of amounts billed are recorded as unbilled receivables. Unbilled receivables that are anticipated to be invoiced in the next twelve months are included in Accounts receivable on the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets. The changes in the Company's accounts receivable, unbilled receivables and deferred revenue balances for the three months ended March 31, 2024 were as follows (in thousands):
Accounts receivableUnbilled accounts receivableDeferred revenue (current)Deferred revenue (long-term)
Balance at January 1, 2024$186,938 $81,483 $113,381 $19,218 
Increase (decrease), net(43,634)(12,289)(2,785)(5,199)
Balance at March 31, 2024$143,304 $69,194 $110,596 $14,019 

The Company recognized approximately $51 million of revenue in the three months ended March 31, 2024 that was recorded as deferred revenue at December 31, 2023 and approximately $48 million of revenue in the three months ended March 31, 2023 that was recorded as deferred revenue at December 31, 2022. Of the Company's deferred revenue reported as long-term in its condensed consolidated balance sheet at March 31, 2024, the Company expects that approximately $7 million will be recognized as revenue in 2025, approximately $4 million will be recognized as revenue in 2026 and approximately $3 million will be recognized as revenue in 2027 and beyond.
25


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)

All freight-related customer invoicing is recorded as revenue, while the shipping and handling costs that occur after control of the promised goods or services transfer to the customer are reported as fulfillment costs, a component of Cost of revenue - product in the Company's condensed consolidated statements of operations.

Deferred Commissions Cost

Sales commissions earned by the Company's employees are considered incremental and recoverable costs of obtaining a contract with a customer. These costs have been deferred on our condensed consolidated balance sheet and are being amortized over the expected life of the customer contract, which is generally five years. At both March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the Company had $3.0 million of deferred sales commissions capitalized.


(13) OPERATING SEGMENT INFORMATION

The Company has two reportable segments, which are intended to align with the manner in which the business is managed: Cloud and Edge, and IP Optical Networks.

The Cloud and Edge segment provides secure and reliable software and hardware products, solutions and services for enabling Voice over Internet Protocol ("VoIP") communications, Voice over Long-Term Evolution ("VoLTE") and Voice Over 5G ("VoNR") communications, and Unified Communications and Collaboration ("UC&C") within service provider and enterprise networks and from the cloud. The Cloud and Edge products are increasingly software-centric and cloud-native for deployment on private, public or hybrid cloud infrastructures, in data centers, on enterprise premises and within service provider networks. Ribbon's Cloud and Edge product portfolio consists primarily of its Session Border Controller ("SBC") products and its Network Transformation products.

The IP Optical Networks segment provides high-performance, secure solutions for IP networking and optical transport, supporting wireless networks including 5G, metro and edge aggregation, core networking, data center interconnect, legacy transformation and transport solutions for wholesale carriers. This portfolio is offered to service provider, enterprise and industry verticals with critical transport network infrastructures including utilities, government, defense, transportation, and education and research.

The Company has not provided segment asset information as such information is not provided to the CODM and accordingly, asset information is not used in assessing segment performance. Segment revenue and expenses included in the tables below represent direct revenue and expense attributable to each segment. Please see Note 4 for information regarding the allocation of goodwill between segments.

The CODM utilizes revenue and adjusted gross profit to measure and assess each segment's performance. The Company calculates adjusted gross profit by excluding from cost of revenue: amortization of acquired technology, stock-based compensation, and may also exclude other items in future periods that the Company believes are not part of the Company's core business. Adjusted gross profit is not a financial measure determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies, and should not be considered a substitute for gross profit or other results reported in accordance with U.S. GAAP. See below for a reconciliation of adjusted gross profit to gross profit which is the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure.

The tables below provide revenue, adjusted gross profit and depreciation expense by reportable segment for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 (in thousands):

26


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
Three months ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Segment revenue:
  Cloud and Edge$101,669 $114,480 
  IP Optical Networks77,995 71,679 
    Revenue$179,664 $186,159 

Three months ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Segment adjusted gross profit:
  Cloud and Edge$67,119 $69,975 
  IP Optical Networks31,965 19,500 
    Total segment adjusted gross profit99,084 89,475 
Stock-based compensation expense(578)(684)
Amortization of acquired technology(6,551)(7,389)
      Gross profit$91,955 $81,402 

Three months ended
March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Segment depreciation expense:
  Cloud and Edge$2,333 $2,499 
  IP Optical Networks1,061 1,011 
    Depreciation expense$3,394 $3,510 


(14) MAJOR CUSTOMERS

The following customer contributed 10% or more of the Company's revenue in the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023:
 Three months ended
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Verizon Communications Inc.*11%
* Less than 10% of total revenue.

At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, no customer accounted for 10% or more of the Company's accounts receivable balance. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and generally does not require collateral on accounts receivable. The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts and such losses have historically been within management's expectations.


(15) STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION PLANS

The Company grants stock-based compensation to employees, officers and non-employee directors, as well as consultants and advisors of the Company and its subsidiaries under its Amended and Restated 2019 Incentive Award Plan which provides for the award of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards ("RSAs"), performance-based stock awards,
27


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
restricted stock units ("RSUs"), performance-based stock units ("PSUs") and other stock- or cash-based awards.

Executive Equity Arrangements

Inducement Awards

In connection with his appointment as President and Chief Executive Officer of Ribbon on March 16, 2020, the Company awarded Bruce McClelland sign-on equity grants, comprised of RSUs and a PSU grant with both market and service conditions. As of March 31, 2024, the Company estimates that the market conditions surrounding the PSUs granted will not be met by the expiration date of September 1, 2024.

Performance-Based Stock Grants

In addition to granting RSAs and RSUs to its executives and certain of its employees, the Company also grants PSUs to certain of its executives and certain other employees. Vesting periods for RSAs, RSUs, and PSUs granted range from one to three years. PSUs granted consist of 60% that have both performance and service conditions (the "Performance PSUs") and 40% that have both market and service conditions (the "Market PSUs"). Each Performance PSU is comprised of three consecutive fiscal year performance periods beginning in the year of grant, with one-third of the Performance PSUs attributable to each fiscal year performance period. The Market PSUs have one three-year performance period, beginning January 1 in the year of grant and ending on December 31, three years thereafter. The number of shares of common stock underlying the PSUs that can be earned will not exceed 200% of the Performance or Market PSUs. Shares subject to PSUs that fail to be earned will be forfeited.

Restricted Stock Units

The activity related to the Company's RSUs for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was as follows:
SharesWeighted
Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
Unvested balance at January 1, 20247,091,368 $3.18 
Granted29,366 $2.89 
Vested(888,189)$5.05 
Forfeited(200,229)$3.26 
Unvested balance at March 31, 20246,032,316 $2.90 

The total grant date fair value of shares of restricted stock underlying RSUs that vested during the three months ended March 31, 2024 was $4.5 million.


Performance-Based Stock Units

The activity related to the Company's PSUs for the three months ended March 31, 2024 was as follows:
SharesWeighted
Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
Unvested balance at January 1, 20246,297,931 $2.07 
Granted $ 
Vested(31,282)$6.40 
Forfeited(280,304)$9.40 
Unvested balance at March 31, 20245,986,345 $1.70 

28


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
The total grant date fair value of shares of restricted stock underlying PSUs that vested during the three months ended March 31, 2024 was $0.2 million.

Stock-Based Compensation

The condensed consolidated statements of operations include stock-based compensation for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 as follows (in thousands):
 Three months ended
 March 31, 2024March 31,
2023
Product cost of revenue$106 $149 
Service cost of revenue472 535 
Research and development1,068 1,262 
Sales and marketing1,157 2,129 
General and administrative1,719 1,773 
$4,522 $5,848 

At March 31, 2024, there was $13.4 million, net of expected forfeitures, of unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to unvested RSUs and PSUs. This expense is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of approximately one year.


(16) LEASES

The Company has operating leases for corporate offices and research and development facilities and has historically had finance leases for certain equipment. Operating leases are reported separately in the Company's condensed consolidated balance sheets. Assets acquired under finance leases, if any, are included in Property and equipment, net, in the condensed consolidated balance sheets.

The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. A contract is determined to contain a lease component if the arrangement provides the Company with a right to control the use of an identified asset. Lease agreements may include lease and non-lease components. In such instances for all classes of underlying assets, the Company does not separate lease and non-lease components but rather, accounts for the entire arrangement under leasing guidance. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the balance sheet and lease expense for these leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

Right-of-use assets and lease liabilities are initially measured based on the present value of the future minimum fixed lease payments (i.e., fixed payments in the lease contract) over the lease term at the commencement date. As the Company's existing leases do not have a readily determinable implicit rate, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the commencement date in determining the present value of future minimum fixed lease payments. The Company calculates its incremental borrowing rate to reflect the interest rate that it would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment over a similar term and considers its historical borrowing activities and market data from entities with comparable credit ratings in this determination. The measurement of the right-of-use asset also includes any lease payments made prior to the commencement date (excluding any lease incentives) and initial direct costs incurred. The Company assessed its right-of-use assets for impairment as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 and determined no impairment has occurred.

Lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease and the Company incorporates such options in the lease term when it has the unilateral right to make such an election and it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. In making this determination, the Company considers its prior renewal and termination history and planned usage of the assets under lease, incorporating expected market conditions.

For operating leases, lease expense for minimum fixed lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease
29


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
term. The expense for finance leases includes both interest and amortization expense components, with the interest component calculated based on the effective interest method and the amortization component calculated based on straight-line amortization of the right-of-use asset over the lease term. Lease contracts may contain variable lease costs, such as common area maintenance, utilities and tax reimbursements that vary over the term of the contract. Variable lease costs are not included in minimum fixed lease payments and as a result, are excluded from the measurement of the right-of-use assets and lease liabilities. The Company expenses all variable lease costs as incurred.

Certain leased facilities are being partially or fully vacated as part of the 2022 Restructuring Plan and for some of those facilities, the Company has no plans to enter into sublease agreements. Accordingly, the Company accelerated the amortization of those lease assets through the planned cease-use date of each facility, resulting in additional amortization expense $0.2 million in the three months ended March 31, 2023. No such accelerated amortization was recorded in the three months ended March 31, 2024. The Company did not record estimated future variable lease costs in the three months ended March 31, 2024 or 2023 related to the 2022 Restructuring Plan.

All incremental accelerated amortization and accruals for estimated future variable costs are included in Restructuring and related expense in the Company's condensed consolidated statements of operations. At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the Company had accruals of $1.4 million and $1.5 million, respectively, for all future anticipated variable lease costs related to these facilities. The Company may incur additional future expense if it is unable to sublease other locations included in the Facilities Initiative.

The Company leases its corporate offices and other facilities under operating leases, which expire at various times through 2033.

The Company's right-of-use lease assets and lease liabilities at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 were as follows (in thousands):
ClassificationMarch 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Assets:
  Operating lease assetsOperating lease right-of-use assets$37,110 $39,783 
Liabilities:
    Current OperatingOperating lease liabilities$14,213 $15,739 
    Non-Current OperatingOperating lease liabilities, net of current36,768 38,711 
      Total Operating lease liabilities$50,981 $54,450 


The components of lease expense for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 were as follows (in thousands):
 Three months ended
 March 31,
2024
March 31,
2023
Operating lease cost*$4,199 $4,760 
Short-term lease cost3,441 3,427 
Variable lease costs (costs excluded from minimum fixed lease payments)**855 802 
Sublease income(260)(430)
    Net lease cost$8,235 $8,559 

* No accelerated amortization was recorded in the three months ended March 31, 2024. Operating lease costs for the three months ended March 31, 2023 included $0.2 million of accelerated amortization for certain assets partially or fully vacated with no intent or ability to sublease.
** No variable lease costs were accrued in the three months ended March 31, 2024 or 2023 for future estimated variable expenses related to certain assets partially or fully vacated with no intent or ability to sublease.

30


RIBBON COMMUNICATIONS INC.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Continued)
(unaudited)
Cash flows related to the Company's leases in both the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 were included in the measurement of operating lease liabilities and classified as operating cash flows and each totaled $4.8 million.

Other information related to the Company's leases as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 was as follows:

 March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Weighted average remaining lease term (years):
  Operating leases5.455.50
Weighted average discount rate:
  Operating leases7.04 %6.34 %


Future minimum fixed lease payments under noncancelable leases at March 31, 2024 were as follows (in thousands):
 Operating
leases
Remainder of 2024$13,873 
202510,799 
20269,018