Company Quick10K Filing
Republic Bancorp
Price-0.00 EPS4
Shares21 P/E-0
MCap-0 P/FCF-0
Net Debt-366 EBIT139
TEV-366 TEV/EBIT-3
TTM 2018-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios
10-K 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-03-13
10-Q 2019-09-30 Filed 2019-11-08
10-Q 2019-06-30 Filed 2019-08-09
10-Q 2019-03-31 Filed 2019-05-10
10-K 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-03-15
10-Q 2018-09-30 Filed 2018-11-09
10-Q 2018-06-30 Filed 2018-08-09
10-Q 2018-03-31 Filed 2018-05-10
10-K 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-03-09
10-Q 2017-09-30 Filed 2017-11-09
10-Q 2017-06-30 Filed 2017-08-09
10-Q 2017-03-31 Filed 2017-05-10
10-K 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-03-10
10-Q 2016-09-30 Filed 2016-11-09
10-Q 2016-06-30 Filed 2016-08-09
10-Q 2016-03-31 Filed 2016-05-10
10-K 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-03-11
10-Q 2015-09-30 Filed 2015-11-06
10-Q 2015-06-30 Filed 2015-08-07
10-Q 2015-03-31 Filed 2015-05-08
10-K 2014-12-31 Filed 2015-03-13
10-Q 2014-09-30 Filed 2014-11-07
10-Q 2014-06-30 Filed 2014-08-08
10-Q 2014-03-31 Filed 2014-05-09
10-K 2013-12-31 Filed 2014-03-14
10-Q 2013-09-30 Filed 2013-11-07
10-Q 2013-06-30 Filed 2013-08-09
10-Q 2013-03-31 Filed 2013-05-09
10-K 2012-12-31 Filed 2013-03-14
10-Q 2012-06-30 Filed 2012-08-09
10-Q 2012-03-31 Filed 2012-05-09
10-K 2011-12-31 Filed 2012-03-07
10-Q 2011-09-30 Filed 2011-10-28
10-Q 2011-06-30 Filed 2011-07-28
10-Q 2011-03-31 Filed 2011-04-20
10-K 2010-12-31 Filed 2011-03-03
10-Q 2010-09-30 Filed 2010-10-27
10-Q 2010-06-30 Filed 2010-07-26
10-Q 2010-03-31 Filed 2010-04-23
10-K 2009-12-31 Filed 2010-03-11
8-K 2020-01-24 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2020-01-22 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-11-20 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-07-24 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-07-19 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-07-17 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-05-15 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-04-26 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2019-04-24 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-04-24 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-25 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-23 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-14 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-19 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-20 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-18 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-20 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-04-19 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-19 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-03-31
8-K 2018-01-26 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-24 Regulation FD, Exhibits

RBCA 10K Annual Report

Part I
Item 1. Business.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
Item 2. Properties.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’S Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
Item 7. Management’S Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.
Item 9B. Other Information.
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
Item 11. Executive Compensation.
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services.
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules.
Item 16. Form 10K Summary.
EX-4.3 rbca-20191231ex43b4ae82a.htm
EX-10.35 rbca-20191231ex103510d2f.htm
EX-10.70 rbca-20191231ex1070e9fcf.htm
EX-21 rbca-20191231ex21a887050.htm
EX-23 rbca-20191231xex23.htm
EX-31.1 rbca-20191231ex311f923ee.htm
EX-31.2 rbca-20191231ex3122bbe44.htm
EX-32 rbca-20191231xex32.htm

Republic Bancorp Earnings 2019-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
10.08.06.04.02.00.02013201520172019
Assets, Equity
0.10.10.10.00.00.02017201720182019
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
0.30.20.1-0.1-0.2-0.32013201520172019
Ops, Inv, Fin

10-K 1 rbca-20191231x10k.htm 10-K rbcaa_Current folio_10K

0

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549


FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019

 

Commission File Number: 0-24649

 

Picture 2

 

REPUBLIC BANCORP, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Kentucky

 

61-0862051

(State or other jurisdiction of

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

incorporation or organization)

 

 

 

 

 

601 West Market Street, Louisville, Kentucky

 

40202

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (502) 584-3600

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title of each class

Trading Symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

Class A Common

RBCAA

The Nasdaq Stock Market

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

None

(Title of Class)

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  ☐ Yes  ☒ No

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.  ☐ Yes  ☒ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☒ Yes    ☐ No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  ☒ Yes    ☐ No

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Large accelerated filer  ☐

Accelerated filer    ☒

Non-accelerated filer  ☐

Smaller reporting company  ☐

Emerging growth company ☐

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ◻

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  ☐ Yes  ☒ No

 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold as of June 30, 2019 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was approximately $491,574,486 (for purposes of this calculation, the market value of the Class B Common Stock was based on the market value of the Class A Common Stock into which it is convertible).

 

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock, as of February 21,  2020 was 18,742,970 and 2,205,051.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held April 23, 2020 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART I 

    

    

    

    

 

Item 1. 

 

Business.

 

5

 

Item 1A. 

 

Risk Factors.

 

23

 

Item 1B. 

 

Unresolved Staff Comments.

 

34

 

Item 2. 

 

Properties.

 

34

 

Item 3. 

 

Legal Proceedings.

 

36

 

Item 4. 

 

Mine Safety Disclosures.

 

36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART II 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5. 

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

 

37

 

Item 6. 

 

Selected Financial Data.

 

39

 

Item 7. 

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

 

43

 

Item 7A. 

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

 

90

 

Item 8. 

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

 

90

 

Item 9. 

 

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.

 

185

 

Item 9A. 

 

Controls and Procedures.

 

185

 

Item 9B. 

 

Other Information.

 

185

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART III 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10. 

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.

 

186

 

Item 11. 

 

Executive Compensation.

 

187

 

Item 12. 

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.

 

187

 

Item 13. 

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.

 

188

 

Item 14. 

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services.

 

188

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15. 

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules.

 

188

 

Item 16. 

 

Form 10-K Summary.

 

188

 

 

 

Index to Exhibits

 

189

 

 

 

Signatures

 

196

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

The terms identified in alphabetical order below are used throughout this Form 10-K.  You may find it helpful to refer to this page as you read this report.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Term

   

Definition

   

Term

   

Definition

   

Term

   

Definition

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACH

 

Automated Clearing House

 

ESPP

 

Employee Stock Purchase Plan

 

OFAC

 

Office of Foreign Assets Control

AFS

 

Available for Sale

 

EVP

 

Executive Vice President

 

OREO

 

Other Real Estate Owned

Allowance

 

Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses

 

FCRA

 

Fair Credit Reporting Act

 

Patriot Act

 

U.S. Patriot Act

AML

 

Anti-Money Laundering

 

FASB

 

Financial Accounting Standards Board

 

PCI

 

Purchased Credit Impaired

AOCI

 

Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income

 

FDIA

 

Federal Deposit Insurance Act

 

PCI-1

 

PCI - Group 1

ARM

 

Adjustable Rate Mortgage

 

FDICIA

 

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act

 

PCI-Sub

 

PCI - Substandard

ASC

 

Accounting Standards Codification

 

FFTR

 

Federal Funds Target Rate

 

Prime

 

The Wall Street Journal Prime Interest Rate

ASU

 

Accounting Standards Update

 

FHA

 

Federal Housing Administration

 

Provision

 

Provision for Loan and Lease Losses

ATM

 

Automated Teller Machine

 

FHC

 

Financial Holding Company

 

PSU

 

Performance Stock Unit

ATR

 

Ability to Repay

 

FHLB

 

Federal Home Loan Bank

 

R&D

 

Research and Development

Basic EPS

 

Basic earnings per Class A Common Share

 

FHLMC

 

Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation

 

RB&T / the Bank

 

Republic Bank & Trust Company

BHC

 

Bank Holding Company

 

FICO

 

Fair Isaac Corporation

 

RBCT

 

Republic Bancorp Capital Trust

BHCA

 

Bank Holding Company Act

 

FNMA

 

Federal National Mortgage Association

 

RCS

 

Republic Credit Solutions

BOLI

 

Bank Owned Life Insurance

 

FOMC

 

Federal Open Market Committee

 

Republic / the Company

 

Republic Bancorp, Inc.

BPO

 

Brokered Price Opinion

 

FRA

 

Federal Reserve Act

 

RESPA

 

Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act

BSA

 

Bank Secrecy Act

 

FRB

 

Federal Reserve Bank

 

ROA

 

Return on Average Assets

C&D

 

Construction and Development

 

FTE

 

Full Time Equivalent

 

ROE

 

Return on Average Equity

C&I

 

Commercial and Industrial

 

FTP

 

Funds Transfer Pricing

 

RPG

 

Republic Processing Group

CARD Act

 

Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009

 

GAAP

 

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States

 

RPS

 

Republic Payment Solutions

CCAD

 

Commercial Credit Administration Department

 

GLBA

 

Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act

 

RT

 

Refund Transfer

CDI

 

Core Deposit Intangible

 

HEAL

 

Home Equity Amortizing Loan

 

S&P

 

Standard and Poor's

CEO

 

Chief Executive Officer

 

HELOC

 

Home Equity Line of Credit

 

SAB

 

SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin

CFO

 

Chief Financial Officer

 

HMDA

 

Home Mortgage Disclosure Act

 

SAC

 

Special Asset Committee

CFPB

 

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

 

HTM

 

Held to Maturity

 

SBA

 

Small Business Administration

CFTC

 

Commodity Futures Trading Commission

 

IRS

 

Internal Revenue Service

 

SEC

 

Securities and Exchange Commission

CMO

 

Collateralized Mortgage Obligation

 

ITM

 

Interactive Teller Machine

 

SERP

 

Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan

CMT

 

Constant Maturity Treasury Index

 

KDFI

 

Kentucky Department of Financial Institutions

 

SSUAR

 

Securities Sold Under Agreements to Repurchase

Core Bank

 

The Traditional Banking, Warehouse Lending, and Mortgage Banking reportable segments

 

LIBOR

 

London Interbank Offered Rate

 

SVP

 

Senior Vice President

CRA

 

Community Reinvestment Act

 

Limestone

 

Limestone Bank

 

TCJA

 

2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

CRE

 

Commercial Real Estate

 

LPO

 

Loan Production Office

 

TDR

 

Troubled Debt Restructuring

DIF

 

Deposit Insurance Fund

 

LTV

 

Loan to Value

 

The Captive

 

Republic Insurance Services, Inc.

Diluted EPS

 

Diluted earnings per Class A Common Share

 

MBS

 

Mortgage Backed Securities

 

TILA

 

Truth in Lending Act

Dodd-Frank Act

 

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

 

MPP

 

Mortgage Purchase Program

 

TPS

 

Trust Preferred Securities

DTA

 

Deferred Tax Assets

 

MSRs

 

Mortgage Servicing Rights

 

TRS

 

Tax Refund Solutions

DTL

 

Deferred Tax Liabilities

 

NASDAQ

 

NASDAQ Global Select Market®

 

TRUP

 

TPS Investment

EA

 

Easy Advance

 

NA 

 

Not Applicable

 

USDA

 

U.S. Department of Agriculture

EBITDA

 

Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization

 

NM

 

Not Meaningful

 

VA

 

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

EFTA

 

Electronic Fund Transfers Act

 

OCI

 

Other Comprehensive Income

 

Warehouse

 

Warehouse Lending

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

 

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains statements relating to future results of Republic Bancorp, Inc. that are considered “forward-looking” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The forward-looking statements are principally, but not exclusively, contained in Part I Item 1 “Business,” Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors” and Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

 

As used in this filing, the terms “Republic,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to Republic Bancorp, Inc., and, where the context requires, Republic Bancorp, Inc. and its subsidiaries. The term the “Bank” refers to the Company’s subsidiary bank: Republic Bank & Trust Company. The term the “Captive” refers to the Company’s insurance subsidiary: Republic Insurance Services, Inc.

 

Forward-looking statements discuss matters that are not historical facts. As forward-looking statements discuss future events or conditions, the statements often include words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “project,” “target,” “can,” “could,” “may,” “should,” “will,” “would,” “potential,” or similar expressions. Do not rely on forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements detail management’s expectations regarding the future and are not guarantees. Forward- looking statements are assumptions based on information known to management only as of the date the statements are made and management undertakes no obligation to update forward-looking statements, except as required by applicable law.

 

Broadly speaking, forward-looking statements include:

 

·

projections of revenue, income, expenses, losses, earnings per share, capital expenditures, dividends, capital structure, or other financial items;

·

descriptions of plans or objectives for future operations, products, or services;

·

forecasts of future economic performance; and

·

descriptions of assumptions underlying or relating to any of the foregoing.

 

Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause actual results, performance, or achievements to be materially different from future results, performance, or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied as a result of certain risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to the following:

 

·

changes in political and economic conditions;

·

the magnitude and frequency of changes to the FFTR implemented by the FOMC of the FRB;

·

long-term and short-term interest rate fluctuations as well as the overall steepness of the U.S. Treasury yield curve;

·

competitive product and pricing pressures in each of the Company’s five reportable segments;

·

equity and fixed income market fluctuations;

·

client bankruptcies and loan defaults;

·

inflation;

·

recession;

·

natural disasters impacting Company operations;

·

future acquisitions;

·

integrations of acquired businesses;

·

changes in technology;

·

changes in applicable laws and regulations or the interpretation and enforcement thereof;

·

changes in fiscal, monetary, regulatory and tax policies;

·

changes in accounting standards;

·

monetary fluctuations;

·

changes to the Company’s overall internal control environment;

·

success in gaining regulatory approvals when required;

·

the Company’s ability to qualify for future R&D federal tax credits;

·

information security breaches or cyber security attacks involving either the Company or one of the Company’s third-party service providers; and

4

·

other risks and uncertainties reported from time to time in the Company’s filings with the SEC, including Part 1 Item 1A “Risk Factors.”

 

PART I

 

Item 1. Business.

 

Republic is a financial holding company headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky. The Bank is a Kentucky-based, state-chartered non-member financial institution that provides both traditional and non-traditional banking products through five reportable segments using a multitude of delivery channels. While the Bank operates primarily in its market footprint, its non-brick-and-mortar delivery channels allow it to reach clients across the United States. The Captive is a Nevada-based, wholly-owned insurance subsidiary of the Company. The Captive provides property and casualty insurance coverage to the Company and the Bank as well as a group of third-party insurance captives for which insurance may not be available or economically feasible.

 

Republic Bancorp Capital Trust is a Delaware statutory business trust that is a wholly-owned unconsolidated finance subsidiary of Republic Bancorp, Inc.

 

As of December 31, 2019, Republic had 41 full-service banking centers and two LPOs with locations as follows:

 

Kentucky — 28

Metropolitan Louisville — 18

Central Kentucky — 7

Georgetown — 1

Lexington — 5

Shelbyville — 1

Northern Kentucky — 3

Covington — 1

Crestview Hills — 1

Florence — 1

Southern Indiana — 3

Floyds Knobs — 1

Jeffersonville — 1

New Albany — 1

Metropolitan Tampa, Florida — 8*

Metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio — 1

Metropolitan Nashville, Tennessee — 3*


*Includes one LPO

 

Republic’s headquarters are in Louisville, which is the largest city in Kentucky based on population.

 

5

The principal business of Republic is directing, planning, and coordinating the business activities of the Bank. The financial condition and results of operations of Republic are primarily dependent upon the results of operations of the Bank. At December 31, 2019, Republic had total assets of $5.6  billion, total deposits of $3.8 billion, and total stockholders’ equity of $764 million. Based on total assets as of December 31, 2019, Republic ranked as the largest Kentucky-based financial holding company. The executive offices of Republic are located at 601 West Market Street, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, telephone number (502) 584-3600. The Company’s website address is www.republicbank.com.  

 

Website Access to Reports

 

The Company makes its annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports, filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, available free of charge through its website, www.republicbank.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after the Company electronically files such material with, or furnishes it to, the SEC. The information provided on the Company’s website is not part of this report, and is therefore not incorporated by reference, unless that information is otherwise specifically referenced elsewhere in this report. The SEC maintains an internet site at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

 

General Business Overview

 

As of December 31, 2019,  the Company was divided into five reportable segments: Traditional Banking, Warehouse, Mortgage Banking, TRS, and RCS. Management considers the first three segments to collectively constitute “Core Bank” or “Core Banking” operations, while the last two segments collectively constitute RPG operations. The Company’s national branchless banking platform, MemoryBank®,  is considered part of the Traditional Banking segment.

 

(I)  Traditional Banking segment

 

As of December 31, 2019 and through the date of this filing, generally all Traditional Banking products and services, except for a selection of deposit products offered through the Bank’s separately branded national branchless banking platform, MemoryBank, were offered through the Company’s traditional RB&T brand.  

 

Lending Activities

 

The Bank’s principal lending activities consist of the following:

 

Retail Mortgage Lending —  Through its retail banking centers and its Consumer Direct channel, the Bank originates single-family, residential real estate loans. In addition, the Bank originates HEALs and HELOCs through its retail banking centers. Such loans are generally collateralized by owner-occupied, residential real estate properties. For those loans originated through the Bank’s retail banking centers, the collateral is predominately located in the Bank’s market footprint, while loans originated through the Consumer Direct channel are generally secured by owner occupied collateral located outside of the Bank’s market footprint.

 

The Bank offers single-family, first-lien residential real estate ARMs with interest rate adjustments tied to various market indices with specified minimum and maximum adjustments. The Bank generally charges a higher interest rate for its ARMs if the property is not owner occupied. The interest rates on the majority of ARMs are adjusted after their fixed rate periods on an annual basis, with most having annual and lifetime limitations on upward rate adjustments to the loan. These loans typically feature amortization periods of up to 30 years and have fixed interest-rate periods generally ranging from five to ten years, with demand dependent upon market conditions.  In general, ARMs containing longer fixed-rate periods have historically been more attractive to the Bank’s clients in a relatively low-rate environment, while ARMs with shorter fixed-rate periods have historically been more attractive to the Bank’s clients in a relatively high-rate environment.  While there is no requirement for clients to refinance their loans at the end of the fixed-rate period, clients have historically done so the majority of the time, as most clients are interest-rate-risk averse on their first mortgage loans.

 

Depending on the term and amount of the ARM, loans collateralized by single family, owner-occupied first lien residential real estate may be originated with an LTV up to 90% and a combined LTV up to 100%.  The Bank also offers a 100% LTV product

6

for home-purchase transactions within its primary markets. The Bank does not require the borrower to obtain private mortgage insurance for ARM loans.  Except for the HEAL product under $150,000, the Bank requires mortgagee’s title insurance on single family, first lien residential real estate loans to protect the Bank against defects in its liens on the properties that collateralize the loans. The Bank normally requires title, fire, and extended casualty insurance to be obtained by the borrower and, when required by applicable regulations, flood insurance. The Bank maintains an errors and omissions insurance policy to protect the Bank against loss in the event a borrower fails to maintain proper fire and other hazard insurance policies.

 

Single-family, first-lien residential real estate loans with fixed-rate periods of 15, 20, and 30 years are primarily sold into the secondary market. MSRs attached to the sold portfolio are either sold along with the loan or retained.  Loans sold into the secondary market, along with their corresponding MSRs, are included as a component of the Company’s Mortgage Banking segment, as discussed elsewhere in this filing.  The Bank, as it has in the past, may retain such longer-term, fixed-rate loans from time to time in the future to help combat market compression.  Any such loans retained on the Company’s balance sheet would be reported as a component of the Traditional Banking segment.

 

The Bank does, on occasion, purchase single-family, first-lien residential real estate loans made to low-to-moderate income borrowers and/or secured by property located in low-to-moderate income areas in order to meet its obligations under the CRA. In connection with loan purchases, the Bank receives various representations and warranties from the sellers regarding the quality and characteristics of the loans.

 

Consumer Direct Lending — Through its Consumer Direct channel, formerly named its Internet Lending channel, the Bank accepts online loan applications for its RB&T branded products through its website at www.republicbank.com. Historically, the majority of loans originated through its Consumer Direct channel have been within the Bank’s traditional markets of Kentucky, Florida and Indiana. Other states where loans are marketed include Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, and Virginia, as well as, the District of Columbia.

 

Commercial Lending — The Bank conducts commercial lending activities primarily through Corporate Banking, Commercial Banking, Business Banking, and Retail Banking channels.

 

In general, commercial lending credit approvals and processing are prepared and underwritten through the Bank’s CCAD. Clients are generally located within the Bank’s market footprint, or in adjacent, nearby areas to the market footprint.

 

Credit opportunities are generally driven by the following: companies expanding their businesses; companies acquiring new businesses; and/or companies refinancing existing debt from other institutions. The Bank has a focus on C&I lending, and owner-occupied and nonowner-occupied CRE lending. The targeted C&I credit size for client relationships is typically between $1 million to $5 million, with higher targets, $5 million to $20 million for large Corporate Banking borrowers of higher credit quality. 

 

C&I loans typically include those secured by general business assets, which consist of equipment, accounts receivable, inventory, and other business assets owned by the borrower/guarantor. Credit facilities include annually renewable lines of credit and term loans with maturities typically from three to five years and may also involve financial covenant requirements. These requirements are monitored by the Bank’s CCAD. Underwriting for C&I loans is based on the borrower’s capacity to repay these loans from operating cash flows, typically measured by EBITDA, with capital strength, collateral and management experience also important underwriting considerations.

 

Corporate Banking focuses on larger C&I and CRE opportunities. For CRE loans, Corporate Banking focuses on stabilized CRE with low leverage and strong cash flows. Borrowers are generally single-asset entities and loan sizes typically range from $5 million to $20 million. Primary underwriting considerations are property cash flow (current and historical), quality of leases, financial capacity of sponsors, and collateral value of property financed. The majority of interest rates offered are based on a floating rate index like LIBOR or the CMT. Fixed-rate terms of up to 10 years are available to borrowers by utilizing interest rate swaps. In some cases, limited or non-recourse (of owners) loans will be issued, with such cases based upon the capital position, cash flows, and stabilization of the borrowing entity.

 

7

Commercial Banking focuses on medium size C&I and CRE opportunities. Borrowers are generally single-asset entities and loan sizes typically range from $1 million to $5 million. As with Corporate Banking, the primary underwriting considerations are property cash flow (current and historical), quality of leases, financial capacity of sponsors, and collateral value of property financed. Interest rates offered are based on both fixed and variable interest-rate formulas.

 

The Bank’s CRE and multi-family loans are typically secured by improved property such as office buildings, medical facilities, retail centers, warehouses, apartment buildings, condominiums, schools, religious institutions, and other types of commercial use property.

 

The Business Banking and Business Development groups, reporting up under Retail Banking, focus on locally based small-to-medium sized businesses in the Bank’s market footprint with annual revenues between $1 million and $20 million, and borrowings between $500,000 and $2 million. The needs of these clients range from expansion or acquisition financing, equipment financing, owner-occupied real estate financing, and operating lines of credit.

 

In 2018, the Bank became an SBA Preferred Lending Partner, which allows the Bank to underwrite and approve its own SBA loans in an expedited manner. In 2020, the Bank established its SBA Department, led by an experienced veteran lender to oversee its SBA programs and performance.  The Bank looks to make loans to borrowers generally up to $1.5 million under the SBA “7A Program,” as well as utilize the “504 Program” for owner-occupied CRE opportunities.  The goal for the Bank is to expand its SBA platform over time and support the opportunities that arise within its markets.  The Bank’s lenders utilize all appropriate programs of the SBA to reduce credit risk exposure. 

 

Construction and Land Development Lending  — The Bank originates business loans for the construction of both single-family, residential properties and commercial properties (apartment complexes, shopping centers, office buildings). While not a focus for the Bank, the Bank may originate loans for the acquisition and development of residential or commercial land into buildable lots.

 

Single-family, residential-construction loans are made in the Bank’s market area to established homebuilders with solid financial records. The majority of these loans are made for “contract” homes, which the builder has already pre-sold to a homebuyer. The duration of these loans is generally less than 12 months and repaid at the end of the construction period from the sale of the constructed property. Some loans are made on “speculative” homes, which the builder does not have pre-sold to a homebuyer but expects to execute a contract to sell during the construction period. These speculative homes are considered necessary to have in inventory for homebuilders, as not all homebuyers want to wait during the construction period to purchase and move into a newly built home.

 

Commercial-construction loans are made in the Bank’s market to established commercial builders with solid financial records. Typically, these loans are made for investment properties and have tenants pre-committed for some or all of the space. Some projects may begin as speculative, with the builder contracting to lease or sell the property during the construction period. Generally, commercial construction loans are made for the duration of the construction period and slightly beyond and will either convert to permanent financing with the Bank or with another lender at or before maturity.

 

Construction-to-permanent loans are another type of construction-related financing offered by the Bank. These loans are made to borrowers who are going to build a property and retain it for ownership after construction completion. The construction phase is handled just like all other construction loans, and the permanent phase offers similar terms to a permanent CRE loan while allowing the borrower a one-time closing process at loan origination. These loans are offered on both owner-occupied and nonowner-occupied CRE.

 

8

Consumer Lending — Traditional Banking consumer loans made by the Bank include home-improvement and home-equity loans, other secured and unsecured personal loans, and credit cards. Except for home-equity loans, which are actively marketed in conjunction with single-family, first-lien residential real estate loans, other Traditional Banking consumer loan products (not including products offered through Republic Processing Group), while available, are not and have not been actively promoted in the Bank’s markets.

 

Aircraft Lending — In October 2017, the Bank created an Aircraft Lending division. At the beginning, the initial loan size was offered up to $500,000.  In 2019, the Bank increased the opportunity to finance up to $1.0 million.  All aircraft loans typically range in amounts from $55,000 to $1,000,000, with terms up to 20 years, to purchase or refinance personal aircraft, along with engine overhauls and avionic upgrades. The aircraft loan program is open to all states, except for Alaska and Hawaii. 

 

The credit characteristics of an aircraft borrower are higher than a typical consumer in that they must demonstrate and indicate a higher degree of credit worthiness for approval.    

 

See additional discussion regarding Lending Activities under the sections titled:

 

·

Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors”

·

Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”

·

Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” Footnote 4 “Loans and Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses”

 

The Bank’s other Traditional Banking activities generally consist of the following:

 

MemoryBank — In October 2016, the Bank opened the “digital doors” of MemoryBank, a national branchless banking platform. MemoryBank is a separately branded division of the Bank, which from a marketing perspective, focuses on technologically savvy clients that prefer to carry larger balances in highly liquid interest-bearing bank accounts.

 

Private Banking — The Bank provides financial products and services to high-net-worth individuals through its Private Banking department. The Bank’s Private Banking officers have extensive banking experience and are trained to meet the unique financial needs of this clientele.

 

Treasury Management Services — The Bank provides various deposit products designed for commercial business clients located throughout its market footprint. Lockbox processing, remote deposit capture, business on-line banking, account reconciliation, and ACH processing are additional services offered to commercial businesses through the Bank’s Treasury Management department.

 

Internet Banking — The Bank expands its market penetration and service delivery of its RB&T brand by offering clients Internet Banking services and products through its website, www.republicbank.com.  

 

Mobile Banking — The Bank allows clients to easily and securely access and manage their accounts through its mobile banking application.

 

Other Banking Services — The Bank also provides title insurance and other financial institution-related products and services.

 

Bank Acquisitions — The Bank maintains an acquisition strategy to selectively grow its franchise as a complement to its organic growth strategies.

 

See additional discussion regarding the Traditional Banking segment under Footnote  25  “Segment Information” of Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

 

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(II)  Warehouse Lending segment

 

Through its Warehouse segment, the Core Bank provides short-term, revolving credit facilities to mortgage bankers across the United States through mortgage warehouse lines of credit. These credit facilities are primarily secured by single-family, first-lien residential real estate loans. The credit facility enables the mortgage banking clients to close single-family, first-lien residential real estate loans in their own name and temporarily fund their inventory of these closed loans until the loans are sold to investors approved by the Bank. Individual loans are expected to remain on the warehouse line for an average of 15 to 30 days. Reverse mortgage loans typically remain on the line longer than conventional mortgage loans. Interest income and loan fees are accrued for each individual loan during the time the loan remains on the warehouse line and collected when the loan is sold. The Core Bank receives the sale proceeds of each loan directly from the investor and applies the funds to pay off the warehouse advance and related accrued interest and fees. The remaining proceeds are credited to the mortgage-banking client.

 

See additional discussion regarding the Warehouse Lending segment under Footnote  25  “Segment Information” of Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

 

(III)  Mortgage Banking segment

 

Mortgage Banking activities primarily include 15-, 20- and 30-year fixed-term single-family, first-lien residential real estate loans that are originated and sold into the secondary market, primarily to the FHLMC and the FNMA. The Bank typically retains servicing on loans sold into the secondary market. Administration of loans with servicing retained by the Bank includes collecting principal and interest payments, escrowing funds for property taxes and property insurance, and remitting payments to secondary market investors. The Bank receives fees for performing these standard servicing functions.

 

As part of the sale of loans with servicing retained, the Bank records MSRs. MSRs represent an estimate of the present value of future cash servicing income, net of estimated costs, which the Bank expects to receive on loans sold with servicing retained by the Bank. MSRs are capitalized as separate assets. This transaction is posted to net gain on sale of loans, a component of “Mortgage Banking income” in the income statement. Management considers all relevant factors, in addition to pricing considerations from other servicers, to estimate the fair value of the MSRs to be recorded when the loans are initially sold with servicing retained by the Bank. The carrying value of MSRs is initially amortized in proportion to and over the estimated period of net servicing income and subsequently adjusted quarterly based on the weighted average remaining life of the underlying loans. The MSR amortization is recorded as a reduction to net servicing income, a component of Mortgage Banking income.

 

With the assistance of an independent third party, the MSRs asset is reviewed at least quarterly for impairment based on the fair value of the MSRs using groupings of the underlying loans based on predominant risk characteristics. Any impairment of a grouping is reported as a valuation allowance. A primary factor influencing the fair value is the estimated life of the underlying loans serviced. The estimated life of the loans serviced is significantly influenced by market interest rates. During a period of declining interest rates, the fair value of the MSRs is expected to decline due to increased anticipated prepayment speeds within the portfolio. Alternatively, during a period of rising interest rates, the fair value of MSRs would be expected to increase as prepayment speeds on the underlying loans would be expected to decline.

 

See additional discussion regarding the Mortgage Banking segment under Footnote  25  “Segment Information” of Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

 

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(IV) Tax Refund Solutions segment

 

Through the TRS segment, the Bank is one of a limited number of financial institutions that facilitates the receipt and payment of federal and state tax refund products and offers a credit product through third-party tax preparers located throughout the United States, as well as tax-preparation software providers (collectively, the “Tax Providers”). Substantially all of the business generated by the TRS segment occurs in the first half of the year. The TRS segment traditionally operates at a loss during the second half of the year, during which time the segment incurs costs preparing for the upcoming year’s tax season.

 

RTs are fee-based products whereby a tax refund is issued to the taxpayer after the Bank has received the refund from the federal or state government. There is no credit risk or borrowing cost associated with these products because they are only delivered to the taxpayer upon receipt of the tax refund directly from the governmental paying authority. Fees earned by the Company on RTs, net of revenue share, are reported as noninterest income under the line item “Net refund transfer fees.”

 

The EA tax credit product is a loan that allows a taxpayer to borrow funds as an advance of a portion of their tax refund. For the 2018 and 2019 fiscal years, the EA product had the following features:

 

EA features consistent during 2018 and 2019:

 

·

Offered only during the first two months of each year;

·

No requirement that the taxpayer pays for another bank product, such as an RT;

·

Multiple funds disbursement methods, including direct deposit, prepaid card, check, or Walmart Direct2Cash®, based on the taxpayer-customer’s election;

·

Repayment of the EA to the Bank is deducted from the taxpayer’s tax refund proceeds; and

·

If an insufficient refund to repay the EA occurs:

o

there is no recourse to the taxpayer, 

o

no negative credit reporting on the taxpayer, and

o

no collection efforts against the taxpayer.

 

EA features modified from 2018 to 2019:

 

·

During 2019, the taxpayer was given the option to choose from multiple loan-amount tiers, subject to underwriting, up to a maximum advance amount of $6,250.  This compares to a maximum loan amount of $3,500 during 2018; and

·

During 2018, EA fees were charged only to the Tax Providers.  In 2019, the fee charged to the Tax Providers was lowered; and a direct fee to the taxpayer was charged.  The APR to the taxpayer for his or her portion of the total fee equated to less than 36% for all offering tiers.

 

The Company reports fees paid for the EA product as interest income on loans. EAs are generally repaid within three weeks after the taxpayer’s tax return is submitted to the applicable taxing authority. EAs do not have a contractual due date but the Company considers an EA delinquent if it remains unpaid three weeks after the taxpayer’s tax return is submitted to the applicable taxing authority. Provisions for loan losses on EAs are estimated when advances are made, with provisions for all probable EA losses made in the first quarter of each year. Unpaid EAs are charged off by June 30th of each year, with EAs collected during the second half of each year recorded as recoveries of previously charged off loans.

 

Related to the overall credit losses on EAs, the Bank’s ability to control losses is highly dependent upon its ability to predict the taxpayer’s likelihood to receive the tax refund as claimed on the taxpayer’s tax return. Each year, the Bank’s EA approval model is based primarily on the prior-year’s tax refund payment patterns. Because the substantial majority of the EA volume occurs each year before that year’s tax refund payment patterns can be analyzed and subsequent underwriting changes made, credit losses during a current year could be higher than management’s predictions if tax refund payment patterns change materially between years.

 

In response to changes in the legal, regulatory and competitive environment, management annually reviews and revises the EA’s product parameters. Further changes in EA product parameters do not ensure positive results and could have an overall material negative impact on the performance of the EA and therefore on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. For the first quarter 2020 tax season, the Company modified the EA product’s pricing structure. The annual percentage rate to the taxpayer for his or her portion of the EA fee is not greater than 36% for all EA offering amounts.

11

 

See additional discussion regarding the EA product under the sections titled:

 

·

Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors”

·

Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”

·

Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” Footnote 4 “Loans and Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses”

 

Republic Payment Solutions division

 

RPS is managed and operated within the TRS segment. The RPS division is an issuing bank offering general-purpose reloadable prepaid cards through third-party service providers. For the projected near-term, as the prepaid card program matures, the operating results of the RPS division are expected to be immaterial to the Company’s overall results of operations and will be reported as part of the TRS segment. The RPS division will not be considered a separate reportable segment until such time, if any, that it meets quantitative reporting thresholds.

 

The Company reports fees related to RPS programs under Program fees. Additionally, the Company’s portion of interchange revenue generated by prepaid card transactions is reported as noninterest income under “Interchange fee income.”

 

See additional discussion regarding the TRS segment under the sections titled:

 

·

Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors”

·

Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”

·

Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” Footnote  25 “Segment Information”

 

(V) Republic Credit Solutions segment

 

Through the RCS segment, the Bank offers consumer credit products. In general, the credit products are unsecured, small dollar consumer loans and are dependent on various factors including the consumer’s ability to repay. RCS loans typically earn a higher yield but also have higher credit risk compared to loans originated through the Traditional Banking segment, with a significant portion of RCS clients considered subprime or near-prime borrowers. The Bank uses third-party service providers for certain services such as marketing and loan servicing of RCS loans. Additional information regarding consumer loan products offered through RCS follows:

 

·

RCS line-of-credit product – The Bank originates a line-of-credit product to generally subprime borrowers in multiple states. Elevate Credit, Inc., a third-party service provider subject to the Bank’s oversight and supervision, provides the Bank with certain marketing and support services for the RCS line-of-credit program, while a separate third party provides loan servicing for the RCS line-of-credit product on the Bank’s behalf. The Bank is the lender for the RCS line-of-credit product and is marketed as such. Further, the Bank controls the loan terms and underwriting guidelines,  and the Bank exercises consumer compliance oversight of the RCS line-of-credit product. 

 

The Bank sells participation interests in the RCS line-of-credit product. These participation interests are a 90% interest in advances made to borrowers under the borrower’s line-of-credit account, and the participation interests are generally sold three business days following the Bank’s funding of the associated advances. Although the Bank retains a 10% participation interest in each advance, it maintains 100% ownership of the underlying RCS line-of-credit account with each borrower. The RCS line-of-credit product represents the substantial majority of RCS activity. Loan balances held for sale through this program are carried at the lower of cost or fair value.

 

·

RCS healthcare receivables products – The Bank originates healthcare-receivables products across the United States through two different third-party service providers. In one program, the Bank retains 100% of the receivables originated. In the other program, the Bank retains 100% of the receivables originated in some instances, and in other instances, sells 100% of the receivables within one month of origination. Loan balances held for sale through this program are carried at the lower of cost or fair value.

12

 

·

RCS installment loan products  – From the first quarter of 2016 through the first quarter of 2018, the Bank piloted a consumer installment loan product across the United States using a third-party service provider. As part of the program, the Bank sold 100% of the balances generated through the program back to its third-party service provider approximately 21 days after origination. During the second quarter of 2018, the Bank and its third-party service provider suspended the origination of new loans and the sale of unsold loans through this program. Since program suspension in 2018, the Bank has carried all unsold loans under this program as “held for investment” on its balance sheet and has continued to wind down those balances. Additionally, loans under this program are carried at fair value under a fair value option on the Bank’s balance sheet with the portfolio marked to market monthly. Approximately $998,000 of balances remained held for investment under this program as of December 31, 2019.

 

Through a new program launched in December 2019, the Bank began offering RCS installment loans with terms ranging from 12 to 60 months to borrowers in multiple states. A third-party service provider subject to the Bank’s oversight and supervision provides the Bank with marketing services and loan servicing for these RCS installment loans. The Bank is the lender for these RCS installment loans, and is marketed as such. Further, the Bank controls the loan terms and underwriting guidelines, and the Bank exercises consumer compliance oversight of this RCS installment loan product. Currently, all loan balances originated under this RCS installment loan program are carried as “held for sale” on the Bank’s balance sheet, with the intention to sell these loans to its third-party service provider sixteen days following the Bank’s origination of the loans. Loans originated under this RCS installment loan program are carried at fair value under a fair-value option, with the portfolio marked to market monthly.

 

The Company reports interest income and loan origination fees earned on RCS loans under “Loans, including fees,” while any gains or losses on sale and mark-to-market adjustments of RCS loans are reported as noninterest income under “Program fees.”

 

See additional discussion regarding the RCS segment under the sections titled:

 

·

Part I Item 1A “Risk Factors”

·

Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”

·

Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” Footnote  25  “Segment Information”

 

Employees

 

As of December 31, 2019, Republic had 1,080 FTE employees. Altogether, Republic had 1,068 full-time and 24 part-time employees. None of the Company’s employees are subject to a collective bargaining agreement, and Republic has never experienced a work stoppage. The Company believes that it has had and continues to have good employee relations.   

 

Information about our Executive Officers

 

See Part III, Item 10. “Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.” for information about the Company’s executive officers.

 

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Competition

 

Traditional Banking

 

The Traditional Bank encounters intense competition in its market footprint in originating loans, attracting deposits, and selling other banking related financial services. Through its national branchless banking platform, MemoryBank, the Bank competes for digital and mobile clients in select pilot markets under the MemoryBank brand. The deregulation of the banking industry, the ability to create financial services holding companies to engage in a wide range of financial services other than banking and the widespread enactment of state laws that permit multi-bank holding companies, as well as the availability of nationwide interstate banking, has created a highly competitive environment for financial institutions. In one or more aspects of the Bank’s business, the Bank competes with local and regional retail and commercial banks, other savings banks, credit unions, finance companies, mortgage companies, fintech companies, and other financial intermediaries operating in Kentucky, Indiana, Florida, Tennessee, Ohio, and in other states where the Bank offers its products. The Bank also competes with insurance companies, consumer finance companies, investment banking firms, and mutual fund managers. Some of the Company’s competitors are not subject to the same degree of regulatory review and restrictions that apply to the Company and the Bank. Many of the Bank’s primary competitors, some of which are affiliated with large bank holding companies or other larger financial based institutions, have substantially greater resources, larger established client bases, higher lending limits, more extensive banking center networks, numerous ATMs or ITMs, and greater advertising and marketing budgets. They may also offer services that the Bank does not currently provide. These competitors attempt to gain market share through their financial product mix, pricing strategies, and banking center locations. Legislative developments related to interstate branching and banking in general, by providing large banking institutions easier access to a broader marketplace, can act to create more pressure on smaller financial institutions to consolidate. It is anticipated that competition from both bank and non-bank entities will continue to remain strong in the foreseeable future.

 

The primary factors in competing for bank products are convenient locations and ATMs, ITMs, flexible hours, deposit interest rates, services, internet banking, mobile banking, range of lending services offered, and lending fees. Additionally, the Bank believes that an emphasis on highly personalized service tailored to individual client needs, together with the local character of the Bank’s business and its “community bank” management philosophy will continue to enhance the Bank’s ability to compete successfully in its market footprint.

 

Warehouse Lending

 

The Bank faces strong competition from financial institutions across the United States for mortgage banking clients in need of warehouse lines of credit. Competitors may have substantially greater resources, larger established client bases, higher lending limits, as well as underwriting standards and on-going oversight requirements that could be viewed more favorably by some clients.  A few or all of these factors can lead to a competitive disadvantage to the Company when attempting to retain or grow its Warehouse client base.

 

Mortgage Banking

 

The Bank encounters intense competition from mortgage bankers, mortgage brokers, and financial institutions for the origination and funding of mortgage loans. Many competitors have branch offices in the same areas where the Bank’s loan officers operate. The Bank also competes with mortgage companies whose focus is often on telemarketing and consumer-direct lending.

 

Tax Refund Solutions

 

The TRS segment encounters direct competition for RT and EA market share from a limited number of banks in the industry.  The Bank promotes these products to Tax Providers using various revenue-share and pricing incentives, as well as product features and overall service levels.

 

Republic Payment Solutions

 

The prepaid card industry is subject to intense and increasing competition. The Bank competes with a number of companies that market different types of prepaid card products, such as general-purpose-reloadable, gift, incentive, and corporate disbursement cards. There is also competition from large retailers who are seeking to integrate more financial services into their product offerings.

14

Increased competition is also expected from alternative financial services providers who are often well-positioned to service the “underbanked” and who may wish to develop their own prepaid card programs.

 

Republic Credit Solutions

 

The small-dollar consumer loan industry is highly competitive.  Competitors for the Company’s small-dollar loan programs include, but are not limited to, billers who accept late payments for a fee, overdraft privilege programs of other banks and credit unions, as well as payday lenders and fintech companies.

 

New entrants to the small-dollar consumer loan market must successfully implement underwriting and fraud prevention processes, overcome consumer brand loyalty, and have sufficient capital to withstand early losses associated with unseasoned loan portfolios. In addition, there are substantial regulatory and compliance costs, including the need for expertise to customize products associated with licenses to lend in various states across the United States.

 

Supervision and Regulation

 

The Company and the Bank are separate and distinct entities and are subject to extensive federal and state banking laws and regulations, which establish a comprehensive framework of activities in which the Company and the Bank may engage. These laws and regulations are primarily intended to provide protection to clients and depositors, not stockholders. The Company, as a public reporting company, is also subject to various securities laws and regulations.

 

As an umbrella supervisor under the GLBA's system of functional regulation, the FRB requires that FHCs operate in a safe and sound manner so that their financial condition does not threaten the viability of affiliated depository institutions. The FRB conducts periodic examinations to review the Company’s safety and soundness, and compliance with various legal and safety and soundness requirements.

 

The Bank is a Kentucky-chartered commercial banking and trust corporation and as such, it is subject to supervision and regulation by the FDIC and the KDFI. The Bank also operates physical locations in Florida, Indiana, Ohio, and Tennessee; originates and purchases loans on a national basis; and accepts deposits on a national basis through its MemoryBank digital brand. All deposits, subject to regulatory prescribed limitations, held by the Bank are insured by the FDIC. The Bank is subject to restrictions, requirements, potential enforcement actions and examinations by the FDIC and KDFI. The FRB’s regulation of the Company with monetary policies and operational rules directly impact the Bank. The Bank is a member of the FHLB System.

 

As a member of the FHLB system, the Bank must also comply with applicable regulations of the Federal Housing Finance Agency. Regulation by each of these agencies is intended primarily for the protection of the Bank’s depositors and the DIF and not for the benefit of the Company’s stockholders. The Bank’s activities are also regulated under federal and state consumer protection laws applicable to the Bank’s lending, deposit, and other activities. An adverse ruling or finding against the Company or the Bank under these laws could have a material adverse effect on results of operations.

 

The Company and the Bank are also subject to the regulations of the CFPB, which was established under the Dodd-Frank Act. The CFPB has consolidated rules and orders with respect to consumer financial products and services and has substantial power to define the rights of consumers and responsibilities of lending institutions, such as the Bank. The CFPB does not, however, examine or supervise the Bank for compliance with such regulations; rather, based on the Bank’s size (less than $10 billion in assets), enforcement authority remains with the FDIC although the Bank may be required to submit reports or other materials to the CFPB upon its request. Notwithstanding jurisdictional limitations set forth in the Dodd-Frank Act, the CFPB and federal banking regulators may endeavor to work jointly in investigating and resolving cases as they arise.

 

Regulators have extensive discretion in connection with their supervisory and enforcement authority and examination policies, including, but not limited to, policies that can materially impact the classification of assets and the establishment of adequate loan loss reserves. Any change in regulatory requirements and policies, whether by the FRB, the FDIC, the KDFI, the CFPB or state or federal legislation, could have a material adverse impact on Company operations.

 

Regulators also have broad enforcement powers over banks and their holding companies, including, but not limited to:  the power to mandate or restrict particular actions, activities, or divestitures; impose monetary fines and other penalties for violations of laws and

15

regulations; issue cease and desist or removal orders; seek injunctions; publicly disclose such actions; and prohibit unsafe or unsound practices. This authority includes both informal and formal actions to effect corrective actions and/or sanctions. In addition, the Bank is subject to regulation and potential enforcement actions by other state and federal agencies.

 

Certain regulatory requirements applicable to the Company and the Bank are referred to below or elsewhere in this filing. The description of statutory provisions and regulations applicable to banks and their holding companies set forth in this filing does not purport to be a complete description of such statutes and regulations. Their effect on the Company and the Bank is qualified in its entirety by reference to the actual laws and regulations.

 

The Dodd-Frank Act

 

The Dodd-Frank Act, among other things, implemented changes that affected the oversight and supervision of financial institutions, provided for a new resolution procedure for large financial companies, created the CFPB, introduced more stringent regulatory capital requirements and significant changes in the regulation of OTC derivatives, reformed the regulation of credit rating agencies, increased controls and transparency in corporate governance and executive compensation practices, incorporated the Volcker Rule, required registration of advisers to certain private funds, and influenced significant changes in the securitization market.  The Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act of 2018 (the “EGRRCPA”) and its implementing regulations pulled back some of the more stringent requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act for community banks with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion, such as the Bank.  Due to exemptions in the Dodd-Frank Act, the EGRRCPA, and each Act’s implementing regulations, the Company and Bank are not subject to several provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act including but not limited to 1) the Durbin Amendment that would otherwise limit the interchange fees the Bank could charge on debit card transactions, 2) the Volcker Rule that would affect the Company’s ability to invest in or engage in certain trading activities, and 3) stricter regulatory capital requirements.

 

Incentive and Executive Compensation — In 2010, the FRB and other regulators jointly published final guidance for structuring incentive compensation arrangements at financial organizations. The guidance does not set forth any formulas or pay caps but contains certain principles that companies are required to follow with respect to employees and groups of employees that may expose the company to material amounts of risk. The three primary principles are (i) balanced risk-taking incentives, (ii) compatibility with effective controls and risk management, and (iii) strong corporate governance. The FRB monitors compliance with this guidance as part of its safety and soundness oversight.

 

In 2016, the FRB, SEC, and other regulators jointly published proposed rules on incentive compensation under Section 956 of the Dodd-Frank Act. If these rules are finalized, the Company and the Bank, due to the value of their total consolidated assets, would only be subject to the most basic set of prohibitions and requirements, which prohibit “excessive compensation, fees, or benefits” or any compensation agreement that “could lead to material financial loss.”

 

The proposed rules would also require that the Company’s board of directors, or a committee thereof, conduct oversight of its incentive-based compensation program and approve incentive-based compensation arrangements for senior executive officers. Additionally, the Company and the Bank would be required to create and maintain records that document the structure of all the incentive-based compensation arrangements, demonstrate compliance with the final rules, and disclose those records to the appropriate Federal regulator upon request

 

I.The Company

 

Source of Strength Doctrine — The Dodd-Frank Act codifies the Federal Reserve Board’s existing “source of strength” policy that holding companies act as a source of strength to their insured institution subsidiaries by providing capital, liquidity and other support in times of distress. FRB policies and regulations also prohibit bank holding companies from engaging in unsafe and unsound banking practices. The FDIC and the KDFI have similar restrictions with respect to the Bank.  Under the Dodd-Frank Act and in line with prior FRB policy, a BHC is expected to act as a source of financial strength to its banking subsidiaries and to commit resources for their support. This support may restrict the Company’s ability to pay dividends, and may be required at times when, absent this FRB policy, a holding company may not be inclined to provide it. A BHC may also be required to guarantee the capital restoration plan of an undercapitalized banking subsidiary and any applicable cross-guarantee provisions that may apply to the Company. In addition, any capital loans by the Company to its bank subsidiary are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of the bank subsidiary. In the event of a BHC’s bankruptcy, any commitment by the BHC to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of subsidiary bank will be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to a priority of payment.

16

 

Acquisitions and Strategic Planning — The Company is required to obtain the prior approval of the FRB under the BHCA before it may, among other things, acquire all or substantially all of the assets of any bank, or ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank, if after such acquisition it would own or control, directly or indirectly, more than 5% of any class of the voting shares of such bank. In addition, the Bank must obtain regulatory approval before entering into certain transactions, such as adding new banking offices and mergers with, or acquisitions of, other financial institutions. This may affect the Company’s or the Bank’s acquisition or timely acquisition of interests in other banks, other merger and acquisition activity and banking office expansion.

 

The BHCA and the Change in Bank Control Act also generally require the approval of the Federal Reserve before any person or company can acquire control of a bank or BHC. Acquisition of control occurs if immediately after a transaction, the acquiring person or company owns, controls, or holds voting securities of the institution with the power to vote 25% or more of any class. Control is refutably presumed to exist if, immediately after a transaction, the acquiring person or company owns, controls, or holds voting securities of the institution with the power to vote 10% or more of any class, and (i) the institution has registered securities under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; or (ii) no other person will own, control, or hold the power to vote a greater percentage of that class of voting securities immediately after the transaction.

 

Financial Activities — As an FHC, the Company is permitted to engage directly or indirectly in a broader range of activities than those permitted for a BHC under the BHCA. Permitted activities for an FHC include securities underwriting and dealing, insurance underwriting and brokerage, merchant banking and other activities that are declared by the FRB, in cooperation with the Treasury Department, to be “financial in nature or incidental thereto” or are declared by the FRB unilaterally to be “complementary” to financial activities. Permitted activities also include those determined to be “closely related to banking” activities by the FRB under the BHCA and permissible for any BHC.  An FHC is allowed to conduct permissible new financial activities or acquire permissible non-bank financial companies with after-the-fact notice to the FRB. A BHC may elect to become an FHC if it and each of its banking subsidiaries is well capitalized, is well managed and has at least a “Satisfactory” rating under the CRA. To maintain FHC status, the Company and the Bank must continue to meet the well capitalized and well managed requirements. The failure to meet such requirements could result in material restrictions on the activities of the Company and may also adversely affect the Company’s ability to enter into certain transactions (including mergers and acquisitions) or obtain necessary approvals in connection therewith, as well as loss of FHC status. If restrictions are imposed on the activities of an FHC, such information may not necessarily be available to the public.

 

II.The Bank

 

The Kentucky and federal banking statutes prescribe the permissible activities in which a Kentucky chartered bank may engage and where those activities may be conducted. Kentucky’s statutes contain a super parity provision that permits a well-rated Kentucky bank to engage in any banking activity in which a national bank in Kentucky, a state bank, state thrift, or state savings association operating in any other state, a federal savings bank or a federal thrift meeting the qualified thrift lender test engages, provided it first obtains a legal opinion from counsel specifying the statutory or regulatory provisions that permit the activity.

 

Safety and Soundness – The federal banking regulatory agencies have prescribed, by regulation, guidelines for all insured depository institutions relating to: (i) internal controls, information systems and internal audit systems; (ii) loan documentation; (iii) credit underwriting; (iv) interest rate risk exposure; (v) asset growth; (vi) asset quality; (vii) earnings; and (viii) compensation, fees and benefits. The guidelines set forth safety and soundness standards that the federal banking regulatory agencies use to identify and address problems at FDIC member institutions before capital becomes impaired. If the FDIC determines that the Bank fails to meet any standard prescribed by the guidelines, the FDIC may require the Bank to submit to it an acceptable plan to achieve compliance with the standard. FDIC regulations establish deadlines for the submission and review of such safety and soundness compliance plans in response to any such determination. We are not aware of any conditions relating to these safety and soundness standards that would require us to submit a plan of compliance to the FDIC.

 

Branching — Kentucky law generally permits a Kentucky chartered bank to establish a branch office in any county in Kentucky. A Kentucky bank may also, subject to regulatory approval and certain restrictions, establish a branch office outside of Kentucky. Well-capitalized Kentucky state chartered banks that have been in operation at least three years and that satisfy certain criteria relating to, among other things, their composite and management exam ratings, may establish a branch in Kentucky without the approval of the Commissioner of the KDFI, upon notice to the KDFI and any other state bank with its main office located in the county where the new branch will be located. Branching by banks not meeting these criteria requires the approval of the Commissioner of the KDFI, who

17

must ascertain and determine that the public convenience and advantage will be served and promoted and that there is a reasonable probability of the successful operation of the branch. In any case, the proposed branch must also be approved by the FDIC, which considers a number of factors, including financial condition, capital adequacy, earnings prospects, character of management, needs of the community and consistency with corporate powers. As a result of several legislative acts including the Dodd-Frank Act, the Bank, along with any other national or state-chartered bank generally may branch across state lines. Such unlimited branching authority has the potential to increase competition within the markets in which the Company and the Bank operate.

 

Affiliate Transaction Restrictions — Transactions between the Bank and its affiliates, and in some cases the Bank’s correspondent banks, are subject to FDIC regulations, the FRB’s Regulations O and W, and Sections 23A, 23B, 22(g) and 22(h) of the Federal Reserve Act (“FRA”). In general, these transactions must be on terms and conditions that are consistent with safe and sound banking practices and substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the bank or its subsidiary, as those for comparable transactions with non-affiliated parties. In addition, certain types of these transactions referred to as “covered transactions” are subject to quantitative limits based on a percentage of the Bank’s capital, thereby restricting the total dollar amount of transactions the Bank may engage in with each individual affiliate and with all affiliates in the aggregate. Affiliates must pledge qualifying collateral in amounts between 100% and 130% of the covered transaction in order to receive loans from the Bank. Limitations are also imposed on loans and extensions of credit by a bank to its executive officers, directors and principal stockholders and each of their related interests. The Dodd-Frank Act expanded the scope of these regulations, including by applying them to the credit exposure arising under derivative transactions, repurchase and reverse repurchase agreements, and securities borrowing and lending transactions.

 

The FRB promulgated Regulation W to implement Sections 23A and 23B of the FRA. This regulation contains many of the foregoing restrictions and addresses derivative transactions, overdraft facilities, and other transactions between a bank and its non-bank affiliates.

 

Restrictions on Distribution of Subsidiary Bank Dividends and Assets — Bank regulators may declare a dividend payment to be unsafe and unsound even if the Bank continues to meet its capital requirements after the dividend. Dividends paid by the Bank provide substantially all of the Company’s operating funds. Regulatory requirements limit the amount of dividends that may be paid by the Bank. Under federal regulations, the Bank cannot pay a dividend if, after paying the dividend, the Bank would be undercapitalized.

 

Under Kentucky and federal banking regulations, the dividends the Bank can pay during any calendar year are generally limited to its profits for that year, plus its retained net profits for the two preceding years, less any required transfers to surplus or to fund the retirement of preferred stock or debt, absent approval of the respective state or federal banking regulators. FDIC regulations also require all insured depository institutions to remain in a safe and sound condition, as defined in regulations, as a condition of having FDIC deposit insurance.

 

FDIC Deposit Insurance Assessments — All Bank deposits are insured to the maximum extent permitted by the DIF. These bank deposits are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government. As insurer, the FDIC is authorized to conduct examinations of, and to require reporting by, insured institutions. It also may prohibit any insured institution from engaging in any activity determined by regulation or order to pose a serious threat to the DIF.

 

The FDIC assesses all banks quarterly.  A bank’s assessment base and assessment rates are determined quarterly and are risk-based.  For small banks (such as the Bank) post-Dodd-Frank and certain rule changes effective in 2016, individual assessment rates are individually assigned based on the FDIC’s financial ratios method that estimates the probability of the bank’s failure over three years using financial data and a weighted average of the bank’s CAMELS component ratings, subject to adjustment.  CAMELS composite ratings are used to set minimum and maximum assessment rates.  The assessment base, post-Dodd-Frank, is the average consolidated total assets minus average tangible equity. Management cannot predict what insurance assessment rates will be in the future.

 

The FDIC may terminate the deposit insurance of any insured depository institution, including the Bank, if it determines that the institution has engaged or is engaging in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, order or any condition imposed by an agreement with the FDIC. It may also suspend deposit insurance temporarily if the institution has no tangible capital. If insurance is terminated, the accounts at the institution at the time of the termination, less subsequent withdrawals, shall continue to be insured for a period of six months to two years, as determined by the FDIC. Management is aware of no existing circumstances that would result in termination of the Bank’s FDIC deposit insurance.

 

18

Anti-Money Laundering, Patriot Act; OFAC Sanctions – The Company and the Bank are subject to federal laws that are designed to counter money laundering and terrorist financing, and transactions with persons, companies or foreign governments sanctioned by the United States. These laws include the Bank Secrecy Act, the Money Laundering Control Act, and the USA Patriot Act, as administered by the United States Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control. These laws obligate depository institutions and broker-dealers to verify their customers’ identity, conduct customer due diligence, report on suspicious activity, file reports of transactions in currency and conduct enhanced due diligence on certain accounts. They also prohibit U.S. persons from engaging in transactions with certain designated restricted countries and persons. Depository institutions and broker-dealers are required by their federal regulators to maintain robust policies and procedures in order to ensure compliance with these obligations. In cooperation with federal banking regulatory agencies, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network is responsible for implementing, administering, and enforcing compliance with these laws.

 

Failure to comply with these laws or maintain an adequate compliance program can lead to significant monetary penalties and reputational damage. Federal regulators evaluate the effectiveness of an applicant in combating money laundering when determining whether to approve a proposed bank merger, acquisition, restructuring, or other expansionary activity.

 

Consumer Laws and Regulations —The Bank is  subject to a number of federal and state consumer protection laws, including, but not limited to, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Truth in Savings Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Expedited Funds Availability Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Military Lending Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act, the Telephone Consumer Protection Act, and these laws’ respective state-law counterparts, among many others. As discussed in more detail below, we also comply with fair lending and privacy laws.  Banks as well as nonbanks are subject to any rule, regulation or guideline created by the CFPB. The CFPB is an independent “watchdog” within the Federal Reserve System that regulates any person who offers or provides personal, family or household financial products or services.  Congress established the CFPB to create one agency in charge of protecting consumers by overseeing the application and implementation of “Federal consumer financial laws,” which includes (i) rules, orders and guidelines of the CFPB, (ii) all consumer financial protection functions, powers and duties transferred from other federal agencies, such as the Federal Reserve, the OCC, the FDIC, the Federal Trade Commission, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and (iii) a long list of consumer financial protection laws enumerated in the Dodd-Frank Act including those listed above.

 

The CFPB is authorized to prescribe rules applicable to any covered person or service provider identifying and prohibiting acts or practices that are unfair, deceptive or abusive in connection with any transaction with a consumer for a consumer financial product or service, or the offering of a consumer financial product or service. The CFPB has engaged in rulemaking and taken enforcement actions that directly impact the business operations of financial institutions offering consumer financial products or services including the Bank and its divisions. Depository institutions with $10 billion or less in assets, such as the Bank, will continue to be examined for compliance with the consumer protection laws and regulations by their primary bank regulators (the FDIC for the Bank), rather than the CFPB. The FDIC also regulates what it considers unfair and deceptive practices under Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act.

 

Such laws and regulations and the other consumer protection laws and regulations to which the Bank has been subject have historically mandated certain disclosure requirements and regulated the manner in which financial institutions must deal with customers when taking deposits from, making loans to, or engaging in other types of transactions with, such customers. The continued effect of the CFPB on the development and promulgation of consumer protection rules and guidelines and the enforcement of federal “consumer financial laws” on the Bank, if any, cannot be determined with certainty at this time.

 

Community Reinvestment Act and the Fair Lending Laws – Banks have a responsibility under the CRA and related regulations of the FDIC to help meet the credit needs of their communities, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. In addition, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act prohibit lenders from discriminating in their lending practices on the basis of characteristics specified in those statutes. An institution’s failure to comply with the provisions of the CRA could, at a minimum, result in regulatory restrictions on its activities and the denial of applications. In addition, an institution’s failure to comply with the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act could result in the FDIC, other federal regulatory agencies or the Department of Justice, taking enforcement actions against the institution. Failure by the Bank to fully comply with these laws could result in material penalties being assessed against the Bank. The Bank received a “Satisfactory” CRA Performance Evaluation in May 2018, its most recent evaluation. A copy of the public section of this CRA Performance Evaluation is available to the public upon request.

 

19

Privacy and Data Security – The FRB, FDIC, and other bank regulatory agencies have adopted guidelines (the “Guidelines”) for safeguarding confidential, personal customer information. The Guidelines require each financial institution, under the supervision and ongoing oversight of its board of directors or an appropriate committee thereof, to create, implement and maintain a comprehensive written information security program designed to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer information, protect against any anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such information and protect against unauthorized access to or use of such information that could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any customer. If the Bank fails to properly safeguard customer information or is the subject of a successful cyber-attack, it could result in material fines and/or liabilities that would materially affect the Company’s results of operations.

 

In addition, various U.S. regulators, including the Federal Reserve and the SEC, have increased their focus on cyber-security through guidance, examinations and regulations. The Company has adopted a customer information security program that has been approved by the Company’s Board of Directors.

 

The GLBA requires financial institutions to implement policies and procedures regarding the disclosure of nonpublic personal information about consumers to non-affiliated third parties. In general, the statute requires explanations to consumers on policies and procedures regarding the disclosure of such nonpublic personal information, and, except as otherwise required by law, prohibits disclosing such information except as provided in the banking subsidiary’s policies and procedures. In addition to the GLBA, the Company and the Bank are also subject to state and international privacy laws.

 

Prohibitions Against Tying Arrangements — The Bank is subject to prohibitions on certain tying arrangements. A depository institution is prohibited, subject to certain exceptions, from extending credit to or offering any other service, or fixing or varying the consideration for such extension of credit or service, on the condition that the client obtain some additional product or service from the institution or its affiliates or not obtain services of a competitor of the institution.

 

Depositor Preference — The FDIA provides that, in the event of the “liquidation or other resolution” of an insured depository institution, the claims of depositors of the institution, including the claims of the FDIC as subrogee of insured depositors, and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as a receiver, will have priority over other general unsecured claims against the institution. If an insured depository institution fails, insured and uninsured depositors, along with the FDIC, will have priority in payment ahead of unsecured, non-deposit creditors (including depositors whose deposits are payable only outside of the U.S.), and the parent BHC, with respect to any extensions of credit they have made to such insured depository institution.

 

Federal Home Loan Bank System — The FHLB offers credit to its members, which include savings banks, commercial banks, insurance companies, credit unions, and other entities. The FHLB system is currently divided into eleven federally chartered regional FHLBs that are regulated by the Federal Housing Finance Agency. The Bank is a member and owns capital stock in the FHLB Cincinnati. The amount of capital stock the Bank must own to maintain its membership depends on its balance of outstanding advances. It is required to acquire and hold shares in an amount at least equal to 1% of the aggregate principal amount of its unpaid single-family, residential real estate loans and similar obligations at the beginning of each year, or 1/20th of its outstanding advances from the FHLB, whichever is greater. Advances are secured by pledges of loans, mortgage backed securities and capital stock of the FHLB. FHLBs also purchase mortgages in the secondary market through their MPP. The Bank has never sold loans to the MPP.

 

In the event of a default on an advance, the Federal Home Loan Bank Act establishes priority of the FHLB’s claim over various other claims. If an FHLB falls below its minimum capital requirements, the FHLB may seek to require its members to purchase additional capital stock of the FHLB. If problems within the FHLB system were to occur, it could adversely affect the pricing or availability of advances, the amount and timing of dividends on capital stock issued by FHLB Cincinnati to its members, or the ability of members to have their FHLB capital stock redeemed on a timely basis. Congress continues to consider various proposals that could establish a new regulatory structure for the FHLB system, as well as for other government-sponsored entities. The Bank cannot predict at this time, which, if any, of these proposals may be adopted or what effect they would have on the Bank’s business.

 

Federal Reserve System — Under regulations of the FRB, the Bank is required to maintain noninterest-earning reserves against its transaction accounts (primarily NOW and regular checking accounts). The Bank is in compliance with the foregoing reserve requirements. Required reserves must be maintained in the form of vault cash, a depository account at the FRB, or a pass-through account as defined by the FRB. The balances maintained to meet the reserve requirements imposed by the FRB may be used to satisfy liquidity requirements imposed by the FDIC. The Bank is also authorized to borrow from the FRB discount window.

 

20

Loans to One Borrower — Under current limits, loans and extensions of credit outstanding at one time to a single borrower and not fully secured generally may not exceed 15% of the institution’s unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus. Loans and extensions of credit fully secured by certain readily marketable collateral may represent an additional 10% of unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus.

 

Loans to Insiders — The Bank’s authority to extend credit to its directors, executive officers and principal shareholders, as well as to entities controlled by such persons, is governed by the requirements of Sections 22(g) and 22(h) of the FRA and Regulation O of the Federal Reserve Board. Among other things, these provisions require that extensions of credit to insiders: (a) be made on terms that are substantially the same as, and follow credit underwriting procedures that are not less stringent than, those prevailing for comparable transactions with non-insiders and that do not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other features that are unfavorable to the Bank; and (b) not exceed certain limitations on the amount of credit extended to such persons, individually and in the aggregate, which limits are based, in part, on the amount of the Bank’s capital. In addition, extensions of credit to insiders in excess of certain limits must be approved by the Bank’s Board of Directors.

 

Capital Adequacy Requirements

 

Capital Guidelines — The Company and the Bank are subject to capital regulations in accordance with Basel III, as administered by banking regulators. Regulatory agencies measure capital adequacy within a framework that makes capital requirements, in part, dependent on the individual risk profiles of financial institutions. Failure to meet minimum capital requirements can initiate certain mandatory and possibly additional discretionary actions by regulators, including prompt corrective action as described below, that, if undertaken, could have a direct material effect on Republic’s financial statements. Under capital adequacy guidelines and the regulatory framework for prompt corrective action, the Company and the Bank must meet specific capital guidelines that involve quantitative measures of the Company’s assets, liabilities and certain off-balance sheet items, as calculated under regulatory accounting practices. The capital amounts and classification are also subject to qualitative judgments by the regulators regarding components, risk weightings and other factors.

 

Banking regulators have categorized the Bank as well-capitalized. For purposes of determining if prompt corrective action is called for, the regulations in accordance with Basel III define “well capitalized” as a 10.0% Total Risk-Based Capital ratio, a 6.5% Common Equity Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital ratio, an 8.0% Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital ratio, and a 5.0% Tier 1 Leverage ratio. Additionally, in order to avoid limitations on capital distributions, including dividend payments and certain discretionary bonus payments to executive officers, the Company and Bank must hold a capital conservation buffer of 2.5% composed of Common Equity Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital above their minimum risk-based capital requirements.

 

As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company’s capital ratios were as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2019

 

2018

 

December 31, (dollars in thousands)

    

Amount

    

Ratio

    

Amount

    

Ratio

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total capital to risk-weighted assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Republic Bancorp, Inc.

 

$

825,987

 

17.01

%  

$

757,726

 

16.80

%

Republic Bank & Trust Company

 

 

723,248

 

14.91

 

 

654,258

 

14.52

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common equity tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Republic Bancorp, Inc.

 

$

742,636

 

15.29

%  

$

673,051

 

14.92

%

Republic Bank & Trust Company

 

 

679,897

 

14.01

 

 

609,583

 

13.53

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tier 1 (core) capital to risk-weighted assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Republic Bancorp, Inc.

 

$

782,636

 

16.11

%  

$

713,051

 

15.81

%

Republic Bank & Trust Company

 

 

679,897

 

14.01

 

 

609,583

 

13.53

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tier 1 leverage capital to average assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Republic Bancorp, Inc.

 

$

782,636

 

13.93

%  

$

713,051

 

14.11

%

Republic Bank & Trust Company

 

 

679,897

 

12.11

 

 

609,583

 

12.06

 

 

21

Corrective Measures for Capital Deficiencies — The banking regulators are required to take “prompt corrective action” with respect to capital deficient institutions. Agency regulations define, for each capital category, the levels at which institutions are well capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized. A bank is undercapitalized if it fails to meet any one of the ratios required to be adequately capitalized.

 

Undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized institutions are required to submit a capital restoration plan, which must be guaranteed by the holding company of the institution. In addition, agency regulations contain broad restrictions on certain activities of undercapitalized institutions including asset growth, acquisitions, branch establishment, and expansion into new lines of business. With certain exceptions, an insured depository institution is prohibited from making capital distributions, including dividends, and is prohibited from paying management fees to control persons if the institution would be undercapitalized after any such distribution or payment. A bank’s capital classification will also affect its ability to accept brokered deposits. Under banking regulations, a bank may not lawfully accept, roll over or renew brokered deposits, unless it is either well capitalized or it is adequately capitalized and receives a waiver from its applicable regulator.

 

If a banking institution’s capital decreases below acceptable levels, bank regulatory enforcement powers become more enhanced. A significantly undercapitalized institution is subject to mandated capital raising activities, restrictions on interest rates paid and transactions with affiliates, removal of management and other restrictions. Banking regulators have limited discretion in dealing with a critically undercapitalized institution and are normally required to appoint a receiver or conservator. Banks with risk-based capital and leverage ratios below the required minimums may also be subject to certain administrative actions, including the termination of deposit insurance upon notice and hearing, or a temporary suspension of insurance without a hearing if the institution has no tangible capital.    

 

In addition, a BHC may face significant consequences if its bank subsidiary fails to maintain the required capital and management ratings, including entering into an agreement with the FRB that imposes limitations on its operations and may even require divestitures. Until such deficiencies are corrected, the FRB may impose any limitations or conditions on the conduct or activities of the FHC and its affiliates that the FRB determines are appropriate, and the FHC may not commence any additional activity or acquire control of any company under Section 4(k) of the BHCA without prior FRB approval. Unless the period for compliance is extended by the FRB, if an FHC fails to correct deficiencies in maintaining its qualification for FHC status within 180 days of notice to the FRB, the FRB may order divestiture of any depository institution controlled by the company. A company may comply with a divestiture order by ceasing to engage in any financial or other activity that would not be permissible for a BHC that has not elected to be treated as an FHC. The Company is currently classified as an FHC.

 

Under FDICIA, each federal banking agency has prescribed, by regulation, non-capital safety and soundness standards for institutions under its authority. These standards cover internal controls, information systems and internal audit systems, loan documentation, credit underwriting, interest rate exposure, asset growth, compensation, fees and benefits, such other operational and managerial standards as the agency determines to be appropriate, and standards for asset quality, earnings and stock valuation. An institution that fails to meet these standards must develop a plan acceptable to the agency, specifying the steps that the institution will take to meet the standards. Failure to submit or implement such a plan may subject the institution to regulatory sanctions.

 

Other Regulation and Legislative Initiatives

 

Any change in the regulations affecting the Bank’s operations is not predictable and could affect the Bank’s operations and profitability. The U.S. Congress and state legislative bodies also continually consider proposals for altering the structure, regulation, and competitive relationships of financial institutions. It cannot be predicted whether, or in what form, any of these potential proposals or regulatory initiatives will be adopted, the impact the proposals will have on the financial institutions industry or the extent to which the business or financial condition and operations of the Company and its subsidiaries may be affected.

 

Statistical Disclosures

 

The statistical disclosures required by Part I Item 1 “Business” are located under Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

 

22

Item 1A.  Risk Factors.  

 

FACTORS THAT MAY AFFECT FUTURE RESULTS

 

An investment in Republic’s common stock is subject to risks inherent in its business. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all of the other information included in this filing. In addition to the risks and uncertainties described below, other risks and uncertainties not currently known to the Company or that the Company currently deems to be immaterial also may materially and adversely affect its business, financial condition and results of operations in the future. The value or market price of the Company’s common stock could decline due to any of these identified or other risks, and an investor could lose all or part of their investment.

 

There are factors, many beyond the Company’s control, which may significantly change the results or expectations of the Company. Some of these factors are described below, however, many are described in the other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

ACCOUNTING POLICIES/ESTIMATES, ACCOUNTING STANDARDS, AND INTERNAL CONTROL

 

The Company’s accounting policies and estimates are critical components of the Company’s presentation of its financial statements. Management must exercise judgment in selecting and adopting various accounting policies and in applying estimates. Actual outcomes may be materially different from amounts previously estimated. Management has identified several accounting policies and estimates as being critical to the presentation of the Company’s financial statements. These policies are described in Part II Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under the section titled “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates.” The Company’s management must exercise judgment in selecting and applying many accounting policies and methods in order to comply with generally accepted accounting principles and reflect management’s judgment of the most appropriate manner to report the Company’s financial condition and results. In some cases, management may select an accounting policy that might be reasonable under the circumstances, yet might result in the Company’s reporting different results than would have been reported under a different alternative. Materially different amounts could be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions or estimates.

 

The Bank may experience goodwill impairment, which could reduce its earnings. The Bank performed its annual goodwill impairment test during the fourth quarter of 2019 as of September 30, 2019. The evaluation of the fair value of goodwill requires management judgment. If management’s judgment was incorrect and goodwill impairment was later deemed to exist, the Bank would be required to write down its goodwill resulting in a charge to earnings, which would adversely affect its results of operations, perhaps materially.

 

Changes in accounting standards could materially impact the Company’s financial statements. The FASB may change the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of the Company’s financial statements. These changes can be difficult to predict and can materially impact how the Company records and reports its financial condition and results of operations.  In addition, those who interpret the accounting standards, such as the SEC, the banking regulators and the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm may amend or reverse their previous interpretations or conclusions regarding how various standards should be applied. In some cases, the Company could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in the Company recasting, or possibly restating, prior period financial statements. See additional discussion regarding accounting standard updates in Part II Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplemental Data” under the section titled “Accounting Standards Updates.”

 

If the Company does not maintain strong internal controls and procedures, it may impact profitability. Management reviews and updates its internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures on a routine basis. This system is designed to provide reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the internal controls comply with appropriate regulatory guidance. Any undetected circumvention of these controls could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

23

 

TRADITIONAL BANK LENDING AND THE ALLOWANCE

 

The Allowance could be insufficient to cover the Bank’s actual loan losses. The Bank makes various assumptions and judgments about the collectability of its loan portfolio, including the creditworthiness of its borrowers and the value of the real estate and other assets serving as collateral for the repayment of many of its loans. In determining the amount of the Allowance, among other things, the Bank reviews its loss and delinquency experience, economic conditions, etc. If its assumptions are incorrect, the Allowance may not be sufficient to cover losses inherent in its loan portfolio, resulting in additions to its Allowance. In addition, regulatory agencies periodically review the Allowance and may require the Bank to increase its provision for loan and lease losses or recognize further loan charge-offs. A material increase in the Allowance or loan charge-offs would have a material adverse effect on the Bank’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

Deterioration in the quality of the Traditional Banking loan portfolio may result in additional charge-offs, which would adversely impact the Bank’s operating results. When borrowers default on their loan obligations, it may result in lost principal and interest income and increased operating expenses associated with the increased allocation of management time and resources associated with the collection efforts. In certain situations where collection efforts are unsuccessful or acceptable “work-out” arrangements cannot be reached or performed, the Bank may charge-off loans, either in part or in whole. Additional charge-offs will adversely affect the Bank’s operating results and financial condition.

 

The Bank’s financial condition and earnings could be negatively impacted to the extent the Bank relies on borrower information that is false, misleading or inaccurate. The Bank relies on the accuracy and completeness of information provided by vendors, clients and other parties in deciding whether to extend credit, or enter into transactions with other parties. If the Bank relies on incomplete and/or inaccurate information, the Bank may incur additional charge-offs that adversely affect its operating results and financial condition.

 

The Bank’s use of appraisals as part of the decision process to make a loan on or secured by real property does not ensure the value of the real property collateral. As part of the decision process to make a loan secured by real property, the Bank generally requires an independent third-party appraisal of the real property.  An appraisal, however, is only an estimate of the value of the property at the time the appraisal is made.  An error in fact or judgment could adversely affect the reliability of the appraisal. In addition, events occurring after the initial appraisal may cause the value of the real estate to decrease. As a result of any of these factors, the value of collateral securing a loan may be less than supposed, and if a default occurs, the Bank may not recover the outstanding balance of the loan. Additional charge-offs will adversely affect the Bank’s operating results and financial condition.

 

The Bank is exposed to risk of environmental liabilities with respect to properties to which it takes title. In the course of its business, the Bank may own or foreclose and take title to real estate and could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties. The Bank may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination, or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances, or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, if the Bank is the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, the Bank may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. These costs and claims could adversely affect the Bank.

 

Prepayment of loans may negatively impact the Bank’s business. The Bank’s clients may prepay the principal amount of their outstanding loans at any time. The speeds at which such prepayments occur, as well as the size of such prepayments, are within the Bank clients’ discretion. If clients prepay the principal amount of their loans, and the Bank is unable to lend those funds to other clients or invest the funds at the same or higher interest rates, the Bank’s interest income will be reduced. A significant reduction in interest income would have a negative impact on the Bank’s results of operations and financial condition.

 

The Bank is highly dependent upon programs administered by the FHLMC and the FNMA.  Changes in existing U.S. government-sponsored mortgage programs or servicing eligibility standards could materially and adversely affect its business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows. The Bank’s ability to generate revenues through mortgage loan sales to institutional investors depends to a significant degree on programs administered by Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae. These entities play powerful roles in the residential mortgage industry, and the Bank has significant business relationships with them. The Bank’s status as an approved seller/servicer for both is subject to compliance with their selling and servicing guides.

 

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Any discontinuation of, or significant reduction or material change in, the operation of Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae or any significant adverse change in the level of activity in the secondary mortgage market or the underwriting criteria of Freddie Mac or Fannie Mae would likely prevent the Bank from originating and selling most, if not all, of its mortgage loan originations.

 

Loans originated through the Bank’s Consumer Direct channel will subject the Bank to credit and regulatory risks that the Bank does not have through its historical origination channels. The dollar volume of loans originated through the Bank’s Consumer Direct channel is expected to be increasingly out-of-market.  Loans originated out of the Bank’s market footprint inherently carry additional credit and regulatory risk,  as the Bank will experience an increase in the complexity of the customer authentication requirements for such loans.  Failure to appropriately identify the end-borrower for such loans could lead to fraud losses. Failure to appropriately identify the end-borrower could result in regulatory sanctions resulting from failure to comply with various customer identification regulations. Failure to appropriately manage these additional risks could lead to additional regulatory and compliance risks and burdens and reduced profitability and/or operating losses through this origination channel.

 

BANK OWNED LIFE INSURANCE

 

The Bank holds a significant amount of BOLI, which creates credit risk relative to the insurers and liquidity risk relative to the product. At December 31, 2019, the Bank held BOLI on certain employees. The eventual repayment of the cash surrender value is subject to the ability of the various insurance companies to pay death benefits or to return the cash surrender value to the Bank if needed for liquidity purposes. The Bank continually monitors the financial strength of the various insurance companies that carry these policies. However, any one of these companies could experience a decline in financial strength, which could impair its ability to pay benefits or return the Bank’s cash surrender value. If the Bank needs to liquidate these policies for liquidity purposes, it would be subject to taxation on the increase in cash surrender value and penalties for early termination, both of which would adversely impact earnings.

 

DEPOSITS AND RELATED ITEMS

 

Clients could pursue alternatives to bank deposits, causing the Bank to lose a relatively inexpensive source of funding. Checking and savings account balances and other forms of client deposits could decrease if clients perceive alternative investments, such as the stock market, as providing superior expected returns. If clients move money out of bank deposits in favor of alternative investments, the Bank could lose a relatively inexpensive source of funds, increasing its funding costs and negatively impacting its overall results of operations.

 

The loss of large deposit relationships could increase the Bank’s funding costs. The Bank has several large deposit relationships that do not require collateral; therefore, cash from these accounts can generally be utilized to fund the loan portfolio. If any of these balances are moved from the Bank, the Bank would likely utilize overnight borrowing lines on a short-term basis to replace the balances. The overall cost of gathering brokered deposits and/or FHLB advances, however, could be substantially higher than the Traditional Bank deposits they replace, increasing the Bank’s funding costs and reducing the Bank’s overall results of operations.

 

The Bank’s “Overdraft Honor” program represents a significant business risk, and if the Bank terminated the program, it would materially impact the earnings of the Bank. There can be no assurance that Congress, the Bank’s regulators, or others, will not impose additional limitations on this program or prohibit the Bank from offering the program. The Bank’s “Overdraft Honor” program permits eligible clients to overdraft their checking accounts up to a predetermined dollar amount for the Bank’s customary overdraft fee(s). Limitations or adverse modifications to this program, either voluntary or involuntary, would significantly reduce net income.

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WAREHOUSE LENDING

 

The Warehouse Lending business is subject to numerous risks that may result in losses. Risks associated with warehouse loans include, without limitation, (i) credit risks relating to the mortgage bankers that borrow from the Bank, including but not limited to bankruptcy (ii) the risk of intentional misrepresentation or fraud by any of such mortgage bankers and their third-party service providers, (iii) changes in the market value of mortgage loans originated by the mortgage banker during the time in warehouse, the sale of which is the expected source of repayment of the borrowings under a warehouse line of credit, or (iv) unsalable or impaired mortgage loans so originated, which could lead to decreased collateral value and the failure of a purchaser of the mortgage loan to purchase the loan from the mortgage banker. Failure to mitigate these risks could have a material adverse impact on the Bank’s financial statements and results of operations.

 

Outstanding Warehouse lines of credit can fluctuate significantly and negatively impact the Bank’s liquidity and earnings. The Bank has a lending concentration in outstanding Warehouse lines of credit. Because outstanding Warehouse balances are contingent upon residential mortgage lending activity, changes in the residential real estate market nationwide can lead to wide fluctuations of balances in this product. Additionally, Warehouse Lending period-end balances are generally higher than the average balance during the period due to increased mortgage activity that occurs at the end of a month. A sudden increase in loans may materially impact the Company’s liquidity position, while a sudden decrease in loans may materially impact the Company’s results of operations.

 

Outstanding Warehouse lines of credit and their corresponding earnings could decline due to several factors, such as intense industry competition, overall mortgage demand and the interest rate environment.  The Bank may experience decreased earnings on its Warehouse lines of credit due primarily to strong industry competition, overall mortgage demand and the interest rate environment.  Such decreased earnings may materially impact the Company’s results of operations.

 

The Company may lose Warehouse clients due to mergers and acquisitions in the industry. The Bank’s Warehouse clients are primarily mortgage companies across the United States. Mergers and acquisitions affecting such clients may lead to an end to the client relationship with the Bank. The loss of a significant number of clients may materially impact the Company’s results of operations.

 

REPUBLIC PROCESSING GROUP

 

The Company’s lines of business and products not typically associated with traditional banking expose earnings to additional risks and uncertainties. The RPG operations are comprised of two reportable segments: TRS and RCS.

 

RPG’s products represent a significant business risk and management believes the Bank could be subject to regulatory and public pressure to exit these product lines, which exit may have a material adverse effect on the Bank’s operations.  

 

Various governmental, regulatory, and consumer groups have, from time to time, questioned the fairness of the products offered by RPG.  Actions of these groups and others could result in regulatory, governmental, or legislative action or litigation, which could have a material adverse effect on the Bank’s operations.   If the Bank can no longer offer its RPG products, it will have a material adverse effect on its profits. 

 

TAX REFUND SOLUTIONS

 

The TRS segment represents a significant operational risk, and if the Bank were unable to properly service this business, it could materially impact earnings. In order to process its business, the Bank must implement and test new systems, as well as train new employees. The Bank relies heavily on communications and information systems to operate the TRS segment. Any failure, sustained interruption or breach in security, including the cyber security, of these systems could result in failures or disruptions in client relationship management and other systems. Significant operational problems could also cause a material portion of the Bank’s tax-preparer base to switch to a competitor to process their bank product transactions, significantly reducing the Bank’s revenue without a corresponding decrease in expenses.

 

The Bank’s EA and RT products represent a significant third-party management risk, and if RB&T’s third-party service providers fail to comply with all the statutory and regulatory requirements for these products or if RB&T fails to properly monitor its third-party

26

service providers offering these products, it could have a material negative impact on earnings. TRS and its third-party service providers operate in a highly regulated environment and deliver products and services that are subject to strict legal and regulatory requirements. Failure by RB&T’s third-party service providers or failure of RB&T to properly monitor  the compliance of its third- party service providers with laws and regulations could result in fines and penalties that materially and adversely affect RB&T’s earnings.  Such penalties could also include the discontinuance of any and all third-party program manager products and services.

 

The Bank’s EA and RT products represent a significant compliance and regulatory risk, and if RB&T fails to comply with all statutory and regulatory requirements, it could have a material negative impact on earnings. Federal and state laws and regulations govern numerous matters relating to the offering of consumer loan products, such as the EA, and consumer deposit products such as the RT.  Failure to comply with disclosure requirements or with laws relating to the permissibility of interest rates and fees charged could have a material negative impact on earnings.  In addition, failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could also expose RB&T to civil money penalties and litigation risk, including shareholder actions.  

 

EAs represent a significant credit risk, and if RB&T is unable to collect a significant portion of its EAs, it would materially, negatively impact earnings. There is credit risk associated with an EA because the funds are disbursed to the taxpayer customer prior to RB&T receiving the taxpayer customer’s refund as claimed on the return.  Because there is no recourse to the taxpayer customer if the EA is not paid off by the taxpayer customer’s tax refund, RB&T must collect all of its payments related to EAs through the refund process. Losses will generally occur on EAs when RB&T does not receive payment due to a number of reasons, such as IRS revenue protection strategies, including audits of returns, errors in the tax return, tax return fraud and tax debts not previously disclosed to RB&T during its underwriting process. While RB&T’s underwriting during the EA approval process takes these factors into consideration based on prior years’ payment patterns, if the IRS significantly alters its revenue protection strategies, if refund payment patterns for a given tax season meaningfully change, if the federal government fails to timely deliver refunds, or if RB&T is incorrect in its underwriting assumptions, RB&T could experience higher loan loss provisions above those projected.  The provision for loan losses is a significant determining factor of the RPG operations’ overall net earnings. 

 

Changes to the EA’s product parameters by management could have a material negative impact on the performance of the EA. In response to changes in the legal, regulatory and competitive environment, management annually reviews and revises the EA’s product parameters. Further changes in EA product parameters do not ensure positive results and could have an overall material negative impact on the performance of the EA and therefore on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.  

 

Due diligence measures implemented by the federal and state governments, which delay the timing of individual tax refund payments or possibly deny those individual payments outright, could present an increased credit risk to the Company. To protect against fraudulent tax returns, the federal government and many state governments have enacted laws and procedures that provide for additional due diligence by the applicable governmental authority prior to issuing an income tax refund.  This additional due diligence has generally driven longer periods between the filing of a tax return and the receipt of the corresponding refund. The federal government, specifically as a result of the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015, announced that taxpayers filing tax returns with certain characteristics will not receive their corresponding refunds before February 15.  These funding delays will negatively impact the Company’s ability to make mid-season modifications to its EA underwriting model based on then-current year tax refund funding patterns, because the substantial majority of all EAs will have been issued prior to February 15. In addition, these enhanced due diligence measures implemented by the federal and state governments could prevent the taxpayer’s refund from being issued altogether. These governmental changes by themselves, or in combination with management’s changes to EA product parameters, could have a material negative impact on the performance of the EA product and therefore on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations if the loss rate on the EA product increases materially.

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REPUBLIC CREDIT SOLUTIONS

 

Consumer loans originated through the RCS segment represent a higher credit risk. Loss rates for some RCS products have consistently been higher than Traditional Bank loss rates for unsecured consumer loans. A material increase in RCS loan charge-offs would have a material adverse effect on the Bank’s financial condition and results of operations and, if such increase in RCS loan charge-offs persisted for an extended period of time, could lead to the discontinuation of the underlying products.

 

RCS revenues and earnings are highly concentrated in its line-of-credit product. For the year ended December 31, 2019, RCS’s revenues and earnings were concentrated in one line-of-credit product. Various governmental, regulatory and consumer groups have, from time to time, questioned the fairness of this product. The discontinuation of this line-of-credit product would have a material adverse effect on the Bank’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

RCS loans represent a significant compliance and regulatory risk, and if the Company fails to comply with all statutory and regulatory requirements it could have a material negative impact on the Company’s earnings. Federal and state laws and regulations govern numerous matters relating to the offering of RCS loans. Failure to comply with laws relating to the permissibility of interest rates and fees charged could have a material negative impact on the Company’s earnings.

ASSET/LIABILITY MANAGEMENT AND LIQUIDITY

 

Fluctuations in interest rates could reduce profitability. The Bank’s asset/liability management strategy may not be able to prevent changes in interest rates from having a material adverse effect on results of operations and financial condition. The Bank’s primary source of income is from the difference between interest earned on loans and investments and the interest paid on deposits and borrowings. The Bank expects to periodically experience “gaps” in the interest rate sensitivities of its assets and liabilities, meaning that either interest-bearing liabilities will be more sensitive to changes in market interest rates than interest-earning assets, or vice versa. In either event, if market interest rates should move contrary to the Bank’s position, earnings may be negatively affected.

 

A flattening or inversion of the interest rate yield curve may reduce profitability. Changes in the slope of the “yield curve,” or the spread between short-term and long-term interest rates, could reduce the Bank’s net interest margin. Normally, the yield curve is upward sloping, meaning short-term rates are lower than long-term rates. Because the Bank’s interest-bearing liabilities tend to be shorter in duration than its interest-earning assets, when the yield curve flattens or even inverts, the Bank’s net interest margin could decrease as its cost of funds rises higher and at a faster pace than the yield on its interest-earning assets.  A rise in the Bank’s cost of interest-bearing liabilities without a corresponding increase in the yield on its interest-earning assets, would have an adverse effect on the Bank’s net interest margin and overall results of operations.

 

Mortgage Banking activities could be adversely impacted by increasing or stagnant long-term interest rates. The Company is unable to predict changes in market interest rates. Changes in interest rates can impact the gain on sale of loans, loan origination fees and loan servicing fees, which account for a significant portion of Mortgage Banking income. A decline in market interest rates generally results in higher demand for mortgage products, while an increase in rates generally results in reduced demand. Generally, if demand increases, Mortgage Banking income will be positively impacted by more gains on sale; however, the valuation of existing mortgage servicing rights will decrease and may result in a significant impairment.  A decline in demand for Mortgage Banking products resulting from rising interest rates could also adversely impact other programs/products such as home equity lending, title insurance commissions and service charges on deposit accounts.

 

The Bank may be compelled to offer market-leading interest rates to maintain sufficient funding and liquidity levels. The Bank has traditionally relied on client deposits, brokered deposits and advances from the FHLB to fund operations. Such traditional sources may be unavailable, limited or insufficient in the future. If the Bank were to lose a significant funding source, such as a few major depositors, or if any of its lines of credit were canceled or curtailed, such as its borrowing line at the FHLB, or if the Bank cannot obtain brokered deposits, the Bank may be compelled to offer market-leading interest rates to meet its funding and liquidity needs. Obtaining funds at market-leading interest rates may have an adverse impact on the Company’s net interest income and overall results of operations.

 

The planned discontinuance of LIBOR presents risks to the Company because the Company uses LIBOR as a reference rate for a portion of its financial instruments. LIBOR is used as a reference rate for a meaningful amount of the Company’s financial

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instruments, which means it is the base on which relevant interest rates are determined. Transactions include those in which the Company lends and borrows money, purchases securities, and enters into derivatives to manage risk. The United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority, the institution that regulates LIBOR, announced in July 2017 that it intends to stop persuading or compelling institutions to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR to the administrator of LIBOR after 2021.

 

There are ongoing efforts to establish an alternative reference rate. The Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) is considered the most likely alternative reference rate suitable for replacing LIBOR, but issues remain with respect to its implementation. As a result, the scope of its ultimate acceptance and the impact on rates, pricing and the ability to manage risk, including through derivatives, remain uncertain. No other alternative rate is currently under wide consideration. If SOFR or another rate does not achieve wide acceptance as the alternative to LIBOR, there likely will be disruption to all of the markets relying on the availability of a broadly accepted reference rate. Even if SOFR or another reference rate ultimately replaces LIBOR, risks will remain for the Company with respect to outstanding loans, derivatives or other instruments referencing LIBOR. Those risks arise in connection with transitioning those instruments to a new reference rate and the corresponding value transfer that may occur in connection with that transition. That is because a new reference rate likely will not exactly imitate LIBOR. As a result, for example, over the life of a transaction that transitions from LIBOR to a new reference rate, the Company’s monetary obligations to its counterparties and its yield from transactions with clients may change, potentially adversely to the Company. For some instruments, the method of transitioning to a new reference rate may be challenging, especially if parties to an instrument cannot agree as to how to perform that transition.  If a contract is not transitioned to a new reference rate and LIBOR ceases to exist, the impact on the Company’s obligations is likely to vary by asset class and contract.  In addition, prior to LIBOR discontinuance, instruments that continue to refer to LIBOR may be impacted if there is a change in the availability or calculation of LIBOR. Risks related to transitioning instruments to a new reference rate or to how LIBOR is derived, and its availability include impacts on the yield on loans or securities held by the Company, amounts paid on Company debt, or amounts received and paid on derivative instruments it has contracted. The value of loans, securities, or derivative instruments tied to LIBOR and the trading market for LIBOR-based securities could also be impacted upon its discontinuance or if it is limited.

 

While the Company expects LIBOR to continue to be available in substantially its current form until the end of 2021 or shortly before that, it is possible that LIBOR quotes will become unavailable prior to that point. This could result, for example, if a sufficient number of institutions decline to make submissions to the LIBOR administrator. In that case, the risks associated with the transition to an alternative reference rate will be accelerated and magnified. These risks may also be increased due to the shorter time for preparing for the transition.

 

COMPANY COMMON STOCK

 

The Company’s common stock generally has a low average daily trading volume, which limits a stockholder’s ability to quickly accumulate or quickly sell large numbers of shares of Republic’s stock without causing wide price fluctuations. Republic’s stock price can fluctuate widely in response to a variety of factors, as detailed in the next risk factor. A low average daily stock trading volume can lead to significant price swings even when a relatively small number of shares are being traded.

 

The market price for the Company’s common stock may be volatile. The market price of the Company’s common stock could fluctuate substantially in the future in response to a number of factors, including those discussed below. The market price of the Company’s common stock has in the past fluctuated significantly and is likely to continue to fluctuate significantly. Some of the factors that may cause the price of the Company’s common stock to fluctuate include:

 

·

Variations in the Company’s and its competitors’ operating results;

·

Actual or anticipated quarterly or annual fluctuations in operating results, cash flows and financial condition;

·

Changes in earnings estimates or publication of research reports and recommendations by financial analysts or actions taken by rating agencies with respect to the Bank or other financial institutions;

·

Announcements by the Company or its competitors of mergers, acquisitions and strategic partnerships;

·

Additions or departure of key personnel;

·

The announced exiting of or significant reductions in material lines of business within the Company;

·

Changes or proposed changes in banking laws or regulations or enforcement of these laws and regulations;

·

Events affecting other companies that the market deems comparable to the Company;

·

Developments relating to regulatory examinations;

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·

Speculation in the press or investment community generally or relating to the Company’s reputation or the financial services industry;

·

Future issuances or re-sales of equity or equity-related securities, or the perception that they may occur;

·

General conditions in the financial markets and real estate markets in particular, developments related to market conditions for the financial services industry;

·

Domestic and international economic factors unrelated to the Company’s performance;

·

Developments related to litigation or threatened litigation;

·

The presence or absence of short selling of the Company’s common stock; and,

·

Future sales of the Company’s common stock or debt securities.

 

In addition, the stock market, in general, has historically experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. This is due, in part, to investors’ shifting perceptions of the effect of changes and potential changes in the economy on various industry sectors. This volatility has had a significant effect on the market price of securities issued by many companies for reasons unrelated to their performance or prospects. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of the Company’s common stock, notwithstanding its actual or anticipated operating results, cash flows and financial condition. The Company expects that the market price of its common stock will continue to fluctuate due to many factors, including prevailing interest rates, other economic conditions, operating performance and investor perceptions of the outlook for the Company specifically and the banking industry in general. There can be no assurance about the level of the market price of the Company’s common stock in the future or that you will be able to resell your shares at times or at prices you find attractive.

 

The Company’s insiders hold voting rights that give them significant control over matters requiring stockholder approval. The Company’s Chairman/CEO and Vice Chairman hold substantial voting authority over the Company’s Class A Common Stock and Class B Common Stock. Each share of Class A Common Stock is entitled to one vote and each share of Class B Common Stock is entitled to ten votes. This group generally votes together on matters presented to stockholders for approval. These actions may include, for example, the election of directors, the adoption of amendments to corporate documents, the approval of mergers and acquisitions, sales of assets and the continuation of the Company as a registered company with obligations to file periodic reports and other filings with the SEC. Consequently, other stockholders’ ability to influence Company actions through their vote may be limited and the non-insider stockholders may not have sufficient voting power to approve a change in control even if a significant premium is being offered for their shares. Majority stockholders may not vote their shares in accordance with minority stockholder interests.

 

An investment in the Company’s Common Stock is not an insured deposit. The Company’s common stock is not a bank deposit and, therefore, is not insured against loss by the FDIC, any other deposit insurance fund or by any other public or private entity. Investment in the Company’s common stock is inherently risky for the reasons described in this section and elsewhere in this report and is subject to the same market forces that affect the price of common stock in any company. As a result, if you acquire the Company’s common stock, you could lose some or all of your investment.

 

GOVERNMENT REGULATION / ECONOMIC FACTORS

 

The Company is significantly impacted by the regulatory, fiscal, and monetary policies of federal and state governments that could negatively impact the Company’s liquidity position and earnings. These policies can materially affect the value of the Company’s financial instruments and can also adversely affect the Company’s clients and their ability to repay their outstanding loans. In addition, failure to comply with laws, regulations or policies, or adverse examination findings, could result in significant penalties, negatively impact operations, or result in other sanctions against the Company. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System regulates the supply of money and credit in the U.S. Its policies determine, in large part, the Company’s cost of funds for lending and investing and the return the Company earns on these loans and investments, all of which impact net interest margin.

 

The Company and the Bank are heavily regulated at both the federal and state levels and are subject to various routine and non-routine examinations by federal and state regulators. This regulatory oversight is primarily intended to protect depositors, the Deposit Insurance Fund and the banking system as a whole, not the stockholders of the Company. Changes in policies, regulations and statutes, or the interpretation thereof, could significantly impact the product offerings of Republic causing the Company to terminate or modify its product offerings in a manner that could materially adversely affect the earnings of the Company.

 

Federal and state laws and regulations govern numerous matters including changes in the ownership or control of banks and bank holding companies, maintenance of adequate capital and the financial condition of a financial institution, permissible types, amounts

30

and terms of extensions of credit and investments, permissible non-banking activities, the level of reserves against deposits and restrictions on dividend payments. Various federal and state regulatory agencies possess cease and desist powers, and other authority to prevent or remedy unsafe or unsound practices or violations of law by banks subject to their regulations. The FRB possesses similar powers with respect to bank holding companies. These, and other restrictions, can limit in varying degrees, the manner in which Republic conducts its business.

 

Government responses to economic conditions may adversely affect the Company’s operations, financial condition and earnings. Enacted financial reform legislation has changed and will continue to change the bank regulatory framework. Ongoing uncertainty and adverse developments in the financial services industry and the domestic and international credit markets, and the effect of new legislation and regulatory actions in response to these conditions, may adversely affect Company operations by restricting business activities, including the Company’s ability to originate or sell loans, modify loan terms, or foreclose on property securing loans. These measures are likely to increase the Company’s costs of doing business and may have a significant adverse effect on the Company’s lending activities, financial performance and operating flexibility. In addition, these risks could affect the performance and value of the Company’s loan and investment securities portfolios, which also would negatively affect financial performance.

 

The Company may be subject to examinations by taxing authorities that could adversely affect results of operations. In the normal course of business, the Company may be subject to examinations from federal and state taxing authorities regarding the amount of taxes due in connection with investments it has made and the businesses in which the Company is engaged. Federal and state taxing authorities have continued to be aggressive in challenging tax positions taken by financial institutions. The challenges made by taxing authorities may result in adjustments to the timing or amount of taxable income or deductions or the allocation of income among tax jurisdictions. If any such challenges are made and are not resolved in the Company’s favor, they could have an adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

The Company may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, or other relationships. The Company has exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and routinely executes transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including commercial banks, brokers and dealers, investment banks, and other institutional clients. Many of these transactions expose the Company to credit risk in the event of a default by a counterparty or client. In addition, the Company’s credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held by the Company cannot be realized upon or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the credit or derivative exposure due to the Company. Any such losses could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

MANAGEMENT, INFORMATION SYSTEMS, ACQUISITIONS, ETC.

 

The Company is dependent upon the services of key qualified personnel. The Company is dependent upon the ability and experience of a number of its key management personnel who have substantial experience with Company operations, the financial services industry, and the markets in which the Company offers services. It is possible that the loss of the services of one or more of its key personnel would have an adverse effect on operations.

 

The Company’s operations could be impacted if its third-party service providers experience difficulty. The Company depends on a number of relationships with third-party service providers, including core systems processing and web hosting. These providers are well-established vendors that provide these services to a significant number of financial institutions. If these third-party service providers experience difficulty or terminate their services and the Company is unable to replace them with other providers, its operations could be interrupted, which would adversely impact its business.

 

The Company’s operations, including third-party and client interactions, are increasingly done via electronic means, and this has increased the risks related to cyber security. The Company is exposed to the risk of cyber-attacks in the normal course of business. In general, cyber incidents can result from deliberate attacks or unintentional events. Management has observed an increased level of attention in the industry focused on cyber-attacks that include, but are not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to digital systems for purposes of misappropriating assets or sensitive information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. Cyber-attacks may also be carried out in a manner that does not require gaining unauthorized access, such as by causing denial-of-service attacks on websites. Cyber-attacks may be carried out directly against the Company, or against the Company’s clients or vendors by third parties or insiders using techniques that range from highly sophisticated efforts to electronically circumvent network security or overwhelm websites to more traditional intelligence gathering and social engineering aimed at obtaining information necessary to gain access.

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While the Company has not incurred any material losses related to cyber-attacks, the Bank may incur substantial costs and suffer other negative consequences if the Bank, the Bank’s clients, or one of the Bank’s third-party service providers fall victim to successful cyber-attacks. Such negative consequences could include: remediation costs for stolen assets or information; system repairs; consumer protection costs; increased cyber security protection costs that may include organizational changes; deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, training employees, and engaging third-party experts and consultants; lost revenues resulting from unauthorized use of proprietary information or the failure to retain or attract clients following an attack; litigation and payment of damages; and reputational damage adversely affecting client or investor confidence.

 

The Company’s information systems may experience an interruption that could adversely impact the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations. The Company relies heavily on communications and information systems to conduct its business. Any failure or interruption of these systems could result in failures or disruptions in client relationship management, general ledger, deposit, loan and other systems. While the Company has policies and procedures designed to prevent or limit the impact of the failure or interruption of information systems, there can be no assurance that any such failures or interruptions will not occur or, if they do occur, that they will be adequately addressed. The occurrences of any failures or interruptions of the Company’s information systems could damage the Company’s reputation, result in a loss of client business, subject the Company to additional regulatory scrutiny, or expose the Company to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

New lines of business or new products and services may subject the Company to additional risks. From time to time, the Company may develop and grow new lines of business or offer new products and services within existing lines of business. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. In developing and marketing new lines of business and/or new products and services, the Company may invest significant time and resources. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business and/or new products or services may not be achieved and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives and shifting market preferences, may also impact the successful implementation of a new line of business or a new product or service. Furthermore, any new line of business and/or new product or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the Company’s system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or new products or services could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition. All service offerings, including current offerings and those that may be provided in the future, may become riskier due to changes in economic, competitive and market conditions beyond the Company’s control.

 

Negative public opinion could damage the Company’s reputation and adversely affect earnings. Reputational risk is the risk to Company operations from negative public opinion. Negative public opinion can result from the actual or perceived manner in which the Company conducts its business activities, including product offerings, sales practices, practices used in origination and servicing operations, the management of actual or potential conflicts of interest and ethical issues, and the Company’s protection of confidential client information. Negative public opinion can adversely affect the Company’s ability to keep and attract clients and can expose the Company to litigation.

 

The Company’s ability to successfully complete acquisitions will affect its ability to grow and compete effectively in its market footprint. The Company has announced plans to pursue a policy of growth through acquisitions to supplement internal growth. The Company’s efforts to acquire other financial institutions and financial service companies or branches may not be successful. Numerous potential acquirers exist for many acquisition candidates, creating intense competition, which affects the purchase price for which the institution can be acquired. In many cases, the Company’s competitors have significantly greater resources than the Company has, and greater flexibility to structure the consideration for the transaction. The Company may also not be the successful bidder in acquisition opportunities that it pursues due to the willingness or ability of other potential acquirers to propose a higher purchase price or more attractive terms and conditions than the Company is willing or able to propose. The Company intends to continue to pursue acquisition opportunities in its market footprint. The risks presented by the acquisition of other financial institutions could adversely affect the Bank’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

Successful Company acquisitions present many risks that could adversely affect the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. An institution that the Company acquires may have unknown asset quality issues or unknown or contingent liabilities that the Company did not discover or fully recognize in the due diligence process, thereby resulting in unanticipated losses. The acquisition of other institutions also typically requires the integration of different corporate cultures, loan and deposit products, pricing strategies, data processing systems and other technologies, accounting, internal audit and financial reporting systems, operating

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systems and internal controls, marketing programs and personnel of the acquired institution, in order to make the transaction economically advantageous. The integration process is complicated and time consuming and could divert the Company’s attention from other business concerns and may be disruptive to its clients and the clients of the acquired institution. The Company’s failure to successfully integrate an acquired institution could result in the loss of key clients and employees, and prevent the Company from achieving expected synergies and cost savings. Acquisitions and failed acquisitions also result in professional fees and may result in creating goodwill that could become impaired, thereby requiring the Company to recognize further charges. The Company may finance acquisitions with borrowed funds, thereby increasing the Company’s leverage and reducing liquidity, or with potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities.  

 

REPUBLIC INSURANCE SERVICES, INC.

 

Transactions between the Company and its insurance subsidiary, the Captive, may be subject to certain IRS responsibilities and penalties. The Company’s Captive is a Nevada-based, wholly-owned insurance subsidiary of the Company that provides property and casualty insurance coverage to the Company and the Bank as well as a group of other third-party insurance captives for which insurance may not be available or economically feasible.  The Treasury Department of the United States and the IRS by way of Notice 2016-66 have stated that transactions believed similar in nature to transactions between the Company and the Captive may be deemed “transactions of interest” because such transactions may have potential for tax avoidance or evasion.  If the IRS ultimately concludes such transactions do create tax avoidance or evasion issues, the Company could be subject to the payment of penalties and interest.  

 

 

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Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments.

 

None

 

Item 2.  Properties.

 

The Company’s executive offices, principal support and operational functions are located at 601 West Market Street in Louisville, Kentucky. As of December 31, 2019, Republic had 28 banking centers located in Kentucky, seven banking centers and a loan production office located in Florida, three banking centers in Indiana, two banking centers and a loan production office in Tennessee, and one banking center in Ohio.

 

The location of Republic’s facilities, their respective approximate square footage, and their form of occupancy are as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

Approximate

   

 

 

   

Square

   

Owned (O)/

Bank Offices

   

Footage

   

Leased (L)

 

 

 

 

 

Kentucky Banking Centers:

 

    

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

Louisville Metropolitan Area

 

 

 

 

2801 Bardstown Road, Louisville

 

5,000

 

L (1)  

601 West Market Street, Louisville

 

57,000

 

L (1)  

661 South Hurstbourne Parkway, Louisville

 

42,000

 

L (1)  

9600 Brownsboro Road, Louisville

 

15,000

 

L (1)  

5250 Dixie Highway, Louisville

 

5,000

 

O/L (2)  

10100 Brookridge Village Boulevard, Louisville

 

5,000

 

O/L (2)  

9101 U.S. Highway 42, Prospect

 

3,000

 

O/L (2)