SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
|¨||REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
|þ||ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
|For the Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2021|
|¨||TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
|¨||SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
Commission File Number: 1-15182
DR. REDDY’S LABORATORIES LIMITED
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
|Not Applicable||TELANGANA, INDIA|
(Translation of Registrant’s name
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or
8-2-337, Road No. 3, Banjara Hills
Hyderabad, Telangana 500 034, India
(Address of principal executive offices)
Parag Agarwal, Chief Financial Officer, +91-40-49002931, email@example.com
8-2-337, Road No. 3, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana 500 034, India
(Name, telephone, e-mail and/or facsimile number and address of company contact person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.
|Title of Each Class||Trading Symbol||Name of Each Exchange on which Registered|
|American depositary shares, each representing one equity share||RDY||New York Stock Exchange|
|*||Not for trading, but only in connection with the registration of American depositary shares, pursuant to the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission.|
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act. None.
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act. None.
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
166,301,231 Equity Shares
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes þ No ¨
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Yes ¨ No þ
Note — Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes þ No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “accelerated filer”, “large accelerated filer” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
|Large accelerated filer þ||Accelerated filer ¨||Non-accelerated filer ¨||Emerging growth company ¨|
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. þ
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
|U.S. GAAP ¨||International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board||þ||Other ¨|
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.
Item 17 ¨ Item 18 ¨
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934).
Yes ¨ No þ
Currency of Presentation and Certain Defined Terms
In this annual report on Form 20-F, references to “$” or “U.S.$” or “dollars” or “U.S. dollars” are to the legal currency of the United States and references to “Rs.” or “rupees” or “Indian rupees” or “INR” are to the legal currency of India, references to “MXN” are to the legal currency of Mexico, references to “ZAR” are to the legal currency of South Africa, references to “UAH” are to the legal currency of Ukraine, references to “GBP” are to the legal currency of the United Kingdom and references to “EUR” or “euros” are to the legal currency of the European Union. Our financial statements are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or “IFRS”, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or “IASB”. These standards include International Accounting Standards, or “IAS”, and their interpretations issued by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee, or “IFRIC”, or its predecessor, the Standing Interpretations Committee, or “SIC”. References to a particular “fiscal” year are to our fiscal year ended March 31 of such year. References to our “ADSs” are to our American Depositary Shares.
References to “U.S. FDA” are to the United States Food and Drug Administration, to “ANDS” are to Abbreviated New Drug Submissions, to “NDAs” are to New Drug Applications, and to “ANDAs” are to Abbreviated New Drug Applications.
References to “U.S.” or “United States” are to the United States of America, its territories and its possessions. References to “India” are to the Republic of India. References to “EU” are to the European Union. All references to “we,” “us”, “our”, “DRL”, “Dr. Reddy’s” or the “Company” shall mean Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Limited and its subsidiaries. “Dr. Reddy’s” is a registered trademark of Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Limited in India. Other trademarks or trade names used in this annual report on Form 20-F are trademarks registered in the name of Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Limited or are pending before the respective trademark registries, unless otherwise specified. Market share data is based on information provided by IQVIA Holdings Inc. (formerly Quintiles IMS Holdings Inc.) (“IQVIA”), a provider of market research to the pharmaceutical industry, unless otherwise stated.
Our financial statements are presented in Indian rupees and translated into U.S. dollars for the convenience of the reader. Except as otherwise stated in this report, all convenience translations from Indian rupees to U.S. dollars are at the certified foreign exchange rate of U.S.$1 = Rs.73.14, as published by Federal Reserve Board of Governors on March 31, 2021. No representation is made that the Indian rupee amounts have been, could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars at such a rate or any other rate. Any discrepancies in any table between totals and sums of the amounts listed are due to rounding.
Our main corporate website address is https://www.drreddys.com. Information contained in our website, www.drreddys.com, is not part of this Annual Report and no portion of such information is incorporated herein.
Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factor Summary
In addition to historical information, this annual report, and the reports and documents incorporated by reference in this annual report, contain certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). In addition to statements which are forward-looking by reason of context, the words “may”, “will”, “should”, “expects”, “plans”, “intends”, “anticipates”, “believes”, “estimates”, “predicts”, “potential”, or “continue” and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained herein are subject to certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those reflected in the forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, risks relating to:
|•||in our generics medicines business: consolidation of our customer base and commercial alliances among our customers; the increase in the number of competitors targeting generic opportunities and seeking U.S. market exclusivity for generic versions of significant products; price erosion relating to our generic products, both from competing products and increased regulation; delays in launches of new generic products; efforts of pharmaceutical companies to limit the use of generics including through legislation and regulations; the difficulty and expense of obtaining licenses to proprietary technologies; returns, allowances and chargebacks; and investigations of the calculation of wholesale prices;|
|•||in our specialty medicines business: competition for our specialty products; our ability to achieve expected results from investments in our product pipeline; competition from companies with greater resources and capabilities; and the effectiveness of our patents and other measures to protect our intellectual property rights;|
|•||our business and operations in general, including: our ability to develop and commercialize additional pharmaceutical products; manufacturing or quality control problems, which may damage our reputation for quality production and require costly remediation; interruptions in our supply chain; disruptions of our or third party information technology systems or breaches of our data security or other cyber-attacks; the failure to recruit or retain key personnel; challenges associated with conducting business globally, including adverse effects of political or economic instability, major hostilities or terrorism; significant sales to a limited number of customers in our U.S. market; our ability to successfully bid for suitable acquisition targets or licensing opportunities, or to consummate and integrate acquisitions;|
|•||compliance, regulatory and litigation matters, including: costs and delays resulting from the extensive governmental regulation to which we are subject; the effects of reforms in healthcare regulation and reductions in pharmaceutical pricing, reimbursement and coverage; governmental investigations into selling and marketing practices; potential liability for patent infringement; product liability claims; increased government scrutiny of our patent settlement agreements; failure to comply with complex Medicare and Medicaid reporting and payment obligations; and environmental risks;|
|•||other financial and economic risks, including: our exposure to currency fluctuations and restrictions as well as credit risks; potential impairments of our intangible assets; potential significant increases in tax liabilities; and the effect on our overall effective tax rate of the termination or expiration of governmental programs or tax benefits, or of a change in our business;|
|•||our business and operations in general, including uncertainty regarding the magnitude, duration, and geographic reach of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on our business, financial condition, operations, cash flows, and liquidity and on the economy in general; manufacturing or quality control protocols; interruptions in our supply chain, including due to potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations and business in geographic locations impacted by the pandemic and on the business operations of our customers and suppliers; our ability to successfully execute and maintain the activities and efforts related to the measures we have taken or may take in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and associated costs therewith; challenges associated with conducting business globally, including adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic; costs resulting from the extensive governmental regulation to which we are subject or delays in governmental processing time due to modified government operations due to the COVID-19 pandemic, including effects on product and patent approvals due to the COVID-19 pandemic; disruptions of information technology systems; and our ability to successfully compete in the marketplace; and|
|•||those discussed in the sections entitled “risk factors” and “operating and financial review and prospects” and elsewhere in this report.|
Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which reflect management’s analysis and assumptions only as of the date hereof. In addition, readers should carefully review the other information in this annual report and in our periodic reports and other documents filed with and/or furnished to the sec from time to time.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS||6|
|ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE||6|
|ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION||6|
|ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY||28|
|4.A. History and development of the company||28|
|4.B. Business overview||29|
|4.C. Organizational structure||57|
|4.D. Property, plant and equipment||58|
|ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS||59|
|ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS||60|
|5.B. Liquidity and capital resources||71|
|5.C. Research and development, patents and licenses, etc.||74|
|5.D. Trend Information||74|
|5.E. Off-balance sheet arrangements||75|
|5.F. Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations||75|
|5.G. Safe harbor||75|
|ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES||75|
|6. A. Directors and senior management||75|
|6.C. Board practices||84|
|6.E. Share ownership||89|
|ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS||90|
|7.A. Major shareholders||90|
|7.B. Related party transactions||92|
|7.C. Interests of experts and counsel||92|
|ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION||92|
|8.A. Consolidated statements and other financial information||92|
|8.B. Significant changes||93|
|ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING||93|
|9.A. Offer and listing details||93|
|9.B. Plan of distribution||93|
|9.D. Selling shareholders||93|
|9.F. Expenses of the issue||93|
|ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION||93|
|10.A. Share capital||93|
|10.B. Memorandum and articles of association||93|
|10.C. Material contracts||94|
|10.D. Exchange controls||94|
|10.F. Dividends and paying agents||106|
|10.G. Statements by experts||106|
|10.H. Documents on display||106|
|10.I. Subsidiary information||106|
|ITEM 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK||107|
|ITEM 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES||109|
|ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES||111|
|ITEM 14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS||111|
|ITEM 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES||112|
|ITEM 16. [RESERVED]||114|
|ITEM 16.A. AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT||114|
|ITEM 16.B. CODE OF ETHICS||114|
|ITEM 16.C. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES||114|
|ITEM 16.D. EXEMPTION FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES||114|
|ITEM 16.E. PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS||115|
|ITEM 16.F. CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT||115|
|ITEM 16.G. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE||115|
|ITEM 16.H. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE||117|
|ITEM 17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS||118|
|ITEM 18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS||118|
|ITEM 19. EXHIBITS||211|
3.A. Selected financial data
You should read the selected consolidated financial data below in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, as well as the section titled “Operating and Financial Review and Prospects,” which are included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 20-F. The selected consolidated financial data presented below has been derived from our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in conformity with IFRS as issued by the IASB. The selected consolidated financial data presented below as of March 31, 2021 and 2020 and for the years ended March 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 are included in Item 18 of this annual report on Form 20-F.
The consolidated financial statements as of March 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 and for the years then ended March 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 have been audited by Ernst & Young Associates LLP (“EY”), Hyderabad, India, our independent registered public accounting firm. The consolidated financial statements as of March 31, 2018 and 2017 and for the years then ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 were audited by KPMG, Hyderabad, India (“KPMG”), our former independent registered public accounting firm.
The selected consolidated financial data below has been presented for the five most recent fiscal years. Historical results are not necessarily indicative of future results.
Income Statement Data
|For the year ended March 31,|
|(Rs. in millions, U.S.$ in millions, both except share and per share data)|
|Cost of revenues||1,185||86,645||80,591||70,421||65,724||62,118|
|Selling, general and administrative expenses||747||54,650||50,129||48,680||46,857||46,300|
|Research and development expenses||226||16,541||15,410||15,607||18,265||19,513|
|Impairment of non-current assets||117||8,588||16,767||210||53||445|
|Other income, net||(13||)||(982||)||(4,290||)||(1,955||)||(788||)||(1,065||)|
|Results from operating activities||332||24,280||15,993||20,888||11,917||13,498|
|Finance income, net||23||1,653||1,478||1,117||2,080||806|
|Share of profit of equity accounted investees, net of tax||7||480||561||438||344||349|
|Profit before tax||361||26,413||18,032||22,443||14,341||14,653|
|Tax expense/(benefit), net||125||9,175||(1,466||)||3,648||4,535||2,614|
|Profit for the year||236||17,238||19,498||18,795||Rs.||9,806||12,039|
|Earnings per share|
|Cash dividend per equity share*||U.S.$||0.34||Rs.||25||Rs.||20||Rs.||20||Rs.||20||Rs.||20|
* Excludes corporate dividend tax.
Statement of Financial Position Data
|As of March 31,|
|(Rs. in millions, U.S.$ in millions, except share data)|
|Cash and cash equivalents||U.S.$||203||Rs.||14,829||Rs.||2,053||Rs.||2,228||Rs.||2,638||Rs.||3,866|
|Other investments (current and non-current)||338||24,702||24,015||23,342||20,879||19,507|
|Total long-term borrowings||98||7,163||5,570||26,256||25,152||5,559|
|Total net assets and equity||U.S.$||2,366||Rs.||173,062||Rs.||154,988||Rs.||140,197||Rs.||126,460||Rs.||124,044|
|Number of shares outstanding||166,301,231||166,172,082||166,065,948||165,910,907||165,741,713|
On June 14, 2021, we received the arbitration decision and award issued by the American Arbitration Association (“AAA”), International Center for Dispute Resolution (“ICDR”) in favor of Hatchtech Pty Limited (“Hatchtech”) in an amount of U.S.$46.25 million towards milestone payments, interest and fees for the Xeglyze® product. We had recorded a provision for potential liability of U.S.$20 million relating to the AAA-ICDR arbitration filed by Hatchtech and believed that the likelihood of any further liability that may arise pursuant to that arbitration to be not probable. As this constitutes an adjusting subsequent event post our Board meeting dated May 14, 2021, our consolidated financial statements for the year ended March 31, 2021 were adjusted to reflect the impact of this event by recognizing the balance amount of U.S.$26.25 million in our consolidated income statement. Of the total amount of U.S.$46.25 million awarded to Hatchtech, the amount of U.S.$45 million (Rs.3,291 million) was recognized in our consolidated income statement under the heading “Impairment of non-current assets” and the balance of U.S.$1.25 million (Rs.91 million) was recognized under the heading, “Selling, general and administrative expenses.”
For the convenience of the reader, our consolidated financial statements as of March 31, 2021 have been translated into U.S. dollars at the certified foreign exchange rate of U.S.$1 = Rs.73.14, as published by the Federal Reserve Board of Governors on March 31, 2021. No representation is made that the Indian rupee amounts have been, could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars at such a rate or any other rate.
3.B. Capitalization and indebtedness
3.C. Reasons for the offer and use of proceeds
3.D. Risk factors
You should carefully consider all of the information set forth in this Form 20-F, including the following risk factors that we face and that are faced by our industry. The risks below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks not currently known to us or that we presently deem immaterial may also affect our business operations. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially or adversely affected by any of these risks. This Form 20-F also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our results could materially differ from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks we face as described below and elsewhere in this report and our other SEC filings. For a summary of the risk factors included in this Item 3.D. and for further details on our forward-looking statements, see “Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factors Summary” on page 2.
RISKS RELATED TO PANDEMICS
A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease, such as COVID-19, and the resulting restrictive measures and economic impacts may materially and adversely impact our business and results of our operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the global economy, disrupted global supply chains and created significant volatility and disruption of financial markets. The virus has spread globally to multiple countries and regions, including to India, the United States, certain European countries and other countries around the world where we manufacture our products, have operations or conduct our clinical trials.
Our headquarters and a significant proportion of our operations are based out of India, which has in recent months experienced a trend of rising COVID-19 infection rates. The potential closure of our facilities in which we operate, or other protectionist measures or restrictions inhibiting our employees’ ability to access our facilities, may materially affect our operations, including potentially interrupting our manufacturing, supply chain, clinical trial and pre-commercial launch activities.
The COVID-19 pandemic may also affect our employees, as well as employees and operations at third-party manufacturers or suppliers that may result in delays or disruptions in manufacturing and supply. The COVID-19 pandemic has also led to a new working environment, which may affect employee well-being and engagement, causing stress and fear of infection risks. This in turn may result in lower productivity and motivation among employees.
In 2020, we did not experience significant impacts or delays from the COVID-19 pandemic on our business operations. We have experienced marginal delays in carrying out clinical trials, regulatory approvals of new products due to re-prioritization of regulatory agencies and delays in pre-commercial launch activities. Although new digital capabilities for sales are being implemented, reduced interaction with health care professionals can lead to slower market penetration for recently launched products or penetration into newer geographies and certain markets. Although we increased spending on logistics as we explored alternate routes during recent past, COVID-19 outbreak can disrupt our supply chain that might result in the inability of our suppliers to deliver components or raw materials on a timely basis and exposing us to the risk of temporary disruptions in manufacturing or our ability to deliver materials or finished products to our customers. Increased demand for certain classes of drugs, such as respiratory and immunity medicines, has required production escalations that can potentially result in overstocking, changes in the supply dynamics and forecasting disruptions. While we expect to be able to continue our operations and to satisfy the demand for our products, while protecting the health and safety of our employees and customers, the uncertainty surrounding the full economic implications of the pandemic may result in a period of business disruption. The new working environment, with many employees working remotely, can potentially expose us to cyber-attacks and data security breaches. If such breach were to recur, it may have a material adverse effect on our business, operations and reputation. Despite the foregoing and certain other measures that we continue to undertake in order to transact business, it is difficult to forecast the broad economic downturn and unemployment rate increase that could be associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, which may itself materially affect our business.
We have taken precautionary measures, and may take additional measures, intended to minimize the risk of the COVID-19 pandemic to our employees and operations. The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operations will depend on future developments, such as the duration and spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and long-term impact on the world’s economy, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. Any COVID-19 related disruption could have a material adverse impact on our business and financial performance. We will continue to monitor the COVID-19 situation closely.
MATERIAL RISKS RELATING TO OUR COMPANY AND OUR BUSINESS
If we fail to comply with the regulatory standards of various regulatory agencies in manufacturing of quality products, it may have potential impact on our business, financials and operations.
Governmental authorities, including among others the U.S. FDA, the U.K. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (“MHRA”), heavily regulate the manufacturing of our products, including manufacturing quality standards. Periodic audits are conducted on our manufacturing sites, and if the regulatory and quality standards and systems are not found adequate, it could result in an audit observation (on Form 483, if from the U.S. FDA), or a subsequent investigative letter which may require further corrective actions. In recent years, a number of Indian generic pharmaceutical companies were issued import alerts and warning letters by the U.S. FDA. A significant proportion of our manufacturing base of active pharmaceutical ingredients and formulations plants servicing the United States and other markets of our Global Generics business is based out of India. While our quality practices and quality management systems are conducted in a manner designed to satisfy these types of audits, we cannot guarantee that our efforts will prevent adverse outcomes such as audit observations, corrective action requests, warning letters or import bans. For example, in November 2015, we received a warning letter from the U.S. FDA relating to violations at our injectable oncology formulation manufacturing facility at Duvvada, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh and our API manufacturing facilities at Miryalaguda, Telangana and Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh. Subsequently, the U.S. FDA issued Establishment Inspection Reports (each, a “EIR”) indicating successful closure of the audits of our API manufacturing facility at Miryalaguda in June 2017, of our facility at Duvvada in February 2019 and of our API manufacturing facility at Srikakulam in May 2020.
In recent years China has introduced numerous reforms and proposals that attempt to address requirements for drug development and registration, including greater adoption of international technical guidelines and practices by the government. However, its unique regulatory requirements continue to pose challenges for multinational companies.
More generally, unless and until an issue raised in a warning letter from a regulatory agency is resolved to the agency’s satisfaction, they may withhold approvals of our new products and new drug applications, refuse admission of products manufactured at the facilities noted in the warning letter into the United States, and/or take additional regulatory or legal action against us. The delay in approvals due to moving to an alternate site or alternate vendor, or the cost incurred in connection with remedial actions, can have significant adverse impacts on our ongoing business, financial results and operations.
We have been subject to increasing scrutiny of our manufacturing operations, and in the event that any of our facilities is subjected to significant regulatory actions, it will require substantial expenditures of resources to ensure compliance with more stringently applied production and quality control regulations. If any regulatory body were to require one or more of our significant manufacturing facilities to cease or limit production, our business could be adversely affected.
In addition, because regulatory approval to manufacture a drug is site-specific, the delay and cost of remedial actions, or of obtaining approval to manufacture at a different facility also could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.
We deal with numerous third party manufacturers and, despite our oversight, any lapse in their quality practices and quality management systems could lead to similar adverse outcomes in the event of an audit. If we or our third party suppliers fail to comply fully with applicable regulations or to take corrective actions that are mandated, then there could be an enforced shutdown of our production facilities or an import ban, which in turn could lead to product shortages that delay or prevent us from fulfilling our obligations to customers, or we could be subjected to government fines and penalties from customers.
If we fail to comply fully with government regulations or to maintain continuing regulatory oversight applicable to our research and development activities or if a regulatory agency amends or withdraws existing approvals, it may delay or prevent us from developing of new products and delay realization of product revenues.
Our research and development activities are heavily regulated. If we fail to comply fully with applicable regulations, then there could be a delay in the submission or approval of potential new products for marketing approval. In addition, the submission of an application to a regulatory authority does not guarantee that approvals required to market the product will be granted. Each authority may impose its own requirements and/or delay or refuse to grant approval, even when a product has already been approved in another country. The time taken to obtain approval varies by country but generally takes from six months to several years from the date of application. This approval process increases the cost to us of developing new products and increases the risk that we will not be able to successfully sell such new products.
Regulatory agencies may at any time reassess the safety, efficacy or bio-similarity claims of our products based on new scientific knowledge or other factors. Such reassessments could result in the amendment or withdrawal of existing approvals to market our products, which in turn could result in a loss of revenue and could serve as an inducement to bring lawsuits against us.
Delays in the receipt of, or failure to obtain approvals for, future products, or new indications and uses, could result in delayed realization of product revenues, reduction in revenues and substantial additional costs.
If we fail to meet all the quality and regulatory requirements of biologic drugs and fail to successfully challenge third party patents as allowed by national patent offices, it may impact production and revenues.
A portion of our portfolio are “biologic” products. Unlike traditional “small-molecule” drugs, biologic drugs cannot be manufactured synthetically, but typically must be produced from living animal cells or micro-organisms. As a result, the production of biologic drugs that meet all quality and regulatory requirements is especially complex and is more susceptible to batch failures.
Typically, biological therapeutics face third party intellectual property rights, otherwise known as freedom to operate (“FTO”) issues, more than small molecule therapeutics because of the types of patents allowed by national patent offices. Further, our ability to successfully challenge third party patent rights is dependent on the laws of the applicable countries.
The regulatory requirements are still evolving in many markets where we sell or manufacture products, including our biosimilar products, and regulatory requirements may be unclear due to lack of precedents, among other reasons, which may lead to delays in product approvals or other sanctions. In the United States, the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (“BPCIA”) created a statutory pathway and abbreviated approval processes for the approval of biosimilar versions of branded biological products. While the U.S. FDA has issued guidelines, the regulatory policies in this area are still evolving. Further, while a number of legal challenges concerning the requirements of the abbreviated biosimilar pathway, patent exchange and other provisions of BPCIA have been adjudicated in U.S. courts, legal challenges concerning FTO, patent exchange and trade matters, among others, continue.
If we fail to prevent prescription of our products for off label uses by the physicians, we may be subject to significant liability for engaging in off-label marketing.
While physicians may prescribe products for uses that are not described in the product labeling and that differ from those approved by the U.S. FDA or other similar regulatory authorities (an "off label" use), we are permitted to market our products only for the indications for which they have been approved. The U.S. FDA and other regulatory agencies actively enforce regulations prohibiting promotion of off-label uses, and significant liability can be imposed on manufacturers found to be engaged in off-label marketing violations, including fines in the tens or hundreds of millions of dollars, as well as criminal sanctions. If some of our products are prescribed off label, regulatory authorities such as the U.S. FDA could take enforcement actions if they conclude that we or our distributors have engaged in off label marketing.
We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar worldwide anti-bribery laws, which impose restrictions and may carry substantial penalties.
The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to public officials or otherwise for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. These laws may require not only accurate books and records, but also sufficient controls, policies and processes to ensure business is conducted without the influence of bribery and corruption.
Our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws, which often carry substantial penalties including fines, criminal prosecution and potential debarment from public procurement contracts. Failure to comply may also result in reputational damages.
We operate in certain jurisdictions that experience governmental corruption to some degree or are found to be low on the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index and, in some circumstances, anti-bribery laws may conflict with some local customs and practices. In many less-developed markets, we work with third-party distributors and other agents for the marketing and distribution of our products. Although our policies prohibit these third parties from making improper payments or otherwise violating these anti-bribery laws, any lapses in complying with such anti-bribery laws by these third parties may adversely impact us. Business activities in many of these markets have historically been more susceptible to corruption.
If our efforts to screen third-party agents and detect cases of potential misconduct fail, we could be held responsible for the non-compliance of these third parties under applicable laws and regulations, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-bribery laws has been subject to increasing focus and activity by regulatory authorities in recent years.
We may be subject to injunctions or limitations on future conduct, be required to modify our business practices and compliance programs and/or have a compliance monitor imposed on us, or suffer other criminal or civil penalties or adverse impacts, including lawsuits by private litigants or investigations and fines imposed by local authorities. Refer to Note 33 (under “Contingencies - Internal Investigation”) of our consolidated financial statements for current internal investigation details.
We need to constantly review and update our compliance program to keep it current and active. If we fail to do so, our vulnerabilities may increase and our controls may be found to be inadequate.
Actions by our employees, or third-party intermediaries acting on our behalf, in violation of such laws, whether carried out in the United States or elsewhere, may expose us to liability for violations of such anti-bribery laws and accordingly may have a material adverse effect on our reputation and our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Significant disruptions of information technology systems, breaches of data security or other cyber-attacks could adversely affect our business.
Our business is dependent upon increasingly complex and interdependent information technology systems, including internet and cloud based systems, to support our business processes as well as internal and external communications. In addition, our businesses and operating models increasingly depend on outsourcing and collaboration, which requires exchanging data and information. The size and complexity and interconnectivity of our computer systems make them potentially vulnerable to breakdown, malicious intrusion, computer viruses and other cyber-attacks.
Like many companies, we may experience certain of these events given that the external cyber-attack threat continues to grow and although we and our third party service providers have invested in measures to reduce these risks, we cannot be assured that these measures will be successful in preventing the compromise and/or disruption of our information technology systems and related data. Any such compromise or disruption may result in the loss, theft or unauthorized disclosure of key information and/or disruption of production and business processes, such as the conduct of scientific research and clinical trials, the submission of the results of such efforts to regulatory authorities in support of requests for product approvals, the functioning of our manufacturing and supply chain processes, our compliance with legal obligations and other key business activities, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business.
We maintain cybersecurity insurance to further mitigate these risks, but there can be no assurance that a policy exclusion will not apply, or that our insurance coverage limits will be sufficient to protect us against the financial, legal, business or reputational losses that may result from an interruption or breach of our systems, or that any such insurance proceeds will be paid to us in a timely manner.
In addition, our systems are potentially vulnerable to data security breaches, whether by employees or others that may expose sensitive data to unauthorized persons. On October 22, 2020, we experienced a cybersecurity incident related to ransom-ware. We employed two leading cyber security incident response firms to assist with the investigation process. The incident was contained in a timely fashion and an enterprise-wide remediation was undertaken to ensure all traces of infection are completely removed from the network. Since then, we have strengthened a series of technical controls to augment the current cyber security posture and have also focused on implementing significant improvements to our cyber and data security systems to safeguard from such risks in the future.
Such data security breaches could lead to the loss of trade secrets or other intellectual property, or could lead to the public exposure of personal information (including sensitive personal information) of our employees, clinical trial patients, customers and others. Such breaches of security could result in reputational damage and could otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, increasing use of information technology (“IT”) systems in manufacturing processes would require us to manage issues arising out of human error and/or sabotage.
In our pursuit of operational excellence, several change management initiatives across our organization are ongoing, including but not limited to information technology automation in the areas of manufacturing, research and development, supply chain and shared services.
We have outsourced our IT hardware and applications in order to improve IT capability and performance. Any failure by such outsourced service providers to deliver timely and quality services and to co-operate with one another could create disruption, which could materially adversely affect our business or results of operations. Further, any failure by us to effectively manage such change initiatives or implement adequate controls in automation, security or availability of information technology systems could have a material adverse effects on our business.
Increased outsourcing or use of cloud services for conducting our business requires highly secure controls to ensure adequate security of information, considering potential for sabotage as well as availability. Data integrity, confidentiality and data privacy requirements are increasingly concerning regulators, and are incorporated into legal contracts. While we have invested heavily in the protection of data and information technology to reduce these risks, there can be no assurance that our efforts or those of our third party service providers would be sufficient to protect against data deterioration or loss in the event of a system malfunction, or prevent data from being stolen or corrupted in the event of a security breach.
While many of our personnel are working remotely due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk of cyber incidents may be increased and our dependence on secure access from remote work locations has increased. If our information systems are unsuccessfully implemented, fail, suffer errors or interruptions, or become unavailable, that might have a materially adverse impact on our business operations and our financial position or results of operations.
Our success depends on our ability to successfully develop and commercialize new pharmaceutical products.
Our future results of operations depend, to a significant degree, upon our ability to successfully develop and commercialize additional products in our Global Generics and Pharmaceutical Services and Active Ingredients segments.
Our research and development efforts are also dependent on collaborating with third party partners and contract research organizations which have the capability to handle complex technologies and products. Lack of effective project management at our end, or any failure to manage collaboration arrangements among multiple partners, may pose significant risks to product development, to our ability to obtain requisite regulatory approvals in a timely manner, and to our ability to successfully and profitably produce and market such products.
Additionally, if we fail to adequately protect critical proprietary or confidential information or associated intellectual property rights or fail to manage third party partners and contract research organizations that our business depends on, it might have a material adverse impact on our product development execution.
From time to time we also acquire in-process research and development assets, which require significant resources and expenses to continue to develop, both through our own efforts and through collaborations. Because of the inherent risk associated with research and development efforts in our industry, including the high cost and uncertainty of conducting clinical trials (where required), such efforts may not result in the successful introduction of new pharmaceutical products approved by the relevant regulatory bodies.
Our results of operations may suffer if these products are not timely developed, approved or successfully commercialized. Refer to Note 14 of our consolidated financial statements for details of impairment of intangible assets.
We must develop, test and manufacture generic products as well as prove that our generic products are bio-equivalent or biosimilar to their branded counterparts, either directly or in partnership with contract research organizations. The development and commercialization process, particularly with respect to complex molecules and biosimilars, is both time consuming and costly and involves a high degree of business risk.
Our products currently under development, if and when fully developed and tested, may not perform as we expect or meet our standards of safety and efficacy. Necessary regulatory approvals may not be obtained in a timely manner, if at all, and we may not be able to successfully and profitably produce and market such products. Our approved products may not achieve expected levels of market acceptance.
We operate in a highly competitive and rapidly consolidating industry which may adversely affect our revenues and profits.
Our products face intense competition from products commercialized or under development by competitors in all of our business segments based in India, the United States and other markets. Many of our competitors have greater financial resources and marketing capabilities than we do.
Our competitors may succeed in developing technologies and products that are more effective, more popular or cheaper than any we may develop or license, thus rendering our technologies and products obsolete or uncompetitive, which would harm our business and financial results. It is also possible that alternate therapies or substitutable products that we developed for the same indication would lead to cannibalization of revenues from our products.
Further, in recent years the goals established under the Generic Drug User Fee Act, and increased funding of the U.S. FDA’s Office of Generic Drugs, have led to more and faster generic approvals, and consequently increased competition.
The U.S. FDA has established new steps to enhance competition, promote access and lower drug prices and is approving record-breaking numbers of generic applications. While these improvements are expected to benefit our generic product pipeline, they will also benefit competitors that seek to launch products in established generic markets where we currently offer products. The U.S. FDA’s efforts to increase the pace at which generics enter the market has also resulted in a trend of many first time generic manufacturers entering the market, which is further increasing competition in the market.
Our generics business is also facing increasing competition from brand-name manufacturers who do not face any significant regulatory approvals or barriers to enter into the generics market. These brand name manufacturers have devised numerous strategies for example, sell generic versions of their products directly or by forming strategic alliances with our competitor generic pharmaceutical companies or by granting them rights to sell “authorized generics”. Moreover, brand companies continually seek new ways to delay the introduction of generic products and decrease the impact of generic competition, such as filing new patents on drugs whose original patent protection is about to expire, developing patented controlled-release products, change the dosage form or dosing regimen of the brand product prior to generic introduction while the generic applicant seeks to amends its ANDA dossier to match the changes in the brand product, changing product claims and product labeling, or developing and marketing as over-the-counter products those branded products that are about to face generic competition, or pricing the branded product at a discount equivalent to generic pricing.
Our competitors, which include major multinational corporations, are consolidating, and the strength of the combined companies could affect our competitive position in all of our business areas. Furthermore, if one of our competitors or their customers acquires any of our customers or suppliers, we may lose business from the customer or lose a supplier of a critical raw material.
In our generics business, to the extent that we succeed in being the first to market a generic version of a significant product, and particularly if we obtain the 180-day period of market exclusivity in the United States provided under the Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984, as amended, our sales and profit can be substantially increased in the period following the introduction of such product and prior to a competitor’s introduction of the equivalent product or the launch of an authorized generic.
Prices of generic drugs typically decline, often dramatically, especially as additional generic pharmaceutical companies receive approvals and enter the market for a given product. Consequently, our ability to sustain our sales and profitability of any product over time is dependent on both the number of new competitors for such product and the timing of their approvals. In our Proprietary Products business, many of our competitors have greater experience than we do in clinical testing, human clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals and commercialization. They may be able to respond more quickly to new or emerging market preferences or to devote greater resources to the development of new products and/or technologies than we can. As a result, any products and/or innovations that we develop may become obsolete or non-competitive before we can recover the expenses incurred in connection with their development.
If competitors introduce new products or new variations on their existing products, our Proprietary Products, even those protected by patents, may experience substantial reductions in value.
In order to enhance our business, we frequently seek to acquire or make strategic investments in complementary businesses or products, or to enter into strategic partnerships or alliances with third parties. It is possible that we may not identify suitable acquisition, strategic investment or strategic partnership candidates, or if we do identify suitable candidates, we may not complete those transactions on terms commercially acceptable to us. We compete with others to acquire companies, and we believe that this competition has intensified and may result in decreased availability or increased prices for suitable acquisition candidates. Even after we identify acquisition candidates and/or announce that we plan to acquire a company, we may ultimately fail to consummate the acquisition. For example, we may be unable to obtain necessary regulatory approvals, including the approval of antitrust regulatory bodies. All acquisitions involve known and unknown risks that could adversely affect our future revenues and operating results.
The use of tender systems and other forms of price control could reduce prices for our products or reduce our market opportunities.
A number of markets in which we operate have implemented or may implement tender systems in an effort to lower prices. Under such tender systems, manufacturers submit bids which establish prices for generic pharmaceutical products. Upon winning the tender, the winning company will receive a preferential reimbursement for a period of time. The tender system often results in companies underbidding one another by proposing low pricing in order to win the tender.
For example, this has resulted in more than 90% of generic products currently sold in German retail “pharmacies” being supplied through contracts procured in competitive bidding tenders, thereby causing significant pressure on product margins.
Certain other countries may consider the implementation of a tender system or other forms of price controls. Even if a tender system is ultimately not implemented, the anticipation of such a system could result in price reductions. Failing to win tenders, or the implementation of similar systems or other forms of price controls in other markets leading to further price declines, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and/or share price.
We have concentrations of sales to certain customers and consolidation among distributors and pharmaceutical companies could increase the concentration risk and also adversely impact our business prospects.
In the United States, similar to other pharmaceutical companies, we sell our products through wholesale distributors and large retail chains in addition to hospitals, pharmacies and other groups. During the year ended March 31, 2021, our ten largest customers accounted for approximately 81% of our North America Global Generics segment’s revenues, and two of these customers collectively represented approximately 15% of our total company revenues. Refer to Note 5 (under “Information about major customers”) of our consolidated financial statements for certain major customer details. Consolidation and integration of the drug wholesalers, retail drug chains, private insurers, managed care organizations and other purchasing organizations may continue to adversely affect pharmaceutical manufacturers. Such consolidations has resulted in these groups gaining additional purchasing leverage and, consequently, increasing the product pricing pressures facing our business. We expect this trend of increased pricing pressures to continue. Such pressures have reduced, and could continue to reduce, our revenue, margins and profitability. Additionally, the emergence of large buying groups representing independent retail pharmacies, and the prevalence and influence of managed care organizations and similar institutions, creates competition among pharmaceutical companies to have their products included in the formulary of those groups and enables those groups to extract price discounts on our products.
If we fail to comply with environmental laws and regulations, or face environmental litigation, our costs may increase or our revenues may decrease.
We may incur substantial costs complying with requirements of environmental laws and regulations. In addition, we may discover currently unknown environmental problems or conditions. In all countries where we have production facilities, we are subject to significant environmental laws and regulations that govern the discharge, emission, storage, handling and disposal of a variety of substances that may be used in or result from our operations. In the normal course of our business, we are exposed to risks relating to possible releases of hazardous substances into the environment, which could cause environmental or property damage or personal injuries, and that could require remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater, which could cause us to incur substantial remediation costs that could adversely affect our consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity. Refer to Note 33 (“Contingencies - Environmental matters”) of our consolidated financial statements for further details on current environmental matters.
If any of our plants or the operations of such plants are shut down, it may severely hamper our ability to supply our customers and we may continue to incur costs in complying with regulations, appealing any decision to close our facilities, maintaining production at our existing facilities and continuing to pay labor and other costs, which may continue even if the facility is closed.
If we elect to sell a generic product prior to the final resolution of outstanding patent litigation, we could be subject to liabilities for damages.
At times we seek approval to market generic products before the expiration of patents for those products, based upon our belief that such patents are invalid, unenforceable, or would not be infringed by our products. As a result, we might be involved in patent litigation, the outcome of which could materially adversely affect our business. Based upon a complex analysis of a variety of legal and commercial factors, we may elect to market a generic product even though litigation is still pending. This could be before any court decision is rendered or while an appeal of a lower court decision is pending. To the extent we elect to proceed in this manner, if the final court decision is adverse to us, we could be required to cease the sale of the infringing products and face substantial liability for patent infringement. These damages may be significant as they may be measured by a royalty on our sales or by such damages as may be awarded by the court as a result of final litigation outcome. Refer to Note 33 (“Contingencies”) for further details on our current product and patent related litigations.
Because of the discount pricing typically involved with generic pharmaceutical products, patented brand products generally realize a significantly higher profit margin than generic pharmaceutical products. Furthermore, there may be risks involved in entering into in-licensing arrangements for products, which are often conditioned upon the licensee’s sharing in the patent-related risks.
For business reasons, we continue to examine such product opportunities (i.e., involving non-expired patents) going forward and this could result in patent litigation, the outcomes of which may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Impairment charges or write downs in our books could have a significant adverse effect on our results of operations and financial results.
A substantial portion of the value of our assets pertains to various intangible assets and goodwill. The proportion of the intangible assets and goodwill to our total assets could increase significantly as we pursue various growth strategies. The value of these intangible assets and goodwill could be substantially impaired upon indications of impairment, with adverse effects on our financial condition and the value of our assets.
For example, during the year ended March 31, 2017, we acquired from Teva and an affiliate of Allergan plc a portfolio of eight ANDAs for our North American Generics business. The transaction, valued at U.S.$350 million, represents the largest assets acquisition in our history. However, certain products forming part of the said portfolio were impaired during the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020. Refer to Note 14 (“Other Intangible Assets”) of our consolidated financial statements for further details. Our results of operations may suffer if these products are not timely developed, approved or successfully commercialized.
Class action lawsuits could expose us to significant liabilities, result in negative publicity, harm our reputation and have a material adverse effect on the price of our ADSs.
Shareholders of a public company sometimes bring securities class action lawsuits against the company following periods of instability in the market price of that company’s securities. Refer to Note 33 (“Contingencies”) of our consolidated financial statements for details on our current securities class action lawsuits. As a public company grows in size, the risk of such litigations may increase. If we were to be sued in any such class action suit, irrespective of the merits of the underlying case, it could have adverse effects on us, including among other things: (a) a diversion of management’s time and attention and other resources from our business and operations, which could harm our results of operations; (b) negative publicity, which could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future; (c) require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit; and (d) if a claim against us is successful, we may be required to pay significant damages and, in certain circumstances, to indemnify our directors and officers if they are named as defendants in the class action suit. Any of the foregoing could, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations and/or the price of our ADSs.
Reforms in the health care industry and the uncertainty associated with pharmaceutical pricing, reimbursement and related matters could adversely affect the marketing, pricing and demand for our products.
Our businesses are operating in an ever more challenging environment, with significant pressures on the pricing of our products and on our ability to obtain and maintain satisfactory rates of reimbursement for our products by governments, insurers and other payors.
For example, in the United States, Congress continues to consider drug pricing legislation that, if passed and signed into law, could impact companies’ ability to increase prices for prescription drugs, even in case of increase in our input costs, to maintain our margins. For instance, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. FDA’s Safe Importation Action Plan was announced in July 2019. Following this framework, the U.S. FDA proposed a draft rule in December 2019 that would allow importation of certain lower-cost prescription drugs from Canada, and in September 2020 the rulemaking was finalized by the U.S. FDA along with an industry guidance document.
Under the rule, states or certain other non-federal governmental entities would be able to submit importation program proposals to the U.S. FDA for review and authorization of two-year programs (with the opportunity to extend for two more years). The new rule became effective on November 30, 2020, although its implementation has been delayed and its impact is uncertain, in part because lawsuits have been filed challenging the government’s authority to promulgate it. Certain states have also proposed measures that are designed to control the costs of pharmaceuticals for which they provide reimbursement.
The growth of overall healthcare costs as a percentage of gross domestic product in many countries means that governments and payors are under intense pressure to control healthcare spending even more tightly than in the past.
These pressures are particularly strong given the persistently weak economic and financial environment in many countries and the increasing demand for healthcare resulting from the aging of the global population and associated increases in non-communicable diseases. These pressures are further compounded by consolidation among distributors, retailers, private insurers, managed care organizations and other private payors, which can increase their negotiating power. In addition, these pressures are augmented by intense publicity regarding the pricing of pharmaceuticals by our competitors, as well as government investigations and legal proceedings regarding pharmaceutical pricing practices. Refer to Note 33 (“Contingencies”) of our consolidated financial statements for current investigations and legal proceedings. In many countries in which we currently operate, pharmaceutical prices are increasingly subject to regulation.
Our products continue to be subject to increasing price and reimbursement pressure that can limit the revenues we earn from our products in many countries due to, among other things:
|·||the existence of government-imposed price controls, tender systems, mandatory discounts and rebates, and pricing transparency mandates;|
|·||more governments using international reference pricing to set the price of drugs based on international comparisons (Refer to “Our Principal areas of Operations - Global Generic segment” in Item 4.A. below for details);|
|·||increased difficulty in obtaining and maintaining satisfactory drug reimbursement rates;|
|·||increase in cost containment policies related to health expenses in the context of economic slowdown;|
|·||more demanding evaluation criteria applied by Health Technology Assessment (“HTA”) agencies when considering whether to cover new drugs at a certain price level; and|
We expect these efforts to continue as healthcare payors around the globe, in particular government-controlled health authorities, insurance companies and managed care organizations, step up initiatives to reduce the overall cost of healthcare.
If pharmaceutical companies are successful in limiting the use of generics through their legislative, regulatory and other efforts, sales of our generic products may be adversely impacted.
Many pharmaceutical companies increasingly have used state and federal legislative and regulatory means to delay or eliminate generic competition. These efforts have included:
|·||pursuing new patents for existing products that may be granted just before the expiration of earlier patents, which could extend patent protection for additional years or otherwise delay the launch of generics;|
|·||selling the brand product as an authorized generic, either by the brand company directly or through a marketing partner;|
|·||introducing “next-generation” products prior to the expiration of market exclusivity for the generic product, which often materially reduces the demand for the generic product for which we seek regulatory approval;|
|·||obtaining extensions of market exclusivity by conducting clinical trials of brand drugs in pediatric populations;|
|·||using the Citizen Petition process to request amendments to U.S. FDA standards on testing bio-equivalence;|
|·||seeking changes to U.S. Pharmacopeia, an organization that publishes industry recognized compendia of drug standards;|
|·||attaching patent extension amendments to non-related federal legislation;|
|·||engaging in state-by-state initiatives to enact legislation that restricts the substitution of some generic drugs, which could have an impact on products that we are developing;|
|·||seeking patents on methods of manufacturing certain active pharmaceutical ingredients;|
|·||attempting to use the legislative and regulatory process to have drugs reclassified or rescheduled; and|
|·||entering into agreements with pharmacy benefit management companies that have the effect of blocking the dispensing of generic products.|
We may be susceptible to significant product liability claims that are not covered by insurance.
Our business inherently exposes us to potential product liability claims, and the severity and timing of such claims are unpredictable. Notwithstanding pre-clinical and clinical trials conducted during the development of potential products to determine the safety and efficacy of products for use by humans following approval by regulatory authorities, unanticipated side effects may become evident only when drugs are introduced into the marketplace. Due to this fact, our customers and participants in clinical trials may bring lawsuits against us for alleged product defects. In other instances, third parties may perform analyses of published clinical trial results which raise questions regarding the safety of pharmaceutical products, and which may be publicized by the media. Even if such reports are inaccurate or misleading, in whole or in part, they may nonetheless result in claims against us for alleged product defects.
Under the current regulatory scheme in the United States, branded drug manufacturers can independently update product labeling through the “changes being effected” (“CBE”) supplement process, but a generic manufacturer is only permitted to use the CBE process to update its label if the branded drug manufacturer changes its label first. This can prevent generic manufacturers from complying with state law warning requirements and, as a result, state product liability suits based on failure-to-warn and design defect claims against generics manufacturers have generally been determined to be preempted by Federal law.
However, emerging developments in various countries laws relating to the liability of generic pharmaceutical manufacturers for certain product liability claims could increase our exposure to litigation costs and damages. This potential exposure to lawsuits would also have increased the risk that, in the future, we would not be able to obtain the type and amount of insurance coverage we desire at an acceptable price The risk of exposure to lawsuits is likely to increase as we develop our own new patented products, or limited competition/complex products, such as injectable vaccines or biosimilar products, in addition to making generic versions of drugs that have been in the market for some time. In addition, the existence or even threat of a major product liability claim could also damage our reputation and affect consumers’ views of our other products, thereby negatively affecting our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A relatively small group of products may represent a significant portion of our net revenues, gross profit or net earnings from time to time.
In certain markets, sales of a limited number of products may represent a significant portion of our net revenues, gross profit and net earnings. If the volume or pricing of such products declines in the future, our business, financial position and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Research and development efforts invested in our complex generics, differentiated formulations and biologics products may not achieve expected results.
Our business model focuses on building a pipeline in various therapies targeted at both emerging markets and more regulated markets. We must invest increasingly significant resources to develop complex generics, differentiated products and biosimilars, both through our own efforts and through collaborations, in-licensing and acquisition of products from or with third parties. In our Proprietary Products segment, our business model focuses on building a pipeline in the therapeutic areas of neurology and dermatology. In our biologic segment, our business model focuses on building a pipeline in various therapies targeted at both emerging markets and highly regulated markets. The development of complex generics, differentiated products and biosimilars involves processes and expertise significantly more complex, which increases the risks of failure. During each stage, we may encounter obstacles that delay the development process and increase expenses, leading to significant risks that we will not achieve our goals and may be forced to abandon a potential product in which we have invested substantial amounts of time and money.
These obstacles may include: preclinical failures; difficulty enrolling patients in clinical trials; delays in completing formulation and other work needed to support an application for registration; adverse reactions or other safety concerns arising during clinical testing; insufficient clinical trial data to support the safety or efficacy of the product candidate; and failure to obtain, or delays in obtaining, the required regulatory approvals for the product candidate or the facilities in which it is manufactured.
Because of the amount of capital required to be invested in augmenting our differentiated products and biosimilar pipeline, in some cases we are reliant on partnerships and joint ventures with third parties, and consequently face the risk that some of these third parties may fail to perform their obligations, or fail to reach the levels of success that we are relying on to meet our revenue and profit goals.
We are subject to data privacy and security laws and regulations in many different jurisdictions and countries where we do business, and our or our partners’ failure to comply could result in fines, penalties, reputational damage, and could impact the way we operate our business.
We are subject to laws and regulations governing the collection, use and transmission of health information, including personal data. As the legislative and regulatory landscape for data privacy and protection continues to evolve around the world, there has been an increasing focus on privacy and data protection issues that may affect our business.
For example, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) that became fully effective in May 2018, requires Companies to satisfy new requirements regarding the handling of personal and sensitive data and includes significant new penalties for non-compliance, with fines up to EUR 20 million or 4% of global turnover of the preceding fiscal year, whichever is higher.
Additionally, the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) became effective on January 1, 2020, creating new individual privacy rights for California consumers and placing increased privacy and security obligations on entities handling personal data of consumers or households. The CCPA requires covered companies to provide new disclosures to California consumers, provides such consumers new ways to opt-out of certain sales of personal information, and allows for a new cause of action for data breaches.
Other countries in which we do business have, or are developing, laws governing the collection, use and transmission of personal information as well that may affect our business or require us to adapt our technologies or practices. Some countries, including India, are considering legislation implementing data protection requirements or requiring local storage and processing of data or similar requirements.
The European Data Protection Board (“EDPB”) has asserted that data protection laws do not cause any hindrance to the measures taken in the fight against the coronavirus pandemic, noting that the GDPR authorizes employers and health authorities to process personal data without consent in the context of epidemics.
Legal requirements relating to the collection, storage, handling, and transfer of personal information and personal data continue to evolve and may result in ever-increasing public scrutiny and escalating levels of enforcement, sanctions and increased costs of compliance.
These data protection laws and similar initiatives could increase the cost of developing, implementing or maintaining our information technology systems and require us to allocate more resources to compliance initiatives thereby increasing our costs.
In addition, a failure by us, or our third-party vendors, to comply with applicable data privacy and security laws could result in financial, legal, business, and reputational harm to us and could have a material adverse effect on the way we operate our business, our financial condition and results of operations.
Our Proprietary Products segment, particularly our Specialty businesses in the United States, faces intense competition from companies that are more entrenched than we are or have greater resources than ours.
Our risk profile for our Proprietary Products segment is lower than the comparable risk profile of companies working with completely novel entities. Nevertheless, the risk that the businesses in this segment face is higher than that of the generics business due to several factors outlined below.
Success in our Proprietary Products segment requires the ability to strategically differentiate our offerings from those of our competitors.
Even if we are able to successfully develop a differentiated version, the desired potential can only be unlocked if the partner is able to get favorable unrestricted reimbursement from payors (i.e., the managed care plan). Typically, a managed care plan relies on a committee comprised of physicians and other decision makers and influencers to decide which drugs will appear on its formulary. The randomized clinical trial data generated to obtain U.S. FDA approval will no longer be sufficient to gain a favorable access decision. Typically, all managed care plans attempt to aggressively direct their patients towards generic medicines due to their lack of belief in differentiation or overall cost improvement. Thus it is imperative for the specific product profile to satisfy the committee that there is sufficient evidence that the impact of the differentiation and/or incremental innovation of our products is significantly higher, in order to persuade them to list it on their respective formularies. Without these specific products attaining a reasonable position on the formulary of managed care plans, patients will not be able to obtain access to our products and physicians become less likely to prescribe the products.
Additionally, because the Specialty business of our Proprietary Products segment works primarily with known active molecules, there remains a risk that these products are easier to engineer around than products possessing composition of matter patents. Although we strive to create a robust intellectual property portfolio to protect these assets, the products in our U.S. Specialty business portfolio may nonetheless enjoy fewer years of exclusivity than traditional innovative products. This may cause a decline in the commercial value potential of the portfolio. Our results of operations may suffer if these products are not timely developed, approved or successfully commercialized.
GENERAL RISKS THAT ARE NOT SPECIFIC TO OUR COMPANY
If there is delay and/or failure in supplies of materials, services and finished goods from third parties or failure of finished goods from our key manufacturing sites, it may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
In some of our businesses, we rely on third parties for the timely supply of active pharmaceutical ingredients (“API”), specified raw materials, equipment, formulation or packaging services and maintenance services, and in some cases there could be a single source of supply.
Although, we actively manage these third party relationships to ensure continuity of supplies and services on time and to our required specifications, events beyond our control could result in the complete or partial failure of supplies and services or in supplies and services not being delivered on time.
In the event that we experience a shortage in our supply of raw materials, we might be unable to fulfill all of the API needs of our Global Generics segment, which could result in a loss of production capacity for this segment. Moreover, we may continue to be dependent on vendors, strategic partners and alliance partners for supplies of some of our existing products and new generic launches.
Any unanticipated capacity or supply related constraints affecting such vendors, strategic partners or alliance partners can adversely affect our business or results of operations. Our key generics manufacturing sites also may have capacity constraints and, at times, we may not be able to generate sufficient supplies of finished goods.
If we are unable to defend ourselves in patent challenges, we could be subject to injunctions preventing us from selling our products, or we could be subject to substantial liabilities that could adversely affect our profits. Further, our patent settlement agreements with the innovators may face government scrutiny, exposing us to significant damages.
There has been substantial patent related litigation in the pharmaceutical industry concerning the manufacture, use and sale of various products. In the normal course of business, we are regularly subject to lawsuits and the ultimate outcome of litigation could adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flow. Regardless of regulatory approval, lawsuits are periodically commenced against us with respect to alleged patent infringements by us, such suits often being triggered by our filing of an application for governmental approval, such as an ANDA or NDA.
The expense of any such litigation and the resulting disruption to our business, whether or not we are successful, could harm our business. The uncertainties inherent in patent litigation make it difficult for us to predict the outcome of any such litigation.
California recently passed the Preserving Access to Affordable Drugs (AB-824), legislation that could adversely impact our ability to settle patent litigations. The law, which took effect on January 1, 2020, creates a presumption that a patent settlement has anti-competitive effects, and thus violates California's state antitrust law, if it provides for the generic pharmaceutical company to receive “anything of value” from the branded pharmaceutical company and if the generic pharmaceutical company agrees to delay the launch of a generic product for any period of time. The law specifically identifies exclusive licenses and agreements by the branded pharmaceutical company “not to launch an authorized generic version” of its branded product as things of value that would trigger the presumption. Such presumption may make it more difficult to negotiate settlement agreements which are subject to this new law.
If we are unsuccessful in defending ourselves against these suits, we could be subject to injunctions preventing us from selling our products, resulting in a decrease in revenues, or to damages, which may be substantial. An injunction or substantial damages resulting from these suits could adversely affect our consolidated financial position, results of operations or liquidity.
Further, we have been involved in various litigations involving challenges to the validity or enforceability of registered patents and therefore settling such patent litigations has been and is likely to continue to be an important part of our business.
Parties to patent litigation settlement agreements in the United States, including us, are required by law to file them with the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) and the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice for review. The FTC has publicly stated that, in its view, some of the brand-generic settlement agreements violate the antitrust laws and has brought actions against some brand and generic companies that have entered into such agreements. Accordingly, such settlement agreements may expose us to antitrust violation claims.
If we improperly handle any of the dangerous materials used in our business and accidents result, we could face significant liabilities that would lower our profits.
We handle dangerous materials including explosive, toxic and combustible materials. If improperly handled or subjected to the wrong conditions, these materials could hurt our employees, cause damage to our properties and harm the environment. Also, changes in business and operations in our plants, from new products or increased demand for existing products, can pose increased safety hazards. Such hazards need to be addressed through training, industrial hygiene assessments and other safety measures and, if not carried out, can lead to industrial accidents.
Any of the foregoing could subject us to significant litigation or adversely impact our other litigation matters then outstanding, which could lower our profits in the event we were found liable, and could also adversely impact our reputation.
In a worst case scenario, this could also result in a government forced shutdown of our manufacturing plants, which in turn could lead to product shortages that delay or prevent us from fulfilling our obligations to customers and would adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Counterfeit versions of our products could harm our patients and reputation.
Our industry has been increasingly challenged by the vulnerability of distribution channels to illegal counterfeiting and the presence of counterfeit products in a growing number of markets and over the Internet. Third parties may illegally distribute and sell counterfeit versions of our products, which do not meet the rigorous manufacturing and testing standards that our products undergo. Counterfeit products are frequently unsafe or ineffective, and can be potentially life-threatening.
Counterfeit medicines may contain harmful substances, the wrong dose of the API or no API at all. However, to distributors and patients, counterfeit products may be visually indistinguishable from the authentic version.
Reports of adverse reactions to counterfeit drugs or increased levels of counterfeiting could materially affect patient confidence in the authentic product, and harm the business of companies such as ours. Additionally, it is possible that adverse events caused by unsafe counterfeit products would mistakenly be attributed to the authentic product. In addition, there could be thefts of inventory at warehouses, plants or while in-transit, which are not properly stored and which are sold through unauthorized channels.
There has been a trend of increased regulatory review of over-the-counter products for safety and efficacy questions, which could potentially affect our over-the-counter products business.
In recent years, significant questions have arisen regarding the safety, efficacy and potential for misuse of certain over-the-counter medicine products. Litigation, particularly in the United States, sometimes gives rise to these questions. As a result, health authorities around the world have begun to re-evaluate some important over-the-counter products, leading to restrictions on the sale of some of them and even the banning of certain products. Any bans or restrictions imposed by the government or regulatory agencies on some of our over-the-counter products would have an adverse effect on our sales and, thus, our overall profitability.
If we are unable to obtain robust patents or otherwise protect our intellectual property rights or proprietary information, or if we infringe on the intellectual property rights of others, our business may be materially and adversely impacted.
Our overall profitability depends, among other things, on our ability to continuously and timely introduce new generic as well as proprietary products. Our success in doing so depends, in large part, on two important factors:
|·||Our ability to obtain patents and to protect trade secrets and other intellectual property rights for our novel products. For our Proprietary Products business in particular, obtaining robust patents and the resultant market exclusivity is key. Our failure to adequately protect our intellectual property would allow competitors to market products similar to ours or impact our market leadership for our products. Such situations may materially and adversely impact our business.|
|·||In addition, we need to ensure that our novel products do not infringe on the proprietary rights of others. Our competitors may have filed patent applications, or hold issued patents, relating to products or processes that compete with those we are developing, or their patents may impair our ability to successfully develop and commercialize new products. Our business may be materially and adversely impacted if we fail to identify such competing patents early on and are not able to develop a non-infringing strategy for such patents.|
We have been successful in obtaining multiple patents claiming our innovative products and processes. Recently, we have filed several patent applications seeking to protect our newly developed technologies and products in various countries, including the United States, and we plan to continue making such filings. Any existing or future patents issued to or licensed by us may not provide us with any competitive advantages for our products or may even be challenged by competitors. In addition, sometimes such patent rights may not prevent our competitors from developing, using or commercializing products that are similar or functionally equivalent to our products.
We also rely on trade secrets, unpatented proprietary know-how and continuing technological innovation that we seek to protect, in part, by confidentiality agreements with licensees, suppliers, employees and consultants. It is possible that these agreements may be breached and we may not have adequate remedies for any such breach. Disputes may arise concerning the ownership of intellectual property or the applicability of the confidentiality or other relevant clauses of these agreements. Furthermore, our trade secrets and proprietary technology may otherwise become known to or be independently developed by our competitors. Therefore, despite all of our information security systems and practices, we may still not be able to ensure the confidentiality of information relating to such products, which may materially and adversely impact our business.
If we fail to maintain a supply of compliant, quality product, it may adversely affect our reputation and our business.
We may experience difficulties, delays and interruptions in the manufacturing and supply of our products for various reasons, including among other reasons:
|·||demand significantly in excess of forecast demand, which may lead to supply shortages (this is particularly challenging before the launch of a new product);|
|·||supply chain disruptions, including those due to natural or man-made disasters at one of our facilities or at a critical supplier or vendor;|
|·||delays in construction of new facilities or the expansion of existing facilities, including those intended to support future demand for our products (the complexities associated with biologics facilities, especially for drug substance, increases the probability of delay);|
|·||the inability to supply products due to a product quality failure or regulatory agency compliance action such as license withdrawal, product recall or product seizure;|
|·||other manufacturing or distribution problems, including changes in manufacturing production sites, limits to manufacturing capacity due to regulatory requirements, changes in the types of products produced, or physical limitations or other business interruptions that could impact continuous supply;|
|·||the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the restrictive measures to control the outbreak, on the supply chain, manufacturing and delivery logistics for our products, all as more fully discussed above (see “A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease, such as COVID-19, and the resulting restrictive measures and economic impacts may materially and adversely impact our business and results of our operations”); and|
|·||the difficulties inherent in the manufacture and sale of sterile products, including oncology products, which are technically complex to manufacture, and require sophisticated environmental controls. Because the production process for such products is so complex and sensitive, any production failures may lead to lengthy supply interruptions.|
Any failure to comply with the complex reporting and payment obligations under the Medicare and Medicaid programs or other laws regulating marketing practices may result in litigation or sanctions and adversely impact our business.
The U.S. laws and regulations regarding Medicare and/or Medicaid reimbursement and rebates and other governmental programs are complex. Some of the applicable laws may impose liability even in the absence of a specific intent to defraud. The subjective decisions and complex methodologies used in making calculations under these programs are subject to review and challenge, and it is possible that such reviews could result in material changes in the calculation outcomes.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended, continues to face uncertainty due to administrative efforts to repeal, substantially modify or invalidate some or all of its provisions, as well as challenges to its constitutionality. In addition, government authorities have significant leverage to persuade pharmaceutical companies to enter into corporate integrity agreements, which can be expensive and disruptive to operations.
If any of the above queries and/or investigations were to result in a lawsuit that was determined adversely to us or in a large cash settlement, it could require us to pay significant amounts.
Fluctuations in exchange rates and interest rate movements may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
A significant portion of our revenues are in currencies other than the Indian rupee, especially in the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Russian rouble, and the U.K. pound sterling, while a significant portion of our costs are in Indian rupees. As a result, if the value of the Indian rupee appreciates relative to these other currencies, our revenues measured in Indian rupees may decrease and our financial performance may be adversely impacted.
Further, we may also be exposed to credit risks in some of the emerging markets from our customers on account of adverse economic conditions.
We use derivative financial instruments to manage interest rate fluctuations and some of our net exposure to currency exchange rate fluctuations in certain key foreign currencies.
A significant portion of our borrowing costs are linked to U.S. dollar London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), and hence any increase in U.S. dollar LIBOR adversely impacts our financial performance.
In July 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it intends to phase out LIBOR by the end of 2021. It is unclear if LIBOR will cease to exist or if new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established such that it continues to exist. As such, depending on the future of LIBOR, a comparable or successor reference rate as determined under our credit agreements may apply, or we may need to renegotiate certain terms of our credit agreements to replace U.S. dollar LIBOR with a new standard. In either case, our interest rates and interest expense could increase, which could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flows.
Risks from disruption to production, supply chain or operations from natural disasters could adversely affect our business and operations and cause our revenues to decline.
If flooding, droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or other natural disasters were to directly damage, destroy or disrupt our manufacturing facilities, it could disrupt our operations, delay new production and shipments of existing inventory or result in costly repairs, replacements or other costs, all of which would negatively impact our business. A significant portion of our manufacturing facilities are situated around Hyderabad and Vishakhapatnam, India, regions that have experienced earthquakes, floods and droughts in the past. Even if we take precautions to provide back-up support in the event of such a natural disaster, the disaster may nonetheless affect our facilities, harming production and ultimately our business. And, even if our manufacturing facilities are not directly damaged, a large natural disaster may result in disruptions in distribution channels or supply chains. The impact of such occurrences depends on the specific geographic circumstances but could be significant.
Changes in tax regulations of the countries we operate in may increase our tax liabilities and thus adversely affect our financial results.
Currently, we are entitled to various tax benefits and exemptions under Indian tax laws, such as tax benefits on research and development spending and exemptions applicable to income derived from manufacturing facilities located in certain tax exempted zones. Any changes in these laws or their application may increase our tax liability and thus adversely affect our financial results.
India’s Finance Act, 2016 amended the test of residence for foreign companies. While a non-resident company is generally taxed only on its Indian sourced income, a resident company is taxed on its global income. Under the amended rule, a company not formed under the laws of India would be considered a resident in India if its place of effective management in the previous year was in India.
The term “place of effective management” (or “PoEM”) has been defined to mean a place where key management operates and commercial decisions that are necessary for the conduct of the business of an entity as a whole are in substance made.
Changes in tax regimes in India and other countries in which we have significant operations, could result in a material impact on our cash tax liabilities and tax charges, resulting in either an increase or a reduction in financial results depending upon the nature of the change.
We operate in jurisdictions that impose transfer pricing and other tax-related regulations on our intercompany arrangements, and any failure to comply could materially and adversely affect our profitability.
We are required to comply with various transfer pricing regulations in India and other countries. Failure to comply with such regulations may impact our effective tax rates and consequently affect our net margins. Additionally, we operate in numerous countries and our failure to comply with the local and municipal tax regimes may result in additional taxes, penalties and enforcement actions from such authorities.
Although our intercompany arrangements are based on accepted tax standards, tax authorities in various jurisdictions may disagree with and subsequently challenge the amount of profits taxed in such jurisdictions, which may increase our tax liabilities and could have a material adverse effect on the results of our operations. Further, the base erosion and profit shifting (“BEPS”) project undertaken by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (“OECD”) contemplates changes to numerous international tax principles. Various countries have incorporated such tax principles into their domestic legislations by way of enactment. These enactments are significant in nature and require compliance on a regular basis. Although we will continue to adhere to such compliance, significant uncertainties remain as to the outcome of these efforts.
A slowdown in economic growth in India may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Our performance and the quality and growth of our business are necessarily dependent on the health of the overall Indian economy. The Indian economy has grown significantly over the past few years. Any future slowdown in the Indian economy could harm us, our customers and other contractual counterparties. In addition, the Indian economy is in a state of transition. The share of the services sector of the Indian economy is rising while that of the industrial, manufacturing and agricultural sector is declining. It is difficult to gauge the impact of these fundamental economic changes on our business.
If wage costs or inflation rise in India, it may adversely affect our competitive advantages over higher cost countries and our profits may decline.
Wage costs in India have historically been significantly lower than wage costs in developed countries and have been one of our competitive strengths. However, wage increases in India may increase our costs, reduce our profit margins and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Due to various macro-economic factors, the rate of inflation has recently been volatile in India. If the inflation rises, we may not be able to pass these inflationary costs on to our customers by increasing the price we charge for our products.
Stringent labor laws may adversely affect our ability to have flexible human resource policies; labor union problems could negatively affect our production capacity and overall profitability.
Labor laws may restrict our ability to have human resource policies that would allow us to react swiftly to the needs of our business. As of March 31, 2021, approximately 3.4% of our employees belonged to a number of different labor unions. If we experience problems with our labor unions that may adversely affect our production capacity and our overall results and operations.
In 2019, the Ministry of Labour and Employment in India introduced 4 bills to consolidate 29 central laws regulating: (i) wages, (ii) industrial relations, (iii) social security, and (iv) occupational safety, health and working conditions. The Government of India replaced these bills with new ones on September 19, 2020.
India’s Code on Social Security, 2020, which aims to consolidate, codify and revise certain existing social security laws, received Presidential assent in September 2020 and has been published in the Gazette of India. However, the related final rules have not yet been issued and the date on which this Code will come into effect has not been announced. We will assess the impact of this Code and the rules thereunder when they come into effect.
Increasing use of social media could give rise to liability or breaches of data security.
We and our business associates are increasingly relying on social media and mobile tools as a means of communications. To the extent that we seek as a company to use these tools as a means to communicate about our products or about the diseases our products are intended to treat, there are significant uncertainties as to either the rules that apply to such communications, or as to the interpretations that health authorities will apply to the rules that exist. As a result, despite our efforts to comply with applicable rules, there is a significant risk that our use of social media and mobile tools for such purposes may cause us to nonetheless be found in violation of them. In addition, because of the universal availability of social media tools, our associates or third parties may make use of them in ways that may not be sanctioned by us, and that may give rise to liability, or that could lead to the loss of trade secrets or other intellectual property, or could lead to the public exposure of personal information (including sensitive personal information) of our employees, clinical trial patients, customers and others. Such uses of social media could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Social media posts could also contain information purported to be disclosed by us that is false or otherwise damaging, which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation and the price of our equity shares and ADSs.
Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from customers, regulators, investors, and other stakeholders with respect to our environmental, social and governance practices may impose additional costs on us or expose us to new or additional risks.
Companies are facing increasing scrutiny from customers, regulators, investors, and other stakeholders related to their environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) practices.
Investor advocacy groups, investment funds and influential investors are also increasingly focused on these practices, especially as they relate to the environment, health and safety, supply chain management, diversity and human rights.
We are subject to various laws and regulations concerning, among other things, the environment, climate change, regulation of chemicals, employee safety and product safety. These requirements include regulation of the handling, manufacture, transportation, storage, use and disposal of materials, including the discharge of regulated materials and pollutants into the environment.
In the normal course of our business, our operations are also exposed to risks relating to (i) increased severity of extreme weather events, such as cyclones and floods; (ii) regulatory changes which can require us to transition to newer forms of energy sources like renewable energy; and (iii) increased water scarcity and water stress, apart from water contamination. Failure to adapt to or comply with regulatory requirements, or investor or stakeholder ESG expectations and standards, could negatively impact our reputation or harm our business.
Opposition to free trade agreements and changes in trade policies of countries in which we operate could adversely affect the pricing and demand for our products.
Opposition to free trade agreements was an important component of the campaign platform of the new U.S. administration, and there are ongoing efforts to achieve that goal. For example, the United States withdrew from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (“TPP”) free trade agreement and recently announced that it will end preferential trade treatment for India, currently being extended under its Generalized System of Preferences (“GSP”). In the current scheme, there might not be any direct impact on U.S. imports of pharmaceutical products due to this withdrawal. However, any such changes in free trade agreements could, among other things, interfere with free trade in goods, impose additional customs duties or tariffs, increase the costs and difficulties of international transactions and potentially disturb the international flow of goods and, in particular, trade between the United States and other countries, and thus may have an adverse effect on our financial performance.
Any new tariffs or other changes in U.S. trade policy could trigger retaliatory actions by affected countries, potentially escalating and resulting in “trade wars”. For example, in March and April 2018, the U.S. government announced new tariffs on steel and aluminum from China, as well as more than 1,300 other Chinese exports. In response, the Chinese government announced that it would enact retaliatory tariffs on more than 100 American products. Trade policy changes or internal policy changes such as these can result in increased costs for goods, which may reduce customer demand for these products if the parties having to pay those tariffs increase their prices, or in increased costs to trading partners. If these consequences are realized, they may materially and adversely affect our sales and our business.
Our success depends on our ability to retain and attract qualified personnel and, if we are not able to retain them or recruit additional qualified personnel, we may be unable to successfully develop our business.
We are highly dependent on the principal members of our management and scientific staff, the loss of whose services might significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business or scientific objectives. In India, it is not our practice to enter into employment agreements with our executive officers and key employees that are as extensive as are generally used in the United States, and each of those executive officers and key employees may terminate their employment upon notice and without cause or good reason. Currently, we are not aware of any executive officer’s or key employee’s departure that has had, or planned departure that is expected to have, any material impact on our operations. Competition among pharmaceutical companies for qualified employees is intense, and the ability to retain and attract qualified individuals is critical to our success. There can be no assurance that we will be able to retain and attract such individuals currently or in the future on acceptable terms, or at all, and the failure to do so would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we do not maintain “key person” life insurance on any officer, employee or consultant.
Since a large part of our business centers around the United States, changes to the U.S. immigration laws could make it more difficult to obtain non-immigrant work authorizations in the United States. There have been and will continue to be calls for extensive changes to U.S. immigration laws regarding the admission of highly-skilled temporary and permanent workers.
There are some legislative proposals which, if passed and signed into law, could add further costs and/or restrictions to some of the high-skilled temporary worker categories and, in turn, our cost of doing business in the United States may increase. This could have a material and adverse effect on our business, revenues and operating results.
We have operations in certain countries susceptible to political and economic instability that could lead to disruption or other adverse impact on such operations.
We expect to derive an increasing portion of our sales from regions such as China, Latin America, Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union, Central Europe, Eastern Europe and South Africa, all of which may be more susceptible to political and economic instability.
We monitor significant political, legal, regulatory and economic developments in these regions and attempt to mitigate our exposure where possible. However, mitigation is not always possible, and our international operations could be adversely affected by political, legal, regulatory and economic developments, such as changes in capital and exchange controls; expropriation and other restrictive government actions; intellectual property protection and remedy laws; trade regulations; procedures and actions affecting approval, production, pricing and marketing of, reimbursement for and access to our products; and intergovernmental disputes, including embargoes and/or military hostilities.
Significant portions of our manufacturing operations are conducted outside the markets in which our products are sold, and accordingly we often import a substantial number of products into such markets. We may, therefore, be denied access to our customers or suppliers or denied the ability to ship products from any of our sites as a result of closing of the borders of the countries in which we sell our products, or in which our operations are located, due to economic, legislative, political and military conditions, including hostilities and acts of terror, in such countries.
While it is not possible to predict the economic impact and the magnitude of the ongoing coronavirus pandemic and the restrictive measures to control the outbreak, it could significantly impact our business operations and supply chain. See “A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease, such as COVID-19, and the resulting restrictive measures and economic impacts may materially and adversely impact our business and results of our operations” above.
Current economic conditions may adversely affect our industry, financial position and results of operations.
In recent years, the global economy has experienced volatility and an unfavorable economic environment, and these trends may continue in the future. Reduced consumer spending, reduced funding for national social security systems or shifting concentrations of payors and their preferences, may force our competitors and us to reduce prices. The growth of our business may be negatively affected by high unemployment levels and increases in co-pays, which may lead some patients to delay treatments, skip doses or use less effective treatments to reduce their costs.
We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, including our partners under our alliance, research and promotional services agreements, suppliers of raw materials, drug wholesalers and other customers, who may be unstable or may become unstable in the current economic environment. We run the risk of delayed payments or even non-payment by our customers, which consist principally of wholesalers, distributors, pharmacies, hospitals, clinics and government agencies.
Significant changes and volatility in the consumer environment and in the competitive landscape may make it increasingly difficult for us to predict our future revenues and earnings.
Uncertainty and volatility in relation to the U.K.’s planned exit from the EU
On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom (“U.K.”) held a remain-or-leave referendum on its membership within the European Union (“EU”), the outcome of which was a decision for the U.K. to exit from the EU (the “Brexit”).
The U.K. formally withdrew from the EU on January 31, 2020 with status quo arrangements through a transition period. The transition period began on February 1, 2020 and ended December 31, 2020.
During the Withdrawal Agreement negotiations, both the United Kingdom and the EU recognised the necessity of safeguarding the 1998 Good Friday (Belfast) Agreement, avoiding a hard border on the island of Ireland and protecting North-South cooperation, while ensuring the integrity of the EU’s Single Market for goods, along with all the guarantees it offers in terms of consumer protection, public and animal health protection, and combatting fraud and trafficking. In other words, it essentially keeps Northern Ireland (NI) inside the EU, and checks and controls need to be imposed on goods moving form Great-Britain (GB) to NI.
On December 24, 2020, the U.K. Government and European Commission agreed the terms of a Trade and Cooperation Agreement which sets out the relationship between the U.K. and the EU following the end of the transition period. The agreement comprises a Free Trade Agreement, rules on governance and dispute resolution and, security cooperation. The Free Trade Agreement provides for zero tariffs and zero quotas on all goods that comply with the appropriate rules of origin; maintains a level playing field in areas such as environmental protection, social and labor rights, tax transparency and state aid, with enforcement and a binding dispute settlement mechanism and maintains air, road, rail and maritime connectivity but with new customs and passport checks and limitations on haulage operations. In April 2021, European lawmakers ratified the agreement.
The Trade and Cooperation Agreement is comprehensive, but does not cover all areas of regulation pertinent to the pharmaceutical industry, so certain complexities remain. This finalization of the long-term relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union will dictate how the European Union will be impacted and may result in an impact on our business operations in Europe.
In November 2020, the European Commission published a “Pharmaceutical strategy for Europe,” which sets out a suite of policies that will shape the future European regulatory environment. These wide-ranging policies represent a multi-year program aimed, through review and revision of existing legislation, to provide a flexible regulatory system that, amongst other things, will lead to accelerated availability of medicines and promote sustainability of that system.
The situation could potentially result in changes to intellectual property rights, regulatory approval requirements and pharmaceutical regulations, or increased cost and burdens arising from other new or diverging rules and regulations, any of which may have an adverse impact on our operations. As the process evolves, we will continue to assess its impact on us.
Compliance with new and changing corporate governance and public disclosure requirements adds uncertainty to our compliance policies and increases our costs of compliance.
Changing laws, regulations and standards relating to accounting, corporate governance and public disclosure, including the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002, new SEC regulations, New York Stock Exchange rules, NSE IFSC Exchange’s listing and corporate governance rules and requirements, provisions of India’s Companies Act 2013, Securities and Exchange Board of India rules and Indian stock market listing regulations, create uncertainty for our company. These new or changed laws, regulations and standards may sometimes lack specificity and are subject to varying interpretations. Their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs of compliance as a result of ongoing revisions to such governance standards.
We are committed to maintaining high standards of corporate governance and public disclosure, and our efforts to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards in this regard have resulted in, and are likely to continue.
In addition, the new laws, regulations and standards regarding corporate governance may make it more difficult for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance. Further, our board members, chief executive officer, and chief financial officer could face an increased risk of personal liability in connection with the performance of their duties. As a result, we may face difficulties attracting and retaining qualified board members and executive officers, which could harm our business. If we fail to comply with new or changed laws or regulations and standards differ, our business and reputation may be harmed.
If the world economy is affected due to acts of terrorism, wars or epidemics, it may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Several areas of the world, including India, have experienced terrorist acts and retaliatory operations in recent years. Local disturbances, terrorist attacks, riots, social disruption, wars, or regional hostilities in the countries in which we or our partners and suppliers operate could affect the economy, our operations and employees by disrupting operations and communications, making travel and the conduct of our business more difficult, and/or causing our customers to be concerned about our ability to meet their needs. If the economy of any of our key markets (including but not limited to the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, India, China and Russia) is affected by such acts, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected as a consequence.
Epidemics and other public health crises, such as the ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and the restrictive measures to control the outbreak, could significantly impact our business operations and supply chain. See “A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease, such as COVID-19, and the resulting restrictive measures and economic impacts may materially and adversely impact our business and results of our operations” above.
From time to time we enter new markets, and face risks arising out of our limited knowledge of the market and the customs, laws and regulatory systems that may apply.
From time to time we enter new markets in which we have limited knowledge of the market and the customs, laws, regulatory, political and social systems that may apply. Our success in these new markets is dependent upon the acceptability of our product and brand, the ease of doing business in such market and various other social and economic factors that may be specific to such market. Further, limitations by the local authorities of repatriation of generated funds may pose a risk to our success in these new markets. Our sales and profit margins may be adversely affected if we fail to provide competitive options in the market or our brands fail to gain acceptability in the market.
RISKS RELATING TO INVESTMENTS IN INDIAN COMPANIES
We are an Indian company. Our headquarters are located in India, a substantial part of our operations are conducted in India and a significant part of our infrastructure and other assets are located in India. In addition, a portion of our total revenues for the year ended March 31, 2021 continued to be derived from sales in India. As a result, the following additional risk factors apply that are not specific to our company or industry.
We may be subjected to additional compliance and litigation risks as a result of periodic amendments in certain key Indian regulations, including The Indian Companies Act, 2013 SEBI (Listing Obligations and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2015 and the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999.
As a company that is incorporated in India, we are governed by certain key Indian rules and regulations, including the Indian Companies Act, 1956, as amended, and The Companies Act, 2012. Some of the significant changes from The Companies Act, 2012 were in the areas of board and governance processes, boardroom responsibilities, disclosures, corporate social responsibility, audit matters, initiation of class action suits by shareholders or depositors, fraud reporting and whistle-blower mechanisms.
In addition, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (“SEBI”) issued the SEBI (Listing Obligations and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2015 (the “Listing Regulations”) which replaced the former Listing Agreement, that must be followed by all listed Indian public companies. These Listing Regulations were intended to consolidate and streamline the provisions of the existing listing agreements for different segments of the capital markets (e.g., equity securities, debt securities, Indian depository receipts, etc.). The Listing Regulations have thus been structured to provide ease of reference by consolidating into one single document across various types of securities listed on the stock exchanges.
Key features of the Listing Regulations include:
|·||A framework has been prescribed for disclosure of material events and information by listed entities to the Indian stock exchanges. Certain events mentioned in the regulations are deemed material and disclosure is mandatory. Certain events are to be disclosed based on application of the guidelines for materiality as prescribed. The Board of Directors is required to frame a policy for determination of materiality and disclose the same on the website of the company.|
|·||Entities are required to frame policies on preservation of documents, determination of material subsidiaries, risk management, code of conduct, remuneration of directors, key managerial personnel and other employees, board diversity, materiality of related party transactions and dealing with related party transactions and criteria for evaluation of directors.|
However, certain provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 and the new Listing Regulations provisions are subject to varying interpretations and their application in practice may evolve over time as additional guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. Further, the Companies Act, 2013, the rules made thereunder and the new Listing Regulations have been and are being amended from time to time.
These amendments relate to, among other things, governance, related party transactions, financial reporting, audits and auditors, disclosures and other board and shareholders related matters. All of the foregoing may collectively result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs of compliance as a result of ongoing revisions.
Risks Relating to our ADSs THAT ARE NOT SPECIFIC TO OUR COMPANY OR INDUSTRY
Our principal shareholders have significant control over us and, if they take actions that are not in the best interests of our minority shareholders, the value of their investment in our ADSs may be harmed.
Our full time directors and members of their immediate families, in the aggregate, beneficially owned 26.74% of our issued shares as of March 31, 2021. As a result, these people, acting in concert, are likely to have the ability to exercise significant control over most matters requiring approval by our shareholders, including the election and removal of directors and significant corporate transactions. This significant control by these directors and their family members could delay, defer or prevent a change in control, impede a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us, or discourage a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us. As a result, the value of the equity shares and/or ADSs of our minority shareholders may be adversely affected or our minority shareholders might be deprived of a potential opportunity to sell their equity shares and/or ADSs at a premium.
The market price of our ADSs may be volatile, and the value of your investment could materially decline.
Investors who hold our ADSs may not be able to sell their ADSs at or above the price at which they purchased such ADSs. The price of our ADSs fluctuate from time to time, and we cannot predict the price of our ADSs at any given time. The risk factors described herein could cause the price of our ADSs to fluctuate materially.
In addition, the stock market in general, including the market for generic and specialty pharmaceutical companies, has experienced price and volume fluctuations. These broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our ADSs, regardless of our operating performance. In addition, the price of our ADSs may be affected by the valuations and recommendations of the analysts who cover us, and if our results do not meet the analysts’ forecasts and expectations, the price of our ADSs could decline as a result of analysts lowering their valuations and recommendations or otherwise.
Fluctuations in our quarterly revenues, operating results and cash flows may adversely affect the trading price of our shares and ADSs.
Our quarterly revenues, operating results and cash flows have fluctuated significantly in the past and may fluctuate substantially from quarter to quarter in the future. Such fluctuations result from a variety of factors, including but not limited to changes in demand for our products, timing of regulatory approvals and of launches of new products by us and our competitors (particularly where we obtain the 180-day period of market exclusivity in the United States provided under the Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984), timing of our retailers’ promotional programs and successful development and commercialization of limited competition and complex products. Such fluctuations may result in volatility in the price of our equity shares and our ADSs. In such an event, the trading price of our shares and ADSs may be adversely affected.
Negative media coverage and public scrutiny may adversely affect the prices of our equity shares and ADSs.
Media coverage, including social media coverage such as blogs, of us has increased dramatically over the past several years. Any negative media coverage, regardless of the accuracy of such reporting, may have an adverse impact on our reputation and investor confidence, resulting in a decline in the share price of our equity shares and our ADSs.
Indian law imposes certain restrictions that limit a holder’s ability to transfer the equity shares obtained upon conversion of ADSs and repatriate the proceeds of such transfer, which may cause our ADSs to trade at a premium or discount to the market price of our equity shares.
Under certain circumstances, the Reserve Bank of India must approve the sale of equity shares underlying ADSs by a non-resident of India to a resident of India. The Reserve Bank of India has given general permission to effect sales of existing shares or convertible debentures of an Indian company by a resident to a non-resident, subject to certain conditions, including the price at which the shares must be sold. Additionally, except under certain limited circumstances, if an investor seeks to convert the Indian rupee proceeds from sale of equity shares in India into foreign currency and then repatriate that foreign currency from India, he or she will have to obtain an additional approval from the Reserve Bank of India for each such transaction. Required approval from the Reserve Bank of India or any other government agency may not be obtained on terms favorable to a non-resident investor or at all.
Investors who exchange our ADSs for our underlying equity shares may be subject to the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 and to the disclosure obligations that may be necessary pursuant to the deposit agreement with our applicable depositary. The Companies Act, 2013 requires that, where the registered owner of shares does not hold the beneficial interest in such shares, both the registered owner and the beneficial owner of such equity shares are required to disclose to the company the nature of their interest, particulars of the registered owner and certain other details.
There are limits and conditions to the deposit of shares into the ADS facility.
Indian legal restrictions may limit the supply of our ADSs. The only way to add to the supply of our ADSs will be through a primary issuance because the depositary is not permitted to accept deposits of our outstanding shares and issue ADSs representing those shares. However, an investor in our ADSs who surrenders an ADS and withdraws our shares will be permitted to redeposit those shares in the depositary facility in exchange for our ADSs. In addition, an investor who has purchased our shares in the Indian market will be able to deposit them in the ADS program, but only in a number that does not exceed the number of underlying shares that have been withdrawn from and not re-deposited into the depositary facility. Moreover, there are restrictions on foreign institutional ownership of our equity shares as opposed to our ADSs.
The global pandemic, persistently weak global economic and financial environment in many other countries, particularly emerging market countries, and increasing political and social instability could have a material adverse effect on our business and the price and liquidity of our shares and our ADSs.
Many of the world's largest economies and financial institutions continue to be impacted by the ongoing global pandemic, a weak ongoing global economic and financial environment, with some continuing to face financial difficulty, liquidity problems and limited availability of credit. It is uncertain how long these effects will last, or whether economic and financial trends will worsen or improve. In addition, these issues may be further impacted by the lockdown restrictions, difficult conditions existing in parts of the Middle East, anti-immigrant activities, social unrest and fears of terrorism that have followed in many countries.
If U.S. investors in our ADSs are unable to exercise preemptive rights available to our non-U.S. shareholders due to the registration requirements of U.S. securities laws, the investment of such U.S. investors in our ADSs may be diluted.
A company incorporated in India must offer its holders of shares preemptive rights to subscribe and pay for a proportionate number of shares to maintain their existing ownership percentages prior to the issuance of any shares, unless these rights have been waived by at least 75% of its shareholders present and voting at a shareholders’ general meeting.
U.S. investors in our ADSs may be unable to exercise preemptive rights for the shares underlying our ADSs unless a registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933 is effective with respect to the rights or an exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act is available. Our decision to file a registration statement will depend on the costs and potential liabilities associated with a registration statement as well as the perceived benefits of enabling U.S. investors in our ADSs to exercise their preemptive rights and any other factors we consider appropriate at the time. We might choose not to file a registration statement under these circumstances. If we issue any of these securities in the future, such securities may be issued to the depositary, which may sell them in the securities markets in India for the benefit of the investors in our ADSs.
There can be no assurances as to the value, if any, the depositary would receive upon the sale of these securities. To the extent that U.S. investors in our ADSs are unable to exercise preemptive rights, their proportional interests in us would be reduced.
Our equity shares and our ADSs may be subject to market price volatility, and the market price of our equity shares and ADSs may decline disproportionately in response to adverse developments that are unrelated to our operating performance.
Market prices for the securities of Indian pharmaceutical companies, including our own, have historically been highly volatile, and the market has from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that are unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies.
Factors such as the following can have an adverse effect on the market price of our ADSs and equity shares:
|·||general market conditions,|
|·||speculative trading in our shares and ADSs, and|
|·||developments relating to our peer companies in the pharmaceutical industry.|
There may be less company information available in Indian securities markets than securities markets in developed countries.
We are incorporated in India, and there are certain differences in the rights and protections of shareholders under the laws of India as compared to the laws of the United States and other developed economies.
For example, there is a difference between the level of regulation and monitoring of the Indian securities markets over the activities of investors, brokers and other participants, as compared to the level of regulation and monitoring of markets in such other countries. The Securities and Exchange Board of India is responsible for improving disclosure and other regulatory standards for the Indian securities markets. The Securities and Exchange Board of India has issued regulations and guidelines on disclosure requirements, insider trading and other matters. There may, however, be less publicly available information about Indian companies than is regularly made available by public companies in developed countries, which could affect the market for our equity shares and ADSs.
Indian stock exchange closures, broker defaults, settlement delays, and Indian Government regulations on stock market operations could affect the market price and liquidity of our equity shares.
The Indian securities markets are smaller than the securities markets in the United States and Europe and have experienced volatility from time to time. The regulation and monitoring of the Indian securities market and the activities of investors, brokers and other participants differ, in some cases significantly, from those in the United States and some European countries. Indian stock exchanges have at times experienced problems, including temporary exchange closures, broker defaults and settlement delays and if similar problems were to recur, they could affect the market price and liquidity of the securities of Indian companies, including our shares. Furthermore, any change in Indian Government regulations of stock markets could affect the market price and liquidity of our equity shares and ADSs.
Sale of our equity shares may adversely affect the prices of our equity shares and ADSs.
The Government of India’s Depository Receipts Scheme, 2014, permits liberalized rules for sponsored and unsponsored secondary market issue of depository receipts, subject to the existing sectorial cap on foreign investment. Under the regulations implemented, an Indian company’s equity shares can be freely issued to a depository for the purpose of issuing depository receipts through any mode permissible for the issue of such securities to other investors. This enables us to more readily issue shares to the depositary for our ADSs and conduct U.S. securities issuances of our ADSs, which may impact the share price and available float in Indian stock exchanges as well as the price and availability of our ADSs on the NYSE. Refer to Item 10.D. “Exchange controls – ADS guidelines” for further details.
Further, the SEBI introduced a detailed framework for issuance of Depository Receipts (“DRs”) by a company incorporated and listed on a recognized stock exchange in India pursuant to its circular dated October 10, 2019. The framework inter alia sets out eligibility requirements, permissible jurisdictions, international exchanges, and permissible holder of DRs, as well as certain other obligations to be complied with by issuers of DRs, the Indian depository, the foreign depository and the domestic custodian. Further, pursuant to its circular dated November 28, 2019 and December 18, 2020, the SEBI gave notice of the permissible jurisdictions for listing of DRs and amended the scope and process for permissible holders of DRs, respectively.
Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Limited was incorporated in India under the Companies Act, 1956, by its promoter and our former Chairman, the late Dr. K. Anji Reddy, as a Private Limited Company on February 24, 1984. We were converted to a Public Limited Company on December 6, 1985 and listed on the BSE Limited (formerly known as the Bombay Stock Exchange Limited), the National Stock Exchange of India Limited and certain other Indian stock exchanges in August 1986, and on the New York Stock Exchange on April 11, 2001. We also listed on the NSE IFSC Limited, a stock exchange in the International Financial Services Centre in Gujarat, India, on December 9, 2020. We are registered with the Registrar of Companies, Hyderabad, Telangana, India as Company Identification No. L85195TG1984PLC004507. Our registered office is situated at 8-2-337, Road No. 3, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana 500 034, India and the telephone number of our registered office is +91-40-49002900. The name and address of our registered agent in the United States is Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Inc., 107 College Road East, Princeton, New Jersey 08540. Our main corporate website address is https://www.drreddys.com.
The SEC maintains an Internet website (at www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. This annual report on Form 20-F and other information filed by us with or furnished by us to the SEC can be accessed via such website. Certain (but not all) of such materials are also available on our website, at www.drreddys.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after having been electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. Information contained in our website, www.drreddys.com, is not part of this annual report on Form 20-F and no portion of such information is incorporated herein or any other materials filed with or furnished to the SEC.
Key business developments:
Business Transfer Agreement with Wockhardt Limited
On June 10, 2020, we completed the acquisition of select divisions of Wockhardt Limited's branded generics business in India and the territories of Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Maldives. The fair value of consideration transferred was Rs.16,115 million.
Refer to Note 6 of our consolidated financial statements for further details.
Definitive agreement with Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited
During the year ended March 31, 2021, we entered into a definitive agreement with Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited to acquire marketing authorizations and other rights of select brands in four “Emerging Markets” countries for a total consideration of Rs.1,516 million.
Refer to Note 14 of our consolidated financial statements for further details.
Principal capital expenditures:
During the years ended March 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, we invested Rs.12,476 million, Rs.5,725 million and Rs.8,376 million (net of sales of capital assets), respectively, in capital expenditures for manufacturing, research and development facilities and other assets.
In addition, during the year ended March 31, 2021, we made payment in connection with our acquisition of certain business assets from Wockhardt Limited for Rs.15,514 million. Refer to Note 6 of our consolidated financial statements for further details.
We believe that these investments will create the capacity to support our strategic growth agenda. As of March 31, 2021, we also had contractual commitments of Rs.9,841 million for capital expenditures. We currently intend to finance our additional capital expansion plans entirely through our operating cash flows and through cash and other investments.
Established in 1984, we are an integrated global pharmaceutical company committed to accelerating access to affordable and innovative medicines. Our reportable operating segments are as follows:
|·||Pharmaceutical Services and Active Ingredients (“PSAI”);|
|·||Proprietary Products; and|
Global Generics. This segment consists of our business of manufacturing and marketing prescription and over-the-counter finished pharmaceutical products ready for consumption by the patient, marketed under a brand name (branded formulations) or as generic finished dosages with therapeutic equivalence to branded formulations (generics). This segment includes the operations of our biologics business.
Pharmaceutical Services and Active Ingredients. This segment primarily consists of our business of manufacturing and marketing active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates, also known as “API”, which are the principal ingredients for finished pharmaceutical products. Active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates become finished pharmaceutical products when the dosages are fixed in a form ready for human consumption such as a tablet, capsule or liquid using additional inactive ingredients. This segment also includes our contract research services business and the manufacture and sale of active pharmaceutical ingredients and steroids in accordance with the specific customer requirements.
Proprietary Products. This segment consists of our business that focuses on the research and development of differentiated formulations. The segment is expected to earn revenues arising out of monetization of such assets and subsequent royalties, if any.
Others. This segment consists of the operations of our wholly-owned subsidiary, Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited (“ADTL”), a discovery stage biotechnology company developing novel and best-in-class therapies in the fields of oncology and inflammation. ADTL works with established pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies through customized models of drug-discovery collaborations.
Our key markets include the United States, India, Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union, and Europe.
Our strategy is guided by our core purpose of accelerating access to affordable and innovative medicines, because “Good Health Can’t Wait”.
Spiraling health care costs across the world have put many medicines out of the reach of millions of people who desperately need them. As a global generic pharmaceutical company, we take very seriously our responsibility to offer affordable alternatives to expensive medicines and help patients manage disease better.
We deliver on our purpose through a set of promises we make to our customers and partners:
|·||to bring expensive medicines within reach;|
|·||to address unmet patient needs;|
|·||to help patients manage disease better;|
|·||to work with partners to help them succeed; and|
|·||to enable and help our partners ensure that our products are always available where needed.|
In order to maximize our impact and reach a greater number of patients, we are committed to delivering on three themes:
|·||Leadership in chosen spaces;|
|·||Operational excellence and continuous improvement; and|
|·||Patient centric product innovation.|
Further, the core of our strategy is to focus on portfolio, patient centricity, people and quality, to achieve sustained growth.
The operational aspects and sources of competitive advantage for us are discussed below.
Strengths in science and technology
Our strengths in science and technology range from synthetic organic chemistry, formulation development and biologics development to small molecule based drug discovery. Furthermore, our wholly owned subsidiary, Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited, is a specialized biotechnology company engaged in discovery and early clinical development of novel, best in class therapies to treat cancer and inflammatory diseases. Such expertise enables us to deliver first-to-market, difficult-to-make products with an industry leading intellectual property and technology leveraged product portfolio.
Global Generics: Through our branded and unbranded drug products, we aim to offer affordable alternatives to highly-priced innovator brands, both directly and through key partnerships.
|·||Branded Generics: We seek to have a portfolio that is strongly focused on delivering first-to-market, differentiated products to doctors and patients. Many of our brands hold significant market shares in the molecule and therapy areas where they are present. We have also entered into strategic partnerships with third parties to sell our products in markets where we have not established our own sales and distribution operations.|
|·||Unbranded Generics: We aim to ensure that our development capabilities remain strong and enable us to deliver products that are first to market, tough-to-make and technologically challenging.|
|·||Biologics: Our biologics business seeks to accelerate access to biosimilar products globally through process development and relevant clinical research. We were the first company to launch a biosimilar version of rituximab in 2007, and have launched multiple biosimilar products in India and other key markets.|
Our vertical integration and process innovation helps to ensure that quality products are available to patients in need at all times.
Pharmaceutical Services and Active Ingredients: Our PSAI segment is comprised of our API business and our Custom Pharmaceutical Services (“CPS”) business. Through our API and CPS businesses, we aim to offer technologically advanced product lines and niche product services through partnerships internally and externally.
|·||Our product offerings in our API business are positioned to offer intellectual property and technology-advantaged products to enable launches ahead of others at competitive prices.|
|·||Through our CPS business, we aim to offer niche product service capabilities, technology platforms, and competitive cost structures to innovator and biotechnology companies.|
Proprietary Products: Our Proprietary Products segment is comprised of our differentiated formulations business. In this segment, we work to improve patient outcomes by identifying unmet and under-met medical needs and addressing them through innovative products and services that are affordable and accessible.
Execution excellence provides the framework to create sustainable customer value across all of our activities. We have been investing in the following to achieve this:
|·||Safety: The concept of safety has been imbued in the operating culture throughout our organization. Specific initiatives are being carried out to increase safety awareness, to achieve a safe working environment, to avoid accidents and injuries, and to minimize the loss of manufacturing time.|
|·||Quality: We are fully dedicated to quality and have robust quality processes and systems in place at our developmental and manufacturing facilities to ensure that every product is safe and of high quality. In addition, we have integrated “Quality by Design” to build quality into all processes and use quality tools to minimize process risks.|
|·||Operational Excellence: We apply a continuous improvement framework to the critical operations and processes in our value chain. With an operating and management review rhythm, we review and refine the business processes across the organization to measure and improve their performance.|
|·||Leadership Development: We are focused on developing leaders, as well as enhancing leadership behavior, across our organization through structured programs.|
OUR PRINCIPAL AREAS OF OPERATIONS
The following table shows our revenues and the percentage of total revenues of our business segments for the years ended March 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively:
|For the year ended March 31,|
|(Rs. in millions, U.S.$ in millions)|
Revenues by country and by therapeutic area for the years ended March 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 are discussed in Note 5 to our consolidated financial statements.
Global Generics Segment
Revenues from our Global Generics segment were Rs.154,404 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 12% as compared to Rs.138,123 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. The revenue increase was in all the four business geographies of this segment: North America (the United States and Canada), Europe, India and “Emerging Markets” (which is comprised of Russia, other countries of the former Soviet Union, Romania and certain other countries from our “Rest of the World” markets, including South Africa, China, Brazil and Australia).
The production processes for finished dosages of generics are similar, to a certain extent, regardless of whether the finished dosages are to be marketed to highly regulated or less regulated markets. In many cases, the processes share common and interchangeable facilities and employee bases, and use similar raw materials. However, differences remain between highly regulated and less regulated markets in terms of manufacturing, packaging and labeling requirements and the intensity of regulatory oversight, as well as the complexity of patent regimes.
While the degree of regulation in certain markets may impact product development, we are observing increasing convergence of development needs throughout both highly regulated and less regulated markets. As a result, when we begin the development of a product, we may not necessarily target it at a particular market, but will instead target the product towards a cluster of markets that will include both highly regulated and less regulated markets.
Today, we are one of the leading generic pharmaceutical companies in the world. With the integration of all the markets where we are selling generic pharmaceuticals into our Global Generics segment, our front-end business strategies in various markets and our support services in India are increasingly being developed with a view to leverage our global infrastructure.
The following is a discussion of the key markets in our Global Generics segment.
During the year ended March 31, 2021, India accounted for 22% of our total Global Generics segment sales. In India, our key therapeutic categories include gastro-intestinal, cardiovascular and anti-diabetic, dermatology, oncology, respiratory, stomatology, urology and nephrology.
As of March 31, 2021, we had a total of 382 branded products in India. Our top ten branded products together accounted for 27% of our revenues in India in the year ended March 31, 2021. According to IQVIA, a provider of market research to the pharmaceutical industry, in its moving annual total report for the twelve month period ended March 31, 2021, our secondary sales in India grew by 3.1%. In comparison, the Indian pharmaceutical market experienced growth of 4.3% during such period. Strategic Marketing Solutions and Research Center Private Limited (“SMSRC”), a prescription market research firm, in its report measuring pharmaceutical prescriptions in India for the twelve month period ended March 2021, ranked us 6th in terms of the number of prescriptions generated in India during such period.
Sales, marketing and distribution network
We generate demand for our products through our 7,345 sales representatives (which include representatives engaged by us on a contract basis through a service provider) and front line managers, who frequently visit doctors to detail our related product portfolio. They also visit various pharmacies to ensure that our brands are adequately stocked.
We sell our products primarily through clearing and forwarding agents to approximately 5,000 wholesalers who decide which brands to buy based on demand. The wholesalers pay for our products within an agreed credit period and in turn sell these products to retailers. Our clearing and forwarding agents are responsible for transporting our products to the wholesalers. We pay our clearing and forwarding agents on a commission basis. We have insurance policies that cover our products during shipment and storage at clearing and forwarding locations.
We compete with different companies in the Indian formulations market, depending upon therapeutic and product categories and, within each category, upon dosage strengths and drug delivery. On the basis of sales, we were the 11th largest pharmaceutical company in India, with a market share of 2.3%, according to IQVIA in its moving annual total report for the twelve month period ended March 31, 2021.
Our competitors in the Indian market include Cipla Limited, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Limited, Zydus Cadila Healthcare Limited, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited, Alkem Limited, Pfizer Limited, Abbott India Limited, Lupin Limited, Aristo Pharma Limited, Intas Pharmaceuticals Limited, Sanofi India Limited, Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited and Emcure Pharmaceuticals Limited.
The manufacturing and marketing of drugs, drug products and cosmetics in India is governed by many statutes, regulations and guidelines, including but not limited to the following:
|·||The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945;|
|·||The Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954;|
|·||The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985;|
|·||The Drugs (Price Control) Order, 1995 and 2013, read in conjunction with the Essential Commodities Act, 1955; and|
|·||The National Pharmaceuticals Pricing Policy, 2012.|
These statutes, regulations and guidelines govern the manufacturing, testing, packaging, labeling, storing, record-keeping, safety, approval, pricing, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution of pharmaceutical products.
An approval is required from the Ministry of Health before a generic equivalent of an existing or referenced brand drug can be marketed. When processing a generics application, the Ministry of Health usually waives the requirement of conducting complete clinical studies, although it generally requires bio-availability and/or bio-equivalence studies. “Bio-availability” indicates the rate and extent of absorption and levels of concentration of a drug product in the blood stream needed to produce a therapeutic effect. “Bio-equivalence” compares the bioavailability of one drug product with another, and when established, indicates that the rate of absorption and levels of concentration of the active drug substance in the body are equivalent for the generic drug with the previously approved drug. A generic application may be submitted for a drug on the basis that it is the equivalent of a previously approved drug. Before approving our generic products, the Ministry of Health also requires that our procedures and operations conform to current Good Manufacturing Practice (“cGMP”) regulations, relating to good manufacturing practices as defined by various countries. We must follow the cGMP regulations at all times during the manufacture of our products. We continue to spend significant time, money and effort in the areas of production and quality testing to help ensure full compliance with cGMP regulations. The timing of final Ministry of Health approval of a generic application depends on various factors, including patent expiration dates, sufficiency of data and regulatory approvals.
Pursuant to the amendments in May 2005 to Schedule Y of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, manufacturers of finished dosages are required to submit additional technical data to the Drugs Controller General of India in order to obtain a no-objection certificate for conducting clinical trials as well as to manufacture new drugs for marketing.
On March 22, 2005, the Government of India passed the Patents (Amendment) Bill, 2005 (the “2005 Amendment”), introducing a product patent regime for food, chemicals and pharmaceuticals in India. The 2005 Amendment specifically provides that new medicines (patentability of which is not specifically excluded) for which a patent has been applied for in India on or after January 1, 1995 and for which a patent is granted cannot be manufactured or sold in India by anyone other than the patent holder and its assignees and licensees. This has resulted in a reduction of new product introductions in India for all Indian pharmaceutical companies engaged in the development and marketing of generic finished dosages and APIs. Processes for the manufacture of APIs and formulations were patentable in India even prior to the 2005 Amendment, so no additional impact results from patenting of such processes.
Under the present drug policy of the Government of India, certain drugs have been specified under the Drugs (Prices Control) Order, 2013 (the “DPCO”) as subject to price control. The Government of India established the National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority, 2012 (“NPPA”), to control pharmaceutical prices. Under the DPCO, the NPPA has the authority to fix the maximum selling price for specified products.
During the year ended March 31, 2013, the Department of Pharmaceuticals under the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers of the Government of India proposed the National Pharmaceuticals Pricing Policy, 2012, a revised National Pharmaceutical Pricing Policy to apply price controls to 348 drugs listed in National List of Essential Medicines. Some of our formulation products were subject to these price controls. The National List of Essential Medicines, as revised in 2016, now contains 376 drugs.
On March 12, 2016, the Department of Health and Family Welfare under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of the Government of India banned 344 fixed dose combination drugs (i.e., two or more active drugs combined in a fixed ratio into a single dosage). A number of pharmaceutical companies, including us, filed a writ petition before the Delhi High Court challenging the ban. The Delhi High Court initially granted an interim stay on the ban notification and on December 1, 2016, it overturned the government imposed ban on the 344 fixed dosage combinations. Subsequently, the Government of India filed an appeal of the decision in the Supreme Court of India. In December 2017, the Supreme Court of India referred the issue to the government’s expert body, the Drugs Technical Advisory Board (“DTAB”), for a fresh review of safety, efficacy and therapeutic justification of the drugs before recommending action. DTAB subsequently completed its review and, in September 2018, the Government of India banned 328 fixed dose combination drugs. The impact of this ban was negligible on our revenue.
On February 27, 2019, the NPPA invoked special powers granted under paragraph 19 of the DPCO, and released an Office Memorandum through which it brought 42 non-scheduled anti-cancer medications under price control by capping their trade margin (the difference between the price at which the manufacturers sell the medicines to distributors and the price paid by the end user) at 30%.This Office Memorandum had no material financial impact on our revenue.
From time to time (most recently on March 26, 2021), the NPPA has announced an upward revision in the maximum prices of various drugs, as a result of positive inflation as measured by India’s Wholesale Price Index.
Such ongoing price control changes, product bans and other changes can disrupt the Indian branded pharmaceutical market and negatively impact the revenues and profitability of our Indian business and our company.
Russia and other Countries of the former Soviet Union and Romania
Russia accounted for 10% of our Global Generics segment’s revenues in the year ended March 31, 2021. IQVIA ranked us 16th in sales in Russia, with a market share of 1.7% for the twelve months ended March 31, 2021.
According to IQVIA, as per its moving annual total report for the twelve months ended March 31, 2021, our retail sales value decrease was 0.9% and our sales volume decreased by 5.7% for such period, as compared to the Russian pharmaceutical market value growth of 3.3% and sales volume decrease of 5.1% for such period. We were the top ranked Indian pharmaceutical company in Russia for such period.
Our top five brands, Nise, Omez, Nasivin, Cetrine and Ibuclin accounted for 62.1% of our retail sales in Russia for 12 months ended March 31, 2021. Nise (pain management product, including systemic and topical form), Omez (an anti-ulcerant product), Nasivin (for cold and flu), Cetrine (for allergy) and Ibuclin (for cold and flu) and were ranked as the 27th, 56th, 161st, 170th and 172nd best-selling formulation brands, respectively, in the Russian market by IQVIA in its retail segment report for the moving twelve months ended March 31, 2021. (Note that Nasivin is distributed and promoted by us under a licensing agreement and the brand is owned by the licensor). Our strategy in Russia is to focus on the gastro-intestinal, pain management, cough and cold, allergy and oncology therapeutic areas. Our focus is on building leading brands in these therapeutic areas in prescription, over-the-counter and hospital sales.
Our Global Generics segment’s revenues in Russia increased by 1% (in Russian rouble absolute currency terms) during the year ended March 31, 2021, which was largely attributable to an increase in the sales price and sales from new product launches during the year ended March 31, 2021, and was partially offset by a reduction in sales due to lower volumes in some of our key existing products. Such revenues, measured in Indian rupees, decreased by 6% as compared to the year ended March 31, 2020.
Other Countries of the former Soviet Union and Romania
We operate in other countries of the former Soviet Union, including Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Uzbekistan and Romania. For the year ended March 31, 2021, revenues from these countries accounted for 5% of our total Global Generics segment’s revenues.
Sales, marketing and distribution network
Our marketing and promotion efforts in our Russia market is driven by a team of 472 medical representatives and 54 managers to detail our products to doctors in 77 cities in Russia. Our commercial team consists of 16 key account managers and is focused on establishing a network of relationships with key pharmacy chains. Our Russia hospital division has 37 hospital specialists focused on expanding our presence in hospitals.
In Russia, we generally extend credit only to customers after they have established a satisfactory history of payment with us. The credit terms offered to these customers are based on turnover, payment record and the number of the customers’ branches or pharmacies, and are reviewed on a periodic basis. We review the credit terms offered to our key customers on a periodic basis and modify them to take into account the macro-economic scenario in Russia.
Our principal competitors in the Russian market include Berlin-Chemie/Menarini Pharma, GmbH, KRKA Pharma Limited, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Limited, Lek-Sandoz Pharmaceuticals (an affiliate of Novartis Pharma A.G.) and Zao Ranbaxy (an affiliate of Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited).
Healthcare system development in Russia
In order to promote local industry, in the year 2012 the Russian government approved the Strategy of Pharmaceutical Industry Development in the Russian Federation for the period up to the year 2020 (or the “Pharma 2020 plan”), which aimed to develop the research, development and manufacturing of pharmaceutical products by Russia’s domestic pharmaceutical industry.
The goal of the Pharma 2020 plan was to reduce Russia’s reliance on imported pharmaceutical products and increase Russia’s self-sufficiency in that regard. According to this program, 90% of drugs from the list of “Essential and Vital Drugs” (also known as the “ZhNVLS”) should be produced by local pharmaceutical companies. By the end of the year 2018, this target was almost achieved (84.2% vs planned 90%). In the year 2018, the Russian government announced a new planned “Pharma-2030” program for the further development of Russian pharmaceutical production. One of the key goals of this program is to increase by 500% to 600% the export of locally produced drugs. This program is expected to be approved during calendar year 2021.
The Russian government approved the State Program for Healthcare System Development on December 26, 2017. The objectives of this program are increasing life expectancy at birth, reducing mortality of the working-age population, reducing mortality from circulatory diseases and tumors (including malignant ones) and raising medical care quality satisfaction.
The Government of the Russian Federation has approved a Strategy for the development of immunoprophylaxis for the next 15 years. The document was developed on behalf of the President of Russia and defines an action plan until 2035. The strategy focuses on the immunoprophylaxis of a number of infections, such as diphtheria, measles, rubella, viral hepatitis B, and seasonal flu. The strategy's activities are divided into six main areas:
|•||Optimizing the national calendar of preventive vaccinations and vaccinations according to epidemiological indicators. It will include the most complete list of infections, the incidence of which is controlled by the vaccine.|
|•||To stimulate scientific development and preclinical research in the field of creating immunobiological drugs.|
|•||The localization of the full cycle of vaccine production in domestic organizations.|
|•||To ensure safe conditions for immunization and pharmacovigilance of its results.|
|•||The improvement of the state policy in the field of immunoprophylaxis of infectious diseases.|
|•||To increase public awareness of the benefits of vaccination.|
Reference pricing regime
During the year ended March 31, 2010, the Russian government announced a reference pricing regime, pursuant to which a price freeze on certain drugs categorized as “essential”, based on a list of “Essential and Vital Drugs” (also known as the “ZhNVLS”) was implemented effective as of April 2010.
For the past several years, the Russian Ministry of Industry and Trade has enacted and renewed short-term government regulations under which local manufacturers (i.e., in Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan) get a 15% price preference over non-local manufacturers in procurement tenders by the state.
A draft of “Rules for State registration and re-registration of the maximum ex-works manufacturer prices of medicines included in EDL” was published by the Russian Ministry of Health in 2017 and subsequently has undergone several changes. Federal Law No. 134-FZ dated June 6, 2019 establishes, and obligates the holder of a registration certificate for a reference drug to re-register, the maximum selling prices for drugs included in the list of vital and essential drugs. It also provides for an automatic re-registration of maximum selling prices for generics and biosimilar based on step-down coefficient.
State Regulation of Prices for Vital and Essential Medicines
Russia’s Federal Law No. 34-FZ dated March 8, 2015 amended the Federal Law 61-FZ “On Circulation of Medicines”. The amendments created new rules for the registration, manufacture and quality control of medicines, including new rules for the calculation and registration of the maximum retail prices of vital and essential medicines established by the ZhNVLS (the “EDL”).
Calculation of the maximum sale price for medicines included in the EDL list is determined by the Government of the Russian Federation taking into account a variety of economic and/or social criteria. The updated EDL lists for 2020, approved by the Decree of the Government No. 2406-p dated October 12, 2019, became effective from January 1, 2020. These lists include the list of drugs for provision to specific groups of citizens, medicines prescribed by a decision of a medical commission of medical organizations, medical supplies from the 7 Nosologies program list (which covers expensive treatments for patients with certain severe chronic diseases), as well as the minimum range of medicines required for medical aid.
Restrictions on access of foreign drugs
In 2015, the Russian Government enacted the Priority Action Plan for sustainable economic and social stability development and regulation No. 128. This plan and regulation affects medicines included in the EDL, and some of their key terms that have impacted the pharmaceutical industry are (i) supporting import substitution; (ii) optimizing budget costs and reducing inefficient expenses; and (iii) restrictions on access of foreign drugs to state procurement tenders, if two or more locally manufactured drugs participate in the relevant tender.
Interactions between healthcare professionals and medical product companies
During the year ended March 31, 2012, Russia introduced Federal Law # 323, titled “On the Foundations of Healthcare for Russian Citizens”. This law imposes stringent restrictions on interactions between (i) healthcare professionals, pharmacists, healthcare management organizations, opinion leaders (both governmental and from the private sector) and certain other parties (collectively referred to as “healthcare decision makers”) and (ii) companies that produce or distribute drugs or medical equipment (collectively referred to as “medical product companies”) and any representatives or intermediaries acting on their behalf (collectively referred to as “medical product representatives”).
Some of the key provisions of this law are prohibitions on:
|·||one-on-one meetings and communications between healthcare professionals and medical product representatives, except for participation in clinical trials, pharmacovigilance, group educational events and certain other limited exceptions approved by Russia’s Healthcare Organization Administration;|
|·||the acceptance by a healthcare professional of compensation, gifts or entertainment paid by medical product representatives;|
|·||the agreement by a healthcare professional to prescribe or recommend a drug product or medical equipment; or|
|·||the engagement by a healthcare decision maker in a “conflict of interest” transaction with a medical product representative, unless approved by regulators pursuant to certain specified procedures.|
At the end of 2013, the State Duma (i.e., the lower chamber of the Russian parliament) adopted a series of amendments to various healthcare related laws. Among other things, the “Law on Medicines" was amended to add regulations restricting interactions between medical product representatives with medical professionals in connection with events sponsored by medical product companies. Under these regulations, in the event that medical product companies wish to sponsor certain scientific, medical education or similar events, they are required to disclose the date, place and time of the event and the plans, programs and agendas for discussion.
Disclosure is to be made by publishing appropriate information on their official websites not later than two months before the indicated events, and the same information shall also be sent to Russia’s Federal Healthcare Service (Roszdravnadzor).
Liability for non-compliance with such restrictions extends to both the healthcare professional and the medical product representative. Except for requiring the disclosure of information on conflicts of interest, no specific liability has been currently prescribed for medical product companies.
On July 2, 2013, the Ministry of Health of the Government of Russia published an order on its website that binds physicians to prescribe medicinal products by International Nonproprietary Name (i.e., active substance) or by combination list (which combines different International Nonproprietary Names in one treatment group).
Russia is a member of a common market for medicines within the Eurasian Economic Union
The Eurasian Economic Union (“EEU”) was established in January 2015 with the aim of creating a shared economic space for its members. EEU rules for the circulation of medicines have been in effect since 2017. In 2018, the information base of the pharmaceutical market of the Union was created. In 2019, the EEU began re-registering medicines under the EEU rules, which allow manufacturers in EEU countries to re-register medicines under common procedures and reduce costs.
More than three dozen medicines and medical devices have already been registered under the EEU's rules, and more than 200 applications for registration are in process. Work is being actively carried out to inspect pharmaceutical production facilities for compliance with the rules of good manufacturing practice (“GMP”) of the EEU, and about 20 certificates have already been issued. This year the first part of the first volume of the Union Pharmacopoeia is releasing.
In 2020-2022, the Eurasian Economic Commission plans to update a number of documents of the Union on good practices in the field of circulation of medicines (GMP, Good Pharmacovigilance Practice (“GVP”), and Good Clinical Practice (“GCP”), rules for registration of medicines, and requirements for inspection of pharmaceutical production. It is also continuing to develop new recommendations on certain aspects of treatment, such as clinical research, biostatistics, and peculiarities of production of certain types of drugs.
The Union Pharmacopoeia was established by Decision of College of the Eurasian Economic Commission № 100 dated August 11, 2020. According to relevant decision The Union Pharmacopoeia came into effect on March 1, 2021. Registration dossiers must be for compliance with its requirements by January 1, 2026.
The decision of the Council of the Eurasian Economic Commission № 128 dated December 23, 2020 was made to extend for six months (until July 1, 2021) the opportunity for pharmaceutical manufacturers to choose the registration of new drugs according to the national procedure in four union states (the Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic).
From July 1, 2021 (and in the Russian Federation - from January 1, 2021), new medicinal products (that is, medicinal products that are not valid registration certificates of the Member States of the Union) can be registered only in accordance with the Rules for the registration and examination of medicinal products for medical application approved by the Decision of the EEC Council No. 78 dated November 3, 2016.
Union market participants should take into account that all registration certificates issued under the "national" rules of the member states are valid until their expiration, but no later than December 31, 2025.
With regard to inspection, one of the recent innovations in this area can be considered the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated September 5, 2020 No. 1361 "On Amending the Rules for the Organization and Conduct of Inspection of Medicinal Products Manufacturers for Compliance with the Requirements of Good Manufacturing Practice, as well as the issuance on the compliance of the manufacturer of medicinal products with the specified requirements”. Previously, foreign drug manufacturers could confirm the fact that the discovered remarks were eliminated only during the next inspection. Now, in the event of inconsistencies, foreign companies will be able to submit a corrective action plan even before the inspection report is generated.
Mutual recognition of national GMP certificates of the EEU members was adopted. Decision of the EEC Council No. 66 of September 4, 2020 establishes for the period from 2021 to 2025, mutual recognition of, firstly, national GMP certificates of the states of the Eurasian Economic Union, secondly, GMP certificates of the Union when making changes to the registration dossier and renewing national registration certificates for medicines produced in the EEU, and thirdly, during the national registration of the Union's GMP certificates for medicines produced in third countries. These changes will make it possible to exclude the resumption of repeated inspections of drug manufacturers by the authorized bodies of the EEU states from January 1, 2021.
An important innovation is the granting of the Russian Ministry of Industry and Trade the status of an authorized organization for organizing and/or conducting pharmaceutical inspections of the production of medicines for medical use for compliance with the requirements of the GMP rules of the EEU, including jointly with the pharmaceutical inspectorates of another state which is a member of the EEU (see the Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of September 15, 2020 No. 1446).
A distinctive feature of 2020 is the transition to remote inspection. As of September 18, 2020, 184 such remote inspections were held by the Federal State Institution «State Institute of Drugs and Good Practices» (also known as “FSI «SID & GP»”), a subordinate agency of the Russian Ministry of Industry and Trade.
Monitoring System of Movement of Medicines from the Producer to the Final Consumer
In 2019, the Ministry of Health in Russia proposed a full serialization system to track and trace the passage of pharmaceuticals through the entire supply chain, from the manufacturers to the end users, known as Markirovka or “MDLP”. The proposed federal repository and tracking system would provide the manufacturers, supply chain and end users of pharmaceuticals many functionalities. Listed below are some of the functions that would be available in addition to the usual authentication and track and trace services:
|·||the system would provide price controls on products designated as vital and essential medicines;|
|·||consumers would be able to compare the price of the drug to its official price limit, find which pharmacies do have the drug available, and get the product information;|
|·||manufacturers would be able to get real time data on the logistics and storage of their products in the market;|
|·||pharmacists could get information related to the price, and monitor expiration dates;|
|·||health care institutions would be able to track registration and prices; and|
|·||federal agencies would have capability to monitor all medicinal products on the market to facilitate price controls as well as report on and analyze the industry.|
The provisions on manufacturers’ obligations to label the package with the identification marks, to submit the data to the monitoring system as well as the terms governing liability for non-compliance will become effective starting July 1, 2020. (As per Art. 2, Federal Law No. 462-FZ dated December 27, 2019).
The implementation of serialization caused great difficulties for all participants in the pharmaceutical supply chain and has affected the availability of drugs. The notification regime of the MDLP, which began at the end of October 2020 and was fixed in November resolution No. 1779, helped resolve these problems. Now the participants in the turnover do not have to wait for acceptance from suppliers and can independently enter medicines and promote them further along the chain. For pharmacies and medical organizations, the regime remains simplified indefinitely. For the rest of the participants of the turnover, the regime will be valid until July 1, 2021.
Antimonopoly compliance in Russia
On March 1, 2020, the Russian President signed the bill setting forth the legal framework for the internal systems of antimonopoly compliance (the "Compliance Amendments"). The Compliance Amendments came into force on March 12, 2020.
The Compliance Amendments set forth the optional right of Russian companies to introduce an internal system of antimonopoly compliance which is designed to assess and prevent violations of Russian antimonopoly laws and promote internal controls for the same (the "Compliance System"). If a Compliance System is adopted by a company and properly functions, this can serve as a mitigating factor, and potentially reduce liability, in the event of an antimonopoly law violation.
A Russian company is entitled to file the Compliance System with the Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service (the “FAS”) for prior approval. This mechanism allows minimizing risks of violation of the antimonopoly law and imposition of the respective administrative fines if the Compliance System is approved by the FAS and the company follows it in practice.
E-Commerce for Medical Products
In light of the volatile situation with COVID-19, on April 3, 2020 the President of Russia signed Decree No. 187 dated March 17, 2020 “On Retail Trade of Medicines for Medical Use” under which online retail sales of over-the-counter medicinal products (except illegal drugs, psychedelic medicines and medicines containing over 25% of ethyl alcohol) in the Russian Federation is now permitted. In the case of prescription medicines, online retail sales are now permitted in cases of urgent medical need and emergency or where there is an “occurrence of a threat of transmission of a disease constituting a danger to the public.” The online retail sales of medicines can be undertaken by any person (including medicine manufacturers and retail traders) that trades through a licensed pharmacy and has obtained the requisite government agency permission. The law does not set forth any procedures for e-commerce authorization issuance and medical product delivery. The permits are granted by the Federal Service for Surveillance in Healthcare, also known as the Roszdravnadzor.
North America (the United States and Canada)
During the year ended March 31, 2021, North America (the United States and Canada) accounted for 46% of our total Global Generics segment sales. In the United States, we sell generic drugs that are the chemical and therapeutic equivalents of reference branded drugs, typically sold under their generic chemical names at prices below those of their brand drug equivalents. Generic drugs are finished pharmaceutical products ready for consumption by the patient. These drugs are required to meet the U.S. FDA or Health Canada, as applicable, standards that are similar to those applicable to their brand-name equivalents and must receive regulatory approval prior to their sale.
Generic drugs may be manufactured and marketed only if relevant patents on their brand name equivalents and any additional government-mandated market exclusivity periods have expired, been challenged and invalidated, or otherwise validly circumvented. Generic pharmaceutical companies sometimes conduct “at-risk launches”, in which the product is launched prior to resolution of a patent challenge.
Generic pharmaceutical sales increased significantly in the last decade, primarily due to an increased awareness and acceptance among consumers, physicians and pharmacists that generic drugs are the equivalent of brand name drugs, and have resulted in substantial cost savings to U.S. healthcare and further due to support by governments through passage of legislation permitting generic drug alternatives.
However, the generic pharmaceutical business has been negatively impacted by consolidation among wholesalers and retailers and the formation of group purchasing organizations (“GPOs”), which has led to increased pricing pressures in the market. In addition, accelerated approval from the U.S. FDA under the timelines of the Generic Drug User Fee Act, as amended, has led to more competition and resulted in a decline in the growth of the generic companies in North America. We intend to continue building our presence in the region by leveraging our product development capabilities and alliance management, manufacturing capacities inspected by various international regulatory agencies and access to our own APIs, which offer significant supply chain efficiencies.
During the year ended March 31, 2017, we acquired from Teva and an affiliate of Allergan plc a portfolio of eight ANDAs for our North American Generics business. The transaction, valued at U.S.$350 million, represents the largest assets acquisition in our history. However, certain products forming part of the said portfolio were impaired during the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020. Refer to Note 14 of our consolidated financial statements for further details.
Through coordinated efforts of our teams in the United States and India, we constantly seek to expand our pipeline of generic products. During the year ended March 31, 2021, we made 20 new ANDA filings and 1 new NDA filing under section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act in the United States with the U.S. FDA. As of March 31, 2021 our cumulative filings were 304, which includes 5 NDA filings under section 505(b)(2) and 299 ANDA filings. These 299 ANDA filings include 8 ANDAs that we acquired from Teva and an affiliate of Allergan plc. As of March 31, 2021, we had 95 filings pending approval with the U.S. FDA (92 ANDAs and 3 NDAs under the 505(b)(2) route, including 21 tentative approvals). Of the 92 ANDAs which are pending approval, 47 are Paragraph IV filings (see “U.S. REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT” below), and we believe that we are the first to file with respect to 23 of these filings.
We have also filed two new Investigational New Drugs (“IND”) applications, for our proposed biosimilars to rituximab and pegylated granulocyte colony stimulating factor (“PEG-GCSF”). For rituximab, Phase 1 clinical trials have been successfully completed and Phase 3 clinical trials are currently in progress under the applicable IND. For PEG-GCSF, our partner Fresenius Kabi has successfully completed their clinical trials and has submitted a Biologics License Application (“BLA”) with the U.S. FDA and a Marketing Authorization Application (“MAA”) with the European Medicines Agency (“EMA”), and the respective agencies have accepted the same for review.
Our Canada business generated revenues of Rs.1,902 million during the year ended March 31, 2021. This business includes revenues from certain profit sharing arrangements with distributors who market certain of our generic products. As of March 31, 2021 we have filed a cumulative total of 1 New Drug Submission (“NDS”), 1 COVID-19 Interim Order Application, 1 Drug Identification Number (DIN-A) Application and 43 Abbreviated New Drug Submissions (“ANDS”) in Canada, out of which 32 were approved, 3 were withdrawn and 11 are pending approval.
We have also submitted a New Drug Submission under Interim Order Respecting Importation, Sale and Advertising of Drugs for Favipiravir Tablets, 200 mg, for treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 patients that is under review with Health Canada.
Sales, Marketing and Distribution Network
Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Inc., our wholly-owned subsidiary headquartered in Princeton, New Jersey, United States, is primarily engaged in the marketing of our generic products in the United States. In early 2003, we commenced sales of generic products under our own label. We have our own sales and marketing team to market these generic products. Our key account representatives for generic products call on procurement buyers for chain drug stores, drug wholesalers and distributors, mass merchandisers, group purchasing organizations (“GPOs”) for hospitals, specialty distributors and pharmacy buying groups.
The majority of revenue from our North America Generics business is derived from sales of oral solids, as well as sales of various products (both oral solids and OTC products) to retail chains. This portion of the business represents nearly three quarters of this segment’s gross revenues for this region. The product portfolio includes a wide range of therapeutic areas.
Our over-the-counter (“OTC”) division primarily markets and distributes store brand OTC products, but expanded into the branded OTC segment in May 2016, developing a new channel for our growth. This division has successfully launched over 15 products. OTC products include store brand generic equivalents of products that approved to be sold Over-the-counter in the U.S. market. Many of the products may also originally have had prescription drug status and are switched to OTC drug status by the innovator upon U.S. FDA approval (sometimes called “Rx-to-OTC switch” products). Our entry into the OTC branded space in May 2016 was through the acquisition from Ducere Pharma of the rights to six OTC brand products, including Doan’s, Bufferin and Nupercainal. Our OTC division services a broad range of customers, including drug retailers, mass merchandisers, food chains, drug wholesalers, distributors, GPOs, and more recently, e-commerce or online retailers as well. We launched 3 new products in the market during the year ended March 31, 2021, which included Nicotine Lozenges, Diclofenac Gel and Olopatadine Eye drops. We also re-launched 2 dormant products of Famotidine Tablets and Fexofenadine 60mg Tablets.
During the year ended March 31, 2021, we continued to ramp up our presence in the e-commerce channel with the launch of multiple new products on Amazon marketplace. We feel very optimistic about significantly growing this segment, with evolving consumer trends in the United States moving towards a higher share of e-commerce, especially with COVID-19 accelerating some of these trends. Additionally, we continue to strengthen our presence in the smoking cessation space with our Habitrol® business. We secured approval and launched for Nicotine lozenges (mint and original) in July 2020.
A portion of our revenue is derived from the sale of injectable products in the therapeutic areas of oncology and critical care. We have also expanded our presence from drug wholesalers to specialty distributors, integrated distribution networks (“IDNs”), clinics, and hospitals to market these products. We also supply products for private label customers for injectable prescription products.
Revenues and gross profit derived from the sales of generic pharmaceutical products are affected by certain regulatory and competitive factors. As patents and regulatory exclusivity for brand name products expire, the first manufacturer to receive regulatory approval for generic equivalents of such products is generally able to achieve significant market penetration. As competing manufacturers receive regulatory approvals on similar products, market share, revenues and gross profit typically decline, in some cases significantly.
Accordingly, the level of market share, revenues and gross profit attributable to a particular generic product is normally dependent upon the number of competitors and the timing of that product’s regulatory approval and launch, in relation to competing approvals and launches. Consequently, we must continue to develop and introduce new products in a timely and cost-effective manner to maintain our revenues and gross margins.
In addition, the other competitive factors critical to this business include price, product quality, consistent and reliable product supplies, customer service and reputation. Our major competitors in the United States include Teva, Mylan Inc., Sandoz (a division of Novartis Pharma A.G.), Endo International plc (including its subsidiaries Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Par Pharmaceutical Inc.), Sun Pharmaceuticals Limited, Lupin Limited, Aurobindo Pharma Limited, Fresenius Kabi, Sagent Pharmaceuticals, Amneal Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Cadila Healthcare Limited (also known as Zydus Cadila), and Hikma Pharmaceuticals plc.
Consolidation of customer purchasing power through acquisitions, alliances and joint ventures impacts pricing. New manufacturers continue to enter the generic market in the United States, which may further lower our pricing power and adversely affect our revenues in that market.
Brand name manufacturers have devised numerous strategies to delay competition by introducing lower-cost generic versions of their products. One of these strategies is to change the dosage form or dosing regimen of the brand product prior to generic introduction, which may reduce the demand for the original dosage form as sought by a generic ANDA dossier applicant or create regulatory delays, sometimes significant, while the generic applicant, to the extent possible, amends its ANDA dossier to match the changes in the brand product. In many of these instances, the changes to the brand product may be protected by patent or exclusivities, further delaying generic introduction. Another strategy is the launch by the innovator or its licensee of an “authorized generic” during the 180-day generic exclusivity period, resulting in two generic products competing in the market rather than just the product that obtained the generic exclusivity. This may result in reduced revenues for the generic company which has been awarded the generic exclusivity period.
The U.S. market for OTC pharmaceutical products is highly competitive. Competition is based on a variety of factors, including price, quality, product mix, customer service, marketing support, and the reliability and flexibility of the supply chain for products. Our competition in store brand and innovator branded products in the United States consists of several publicly traded and privately owned companies, including large brand-name pharmaceutical companies.
The competition is highly fragmented in terms of both geographic market coverage and product categories, such that a competitor generally does not compete across all product lines. In the store brand market, we compete directly with companies, such as Perrigo, Apotex, PLD Aurobindo and Sun Pharma that sell store brand OTC products. In the branded market, we compete directly with companies, such as Bayer and Pfizer, which sell branded OTC products.
With the acquisition of Habitrol®, we now not only compete with store brands but also with large branded companies such as GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Care, which is an industry leader in the nicotine replacement therapy category. In addition, since a majority of our products are generic equivalents of innovator brands, we also compete against large brand-name pharmaceutical companies.
The competitive landscape and market dynamics of the OTC market are rapidly evolving. Large brand-name pharmaceutical companies have begun to more aggressively pursue Rx-to-OTC switches in new categories, which could present opportunities for us and other companies that sell store brand products. At the same time, pricing pressures continue to increase with the entry of new competitors in the market. On key select molecules, the expectation is that competition in this area will continue to grow as newer categories experience Rx-to-OTC switches.
U.S. Regulatory Environment
All pharmaceutical manufacturers that sell products in the United States are subject to extensive regulation by the U.S. federal government, principally pursuant to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, the Hatch-Waxman Act, the Generic Drug Enforcement Act and other federal government statutes and regulations. These regulations govern or influence the testing, manufacturing, packaging, labeling, storing, record keeping, safety, approval, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution of products.
Our facilities and products are periodically inspected by the U.S. FDA, which has extensive enforcement powers over the activities of pharmaceutical manufacturers. Non-compliance with applicable requirements can result in fines, criminal penalties, civil injunction against shipment of products, recall and seizure of products, total or partial suspension of production, sale or import of products, refusal of the U.S. government to enter into supply contracts or to approve new drug applications and criminal prosecution. The U.S. FDA also has the authority to deny or revoke approvals of drug active pharmaceutical ingredients and dosage forms and the power to halt the operations of non-complying manufacturers. Any failure to comply with applicable U.S. FDA policies and regulations could have a material adverse effect on the operations in our generics business.
U.S. FDA approval of an ANDA is required before a generic equivalent of an existing or referenced brand drug can be marketed. The ANDA approval process is abbreviated because the U.S. FDA waives the requirement of conducting complete clinical studies, although it generally requires bio-availability and/or bio-equivalence studies. An ANDA may be submitted for a drug on the basis that it is the equivalent of a previously approved drug or, in the case of a new dosage form, is suitable for use for the indications specified.
An ANDA applicant in the United States is required to review the patents of the innovator listed in the U.S. FDA publication entitled Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations, commonly known as the “Orange Book,” and make an appropriate certification. There are several different types of certifications that can be made. A Paragraph IV filing is made when the ANDA applicant believes its product or its manufacture, use or sales thereof does not infringe on the innovator’s patents listed in the Orange Book or where the applicant believes that such patents are not valid or enforceable. The first generic company to file a Paragraph IV filing may be eligible to receive a six-month marketing exclusivity period starting from either the first commercial marketing of the drug by any of the first applicants or a decision of a court holding the patent that is the subject of the paragraph IV certification to be invalid or not infringed. A Paragraph III filing is made when the ANDA applicant does not intend to market its generic product until the patent expiration. A Paragraph II filing is made where the patent has already expired. A Paragraph I filing is made when there are no patents listed in the Orange Book. Another type of certification is made where a patent claims a method of use, and the ANDA applicant’s proposed label does not claim that method of use. When an innovator has listed more than one patent in the Orange Book, the ANDA applicant must file separate certifications as to each patent.
Before approving a product, the U.S. FDA also requires that our procedures and operations conform to cGMP regulations, relating to good manufacturing practices as defined in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. We must follow cGMP regulations at all times during the manufacture of our products. We continue to spend significant time, money and effort in the areas of production and quality to help ensure full compliance with cGMP regulations.
The timing of final U.S. FDA approval of an ANDA depends on a variety of factors, including whether the applicant challenges any listed patents for the drug and whether the brand-name manufacturer is entitled to one or more statutory exclusivity periods, during which the U.S. FDA may be prohibited from accepting applications for, or approving, generic products. In certain circumstances, a regulatory exclusivity period can extend beyond the life of a patent, and thus block ANDAs from being approved on the patent expiration date.
The “pediatric exclusivity” program under The Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act provides a six-month period of extended exclusivity, applicable to certain listed patents and to other regulatory exclusivities for all formulations of an active ingredient, if the sponsor performs and submits pediatric studies requested by the U.S. FDA within specified timeframes. An effect of this program has been to delay the launch of numerous generic products by an additional six months.
The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 (the “Medicare Act of 2003”) modified certain provisions of the Hatch-Waxman Act. In particular, significant changes were made to provisions governing 180-day exclusivity and forfeiture thereof where the first Paragraph IV certification was submitted on or after December 8, 2003.
Under the revised provisions, 180-day exclusivity is awarded to each ANDA applicant submitting a Paragraph IV certification for the same drug with regard to any patent on the first day that any ANDA applicant submits a Paragraph IV certification for the same drug. The180-day exclusivity period begins on the date of first commercial marketing of the drug by any of the first applicants or a decision of a court holding the patent that is the subject of the paragraph IV certification to be invalid or not infringed.
However, a first applicant may forfeit its exclusivity in a variety of ways, including, but not limited to (a) failure to obtain tentative approval within 30 months after the application is filed or (b) failure to market its drug by the later of two dates calculated as follows: (x) 75 days after approval or 30 months after submission of the ANDA, whichever comes first, or (y) 75 days after each patent for which the first applicant is qualified for 180-day exclusivity is either (1) the subject of a final court decision holding that the patent is invalid, not infringed, or unenforceable or (2) withdrawn from listing with the U.S. FDA (court decisions qualify if either the first applicant or any applicant with a tentative approval is a party; a final court decision is a decision by a court of appeals or a decision by a district court that is not appealed). The foregoing is an abbreviated summary of certain provisions of the Medicare Act of 2003, and accordingly such act should be consulted for a complete understanding of both the provisions described above and other important provisions related to 180-day exclusivity and forfeiture thereof.
The federal Controlled Substances Act (the “CSA”) and its implementing regulations establish a closed system of controlled substance distribution for legitimate handlers. The CSA imposes registration, security, recordkeeping and reporting, storage, manufacturing, distribution, importation and other requirements upon legitimate handlers under the oversight of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (the “DEA”). The DEA categorizes controlled substances into one of five schedules — Schedule I, II, III, IV, or V — with varying qualifications for listing in each schedule. Facilities that manufacture, distribute, import or export any controlled substance must register annually with the DEA. The DEA inspects manufacturing facilities to review security, record keeping and reporting and handling prior to issuing a controlled substance registration.
Failure to maintain compliance with applicable requirements, particularly as manifested in the loss or diversion of controlled substances, can result in enforcement action, such as civil penalties, refusal to renew necessary registrations, or the initiation of proceedings to revoke those registrations. In certain circumstances, violations could lead to criminal prosecution.
On October 23, 2019, the DEA launched the Suspicious Orders Report System (“SORS”) Online, a centralized database required by the Substance Use-Disorder Prevention that Promotes Opioid Recovery and Treatment for Patients and Communities Act (the “SUPPORT Act”). The SUPPORT Act requires that all DEA registrants that distribute controlled substances report suspicious orders to the DEA. Therefore, the SORS Online system should only be used by DEA registrants that distribute controlled substances to other DEA registrants. On November 2, 2020, the DEA released a proposed rule to clarify the procedures for identifying, reporting, and refusing to distribute certain orders of controlled substances received under suspicious circumstances.
Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, Generic Drug User Fee Act, Biosimilar User Fee Act and Food and Drug Administration Reauthorization Act
In 2012, the United States enacted the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (“FDASIA”), a landmark legislation intended to enhance the safety and security of the U.S. drug supply chain by imposing stricter oversight and by holding all drug manufacturers supplying products to the United States to the same U.S. FDA inspection standards. Specifically, prior to the passage of FDASIA, U.S. law required U.S. based manufacturers to be inspected by the U.S. FDA every two years but remained silent with respect to foreign manufacturers, causing some foreign manufacturers to go as many as nine years without a routine U.S. FDA cGMP inspection, according to the Government Accountability Office. FDASIA requires foreign manufacturers to have cGMP inspections at least every two years, or more frequently for manufacturers with high risk profiles.
FDASIA also includes the Generic Drug User Fee Act (“GDUFA”) and Biosimilar User Fee Act (“BuFA”), programs to provide the U.S. FDA with additional funds through user fees imposed on generic and biosimilar products. Under GDUFA, total fees are derived primarily from facility fees paid by finished dosage form manufacturers and active pharmaceutical ingredient facilities listed or referenced in a pending or approved generic drug application. A significant portion is also derived from application fees, including generic drug application fees, prior approval supplement fees and drug master file fees.
The FDA Reauthorization Act of 2017 (“FDARA”) and the GDUFA Amendments (“GDUFA II”), signed into law on August 18, 2017, extended the user fee program for a period of another five years through September, 2022. Under the provisions of these acts, an additional generic drug applicant program fee will be established, which will be based on the number of ANDAs the applicant holds and the prior approval supplement fees will be eliminated. Of the total GDUFA user fee revenue, 35% will be generated from this ANDA-based fee. Further, the GDUFA II commitment letter describes a consolidated review goals scheme for all cohorts of ANDAs, prior approval supplements and amendments. This includes shorter review goals for generic drug submissions that are public health priorities.
The establishment of dedicated biosimilar fees was also intended to help ensure that the U.S. FDA has appropriate resources for managing the introduction of biosimilar products on the U.S. market. Under the FDARA, for the first time, an independent fee structure for biosimilars will be implemented, including an initial biosimilar development fee which will be assessed the first year a manufacturer begins clinical trials. Further, an annual biosimilar development fee for subsequent years of the development process, a biosimilar program fee for approved biosimilars, and an application fee for new biosimilar applications will be introduced. The legislation also reauthorizes several programs that are designed to simplify and expedite the regulatory process for the development of drugs and devices that aid patients with rare diseases.
In addition, under the FDARA, a drug is eligible for designation as a “Competitive Generic Therapy” (or “CGT”) if the U.S. FDA determines that there is inadequate generic competition i.e., with respect to a drug, there is not more than one approved drug on the list of drugs described in section 505(j)(7)(A) (not including drugs on the discontinued section of such list) that is (a) the reference listed drug; or (b) a generic drug with the same reference listed drug as the drug for which designation as a competitive generic therapy is sought. A draft guidance on Competitive Generic Therapy was published on February 2019 which provides more clarity on eligibility for and forfeiture and relinquishment of CGT exclusivity. Final guidance was issued by the U.S. FDA in March 2020. This final guidance provides a description of the process that applicants should follow to request designation of a drug as a CGT and the criteria for designating a drug as a CGT. It also includes information on the actions the U.S. FDA may take to expedite the development and review of ANDAs for drugs designated as CGTs. Finally, it provides information on how the U.S. FDA implements the statutory provision for a 180-day exclusivity period for certain first approved applicants that submit ANDAs for CGTs.
As part of GDUFA II, in order to accelerate access to generic version of complex products, GDUFA II pre-ANDA program product development meetings can be initiated by the U.S. FDA for an ongoing ANDA development program for complex products. These meetings will encourage applicants for product development meetings, pre-submission meetings and mid-review cycle meetings to clarify regulatory expectations early in product development. Furthermore, in November 2017, the Manual of Policy and Procedures (“MAPP”) 5240.3, “Review Order of Original ANDAs, Amendments, and Supplements” was revised to MAPP 5240.3 Rev 4, and on January 30, 2020 to MAPP 5240.3 Rev 5 “Prioritization of the Review of Original ANDAs, Amendments and Supplements” under which a priority review may be granted by the U.S. FDA if an original ANDA, amendment, or supplement meets one of the prioritization factors set forth in the MAPP, and may receive either a shorter goal date or an expedited review, as defined in the MAPP.
On July 21, 2020, the U.S. FDA kicked off a GDUFA III reauthorization process for fiscal years 2023 through 2027. GDUFA reauthorization meetings were held with industry members to discuss various topics, including opportunities to increase first cycle approvals, exploring transparency and communications between the U.S. FDA and industry members, as well as proposals to set a sound foundation for continued programmatic success, inspections, and controlled correspondence. GDUFA III reauthorization discussions between the U.S. FDA and industry members are ongoing. The U.S. FDA issued guidance with regards to risk assessments for nitrosamine impurities that required the manufacturer to complete risk assessments for all approved or marketed drug products by March 31, 2021.
Prescription Drug Marketing Act and Laws Regulating Payments to Healthcare Professionals
The U.S. FDA also enforces the requirements of the Prescription Drug Marketing Act, which, among other things, imposes various requirements in connection with the distribution of product samples to physicians. Sales, marketing and scientific/educational grant programs must comply with the federal anti-kickback statute, the Medicare-Medicaid Anti-Fraud and Abuse Act, as amended, the False Claims Act, as amended, and similar state laws. Pricing and rebate programs must comply with the Medicaid rebate requirements of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, as amended.
We are also subject to Section 6002 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, commonly known as the Physician Payment Sunshine Act, which regulates disclosure of payments to certain healthcare professionals and providers.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Medicaid Drug Rebate Program
In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Affordability Reconciliation Act (collectively, the “PPACA”), were signed into law. The PPACA is one of the most significant healthcare reform measures in the United States in decades, and significantly impacts the U.S. pharmaceutical industry.
The PPACA imposes additional rebates, discounts and fees, mandates certain reporting and contains various other requirements that affect our business. The PPACA made several important changes to the federal anti-kickback statute, false claims laws, and health care fraud statutes that made it easier for the government or whistleblowers to pursue such fraud and abuse violations. In addition, the PPACA increased penalties for fraud and abuse violations. If our past, present or future operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or other similar governmental regulations to which we are subject, we may be subject to the applicable penalty associated with the violation which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results.
The PPACA changed the computations used to determine Medicaid rebates owed by manufacturers under the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program by redefining the average manufacturer’s price (“AMP”). In November 2015, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 (the “BBA”) amended the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program to impose a penalty rebate on generic drugs whose price increases exceed the inflation rate. Initially, the penalty rebate had only applied to brand drugs and authorized generics, but other generic drugs were subject to a fixed base rebate of 13% of AMP. The BBA imposed a price increase penalty rebate on generic drugs similar to that of the price increase penalty on brand drugs and authorized generics.
The additional penalty rebate for generic drugs applies to rebate periods beginning with the first quarter of 2017. The additional penalty rebate due for generic drugs is equal to the AMP for the current quarter minus the baseline AMP adjusted for inflation based upon the Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers.
The PPACA also increased the number of healthcare organizations eligible to participate in the Public Health Service pharmaceutical pricing program, which provides for government controlled prices that result in substantial discounts for participants. To further facilitate the government’s efforts to coordinate and develop comparative clinical effectiveness research, the PPACA established a new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to oversee and identify priorities in such research. The manner in which the comparative research results would be used by third-party payors is uncertain.
The PPACA has created an abbreviated pathway to U.S. FDA approval of “biosimilar” biological products and allows the first interchangeable biosimilar biological product 18 months of exclusivity, which could increase competition for our biosimilars business. The PPACA also has some anti-generic provisions that could adversely affect our biosimilars business, including provisions granting the innovator of a biological drug product 12 years of exclusive use before generic drugs can be approved based on being biosimilar.
On February 1, 2016, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”) published in the Federal Register a Final Regulation with comment period to implement the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. The Final Regulation was to clarify ambiguities in the ACA amendments. The key provisions covered under the Final Regulation included, without limitation, the following: (i) the adoption of a final definition of “retail community pharmacy” (“RCP”), (ii) the adoption of a rule permitting inhalation, infusion, instilled, implanted, or injectable drugs (“5i drugs”) to be deemed not to be “generally dispensed” through a RCP, and thus excluded from the calculation of their AMP, if 70% or more of its sales were to entities other than RCPs or wholesalers for drugs distributed to RCPs (the prior threshold was 90%), (iii) the inclusion of authorized generics in calculations of AMP and best price, (iv) narrowing the regulatory definition for “best price”, (v) requiring additional Medicaid rebate payments for generic drugs, effective as of April 1, 2017, and (vi) clarification of the definition of “bona fide service fees” based on a four part test.
We are still awaiting guidance from CMS on a delay in the participation of the U.S. territories in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program until April 1, 2022 an aspect of the rule that was deferred for later implementation. We will evaluate the financial impact of this when it becomes effective.
The PPACA required manufacturers to calculate an alternate rebate amount for drugs that are “line extensions” of an oral solid dosage form. CMS was responsible under the PPACA for providing a regulatory definition of “line extension,” although the CMS February 2016 final rule did not do so. The Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act enacted on July 22, 2016 included a statutory definition of line extension as follows: “with respect to a drug, a new formulation of the drug, such as an extended release formulation, but does not include an abuse-deterrent formulation of the drug (as determined by the Secretary), regardless of whether such abuse-deterrent formulation is an extended release formulation.” On April 1, 2019, CMS published a final rule and interim final rule which reiterated prior guidance that manufacturers rely on the statutory definition and where appropriate, may use “reasonable assumptions” to determine if a drug qualifies as a line extension drug. On December 21, 2020, the CMS issued a final rule that defines “line extension” as “a new formulation of the drug, which does not include an abuse-deterrent formulation of the drug,” and defines “new formulation” as “a change to the drug, including, but not limited to: an extended release formulation or other change in release mechanism, a change in dosage form, strength, route of administration, or ingredients.” We are not currently marketing any drugs that we believe would be a line extension.
In addition, Such December 21, 2020 final rule also made several other changes to the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program regulations, including some changes to the treatment of value-based purchasing arrangements and price reporting for patient benefit programs sponsored by pharmaceutical manufacturers.
In October 2017, the U.S. President Trump signed an Executive Order directing federal agencies to modify how the PPACA is implemented, ending the subsidies to health care insurance companies that sell insurance to low income consumers through state health insurance marketplaces.
Further, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted in December 2017 effectively repealed the PPACA’s individual mandate by removing the penalties imposed for failure to purchase healthcare insurance. As a result of this change, in December 2018, a U.S. federal district court ruled that the PPACA is unconstitutional. An appellate review of this decision by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals in December 2019 held that the individual mandate under the PPACA was unconstitutional, and remanded the case back to the Texas federal judge to conduct a re-evaluation of the entire PPACA to determine which provisions, if any, could survive without the individual mandate provision. The case was appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court in January 2020. On June 17, 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court declined to strike down the individual mandate or the PPACA as a whole, ruling that the plaintiffs who brought the case did not have standing to sue and keeping the PPACA intact.
The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 amended the PPACA, effective January 1, 2019, to close the coverage gap (commonly referred to as the “donut hole”) in most Medicare drug plans, and also increased in 2019 the percentage by which a drug manufacturer must discount the negotiated price of branded prescription drugs dispensed to Medicare Part D patients in the coverage gap from 50% to 70%.
The Continuing Appropriations Act of 2020 and the Health Extenders Act of 2019 became effective, amending the Medicaid Drug Rebate Statute in two key ways: (i) by requiring manufacturers to exclude (rather than include) the prices paid by wholesalers to manufacturers for authorized generic drugs from the calculation of the “average manufacturers’ price” for the branded drug and (ii) by deleting references to “manufacturers” from the definition of wholesaler.
In November 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services finalized a regulation aimed at lowering prescription drug prices and out-of-pocket spending for prescription drugs by excluding rebates on prescription drugs paid by manufacturers to or purchased by Medicare Part D plan sponsors or pharmacy benefit managers acting under contract with Medicare Part D plan sponsors from the existing discount safe harbor under the federal Anti-Kickback Statute.
On November 27, 2020, the CMS published an interim final rule that imposes a mandatory most favored nation pricing model on certain drugs and biosimilars reimbursed by Medicare Part B. Originally set to be effective January 1, 2021, several groups filed litigation to enjoin the implementation process, and it is currently subject to a court injunction on implementation pending a final rule (based on the interim final rule) published in the Federal Register. Following his inauguration in January 2021, President Biden ordered a regulatory freeze on all pending substantive executive actions in order to permit incoming department and agency heads to review them. Accordingly, it remains to be seen whether this interim final rule advances to the final rule stage.
On December 21, 2020, the CMS issued a final rule that implements changes to the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program regulations in several areas, including with respect to how manufacturers should calculate AMP and best price in value-based purchasing arrangements, the definition of key terms “line extension” and “new formulation,” and the price reporting treatment of manufacturer-sponsored patient benefit programs.
The American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, the US$1.9 trillion stimulus package passed by Congress and signed into law by President Biden on March 11, 2021, includes a provision that eliminates the statutory cap on rebates drug manufacturers pay to Medicaid at the end of 2023, which will eliminate the rebate cap of 100 percent of the AMP.
Drug Quality and Security Act
On November 28, 2013, the Drug Quality and Security Act was signed into law in the United States. The legislation introduces a federal track-and-trace system for medicines with serial numbers added to individual packs and (non-mixed) cases within four years of the legislation’s adoption, and electronic tracing of production through the supply chain mandated within ten years. It also strengthens licensure requirements for wholesale distributors and third-party logistics providers, and requires the U.S. FDA to maintain a database of wholesalers that will be available to the public through its website. The law also boosts oversight of compounding pharmacies that make drugs to order, and increases the powers of the U.S. FDA to oversee large-volume or ‘outsourcing’ compounders without individual prescriptions. During 2017, the U.S. FDA delayed the enforcement of serialization requirements for manufacturers until November 2018 to provide manufacturers with additional time to comply and avoid supply disruptions. We completed all of the activities necessary to implement serialization, and the batches packaged after November 26, 2018 are being serialized.
Title XI of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA)
On October 6, 2016, the U.S. FDA issued a final rule to implement new regulations that govern the approval of applications under Section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act in the United States, and of ANDAs. This rule revises and clarifies U.S. FDA regulations as to matters such as: the procedures and requirements for providing notice to each patent owner and the NDA holder of certain patent certifications made by applicants submitting 505(b)(2) applications or ANDAs; the availability of 30-month stays of approval on 505(b)(2) applications and ANDAs that are otherwise ready to be approved; submission of amendments and supplements to 505(b)(2) applications and ANDAs; and the types of bioavailability and bioequivalence data that can be used to support these applications. This rule was effective December 5, 2016.
The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (“BPCIA”) created a statutory pathway and abbreviated approval processes for the approval of biosimilar versions of branded biological products. Under the BPCIA, a biosimilar must be highly similar with no clinically meaningful differences compared to the reference medicine. Approval of a biosimilar in the United States requires the submission of a BLA to the U.S. FDA, including an assessment of immunogenicity, and pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. The BLA for a biosimilar can be submitted as soon as four years after the initial approval of the reference biologic, but can only be approved 12 years after the initial approval of the reference biologic.
This pathway is still relatively new and some aspects remain untried, controversial and subject to ongoing litigation. Though the U.S. FDA has issued and updated various technical guidance documents addressing quality considerations, scientific considerations and questions and answers regarding commonly posed issues to assist the biopharmaceutical industry in developing biosimilar products in compliance with the BPCIA, there remains some uncertainty regarding the abbreviated biosimilar pathway. On December 11, 2018, the U.S. FDA released final guidance defining biologics, transitioning biological products approved under an NDA to a deemed BLA, and outlining an abbreviated pathway for biosimilar licensure. As part of the publication of the final guidance, the U.S. FDA is allowing for ongoing comments from the public, which may result in further changes or revisions to such guidance. On May 10, 2019, the U.S. FDA issued final guidance on “Considerations in Demonstrating Interchangeability With a Reference Product,” which is intended to provide guidance as to how to demonstrate that a proposed therapeutic protein product is interchangeable with a reference product for the purposes of submitting a marketing application or supplement under section 351(k) of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) (42 U.S.C. 262(k)).
21st Century Cures Act
On December 13, 2016, the 21st Century Cures Act was enacted into law in the United States, and is intended to promote biomedical innovation and personalized medicines. The 21st Century Cures Act includes increased funding for the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. FDA and provides for the implementation of, among other reforms, enhanced pathways for medical product approval and the modernization and harmonization of clinical trial procedures over a period of several years.
Blueprint to Lower Drug Prices and Safe Importation Action Plan
In May 2018, U.S. President Trump released “American Patients First: The Trump Administration Blueprint to Lower Drug Prices and Reduce Out-of-Pocket Costs,” which outlined actions that his administration proposed to take to lower prescription drug prices, including certain actions that would be taken immediately by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) and issues on which HHS would solicit public feedback before determining any additional reform proposals. This blueprint sought to increase competition, improve negotiation, and incentivize lower list prices and lower out-of-pocket costs.
It called for, among other things, greater transparency of drug prices, better informing consumers about prescription drugs, increased promotion of generic drugs and experimenting with value-based payment. We are currently evaluating the impact of this blueprint on our business, and we cannot yet be certain what the effect will be.
To create better incentives for lower list prices, the blueprint called for HHS to consider requiring the inclusion of list prices in direct-to-consumer advertising. On May 30, 2018, the CMS announced a final rule that requires direct-to-consumer television advertisements for prescription pharmaceuticals covered by Medicare or Medicaid to include the list price if such price is equal to or greater than $35 for a month’s supply or the usual course of therapy. This rule became effective starting on July 9, 2019.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. FDA’s Safe Importation Action Plan was announced in July 2019. Following this framework, the U.S. FDA proposed a draft rule in December 2019 that would allow importation of certain lower-cost prescription drugs from Canada, and in September 2020 the rulemaking was finalized by the U.S. FDA along with an industry guidance document. The new rule became effective on November 30, 2020, although its implementation has been delayed and its impact is uncertain, in part because lawsuits have been filed challenging the government’s authority to promulgate it.
State Efforts to Lower Drug Prices
A number of states have passed legislation intended to impact pricing or requiring price transparency reporting, including among others California, Colorado, Connecticut, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Nevada, Oregon, Texas, Vermont, and Washington, and a number of other states have proposed such legislation is recent years. While the disclosure requirements vary by state, these laws typically require manufacturers to report certain product price information or other financial data to the state, and, in some cases, provide advance notification of price increases. It is expected that states will continue their focus on pharmaceutical price transparency and that this focus will continue to exert pressure on product pricing.
Right to Try Act
On May 30, 2018, the Trickett Wendler, Frank Mongiello, Jordan McLinn, and Matthew Bellina Right to Try Act of 2017 (the “Right to Try Act”) was signed into law in the United States. The law, among other things, provides a federal framework for certain patients to request access to certain investigational new drug products that have completed a Phase I clinical trial and that are undergoing investigation for U.S. FDA approval. There is no obligation for a pharmaceutical manufacturer to make its drug products available to eligible patients as a result of the Right to Try Act, although in 2020 the U.S. FDA published a notice of proposed rulemaking that would require manufacturers who do so to make annual reports of those programs to the U.S. FDA. Following his inauguration in January 2021, President Biden ordered a regulatory freeze on all pending substantive executive actions in order to permit incoming department and agency heads to review them. Accordingly, it remains to be seen whether the proposed rule for annual reporting under the Right to Try Act advances to the final rule stage.
Final Conscience Rule
In May 2019, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) published final rules to enforce so-called “conscience laws,” a series of previously enacted laws that allow health professionals, insurers and employers to opt out of participating in certain health care activities that violate the worker's conscience or religious beliefs, such as abortion, sterilization, vaccination or assisted suicide. The final rule would significantly expand the authority of HHS’s Office of Conscience and Religious Freedom to enforce federal conscience protection laws and implement new enforcement mechanisms. The conscience laws and the final rule could potentially impact certain pharmaceutical products, including the availability of such products from hospitals and other prescribers and the availability of insurance coverage for such products. A number of lawsuits were filed challenging the final rule’s constitutionality and, before it became effective, three federal courts in New York, Washington and California issued rulings invalidating the final rule. Although the Trump administration appealed these decisions, the Biden administration subsequently moved to delay the appeals, indicating that new leadership at HHS would reassess the rule. Accordingly, the overall status of the final conscience rule is uncertain. We are currently evaluating the impact of these conscience laws and the final rule on our business, and we cannot yet be certain what their effect will be.
Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act 2020
The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, also known as the CARES Act signed into law by President Donald Trump on March 27, 2020, in response to the economic fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
The CARES Act includes authorities that enhance FDA’s ability to identify, prevent, and mitigate possible drug shortages by, among other things, enhancing FDA’s visibility into drug supply chains. Specifically, section 3112(e) amends the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to require that each registered drug establishment annually report the “amount of each drug . . . that was manufactured, prepared, propagated, compounded, or processed” by the registrant for commercial distribution. This CARES Act amendment also provides that such “information may be required to be submitted in an electronic format." The effective date of this reporting requirement under section 3112 (e) of the CARES Act was implemented by FDA on September 23, 2020, which is 180 days after the CARES Act was enacted.
In addition to the COVID-19 response efforts, the CARES Act includes statutory provisions that reform and modernize the way OTC monograph drugs are regulated in the United States. Specifically, the CARES Act replaces the rulemaking process with an administrative order process for issuing, revising, and amending OTC monographs. The CARES Act also provides FDA the authority to assess and collect user fees dedicated to OTC monograph drug activities (OMUFA) FDA anticipates that this user fee program will provide additional resources to help the agency conduct these important regulatory activities in a timely manner and ultimately help provide the public with access to innovative OTC monograph drugs.
Refer to Note 33, “Contingencies”, of our consolidated financial statements for discussions of the following lawsuits, investigations and proceedings:
|·||Child resistant packaging matter complaint under the False Claims Act (“FCA”);|
|·||Ranitidine recall and litigation;|
|·||United States Antitrust Multi-District Litigations;|
|·||Civil Investigative Demand from the Office of the Attorney General, State of Texas|
|·||Subpoena duces tecum from the Office of the Attorney General, California|
|·||Subpoenas from the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”) and the office of the Attorney General for the State of Connecticut; and|
|·||Civil Investigative Demand from the Civil Division of the DOJ.|
CANADA REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
In Canada, we are required to file product dossiers with the Health Canada for permission to market a generic pharmaceutical product. The regulatory authorities may inspect our manufacturing facility before approval of the dossier. As of March 31, 2021, we had filed a cumulative total of 1 New Drug Submission (“NDS”), 1 COVID-19 Interim Order Application, 1 DIN-A Application and 43 Abbreviated New Drug Submissions (“ANDS”) in Canada, out of which, 32 were approved, 3 were withdrawn and 11 are pending approval.
Health Canada has also introduced various flexibilities to address the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes expedited authorization of drugs and vaccines for Covid-19; measures to address critical drug shortages; extension of the New Evidence Required by (“NERBY”) date on the drug establishment license for all foreign buildings importing drugs into Canada until further notice; and flexibility with GMP and importation requirements.
Health Canada has issued various guidance documents with regards to the risk assessments for nitrosamine impurities, and required manufacturers to complete risk assessments for drug products containing chemically synthesized APIs by March 31, 2021. Manufacturers are also required to evaluate the risk of the presence of nitrosamine impurities in biologics and radiopharmaceuticals by November 30, 2021.
Our sales of generic medicines in Europe for the year ended March 31, 2021 were Rs.15,404 million, which accounted for 10% of our Global Generics segment’s sales. Our principal markets in Europe are Germany and the United Kingdom. We have also established our presence in other markets, including Italy, France and Spain.
Sales, Marketing and Distribution Network
In Germany, we sell a broad range of generic pharmaceutical products under the “betapharm” brand.
Over the last decade, the German pharmaceutical market has significantly changed. Health care reforms by the government have significantly increased the power of insurance companies and statutory health insurance funds (“SHI funds”) to influence dispensing of medicines. Pursuant to the reforms, those pharmaceutical products which are covered by rebate contracts with insurance companies and SHI funds will be prescribed by physicians and dispensed by pharmacies with priority. As a result, many SHI funds have enacted tender (i.e., competitive bidding) processes to determine which pharmaceutical companies they will enter into rebate contracts with. This has resulted in more than 90% of generic products currently sold in German retail outlets being supplied through contracts procured in competitive bidding tenders, thereby causing significant pressure on product margins.
United Kingdom and other Countries within Europe
We market our generic products in the United Kingdom through our U.K. subsidiary, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories (U.K.) Limited. This subsidiary was formed in the year ended March 31, 2003 after our acquisition of Meridian Healthcare Limited, a United Kingdom based generic pharmaceutical company. We currently sell more than 60 products in the United Kingdom, covering both International Nonproprietary Name (“INN”) generics and branded generics. INN generics are sold via wholesale and retail channels, and hospitals. In the U.K., we work closely with the Clinical Commissioning Groups (i.e., groups that commission healthcare services for their local communities and include all of the general practitioner groups in their geographical area) to promote our range of branded generics. While the retail business covers a broad range of therapeutic areas, the hospital business focuses mainly on oncology, anti-infectives and HIV.
In 2016, we established a commercial structure in Italy, Spain and France to expand our direct footprint in the western European region. Our initial focus has been to supply products through hospitals and to institutional clients. Our product mix in these markets focuses on a limited number of key therapy areas such as oncology, anti-infectives and HIV, leveraging our portfolio. This market’s business is predominantly tender-driven, without the need for a large sales force.
The German market is highly competitive as a result of a large number of generic players and the predominance of a tender system which drives competition. Our key competitors within the German generics market include Sandoz International GmbH, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Limited (“Teva”), Zentiva Pharma GmbH and Stada Arzneimittel AG.
According to the British Generic Manufacturers Association, the United Kingdom is one of the largest markets for generic pharmaceuticals in Europe, with generic penetration of around 84%, and is also one of the most price competitive markets due to a high degree of vertical integration and consolidation of buyers, as more than 70% of the retail pharmacies are owned by wholesalers or are part of retail chains, and has low barriers of entry. The market is dominated by global pharmaceutical companies such as Teva, the Sandoz group of Novartis Pharma A.G. and Mylan Inc.
In Italy, Spain and France, we compete with companies such as Hospira (an affiliate of Pfizer Limited), Fresenius SE & Co. KGaA, Teva and Accord Healthcare Limited (an affiliate of Intas Pharmaceuticals Ltd.), each of which has a well-established presence in the hospital segment of these countries.
In the EU, the manufacture and sale of pharmaceutical products is regulated in a manner substantially similar to that in the United States. Legal requirements generally prohibit the handling, manufacture, marketing and importation of any pharmaceutical product unless it is properly registered and manufactured in accordance with applicable law. The registration file relating to any particular product must contain scientific data related to product chemistry, efficacy and safety, including results of clinical testing and references to medical publications, as well as detailed information regarding production methods and quality control. Regulatory authorities are authorized to suspend, restrict or cancel the registration of a product if it is found to be harmful or ineffective, or manufactured and marketed other than in accordance with registration conditions. Additionally, a product registration can be cancelled, if the registration is not used for more than three years (under the regulation’s “sun-set clause”) or the renewal deadline is missed.
The activities of pharmaceutical companies within the EU are governed in particular by Directives 2001/83/EC and 2003/94/EC and Regulation 1234/2008, in each case as amended, and as implemented in national laws within the countries of the EU. The Directives outline the legislative framework, including the legal basis of marketing authorization procedures, and quality standards including manufacture, patient information and pharmacovigilance activities.
Prior approval of a marketing authorization is required to supply products within the EU. Such marketing authorizations may be restricted to one-member state, cover a selection of member states or can be for the whole of the EU, depending upon the form of registration procedure selected.
An abridged application can be filed for obtaining EU marketing authorization for a generic drug. Generic or abridged applications contain limited non-clinical and clinical data, depending upon the legal basis of the application or to address a specific issue. However, the applicant is required to demonstrate that its generic product contains the same active pharmaceutical ingredients in an equivalent dosage form for the same indication as the innovator product.
Specific data is included in the application to demonstrate that the proposed generic product is interchangeable to the innovator product with respect to quality, safe usage and continued efficacy. EU laws prevent regulatory authorities from accepting applications for registration of generics that rely on the safety and efficacy data of an innovator of a branded product until the expiration of the innovator’s data exclusivity period (usually 8 years from the first marketing authorization in the EU, depending on the circumstances). The applicant is also required to demonstrate bioequivalence or bioavailability, respectively, with the EU reference product. Once all these criteria are met, a marketing authorization may be considered for grant.
Unlike in the United States, there is no equivalent regulatory mechanism within the EU to incentivize challenge to any patent protection, nor is any period of market exclusivity conferred upon the first generic approval.
In situations where the period of data exclusivity given to the innovator of a branded product expires before their patent expires, the launch of our product would then be delayed until patent expiration.
Our U.K. facilities are licensed and periodically inspected by the U.K. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agencies (“MHRA”) good manufacturing practice Inspectorate, which has extensive enforcement powers over the activities of pharmaceutical manufacturers. Non-compliance can result in product recall, plant closure or other penalties and restrictions. In addition, the U.K. MHRA Inspectorate has approved and periodically inspected our manufacturing facilities based in Hyderabad, Telangana, India for the manufacture of generic medicines for supply to Europe.
All pharmaceutical companies that manufacture and market human medicinal products in Germany are subject to the applicable rules and regulations executed by the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical devices (“BfArM”) or the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut (“PEI”) and the supervisory authorities of the respective federal state in Germany. All pharmaceutical companies in Upper Bavaria, Germany are periodically inspected by the Regierung von Oberbayern (the district government of Upper Bavaria in Germany), which has extensive enforcement powers over the activities of pharmaceutical companies. Non-compliance can result in closure of the facility. The Regierung von Oberbayern has also inspected our plants in Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam.
The German Social Code’s price freeze imposed on reimbursable drugs, which was due to expire at the end of 2017, was extended until December 31, 2022 for all patent free drugs launched before August 1, 2010, although the continued price freeze will not apply to medicines subject to internal reference pricing.
European pharmacovigilance legislation (Regulation (EU) No 1235/2010 and Directive 2010/84/EU) was enacted in July 2012. Among other things, this legislation amended certain prior regulations regarding pharmacovigilance of medicinal products for human use, and procedures for the authorization and supervision of medicinal products for human and veterinary use.
The International Standards for Identification of Medicinal Products (“IDMP”), comprised of five International Organization for Standardization (“ISO”) standards, were approved in calendar year 2012. These standards are designed to allow unambiguous identification of medicinal products across companies and regions in order to support and improve pharmacovigilance and other activities.
The implementation of IDMP has, for a variety of reasons, experienced a series of delays. But the EMA has now published an updated EU Implementation guide, and the latest implementation timelines published in February 2021 state a mandatory implementation date for calendar year 2023.
The EMA has adopted the Health Level 7 (“HL7”) Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (“FHIR”) messaging standard for the EU wide implementation of IDMP, and the full implementation will happen through 4 domains: Substance, Product, Organization, and Reference Data (sometimes referred to, collectively, as “SPOR”).
The submission of medicinal product data to support pharmacovigilance has been required since 2012 in the EU. The original European database for data regarding medicinal products, the Eudravigilance Medicinal Product Dictionary (“EVMPD”), was launched by the EMA at the end of 2001. It was designed to standardize the collection, reporting, coding, and evaluation of authorized and investigational medicinal product information. In 2012 it became mandatory for marketing-authorization holders to supply information to the extended version of the EVMPD (xEVMPD or Article 57 database). However, this currently contains only a fraction of the data that eventually will have to be submitted to the IDMP-compliant database for each authorized product in the EU. In order for us to support the maintenance of medicinal product data in the IDMP-compliant database, we will have to make significant changes to our processes and procedures.
In order to prevent counterfeit medicines entering into the supply chain, in October 2015, as part of the Falsified Medicines Directive (the “FMD”), the European Commission adopted regulations providing detailed rules for the safety features appearing on the packaging of medicinal products for human use. Accordingly, all medicinal products generally subject to prescription must bear safety features that facilitate specifically the identification of individual packs and the verification of their authenticity. Effective as of February 9, 2019, we have successfully implemented the FMD and only those prescription drugs which have a unique serial number on the pack, and where the integrity of the pack can be seen, have been placed on the market ever since.
The decision for the United Kingdom to exit from the EU (the “Brexit”) has impacted pharmacovigilance operations. The Brexit transition period ended as of December 31, 2020 and the U.K. MHRA have issued guidance for the pharmaceutical industry to follow from January 1, 2021. The new requirements include the appointment of a “Qualified Person” for pharmacovigilance for U.K. nationally authorized products. The MHRA will continue to support EU harmonized approaches for certain safety data, but require U.K. specific supplemental information to be provided. In addition, parallel, U.K. specific processes must be implemented for certain activities including adverse event reporting. These additional requirements are expected to result in increased costs for the marketing authorization holders (“MAHs”).
In the EU, there must be at least one “Qualified Person” who is responsible for a medicinal product’s batch certification and release. Each batch of an imported medicinal product placed onto the market in the EU must be tested in laboratory in the EU prior certification. The MAH’s Qualified Person, or a qualified partner, must then certify that the product is in accordance with the requirement of Annex 16 of the EU-GMP Guidelines (Certification by a Qualified Person and Batch Release) and can therefore be released to the market. As a consequence of the Brexit, this activity will no longer be able to be conducted in the U.K. for the EU. Following the Brexit vote, the EU moved the headquarters of the EMA from the U.K. to the Netherlands in March 2019.
In the European Union, the term of certain pharmaceutical patents may be extended by up to five years (subject to further patent term extension under certain conditions) through a Supplementary Patent Certificate (“SPC”). The purpose of this extension is to compensate for the patent term lost during regulatory review processes.
Effective July 2019, the European Union’s new SPC Manufacturing Waiver Regulation exempts businesses which satisfy its conditions from infringement of a pharmaceutical product protected by a SPC. The exemption covers the manufacture of a product for either the purpose of exporting it to countries outside the European Union, or the purpose stockpiling inventory of such product for up to six months for launch in the European Union upon SPC expiration.
“Rest of the World” markets of our Global Generics segment
We refer to all markets of our Global Generics segment other than North America, Europe, Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union and Romania and India as our “Rest of the World” markets. Our significant Rest of the World markets include China, Kazakhstan, South Africa, Australia, Brazil, Vietnam and Myanmar.
We started our operations in China in the year 2000, by setting up a joint venture in the city of Kunshan, Jiangsu Province. Over the past several years, our joint venture called Kunshan Rotam Reddy Pharmaceuticals Company Limited (“KRRP”) has commercialized several products. Some of these products are manufactured by KRRP at its manufacturing plant in Kunshan while some others are imported in bulk packs, repackaged and sold in China. In calendar year 2020, KRRP started manufacturing capacity expansion at the Kunshan facility, and the same is in progress and likely to be completed in calendar year 2021.
Over the last few years, we have also increased our operations with respect to the filing of dossiers and obtaining new product registrations in China. Upon successful registration and approval by the China regulatory authorities, we intend to launch these products in the coming years.
Further, in September 2019, one of our products Olanzapine, which we had commercialized in China through a distribution and supply agreement with a Chinese company, was successfully listed in the national volume based procurement program, which is a tender-style bidding system for centralized procurement of medicines in China.
Our revenues from our “Rest of the World” markets were Rs.11,844 million in the year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 25% as compared to the year ended March 31, 2020. The growth is largely attributable to increased sales volumes of our existing business and to new products launched during the year ended March 31, 2021. The foregoing was partially offset by decline in revenues due to price erosion in some of our existing products.
Global Generics Manufacturing and Raw Materials
Manufacturing for our Global Generics segment entails converting API into finished dosages. As of March 31, 2021, we had eleven manufacturing facilities within this segment. Ten of these facilities are located in India, including four in a Special Economic Zone, and one in the United States (Shreveport, Louisiana). In addition, we also have one packaging facility in the United Kingdom. All of the facilities are designed in accordance with and are compliant with current cGMP requirements and are used for the manufacture of tablets, hard gelatin capsules, injections, liquids and creams for sale in India as well as other markets. All of our manufacturing sites’ laboratories and facilities are designed and maintained to meet increasingly stringent requirements of safety and quality. All of our sites outside of India are approved by the respective regulatory bodies in the jurisdictions where they are located.
We manufacture most of our finished products at these facilities and also use contract manufacturing arrangements as we determine necessary. For each of our products, we continue to identify, upgrade and develop alternate vendors as part of risk mitigation and continual improvement.
The ingredients for the manufacture of the finished products are sourced from in-house API manufacturing facilities and from vendors, both local and non-local. Each of these vendors undergo a thorough assessment as part of the vendor qualification process before they qualify as an approved source. We attempt to identify more than one supplier in each drug application or make plans for alternate vendor development from time to time, considering the supplier’s history and future product requirements. Arrangements with international raw material suppliers are subject to, among other things, respective country regulations, various import duties and other government clearances. The prices of our raw materials generally fluctuate in line with commodity cycles. Raw material expense forms the largest portion of our cost of revenues. We evaluate and manage our commodity price risk exposure through our operating procedures and sourcing policies.
The logistics services for storage and distribution in the United States, the European Union, Russia, South Africa, Australia and other emerging markets are outsourced to a third party service provider.
We manufacture formulations in various dosage forms including tablets, capsules, injections, liquids and creams. These dosage forms are then packaged, quarantined and subject to stringent quality tests, to assure product quality before release into the market. We manufacture our key brands for our Indian markets at our facilities in Baddi, Himachal Pradesh, to take advantage of certain fiscal benefits offered by the Government of India, which includes partial exemption from income taxes for a specified period.
All pharmaceutical manufacturers that sell products in any country are subject to regulations issued by the Ministry of Health (or its equivalent) of the respective country. These regulations govern, or influence the testing, manufacturing, packaging, labeling, storing, record-keeping, safety, approval, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution of products. Our facilities and products are periodically inspected by various regulatory authorities such as the U.S. FDA, the U.K. MHRA, the German BfARM, the South African Medicines Control Council, the Brazilian ANVISA, the Romanian National Medicines Agency, Ukrainian State Pharmacological Center, the local World Health Organization and Drug Control Authority of India, all of which have extensive enforcement powers over the activities of pharmaceutical manufacturers operating within their jurisdiction.
In November 2015, we received a warning letter from the U.S. FDA relating to violations at our injectable oncology formulation manufacturing facility at Duvvada, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. Subsequently in February 2019, the U.S. FDA issued an Establishment Inspection Report (“EIR”) indicating successful closure of the audit of such facility.
Pharmaceutical Services and Active Ingredients (“PSAI”) segment
Our PSAI segment primarily includes our business of manufacturing and marketing active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates, also known as “API”, which are the principal ingredients for finished pharmaceutical products. Active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates become finished pharmaceutical products when the dosages are fixed in a form ready for human consumption, such as a tablet, capsule or liquid using additional inactive ingredients. This segment also includes our contract research services business and our manufacture and sale of steroids in accordance with specific customer requirements.
Our PSAI segment’s revenues for the year ended March 31, 2021 were Rs.31,982 million, an increase of 24% as compared to Rs.25,747 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. Our PSAI segment accounted for 17% of our total revenues for the year ended March 31, 2021.
During the year ended March 31, 2021, we filed 149 Drug Master Files (“DMFs”) worldwide, of which 14 were filed in the United States, 18 were filed in Europe and 117 were filed in other countries. Cumulatively, our total active DMFs filed worldwide as of March 31, 2021 were 1,172, including 223 (active) DMFs filed in the United States.
We produce and market more than 154 different APIs for numerous markets. Our API business is operated independently from our Global Generics segment and, in addition to supplying API to our Global Generics segment, our PSAI segment sells API to third parties for use in manufacturing generic products, subject to any patent rights of other third parties.
We export API to more than 76 countries, and our principal overseas markets in this business segment include North America (the United States and Canada) and Europe. The research and development group within our API business contributes to our business by creating intellectual property (principally with respect to novel and non-infringing manufacturing processes and polymorphs), providing research intended to reduce the cost of production of our products and developing new products.
The pharmaceutical services (contract research and manufacturing) arm of our PSAI segment was established in 2001 to leverage our strength in process chemistry to serve the niche segment of Innovator pharmaceutical and specialty chemicals industry. Our objective is to be the preferred partner for innovator pharmaceutical companies, providing a complete range of services that are necessary to support their innovations to bring the new drug to the market quickly and more efficiently.
The focus is to leverage our skills in process development, analytical development, formulation development and Current Good Manufacturing Practice (“cGMP”) to serve outsourcing needs of innovator pharmaceutical companies. We have positioned our PSAI segment’s Custom Pharmaceutical Services business to be the partner of choice for large, medium and emerging innovator companies across the globe, with service offerings spanning the entire value chain of pharmaceutical services.
Effective June 1, 2020, our Custom Pharmaceutical Services business has been integrated with Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited’s (“ADTL”) service business, and the integrated business model was commenced under Aurigene Pharmaceutical Services Limited (“APSL”). APSL is a subsidiary of ADTL within our group. APSL has been formed to service the needs of innovator customers in the areas of medicinal chemistry and biology, contract development and manufacturing services for clinical and commercial needs. Our aspiration is to make APSL a global leader in offering end-to-end integrated solutions across discovery, development and manufacturing.
Sales, Marketing and Distribution
Developed Markets. Our PSAI segment’s principal overseas markets are the United States and Europe. Our PSAI segment’s sales to these markets were Rs.13,942 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, and accounted for 44% of our PSAI segment’s revenues for the year ended March 31, 2021.
In the United States and Europe, the patent protection for a large number of high value branded pharmaceutical products expired in years ended March 31, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and this opened the market to generic products that sourced their API from our PSAI segment. However, during the years ended March 31, 2014 through March 31, 2019, such expirations were much less frequent, which resulted in a decrease in new opportunities in these markets for the customers of our PSAI segment. We market our products through our subsidiaries in the United States and Europe. These subsidiaries are engaged in all aspects of marketing activity and support our customers’ pursuit of regulatory approval for their products, focusing on building long-term relationships with the customers.
Other Key Markets. India is an important market for our PSAI segment, with total sales of Rs.2,821 million, and it accounted for 9% of the PSAI segment’s revenues in the year ended March 31, 2021. In India, we market our API products to Indian and multinational companies, many of whom are also our competitors in our Global Generics segment. The market in India is highly competitive, with severe pricing pressure and competition from lower cost foreign imports in several products.
Being the highest growing emerging market, China is a lucrative market to operate in. Our PSAI segment has a strong pipeline of products for the Chinese market has concentrated talent deployment in the region. Our PSAI segment’s sales to all of the other markets (excluding the United States, Europe and India) was Rs.15,220 million for the year ended March 31, 2021 and accounted for 47% of our PSAI segment’s revenues for the year.
Our PSAI segment’s other key markets include Brazil, Mexico, China and Japan. While we work through our agents in these markets, our zonal marketing managers also interact directly with our key customers in order to service their requirements. With the aim of being closer to the customers, and in their respective time zones, our PSAI business has sales operations now in 8 markets, including India, the United States, Europe, Mexico and Brazil. And new PSAI segment operations have been added in China, Japan and Russia during the year ended March 31, 2020, with local sales and regulatory managers to cater to the local customer needs.
For our contract development and manufacturing services line of business, we have focused business development teams dedicated to our key geographies of North America (the United States and Canada), the European Union and Asia Pacific. These teams target large, medium and emerging innovator companies to build long-term business relationships focused on catering to their outsourcing needs.
Going forward, we expect our PSAI segment to show growth on account of our investments in newer technologies and platforms. We are also pursuing a partnership model to enable our customers to reach more markets faster and efficiently by leveraging our cost leadership and presence across the globe. Our PSAI Segment has been investing in digital solutions to revitalize our engagement and transparency with our customers. We consider this as a small step in the right direction to become partner of choice for our customers.
The infrastructure for our PSAI segment consists of eight U.S. FDA-inspected plants (six in India, including one in a Special Economic Zone, one in Mexico, and one in Mirfield, United Kingdom) and two technology development centers (one in Hyderabad, India and one in Cambridge, United Kingdom).
India. All of our facilities in India are located in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. We have the flexibility to produce quantities that range from a few kilograms to several metric tons. The manufacturing process consumes a wide variety of raw materials that we obtain from sources that comply with the requirements of regulatory authorities in the markets to which we supply our products. We procure raw materials on the basis of our requirement planning cycles. We utilize a broad base of suppliers in order to minimize risk arising from dependence on a single supplier.
In November 2015, we received a warning letter from the U.S. FDA relating to cGMP deviations at our API manufacturing facilities at Miryalaguda, Telangana and Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh. In June 2017, the U.S. FDA issued an EIR which indicated that the inspection of our API manufacturing facility at Miryalaguda was successfully closed. In May 2020, we received an EIR from the U.S. FDA, for our API manufacturing facility at Srikakulam, indicating closure of the audit and classifying the inspection of this facility as Voluntary Action Indicated (“VAI”).
Mexico. Our manufacturing plant in Cuernavaca, Mexico (the “Mexico facility”) was acquired from Roche during the year ended March 31, 2006. In addition to active pharmaceutical ingredients, naproxen and naproxen sodium and a range of intermediates, the Mexico facility manufactures steroids as active ingredients for use in human and veterinary pharmaceutical products.
United Kingdom. The small molecules business continues to supply complex chiral APIs to customers at a range of scales. This business is also able to provide cost effective contract development and manufacturing organization solutions to innovators developing new pharmaceutical products, tapping into the expertise of our parent company as required.
We have invested in this business to update equipment and implement modern data acquisition systems to meet today’s stringent regulatory requirements.
For our contract development and manufacturing services, we have well-resourced synthetic organic chemistry laboratories, medicinal chemistry analytical laboratories and kilo laboratories at our technology development centers at Hyderabad and Bengaluru in India. Our chemists and process engineers are experts in discovery, development and manufacturing services, from the pre-clinical stage to commercialization. To complete the full value chain in development services, we also provide formulation development services. We have facilities for pre-formulation and formulation development, analytical development, clinical trial supplies, pilot scale and product regulatory support. The inspection of our Miyapur facility in Hyderabad, India was completed by the U.S. FDA on September 21, 2017 with zero observations, and the U.S. FDA issued an EIR in December 2017. This facility also follows rigorous Safety and Information Security practices and is certified against ISO 27001:2013 standards for information security. Larger quantities of APIs can be manufactured from our API plants in India, the United Kingdom and Mexico. We also offer end to end project management support for effective deliveries.
Our contract development and manufacturing services are uniquely positioned in the market where it utilizes assets (both in terms of physical assets and technical know-how) of a vertically integrated pharmaceutical company and combines this with the service model which we have built over the years.
Raw material expense forms the largest portion of our cost of revenues. Raw materials consist of fine chemicals, bulk chemicals, solvents, catalysts, and basic and advanced intermediates. The prices of these raw materials generally fluctuate in line with commodity cycles, demand supply situations and changes to government policies. We evaluate and manage our commodity price risk exposure through periodical supply contracts as well as agile and responsive sourcing procedures
The global API market can broadly be divided into regulated and less regulated markets. The less regulated markets offer low entry barriers in terms of regulatory requirements and intellectual property rights. The regulated markets, like the United States and Europe, have high entry barriers in terms of intellectual property rights and regulatory requirements, including facility approvals. As a result, there is a premium for quality and regulatory compliance along with relatively greater stability for both volumes and prices. As an API supplier, we compete with a number of manufacturers within and outside India, which vary in size. Our main competitors in this segment are Divis Laboratories Limited, Aurobindo Pharma Limited, Cipla Limited, Mylan Laboratories Limited, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited and MSN Laboratories Limited, all based or operating in India. In addition, we experience competition from European businesses and Chinese manufacturers like Zhejiang Huahai, Tianyu, as well as from Teva Pharmaceuticals Industries Limited, based in Israel.
With respect to our contract development and manufacturing services, we believe that contract research and manufacturing is a significant opportunity for Indian pharmaceutical companies, based on their strengths of a skilled workforce and low-cost manufacturing infrastructure. Key competitors in India include Divis Laboratories Limited, Dishman Pharmaceuticals & Chemicals Limited, Synegene International Ltd. and Piramal Enterprises Ltd. Key competitors from outside India include Lonza Group, AMRI Inc., Patheon Inc., Catalent Inc., Cambrex Inc., and WuXi Apptec. We distinguish ourselves from Indian competitors by offering a wider range of services spanning the entire pharmaceutical value chain.
For competitors from outside India, we distinguish ourselves through cost effectiveness. Keeping on par with the advancements in technology and changing needs of the innovator and mid-sized pharmaceutical companies, we are positioning ourselves in niche technologies. With growth in contract research and manufacturing services likely to be driven by increased outsourcing by small and medium size pharmaceutical companies, particularly those focused on biotechnology and therapy, we expect India to emerge as an alliance and outsourcing destination of choice due to speed, skill and cost advantage.
All pharmaceutical companies that manufacture and market drugs, medical devices and cosmetics in India are subject to various national and state laws and regulations, which principally include the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945, the New Drugs and Clinical Trials. Rules, 2019, the Cosmetics Rules, 2020, the Medical Devices Rules 2017, the Drugs (Prices Control) Order, 2013, as well as various environmental laws and other government statutes and regulations. These regulations govern the manufacturing, testing, packaging, labeling, storing, recordkeeping, safety, approval, sale and distribution of pharmaceutical products.
In India, manufacturing licenses for drugs, cosmetics and medical devices are generally issued by state licensing authorities. Under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940, the state licensing authorities are empowered to issue manufacturing licenses for drugs if they are approved for marketing in India by the Drug Controller General of India (“DCGI”). Prior to granting licenses for any new drugs or combinations of new drugs, the DCGI clearance has to be obtained in accordance with the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940.
We submit a DMF for active pharmaceutical ingredients to be commercialized in the United States. Any drug product for which an ANDA is being filed must have a DMF in place with respect to a particular supplier supplying the underlying API.
The manufacturing facilities are inspected by the U.S. FDA to assess compliance with cGMP. The manufacturing facilities and production procedures must meet U.S. FDA standards. For European markets, we submit a European DMF and, wherever applicable, obtain a certificate of suitability from European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines.
Proprietary Products Segment
Our Proprietary Products segment focuses on the research, development, and commercialization of differentiated formulations by building a pipeline of high value, globally relevant products in therapeutic areas of high unmet need and commercializing these pipeline products through partnerships to maximize value.
Our efforts primarily focus on repurposing or improving the clinical properties of already approved and well-characterized APIs for application in the targeted disease areas. We achieve this by utilizing internal resources as well as efficiently collaborating with leading technology and platform based companies and service providers, tapping into their expertise areas across different phases of the development process. We continue to progress towards building a diversified portfolio with a sustainable mix of branded proprietary formulations generated through research and development with significantly reduced fixed costs.
Our research and development efforts have a unique “medicines-to-molecules” approach to product development. In this approach, we identify areas of medical need and then leverage in an integrated manner the disciplines of biology, chemistry, drug delivery, clinical development, regulatory and commercial positioning to develop differentiated formulations.
Our research and development model is both in-house and virtual (i.e., operations are outsourced, subject to our supervision of strategic and project management functions), and follows these core principles:
|·||develop creative research and development investment models and partnerships to access external innovation focused on leveraging, rather than replicating, unique core competencies;|
|·||select assets based on potential for early risk mitigation, both with respect to product development and commercialization; and|
|·||leverage knowledge and presence in emerging markets (India and other developing countries) to maximize cost advantages.|
Our principal research laboratory is based in Hyderabad, India. As of March 31, 2021, we employed a total of 67 scientists, including 10 scientists who hold Ph.D. degrees and three with a M.D. degree.
As of March 31, 2021, we had three late stage projects at different stages of development, ranging from products that have completed Phase 2 clinical trials to a product that is undergoing pivotal studies for registration. In addition, we have multiple other programs in the early stages of development (i.e., exploratory stage through Phase 2) in our pipeline.
The details of our late stage assets are as follows:
|Compound||PPC-06 (Tepilamide Fumarate)||E7777||DFD-29 (Low dose minocycline)|
|Indication||Treatment of plaque psoriasis in patients 18 years of age or older.||Treatment of Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma.||Treatment of Papulopustular rosacea.|
|Significant developments during the period||Phase 3 study preparation.||Pivotal study ongoing and nearing completion.||Phase 3 study preparations.|
|Significant patents associated with the compound||A total of fourteen patents were granted, with estimated expiration of the last of such patents in 2035 in the U.S.A. |
There are also other patent applications pending in the U.S.A. and some other countries.
|None.||Three patent applications have been filed with the USPTO(1) (1 granted). There are also other patent applications pending in fourteen other countries including Europe, Japan, Brazil, Canada, China, India and Russia.|
|Current status/ expected NDA filing(2)||Phase 3 ready.||Approval enabling study is ongoing. Submission of a Biologics License Application to the U.S. FDA is planned in the quarter ended September 30, 2022.||Estimated NDA filing is December 2023.|
|(1)||“USPTO” means the United States Patent and Trademark Office.|
|(2)||The timelines for expected filing may change due to various factors, including outcome of Approval enabling/Phase 3 studies, completion of Integrated Summary of Safety/Integrated Summary of Effectiveness (“ISS/ISE”), outcome of stability data and internal reprioritization of portfolio.|
Details regarding certain of other late stage pipeline assets are as follows:
|·||DFD-11 (XeglyzeTM): U.S. FDA approval was received on July 24, 2020.|
Patents. Our Proprietary Products segment has created a strong patent portfolio, with 134 grants by the USPTO with a validity of 10+ years. Following is the patent applications filed/granted status as of March 31, 2021:
|(1)||“USPTO” means the United States Patent and Trademark Office.|
|(2)||“PCT” means the Patent Cooperation Treaty, an international treaty that facilitates foreign patent filings for residents of member countries when obtaining patents in other member countries.|
The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries are highly competitive. We face intense competition from organizations such as large and small pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies. The major pharmaceutical organizations competing with us have greater capital resources, larger overall research and development staff and facilities, and considerably more experience in drug development. Biotechnology companies competing with us may have these advantages as well.
In addition to competition from collaborators and investors, these companies and institutions also compete with us in recruiting and retaining highly qualified scientific and management personnel.
Virtually all pharmaceutical and biologics products that we or our collaborative partners develop will require regulatory approval by governmental agencies prior to commercialization. The nature and extent to which these regulations apply varies depending on the nature of the products and also vary from country to country. In particular, human pharmaceutical products are subject to rigorous nonclinical and clinical testing and other approval procedures by the relevant regulatory agency. The requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, product licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary widely from country to country
In order to market a drug in the United States, we or our partners are subject to regulatory requirements governing human clinical trials, marketing approval and post-marketing activities for pharmaceutical products and biologics. Various federal, and in some cases state, statutes and regulations also govern or influence the manufacturing, safety, labeling, storage, record-keeping and marketing of these products. The process of obtaining these approvals and the subsequent compliance with applicable statutes and regulations is time consuming and requires substantial resources, and the approval outcome is uncertain.
Stages of Testing Development. The stages of testing required before a pharmaceutical product can be marketed in the United States are generally as follows:
|Nonclinical||Animal studies and laboratory tests to evaluate the efficacy, pharmacokinetics and safety in animals. Demonstrate activity of a product candidate and identify its chemical and physical properties.|
|Phase 1||Clinical studies to test safety and pharmacokinetic profile of a drug in normal human subjects.|
|Phase 2||Exploratory clinical studies conducted in small group of patients to determine the proof concept, preliminary efficacy and safety, and finally to determine the dosage range of a drug.|
|Phase 3||Large scale confirmatory clinical studies conducted in large group of patients to provide sufficient data for statistical proof of efficacy and safety.|
For ethical, scientific and legal reasons, animal studies are required in the discovery and safety evaluation of new medicines. Nonclinical tests assess the potential safety and efficacy of a product candidate in animal models. The results of these studies must be submitted to the U.S. FDA as part of an Investigational New Drug (“IND”) application before human testing may proceed.
U.S. law further requires that studies conducted to support approval for product marketing be “adequate and well controlled.” In general, this means that either a placebo or a product already approved for the treatment of the disease or condition under study must be used as a reference control. Studies must also be conducted in compliance with good clinical practice requirements, and adverse event and other reporting requirements must be followed.
The clinical trial process can take five to ten years or more to complete, and there can be no assurance that the data collected in compliance with good clinical practice regulations will demonstrate that the product is safe or effective, or, in the case of a biologic product, pure and potent, or will provide sufficient data to support U.S. FDA approval of the product. The U.S. FDA may place clinical trials on hold at any point in this process if, among other reasons, it concludes that clinical subjects are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Trials may also be terminated by Institutional Review Boards (“IRBs”) or Ethics Committees (“ECs”), which must review and approve all research involving human subjects. Side effects or adverse events that are reported during clinical trials can delay, impede, or prevent marketing authorization.
After completion of clinical trials of a new product, U.S. FDA NDA approval must be obtained. If the product is classified as a new pharmaceutical, we or our collaborator are required to file a NDA, and receive approval before commercial marketing of the drug. The testing and approval processes require substantial time and effort. NDAs submitted to the U.S. FDA can take several years to obtain approval and the U.S. FDA is not obligated to grant approval at all.
Even if U.S. FDA regulatory clearances are obtained, a marketed product is subject to continual review. If and when the U.S. FDA approves any of our or our collaborators’ products under development, the manufacture and marketing of these products are subject to continuing regulation, including compliance with cGMP, adverse event reporting requirements and prohibitions on promoting a product for unapproved uses. Later discovery of previously unknown problems or failure to comply with the applicable regulatory requirements may result in restrictions on the marketing of a product or withdrawal of the product from the market as well as possible civil or criminal sanctions. Various federal and, in some cases, state statutes and regulations also govern or influence the manufacturing, safety, labeling, storage, record keeping and marketing of pharmaceutical products.
In January and February 2016, we received U.S. FDA approval of our New Drug Applications (each, a “NDA”) for two products – our dermatology product SERNIVO® and our neurology product ZEMBRACE®. Both products were launched in the U.S. market during the year ended March 31, 2017. In May and November 2017, we received U.S. FDA approval for two dermatology products – DFD-10 (minocycline hydrochloride) and DFD-06, Impoyz® our brand of clobetasol propionate cream. Furthermore, in January 2019, we received U.S. FDA approval for TOSYMRA®, our brand of sumatriptan intranasal spray (DFN-02).
In August 2017, we sold the future development, manufacturing and commercialization rights for DFD-06, a topical high potency steroid, to Encore Dermatology Inc. During the three months ended September 30, 2018, we sold our rights for Cloderm® (clocortolone pivalate) Cream 0.1% and its authorized generic to EPI Health, LLC, an affiliate of EPI Group, LLC.
In March 2019 we sold to Encore Dermatology Inc. our rights for SERNIVO® (betamethasone dipropionate) Spray 0.05% and assigned them our rights to market and distribute PROMISEB® topical cream and TRIANEX® 0.05% (triamcinolone acetonide ointment, USP) in the United States.
In June 2019, we sold to Upsher-Smith Laboratories, LLC, our U.S. and select territory rights for ZEMBRACE® SYMTOUCH® (sumatriptan injection) 3 mg and TOSYMRA® (sumatriptan nasal spray) 10 mg, (formerly referred to as “DFN-02”).
In March 2021, we out-licensed to Ethypharm SAS select territory rights (in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom) for ELYXYBTM (formerly referred to as “DFN 15”).
Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Limited is the parent company in our group. Refer to Note 42 of our consolidated financial statements for a list of our subsidiaries and joint ventures.
Our principal executive offices are located in Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Our business operates through a number of subsidiaries having offices, research facilities and production sites throughout the world. The following table sets forth current information relating to our principal facilities:
|Segments Which Primarily Use|
|1||API Hyderabad Plant 1, Telangana, India||645,995||Global Generics and PSAI|
|2||API Hyderabad Plant 2, Telangana, India||781,379||Global Generics and PSAI|
|3||API Hyderabad Plant 3, Telangana, India||644,805||Global Generics and PSAI|
|4||API Nalgonda Plant, Telangana, India||3,397,680||Global Generics and PSAI|
|5||API Srikakulam Plant, Andhra Pradesh, India||4,027,688||Global Generics and PSAI|
|6||API Srikakulam Plant (SEZ), Andhra Pradesh, India||9,917,739||Global Generics and PSAI|
|7||Aurigene Pharmaceutical Services Limited, Hyderabad, Telangana, India||300,564||PSAI|
|8||Technology Development Centre Hyderabad 2, Telangana, India||68,825||Global Generics and PSAI|
|9||Integrated Product Development Center (Pilot Plant), Telangana, India||271,379||Global Generics|
|10||Formulations Hyderabad Plant 2, Telangana, India||3,207,826||Global Generics|
|11||Formulations Baddi Plant 1, Himachal Pradesh, India||728,234||Global Generics|
|12||Formulations Baddi Plant 2, Himachal Pradesh, India||381,342||Global Generics|
|13||Formulations Baddi Plant 3, Himachal Pradesh, India||70,220||Global Generics|
|14||Biologics Hyderabad, Telangana, India||1,242,767||Global Generics|
|15||Formulations Hyderabad Plant 3, Telangana, India||1,539,089||Global Generics|
|16||Formulations Srikakulam Plant 1 (SEZ), Andhra Pradesh, India||879,041||Global Generics|
|17||Formulations Srikakulam Plant 2 (SEZ), Andhra Pradesh, India||334,105||Global Generics|
|18||Formulations Srikakulam Plant 11, Andhra Pradesh, India||740,520||Global Generics|
|19||Formulations Visakhapatnam Plant 1 (SEZ), Andhra Pradesh, India||582,206||Global Generics|
|20||Formulations Visakhapatnam Plant 2 (SEZ), Andhra Pradesh, India||544,322||Global Generics|
|21||Aurigene Pharmaceutical Services Limited, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India||58,754||PSAI|
|22||Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India||630,462||Others|
|23||Integrated Product Development Center, Bengaluru, India||29,500||Global Generics|
|24||Integrated Product Development Center, Telangana, India||103,350||Global Generics, PSAI and Proprietary|
|25||API Cuernavaca Plant, Mexico||2,361,840||Global Generics and PSAI|
|26||API Mirfield Plant, United Kingdom||1,785,960||Global Generics and PSAI|
|27||API Middleburgh Plant, New York, United States||292,000||Global Generics|
|Segments Which Primarily Use|
|28||Technology Development Centre, Cambridge, United Kingdom||32,966||Global Generics and PSAI|
|29||Technology Development Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands||56,500||Global Generics and PSAI|
|30||Formulations Beverley Plant, East Yorkshire, United Kingdom(1)||81,000||Global Generics|
|31||Formulations Shreveport Plant, Louisiana, United States||2,349,251||Global Generics|
|32||Aurigene Discovery Technologies, Malaysia||5,672||Others|
|(1)||Assets held for sale as of March 31, 2021.|
We generally own our facilities. However, some of our sites (primarily office space) are leased. All properties identified above, including leased properties, are either used for manufacturing and packaging of pharmaceutical products or for research and development activities. In addition to the above, we have sales, marketing and administrative offices, some of which are owned and some others are leased properties.
During the year ended March 31, 2021, we established a facility for Blow-Fill-Seal technology (“BFS”) at “Formulations Vishakhapatnam Plant 2 (SEZ)”. We also completed acquisition of “Formulation Baddi Plant 3” from Wockhardt Limited.
During the year ended March 31, 2019, we expanded our biosimilars facility in Hyderabad, Telangana, India to meet growing demand in emerging markets. We also established a new injectable products manufacturing facility, “Formulations Srikakulam Plant 11”, located at Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, India. This facility helps us meet the increasing demand for such injectable products in some of our key markets.
During the year ended March 31, 2019, we obtained approvals from the U.S. FDA for products to be manufactured from a recently commissioned oral solid dosage form facility, “Formulations Srikakulam Plant 2 (SEZ)”, in a special economic zone located in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, India. This plant, which began commercial operations from April 2019, manufactures products of our Global Generics segment.
Material plans to construct, expand and improve facilities
As of March 31, 2021, we had capital work-in-progress of Rs.9,778 million and capital commitments of Rs.9,841 million for expansion of our manufacturing and research facilities, primarily relating to facilities located in India, the United States and Mexico. Our current capital work-in-progress and capital commitments primarily consist of projects to enhance the capacity of our formulations injectable facility in Visakhapatnam. We currently intend to finance our additional expansion plans entirely through our operating cash flows and through cash and other investments. A majority of these projects are expected to be completed during the fiscal years ending March 31, 2022 and March 31, 2023.
Environmental laws and regulations
We are subject to significant national and state environmental laws and regulations which govern the discharge, emission, storage, handling and disposal of a variety of substances that may be used in or result from our operations at the above facilities. Non-compliance with the applicable laws and regulations may subject us to penalties and may also result in the closure of our facilities.
We are an integrated global pharmaceutical company committed to accelerating access to affordable and innovative medicines. We derive our revenues from the sale of finished dosage forms, active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates, development and manufacturing services provided to innovator pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, and license fees from marketing authorizations for our products.
The Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”) evaluates our performance and allocates resources based on an analysis of various performance indicators by operating segments. The CODM reviews revenue and gross profit as the performance indicator for all of the operating segments, and does not review the total assets and liabilities of an operating segment. Our Co-Chairman and Managing Director was previously the CODM of our company. Pursuant to certain organizational changes, effective December 1, 2020, the office of Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) assumed the authority and responsibility for making decisions about resources to be allocated to various segments and assessing their performance. Consequently, the CEO is currently the CODM of our company.
Our reportable operating segments are as follows:
|·||Pharmaceutical Services and Active Ingredients;|
|·||Proprietary Products; and|
Global Generics. This segment consists of our business of manufacturing and marketing prescription and over-the-counter finished pharmaceutical products ready for consumption by the patient, marketed under a brand name (branded formulations) or as generic finished dosages with therapeutic equivalence to branded formulations (generics). This segment includes the operations of our biologics business.
Pharmaceutical Services and Active Ingredients. This segment primarily consists of our business of manufacturing and marketing active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates, also known as “API”, which are the principal ingredients for finished pharmaceutical products. Active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates become finished pharmaceutical products when the dosages are fixed in a form ready for human consumption such as a tablet, capsule or liquid using additional inactive ingredients. This segment also includes our contract research services business and our manufacture and sale of active pharmaceutical ingredients and steroids in accordance with the specific customer requirements.
Proprietary Products. This segment consists of our business that focuses on the research and development of differentiated formulations. The segment is expected to earn revenues arising out of monetization of such assets and subsequent royalties, if any.
Others. This segment consists of the operations of our wholly-owned subsidiary, Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited (“ADTL”), a discovery stage biotechnology company developing novel and best-in-class therapies in the fields of oncology and inflammation. ADTL works with established pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies through customized models of drug-discovery collaborations.
The measurement of each segment’s revenues, expenses and assets is consistent with the accounting policies that are used in preparation of our consolidated financial statements.
Critical Accounting Policies
Critical accounting policies are defined as those that in our view are the most important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results and that require the most exercise of management’s judgment. We consider the policies discussed under the following paragraphs to be critical for an understanding of our financial statements. The basis for preparation of our financial statements, significant accounting policies and application of these are discussed in detail in Notes 2, 3 and 4 to our consolidated financial statements.
Accounting estimates and judgments
While preparing financial statements in conformity with IFRS, we make certain estimates and assumptions that require difficult, subjective and complex judgments. These judgments affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amount of assets, liabilities, income and expenses, disclosure of contingent liabilities at the statement of financial position date and the reported amount of income and expenses for the reporting period. Financial reporting results rely on our estimate of the effect of certain matters that are inherently uncertain.
Future events rarely develop exactly as forecast and the best estimates require adjustments, as actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We continually evaluate these estimates and assumptions based on the most recently available information.
Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimates are revised and in any future periods affected. In particular, information about significant areas of estimation uncertainty and critical judgments are as follows:
|·||Measurement of recoverable amounts of cash-generating units;|
|·||Measurement of transaction price in a revenue transaction (sales returns, rebates and chargeback provisions);|
|·||Evaluation of recoverability of deferred tax assets, and estimation of income tax payable and income tax expense in relation to uncertain tax positions; and|
Accounting policy relating to Revenue from contract with customers
Our revenue is derived from sales of goods, service income and income from licensing arrangements. Most of such revenue is generated from the sale of goods. We have generally concluded that we are the principal in our revenue arrangements.
Accounting policies relating to revenue are as follows:
Sale of goods
Revenue is recognized when the control of the goods has been transferred to a third party. This is usually when the title passes to the customer, either upon shipment or upon receipt of goods by the customer. At that point, the customer has full discretion over the channel and price to sell the products, and there are no unfulfilled obligations that could affect the customer’s acceptance of the product.
Revenue from the sale of goods is measured at the transaction price, which is the consideration received or receivable, net of returns, taxes and applicable trade discounts and allowances. Revenue includes shipping and handling costs billed to the customer.
In arriving at the transaction price, we consider the terms of the contract with the customer and our customary business practices. The transaction price is the amount of consideration we are entitled to receive in exchange for transferring promised goods or services, excluding amounts collected on behalf of third parties. The amount of consideration varies because of estimated rebates, returns and chargebacks, which are considered to be key estimates. Any amount of variable consideration is recognized as revenue only to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal will not occur. We estimate the amount of variable consideration using the expected value method.
Presented below are the points of recognition of revenue with respect to our sales of goods:
|Particulars||Point of recognition of revenue|
|Sales of generic products in India||Upon delivery of products to distributors by our clearing and forwarding agents. Control over the generic products is transferred by us when the goods are delivered to distributors from clearing and forwarding agents.|
|Sales of active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates in India||Upon delivery of products to customers (generally formulation manufacturers) from our factories.|
|Export sales and other sales outside of India||Upon delivery of the products to the customers unless the terms of the applicable contract provide for specific revenue generating activities to be completed, in which case revenue is recognized once all such activities are completed.|
Profit share revenues
From time to time, we enter into marketing arrangements with certain business partners for the sale of our products in certain markets. Under such arrangements, we sell our products to the business partners at a non-refundable base purchase price agreed upon in the arrangement and are also entitled to a profit share which is over and above the base purchase price. The profit share is typically dependent on the business partner’s ultimate net sale proceeds or net profits, subject to any reductions or adjustments that are required by the terms of the arrangement. Such arrangements typically require the business partner to provide confirmation of units sold and net sales or net profit computations for the products covered under the arrangement.
Revenue in an amount equal to the base sale price is recognized in these transactions upon delivery of products to the business partners. An additional amount representing the profit share component is recognized as revenue only to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal will not occur.
At the end of each reporting period, we update the estimated transaction price (including updating our assessment of whether an estimate of variable consideration is constrained) to represent faithfully the circumstances present at the end of the reporting period and the changes in circumstances during the reporting period.
Out licensing arrangements, milestone payments and royalties
Our revenues also include amounts derived from product out-licensing agreements. These arrangements typically consist of an initial up-front payment on inception of the license, and subsequent payments dependent on achieving certain milestones in accordance with the terms prescribed in the agreement.
In cases where the transaction has two or more components, we account for the delivered item (for example, the transfer of title to the intangible asset) as a separate unit of accounting and record revenue upon delivery of that component, provided that we can make a reasonable estimate of the fair value of the undelivered component. Otherwise, non-refundable up-front license fees received in connection with product out-licensing agreements are deferred and recognized over the balance period in which we have pending performance obligations.
Milestone payments which are contingent on achieving certain clinical milestones are recognized as revenues either upon achievement of such milestones or over the performance period, depending on the terms of the contract. If milestone payments are creditable against future royalty payments, then the milestones are deferred and released over the period in which the royalties are anticipated to be paid.
Royalty income earned through a license is recognized when the underlying sales have occurred.
Provision for chargeback, rebates, sales returns and discounts
In our North America Generics business, our gross revenues are significantly reduced by chargebacks, rebates, sales returns, discounts, shelf stock adjustments, Medicaid payments and similar “gross-to-net” adjustments. Each of such adjustments are discussed in detail below.
|·||Chargebacks: Chargebacks are issued to wholesalers for the difference between our invoice price to the wholesaler and the contract price through which the product is resold in the retail part of the supply chain. The information that we consider for establishing a chargeback accrual includes the historical average chargeback rate over a period of time, current contract prices with wholesalers and other customers, and estimated inventory holding by the wholesaler. With this methodology, we believe that the results are more realistic and closest to the potential chargeback claims that may be received in the future period relating to inventory on which a claim is yet to be received as at the end of the reporting period. In addition, as part of our book closure process, a chargeback validation is performed in which we track and reconcile the volume of inventory sold for which we should carry an appropriate provision for chargeback. We procure the inventory holding statements and data through an electronic data interface with our wholesalers (representing approximately 95% of the total value of chargebacks outstanding at every year end reporting date) as part of this reconciliation. On the basis of this volume reconciliation, chargeback accrual is validated. For the chargeback rate computation, we consider different contract prices for each product across our customer base. This chargeback rate is adjusted (if necessary) on a periodic basis for expected future price reductions.|
|·||Shelf Stock Adjustments: Shelf stock adjustments are credits issued to customers to reflect decreases in the selling price of products sold by us, and are accrued when the prices of certain products decline as a result of increased competition or otherwise. These credits are customary in the pharmaceutical industry, and are intended to reduce the customer inventory cost to better reflect the current market prices. The determination to grant a shelf stock adjustment to a customer is based on the terms of the applicable contract, which may or may not specifically limit the age of the stock on which a credit would be offered.|
|·||Rebates: Rebates (direct and indirect) are generally provided to customers as an incentive to stock and sell our products. Rebate amounts are based on a customer’s purchases made during an applicable period. Rebates are paid to wholesalers, chain drug stores, health maintenance organizations or pharmacy buying groups under a contract with us. We determine our estimates of rebate accruals primarily based on the contracts entered into with our wholesalers and other direct customers and the information received from them for secondary sales made by them. For direct rebates, liability is accrued whenever we invoice to direct customers. For indirect rebates, the accruals are based on a representative weighted average percentage of the contracted rebate amount applied to inventory sold and delivered by us to wholesalers or other direct customers.|
|·||Refund Liability: We account for sales returns accrual by recording refund liability concurrent with the recognition of revenue at the time of a product sale. This liability is based on our estimate of expected sales returns. We deal in various products. Accordingly, our estimate of sales returns is determined primarily by our historical experience. With respect to established products, we determine an estimate of sales returns provision primarily based on historical experience of the actual sales returns. Additionally, other factors that we consider in determining the estimate include levels of inventory in the distribution channel, estimated shelf life, any revision in the shelf life of the product, product discontinuances, price changes of competitive products, and introduction of competitive new products, to the extent each of these factors impact our business and markets. We consider all of these factors and adjust the sales return provision to reflect our actual experience. With respect to new products introduced by us, those have historically been either extensions of an existing product line where we have historical experience or in a general therapeutic category where established products exist and are sold either by us or our competitors. We have not yet introduced products in a new therapeutic category where the sales returns experience of such products by us or our competitors (as we understand based on industry publications) is not known. The amount of sales returns for our newly launched products have not historically differed significantly from sales returns experience of the then current products marketed by us or our competitors (as we understand based on industry publications). Accordingly, we do not expect sales returns for new products to be significantly different from expected sales returns of current products. We evaluate sales returns of all our products at the end of each reporting period and record necessary adjustments, if any.|
|·||Medicaid: We estimate the portion of our sales that may get dispensed to customers covered under Medicaid programs based on the proportion of units sold in the previous two quarters for which a Medicaid claim could be received as compared to the total number of units sold in the previous two quarters. The proportion is based on an analysis of the actual Medicaid claims received for the preceding four quarters. In addition, we also apply the same percentage on the derived estimated inventory sold and delivered by us to our wholesalers and other direct customers to arrive at the potential volume of products on which a Medicaid claim could be received. We use this approach because we believe that it corresponds to the approximate six month time period it takes for us to receive claims from the various Medicaid programs. After estimating the number of units on which a Medicaid claim is to be paid, we use the latest available Medicaid reimbursement rate per unit to calculate the Medicaid accrual. In the case of new products, accruals are done based on specific inputs from our marketing team or data from the publications of IQVIA.|
|·||Cash Discounts: We offer cash discounts to our customers, on a selective basis and in line with industry practice, to encourage prompt payment. Accruals for such cash discounts do not involve any significant variables. These are accrued for at the time of invoicing and adjusted subsequently to reflect the actual experience.|
We believe our estimation processes are reasonable methods of determining accruals for the “gross-to-net” adjustments. Chargeback accrual accounts for the highest element among the “gross-to-net” adjustments, and constituted approximately 82% of such “gross-to-net” adjustments for our North America Generics business for the year ended March 31, 2021. For the purpose of the following discussion, we are therefore restricting our explanations to this specific element. While chargeback accruals depend on multiple variables, the most pertinent variables are our estimates of inventories on which a chargeback claim is yet to be received and the unit price at which the chargeback will be processed. To determine the chargeback accrual applicable for a reporting period, we perform the following procedures to calculate these two variables:
|a)||Estimated inventory—Inventory volumes on which a chargeback claim that is expected to be received in the future are determined using the validation process and methodology described above (see “Chargebacks” above). When such a validation process is performed, we note that the difference represents an immaterial variation. Therefore, we believe that our estimation process in regard to this variable is reasonable.|
|b)||Unit pricing rate—At any point in time, inventory volumes on which we carry our chargeback accrual represents approximately 1 to 1.3 month of sales volumes. Therefore, the sensitivity of price changes on our chargeback accrual only relates to such volumes. Assuming that the chargebacks were processed within such period, we analyzed the impact of changes of prices for the periods beginning April 1, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, and ended March 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively, on our estimated inventory levels computed based on the methodology described above (see “Chargebacks” above). The impact on net sales on account of such price variation may not be significant.|
A roll-forward for each major accrual for our North America Generics business is presented below for our fiscal years ended March 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021:
|(All values in U.S.$ millions)|
|Beginning Balance: April 1, 2018||170||161||12||28|
|Current provisions relating to sales during the year||1,415||461||18||29|
|Provisions and adjustments relating to sales in prior years||*||-||-||-|
|Credits and payments**||(1,457||)||(530||)||(19||)||(27||)|
|Ending Balance: March 31, 2019||128||92||11||30|
|Beginning Balance: April 1, 2019||128||92||11||30|
|Current provisions relating to sales during the year(1)||1,468||319||20||21|
|Provisions and adjustments relating to sales in prior years||*||-||-||-|
|Credits and payments**||(1,440||)||(331||)||(20||)||(27||)|
|Ending Balance: March 31, 2020||156||80||11||24|
|Beginning Balance: April 1, 2020||156||80||11||24|
|Current provisions relating to sales during the year(2)||1,702||245||21||15|
|Provisions and adjustments relating to sales in prior years||*||-||-||-|
|Credits and payments**||(1,656||)||(247||)||(19||)||(20||)|
|Ending Balance: March 31, 2021||202||78||13||19|
|*||Currently, we do not separately track provisions and adjustments, in each case to the extent relating to prior years for chargebacks. However, the adjustments are expected to be non-material. The volumes used to calculate the closing balance of chargebacks represent approximately 1.3 months equivalent of sales, which corresponds to the pending chargeback claims yet to be processed.|
|**||Currently, we do not separately track the credits and payments, in each case to the extent relating to prior years for chargebacks, rebates, medicaid payments or refund liability.|
|(1)||Chargebacks provisions for the year ended March 31, 2020 were higher compared to the year ended March 31, 2019, primarily as a result of higher sales volumes, which were partially off-set due to a lower pricing rates per unit for chargebacks. Such lower pricing rates were primarily on account of a reduction in the invoice price to wholesalers for certain of our products. The chargebacks payments for the year ended March 31, 2020 were lower compared to the year ended March 31, 2019, primarily as a result of higher pending chargebacks claims as of March 31, 2020 compared to March 31, 2019. The rebates provisions and payments for the year ended March 31, 2020 were each lower as compared to the year ended March 31, 2019, primarily as a result of lower pricing rates per unit for rebates, due to a reduction in the invoice price to wholesalers for certain of our products, which were partially off-set by higher sales volumes during the year ended March 31, 2020 compared to the year ended March 31, 2019.|
|(2)||Chargebacks provisions and payments for the year ended March 31, 2021 were each higher as compared to the year ended March 31, 2020, primarily as a result of higher sales volumes and also due to higher pricing rates per unit for chargebacks, due to reduction in the contract prices through which the product is resold in the retail part of the supply chain for certain of our products. The rebates provisions and payments for the year ended March 31, 2021 were each lower as compared to the year ended March 31, 2020, primarily as a result of lower pricing rates per unit for rebates, due to a reduction in the invoice price to wholesalers for certain of our products and also due to reduction in the contract prices through which the product is resold in the retail part of the supply chain for certain of our products, which were partially off-set by higher sales volumes during the year ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended March 31, 2020.|
|(3)||Our overall refund liability as of March 31, 2021 relating to our North America Generics business was U.S.$19 million, as compared to a liability of U.S.$24 million as of March 31, 2020. This decrease in our liability was primarily attributable to a lower refund liability created for the year ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended March 31, 2020. Such allowance change was primarily due to certain product mix changes and recent trends in actual sales returns, together with our historical experience, and also the price reduction for certain products resulting into lower refund liability to be carried.|
The estimates of “gross-to-net” adjustments for our operations in India and other countries outside of the United States relate mainly to refund liability in all such operations, and certain rebates to healthcare insurance providers are specific to our German operations. The pattern of such refund liability is generally consistent with our gross sales. In Germany, the rebates to healthcare insurance providers mentioned above are contractually fixed in nature and do not involve significant estimations by us.
Revenue from services rendered, which primarily relate to contract research, is recognized in the consolidated income statement as the underlying services are performed. Upfront non-refundable payments received under these arrangements are deferred and recognized as revenue over the expected period over which the related services are expected to be performed.
License fees primarily consist of income from the out-licensing of intellectual property, and other licensing and supply arrangements with various parties. Revenue from license fees is recognized when control transfers to the third party and our performance obligations are satisfied. Some of these arrangements include certain performance obligations by us. Revenue from such arrangements is recognized in the period in which we complete all of our performance obligations.
For other details on our significant accounting policies, please refer to Note 3 of our consolidated financial statements.
5.A. Operating results
Income Statement Data
|For the year ended March 31,|
|(Rs. in millions, U.S.$ in millions)|
|Cost of revenues||1,185||86,645||80,591||70,421|
|Selling, general and administrative expenses||747||54,650||50,129||48,680|
|Research and development expenses||226||16,541||15,410||15,607|
|Impairment of non-current assets||117||8,588||16,767||210|
|Other income, net||(13||)||(982||)||(4,290||)||(1,955||)|
|Results from operating activities||332||24,280||15,993||20,888|
|Finance income, net||23||1,653||1,478||1,117|
|Share of profit of equity accounted investees, net of tax||7||480||561||438|
|Profit before tax||361||26,413||18,032||22,443|
|Tax expense/(benefit), net||125||9,175||(1,466||)||3,648|
|Profit for the year||U.S.$||236||Rs.||17,238||Rs.||19,498||Rs.||18,795|
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, financial data as percentages of total revenues and the increase (or decrease) by item as a percentage of the amount over the comparable period in the previous years.
|Percentage of Sales||Percentage|
|For the year ended March 31,||Increase/(Decrease)|
|Selling, general and administrative expenses||28.8||%||28.7||%||31.6||%||9.0||%||3.0||%|
|Research and development expenses||8.7||%||8.8||%||10.1||%||7.3||%||(1.3||)%|
|Impairment of non-current assets||4.5||%||9.6||%||0.1||%||(48.8||)%||7884.3||%|
|Other income, net||(0.5||)%||(2.5||)%||(1.3||)%||(77.1||)%||119.4||%|
|Results from operating activities||12.8||%||9.2||%||13.6||%||51.8||%||(23.4||)%|
|Finance income, net||0.9||%||0.8||%||0.7||%||11.8||%||32.3||%|
|Share of profit of equity accounted investees, net of tax||0.3||%||0.3||%||0.3||%||(14.4||)%||28.1||%|
|Profit before tax||13.9||%||10.3||%||14.6||%||46.5||%||(19.7||)%|
|Tax expense/(benefit), net||4.8||%||(0.8||)%||2.4||%||(725.9||)%||(140.2||)%|
|Profit for the year||9.1||%||11.2||%||12.2||%||(11.6||)%||3.7||%|
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, our consolidated revenues by segment:
|For the year ended March 31,|
|(Rs. in millions)|
|Revenues||% of |
Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2021 compared to Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2020
Our overall consolidated revenues were Rs.189,722 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 9% as compared to Rs.174,600 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. This revenue growth for the year ended March 31, 2021 was primarily due to: increased sales volumes of our existing products; new product launches across our businesses; and benefits due to the depreciation of the Indian rupee against the U.S. dollar. The foregoing was partially offset by price erosion, in our Global Generics segment’s North America (the United States and Canada), Europe and certain other emerging markets. The revenues for the year ended March 31, 2020 included the proceeds from the sale of our U.S. and select territory rights for two of our brands of proprietary products.
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, our consolidated revenues by geography:
|For the year ended March 31,|
|(Rs. in millions)|
|North America (the United States and Canada)||70,494||46||%||64,659||47||%||59,957||49||%|
|Other countries of the former Soviet Union and Romania||7,427||5||%||6,472||5||%||5,242||4||%|
|Proprietary Products and Others||3,336||2||%||10,730||6||%||6,808||4||%|
|*||Percentages mentioned against the segments are with reference to the total revenue of our company; and percentages mentioned against geographies represent the sales in the respective geography as a percentage of the total revenue from that segment.|
For the year ended March 31, 2021, the average exchange rate of the U.S. dollar and the Euro appreciated by approximately 4.7% and 9.9%, respectively, and that of the Russian rouble depreciated by 8.3%, against the Indian rupee as compared to the year ended March 31, 2020. These changes in exchange rates on an overall basis increased our reported revenues.
Revenues from our Global Generics segment were Rs.154,404 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 12% as compared to Rs.138,123 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. The revenue increase was in all the four business geographies of this segment: North America (the United States and Canada), Europe, India, and “Emerging Markets” (which is comprised of Russia, other countries of the former Soviet Union, Romania and certain other countries from our “Rest of the World” markets, including South Africa, China, Brazil and Australia).
After taking into account the impact of exchange rate fluctuations of the Indian rupee against multiple currencies in the markets in which we operate, the foregoing increase in revenues of this segment was attributable to the following factors:
|·||an increase of approximately 6% resulting from a net increase in the sales volumes of existing products in this segment;|
|·||an increase of approximately 9% resulting from new products launched during the year ended March 31, 2021; and|
|·||the foregoing was partially offset by a decrease of approximately 6% resulting from the net impact of changes in sales prices of the products in this segment.|
North America (the United States and Canada): Our Global Generics segment’s revenues from North America (the United States and Canada) were Rs.70,494 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 9% as compared to Rs.64,659 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. In U.S. dollar absolute currency terms (i.e., U.S. dollars without taking into account the effect of currency exchange rates), such revenues increased by 4% for the year ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended March 31, 2020.
This revenues increase was largely attributable to the following:
|·||an increase in volumes for certain of our existing products such as buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film;|
|·||revenues from new products launched during the year ended March 31, 2021, such as ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone otic suspension, over-the-counter diclofenac sodium topical gel, sapropterin dihydrochloride tablets, colchicine tablets and abiraterone acetate tablets; and|
|·||the foregoing was partially offset by reduced sales primarily due to price erosion from increased competition for certain products, such as buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film, daptomycin injection, metoprolol ER tabs and palonosetron injection.|
During the year ended March 31, 2021, we made 20 new ANDA filings and 1 new NDA filing under section 505(b)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act in the United States with the U.S. FDA. As of March 31, 2021 our cumulative filings were 304, which includes 5 NDA filings under section 505(b)(2) and 299 ANDA filings. These 299 ANDA filings include 8 ANDAs that we acquired from Teva and an affiliate of Allergan plc. As of March 31, 2021, we had 95 filings pending approval with the U.S. FDA (92 ANDAs and 3 NDAs under 505(b)(2) route including 21 tentative approvals). Of the 92 ANDAs which are pending approval, 47 are Paragraph IV filings, and we believe that we are the first to file with respect to 23 of these filings.
Europe: Our Global Generics segment’s revenues from Europe (which is comprised of Germany, the United Kingdom and other European countries such as Italy, Spain, France and Austria) were Rs.15,404 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 32% as compared to Rs.11,707 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. This increase was primarily on account of higher sales volumes and sales from new product launches during the year ended March 31, 2021 which was partially offset by a reduction in sales due to price erosion in some of our existing products. Sales growth in Europe was also led by scale up of volumes in our newer markets of Europe, such as Italy, Spain and France.
India: Our Global Generics segment’s revenues from India were Rs.33,419 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 15% as compared to Rs.28,946 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. This growth was largely attributable to an increase in sales volumes and sales prices of our existing products, revenues from launches of new products and contributions from the portfolio of products acquired from Wockhardt Limited during the year ended March 31, 2021.
According to IQVIA in its Moving Annual Total report for the year ended March 31, 2021, our secondary sales in India grew by 3.1% during such period, as compared to the India pharmaceutical market’s growth of 4.3% during such period. During the year ended March 31, 2021, we launched 20 new brands in India.
Emerging Markets: Our Global Generics segment’s revenues from “Emerging Markets” (which is comprised of Russia, other countries of the former Soviet Union, Romania and certain other countries from our “Rest of the World” markets, including South Africa, China, Brazil and Australia) were Rs.35,087 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 7% as compared to Rs.32,811 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. This revenue increase was led by growth in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Romania, including certain tender sales, and scaling up in markets such as China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Jamaica.
Russia: Our Global Generics segment’s revenues from Russia were Rs.15,816 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, a decrease of 6% as compared to Rs.16,900 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. In Russian rouble absolute currency terms (i.e., Russian roubles without taking into account the effect of currency exchange rates), such revenues increased by 1% for the year ended March 31, 2021 as compared to the year ended March 31, 2020. This revenue increase was largely attributable to an increase in the sales price and sales from new product launches during the year ended March 31, 2021, which was partially offset by a reduction in sales due to lower volumes in some of our existing products. Our over-the-counter (“OTC”) division’s revenues from Russia for the year ended March 31, 2021 were approximately 45% of our total revenues from Russia.
According to IQVIA, as per its report for the year ended March 31, 2021, our sales value (in Russian roubles) growth and volume growth from Russia for such period, as compared to the Russian pharmaceutical market sales value (in Russian roubles) growth and volume growth for such period, was as follows:
|Year ended March 31, 2021|
|Dr. Reddy's||Russian pharmaceutical market|
|Sales value||Volume||Sales value||Volume|
|Total (Rx + OTC)||-0.9||%||-5.7||%||3.3||%||-5.1||%|
As per the above referenced IQVIA report, our market shares in Russia for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020 were as follows:
|Year ended March 31,|
|Volume based||Value based|
|Total (Rx + OTC)||2.1||%||2.1||%||1.7||%||1.7||%|
Other countries of the former Soviet Union and Romania: Our Global Generics segment’s revenues from other countries of the former Soviet Union and Romania were Rs.7,427 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 15% as compared to Rs.6,472 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. This increase was attributable to increased revenues from higher sales volumes, increase in sales prices and revenues from new products launched during the year ended March 31, 2021.
“Rest of the World” Markets: We refer to all markets of this segment, other than North America (the United States and Canada), Europe, Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union, Romania and India, as our “Rest of the World” markets. Our Global Generics segment’s revenues from our “Rest of the World” markets were Rs.11,844 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 25% as compared to Rs.9,439 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. The growth is largely attributable to increased sales volumes of our existing business and to new products launched during the year ended March 31, 2021. The foregoing was partially offset by decline in revenues due to price erosion in some of our existing products.
Pharmaceutical Services and Active Ingredients (“PSAI”)
Our PSAI segment’s revenues were Rs.31,982 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 24% as compared to Rs.25,747 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. After taking into account the impact of exchange rate fluctuations of the Indian rupee against multiple currencies in the markets in which we operate, this increase was largely attributable to an increase in sales volumes and revenues from launches of new products, which was partially offset by a reduction in sales due to price erosion in some of our existing products.
During the year ended March 31, 2021, we filed 149 Drug Master Files (“DMFs”) worldwide. Cumulatively, our total active worldwide DMFs as of March 31, 2021 were 1,172, including 223 active DMFs in the United States.
Revenues from our Proprietary Products segment were Rs.523 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, a decrease of 93% as compared to Rs.7,949 million for year ended March 31, 2020.
Our revenues for the year ended March 31, 2020 included Rs.7,486 million revenue from sale of the U.S. and select territory rights for our neurology product brands ZEMBRACE® SMYTOUCH® (sumatriptan injection 3mg) & TOSYMRA™ (sumatriptan nasal spray 10mg).
Our total gross profit was Rs.103,077 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, representing 54.3% of our revenues for that period, as compared to Rs.94,009 million for the year ended March 31, 2020, representing 53.8% of our revenues for that period.
The following table sets forth, for the period indicated, our gross profit by segment:
|For the year ended March 31,|
|(Rs. in millions)|
|Gross Profit||% of|
|Gross Profit||% of|
|Gross Profit||% of|
The gross profit from our Global Generics segment increased to 59.0% for the year ended March 31, 2021, from 56.8% for the year ended March 31, 2020. This increase was on account of the net benefit from exchange rate fluctuations of multiple currencies against the Indian rupee, new product launches with higher gross margins, increases in the proportion of sales of certain products with higher gross margins and a lower increase in manufacturing overheads as compared to sales. This increase was partially offset by reductions on account of price erosion in certain of our products, primarily in the United States, Europe, Australia and Brazil, and also on account of lower export benefits (i.e., tax benefits applicable to exports).
The gross profits from our PSAI segment increased to 29.5% for the year ended March 31, 2021, from 24.0% for the year ended March 31, 2020. This increase was primarily on account of the net benefit from exchange rate fluctuations of multiple currencies against the Indian rupee and a lower increase in manufacturing overheads as compared to sales. This increase was partially offset by reductions on account of price erosion in certain of our products and lower export benefits.
Selling, general and administrative expenses
Our selling, general and administrative expenses were Rs.54,650 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 9.0% as compared to Rs.50,129 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. After taking into account the impact of exchange rate fluctuations of the Indian rupee against multiple currencies in the markets in which we operate, this increase was largely attributable to the following:
|·||an increase of 4% on account of increased freight outward expenses;|
|·||an increase of 3% on account of increased personnel costs, primarily on account of annual raises and an increase in personnel due to integration of the business acquired from Wockhardt Limited;|
|·||an increase of 1% on account of increased legal fees;|
|·||an increase of 4% on account of increased other expenses; and|
|·||the foregoing was partially offset by a decrease of 3% on account of lower sales and marketing and travel expenses.|
As a proportion of our total revenues, our selling, general and administrative expenses increased to 28.8% for the year ended March 31, 2021 from 28.7% for the year ended March 31, 2020.
Research and development expenses
Our research and development expenses were Rs.16,541 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 7.3% as compared to Rs.15,410 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. This increase was primarily on account of higher developmental expenditures in our Global Generics business, including development of COVID related molecules.
As a proportion of our total revenues, our research and development expense was at 8.7% for the year ended March 31, 2021 as compared to 8.8% for the year ended March 31, 2020.
Impairment of non-current assets
Our impairment of non-current assets expense charge were Rs.8,588 million for year ended March 31, 2021 as compared to a charge of Rs.16,767 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. Please refer to Notes 12, 13 and 14 of our consolidated financial statements for an explanation on this charge.
Other income, net
Our net other income was Rs.982 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, a decrease of 77% as compared to net other income of Rs.4,290 million for the year ended March 31, 2020.
Our net other income for the year ended March 31, 2020 includes Rs.3,457 million received from Celgene pursuant to a settlement agreement. Such agreement settled any claim that we or our affiliates may have had for damages under section 8 of the Canadian Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations in regard to our ANDS for a generic version of REVLIMID brand capsules (lenalidomide) pending before Health Canada.
Finance income, net
Our net finance income was Rs.1,653 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, as compared to net finance income of Rs. 1,478 million for the year ended March 31, 2020. This increase in net finance income was largely attributable to:
|·||fair value changes and profit on sale of units of mutual funds of Rs.557 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, as compared to fair value changes and profit on sale of units of mutual funds of Rs.929 million for the year ended March 31, 2020;|
|·||an increase in net foreign exchange gain of Rs.1,240 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, as compared to net foreign exchange gain of Rs. 639 million for the year ended March 31, 2020; and|
|·||an increase in net interest expense of Rs.144 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, as compared to net interest expense of Rs.95 million for the year ended March 31, 2020.|
Profit before tax
As a result of the above, our profit before taxes was Rs.26,413 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, an increase of 46% as compared to Rs.18,032 million for the year ended March 31, 2020.
Our consolidated weighted average tax rate was 35% for the year ended March 31, 2021, as compared to (8%) (benefit of 8%) for the year ended March 31, 2020.
Our effective tax rate for the year ended March 31, 2021 was higher as compared to the year ended March 31, 2020 primarily on account of:
|·||de-recognition of deferred tax asset during the year ended March 31, 2021 due to non-availability of depreciation on goodwill pursuant to an amendment to section 2(11) of the Income Tax Act in the Finance Act, 2021;|
|·||recognition of a deferred tax asset related to the Minimum Alternate Tax (“MAT”) credits and planned restructuring activity between companies within our group during the year ended March 31, 2020;|
|·||weighted deduction on eligible research and development expenditure in Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Limited, India for the year ended March 31, 2020; and|
|·||income from the sale of capital assets during the year ended March 31, 2020, which was set off against the carried forward capital loss.|
As a result, we had a tax expense of Rs.9,175 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, as compared to a net tax benefit of Rs.1,466 million for the year ended March 31, 2020.
Profit for the year
As a result of the above, our net profit was Rs.17,238 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, representing 9% of our total revenues for such year, as compared to Rs.19,498 million for the year ended March 31, 2020, representing 11% of our total revenues for such year.
Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2020 compared to Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2019
Refer to item 5.A. of our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020.
Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2019 compared to Fiscal Year Ended March 31, 2018
Refer to item 5.A. of our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019.
We have primarily financed our operations through cash flows generated from operations and a mix of long-term and short-term borrowings. Our principal liquidity and capital needs are for the purchase of property, plant and equipment, regular business operations and research and development.
Our principal sources of short-term liquidity are internally generated funds and short-term borrowings, which we believe are sufficient to meet our working capital requirements.
Summary of statements of cash flows
The following table summarizes our statements of cash flows for the years presented:
|For the year ended March 31,|
|(Rs. in millions)|
|Net cash from/(used in):|
|Net increase/(decrease) in cash and cash equivalents||Rs.||12,745||Rs.||(241)||Rs.||(349||)|
In addition to cash, inventory and accounts receivable, we had uncommitted lines of credit of Rs.38,766 million as of March 31, 2021, from our banks for working capital requirements. We draw upon these lines of credit based on our working capital requirements.
Cash Flow from Operating Activities
Year ended March 31, 2021 compared to year ended March 31, 2020
The result of operating activities was a net cash inflow of Rs.35,703 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, as compared to a net cash inflow of Rs.29,841 million for the year ended March 31, 2020.
The increase in net cash inflow of Rs.5,862 million was primarily due to a decrease in our working capital requirements and an increase in our earnings.
Our average days’ sales outstanding (“DSO”) as of March 31, 2021 and March 31, 2020 were 93 days and 100 days respectively. The decrease in our DSO between March 31, 2021 and 2020 was primarily on account of improved collections from customers in the United States and Europe.
Year ended March 31, 2020 compared to year ended March 31, 2019
The result of operating activities was a net cash inflow of Rs.29,841 million for the year ended March 31, 2020, as compared to a cash inflow of Rs.28,704 million for the year ended March 31, 2019.
The increase in net cash inflow of Rs.1,137 million was primarily due to an increase in our earnings, which was partially offset by an increase in our working capital requirements.
Our average days’ sales outstanding (“DSO”) as of March 31, 2020 and March 31, 2019 were 100 days and 90 days respectively. The increase in our DSO between March 31, 2020 and March 31, 2019 was primarily on account of changes in the mix of our receivables, due to an increase in the proportion of receivables from our customers with longer credit periods in the United States.
Cash Flow from Investing Activities
Year ended March 31, 2021 compared to year ended March 31, 2020
Our investing activities resulted in net cash outflows of Rs.22,660 million and Rs.4,923 million for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, which was primarily on account of the following:
|·||the payment, in connection with our acquisition of certain business assets from Wockhardt Limited, of Rs.15,514 million for the year ended March 31, 2021 (refer to Note 6 of our consolidated financial statements for further details);|
|·||the acquisition of property, plant and equipment, and other intangible assets, net of dispositions, of Rs.12,476 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, as compared to Rs.5,725 million for the year ended March 31, 2020; and|
|·||net proceeds from other investments of Rs.4,110 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, as compared to net purchases of other investments of Rs.214 million for the year ended March 31, 2020.|
Year ended March 31, 2020 compared to year ended March 31, 2019
Our investing activities resulted in net cash outflows of Rs.4,923 million and Rs.7,727 million for the years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, which was primarily on account of the following:
|·||the acquisition of property, plant and equipment, and other intangible assets, net of dispositions, of Rs.5,725 million for the year ended March 31, 2020, as compared to Rs.6,226 million for the year ended March 31, 2019; and|
|·||net purchases of investments of Rs.214 million for the year ended March 31, 2020, as compared to net purchases of other investments of Rs.2,282 million for the year ended March 31, 2019.|
Cash Flow from Financing Activities
Year ended March 31, 2021 compared to year ended March 31, 2020
Our financing activities resulted in net cash outflows of Rs.298 million and Rs.25,159 million for the years ended March 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively which was primarily on account of the following:
|·||payments of dividends of Rs.4,147 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, as compared to payments of dividends (including dividend distribution taxes) of Rs.3,916 million for the year ended March 31,2020;|
|·||interest payments of Rs.1,321 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, as compared to interest payments of Rs.1,608 million for the year ended March 31, 2020;|
|·||payments of the principal portion of lease liabilities of Rs.754 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, as compared to payments of the principal portion of lease liabilities of Rs.482 million for the year ended March 31, 2020;|
|·||purchases of treasury shares of Rs.1,193 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, as compared to purchases of treasury shares of Rs.474 million for the year ended March 31, 2020; and|
|·||net proceeds from short-term and long-term borrowings of Rs.6,848 million for the year ended March 31, 2021, as compared to net repayment of short-term and long-term borrowings of Rs.18,683 million for the year ended March 31, 2020.|
Year ended March 31, 2020 compared to year ended March 31, 2019
Our financing activities resulted in net cash outflows of Rs.25,159 million and Rs.21,326 million for the years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively which was primarily on account of the following:
|·||payments of dividends (including dividend distribution taxes) of Rs.3,916 million for the year ended March 31, 2020, as compared to payments of dividends (including dividend distribution taxes) of Rs.4,002 million for the year ended March 31, 2019;|
|·||interest payments of Rs.1,608 million for the year ended March 31, 2020, as compared to interest payments of Rs.1,607 million for the year ended March 31, 2019;|
|·||payments of the principal portion of lease liabilities of Rs.482 million for the year ended March 31, 2020, as compared to payments of the principal portion of lease liabilities of Rs.56 million for the year ended March 31, 2019;|
|·||purchases of treasury shares of Rs.474 million for the year ended March 31, 2020, as compared to purchases of treasury shares of Rs.535 million for the year ended March 31, 2019; and|
|·||net repayment of short-term and long-term borrowings of Rs.18,683 million for the year ended March 31, 2020, as compared to net repayment of short-term and long-term borrowings of Rs.15,126 million for the year ended March 31, 2019.|
The following table summarizes our principal debt obligations (excluding obligations under leases) outstanding as of March 31, 2021:
|Payments due by period|
|Principal debt obligations||Total||Less than 1 year||1-5 years||More than 5 years|
|(Rs. in millions)|
Annual rate of interest
The following table provides details of annual rates of interest for our principal debt obligations (excluding obligations under leases) outstanding as of March 31, 2021:
|Debt||Amounts in |
|Pre-shipment credit||Rs.||10,300||INR||3 Months T-bill + 30 bps|
|Other working capital borrowings||12,836||U.S.$||(2.2)% to (1.8)%|
|RUB||3.00% to 3.40% and 5.55%|
|MXN||TIIE + 1.20%|
|(1)||“INR” means Indian rupees, “U.S.$” means United States Dollars, “RUB” means Russian roubles, “MXN” means Mexican pesos, “UAH” means Ukrainian hryvnia, and “BRL” means Brazilian reals.|
|(2)||“TIIE” means the Equilibrium Inter-banking Interest Rate (Tasa de Interés Interbancaria de Equilibrio) and “T-bill” means India Treasury Bill.|
The maturities of short-term borrowings and other working capital borrowings from banks vary from 6 to 12 months. Our objective in determining the borrowing maturity is to ensure a balance between flexibility, cost and continuing availability of funds.
Subject to obtaining certain regulatory approvals, there are no legal or economic restrictions on the transfer of funds between us and our subsidiaries or for the transfer of funds in the form of cash dividends, loans or advances. However, transfers of funds from Venezuela are subject to certain exchange control regulations. Consistent with our risk management policy, we use interest rate swaps to mitigate the risk of changes in interest rates.
Cash and cash equivalents are primarily held in Indian rupees, U.S. dollars, U.K. pounds sterling, Euros, Kazakhstan tenges, Brazilian reals and Swiss francs.
As of March 31, 2021 and 2020, we had committed to spend Rs.9,841 million and Rs.4,888 million, respectively, under agreements to purchase property, plant and equipment. This amount is net of capital advances paid in respect of such purchases. These commitments will be funded through the cash flows generated from operations as well as cash flows from our borrowings.
Research and Development
Our research and development activities can be classified into several categories, which run parallel to the activities in our principal areas of operations:
|·||Global Generics, where our research and development activities are directed at the development of product formulations, process validation, bioequivalence testing and other data needed to prepare a growing list of drugs that are equivalent to numerous brand name products for sale in the highly regulated markets of the United States and Europe as well as emerging markets. Global Generics also includes our biologics business, where research and development activities are directed at the development of biologics products for the emerging as well as highly regulated markets. Our biologics research and development facility caters to the highest development standards, including cGMP, Good Laboratory Practices and bio-safety level IIA.|
|·||Pharmaceutical Services and Active Ingredients, where our research and development activities concentrate on development of chemical processes for the synthesis of API for use in our Global Generics segment and for sales in the emerging and developed markets to third parties. Our research and development activities also support our custom pharmaceutical line of business, where we continue to leverage the strength of our process chemistry and finished dosage development expertise to target innovator as well as emerging pharmaceutical companies. The research and development is directed toward providing services to support the entire pharmaceutical value chain, from discovery all the way to the market.|
|·||Proprietary Products, where we focus on the research, development, and commercialization of differentiated formulations.|
In the years ended March 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, we expended Rs.16,541 million, Rs.15,410 million and Rs.15,607 million, respectively, on research and development activities. This increase was primarily on account of higher developmental expenditures in our Global Generics business, including development of COVID related molecules. Each of these business segments has its own research and development and patent policies, and has numerous products in various stages of development. For further information on these policies and these products, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Item 4.B Business overview.”
Patents, Trademarks and Licenses
We have filed and been issued numerous patents in our principal areas of operations: Global Generics, Pharmaceutical Services and Active Ingredients and Proprietary Products. We expect to continue to file patent applications seeking to protect our innovations and novel processes in several countries, including the United States. Any existing or future patents issued to or licensed by us may not provide us with any competitive advantages for our products or may even be challenged, invalidated or circumvented by our competitors. In addition, such patent rights may not prevent our competitors from developing, using or commercializing products that are similar or functionally equivalent to our products. As of March 31, 2021, we have more than 1,550 trademarks filed with the Registrar of Trademarks in India which are either registered or are pending registration. We have also filed registration applications for non-U.S. trademarks in other countries in which we do business. We market several products under licenses in several countries where we operate.
In early 2020, COVID-19 spread to many countries in the world and the outbreak was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. During the year ended March 31, 2021, we experienced certain disruptions relating to this pandemic (including work-from-home policies and other social distancing policies to reduce the risks to the health and safety of employees) and may continue to experience further disruptions that could severely impact our business. See “Item 3D.—Risk Factors— A pandemic, epidemic or outbreak of an infectious disease, such as COVID-19, and the resulting restrictive measures and economic impacts may materially and adversely impact our business and results of our operations.” The COVID-19 situation continues to evolve and is taking differing courses across the multitude of geographies that our company operates in. Our headquarters and a significant proportion of our operations are based out of India, which has in recent months experienced a trend of rising COVID-19 infection rates. The full extent, consequences, and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations or the global economy as a whole cannot be predicted on the date of this Annual Report. We will continue to evaluate the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic could have on our business, financial condition and results of operations during the year ending March 31, 2022.
Also, please see “Item 5: Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and “Item 4. Information on the Company” for additional trend information.
The following summarizes our contractual obligations as of March 31, 2021 and the effect such obligations are expected to have on our liquidity and cash flows in future periods.
|Payments due by period|
|(Rs. in millions)|
|Contractual Obligations||Total||Less than 1 |
|1-3 years||3-5 years||More than|
|Property, plant and equipment purchase obligations(1)||9,841||9,841||-||-||-|
|Short-term debt obligations||23,136||23,136||-||-||-|
|Long-term debt obligations (excluding obligations under leases)||3,800||-||3,800||-||-|
|Estimated interest payable on long-term debt(2)||515||257||258||-||-|
|Obligations under leases (including interest)||3,879||1,042||1,763||930||144|
|Post-retirement benefits obligations(3)||3,330||480||801||714||1,335|
|Total contractual obligations||Rs.||44,501||Rs.||34,756||Rs.||6,622||Rs.||1,644||Rs.||1,479|
|(1)||Amounts presented are net of capital advances paid in respect of such purchases and are expected to be funded from internally generated funds.|
|(2)||Disclosure of estimated interest payments for future periods is only with respect to our long-term debt obligations, as the projected interest payments with respect to our short-term borrowings and other obligations cannot be reasonably estimated because they are subject to fluctuation in actual utilization of borrowings depending on our daily funding requirements. The estimated interest costs are based on March 31, 2021 applicable benchmark rates and are subject to fluctuation in the future.|
|(3)||Post-retirement benefits obligations in the “More than 5 years” column are estimated for a maximum of 10 years.|
We have committed to make potential future milestone and royalty payments to third parties under various agreements. Such payments are contingent upon the achievement of certain regulatory milestones and sales targets. Due to the uncertainty of the timing of these payments, they are not included in the above table.
See page 2 under heading “Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statement”.
The list of our directors and executive officers and their respective age and position as of March 31, 2021 was as follows:
|Directors Name(1)||Age (in yrs.)||Position|
|Mr. K. Satish Reddy(2)(3)||53||Chairman|
|Mr. G.V. Prasad(2)(4)||60||Co-Chairman and Managing Director|
|Ms. Kalpana Morparia||72||Director|
|Dr. Bruce L.A. Carter||77||Director|
|Mr. Sridar Iyengar||73||Director|
|Mr. Bharat Narotam Doshi(5)||71||Director|
|Mr. Prasad R. Menon||75||Director|
|Mr. Leo Puri||60||Director|
|Ms. Shikha Sharma||62||Director|
|Mr. Allan Oberman||63||Director|
|(1)||Except for Mr. K. Satish Reddy and Mr. G.V. Prasad, all of the directors are independent directors under the corporate governance rules of the New York Stock Exchange.|
|(3)||Brother-in-law of Mr. G.V. Prasad.|
|(4)||Brother-in-law of Mr. K. Satish Reddy.|
|(5)||Term ended on May 10, 2021, as a director.|
Our policy is to classify our officers as “executive officers” if they have membership on our Management Council. Our Management Council consists of various business and functional heads and is our senior management. As of March 31, 2021, the Management Council consisted of:
Name and Designation
|Particulars of last|
Mr. K. Satish Reddy(1)
|B. Tech., M.S. |
|53||29||January 18, 1993||Director, Globe Organics Limited|
Mr. G.V. Prasad(2)
Co-Chairman and Managing Director
|B. E. (Chem. Eng.), |
M.S. (Indl. Admn.)
|60||37||June 30, 1990||Promoter Director, Benzex Labs Private Limited|
|Mr. Erez Israeli |
Chief Executive Officer
|Graduate Bar Ilan University |
MBA in Finance and Marketing Bar Ilan University
|54||27||April 2, 2018||Executive Officer Enzymotec|
Mr. Parag Agarwal(3)
Chief Financial Officer
|Chartered Accountant (CA), Company Secretary (CS)||54||33||November 2, 2020||CFO-Health, Reckitt Benckiser PLC|
Mr. Saumen Chakraborty(4)
|B.Sc. (H), MBA (IIM)||60||37||July 2, 2001||Vice President, Tecumseh Products India Private Limited|
|Mr. M.V. Ramana |
Chief Executive Officer - Branded Markets (India and Emerging Countries)
|MBA||53||29||October 15, 1992||-|
Mr. Ganadhish Kamat(5)
Global Head of Quality
|Master of Pharmacy and Diploma in Business Management||59||35||April 18, 2016||Executive Vice President – Corporate Quality, Lupin Limited|
|Dr. Anil Namboodiripad |
Global Head of Proprietary Products
|Ph.D. Physiology and Molecular Biophysics||55||24||September 17, 2007||Associate Director – Bristol Myers Squibb|
|Ms. Archana Bhaskar |
Chief Human Resource Officer
|MBA (IIM)||54||31||June 15, 2017||Human Resources head (Global commercial business) Royal Dutch Shell|
|Mr. Sanjay Sharma |
Global Head of Manufacturing
|B. Tech (IIT), Business Leader’s program (IIM) and General Management program (IIM)||53||30||August 1, 2017||Integrated Supply Chain Operations (Coca Cola) for India and South Asia|
|Mr. Sauri Gudlavalleti |
Global Head of Integrated Product Development Organization
|B Tech, Masters in Mechanics and MBA||43||17||March 16, 2015||Associate Partner, Mckinsey & Company|
|Mr. P. Yugandhar, |
Global Head of Supply Chain
|MBA||50||27||February 21, 2001||Manager, Eli Lily Ranbaxy Limited|
Dr. Raymond de Vre(6)
Global Head of Biologics
|Masters and Ph.D. in Applied Physics and Masters in Engineering||53||25||July 30, 2012||Partner, McKinsey & Company|
|Name and Designation||Education/Degrees|
|Particulars of last|
|Mr. Deepak Sapra |
Global Head of PSAI
|B.E., PGDM, MBA||46||21||January 23, 2003||Asst. Divisional Engineer, Indian Railways|
|Mr. Marc Kikuchi |
Chief Executive Officer -North America Generics
|MBA, BA (Molecular and Cell Biology)||52||27||February 1, 2019||CEO, Americas for Zydus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.|
|Mr. Patrick Aghanian |
Chief Executive Officer - European Generics
|MBA, BA||56||33||October 7, 2019||Global Head of Zentiva|
Mr. Mukesh Rathi(7)
Chief Digital and Information Officer
|Industrial Engineer (IIT), MBA (IIM)||46||22||April 30, 2012||Hewlett Packard |
(now DxC), Bangalore
|(1)||Brother-in-law of Mr. G.V. Prasad.|
|(2)||Brother-in-law of Mr. K. Satish Reddy.|
|(3)||Management Council member effective November 2, 2020 and Chief Financial Officer effective December 1, 2020.|
|(4)||Effective December 1, 2020 prior to that he was President and Chief Financial Officer.|
|(5)||Retired with effect from March 31, 2021.|
|(6)||Resigned with effect from March 31, 2021.|
|(7)||Management Council member effective December 1, 2020.|
There was no arrangement or understanding with major shareholders, customers, suppliers or others pursuant to which any director or executive officer referred to above was selected as a director or member of our Management Council.
Biographies – Directors
Mr. K. Satish Reddy is the Chairman of our Board of Directors. Prior to May 2014, he held the offices of Vice Chairman and Managing Director. He has a Master of Science degree in Medicinal Chemistry from Purdue University, Indiana in the United States of America and a Bachelor of Technology degree in Chemical Engineering from Osmania University, Hyderabad. He is the Chairman of the Board of Governors of NIPER, Hyderabad and the Chairman of the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), Southern Council. He also chairs the Life Sciences Skill Development Council under The National Skill Development Corporation (“NSDC”), an organization, working in partnership with various stakeholders groups, to serve and address the skill shortfalls in the Life Sciences Sectors across India. He was a member of the Drugs Technical Advisory Board of India, the Chairman of the Andhra Pradesh Chapter of the Confederation of Indian Industries (“CII”) and head of its National Committee on Pharmaceuticals. He is the President of the Indian Pharmaceutical Alliance, a premier industry association of leading research-based Indian companies. In addition to positions held in our subsidiaries, he is also a Director on the Board of Greenpark Hotels and Resorts Limited, Dr. Reddy’s Holdings Limited, Stamlo Industries Limited, Araku Originals Private Limited, Dr. Reddy’s Institute of Life Sciences, Cipro Estates Private Limited, KAR Therapeutics & Estates Private Limited, Quin Estates Private Limited, Satish Reddy Estates Private Limited, Dr. Reddy’s Trust Services Private Limited, KAR Holdings (Singapore) Private Limited, Singapore and KAREUS Therapeutics (Singapore) Private Limited, Singapore.
Mr. G.V. Prasad is a member of our Board of Directors and serves as our Co-Chairman and Managing Director. Prior to May 2014, he held the titles of Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. He was the Managing Director of Cheminor Drugs Limited prior to its merger with Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories. He has a Bachelor of Engineering degree in Chemical Engineering from Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago in the United States of America, and an M.S. in Industrial Administration from Purdue University, Indiana in United States of America. Mr. Prasad was listed among the Top 50 CEOs that India ever had by Outlook magazine in 2017 and was recognized as one the top 5 Most Valuable CEOs of India by Business World in 2016. He was also listed in the prestigious ‘Medicine Maker 2018 Power List’ of most inspirational professionals shaping the future of drug development, and has been named India Business Leader of the year by CNBC Asia, in 2015. In addition to positions held in our subsidiaries, he is a Director on the Board of Greenpark Hotels and Resorts Limited, Dr. Reddy’s Holdings Limited, Stamlo Industries Limited, Dr. Reddy’s Institute of Life Sciences and Dr. Reddy’s Trust Services Private Limited. Mr. Prasad is active on the boards of public and private institutions such as the Indian School of Business (“ISB”) and the International Foundation for Research and Education.
Ms. Kalpana Morparia has been a member of our Board of Directors since 2007. Ms. Morparia is Former Chairman of J.P. Morgan - South and Southeast Asia and was a member of J.P. Morgan’s Asia Pacific Management Committee. Prior to joining J.P. Morgan, India, Ms. Morparia served as Vice Chair on the Board of ICICI Group and was a Joint Managing Director of ICICI Group from 2001 to 2007. A graduate in science and law from Mumbai University, Ms. Morparia has served on several committees constituted by the Government of India. She has been recognized by national and international media for her role as one of the leading women professionals. She also serves on the Boards of Hindustan Unilever Limited, Philip Morris International Inc. and a member of the Board of Governors of Bharti Foundation.
Dr. Bruce L.A. Carter has been a member of our Board of Directors since 2008. Dr. Carter was the Chairman of the Board and the former Chief Executive Officer of ZymoGenetics, Inc. in Seattle, Washington, in the United States of America. He has also served as the Corporate Executive Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer for Novo Nordisk A/S, the former parent company of ZymoGenetics. From 1982 to 1986, he served various positions at G.D. Searle & Co. Ltd., including Head of Molecular Genetics. He was a Lecturer of Trinity College, University of Dublin from 1975 to 1982. Dr. Carter received a B.Sc. with Honors in Botany from the University of Nottingham, England, and a Ph.D. in Microbiology from Queen Elizabeth College, University of London. Dr. Carter is Chairman on the Board of Enanta Pharmaceutical Inc. and a director on the Boards of TB Alliance and Mirati Therapeutics Inc., in the United States of America, and our wholly-owned subsidiaries Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited, in India, and Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Inc., in the United States of America.
Mr. Sridar Iyengar has been a member of our Board of Directors since 2011. Mr. Iyengar is an independent mentor investor in early stage startup companies. For more than 37 years, he has worked in the United Kingdom, the United States and India with a large number of companies, advising them on strategy and other issues. Earlier, he was a senior partner with KPMG in the United States and the United Kingdom and served for 3 years as the Chairman and CEO of KPMG’s operations in India. Mr. Iyengar holds a Bachelor of Commerce (Hons.) degree from Calcutta University and he is a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales. Mr. Iyengar is Chairman on the Board of ICICI Venture Funds Management Company Limited and a Director on the Boards of Mahindra Holidays and Resorts India Limited, Aster DM Healthcare Limited, in India, AverQ Inc., in the United States of America, Holiday Club Resorts OY, in Finland, and our wholly owned subsidiary Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories S.A., in Switzerland.
Mr. Bharat N. Doshi has been a member of our Board of Directors since 2016. Mr. Doshi is a former Executive Director and Group Chief Financial Officer of Mahindra & Mahindra Limited. He was also the Chairman of Mahindra & Mahindra Financial Services Limited since April 2008, and he stepped down from this position on his nomination as Director, for a period of 4 years, on the Central Board of Directors of the Reserve Bank of India in March 2016. He is the Chairman of the Board of Mahindra Intertrade Limited, a Director on the Board of Mahindra Holdings Limited, a member of the board of governors of each of the Mahindra United World College of India, the Mahindra Foundation (U.S.A), and the Mahindra Foundation (U.K). He is also one of the trustees of Mahindra Foundation, K. C. Mahindra Education Trust and Lalit Doshi Memorial Foundation. He also serves on the Advisory Board of Excellence Enablers, an organization committed to promoting corporate governance in India. He is also a member of the Global Leadership Council of LeapFrog Investments. Mr. Doshi is a Fellow Member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India and the Institute of Company Secretaries of India and holds a Master's degree in Law from Mumbai University, India. He is an alumnus of Harvard Business School (PMD) and Fellow of the Salzburg Seminar on ‘Asian Economies: Regional and Global Relationships’. His term as a member of our Board of Directors ended on May 10, 2021.
Mr. Prasad R. Menon has been a member of our Board of Directors since 2017. Mr. Menon is a former Managing Director of Tata Chemicals Limited and Tata Power Company Limited. He has over 42 years of diverse experience in some of the premier multinational and Indian companies in the chemical and power industry. Prior to joining Tata, he was Director Technical of Nagarjuna Fertilisers and Chemicals Limited. Mr. Menon is a Director on the Board of Singapore Tourism Board and Sanmar Group Advisory Board. He holds a chemical engineering degree from the Indian Institute of Technology (“IIT”), Kharagpur.
Mr. Leo Puri has been a member of our Board of Directors since October 2018. Mr. Puri was the Managing Director of UTI Asset Management Co. Ltd. from August 2013 to August 2018. In his career of more than 30 years, Mr. Puri has previously worked as Director with McKinsey & Company and as Managing Director with Warburg Pincus. Mr. Puri has worked in the U.K., the United States and Asia. Since 1994, he has primarily worked in India. At McKinsey, he has advised leading financial institutions, conglomerates and investment institutions in strategy and operational issues. He has contributed to the development of knowledge and public policy through advice to regulators and government officials. At Warburg Pincus, he was responsible for leading and managing investments across industries in India. He also contributed to financial services investments in the international portfolio as a member of the global partnership. Mr. Puri has held non-executive board positions at Infosys, Bennett Coleman & Co., Max New York Life and Max Bupa Health Insurance. He is also a director on the Board of Hindustan Unilever Limited. Mr. Puri has a Master’s degree in P.P.E. from University of Oxford, and a Master’s degree in Law from University of Cambridge.
Ms. Shikha Sharma has been a member of our Board of Directors since January 2019. Ms. Sharma was the Managing Director and CEO of Axis Bank, India’s third largest private sector bank from June 2009 until December 2018. As a leader adept at managing change, she led the Bank on a transformation journey from being primarily a corporate lender to a bank with a strong retail deposit franchise and a balanced lending book. Ms. Sharma has more than three decades of experience in the financial sector, having begun her career with ICICI Bank Ltd in 1980. During her tenure with the ICICI group, she was instrumental in setting up ICICI Securities. As Managing Director and CEO of ICICI Prudential Life Insurance Company Ltd., she led that company to become the No. 1 private sector life insurance company in India. She was a member of the Reserve Bank of India (“RBI”) Technical Advisory Committee, the RBI’s panel on Financial Inclusion, and the RBI’s Committee on Comprehensive Financial Services for Small Businesses and Low-Income Household. She has chaired CII’s National Committee on Banking 2015-2017. Ms. Sharma holds an MBA from the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, B.A. (Hons.) in Economics and a Post Graduate Diploma in Software Technology from National Centre for Software Technology (NCST), Mumbai. Ms. Sharma is also an independent director on the Boards of Ambuja Cements Ltd., Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd, Tech Mahindra Ltd and Tata Consumer Products Ltd (Formerly known as Tata Global Beverages Ltd.). She is a member of the Board of Governors of the Indian Institute of Management (“IIM”) Lucknow, a member of the Advisory Board of Bridgespan and an advisor to several companies in India.
Mr. Allan Oberman has been a member of our Board of Directors since March 2019. Mr. Oberman served as the Chief Executive Officer of Concordia International Corp. from November 2016 until May 2018. In his career of more than 37 years he also served as CEO of Sagent Pharmaceuticals Inc., and as President and CEO of Teva Americas Generics, a subsidiary of Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Prior to that, Mr. Oberman served as President of Teva EMIA, where from 2010 to 2012 he was responsible for Eastern Europe, Middle East, Israel and Africa. From 2008 to 2010, he served as the Chief Operating Officer of the Teva International Group, and from 2000 to 2008, he served as the President and CEO of Teva Canada (formerly Novopharm Ltd.) From 1996 to 2000, Mr. Oberman was the President of Best Foods Canada Inc. Mr. Oberman was also Vice Chairman of the Association for Accessible Medicines, and Chairman of the Canadian Generic Pharmaceutical Association. He served on the Associate Board of the Canadian Association of Chain Drug Stores, and was a member of the Board of Directors of the Baycrest Centre Foundation, the Electronic Commerce Council, and the Food and Consumer Products Association of Canada. He holds a MBA from the Schulich School of Business, York University, Toronto and a BA from Western University, London. Mr. Oberman is also Chairman of the Board of RNA Disease Diagnostics, Inc., USA, and a Board Advisor to Havn Life Sciences, Inc., Canada, and Telecure Technologies, Inc., Canada.
Biographies - Executive Officers
Mr. Erez Israeli is the Chief Executive Officer effective as of August 1, 2019 and prior to that he was Chief Operating Officer and the Global Head of Generics and PSAI business. He has over 27 years of experience in the pharmaceutical industry. Mr. Israeli is an accomplished leader with a proven track record of achievement. Prior to joining us, Mr. Israeli was President and Chief Executive Officer of Enzymotec. Prior to that, he spent 23 years working at Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Limited (“Teva”), where he held several leadership positions in the API and pharmaceutical (Generics, Specialty and OTC) businesses. He was also the Head of the Global Quality function for Teva, and has held Board positions at subsidiaries of Teva. He graduated from Bar Ilan University in Israel, majoring in art, economics and business administration, and received a MBA in Finance and Marketing from Bar Ilan University.
Mr. Parag Agarwal is the Chief Financial Officer effective as of December 1, 2020. Mr. Agarwal joined our company in 2020 from Reckitt Benckiser PLC, where he was CFO-Health, based in London. In a career spanning over 33 years, he has held several leadership positions, contributing significantly to the financial performance of his organizations. With over 10 years of working experience in several countries outside India, he brings deep global experience in leading business and financial strategy, transforming finance function, as well as in mergers and acquisitions strategy and execution. He has expertise in driving performance management of investments, financial result delivery and driving operating margin improvement through revenue and cost optimization across the value chain. Mr. Agarwal has held leadership positions in diverse cultural contexts and has driven large-scale change management programs in ambiguous and dynamic environments. Prior to his 10 plus year stint at Reckitt Benckiser PLC, he was associated with organizations such as Unilever, GSK Consumer Healthcare and Genpact. Mr. Agarwal is a Chartered Accountant and a Company Secretary.
Mr. Saumen Chakraborty is an advisor effective as of December 1, 2020. Prior to his retirement, he was the President and Chief Financial Officer (“CFO”) of our company. Mr. Chakraborty has over thirty-six years of experience in both the strategic as well as the operational aspects of management, and has played a significant role in the evolution of our company as a global pharmaceutical company. Mr. Chakraborty joined us in 2001. Over the years, he has headed multiple global functions including Human Resources (“HR”), Corporate & Global Generics Operations, Quality, and Information Technology. During this period, Saumen championed several best-in-class initiatives and global best practices that contributed to the transformation of our company into one of the most respected employers in India and also a “Great Place to Work’. Previously, Mr. Chakraborty has worked with companies such as CMC, C-DOT, Eicher and Tecumseh, and his experience spans Manufacturing, Sourcing, Customer Service, Quality and Consulting. Significant achievements by Saumen in his role as our CFO include: leading the organization’s secondary ADS (American Depository Shares) issuance on the NYSE; one of the fastest issues of bonus shares in India; the formulation of active Treasury and M&A strategies; and the revamping of the Board of Directors reporting processes. On the technology and business process front, he has driven key initiatives such as the complete implementation of the my SAP Business Suite, the Theory of Constraints (“TOC”) based approach to product development, manufacturing and supply chain effectiveness, and achieving execution excellence through the simplification of end-to-end business processes. Mr. Chakraborty has consistently won accolades at various industry and business fora. In 2016, he was declared the Best CFO in the Large Enterprise, Healthy Balance Sheet Management category at the Businessworld-YES Bank Best CFO Awards, and was also recognized as CFO of the Year by International Market Assessment (“IMA”). In 2014 he was declared "India´s Best CFO with Exemplary All Round Performance" in the "5th Annual Business Today – YES Bank BEST CFO Awards", while in 2007 he received CNBC TV-18’s ‘Best Performing CFO in the Healthcare Sector’ award. Mr. Chakraborty has also won recognition at the Global Awards of Excellence in Quality Management & Leadership from the World Quality Congress, and the Deccan Herald Avenues Awards for HR Excellence. ITM Business School featured him in their list of India’s Greatest HR Professionals. He has also received the “Indira Super Achiever Award” from the Indira Group of Institutes, the Chairman’s Excellence Award from Dr. Reddy’s, and the Exceptional Contributor award from both C-DOT and CMC. Saumen graduated as the valedictorian of his class, with a degree in Physics from Visva - Bharati University, and has a degree in Management from the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. His passion statement in life is to strive for excellence in everything with honesty, commitment, courage and character.
Mr. M.V. Ramana is the CEO - Branded Markets (India and Emerging Countries) effective as of April, 2018. In this role, he leads a multicultural team of 20+ nationalities in 25+ countries. He joined us on October 15, 1992 as a Management Trainee in the International Marketing division of our Branded Formulations business. In his 29 year tenure, he has handled various critical assignments including setting up the businesses in several countries across Asia, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East. Mr. Ramana is also a frequent speaker at various international forums in the pharmaceutical and generics industry. He holds a MBA degree from Osmania University, Hyderabad, India and has completed the ISB-Kellogg management development program.
Mr. Ganadhish Kamat was the Global Head of Quality until he retired on March 31, 2021. He joined us in April 2016 and in this role he was responsible for Global Quality. He had close to 36 years of rich experience in the pharmaceutical industry. During his long career, Mr. Kamat had worked in leadership roles in different organizations such as Sandoz, Intas Pharma and Ranbaxy. Prior to joining us, Mr. Kamat was with Lupin as Executive Vice President – Corporate Quality. He is a member of the International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering (“ISPE”) and Parenteral Drug Association (“PDA”). He holds a Master of Pharmacy degree from Mumbai University and a Diploma in Business Management from Goa University.
Dr. Anil Namboodiripad is the Global Head of Proprietary Products, Promius Pharma. Promius Pharma is our wholly owned subsidiary that is responsible for the commercialization of branded products in the United States. He joined us in 2007 and in this role he is responsible for our Proprietary Products business. He has been one of the main architects of our Proprietary Products business since July 2008, when systematic efforts towards differentiated formulations were first undertaken. In earlier roles, he was responsible for leading external research and development and strategic marketing which included establishing research collaborations and “mini incubators” with various external industry partners and academic bodies. Over the years, his role has grown considerably with the inclusion of Proprietary Products drug development, regulatory affairs and the dermatology commercial effort under his leadership. Prior to joining our company, he spent a number of years at Abbott Laboratories (now Abbvie) and at Bristol-Myers Squibb in various roles of increasing responsibility including strategic planning, corporate development and global commercial operations. He started his career as a management consultant with Booz & Co. in New York (formerly Booz Allen Hamilton), where he served clients on several high level business critical issues within financial services and healthcare. He holds a Ph.D. in Physiology and Molecular Biophysics from the University of Texas.
Ms. Archana Bhaskar is the Chief Human Resources Officer (“CHRO”). She joined our company in June 2017. She has over 31 years of experience across various industries, geographies and companies. She has held senior management roles with Royal Dutch Shell, Singapore where she headed Human Resources for the Global Commercial businesses and with Unilever, where she held positions of European and global responsibility, as well as large Indian corporations with whom she consulted in professionalizing Human Resources policies and practices. She graduated from Lady Shiram College, Delhi University, majoring in Psychology and Mathematics and holds a degree in Management from the Indian Institute of Management, Bengaluru.
Mr. Sanjay Sharma is the Global Head of Manufacturing. He joined us in August 2017. He has over 30 years of experience across various industries such as Coca-Cola and United Breweries handling diverse set of roles spanning across Supply Chain, Manufacturing and Sales in both emerging and developed markets. He joined us from Hindustan Coca-Cola where he led their Integrated Supply Chain Operations for India and South Asia. His experience includes running one of the largest sales profit centers for Coca-Cola, India and heading National Technical Operations for United Breweries in South Africa. He graduated from the Indian Institute of Technology (“IIT”) Delhi with a degree in Chemical Engineering, completed a one year Business Leader’s program from the Indian Institute of Management (“IIM”) Calcutta and a General Management program from IIM Ahmedabad.
Mr. Sauri Gudlavalleti is the Global Head of Integrated Product Development Organization (“IPDO”). He joined our company in 2015 to head global portfolio, project management and external partnerships in IPDO. He has diverse experience spanning the automotive, energy, technology and pharmaceutical sectors. Prior to joining our company, he was a Management Consultant at McKinsey & Co., India, specializing in Product Development and Operations Transformation. Before that, he has worked at Qualcomm in California developing Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems, and at General Electric Global Research in New York developing Fuel Cells and Hydrogen production systems. He has 8 U.S. patents to his name, and has published in several peer reviewed technical journals. Mr. Gudlavalleti holds a Bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, and a Master's degree in Mechanics of Materials from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He also holds an MBA from the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.
Mr. P. Yugandhar is the Global Head of Supply Chain. He has assumed overall responsibility for the Supply Chain function at our company. He joined us in 2001 as our Manager Supply Chain and has since held positions of increasing responsibility, including Head of Demand Planning, Mexico Integration, and Head of Europe Supply Chain and Technology. In the last five years, he has contributed significantly in integrating our Supply Chain globally across Formulations, active pharmaceutical ingredients (“API”), Custom Pharmaceutical Services (“CPS”), external manufacturing and new product launches. Prior to joining our company, Mr. Yugandhar had successful stints in Eli Lilly Ranbaxy, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Max Pharma, Dabur and Hawkins. Mr. Yugandhar holds a Management degree (Master of Management Studies) from BITS, Pilani.
Dr. Raymond De Vré was the Global Head of Biologics until he decided to move from our company and resigned effective March 31, 2021. Dr. De Vré joined our company in 2012 as head of Commercial for the Biologics division, being based in the Swiss office of our company. In this role, he was instrumental in building new partnerships and alliances across the world towards further accelerating access to our company’s biosimilars. Over time, he had increasing responsibilities within Biologics, including Commercial, IP, Regulatory, Strategy, Business Development, Portfolio as well as Manufacturing. Prior to joining our company, Dr. De Vré was a partner with the management consulting firm McKinsey and Company. Dr. De Vré worked for 15 years at McKinsey and Company, serving mostly the Generics, Specialty Chemicals, and Biotech industries across the globe, including the United States, Western Europe and India. Dr. De Vré holds a Master’s and Ph.D. degree in Applied Physics from Stanford University, U.S.A and a Master’s degree in Engineering from the Université Libre of Brussels, Belgium. He resigned from the company with effect from March 31, 2021.
Mr. Deepak Sapra is the Global Head of Pharmaceutical Services and Active Ingredients (“PSAI”). Mr. Sapra joined our company in 2003 from Indian Institute of Management (“IIM”) Bangalore campus and has worked in various roles in Marketing, Sales, Business Development and Portfolio covering most major markets across the world. He has led important projects on several key organizational initiatives around market opening and building new businesses. He has also worked as the business unit head for the Custom Pharma Services (“CPS”) business and helped contribute significantly towards making it a profitable, sustainable and long-term business. Mr. Sapra’s education is in engineering and management. Prior to joining our company, he also worked in the Indian Railway Services. He has been a Fulbright fellow and a Chevening scholar. His first book was published in 2018. He is also the co-founder of a charitable trust that works for people with disabilities in eastern India.
Mr. Marc Kikuchi serves as Chief Executive Officer, North America Generics, and is based in the Princeton, New Jersey, office. He is responsible for leading the North America business and serves as a member of the Board of Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Inc. Mr. Kikuchi is an accomplished CEO, senior supply chain management and business development executive. He has more than 20 years’ experience in the Pharmaceutical Industry with extensive knowledge and understanding of Generics. Prior to joining our company, Mr. Kikuchi served as CEO, Americas for Zydus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. He has also held professional leadership roles of increasing responsibility with AmerisourceBergen Corporation, Medrad Inc., PRTM, Johnson & Johnson and Incyte Pharmaceuticals. Mr. Kikuchi earned his Master of Business Administration from Carnegie Mellon University with concentration in Strategy, Marketing, and Operations Management. He has a B.A. in Molecular and Cell Biology with Biochemistry emphasis from the University of California at Berkeley.
Mr. Patrick Aghanian serves as Chief Executive Officer, European Generics. Mr. Aghanian joined our company in 2019 from Zentiva in Prague/Czech Republic. Before becoming Head of Zentiva in 2017, he worked for multinational pharmaceutical companies such as Sanofi, GSK and Novartis, where he held various leadership roles in Eurasia, Middle-East and Europe. Patrick earned his Master of Business Administration (MBA) from the UCLA Anderson School of Management/University of California, Los Angeles and holds a Bachelor of Arts from the University of California, Los Angeles.
Mr. Mukesh Rathi serves as Chief Digital and Information Officer. He has global responsibility for Digital Transformation, Process Excellence and Information Technology Management for the organization. Mr. Rathi joined our company in 2012. He has more than 22 years of experience in various roles such as Business Process Consulting, Digital Strategy and leading large transformation programs across the organization. Prior to joining our company, he had many years of consulting experience working with Fast-Moving Consumer Goods, Automotive and Industrial Manufacturing companies. He is a Industrial Engineer from the Indian Institute of Technology (“IIT”), Kharagpur and holds a MBA from the Indian Institute of Management (“IIM”), Lucknow.
Full-Time Directors: The compensation of our Chairman of the Board and our Co-Chairman and Managing Director (who we refer to as our “full-time directors”) is divided into salary, commission and benefits. They are not eligible to participate in our stock option plans. The Nomination, Governance and Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors initially recommends the compensation for full-time directors. If the Board of Directors (the “Board”) approves the recommendation, it is then submitted to the shareholders for approval at the general shareholders meeting along with the proposal for their appointment or re-appointment.
The Chairman of our Board and our Co-Chairman and Managing Director are each entitled to receive a maximum commission of up to 0.75% of our net profit (as defined under the Indian Companies Act, 2013) for the fiscal year. The Nomination, Governance and Compensation Committee, which is entirely composed of independent directors, recommends the commission for the Chairman of our Board and our Co-Chairman and Managing Director within the limits of 0.75% each, of our net profits (as defined under the Indian Companies Act, 2013) for each fiscal year.
Non-Full Time Directors: In the year ended March 31, 2021, none of our non-full time directors were paid any sum as attendance fees. Non-full time directors are eligible to receive a commission on our net profit (as defined under the Indian Companies Act) for each fiscal year. Our shareholders have approved a maximum commission of up to 1% of the net profits (as defined under the Indian Companies Act, 2013) for each fiscal year for all non-full time directors in a year. The Board determines the entitlement of each of the non-full time directors to commission within the overall limit. The non-full time directors were not granted stock options under the Dr. Reddy’s Employees Stock Option Scheme, 2002, the Dr. Reddy’s Employees ADR Stock Option Scheme, 2007 or the Dr. Reddy’s Employees Stock Option Scheme, 2018 in the year ended March 31, 2021.
For the year ended March 31, 2021, the directors were entitled to the following amounts as compensation:
|(Amounts Rs. in millions)|
|Name of Directors||Commission||Salary||Perquisites||Total|
|Mr. K. Satish Reddy||80.00||21.02||4.33||105.35|
|Mr. G.V. Prasad||130.00||21.63||4.49||156.12|
|Ms. Kalpana Morparia||10.97||-||-||10.97|
|Dr. Bruce L.A. Carter||10.97||-||-||10.97|
|Mr. Sridar Iyengar||11.70||-||-||11.70|
|Mr. Bharat N. Doshi||12.43||-||-||12.43|
|Mr. Prasad R. Menon||12.79||-||-||12.79|
|Mr. Leo Puri||10.60||-||-||10.60|
|Ms. Shikha Sharma||10.97||-||-||10.97|
|Mr. Allan Oberman||10.60||-||-||10.60|
Executive officers’ compensation
The initial compensation to all our executive officers is determined through appointment letters issued at the time of employment. The appointment letter provides the initial amount of salary and benefits the executive officer will receive as well as a confidentiality provision and a non-compete provision applicable during the course of the executive officer’s employment with us. We provide salary, certain perquisites, retirement benefits, stock options and variable pay to our executive officers. The Nomination, Governance and Compensation Committee of the Board reviews the compensation of executive officers on a periodic basis.
All of our employees at the managerial and staff levels are eligible to participate in a variable pay program, which consists of performance bonuses based on the performance of their function or business unit, and a profit sharing plan through which part of our profits can be shared with our employees. Our variable pay program is aimed at rewarding the individual based on performance of such individual, their business unit/function and our company as a whole, with significantly higher rewards for superior performances.
We also have three employee stock option schemes: the Dr. Reddy’s Employees Stock Option Scheme, 2002, the Dr. Reddy’s Employees ADR Stock Option Scheme, 2007 and the Dr. Reddy’s Employees Stock Option Scheme, 2018. The stock option schemes are applicable to all of our employees including directors and employees and directors of our subsidiaries.
The stock option schemes are not applicable to promoter directors, promoter employees, non-full time directors (independent directors) and persons holding 2% or more of our outstanding share capital. The Nomination, Governance and Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors awards options pursuant to the stock option schemes based on the employee’s performance appraisal. Some employees have also been granted options upon joining us.
Compensation for executive officers who are full time directors is summarized in the table under “Directors’ compensation” above.
The following table presents the annual compensation paid or payable to other executive officers for services rendered to us for the year ended March 31, 2021 and stock options issued to all of our other executive officers during the year ended March 31, 2021:
Compensation for Executive Officers
|Compensation(1)||FMV Value||Par Value|
(Rs. in millions)
|No. of options(3)|
|No. of options(3)|
|Mr. Erez Israeli(4)||119.96||Rs.||3,679||65,740||Rs.||5||12,140|
|Mr. Parag Agarwal(5)||15.16||-||-||-||-|
|Mr. Saumen Chakraborty||70.75||3,679||6,060||5||1,120|
|Mr. M.V. Ramana||64.77||3,679||4,660||5||5,760|
|Mr. Ganadhish Kamat||50.12||3,679||1,940||5||3,080|
|Dr. Anil Namboodiripad(4)||33.68||3,679||4,200||5||7,980|
|Ms. Archana Bhaskar||50.15||3,679||3,760||5||4,660|
|Mr. Sanjay Sharma||43.65||3,679||3,340||5||4,140|
|Mr. Sauri Gudlavalleti||32.68||3,679||2,200||5||3,420|
|Mr. P. Yugandhar||34.64||3,679||2,560||5||3,480|
|Dr. Raymond de Vre||53.11||3,679||4,080||5||7,220|