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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark one)

 ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

OR

 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _____ to _____

Commission file number 001-38373

Graphic

TRANSOCEAN LTD.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Switzerland

98-0599916

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

Turmstrasse 30

Steinhausen, Switzerland

6312

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: +41 (41) 749-0500

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading symbol

Name of each exchange on which registered

Shares, CHF 0.10 per share

RIG

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.   Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes    No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer  Accelerated filer  Non-accelerated filer 
Smaller reporting company  Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes    No  

As of June 30, 2023, 766,655,180 shares were outstanding and the aggregate market value of shares held by non-affiliates was approximately $5.37 billion (based on the reported closing market price of the shares of Transocean Ltd. on June 30, 2023 of $7.01 per share and assuming that all directors and executive officers of the Company are “affiliates,” although the Company does not acknowledge that any such person is actually an “affiliate” within the meaning of the federal securities laws).  As of February 14, 2024, 809,030,846 shares were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement to be filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of December 31, 2023, for its 2024 annual general meeting of shareholders, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

TRANSOCEAN LTD. AND SUBSIDIARIES

INDEX TO ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023

Item

Page

PART I

Item 1.

Business

2

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

8

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

21

Item 1C.

Cybersecurity

21

Item 2.

Properties

22

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

22

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

23

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

25

Item 6.

Reserved

27

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

27

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

38

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

39

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

72

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

72

Item 9B.

Other Information

72

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

73

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

73

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

73

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Shareholder Matters

73

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

73

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

73

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

73

Forward-Looking Information

The statements included in this annual report regarding future financial performance and results of operations and other statements that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the United States (“U.S.”) Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934.  Forward-looking statements in this annual report include, but are not limited to, statements about the following subjects:

the effect of any disputes and actions with respect to production levels by, among or between major oil and gas producing countries and any expectations we may have with respect thereto;
our results of operations, our cash flow from operations, our revenue efficiency and other performance indicators and optimization of rig-based spending;
the offshore drilling market, including the effects of variations in commodity prices, supply and demand, utilization rates, dayrates, customer drilling programs, stacking and reactivation of rigs, effects of new rigs on the market, the impact of changes to regulations in jurisdictions in which we operate and changes in the global economy or market outlook for our industry, our rig classes or the various geographies in which we operate;
customer drilling contracts, including contract backlog, force majeure provisions, contract awards, commencements, extensions, cancellations, terminations, renegotiations, contract option exercises, contract revenues, early termination fees, indemnity provisions and rig mobilizations;
the addition of renewable or other energy alternatives to meet local, regional or global demand for energy, the commitment, by us or our customers, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or operating intensity thereof;
liquidity, including availability under our bank credit agreement, and adequacy of cash flows for our obligations;
debt levels, including interest rates, credit ratings and our evaluation or decisions with respect to any potential liability management transactions or strategic alternatives intended to prudently manage our liquidity, debt maturities and other aspects of our capital structure and any litigation, alleged defaults and discussions with creditors related thereto;
newbuild, upgrade, shipyard, reactivations and other capital projects, including the level of expected capital expenditures and the timing and cost of completing capital projects, delivery and operating commencement dates, relinquishment or abandonment, expected downtime and lost revenues;
the cost and timing of acquisitions, reactivations and the proceeds and timing of dispositions;
tax matters, including our effective tax rate, uncertain tax positions, changes in tax laws, treaties and regulations, tax assessments, tax incentive programs and liabilities for tax issues in the tax jurisdictions in which we operate or have a taxable presence;
legal and regulatory matters, including results and effects of current or potential legal proceedings and governmental audits and assessments, outcomes and effects of internal and governmental investigations, customs and environmental matters;
insurance matters, risk tolerance and risk response, including adequacy of insurance, renewal of insurance, insurance proceeds and cash investments of our wholly owned captive insurance company;
effects of accounting changes and adoption of accounting policies; and
investment in recruitment, retention and personnel development initiatives, the timing of, and other matters concerning, severance payments, benefit payments and maintaining agreements with labor unions.

Forward-looking statements in this annual report are identifiable by use of the following words and other similar expressions:

anticipates

budgets

estimates

forecasts

may

plans

projects

should

believes

could

expects

intends

might

predicts

scheduled

Such statements are subject to numerous risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including, but not limited to:

those described under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this annual report on Form 10-K;
the effects of actions by, or disputes among or between, members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and other oil and natural gas producing countries with respect to production levels or other matters related to the prices of oil and natural gas;
the adequacy of and access to our sources of liquidity;
our inability to renew drilling contracts at comparable, or improved, dayrates and to obtain drilling contracts for our rigs that do not have contracts;
operational performance;
the cancellation of drilling contracts currently included in our reported contract backlog;
losses on impairment of long-lived assets;
shipyard, construction and other delays;
the results of meetings of our shareholders;
changes in political, social and economic conditions;
the effect and results of litigation, regulatory matters, settlements, audits, assessments and contingencies
the effects of public health threats, pandemics and epidemics and the potential adverse impacts thereof; and
other factors discussed in this annual report and in our other filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), which are available free of charge on the SEC website at www.sec.gov.

The foregoing risks and uncertainties are beyond our ability to control, and in many cases, we cannot predict the risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated by the forward-looking statements.  Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those indicated.  All subsequent written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or to persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by reference to these risks and uncertainties.  You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements.  Each forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date of the particular statement.  We expressly disclaim any obligations or undertaking to release publicly any updates or revisions to any forward-looking statement to reflect any change in our expectations or beliefs with regard to the statement or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any forward-looking statement is based, except as required by law.

PART I

Item 1.Business

Overview

Transocean Ltd. (together with its subsidiaries and predecessors, unless the context requires otherwise, “Transocean,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”) is a leading international provider of offshore contract drilling services for oil and gas wells.  As of February 14, 2024, we owned or had partial ownership interests in and operated 37 mobile offshore drilling units, consisting of 28 ultra-deepwater floaters and nine harsh environment floaters.  Additionally, as of February 14, 2024, we were constructing one ultra-deepwater drillship.

We provide, as our primary business, contract drilling services in a single operating segment, which involves contracting our mobile offshore drilling rigs, related equipment and work crews to drill oil and gas wells.  We specialize in technically demanding regions of the global offshore drilling business with a particular focus on ultra-deepwater and harsh environment drilling services.  Our drilling fleet is one of the most versatile fleets in the world, consisting of drillships and semisubmersible floaters used in support of offshore drilling activities and offshore support services on a worldwide basis.

Transocean Ltd. is a Swiss corporation with its registered office in Steinhausen, Canton of Zug and with principal executive offices located at Turmstrasse 30, 6312 Steinhausen, Switzerland.  Our telephone number at that address is +41 41 749-0500.  Our shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “RIG.”  For information about the revenues, operating income, assets and other information related to our business and the geographic areas in which we operate, see “Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and “Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 1—Business, Note 5—Revenues and Note 7—Long-Lived Assets.”

Drilling Fleet

Overview—We provide contract drilling services using our fleet of mobile offshore drilling units, including both drillships and semisubmersibles, broadly referred to as floaters.  Floaters are designed to operate in locations away from port for extended periods of time and have living quarters for the crews, a helicopter landing deck and storage space for drill pipe, riser and drilling supplies.  Our drilling units and related equipment are suitable for both exploration and development, and we engage in both types of activities.

Drillships are floating vessels that are shaped like conventional ships, generally self-propelled and considered to be the most mobile of the major rig types.  Drillships typically have greater deck load and storage capacity than semisubmersible rigs, which provides logistical and resupply efficiency benefits for customers.  Drillships are generally better suited to operations in calmer sea conditions and typically do not operate in areas considered to be harsh environments.  All of our high-specification drillships are equipped with dynamic positioning thruster systems, which allows them to maintain position without anchors through the use of onboard propulsion and station-keeping systems.  We have two ultra-deepwater drillships that are equipped with an industry-leading, 1,700 short ton hoisting capacity.  We have 23 ultra-deepwater drillships that are, and one ultra-deepwater drillship under construction that will be, equipped with our patented dual-activity technology.  Dual-activity technology employs structures, equipment and techniques using two drilling stations within a dual derrick to allow these drillships to perform simultaneous drilling tasks in a parallel, rather than a sequential manner, which reduces critical path activity and improves efficiency in both exploration and development drilling.

Semisubmersibles are floating vessels that can be partially submerged by means of a water ballast system such that the lower column sections and pontoons are below the water surface during drilling operations.  Semisubmersibles are known for stability, making them well suited for operating in rough sea conditions.  Semisubmersible floaters are capable of maintaining their position over a well either through dynamic positioning or the use of mooring systems.  Although most semisubmersible rigs are relocated with the assistance of tugs, some units are self-propelled and move between locations under their own power when afloat on pontoons.  Four of our 12 semisubmersibles are equipped with dual-activity technology and also have mooring capability.  Two of these four dual-activity units are custom-designed, high-capacity semisubmersible drilling rigs, equipped for year-round operations in harsh environments, such as those of the Norwegian continental shelf and sub-Arctic waters.

Our fleet consists of ultra-deepwater drillships and semisubmersibles and harsh environment semisubmersibles that are designed with high-specification capabilities to operate in the technically demanding regions of the global offshore drilling business.  Ultra-deepwater floaters are equipped with high-pressure mud pumps and are capable of drilling in water depths of 4,500 feet or greater.  Harsh environment floaters are capable of drilling in harsh environments in water depths between 1,500 and 10,000 feet and typically have greater displacement than other semisubmersibles, which offers larger variable load capacity, more useable deck space and better motion characteristics.

Fleet status—Depending on market conditions, we may idle or stack our non-contracted rigs.  An idle rig is between drilling contracts, readily available for operations, and operating costs are typically at or near normal operating levels.  A stacked rig typically has reduced operating and maintenance costs, is staffed by a reduced crew or has no crew and is (a) preparing for an extended period of inactivity, (b) expected to continue to be inactive for an extended period, or (c) completing a period of extended inactivity.  Stacked rigs will continue to incur operating costs at or above normal operating levels for approximately 30 days following initiation of stacking.  Some idle rigs and all stacked rigs require additional costs to return to service.  The actual cost to return to service, which in many instances could be significant and could fluctuate over time, depends upon various factors, including the availability and cost of shipyard facilities, the cost of

- 2 -

equipment and materials, the extent of repairs, maintenance and commercial upgrades that may ultimately be required, the length of time a rig has spent in stacking mode and the time and cost of assembling and training crew.  We consider these factors, together with market conditions, length of contract, dayrate and other contract terms, when deciding whether to return a stacked rig to service.  We may not return some stacked rigs to work for drilling services.

Drilling units—The following tables, presented as of February 14, 2024, provide certain specifications for our rigs.  Unless otherwise noted, the stated location of each rig indicates either the current drilling location, if the rig is operating, or the next operating location, if the rig is in shipyard with a follow-on contract.  The dates provided represent the expected time of completion, the year placed into service, and, if applicable, the year of the most recent upgrade.  As of February 14, 2024, we owned all of the drilling rigs in our fleet noted in the tables below, except for the following: (1) the ultra-deepwater floater Petrobras 10000, which is subject to a finance lease through August 2029 and (2) the harsh environment floater Transocean Norge, which is owned through our noncontrolling equity ownership interest in Orion Holdings (Cayman) Limited (together with its subsidiary, “Orion”).

Year

Hook

Water

Drilling

Contracted

entered

load

depth

depth

location or

service /

capacity

capacity

capacity

standby

Rig category and name

    

Type

    

upgraded

    

(short tons)

    

(in feet)

    

(in feet)

    

Specifications

    

status

 

Ultra-deepwater floaters (28)

Deepwater Titan

Drillship

2023

1,700

12,000

40,000

(a) (b) (c)

U.S. Gulf

Deepwater Atlas

Drillship

2022

1,700

12,000

40,000

(a) (b) (d)

U.S. Gulf

Deepwater Poseidon

Drillship

2018

1,400

12,000

40,000

(a) (b) (e) (f)

U.S. Gulf

Deepwater Pontus

Drillship

2017

1,400

12,000

40,000

(a) (b) (e) (f)

U.S. Gulf

Deepwater Conqueror

Drillship

2016

1,400

12,000

40,000

(a) (b) (e) (f)

U.S. Gulf

Deepwater Proteus

Drillship

2016

1,400

12,000

40,000

(a) (b) (e) (f)

U.S. Gulf

Deepwater Thalassa

Drillship

2016

1,400

12,000

40,000

(a) (b) (e) (f)

U.S. Gulf

Deepwater Asgard

Drillship

2014

1,400

12,000

40,000

(a) (b) (e)

U.S. Gulf

Deepwater Invictus

Drillship

2014

1,400

12,000

40,000

(a) (b) (e)

U.S. Gulf

Ocean Rig Apollo

Drillship

2015

1,250

12,000

40,000

(a) (b)

Stacked

Ocean Rig Athena

Drillship

2014

1,250

12,000

40,000

(a) (b)

Stacked

Deepwater Skyros

Drillship

2013

1,250

12,000

40,000

(a) (b)

Angola

Ocean Rig Mylos

Drillship

2013

1,250

12,000

40,000

(a) (b) (e)

Stacked

Discoverer Inspiration

Drillship

2010

1,130

12,000

40,000

(a) (b) (e)

Idle

Discoverer India

Drillship

2010

1,130

12,000

40,000

(a) (b)

Stacked

Discoverer Americas

Drillship

2009

1,130

12,000

40,000

(a) (b)

Stacked

Discoverer Clear Leader

Drillship

2009

1,130

12,000

40,000

(a) (b) (e)

Stacked

Deepwater Corcovado

Drillship

2011

1,000

10,000

35,000

(a) (b)

Brazil

Deepwater Mykonos

Drillship

2011

1,000

10,000

35,000

(a) (b)

Brazil

Deepwater Orion

Drillship

2011

1,000

10,000

35,000

(a) (b)

Brazil

Deepwater Champion

Drillship

2011

1,000

12,000

40,000

(a) (b)

Stacked

Dhirubhai Deepwater KG2

Drillship

2010

1,000

12,000

35,000

(a)

Brazil

Development Driller III

Semisubmersible

2009

1,000

7,500

37,500

(a) (b) (g)

Idle

Petrobras 10000

Drillship

2009

1,000

12,000

37,500

(a) (b)

Brazil

Dhirubhai Deepwater KG1

Drillship

2009

1,000

12,000

35,000

(a)

India

GSF Development Driller I

Semisubmersible

2005

1,000

7,500

37,500

(a) (b) (g)

Stacked

Deepwater Nautilus

Semisubmersible

2000

1,000

8,000

30,000

(g)

Stacked

Discoverer Luanda

Drillship

2010

750

7,500

40,000

(a) (b)

Stacked

Harsh environment floaters (9)

Transocean Norge

Semisubmersible

2019

1,000

10,000

40,000

(a) (g) (h)

Norwegian N. Sea

Transocean Spitsbergen

Semisubmersible

2010

1,000

10,000

30,000

(a) (g) (h) (i)

Norwegian N. Sea

Transocean Barents

Semisubmersible

2009

1,000

10,000

30,000

(a) (g) (i)

Romania

Transocean Enabler

Semisubmersible

2016

750

1,640

28,000

(a) (g) (h)

Norwegian N. Sea

Transocean Encourage

Semisubmersible

2016

750

1,640

28,000

(a) (g) (h)

Norwegian N. Sea

Transocean Endurance

Semisubmersible

2015

750

1,640

28,000

(a) (g) (h)

Australia

Transocean Equinox

Semisubmersible

2015

750

1,640

28,000

(a) (g) (h)

Australia

Henry Goodrich

Semisubmersible

1985/2007

750

5,000

30,000

(g)

Stacked

Paul B. Loyd, Jr.

Semisubmersible

1990

750

2,000

25,000

(g) (j)

U.K. N. Sea

(a)Dynamically positioned.
(b)Patented dual activity.
(c)Two 20,000 psi blowout preventers.
(d)One 15,000 psi blowout preventer and one 20,000 psi blowout preventer.
(e)Two 15,000 psi blowout preventers.
(f)Designed to accommodate a future upgrade to 20,000 psi blowout preventer(s).
(g)Moored.
(h)Automated drilling control.
(i)Dual activity.
(j)On February 15, 2024, we completed the sale of Paul B. Loyd, Jr. and related assets.

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Hook

Water

Drilling

load

depth

depth

Expected

capacity

capacity

capacity

Contracted

Rig category and name

    

Type

    

completion

    

(short tons)

    

(feet)

    

(feet)

    

Specifications

    

location

 

Rigs under construction (1)

Ultra-deepwater floaters

Deepwater Aquila

Drillship

2Q24

1,400

12,000

40,000

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Brazil

(a)

To be dynamically positioned.

(b)

To be equipped with our patented dual activity.

(c)

To be equipped with main hoisting capacity of 1,400 short tons.

(d)

To be equipped with one 15,000 psi blowout preventer and designed to accommodate a future 20,000 psi blowout preventer.

Drilling Contracts

Our offshore drilling services contracts are individually negotiated and vary in their terms and conditions.  We obtain most of our drilling contracts through bidding processes in competition against other drilling services contractors and through direct negotiations with operators.  Drilling contracts generally provide for payment on a dayrate basis, typically with higher rates for periods when drilling operations are optimized and, conversely, lower or zero rates for periods during which the drilling unit is not mobilized or when drilling operations are interrupted or restricted, whether due to equipment breakdowns, adverse environmental conditions, regulatory approvals or otherwise.  A dayrate drilling contract generally extends over a period of time either covering the drilling of a single well or group of wells or covering a stated term.  At December 31, 2023, our contract backlog was approximately $9.25 billion, representing an increase of 11 percent and 40 percent, respectively, compared to the contract backlog at December 31, 2022 and 2021, which was $8.34 billion and $6.60 billion, respectively.  See “Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Performance and Other Key Indicators.”

Certain of our drilling contracts may be cancelable for the convenience of the customer, typically with payment of an early termination fee.  Such payments, however, may not fully compensate us for the loss of the contract.  Drilling contracts also customarily provide for either automatic termination or termination at the option of the customer, typically without payment of any termination fee, under various circumstances such as non-performance, in the event of extended downtime or impaired performance due to equipment or operational issues or extended downtime due to force majeure events.  Many of these events are beyond our control.  The contract term in some instances may be extended by the customer exercising options for the drilling of additional wells or for additional periods of time.  Our contracts also typically include a provision that allows the customer to extend the contract to finish drilling a well-in-progress.  During periods of depressed market conditions, our customers may seek to renegotiate drilling contracts or options to reduce the term of their obligations or the average dayrate through term extensions or may seek to early terminate or repudiate their contracts.  Suspension of drilling contracts will result in the reduction in or loss of dayrate for the period of the suspension.  If customers cancel some of our contracts and we are unable to secure new contracts on a timely basis and on substantially similar or more favorable terms, if some of our contracts are suspended for an extended period of time or if a number of our contracts are renegotiated on less favorable terms, our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows may be adversely affected.  See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks related to our business—Our drilling contracts may be terminated due to a number of events, and, during depressed market conditions, our customers may seek to repudiate or renegotiate their contracts.”

Under dayrate drilling contracts, consistent with standard industry practice, our customers, as the operators, generally assume, and grant indemnity for, subsurface and well control risks, and their consequential damages.  Under all of our current drilling contracts, our customers indemnify us for pollution damages in connection with reservoir fluids stemming from operations under the contract, and we indemnify our customers for pollution that originates above the surface of the water from the rig for substances in our control, such as diesel used or other fluids stored onboard the rig.  Also, our customers indemnify us for consequential damages they incur, damage to the well or reservoir, loss of subsurface oil and gas and costs to bring the well under control.  However, because our drilling contracts are individually negotiated, the degree of indemnification we receive from our customers for such risks and related costs may vary from contract to contract based on market conditions, customer requirements existing when the contract was negotiated or other factors.  In some instances, we have contractually agreed upon certain limits to our indemnification rights and can be responsible for certain damages up to a specified maximum dollar amount.  The nature of our liability and the prevailing market conditions, among other factors, can influence such contractual terms.  Notwithstanding a contractual indemnity from a customer, there can be no assurance that our customers will be financially able to indemnify us or will otherwise honor their contractual indemnity obligations.

The interpretation and enforceability of a contractual indemnity depends upon the specific facts and circumstances involved, as governed by applicable laws, and may ultimately need to be decided by a court or other proceeding, which would need to consider the specific contract language, the facts and applicable laws.  Applicable laws often consider contractual indemnity for criminal fines and penalties to be against public policy.  Many courts also restrict indemnification for criminal fines and penalties.  The inability or other failure of our customers to fulfill their indemnification obligations, or the unenforceability of all of our contractual protections could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks related to our business—Our business involves numerous operating hazards, and our insurance and indemnities from our customers may not be adequate to cover potential losses from our operations.

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Markets

Our operations are geographically dispersed in oil and gas exploration and development areas throughout the world.  We operate in a single, global offshore drilling market, as our drilling rigs are mobile assets and can be moved according to prevailing market conditions.  We may mobilize our drilling rigs between regions for a variety of reasons, including to respond to customer contracting requirements or to capture observed market demand.  Consequently, we cannot predict the future percentage of our revenues that will be derived from particular geographic areas.  As of February 14, 2024, the drilling units in our fleet, including stacked and idle rigs, but excluding rigs under construction, were located in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (ten units), Greece (seven units), Brazil (five units), the Norwegian North Sea (four units), Malaysia (three units), Australia (two units), Angola (one unit), Aruba (one unit), Canada (one unit), Cyprus (one unit), India (one unit) and the United Kingdom (the “U.K.”) North Sea (one unit).

We categorize the sectors of the floater market in which we operate as follows: (1) ultra-deepwater and deepwater, (2) harsh environment and (3) midwater.  We typically employ our ultra-deepwater floaters to service the ultra-deepwater and deepwater sector, and we employ our harsh environment floaters to service all three sectors.  We generally view the ultra-deepwater and deepwater market sector as water depths beginning at 4,500 feet and extending to the maximum water depths in which rigs are capable of drilling, which is currently up to 12,000 feet.  The midwater market sector includes water depths from approximately 300 feet to approximately 4,500 feet.  The harsh environment market sector includes regions that are more challenged by lower temperatures, harsher weather conditions and water currents.

The market for offshore drilling rigs and related services reflects our customers’ demand for equipment for drilling exploration, appraisal and development wells and for performing maintenance on existing production wells.  Activity levels of energy companies, including integrated energy companies, independent energy companies and, to a lesser extent, national energy companies are largely driven by the worldwide demand for energy, including crude oil and natural gas.  Worldwide energy supply and demand drives oil and natural gas prices, which, in turn, impact energy companies’ ability to fund investments in exploration, development and production activities.

See Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Outlook.”

Customers

We provide our offshore drilling services to most of the leading integrated energy companies or their affiliates, as well as for many government-owned or government-controlled energy companies and other independent energy companies.  For the year ended December 31, 2023, our most significant customers were Shell plc (together with its affiliates, “Shell”), Equinor ASA (together with its affiliates, “Equinor”), TotalEnergies SE (together with its affiliates, “TotalEnergies”) and Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. (together with its affiliates, “Petrobras”), representing approximately 27 percent, 16 percent, 12 percent and 11 percent, respectively, of our consolidated operating revenues.  No other customers accounted for 10 percent or more of our consolidated operating revenues in the year ended December 31, 2023.  Additionally, as of February 14, 2024, the customers with the most significant aggregate amount of contract backlog associated with our drilling contracts were Petrobras, Shell and Chevron Corporation (together with its affiliates, “Chevron”), representing approximately 31 percent, 25 percent and 10 percent, respectively, of our total contract backlog.  See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks related to our business—We rely heavily on a relatively small number of customers and the loss of a significant customer or a dispute that leads to the loss of a customer could have an adverse effect on our business.

Human Capital Resources

Worldwide workforce—As of December 31, 2023, we had a global workforce of approximately 5,800 individuals, including approximately 370 contractors, representing 53 nationalities.  At December 31, 2023, our global workforce was geographically distributed in 22 countries across six continents as follows: 38 percent in North America, 25 percent in Europe, 23 percent in South America, six percent in Asia, five percent in Africa and three percent in Australia.

FIRST Shared Values and corporate culture—Our FIRST Shared Values serve as the foundation for our corporate culture and guide us to act ethically and responsibly as we strive to deliver value for our stakeholders and to maintain a safe and respectful work environment for our people.

Code of Integrity and Human Rights—We maintain a Code of Integrity and Human Rights Policy that applies to all our board members, executives, employees and business partners, including contractors, suppliers, vendors, investees and joint venture partners.  We demonstrate our respect of human rights by maintaining a healthy and safe work environment, observing fair employment practices and providing competitive employment terms.  Practices such as modern slavery, child labor, forced or indentured servitude, and other human rights abuses are strictly prohibited.

Labor rights—We respect the labor rights of all individuals in our workforce, including the right to collective bargaining.  As of December 31, 2023, approximately 42 percent of our total workforce, working primarily in Norway and Brazil, are represented by, and some of our contracted labor work is subject to, collective bargaining agreements, substantially all of which are subject to annual salary negotiation.  Negotiations over annual salary or other labor matters could result in higher personnel or other costs or increased operational restrictions or disruptions.  The outcome of any such negotiation generally affects the market for all offshore employees, not only union members.  A failure to reach an agreement on certain key issues could result in strikes, lockouts or other work stoppages.

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Attraction, development and retention—We aim to strategically cultivate a best-in-class workforce to offer the innovation, local knowledge and experience required of the world’s premier offshore drilling contractor.  We seek to maintain our competitive advantage while benefitting our local communities by offering regionally competitive compensation and benefits packages, a technically challenging work environment, global opportunities, and rotational development programs.  We continually assess and adapt our offerings and our policies, based on evolving social and technological practices, to provide a modern work environment, which is essential to attract and retain top talent, and a respectful and inclusive work environment in which our global workforce can thrive.  Our focus on the quality of our workforce is designed to maximize the quality of our work performance and ultimately, the value we deliver to our stakeholders.

Training—We invest in our workers by providing them with the transferrable skill sets essential to advancing their professional development.  To optimize the competitive position of our business, we maintain a rigorous competency-based training program.  Our internal training board maintains and regularly updates our training matrix to meet or exceed industry standards, and it oversees our competency assurance management system, which is accredited by the Offshore Petroleum Industry Training Organization.  We provide various offshore training formats designed to encompass all learning styles through on-the-job, e-learning, customer-specific training, certifications, and leadership and licensing programs.  Setting us apart from our competitors, we also offer unique simulation-based education, augmented by digital twin modeling, enabling our workforce to more accurately visualize equipment performance and target efficiencies.  We clearly articulate to our workforce the certifications, skills and competencies needed for each role, and workers are required to successfully complete the relevant training and attain necessary certifications prior to taking on new roles.

Wellness and benefits—We offer our workforce regionally competitive medical and financial benefits, tailored to our workforce demographics.  We design our wellness and benefits strategy under four pillars consisting of physical well-being, financial well-being, emotional well-being and social well-being, including our globally available employee assistance program.

Safety—Our safety vision is to conduct our operations in an incident-free workplace, all the time, everywhere.  As a socially responsible company, we prioritize the protection of everyone aboard our rigs and in our facilities, the environment and our property at all work locations and during all operations.  We require compliance with all local regulations and a comprehensive set of internal requirements that govern our operations.  With regular competency and effectiveness assessments, our highly trained crews are equipped to protect our operational integrity with the process-driven management of hazards to prevent and mitigate major accidents.  We measure our safety performance in terms of widely accepted ratios with the use of industry standards, including (a) the total recordable incident rate (“TRIR”), which represents the number of recordable work-related injuries or illnesses for every 200,000 hours worked, and (b) the lost time incident rate (“LTIR”), which measures the number of incidents that result in lost time due to work-related injuries or illnesses for every 200,000 hours worked.  In the year ended December 31, 2023, our TRIR was 0.23 and our LTIR was 0.02, both calculations of which were based on 11.3 million labor hours.

Environmental Responsibility

We strive to deliver services in a manner that both minimizes the impact our business has on the environment and supports the interests of our stakeholders.  We continuously seek new ways to advance our commitment to safely performing operations while simultaneously safeguarding the environment.  We maintain a global Environmental Management System (“EMS”) standard that is applied to our rigs, offices and facilities.  The EMS is aligned to ISO 14001 and provides a framework to ensure that our worldwide operations are managed consistently and continuously in an environmentally responsible manner.  We regularly assess the environmental impact of operations, focusing on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, operational discharges, water use and waste.  Accordingly, we intend to reduce our greenhouse gas operating emissions intensity by 40 percent from 2019 levels by 2030.  Achieving these targets will require investments over time that result in the development and implementation of new technologies, reduced fuel consumption and other initiatives that enable us to optimize power management capabilities.

Technological Innovation

We have a long history of technological innovation, including the first dynamically positioned drillship, the first rig to drill year-round in the North Sea, the first semisubmersible rig for year-round sub-Arctic operations, the first 10,000-ft. water depth rated ultra-deepwater drillship and numerous water depth world records over the past several decades.  Twenty-three drillships and two semisubmersibles in our existing fleet are, and our drillship under construction will be, equipped with our patented dual-activity technology, which allows our rigs to perform simultaneous drilling tasks in a parallel rather than sequential manner, reducing well construction critical path activities and, thereby, improving efficiency in both exploration and development drilling.

We develop and deploy industry-leading technology in the pursuit of delivering safer, more efficient and environmentally responsible drilling services.  Two of our drillships are equipped with 1,700 short ton hoisting capacity and 20,000 psi blowout preventers.  Seven of our drillships and our drillship under construction include hybrid energy storage systems for enhanced drill floor equipment reliability, fuel and emissions savings as well as advanced generator protection for power plant reliability.  Twelve drillships in our existing fleet are outfitted with dual blowout preventers and triple liquid mud systems.  Five drillships in our existing fleet are designed to accept 20,000 psi blowout preventers in the future.  We also continue to develop and invest in technologies designed to optimize our performance, deliver ever improving operational integrity and reduce our greenhouse gas emissions.

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Seven of our harsh environment semisubmersibles are designed and constructed specifically to provide highly efficient performance in harsh environments.  We have installed automated drilling control systems on six harsh environment floaters, which materially improves our ability to safely and efficiently deliver wells to our customers.

We utilize technology and employ a data-driven approach, augmented by the size of our fleet, to expand our knowledge framework for sustainable process optimization.  In 2020, we deployed our smart equipment analytics tool, which delivers real-time data feeds from equipment to monitor equipment health, inferred emissions and energy consumption while identifying performance trends that allow us to systematically optimize equipment maintenance and achieve higher levels of reliability, operational efficiency and sustainability.

Driven by our continued focus on safety, we developed and, on eight of our drilling units, deployed our patented HaloGuard system, which alarms, notifies and, if required, halts equipment to avoid injury to personnel who move into danger zones.  In 2022, we deployed the first unit of Enhanced Drilling’s EC-Monitor system to an offshore installation, enabling highly accurate understanding of well fluid dynamics and improving the efficiency and accuracy of flow-checking and detecting flow anomalies.  Additionally, since 2021, we deployed on two of our ultra-deepwater drillships the first kinetic blowout stopper, a step-changing technology that promotes operations integrity and enterprise risk reduction through unrivaled shearing capability.  Since 2022, we deployed an offshore robotic riser bolting tool on three of our ultra-deepwater drillships, improving our ability to deliver safe and efficient operations to our customers.

We believe our efforts to continuously improve, and effectively use, innovative technologies to meet or exceed our customers’ requirements is critical to maintaining our competitive position within the contract drilling services industry by ensuring the safety of our crews, drilling more efficient wells, building greater resilience into our critical operating systems and reducing fuel consumption and emissions.

Joint Venture, Agency and Sponsorship Relationships and Other Investments

In some areas of the world, local customs and practice or governmental requirements necessitate the formation of joint ventures with local participation since local laws or customs in those areas effectively mandate the establishment of a relationship with a local agent or sponsor.  When appropriate in these areas, we may enter into agency or sponsorship agreements.  We also invest in certain companies for operational and strategic purposes.  Some of these companies or joint ventures in which we are an investor are involved in researching and developing technology to improve efficiency, reliability, sustainability and safety for our drilling and other activities or are involved in businesses developed to support renewable or other energy alternatives.  We may or may not control these partially owned companies.  At December 31, 2023, we held partial ownership interests in companies organized in Belgium, the Cayman Islands, the U.S., Norway, Canada and other countries.  At December 31, 2023, among other equity investments, we held noncontrolling equity ownership interests in (1) Global Sea Mineral Resources NV, an unconsolidated Belgian company and leading developer of nodule collection technology, which is engaged in the development and exploration of deep-sea polymetallic nodules that contain metals critical to the growing renewable energy market, and (2) Orion, an unconsolidated Cayman Islands exempted company that owns the harsh environment semisubmersible Transocean Norge.

Governmental Regulations

Our operations are subject to a variety of international, national, regional, state and local government regulations, including environmental regulations.  We monitor our compliance with such government regulations in each country of operation and, notwithstanding increases in governmental regulations, particularly general environmental regulations, we have made and will continue to make the required expenditures to comply with current and future government requirements.  To date, we have not incurred material costs to comply with such governmental regulations, and we do not expect to make any material capital expenditures to support our continued compliance in the year ending December 31, 2024, or any other period contemplated at this time.  We do not believe that our compliance with such requirements will have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, consolidated results of operations or cash flows.  We incorporate by reference herein the disclosures on government regulations, including environmental regulations, contained in the following sections of this annual report on Form 10-K:

Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks related to our laws, regulations and governmental compliance;”
Item 3. Legal Proceedings;”
Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Other Matters;”
Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 11—Income Taxes;” and
Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 13—Commitments and Contingencies.”

Available Information

Our website address is www.deepwater.com.  Information contained on or accessible from our website is not incorporated by reference into this annual report on Form 10-K and should not be considered a part of this report or any other filing that we make with the SEC.  Furthermore, references to our website URLs are intended to be inactive textual references only.  We make available on this website free of charge, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file those materials with, or furnish those materials to, the SEC.  You may also find on our website information related to our corporate governance, board committees and company code of business conduct and ethics.  The SEC also maintains a website, www.sec.gov, which contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding SEC

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registrants, including us.  We intend to satisfy the requirement under Item 5.05 of Form 8-K to disclose any amendments to our Code of Integrity and any waiver from any provision of our Code of Integrity by posting such information in the Governance page on our website at www.deepwater.com.

Item 1A.Risk Factors

Risks related to our business

Our business depends on the level of activity in the offshore oil and gas industry, which is significantly affected by volatile oil and gas prices and other factors.

Our business depends on oil and gas exploration, development and production in offshore areas where we are capable of operating.  Demand for our services depends on these activities and related expenditure levels that are directly affected by trends in oil and, to a lesser extent, natural gas prices.  Oil and gas prices are extremely volatile and are affected by numerous factors, including the following:

worldwide demand for oil and gas, including economic activity in the U.S., other large energy-consuming markets and in developing and emerging markets;
the ability of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (“OPEC”) to set and maintain production levels, productive spare capacity and pricing among its members;
the level of production in non-OPEC countries;
inventory levels, and the cost and availability of storage and transportation of oil, gas and their related products;
the policies, laws and regulations of various governments regarding exploration and development of their oil and gas reserves and environmental matters, including those addressing alternative energy sources and the risks of global climate change;
international sanctions on oil-producing countries, or the lifting of such sanctions;
advances in exploration, development and production technology;
the development, exploitation and market acceptance of alternative energy sources;
the further development of shale technology to exploit oil and gas reserves;
the discovery rate of new oil and gas reserves and the rate of decline of existing oil and gas reserves;
accidents, adverse weather conditions, natural disasters and other similar incidents relating to the oil and gas industry; and
the worldwide security and political environment, including uncertainty or instability resulting from an escalation or outbreak of armed hostilities, civil unrest, acts of terrorism, public health threats or other crises.

Demand for our services is particularly sensitive to the level of exploration, development and production activity of, and the corresponding capital spending by, energy companies, including national energy companies.  Prolonged reductions in oil and natural gas prices could depress the immediate levels of exploration, development and production activity.  Perceptions of longer-term lower oil and natural gas prices by energy companies, or a perception that the demand for hydrocarbons will significantly decrease in the medium to long term, could similarly reduce or defer major expenditures given the long-term nature of many large-scale development projects and capital reinvestment policies.  Lower levels of activity result in a corresponding decline in the demand for our services, which could have a material adverse effect on our revenue and profitability.  Oil and gas prices and market expectations of potential changes in these prices significantly affect this level of activity.  However, increases in near-term commodity prices do not necessarily translate into increased offshore drilling activity since customers’ expectations of longer-term future commodity prices and expectations regarding future demand for hydrocarbons typically have a greater impact on demand for our rigs.  Consistent with this dynamic, customers may delay or cancel many exploration and development programs, resulting in reduced demand for our services.  Also, increased competition for customers’ drilling budgets could come from, among other areas, land-based energy markets and renewable energy projects worldwide.  The availability of quality drilling prospects, exploration success, relative production costs, the stage of reservoir development and political and regulatory environments also affect customers’ drilling campaigns.  Worldwide military, political and economic events have often contributed to oil and gas price volatility and are likely to do so in the future.

The offshore drilling industry is highly competitive and cyclical, with intense price competition.

The offshore contract drilling industry is highly competitive with numerous industry participants, none of which has a dominant market share.  Drilling contracts are traditionally awarded on a competitive bid basis.  Although rig availability, service quality and technical capability are drivers of customer contract awards, bid pricing and intense price competition are often key determinants for which a qualified contractor is awarded a job.

The offshore drilling industry is highly cyclical and is impacted by oil and natural gas price levels and volatility.  Periods of high customer demand, limited rig supply and high dayrates have been followed by periods of low customer demand, excess rig supply and low dayrates.  Changes in commodity prices can have a dramatic effect on rig demand, and periods of excess rig supply may intensify competition in the industry and result in the idling of older and less technologically advanced equipment.  We have idled and stacked rigs, and may in the future idle or stack additional rigs or enter into lower dayrate drilling contracts in response to market conditions.  Idled or stacked rigs may remain out of service for extended periods of time.  During prior periods of high dayrates and rig utilization rates, we and other industry participants responded to increased customer demand by increasing the supply of rigs through ordering the construction of new units.  The introduction of new units delivered without contracts, combined with an increased number of rigs in the global market completing contracts and becoming idle, may intensify price competition.  During periods of low oil and natural gas price levels, new construction has resulted in an oversupply of rigs and has caused a subsequent decline in dayrates and rig utilization rates, sometimes for extended periods of time.  In

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an oversupplied market, we may have limited bargaining power to negotiate on more favorable terms.  Additionally, lower market dayrates and intense price competition may drive customers to seek to renegotiate existing contracts to reduce dayrates in exchange for longer contract terms.  Lower dayrates and rig utilization rates could adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

As of February 14, 2024, we have 13 uncontracted rigs, of which six have been out of service for greater than five years, and these rigs may remain out of service for extended periods of time.  If we are unable to obtain drilling contracts for our uncontracted rigs, whether due to a prolonged offshore drilling market downturn, a delayed or muted recovery of such market or otherwise, it may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows.

We may not be able to renew or obtain new drilling contracts for rigs whose contracts are expiring or obtain drilling contracts for our stacked and idle rigs.

The offshore drilling markets in which we compete experience fluctuations in the demand for drilling services.  Our ability to renew expiring drilling contracts or obtain new drilling contracts depends on the prevailing or expected market conditions.  As of February 14, 2024, we have 13 stacked or idle rigs.  We also have three existing drilling contracts for our rigs that are currently operating, which are scheduled to expire before December 31, 2024.  We may be unable to obtain drilling contracts for our rigs that are currently operating upon the expiration or termination of such contracts, and there may be a gap in the operation of the rigs between the current contracts and subsequent contracts.  When oil and natural gas prices are low or it is expected that such prices will decrease in the future, we may be unable to obtain drilling contracts at attractive dayrates or at all.  We may not be able to obtain new drilling contracts with the terms or dayrates sufficient to support a reactivation of a cold-stacked rig.  Likewise, we may not be able to obtain new drilling contracts in direct continuation with existing contracts, or depending on prevailing market conditions, we may enter into drilling contracts at dayrates substantially below the existing dayrates or on terms otherwise less favorable compared to existing contract terms, which may have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Our current backlog of contract drilling revenues may not be fully realized.

At February 14, 2024, our contract backlog was approximately $9.01 billion.  This amount represents the maximum contractual operating dayrate multiplied by the number of days remaining in the firm contract period, excluding revenues for mobilization, demobilization, contract preparation, other incentive provisions or reimbursement revenues, which are not expected to be significant to our contract drilling revenues.  Our contract backlog includes amounts associated with our one contracted newbuild unit that is currently under construction.  The contractual operating dayrate may be higher than the actual dayrate we ultimately receive or an alternative contractual dayrate, such as waiting on weather rate, repair rate, standby rate or force majeure rate, may apply under certain circumstances.  The contractual operating dayrate may also be higher than the actual dayrate we ultimately receive due to a number of factors, including rig downtime or suspension of operations.  Several factors could cause rig downtime or a suspension of operations, including: equipment breakdowns and other unforeseen engineering problems, labor strikes and other work stoppages, shortages of material and skilled labor, surveys by government and maritime authorities, periodic classification surveys, severe weather or harsh operating conditions, and force majeure events.

In certain drilling contracts, the dayrate may be reduced to zero if, for example, repairs extend beyond a stated period of time.  Our contract backlog includes only firm commitments, which are represented by signed drilling contracts or, in some cases, other definitive agreements awaiting contract execution.  We may not be able to realize the full amount of our contract backlog due to events beyond our control.  In addition, some of our customers have experienced liquidity issues in the past, including some recently, and these liquidity issues could be experienced again if commodity prices decline for an extended period of time.  Liquidity issues and other market pressures could lead our customers to seek bankruptcy protection or to seek to repudiate, cancel or renegotiate these agreements for various reasons (see “—Our drilling contracts may be terminated due to a number of events, and, during depressed market conditions, our customers may seek to repudiate or renegotiate their contracts”).  Our inability to realize the full amount of our contract backlog may have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

We must make substantial capital and operating expenditures to reactivate our stacked or idle fleet and to maintain our active fleet, and we may be required to make significant capital expenditures to maintain our competitiveness and to comply with laws and applicable regulations and standards of governmental authorities and organizations.

We must make substantial capital and operating expenditures to maintain our active fleet or to reactivate our stacked or idle fleet.  These expenditures could increase as a result of changes in the cost of labor and materials, requirements of customers, the size of our fleet, the cost of replacement parts for existing rigs, the geographic location of the rigs and the length of drilling contracts.  Changes in offshore drilling technology, customer requirements for new or upgraded equipment and competition within our industry may require us to make significant capital expenditures in order to maintain our competitiveness and to achieve our intention to reduce our greenhouse gas emission intensity.  Changes in governmental regulations, including environmental requirements, and changes in safety or other equipment standards, as well as compliance with standards imposed by maritime self-regulatory organizations, may cause our capital expenditures to increase or require us to make additional unforeseen capital expenditures.  As a result of these factors, we may be required to take our rigs out of service for extended periods of time, with corresponding losses of revenues, in order to make such alterations or to add such equipment.  In the future, market conditions may not justify these expenditures or enable us to operate our older rigs profitably during the remainder of their economic lives.

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If we are unable to fund capital expenditures with our cash flows from operations or proceeds from sales of non-strategic assets, we may be required to either incur additional borrowings or raise capital through the sale of debt or equity securities, or additional financing arrangements with banks or other capital providers.  Our ability to access the capital markets may be limited by our financial condition at the time, perceptions of us or our industry, by changes in laws and regulations or interpretation thereof and by adverse market conditions resulting from, among other things, general economic conditions and contingencies and uncertainties that are beyond our control.  If we raise funds by issuing equity securities or other securities that are convertible into equity securities, existing shareholders may experience dilution.  Our failure to obtain the funds for necessary future capital expenditures could have a material adverse effect on our business and on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

Our operating and maintenance costs will not necessarily fluctuate in proportion to changes in our operating revenues.

Our operating and maintenance costs will not necessarily fluctuate in proportion to changes in our operating revenues and are affected by many factors, including inflation.  Costs for operating a rig are generally fixed or only semi-variable regardless of the dayrate being earned.  To the extent a drilling contract provides for escalations attributable to inflation in our costs, those adjustments will lag the impact of inflationary pressures and may not reflect the full impact to us of any cost inflation.  As drilling contracts with such provisions expire or are terminated, there can be no assurance that future drilling contracts will contain similar provisions, which may reduce our margins in inflationary environments.  In addition, should our rigs incur unplanned downtime while on contract or idle time between drilling contracts, we will not always reduce the staff on those rigs because we could use the crew to prepare the rig for its next contract.  During times of reduced activity, reductions in costs may not be immediate because portions of the crew may be required to prepare rigs for stacking, after which time the crew members may be reassigned to active rigs or released.  As our rigs are mobilized from one geographic location to another, the labor and other operating and maintenance costs can vary significantly.  In general, labor costs increase primarily due to higher salary levels and inflation.  Equipment maintenance costs fluctuate depending upon the type of activity the unit is performing and the age and condition of the equipment, and these costs could increase for short or extended periods as a result of regulatory or customer requirements that raise maintenance standards above historical levels.  The amount of contract preparation and reactivation costs vary based on the scope and length of the contract preparation or reactivation project, and the recognition of such costs varies depending on the duration of the firm contractual period and other contract terms.

Certain of our drilling contracts are partially payable in local currency.  The amounts, if any, of local currency received under these drilling contracts may exceed our local currency needs to pay local operating and maintenance costs, leading to an accumulation of excess local currency balances, which, in certain instances, may be subject to either restrictions or other difficulties in converting to U.S. dollars, our functional currency, or to other currencies of the locations where we operate.  Excess amounts of local currency may also be exposed to the risk of currency exchange losses.

Changing sentiment towards climate change, fossil fuels and other esg matters could adversely affect our business, cost of capital and the price of our stock and other securities.

Changing sentiment among the public, regulators and non-governmental organizations concerning fossil fuels has prompted efforts aimed in part at the investment community, including investment advisors, sovereign wealth funds, public pension funds, universities and other groups, to discourage initial investments in and promote the divestment of shares of energy companies, as well as to pressure lenders and other financial services companies to limit or curtail activities with certain energy companies.  If such efforts are successful, the market price of our shares and our ability to access capital markets may be negatively impacted.

Members of the investment community are also increasing their focus on environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) practices and disclosures, including those related to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, in the energy industry in particular, and diversity and inclusion among public companies more generally.  We may be subject in the future to additional reporting requirements that are developing in response to such increased focus and, as a result, we may face increasing pressure regarding our ESG disclosures and practices.

Additionally, members of the investment community may screen companies such as ours for ESG sustainability performance before investing in our stock.  As a result, there has been a proliferation of ESG focused investment funds seeking ESG oriented investment products.  If we or our securities are unable to meet the sustainability ESG standards or investment criteria set by these investors and funds, we may lose investors or investors may allocate a portion of their capital away from us.  As a result, our cost of capital may increase, the market price of our shares or of our publicly traded debt securities may be negatively impacted and our reputation may also be negatively affected.

Public health threats have had, and may continue to have, significant adverse consequences for general economic, financial and business conditions, as well as for our business and operations.

Public health threats, including pandemics and epidemics, severe influenza, coronaviruses and other highly communicable viruses or diseases, have impacted and may continue to impact our operations directly or indirectly, including by disrupting the operations of our business partners, suppliers and customers in ways that adversely impact our operations.  Such impacts may include, among others:

causing a temporary shut-down of operations in case of an outbreak on one or more of our rigs;

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disrupting or restricting the ability of our suppliers, manufacturers and service providers to supply parts, equipment labor or services in the jurisdictions in which we operate or conduct shipyard activities including newbuild construction;
causing us to incur increased costs, inefficiencies, and labor shortages as a result of precautionary measures taken to counteract a potential or actual outbreak, including testing and quarantining of offshore personnel; and
being negatively affected by various actions by governmental authorities around the world designed to prevent or reduce the spread of an outbreak, such as imposing mandatory closures of all business facilities deemed to be non-essential, seeking voluntary closures of such facilities and imposing restrictions on, or issuing advisories with respect to, travel, business operations and public gatherings or interactions.

As a result, we may experience significant adverse consequences in our ability to meet our commitments to customers, including due to increased operating costs and increased risk of rig downtime or contract termination, which may result in substantial adverse consequences for our business and results of operations.  In addition, public health threats may result in significantly reduced global or regional economic activity, which could result in a sharp reduction in the demand for oil and an associated decline in oil prices, as occurred during 2020.  Such conditions may result in, reductions to our customers’ drilling and production expenditures and delays or cancellations of projects, which may cause a decrease in demand for our services and an increase in the risk that our customers may seek to terminate or renegotiate pricing or other terms for our existing contracts or that more of our rigs may become idle, stacked or retired from our fleet.

The magnitude and duration of potential social, economic and labor instability resulting from such public health threats, including the speed at which national economies can recover, or whether any recovery will ultimately experience a reversal or other setbacks, are uncertain and cannot be estimated as such effects depend on future events that would be largely out of our control.

We rely heavily on a relatively small number of customers and the loss of a significant customer or a dispute that leads to the loss of a customer could have an adverse effect on our business.

We engage in offshore drilling services for most of the leading integrated energy companies or their affiliates, as well as for many government-owned or government-controlled energy companies and other independent energy companies.  For the year ended December 31, 2023, our most significant customers were Shell, Equinor, TotalEnergies and Petrobras, representing approximately 27 percent, 16 percent, 12 percent and 11 percent, respectively, of our consolidated operating revenues.  As of February 14, 2024, the customers with the most significant aggregate amount of contract backlog associated with our drilling contracts were Petrobras, Shell and Chevron, representing approximately 31 percent, 25 percent and 10 percent, respectively, of our total contract backlog.  The loss of any of these customers or another significant customer, or a decline in payments under any of our drilling contracts, could, at least in the short term, have an adverse effect on our business.

Our business involves numerous operating hazards, and our insurance and indemnities from our customers may not be adequate to cover potential losses from our operations.

Our operations are subject to the usual hazards inherent in the drilling of oil and gas wells, such as, blowouts, reservoir damage, loss of production, loss of well control, lost or stuck drill strings, equipment defects, craterings, fires, explosions and pollution.  Contract drilling requires the use of heavy equipment and exposure to hazardous conditions, which may subject us to liability claims by employees, customers and other parties.  These hazards can cause personal injury or loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property and equipment, pollution or environmental or natural resource damage, claims by third parties or customers and suspension of operations.  Our offshore fleet is also subject to hazards inherent in marine operations, either while on site or during mobilization, such as capsizing, sinking, grounding, collision, piracy, damage from severe weather and marine life infestations.

The U.S. Gulf of Mexico, the South China Sea and the Northwest Coast of Australia are areas subject to typhoons, hurricanes or other extreme weather conditions on a relatively frequent basis, and our drilling rigs in these regions may be exposed to damage or total loss by these storms, some of which may not be covered by insurance.  The occurrence of these events could result in the suspension of drilling operations, damage to or destruction of the equipment involved and injury to or death of rig personnel.  Some experts believe global climate change could increase the frequency and severity of these extreme weather conditions.  Operations may also be suspended because of machinery breakdowns, abnormal drilling conditions, failure of subcontractors to perform or supply goods or services, or personnel shortages.  We customarily provide contract indemnity to our customers for certain claims that could be asserted by us relating to damage to or loss of our equipment, including rigs, and claims that could be asserted by us or our employees relating to personal injury or loss of life.

Damage to the environment or natural resources could also result from our operations, particularly through spillage of hydrocarbons, fuel, lubricants or other chemicals and substances used in drilling operations, or extensive uncontrolled fires.  We may also be subject to property damage, environmental indemnity and other claims by energy companies or other third parties.  Drilling involves certain risks associated with the loss of control of a well, such as blowout, cratering, the cost to regain control of or redrill the well and remediation of associated pollution.  Our customers may be unable or unwilling to indemnify us against such risks.  In addition, a court may decide that certain indemnities in our current or future drilling contracts are not enforceable.  The law generally considers contractual indemnity for criminal fines and penalties to be against public policy, and the enforceability of an indemnity as to other matters may be limited.

Our insurance policies and drilling contracts contain rights to indemnity that may not adequately cover our losses, and we do not have insurance coverage or rights to indemnity for all risks.  We have two main types of insurance coverage: (1) hull and machinery coverage for physical damage to our property and equipment and (2) excess liability coverage, which generally covers offshore risks, such as personal injury, third-party property claims, and third-party non-crew claims, including wreck removal and pollution.  We generally have no hull and machinery insurance coverage for damages caused by named storms in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico.  We maintain per occurrence deductibles

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that generally range up to $10 million for various third-party liabilities, and we self-insure $50 million of the $750 million excess liability coverage through our wholly owned captive insurance company.  We also retain the risk for any liability that exceeds our excess liability coverage.  However, pollution and environmental risks generally are not completely insurable.

If a significant accident or other event occurs that is not fully covered by our insurance or by an enforceable or recoverable indemnity, the occurrence could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  The amount of our insurance may also be less than the related impact on enterprise value after a loss.  Our insurance coverage will not in all situations provide sufficient funds to protect us from all liabilities that could result from our drilling operations.  Our coverage includes annual aggregate policy limits.  As a result, we generally retain the risk for any losses in excess of these limits.  We generally do not carry insurance for loss of revenue, and certain other claims may also not be reimbursed by insurance carriers.  Any such lack of reimbursement may cause us to incur substantial costs.  In addition, we could decide to retain more risk in the future, resulting in higher risk of losses, which could be material.  Moreover, we may not be able to maintain adequate insurance in the future at rates that we consider reasonable or be able to obtain insurance against certain risks.

Our drilling contracts may be terminated due to a number of events, and, during depressed market conditions, our customers may seek to repudiate or renegotiate their contracts.

Certain of our drilling contracts with customers may be cancelable at the option of the customer upon payment of an early termination payment.  Such payments may not, however, fully compensate us for the loss of the contract.  In the third quarter of 2023, as the most recent example, Development Driller III concluded the activities contemplated in its drilling contract prior to the end of the contract’s firm term that was previously expected early in the fourth quarter of 2023.  The termination payment associated with the drilling contract would not fully compensate us for the early termination of the contract.  Drilling contracts also customarily provide for either automatic termination or termination at the option of the customer, typically without the payment of any termination fee, under various circumstances such as non-performance, as a result of significant downtime or impaired performance caused by equipment or operational issues, or sustained periods of downtime due to force majeure events, many of which are beyond our control.  Certain customers who seek to terminate our drilling contracts may attempt to defeat or circumvent our protections against certain liabilities.  Our customers’ ability to perform their obligations under their drilling contracts, including their ability to fulfill their indemnity obligations to us, may also be negatively impacted by an economic downturn.  Our customers, which include national energy companies, often have significant bargaining leverage over us.  If our customers cancel some of our contracts, and we are unable to secure new contracts on a timely basis and on substantially similar terms, or if contracts are suspended for an extended period of time or if a number of our contracts are renegotiated on terms that are not as favorable as current terms, it could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

During periods of depressed market conditions, such as we have recently experienced, we are subject to an increased counterparty risk, as our customers may seek to repudiate their contracts, including through claims of non-performance in order to reduce their capital expenditures.  Our customers may no longer need a drilling rig that is currently under contract or may be able to obtain a comparable drilling rig at a lower dayrate.  We have experienced, and are at continued risk of experiencing, early contract terminations when there is a weak commodity price environment.  The ability of each of our counterparties to perform its obligations under a contract with us, including indemnity obligations, will depend on a number of factors that are beyond our control and may include, among other things, general economic conditions, the condition of the offshore drilling industry, prevailing prices for oil and natural gas, the overall financial condition of the counterparty, the dayrates received and the level of expenditures necessary to maintain drilling activities.  Should a counterparty fail to honor its obligations under an agreement with us, we could sustain losses, which could have an adverse effect on our business and on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Failure to recruit and retain personnel could hurt our operations.

We depend on the continuing efforts of key members of our management, as well as other highly skilled personnel, to operate and provide technical services and support for our business worldwide.  Historically, competition for the personnel required for drilling operations has intensified as the number of rigs activated, added to worldwide fleets or under construction increased, leading to shortages of qualified personnel in the industry and creating upward pressure on wages and higher turnover.  We may experience a reduction in the experience level of our personnel as a result of any increased turnover, which could lead to higher downtime and more operating incidents, which in turn could decrease revenues and increase costs.  If increased competition for qualified personnel were to intensify in the future we may experience increases in costs or limits on operations.

Our labor costs and the operating restrictions under which we operate could increase as a result of collective bargaining negotiations and additional unionization efforts.

As of December 31, 2023, approximately 42 percent of our total workforce, working primarily in Norway and Brazil, are represented by, and some of our contracted labor work is subject to, collective bargaining agreements, substantially all of which are subject to annual salary negotiation.  Negotiations over annual salary or other labor matters could result in higher personnel or other costs or increased operational restrictions or disruptions.  The outcome of any such negotiation generally affects the market for all offshore employees, not only the union members.  A failure to reach an agreement on certain key issues could result in strikes, lockouts, or other work stoppages.  Legislation has been introduced in the U.S. Congress that could encourage additional unionization efforts in the U.S., as well as increase the chances that such efforts succeed.  Additional unionization efforts, if successful, new collective bargaining agreements or work stoppages could materially increase our labor costs and operating restrictions.

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Our shipyard projects and operations are subject to delays and cost overruns.

We have a variety of shipyard projects underway, at any given time, for our existing rigs at any given time, and as of February 14, 2024, we were constructing one ultra-deepwater drillship.  These shipyard projects are subject to the risks of delays or cost overruns inherent in any such complex projects resulting from numerous factors, including the following:

shipyard availability, failures and difficulties;
shortages of equipment, materials or skilled labor;
failure or delayed deliveries of significant materials or equipment for various reasons, including due to supplier shortages, constraints, disruption or quality issues;
design and engineering problems, including those relating to the commissioning of newly designed equipment;
latent damages or deterioration to hull, equipment and machinery in excess of engineering estimates and assumptions;
unanticipated actual or purported change orders;
disputes with shipyards and suppliers;
availability of suppliers to recertify equipment for enhanced regulations;
strikes, labor disputes and work stoppages;
customer acceptance delays or delays in providing customer-supplied engineering, approvals or equipment;
adverse weather conditions, including damage caused by such conditions;
terrorist acts, war, piracy and civil unrest;
complications arising from pandemics and epidemics, such severe influenza, coronaviruses and other highly communicable viruses or diseases, and associated government orders in the country where the rigs are being constructed or serviced and elsewhere;
unanticipated cost increases; and
difficulties in obtaining necessary permits or approvals or in completing necessary importation procedures.

These factors may contribute to cost variations and delays in the delivery of rigs undergoing shipyard projects or any future newbuild units.  Cost variations may result in, among other things, disputes with the shipyards that construct or service our drilling units.  In addition, delayed delivery of our newbuild units or other rigs undergoing shipyard projects would impact contract commencement, resulting in a loss of revenues we could earn, and may also cause customers to terminate or shorten the term of the drilling contract for the rig pursuant to applicable late delivery clauses.  In the event of termination of any of these drilling contracts, we may not be able to secure a replacement contract on as favorable terms, if at all.

Our operations rely on a significant supply of capital and consumable spare parts and equipment to maintain and repair our fleet.  We also rely on the supply of ancillary services, including supply boats and helicopters.  Our reliance on our suppliers, manufacturers and service providers to secure equipment, parts, components and sub-systems used in our operations exposes us to volatility in the quality, prices and availability of such items.  Certain parts and equipment that we use in our operations may be available only from a small number of suppliers, manufacturers or service providers, or in some cases must be sourced through a single supplier, manufacturer or service provider.  Some parts and equipment require long lead times to obtain, and an unplanned failure or other need to replace any such parts and equipment may result in a longer than usual time to obtain them or require us to pay higher costs to obtain them on an expedited basis.  A disruption in the deliveries from our suppliers, manufacturers or service providers, capacity constraints, production disruptions, price increases, quality control issues, recalls or other decreased availability of parts and equipment or ancillary services could adversely affect our ability to meet our commitments to customers, adversely impact our operations, increase our operating costs and result in increases in rig downtime and delays in the repair and maintenance of our fleet.

As part of our business strategies, We may pursue opportunities to strengthen and broaden our business that include acquisitions of businesses or drilling rigs, mergers or joint ventures or other investments, and such transactions would present various risks and uncertainties.

We may pursue transactions that involve the acquisition of businesses or assets, mergers or joint ventures or other investments that we believe will enable us to further strengthen or broaden our business.  Any such transaction would be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, and the consummation thereof would be dependent upon several factors, including identifying suitable companies, businesses or assets that align with our business strategies, reaching agreement with the potential counterparties on acceptable terms, the receipt of any applicable regulatory and other approvals, and other conditions.  These transactions involve various risks, including among others, (i) difficulties related to integrating or managing applicable parts of an acquired business or joint venture and unanticipated changes in customer and other third-party relationships subsequent to closing, (ii) diversion of management's attention from day-to-day operations, (iii) failure to realize anticipated benefits, such as cost savings, revenue enhancements or strengthening or broadening our business, (iv) potentially substantial transaction costs associated with acquisitions, joint ventures or investments if we or a transaction counterparty seeks to exit or terminate an interest in the joint venture or investment, and (v) potential accounting impairment or actual diminution or loss of value of our investment if future market, business or other conditions ultimately differ from our assumptions at the time of such transaction is consummated.

Failure to effectively and timely address the transition to renewable or other alternative energy sources, or to respond to other climate related business trends, could adversely affect our business, results of operations and cash flows.

Our long-term success will be impacted by our ability to effectively address the transition to renewable and other alternative energy sources, and our ability to respond to other climate-related business trends that could adversely impact the long-term demand for oil and

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natural gas and, ultimately, the demand for our services and products from our services.  Addressing increased focus on the development of additional alternative energy sources and other climate-related business trends has required and will further require adapting certain parts of our operations to changing government requirements and customer preferences.

We continue to engage with existing and potential customers and suppliers to develop or implement solutions designed to reduce or decarbonize oil and gas operations, or to advance renewable and other alternative energy sources.  Nonetheless, as it is not possible at this time to predict the timing, scope and effect of the development of and transition to renewable or other alternative energy sources, any such developments, such as the declining cost of renewable energy generation technologies, could adversely impact the long-term global demand for oil and natural gas and, ultimately, the demand for our services and products from our services.  If the transition to alternative energy sources or other climate-related trends change faster than anticipated or develop in a manner that we do not anticipate, our business, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.  If we do not or are perceived to not effectively implement a strategy that incorporates alternative energy sources, or if investors or financial institutions shift funding away from companies in fossil fuel-related industries, our access to capital or the market for our securities could be negatively impacted.

Our aspirations, goals, commitment targets and initiatives related to sustainability, including emissions reduction, and our public statements and disclosures regarding them, expose us to numerous risks.

We have developed, and will continue to develop and set, goals, targets, and other objectives related to sustainability matters, including our commitment target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions operating intensity.  Statements related to these goals, commitment targets and objectives reflect our current intentions and do not constitute a guarantee that they will be achieved.  Our efforts to research, establish, accomplish, and accurately report on these goals, commitment targets, and other objectives expose us to numerous operational, reputational, financial, legal, and other risks.  Our ability to achieve any stated goal, commitment target, or objective, including with respect to emissions intensity reduction, is subject to numerous factors and conditions, many of which are outside of our control.

Our business may face increased scrutiny from investors and other stakeholders related to our sustainability activities, including the goals, commitment targets, and other objectives that we announce, and our methodologies and timelines for pursuing them.  If our sustainability assumptions or practices do not meet investor or other stakeholder expectations and standards, which continue to evolve, our reputation, our ability to attract or retain employees, and our attractiveness as an investment or business partner could be negatively affected.  Similarly, our failure or perceived failure to pursue or fulfill our sustainability-focused goals, targets, and objectives, to comply with ethical, environmental, or other standards, regulations, or expectations, or to satisfy various reporting standards with respect to these matters, within the timelines we announce, or at all, could adversely affect our business or reputation, as well as expose us to government enforcement actions and private litigation.

Risks related to our indebtedness

We have a substantial amount of debt, including secured debt, and we may lose the ability to obtain future financing and suffer competitive disadvantages.

At December 31, 2023, our total debt was $7.41 billion, of which $2.34 billion was secured.  We have a bank credit agreement (as amended, the “Secured Credit Facility”), which is currently undrawn, the borrowings under which would be secured and guaranteed by certain of our subsidiaries.  This substantial level of debt and other obligations could have significant adverse consequences on our business and future prospects, including the following:

we may be unable to obtain financing in the future to refinance our existing debt or for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt service requirements, distributions, share repurchases, or other purposes;
we may be unable to use operating cash flows in other areas of our business because we must dedicate a substantial portion of these funds to service the debt;
we could become more vulnerable to general adverse economic and industry conditions, including increases in interest rates, particularly given our substantial indebtedness, some of which bears interest at variable rates;
we may be unable to meet financial ratios in the agreements governing certain of our debt facilities and finance lease or satisfy certain other covenants and conditions included in our debt agreements, which could result in our inability to meet requirements for borrowings under the Secured Credit Facility or a default under such agreements, impose restrictions with respect to our access to certain of our capital, and trigger cross default provisions in our other debt instruments;
if we default under the terms of our secured financing arrangements, the secured debtholders may, among other things, foreclose on the collateral securing the debt, including the applicable drilling units;
we may be unable to obtain new investment or financing given recent ESG-influenced trends among many financial intermediaries, investors and other capital markets participants in reducing, or ceasing, lending to, or investing in, companies that operate in industries with higher perceived environmental exposure; and
we may be less able to take advantage of significant business opportunities and to react to changes in market or industry conditions than our less levered competitors.

See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Sources and uses of liquidity.”

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Credit rating agencies have rated our debt below investment grade, which could limit our access to capital and have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

The ratings assigned to our debt securities by certain credit rating agencies (our “Debt Ratings”) are below investment grade.  Our Debt Ratings could have adverse consequences for our business and future prospects and could cause the following:

limitations on our ability to access debt markets, including for the purpose of refinancing our existing debt and replacing or extending our Secured Credit Facility;
less favorable terms and conditions on any refinancing arrangements, debt issuances or bank credit agreements, some of which could require collateral and restrict, among other things, our ability to pay distributions or repurchase shares;
increases to certain fees under our Secured Credit Facility and interest rates under the indentures governing certain of our senior notes;
reduced willingness of current and prospective customers, suppliers and creditors to transact business with us;
requirements from creditors, suppliers or customers for additional insurance, guarantees and collateral;
limitations on our access to bank and third-party guarantees, surety bonds and letters of credit; and
reductions to or eliminations of the level of credit suppliers and financial institutions may provide through payment terms or intraday funding when dealing with us thereby increasing the need for higher levels of cash on hand, which would decrease our ability to repay debt balances.

Our Debt Ratings have caused some of the effects listed above, and any further downgrades may cause or exacerbate, any of the effects listed above and could have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

Worldwide financial, economic and political conditions could restrict our ability to access the capital markets, reduce our flexibility to react to changing economic and business conditions and reduce demand for our services.

Worldwide financial and economic conditions could restrict our ability to access the capital markets at a time when we would like, or need, to access such markets, which could have an impact on our flexibility to react to changing economic and business conditions.  Worldwide economic conditions have in the past impacted, and could in the future impact, the lenders participating in our credit facilities and our customers, causing them to fail to meet their obligations to us.  If economic conditions preclude or limit financing from banking institutions participating in our credit facilities, we may not be able to obtain similar financing from other institutions.  A slowdown in economic activity could reduce worldwide demand for energy and reverse or worsen the recovery from low oil and natural gas prices.  These potential developments, or market perceptions concerning these and related issues, could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  In addition, turmoil and hostilities in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, North Africa and other geographic areas and countries present incremental risk.  An extended period of negative outlook for the world economy could further reduce the overall demand for oil and natural gas and for our services.  A further decline in oil and natural gas prices or an extension of the current low oil and natural gas prices could reduce demand for our drilling services and have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Risks related to laws, regulations and governmental compliance

Impact of increasingly stringent environmental and safety laws and our compliance with or breach of such laws can be costly, expose us to liability and could limit our operations.

Our business is affected by laws and regulations relating to the energy industry and the environment and safety, including international conventions and treaties, and regional, national, state, and local laws and regulations.  Our business also depends on demand for services from the oil and gas exploration and production industry, and, accordingly, we are directly affected by the adoption of laws and regulations that, for economic, environmental or other policy reasons, curtail, delay or impose additional compliance costs and obligations related to the exploration and development drilling for oil and gas.  Offshore drilling in certain areas has been curtailed and, in certain cases, prohibited because of environmental or safety concerns.  In addition, compliance with environmental and safety laws, regulations and standards, where applicable, may require us to make significant capital expenditures, such as the installation of costly equipment or implementation of operational changes, and may affect the resale values or useful lives of our rigs.  We may also incur additional costs in order to comply with other existing and future regulatory obligations or industry standards, including, but not limited to, costs relating to air emissions, including greenhouse gases, the management of ballast waters, maintenance and inspection, development and implementation of emergency procedures and maintenance of insurance coverage or other financial assurance of our ability to address pollution incidents.  In the last decade, enhanced governmental safety and environmental requirements applicable to our operations were adopted by U.S. federal agencies for drilling in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico.  These requirements have caused increased compliance costs and may in the future increase the risk of environmental or safety enforcement cases and litigation and cause operators to have difficulties obtaining drilling permits in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico.  The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (the “BOEM”) has also proposed changes regarding when oil, gas and sulfur lessees and certain other parties operating in the offshore Outer Continental Shelf must post additional bonds or other supplemental financial assurance, which could, if finalized, increase bonding requirements for some of our customers.

The oil and gas industry has adopted equipment and operating standards, such as the American Petroleum Institute Standard 53, related to the installation and testing of well control equipment.  A failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations may result in administrative and civil penalties, criminal sanctions or the suspension or termination of our operations.  Additionally, our customers may elect to voluntarily comply with any non-mandatory laws, regulations or other standards.  Any such safety, environmental and other regulatory restrictions or standards, including voluntary customer compliance with respect thereto, could decrease, disrupt or delay operations, decrease demand for offshore drilling services, increase operating costs and compliance costs or penalties, increase out-of-service time,

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decrease dayrates, or reduce the area of operations for drilling rigs in the U.S. and non-U.S. offshore areas.  Any such effects could have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

To the extent new laws are enacted, existing laws are changed or other governmental actions are taken that prohibit or restrict offshore drilling or impose additional environmental protection and safety requirements that result in increased costs to the oil and gas industry, in general, or the offshore drilling industry, in particular, our business or prospects could be materially and adversely affected.  The operation of our drilling rigs will require certain governmental approvals, some of which may involve public hearings and costly undertakings on our part.  We may not obtain such approvals or such approvals may not be obtained in a timely manner.  If we fail to timely secure the necessary governmental approvals or permits, our customers may have the right to terminate or seek to renegotiate their drilling contracts to our detriment.  The amendment or modification of existing laws and regulations or the adoption of new laws and regulations curtailing or further regulating exploratory or development drilling or production of oil and gas and compliance with any such new or amended legislation or regulations could have an adverse effect on our business or on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

As a contract driller with operations in certain offshore areas, we may be liable for damages and costs incurred in connection with oil spills or disposal of wastes related to those operations, and we may also be subject to significant fines and other liabilities in connection with spills.  For example, an oil spill could result in significant liability, including fines, penalties and criminal liability and remediation, restoration or compensation costs for environmental or natural resource damages, as well as third-party damages, to the extent that the contractual indemnification provisions in our drilling contracts are not enforceable or otherwise sufficient, or if our customers are unwilling or unable to contractually indemnify us against these risks.  Additionally, we may not be able to obtain such indemnities in our future drilling contracts, and our customers may not have the financial capability to fulfill their contractual obligations to us.  Also, these indemnities may be held to be unenforceable in certain jurisdictions, as a result of public policy or for other reasons.  See “Our business involves numerous operating hazards, and our insurance and indemnities from our customers may not be adequate to cover potential losses from our operations.”

Environmental and safety laws and regulations protecting the environment have become increasingly stringent and may in some cases impose strict liability on facility or vessel owners or operators, rendering a person liable for environmental damage without regard to negligence.  These laws and regulations may expose us to liability for the conduct of, or conditions caused by, others or for acts that were in compliance with all applicable laws at the time they were performed.  The application of these requirements or the adoption of new requirements or measures could have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Regulatory and various other risks, including litigation, associated with greenhouse gas emissions, other emissions and climate change could have an adverse impact on our business and demand for our services.

Scientific studies have suggested that emissions of certain gases, including greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, contribute to warming of the earth’s atmosphere and other climatic changes.  In response to such studies, the issue of climate change and the effect of greenhouse gas emissions, in particular emissions from the fossil fuel industry, has attracted and continues to attract considerable political and social attention worldwide.  The attention to climate change has led, and we expect it to continue to lead, to additional regulations designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions domestically and internationally.  In August 2022, for example, the U.S. enacted the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, which contains hundreds of billions of dollars in incentives for the development of renewable energy, clean hydrogen, clean fuels, electric vehicles and supporting infrastructure and carbon capture and sequestration, amongst other provisions.  Additionally, at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in the United Arab Emirates in December 2023, more than 190 governments reached a non-binding agreement to transition away from fossil fuels and encourage the growth and expansion of renewable energy.  Such attention could also result in other adverse impacts for the oil and gas industry, including further restrictions or bans imposed by lawmakers, lawsuits by governments or third-parties seeking recoveries for damages resulting from the combustion of fuels that may contribute to climate change effects, decreased demand for goods and services that produce significant greenhouse gas emissions, or reduced interest from investors if they elect in the future to shift some or all of their investments to non-fossil fuel related sectors.  To the extent financial markets view climate change and greenhouse emissions as a financial risk, this could negatively impact our cost of or access to capital.  Because our business depends on the level of activity in the oil and gas industry, existing or future laws, regulations, treaties or international agreements related to greenhouse gases and climate change, or related political, litigation or financial risks, including incentives to conserve energy or use alternative energy sources, could have a negative impact on our business if such laws, regulations, treaties or international agreements reduce the worldwide demand for oil and gas or limit drilling opportunities.  In addition, such laws, regulations, treaties or international agreements or related risks could result in increased compliance costs or additional operating restrictions, which may have an adverse effect on our business.  Further, some experts believe global climate change could increase the frequency and severity of extreme weather conditions, the impacts of which could interfere with our operations, cause damage to our equipment as well as cause other financial and operational impacts, including those that could result from any impact of such conditions on our customers.

We could also face increased climate-related litigation with respect to our operations both in the U.S. and around the world.  Governmental and other entities in various U.S. states, such as California and New York, have filed lawsuits against coal, gas oil and petroleum companies.  These suits allege damages as a result of climate change, and the plaintiffs are seeking unspecified damages and abatement under various tort theories.  Similar lawsuits may be filed in other jurisdictions both in the U.S. and globally.  Though we are not currently a party to any such lawsuit, these suits present a high degree of uncertainty regarding the extent to which energy companies,

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including offshore drillers, face an increased risk of liability stemming from climate change, which risk would also adversely impact the oil and gas industry and impact demand for our services.

Any restrictions on oil and natural gas operations on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (“OCS”) could have an adverse impact on our business and demand for our services.

The U.S. Department of the Interior (“DOI”) administers the submerged lands, subsoil, and seabed, lying between the seaward extent of the states’ jurisdiction and the seaward extent of federal jurisdiction, and the U.S. government has the power to limit oil and gas activities on this area, known as the OCS.  Under the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, as amended, the BOEM within the DOI must prepare and maintain forward-looking five-year plans—referred to as national programs or five-year programs—to schedule proposed oil and gas lease sales on the OCS.  On July 1, 2022, BOEM announced the availability of the Proposed Program for the 2023-2028 timeframe for public comments.  The Proposed Program includes no more than ten potential lease sales in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico.  Inclusion of an area in the Proposed Program is not a final indication that it will be included in the approved 2023-2028 National OCS Program or offered in a lease sale.  In addition, the U.S. previously placed a moratorium on new oil and natural gas leases on federal lands and waters, including the federal OCS.  Future actions taken by the U.S. to limit the availability of new oil and gas leases on the OSC would adversely impact the offshore oil and gas industry and impact demand for our services.

The global nature of our operations involves additional risks.

We operate in various regions throughout the world, which may expose us to political and other uncertainties, including risks of:

terrorist acts, war, piracy and civil unrest;
seizure, expropriation or nationalization of our equipment or of our customers’ property;
customs delays or disputes;
repudiation or nationalization of contracts;
imposition of trade or immigration barriers;
import-export quotas;
wage and price controls;
changes in law and regulatory requirements, including changes in interpretation and enforcement;
involvement in judicial proceedings in unfavorable jurisdictions;
damage to our equipment or violence directed at our employees, including kidnappings;
complications associated with supplying, repairing and replacing equipment in remote locations;
public health threats, including pandemics and epidemics, severe influenza, coronaviruses and other highly communicable viruses or diseases;
the inability to move income or capital; and
currency exchange fluctuations and currency exchange restrictions, including exchange or similar controls that may limit our ability to convert local currency into U.S. dollars and transfer funds out of a local jurisdiction.

Our non-U.S. contract drilling operations are subject to various laws and regulations related to economic and trade sanctions in certain countries in which we operate, including laws and regulations relating to the import and export, equipment and operation of drilling units, currency conversions and repatriation, oil and gas exploration and development, taxation and social contributions of offshore earnings and earnings of expatriate personnel.  We are also subject to the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) and other U.S. and non-U.S. laws and regulations governing our international operations.  In addition, various state and municipal governments, universities and other investors have proposed or adopted divestment and other initiatives regarding investments including, with respect to state governments, by state retirement systems in companies that do business with countries that have been designated as state sponsors of terrorism by the U.S. State Department.  Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations, including those relating to sanctions and export restrictions, may subject us to criminal sanctions or civil remedies, including fines, denial of export privileges, injunctions or seizures of assets.  Investors could view any potential violations of OFAC regulations negatively, which could adversely affect our reputation and the market for our shares.

Governments in some countries have become increasingly active in regulating and controlling the ownership of concessions and companies holding concessions, the exploration for oil and gas and other aspects of the oil and gas industries in their countries, including local content requirements for participating in tenders for certain drilling contracts.  Many governments favor or effectively require the awarding of drilling contracts to local contractors or require nonlocal contractors to employ citizens of, or purchase supplies from, a particular jurisdiction or require use of a local agent.  In addition, government action, including initiatives by OPEC, may continue to cause oil or gas price volatility.  In some areas of the world, this governmental activity has adversely affected the amount of exploration and development work by major energy companies and may continue to do so.

The shipment of goods, services and technology across international borders subjects us to extensive trade laws and regulations.  Our import and export activities are governed by unique customs and export control laws and regulations in each of the countries where we operate.  Moreover, many countries, including the U.S., control the import and export of certain goods, services and technology and impose related import and export recordkeeping and reporting obligations.  Governments also may impose economic sanctions against certain countries, persons and other entities that may restrict or prohibit transactions involving such countries, persons and entities, and we are also subject to the U.S. anti-boycott laws.

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The laws and regulations concerning import and export activity, recordkeeping and reporting, import and export control and economic sanctions are complex and constantly changing.  These laws and regulations may be enacted, amended, enforced or interpreted in a manner materially impacting our operations.  Ongoing economic challenges may increase some governments’ efforts to enact, enforce, amend or interpret laws and regulations as a method to increase revenue.  Shipments can be delayed and denied import or export for a variety of reasons, some of which are outside our control and some of which may result from failure to comply with existing legal and regulatory regimes.  Shipping delays or denials could cause unscheduled operational downtime.

Our results are directly affected by the applicability of certain customs duties and importation tax relief programs under customs regimes for the exportation and importation of goods and equipment, including rigs, related to the oil and gas sector.  Among other incentives, such programs grant full suspension of certain import taxes, resulting in reduced tax burdens from operations.  If unprecedented interpretations are applied by the customs and tax authorities governing  such programs and regimes, including those that would deny us the use of such incentives granted historically in the ordinary course, and assuming we are unable to successfully challenge such interpretation or otherwise able to recover any amounts pursuant to the contractual provisions of the applicable drilling contract, then the amount of the applicable tariff, which would depend on many factors, could reasonably be expected to increase our operating costs.

Our ability to operate worldwide depends on our ability to obtain the necessary visas and work permits for our personnel to travel in and out of, and to work in, the jurisdictions in which we operate.  Governmental actions in some of the jurisdictions in which we operate may make it difficult for us to move our personnel in and out of these jurisdictions by delaying or withholding the approval of these permits.  If we are not able to obtain visas and work permits for the employees we need to conduct our operations on a timely basis, we might not be able to perform our obligations under our drilling contracts, which could allow our customers to cancel the contracts.  If our customers cancel some of our drilling contracts, and we are unable to secure new drilling contracts on a timely basis and on substantially similar terms, it could have a material adverse effect on our business and on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Failure to comply with anti-bribery statutes, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, could result in fines, criminal penalties, drilling contract terminations and an adverse effect on our business.

The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 (“Bribery Act”) and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions, generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business.  We operate in many parts of the world that have experienced corruption to some degree and, in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices.  If we are found to be liable for violations under the FCPA, the Bribery Act or other similar laws, either due to our acts or omissions or due to the acts or omissions of others, including our partners in our various joint ventures and of the current or former officers, directors or employees of any companies we have acquired, we could suffer from civil and criminal penalties or other sanctions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business or our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  In addition, investors could negatively view potential violations, inquiries or allegations of misconduct under the FCPA, the Bribery Act or similar laws, which could adversely affect our reputation and the market for our shares.

We could also face fines, sanctions and other penalties from authorities in relevant jurisdictions, including prohibition of our participating in or curtailment of business operations in those jurisdictions and the seizure of rigs or other assets.  Additionally, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected as a result of claims by customers, agents, shareholders, debt holders, other interest holders, current or former employees or other constituents of our company who, in connection with alleged or actual noncompliance with antibribery and related laws, may seek to impose penalties, seek remedies, terminate drilling contracts or take other actions adverse to our interests.  Our business and results of operations may be adversely affected if we are required to dedicate significant time and resources to investigate and resolve allegations of misconduct, regardless of the merit of such allegations.  Further, disclosure of the subject matter of any investigation could adversely affect our reputation and our ability to obtain new business with potential customers, to retain existing business with our current customers, to attract and retain employees and to access the capital markets.

We are subject to investigations and litigation that, if not resolved in our favor and not sufficiently insured against, could have a material adverse effect on us.

We are subject to a variety of disputes, investigations and litigation.  Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to and have been involved in litigation with certain of our customers and other constituents.  Certain of our subsidiaries are named as defendants in numerous lawsuits alleging personal grievances or injury, including as a result of exposure to asbestos or toxic fumes or resulting from other occupational diseases, such as silicosis, and various other medical issues that can remain undiscovered for a considerable amount of time.  Some of these subsidiaries that have been put on notice of potential liabilities have no assets.  Certain subsidiaries are subject to litigation relating to environmental damage.  Our patent for dual-activity technology has been successfully challenged in certain jurisdictions.  We are also subject to a number of significant tax disputes.  We cannot predict the outcome of these investigations and cases or the potential costs to resolve them.  Insurance may not be applicable or sufficient in all cases, insurers may not remain solvent and policies may not be located.  Suits against non-asset-owning subsidiaries have and may in the future give rise to alter ego or successor-in-interest claims against us and our asset-owning subsidiaries to the extent a subsidiary is unable to pay a claim or insurance is not available or sufficient to cover the claims.  To the extent that one or more pending or future investigations or litigation matters is not resolved in our favor and is not covered by insurance, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

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We are subject to cybersecurity risks and threats as well as increasing regulation of data privacy and security.

We depend on data and digital technologies to conduct our offshore and onshore operations, to collect payments from customers and to pay vendors and employees.  Our data protection measures and measures taken by our customers and vendors may not prevent unauthorized access of information technology systems, and when such unauthorized access occurs, we, our customers or vendors may not detect the incident in time to prevent harm or damage.  Threats to our information technology systems, and the systems of our customers and vendors, associated with cybersecurity risks and cyber-incidents or attacks continue to grow.  Such threats may derive from human error, fraud or malice, social engineering on the part of employees or third parties, or may result from accidental technological failure.  In addition, breaches to our systems and systems of our customers and vendors could go unnoticed for some period of time.  Risks associated with these threats include disruptions of certain systems on our rigs; other impairments of our ability to conduct our operations; loss or ransom of intellectual property, proprietary information, personal identifiable information or customer and vendor data; disruption of our customers’ and vendors’ operations; misappropriation of assets; loss or damage to our customer and vendor data delivery systems; and increased costs to prevent, respond to or mitigate cybersecurity events.  A breach could also originate from, or compromise, our customers’ and vendors’ or other third-party networks outside of our control.  A breach may also result in legal claims or proceedings against us by our shareholders, employees, customers, vendors and governmental authorities, both U.S. and non-U.S.  If such a cyber-incident were to occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our business or on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In addition, data privacy and the unauthorized disclosure of personal data and confidential information pose increasingly complex compliance challenges and have the potential to elevate our costs under various laws and regulations, including privacy regulations that have been adopted or may in the future be adopted by, or be applicable from time to time to, countries, states, and other jurisdictions or authorities.  Any failure by us to comply with these laws and regulations, including as a result of a security or privacy breach, could result in significant penalties, litigation and liabilities for us.  Additionally, if we acquire a company that has violated or is not in compliance with applicable data protection laws, we may incur significant liabilities and penalties as a result.

Acts of terrorism, piracy and political and social unrest could affect the markets for drilling services.

Acts of terrorism and social unrest, brought about by world political events or otherwise, have caused instability in the world’s financial and insurance markets in the past and may occur in the future.  Such acts could be directed against companies such as ours.  In addition, acts of terrorism, piracy and social unrest could lead to increased volatility in prices for crude oil and natural gas and could affect the markets for drilling services.  Insurance premiums could increase and coverage may be unavailable in the future.  Government regulations may effectively preclude us from engaging in business activities in certain countries.  These regulations could be amended to cover countries where we currently operate or where we may wish to operate in the future.  Our drilling contracts do not generally provide indemnification against loss of capital assets or loss of revenues resulting from acts of terrorism, piracy or political or social unrest.  We have limited insurance for our assets providing coverage for physical damage losses resulting from certain risks, such as terrorist acts, piracy, vandalism, sabotage, civil unrest, expropriation and acts of war, and we do not carry insurance for loss of revenues resulting from such risks.

Risks related to taxes

A change in tax laws, treaties or regulations, or their interpretation, of any country in which we have operations, are incorporated or are resident could result in a higher effective tax rate on our consolidated earnings and increase our cash tax payments.

We are subject to changes in applicable tax laws, treaties or regulations in the jurisdictions in which we operate and earn income, and such changes could include laws or policies directed toward companies organized in jurisdictions with low tax rates with the intent to increase the tax burden.  Several jurisdictions have implemented or are expected to implement in the future, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Pillar 2 or other tax related provision that are aimed at preventing base erosion and profit shifting, ensuring income is subject to a minimum level of taxation and preventing treaty misuse.  The application of these provisions is not always certain, and jurisdictions are still developing their rules and interpretations with regard to same.

As such, any material change to tax laws, treaties, regulations or policies, their interpretation or application, or the adoption of new interpretations of existing laws and rulings, in any of the jurisdictions in which we operate, are incorporated or resident, could result in a higher effective tax rate on our worldwide earnings and such change could have a significant adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

A loss of a major tax dispute or a successful tax challenge to our operating structure, intercompany pricing policies or the taxable presence of our key subsidiaries in certain countries could result in a higher effective tax rate on our consolidated earnings and increase our cash tax payments.

We are subject to tax laws, treaties and regulations in the countries in which we operate and earn income.  Our income taxes are based on the applicable tax laws and tax rates in effect in the countries in which we operate and earn income as well as upon our operating structures in these countries.  Our income tax returns are subject to review and examination in these jurisdictions, and we do not recognize the benefit of income tax positions we believe are more likely than not to be disallowed upon challenge by a tax authority.  If any tax authority successfully challenges our operational structure, intercompany pricing policies or the taxable presence of our key subsidiaries in certain

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countries; or if the terms of certain income tax treaties are interpreted in a manner that is adverse to our structure; or if we lose a material tax dispute in any country, our effective tax rate on our worldwide earnings could increase substantially and our earnings and cash flows from operations could be materially adversely affected.  For example, we believe that neither we nor our non-U.S. subsidiaries, other than those that report a U.S. trade or business or a U.S. permanent establishment, were or are engaged in a trade or business in the U.S. or, if applicable, maintained or maintain a permanent establishment in the U.S.  The determination of the aforementioned, among other things, involves considerable uncertainty.  If the U.S. Internal Revenue Service were to disagree, then we could be subject to additional U.S. corporate income and branch profits taxes on the portion of our earnings effectively connected to such U.S. business or, if applicable, attributable to such U.S. permanent establishment during the period in which this was considered to have occurred.  If this occurs, our effective tax rate on worldwide earnings for that period could increase substantially, we could be subject to assessments in previously filed returns that remain open to audit and our earnings and cash flows from operations for that period could be adversely affected.

Risks related to our jurisdiction of organization and governing documents

As a Swiss corporation, our flexibility may be limited with respect to certain aspects of capital management AND swift implementation of certain initiatives or strategies.

Under Swiss law, our shareholders may approve a general share capital authorization, referred to under Swiss law as a capital band, that allows the board of directors to issue new shares without additional shareholder approval within a period of up to five years and for up to a maximum of 50 percent of a company’s issued share capital.  The general share capital authorization approved by our shareholders at the May 2023 annual general meeting will expire on May 11, 2024.  Our currently available authority under this general share capital authorization is equivalent to approximately 17.5 percent of our issued share capital as of February 14, 2024.  Accordingly, shareholders at our annual general meeting in May 2024 may be requested to approve a renewal and increase of our general share capital authorization for an additional term.  Subject to certain exceptions, Swiss law also grants preemptive rights to existing shareholders to subscribe for new issuances of shares.  Further, Swiss law does not provide as much flexibility in the various terms that can attach to different classes of shares as the laws of some other jurisdictions.  Swiss law also reserves for shareholder approval certain corporate actions, such as approval of dividends, over which a board of directors would have authority in some other jurisdictions.  These Swiss law requirements relating to our capital management may limit our flexibility to swiftly implement certain initiatives or strategies, and situations may arise where greater flexibility would have provided substantial benefits to our shareholders.

We are required, from time to time, to evaluate the carrying amount of our investments in affiliates, as presented on our Swiss standalone balance sheet.  If we determine that the carrying amount of any such investment exceeds its fair value, we may conclude that such investment is impaired.  Any recognized loss associated with such a non-cash impairment could result in our net assets no longer covering our statutory share capital and statutory capital reserves.  Under Swiss law, if our net assets cover less than 50 percent of our statutory share capital and the non-distributable part of the statutory capital and profit reserves, the board of directors must take appropriate measures or, to the extent such measures fall within the competence of the general meeting of shareholders, convene a general meeting of shareholders, and propose measures to remedy such a capital loss.  Appropriate measures depend on the relevant circumstances and the magnitude of the recognized loss and may include seeking shareholder approval for offsetting the aggregate loss, or a portion thereof, with our statutory capital reserves, including qualifying additional paid-in capital otherwise available for distributions to shareholders, or raising new equity.  Depending on the circumstances, we may also need to use qualifying additional paid-in capital available for distributions in order to reduce our accumulated net loss and such use might reduce our ability to make distributions without subjecting our shareholders to Swiss withholding tax.

Distributions to shareholders in the form of a par value reduction and dividend distributions out of qualifying additional paid-in capital are currently not subject to the 35 percent Swiss federal withholding tax.  However, the Swiss withholding tax rules could be changed in the future, and any such change may adversely affect us or our shareholders.  In addition, over the long term, the amount of par value available for us to use for par value reductions or the amount of qualifying additional paid-in capital available for us to pay out as distributions is limited.  If we are unable to make a distribution through a reduction in par value, or out of qualifying additional paid-in capital as shown on Transocean Ltd.’s standalone Swiss statutory financial statements, we may not be able to make distributions without subjecting our shareholders to Swiss withholding taxes.

Under Swiss tax law, repurchases of shares for the purposes of capital reduction are treated as a partial liquidation subject to a 35 percent Swiss withholding tax based on the difference between the repurchase price and the related amount of par value and the related amount of qualifying additional paid-in capital, if any.  At our 2009 annual general meeting, our shareholders approved the repurchase of up to CHF 3.50 billion of our shares for cancellation under the share repurchase program.  If we repurchase shares, we expect to use an alternative procedure pursuant to which we repurchase shares via a “virtual second trading line” from market players, such as banks and institutional investors, who are generally entitled to receive a full refund of the Swiss withholding tax.  The use of such “virtual second trading line” with respect to share repurchase programs is subject to the approval of the competent Swiss tax and other authorities.  We may not be able to repurchase as many shares as we would like to repurchase for purposes of capital reduction on the “virtual second trading line” without subjecting the selling shareholders to Swiss withholding taxes.

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We are subject to anti-takeover provisions.

Our articles of association and Swiss law contain provisions that could prevent or delay an acquisition of the company by means of a tender offer, a proxy contest or otherwise.  Actions taken under such provisions may adversely affect prevailing market prices for our shares, and could, among other things:

provide that the board of directors is authorized to issue a specified number of shares, which under our current general share capital authorization as of February 14, 2024 is approximately 17.5 percent of the share capital registered in the commercial register, and to limit or withdraw the preemptive rights of existing shareholders in various circumstances.  Pursuant to the terms of the current general share capital authorization, the board’s authority to issue new shares expires on May 11, 2024, subject to shareholders approving a renewal or increase of this authorization in accordance with the current company practice;
provide for a conditional share capital that authorizes the issuance of additional shares up to a maximum amount of approximately 16.9 percent of the share capital registered in the commercial register as of February 14, 2024 without obtaining additional shareholder approval through: (1) the exercise of conversion, exchange, option, warrant or similar rights for the subscription of shares granted in connection with bonds, options, warrants or other securities newly or already issued in national or international capital markets or new or already existing contractual obligations by or of any of our subsidiaries; or (2) in connection with the issuance of shares, options or other share-based awards;
provide that any shareholder who wishes to propose any business or to nominate a person or persons for election as director at any annual meeting may only do so if we are given advance notice;
provide that directors can be removed from office only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3 percent of the shares entitled to vote;
provide that a merger or demerger transaction requires the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3 percent of the shares represented at the meeting and provide for the possibility of a so-called cash-out or squeeze-out merger if the acquirer controls 90 percent of the outstanding shares entitled to vote at the meeting;
provide that any action required or permitted to be taken by the holders of shares must be taken at a duly called annual or extraordinary general meeting of shareholders;
limit the ability of our shareholders to amend or repeal some provisions of our articles of association; and
limit transactions between us and an “interested shareholder,” which is generally defined as a shareholder that, together with its affiliates and associates, beneficially, directly or indirectly, owns 15 percent or more of our shares entitled to vote at a general meeting.

Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 1C.Cybersecurity

Risk management and strategy

Our approach to managing cybersecurity risk and safeguarding information across our organization embeds data protection and cybersecurity risk management throughout our enterprise and daily operations.  We maintain processes for identifying, assessing and managing material risks, including such risks from cybersecurity threats, and such processes are integrated into our overall risk management system.  Our enterprise risk register inventories significant risks to our company, including significant cybersecurity risks, and we maintain a separate functional risk register, specifically focusing on potential cybersecurity risks.  Within these risk registers, we record each identified risk, describe its likelihood of occurrence and assess its potential impact, including the materiality thereof.  As part of this exercise, mitigating measures are planned and implemented into action as necessary.  As an additional feature of our cybersecurity risk management process, we have engaged an external third-party service provider to support our cybersecurity team and perform certain periodic external evaluations in addition to the assessments and network penetration tests we perform internally.

We undertake to align our cybersecurity program, which encompasses both enterprise security and operational security, with the standards of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework.  We maintain continuous cyber threat-detection systems and have established an incident response plan, which contains playbooks for addressing and recovering from potential material cyberattacks and breaches of data security.  In addition to security measures for third-party vendors, we require onboarding orientation and periodic training covering cybersecurity and information management for all employees and board members and conduct regular cybersecurity awareness campaigns.

As of the date of our filing of this report, we are not aware of any cybersecurity incident that has had or is reasonably likely to have a material impact on our business operations.  Given the rapid evolution of cyber-related attack techniques, cybersecurity risks associated with our information technology systems and the systems of our customers and vendors continue to grow.  Notwithstanding our cybersecurity management processes, a future cybersecurity incident could have a material adverse effect on our business or on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  See “Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks related to laws, regulation, and governmental compliance—We are subject to cybersecurity risks and threats as well as increasing regulation of data privacy and security.”

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Governance

We involve multiple levels of oversight as a part of our approach to cybersecurity risk management.  Our board of directors oversees our enterprise risk register and cybersecurity program, including related policies and procedures.  As part of this oversight, the audit committee of our board of directors receives regular status reports and updates from our management team and conducts periodic executive sessions with our Chief Information Officer.  Such status reports and executive sessions cover cybersecurity matters, such as developments to our program, key risk indicators, emerging risks, and identified incidents.

In addition, our Chief Information Officer, who has more than 40 years of industry experience and over 20 years of experience with the development, training and controls of effective global enterprise cybersecurity programs, oversees the implementation and compliance of our cybersecurity program and mitigation of information security related risks.  Such oversight includes (i) reviewing our enterprise risk register, (ii) maintaining adequate processes to manage the identified risks under our cybersecurity program, (iii) regularly analyzing logs of cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities and (iv) overseeing prevention, detection, mitigation and remediation efforts in general, including the development and maintenance of the above-mentioned incident response plan.  Additionally, we maintain an experienced information technology team at the employee level that supports our Chief Information Officer in implementing our cybersecurity program and internal reporting, security and mitigation functions.

Item 2.Properties

The description of our property included under “Item 1. Business” is incorporated by reference herein.  We maintain offices, land bases and other facilities worldwide, most of which we lease, including principal executive offices in Steinhausen, Switzerland, and corporate offices in Houston, Texas, and the Cayman Islands.  We maintain additional offices and bases in various countries in North America, Europe, South America, Asia, Africa and Australia.

Item 3.Legal Proceedings

We have certain actions, claims and other matters pending as discussed and reported in “Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 13—Commitments and Contingencies” and “Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Other Matters—Regulatory Matters” in our annual report on Form 10-K.  We are also involved in various tax matters as described in “Part II. Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data—Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements—Note 11—Income Taxes” and in “Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Other Matters—Tax matters” in this annual report on Form 10-K.  All such actions, claims, tax and other matters disclosed therein are incorporated herein by reference.

As of December 31, 2023, we were involved in a number of other lawsuits, regulatory matters, disputes and claims, asserted and unasserted, all of which constitute ordinary routine litigation incidental to our business and for which we do not expect the liability, if any, to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.  We cannot predict with certainty the outcome or effect of any of the matters referred to above or of any such other pending, threatened or possible litigation or legal proceedings.  We can provide no assurance that our beliefs or expectations as to the outcome or effect of any lawsuit or claim or dispute will prove correct, and the eventual outcome of these matters could materially differ from management’s current estimates.

On December 17, 2021, Transocean Offshore Deepwater Drilling Inc. (“TODDI”), our wholly owned subsidiary, received a letter from the U.S. Department of Justice (the “DOJ”) related to alleged violations by our subsidiary of its Clean Water Act (“CWA”) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit for the western Gulf of Mexico (“Permit”).  The alleged violations, involving seven of our drillships, were identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) following an initial inspection in 2018 of our compliance with the Permit and the CWA and relate to deficiencies with respect to administrative monitoring and reporting obligations.  In connection with the initial EPA inspection, we initiated modifications to our Permit and CWA compliance processes and maintained a dialogue with the EPA regarding the design and implementation of enhancements to these processes.  At the DOJ’s invitation, in an effort to resolve the matter, we initiated settlement discussions with the DOJ, which concluded with the execution of a civil consent decree by and between the DOJ, EPA, and TODDI, effective January 6, 2024 (the “Consent Decree”), that resolved the claims of the DOJ based upon the alleged violations of our Permit and the CWA.  Pursuant to the Consent Decree, we agreed to pay an immaterial monetary civil penalty, and we further agreed (i) to take or continue to take certain corrective actions to ensure current and future Permit and CWA compliance, including implementing certain procedures and submitting reports and other information, in each case according to the timelines and as described in the Consent Decree, (ii) to appoint an independent auditor to review, audit and report on our compliance with certain of our obligations thereunder, and (iii) to certain non-exclusive stipulated monetary penalties if we fail to comply with applicable provisions of the Consent Decree.  We may request termination of the Consent Decree after we have (x) completed timely the civil penalty payment and any accrued stipulated penalty requirements of the Consent Decree, and (y) maintained continuous satisfactory compliance with the Consent Decree for at least three years.  We do not believe that the enforcement of the Consent Decree would have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

In addition to the legal proceedings described above, we may from time to time identify other matters that we monitor through our compliance program or in response to events arising generally within our industry and in the markets where we do business.  We evaluate

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matters on a case-by-case basis, investigate allegations in accordance with our policies and cooperate with applicable governmental authorities.  Through the process of monitoring and proactive investigation, we strive to ensure no violation of our policies, Code of Integrity or law has occurred, or will occur; however, we can provide no assurance as to the outcome of these matters.

Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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Information About Our Executive Officers

We have included the following information, presented as of February 14, 2024, on our executive officers for purposes of U.S. securities laws in Part I of this report in reliance on General Instruction G(3) to Form 10-K.  The board of directors elects the officers of the Company, generally on an annual basis.  There is no family relationship between any of our executive officers.

Age as of

Officer

    

Office

    

February 14, 2024

 

Jeremy D. Thigpen

(a)

 

Chief Executive Officer

 

49

Keelan Adamson

(a)

President and Chief Operating Officer

54

Howard E. Davis

Executive Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer and Chief Information Officer

65

Brady K. Long

 

Executive Vice President and General Counsel

 

51

Mark L. Mey

(a)

 

Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

 

60

David Tonnel

 

Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer

 

54

(a)Member of our executive management team for purposes of Swiss law.

Jeremy D. Thigpen is Chief Executive Officer and a member of the Company’s board of directors.  Before joining the Company in this position in April 2015, Mr. Thigpen served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer at National Oilwell Varco, Inc. from December 2012 to April 2015.  At National Oilwell Varco, Inc., Mr. Thigpen also served as President, Downhole and Pumping Solutions from August 2007 to December 2012, as President of the Downhole Tools Group from May 2003 to August 2007 and as manager of the Downhole Tools Group from April 2002 to May 2003.  From 2000 to 2002, Mr. Thigpen served as the Director of Business Development and Special Assistant to the Chairman for National Oilwell Varco, Inc.  Mr. Thigpen earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics and Managerial Studies from Rice University in 1997, and he completed the Program for Management Development at Harvard Business School in 2001.

Keelan Adamson is President and Chief Operating Officer of the Company.  Before being named to his current position in February 2022, Mr. Adamson served as Executive Vice President and Chief Operations Officer from August 2018 to February 2022, as Senior Vice President, Operations from October 2017 to July 2018 and as Senior Vice President, Operations Integrity and HSE, from June 2015 to October 2017.  Since 2010, Mr. Adamson served in multiple executive positions with responsibilities spanning Engineering and Technical Services, Major Capital Projects, Human Resources, and more recently, Operations Integrity and HSE.  Mr. Adamson started his career as a drilling engineer with BP Exploration in 1991 and joined Transocean in July 1995.  In addition to several management assignments in the U.K., Asia, and Africa, he also held leadership roles in Sales and Marketing, Well Construction and Technology, and as Managing Director for operations in North America, Canada and Trinidad.  Mr. Adamson earned a bachelor's degree in Aeronautical Engineering from The Queens University of Belfast and completed the Advanced Management program at Harvard Business School in 2016.

Howard E. Davis is Executive Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer and Chief Information Officer of the Company.  Before joining the Company in this position in August 2015, Mr. Davis served as Senior Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer and Chief Information Officer of National Oilwell Varco, Inc. from March 2005 to April 2015 and as Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer and Chief Information Officer from August 2002 to March 2005.  Mr. Davis earned a bachelor’s degree from University of Kentucky in 1980, and he completed the Advanced Management Program at Harvard Business School in 2005.

Brady K. Long is Executive Vice President and General Counsel of the Company.  Before being named to his current position in March 2018, Mr. Long served as Senior Vice President and General Counsel from November 2015 to March 2018.  From 2011 to November 2015, when Mr. Long joined the Company, he served as Vice President—General Counsel and Secretary of Ensco plc, which acquired Pride International, Inc. where he had served as Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since August 2009.  Mr. Long joined Pride International, Inc. in June 2005 as Assistant General Counsel and served as Chief Compliance Officer from June 2006 to February 2009.  He was director of Transocean Partners LLC from May 2016 until December 2016.  Mr. Long previously practiced corporate and securities law with the law firm of Bracewell LLP.  Mr. Long earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from Brigham Young University in 1996, a Juris Doctorate degree from the University of Texas School of Law in 1999 and an Executive LLM in Taxation from New York University in 2019.

Mark L. Mey is Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of the Company.  Before joining the Company in this position in May 2015, Mr. Mey served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Atwood Oceanics, Inc. from January 2015 to May 2015, prior to which he served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from August 2010.  Mr. Mey was director of Transocean Partners LLC from June 2015 until December 2016.  He served as Director, Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Scorpion Offshore Ltd. from August 2005 to July 2010.  Prior to 2005, Mr. Mey held various senior financial and other roles in the drilling and financial services industries, including 12 years with Noble Corporation.  He earned an Advanced Diploma in Accounting and a Bachelor of Commerce degree from the University of Port Elizabeth in South Africa in 1985, and he is a chartered accountant.  Additionally, Mr. Mey completed the Harvard Business School Executive Advanced Management Program in 1998.

David Tonnel is Senior Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer.  Before being named to his current position in April 2017, he served as Senior Vice President, Supply Chain and Corporate Controller from October 2015 to April 2017, as Senior Vice President, Finance and Controller from March 2012 to October 2015 and as Senior Vice President of the Europe and Africa Unit from June 2009 to March 2012.  Mr. Tonnel served as Vice President of Global Supply Chain from November 2008 to June 2009, as Vice President of Integration and Process Improvement from November 2007 to November 2008, and as Vice President and Controller from February 2005 to November 2007.  Prior to February 2005, he served in various financial roles, including Assistant Controller; Finance Manager, Asia Australia Region; and Controller, Nigeria.  Mr. Tonnel joined the Company in 1996 after working for Ernst & Young in France as Senior Auditor.  Mr. Tonnel earned a Master of Science degree in Management from HEC in Paris, France in 1991.

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PART II

Item 5.Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market for Shares of Our Common Equity

Our shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “RIG.”  On February 14, 2024, we had 809,030,846 shares outstanding and 4,694 holders of record of our shares.

Shareholder Matters

Swiss tax consequences to our shareholders

Overview—The tax consequences discussed below are not a complete analysis or listing of all the possible tax consequences that may be relevant to our shareholders.  Shareholders should consult their own tax advisors in respect of the tax consequences related to receipt, ownership, purchase or sale or other disposition of our shares and the procedures for claiming a refund of withholding tax.

Swiss income tax on dividends and similar distributions—A non-Swiss holder is not subject to Swiss income taxes on dividend income and similar distributions in respect of our shares, unless the shares are attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed place of business maintained in Switzerland by such non-Swiss holder.  However, dividends and similar distributions are subject to Swiss withholding tax, subject to certain exceptions.  See “—Swiss withholding tax on dividends and similar distributions to shareholders.”

Swiss wealth tax—A non-Swiss holder is not subject to Swiss wealth taxes unless the holder’s shares are attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed place of business maintained in Switzerland by such non-Swiss holder.

Swiss capital gains tax upon disposal of shares—A non-Swiss holder is not subject to Swiss income taxes for capital gains unless the holder’s shares are attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed place of business maintained in Switzerland by such non-Swiss holder.  In such case, the non-Swiss holder is required to recognize capital gains or losses on the sale of such shares, which are subject to cantonal, communal and federal income tax.

Swiss withholding tax on dividends and similar distributions to shareholders—A Swiss withholding tax of 35 percent is due on dividends and similar distributions to our shareholders from us, regardless of the place of residency of the shareholder, subject to the exceptions discussed under “—Exemption” below.  We will be required to withhold at such rate and remit on a net basis any payments made to a holder of our shares and pay such withheld amounts to the Swiss federal tax authorities.

Exemption—Distributions to shareholders in the form of a par value reduction or out of qualifying additional paid-in capital for Swiss statutory purposes are exempt from Swiss withholding tax.  On December 31, 2023, the aggregate amount of par value of our outstanding shares was CHF 80.9 million, equivalent to approximately $96.2 million, and the aggregate amount of qualifying additional paid-in capital of our outstanding shares was CHF 14.4 billion, equivalent to approximately $17.1 billion.  Consequently, we expect that a substantial amount of any potential future distributions may be exempt from Swiss withholding tax.

Refund available to Swiss holders—A Swiss tax resident, corporate or individual, can recover the withholding tax in full if such resident is the beneficial owner of our shares at the time the dividend or other distribution becomes due and provided that such resident reports the gross distribution received on such resident’s income tax return, or in the case of an entity, includes the taxable income in such resident’s income statement.

Refund available to non-Swiss holders—If the shareholder that receives a distribution from us is not a Swiss tax resident, does not hold our shares in connection with a permanent establishment or a fixed place of business maintained in Switzerland, and resides in a country that has concluded a treaty for the avoidance of double taxation with Switzerland for which the conditions for the application and protection of and by the treaty are met, then the shareholder may be entitled to a full or partial refund of the withholding tax described above.  Switzerland has entered into bilateral treaties for the avoidance of double taxation with respect to income taxes with numerous countries, including the United States (“U.S.”), whereby under certain circumstances all or part of the withholding tax may be refunded.  The procedures for claiming treaty refunds, and the time frame required for obtaining a refund, may differ from country to country.

Refund available to U.S. residents—The Swiss-U.S. tax treaty provides that U.S. residents eligible for benefits under the treaty can seek a refund of the Swiss withholding tax on dividends for the portion exceeding 15 percent, leading to a refund of 20 percent, or a 100 percent refund in the case of qualified pension funds.  As a general rule, the refund will be granted under the treaty if the U.S. resident can show evidence of the following: (a) beneficial ownership, (b) U.S. residency and (c) meeting the U.S.-Swiss tax treaty’s limitation on benefits requirements.  The claim for refund must be filed with the Swiss federal tax authorities (Eigerstrasse 65, 3003 Bern, Switzerland), not later than December 31 of the third year following the year in which the dividend payments became due.  The relevant Swiss tax form is Form 82C for companies, 82E for other entities and 82I for individuals.  These forms can be obtained from any Swiss Consulate General in the U.S. or from the Swiss federal tax authorities at the above address or can be downloaded from the webpage of the Swiss federal tax administration.  Each form must be completed in triplicate, with each copy duly completed and signed before a notary public in the U.S.  Evidence that the withholding tax was withheld at the source must also be included.

- 25 -

Stamp duties in relation to the transfer of shares—The purchase or sale of our shares may be subject to Swiss federal stamp taxes on the transfer of securities irrespective of the place of residency of the purchaser or seller if the transaction takes place through or with a Swiss bank or other Swiss securities dealer, as those terms are defined in the Swiss Federal Stamp Tax Act and no exemption applies in the specific case.  If a purchase or sale is not entered into through or with a Swiss bank or other Swiss securities dealer, then no stamp tax will be due.  The applicable stamp tax rate is 0.075 percent for each of the two parties to a transaction and is calculated based on the purchase price or sale proceeds.  If the transaction does not involve cash consideration, the transfer stamp duty is computed on the basis of the market value of the consideration.

Share repurchases

Overview—Shares repurchased for the purpose of capital reduction are treated as a partial liquidation subject to a 35 percent Swiss withholding tax based on the difference between the repurchase price and the related amount of par value and the related amount of qualifying additional paid-in capital, if any.  We would be required to remit on a net basis the purchase price with the Swiss withholding tax deducted to a holder of our shares and pay the withholding tax to the Swiss federal tax authorities.  However, for such repurchased shares, the portions of the repurchase price that are attributable to the par value and the qualifying additional paid-in capital for Swiss statutory reporting purposes are not subject to the Swiss withholding tax.

If we repurchase shares, we expect to use an alternative procedure pursuant to which we repurchase our shares via a "virtual second trading line" from market players, such as banks and institutional investors, who are generally entitled to receive a full refund of the Swiss withholding tax.  The use of such “virtual second trading line” with respect to share repurchase programs is subject to approval of the competent Swiss tax and other authorities.  We may not be able to repurchase as many shares as we would like to repurchase for purposes of capital reduction on the “virtual second trading line” without subjecting the selling shareholders to Swiss withholding taxes.  The repurchase of shares for purposes other than for cancellation, such as to retain as treasury shares for use in connection with stock incentive plans, convertible debt or other instruments within certain periods, are not generally subject to Swiss withholding tax.  In addition, in December 2022, the U.S. Department of the Treasury released proposed regulations under the Inflation Reduction Act, whereby an excise tax of one percent would be imposed on stock repurchases in the event one of our U.S. subsidiaries funds the stock repurchase.

Under Swiss corporate law, the right of a company and its subsidiaries to repurchase and hold its own shares is limited.  A company may repurchase its shares to the extent it has freely distributable reserves as shown on its Swiss statutory balance sheet in the amount of the purchase price and if the aggregate par value of all shares held by the company as treasury shares does not exceed 10 percent of the company’s share capital recorded in the Swiss Commercial Register, whereby for purposes of determining whether the 10 percent threshold has been reached, shares repurchased under a share repurchase program for cancellation purposes authorized by the company’s shareholders are disregarded.  As of February 14, 2024, Transocean Inc., our wholly owned subsidiary, held as treasury shares 4.11 percent of our issued shares.  Our board of directors could, to the extent freely distributable reserves are available, authorize the repurchase of additional shares for purposes other than cancellation, such as to retain treasury shares for use in satisfying our obligations in connection with incentive plans or other rights to acquire our shares.  Based on the number of shares held as treasury shares as of February 14, 2024, 5.89 percent of our issued shares could be repurchased for purposes of retention as additional treasury shares.  Although our board of directors has not approved such a share repurchase program for the purpose of retaining repurchased shares as treasury shares, if it did so, any such shares repurchased would be in addition to any shares repurchased under the currently approved program.

Share repurchase program—In May 2009, at our annual general meeting, our shareholders approved and authorized our board of directors, at its discretion, to repurchase for cancellation any amount of our shares for an aggregate purchase price of up to CHF 3.50 billion.  On February 12, 2010, our board of directors authorized our management to implement the share repurchase program.  At December 31, 2023, the authorization remaining under the share repurchase program was for the repurchase of our outstanding shares for an aggregate purchase price of up to CHF 3.24 billion, equivalent to $3.85 billion.  We intend to fund any repurchases using available cash balances and cash from operating activities.  The share repurchase program could be suspended or discontinued by our board of directors or company management, as applicable, at any time.  We may decide, based on our ongoing capital requirements, the price of our shares, regulatory and tax considerations, cash flow generation, the amount and duration of our contract backlog, general market conditions, debt rating considerations and other factors, that we should retain cash, reduce debt, make capital investments or acquisitions or otherwise use cash for general corporate purposes.  Decisions regarding the amount, if any, and timing of any share repurchases will be made from time to time based on these factors.  Any repurchased shares under the share repurchase program would be held by us for cancellation by the shareholders at a future general meeting of shareholders.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Total number of shares

Approximate dollar value

Total number

Average

purchased as part

of shares that may yet

of shares

price paid

of publicly announced

be purchased under the plans

Period

    

purchased

    

per share

    

plans or programs (a)

    

or programs (in millions) (a)

 

October 2023

$

 

$

3,855

November 2023

3,855

December 2023

3,855

Total

$

 

$

3,855

- 26 -

Item 6.RESERVED

Item 7.Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Introduction

Transocean Ltd. (together with its subsidiaries and predecessors, unless the context requires otherwise, “Transocean,” “we,” “us” or “our”) is a leading international provider of offshore contract drilling services for oil and gas wells.  As of February 14, 2024, we owned or had partial ownership interests in and operated 37 mobile offshore drilling units, consisting of 28 ultra-deepwater floaters and nine harsh environment floaters.  Additionally, as of February 14, 2024, we were constructing one ultra-deepwater drillship.

We provide, as our primary business, contract drilling services in a single operating segment, which involves contracting our mobile offshore drilling rigs, related equipment and work crews to drill oil and gas wells.  We specialize in technically demanding regions of the global offshore drilling business with a particular focus on ultra-deepwater and harsh environment drilling services.  Our drilling fleet is one of the most versatile fleets in the world, consisting of drillships and semisubmersible floaters used in support of offshore drilling activities and offshore support services on a worldwide basis.

We perform contract drilling services by deploying our high-specification fleet in a single, global market that is geographically dispersed in oil and gas exploration and development areas throughout the world.  Although rigs can be moved from one region to another, the cost of moving rigs and the availability of rig-moving vessels may cause the supply and demand balance to fluctuate somewhat between regions.  Still, significant variations between regions do not tend to persist long term because of rig mobility.  The location of our rigs and the allocation of resources to operate, build or upgrade our rigs are determined by the activities and needs of our customers.

The information contained in this section should be read in conjunction with the information contained in “Part I. Item 1. Business,” “Part I. Item 1A. Risk Factors” and the audited consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included under “Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” elsewhere in this annual report on Form 10-K.  The following discussion of our results of operations and liquidity and capital resources includes comparisons for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.  For a discussion, including comparisons, of our results of operations and liquidity and capital resources for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, see “Part II. Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the United States (“U.S.”) Securities and Exchange Commission on February 23, 2023.

Significant Events

Fleet expansion—In May 2023, we completed the construction of and placed into service the ultra-deepwater floater Deepwater Titan, the first drillship equipped with two 20,000 psi blowout preventers.  Additionally, in September 2023, we issued 11.9 million Transocean Ltd. shares with an aggregate value of $99 million to acquire the outstanding ownership interests of Liquila Ventures Ltd. (together with its subsidiaries, “Liquila”), a previously unconsolidated variable interest entity that is constructing the ultra-deepwater drillship Deepwater Aquila, and as a result, Liquila became our wholly owned subsidiary.  See “—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Sources and uses of liquidity.”

Secured debt issuance—In January 2023, we issued $525 million aggregate principal amount of 8.375% senior secured notes due February 2028 (the “8.375% Senior Secured Notes”), and we received $516 million aggregate cash proceeds, net of issue costs.  In January 2023, we issued $1.175 billion aggregate principal amount of 8.75% senior secured notes due February 2030 (the “8.75% Senior Secured Notes”), and we received $1.148 billion aggregate cash proceeds, net of issue costs.  In October 2023, we issued $325 million aggregate principal amount of 8.00% senior secured notes due September 2028 (the “8.00% Senior Secured Notes”), and we received $319 million aggregate cash proceeds, net of issue costs.  See “—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Sources and uses of liquidity.”

Early debt retirement—In January 2023, in connection with the issuance of the 8.75% Senior Secured Notes, we made an aggregate cash payment of $1.159 billion, including a make-whole premium, to redeem the remaining outstanding $311 million, $240 million, $250 million, and $336 million aggregate principal amount of the 5.875% senior secured notes due January 2024, the 7.75% senior secured notes due October 2024, the 6.25% senior secured notes due December 2024  and the 6.125% senior secured notes due August 2025, respectively.  In the year ended December 31, 2023, we made a cash payment of $243 million to redeem an equivalent aggregate principal amount of the outstanding 5.375% senior secured notes due May 2023.  See “—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Sources and uses of liquidity.”

Exchanged bonds—In the year ended December 31, 2023, holders of the outstanding $238 million aggregate principal amount of the 2.50% senior guaranteed exchangeable bonds due January 2027 (the “2.50% Senior Guaranteed Exchangeable Bonds”) exchanged such bonds under the terms of the governing indenture, and as part of the transactions, we delivered 38.6 million Transocean Ltd. shares.  In October 2023, our wholly owned subsidiary, Transocean Inc., entered into individually negotiated agreements with holders of $60 million and $41 million aggregate principal amount of the 4.00% senior guaranteed exchangeable bonds due December 2025 (the “4.00% Senior Guaranteed Exchangeable Bonds”) and the 4.625% senior guaranteed exchangeable bonds due September 2029 (the “4.625% Senior Guaranteed Exchangeable Bonds”), respectively and, as part of the transactions, we delivered 26.5 million Transocean Ltd. shares to such holders. See “—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Sources and uses of liquidity.”

- 27 -

Asset disposal and investment in unconsolidated affiliate—In February 2023, we made a cash contribution of $10 million and a non-cash contribution of the ultra-deepwater floater Ocean Rig Olympia, and related assets, with an estimated fair value of $85 million, in exchange for an equity ownership interest in Global Sea Mineral Resources NV (together with its subsidiaries, “GSR”).  In the year ended December 31, 2023, we recognized a loss of $169 million, which had no tax effect, associated with the disposal of the rig and related assets.  See “—Operating Results,” “—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Sources and uses of liquidity”.

Impairment and disposal of assets held for sale—In the year ended December 31, 2023, we recognized an aggregate loss of $57 million, which had no tax effect, associated with the impairment of the harsh environment floaters Paul B. Loyd, Jr. and Transocean Leader and related assets, which we determined were impaired at the time that we classified the assets as held for sale.  On February 15, 2024, we completed the sale of Paul B. Loyd, Jr. and Transocean Leader and related assets.  See “—Operating Results” and “—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Sources and uses of liquidity.”

Outlook

Drilling market—Our industry outlook is positive based upon underlying economic factors, including numerous long-term forecasts that indicate hydrocarbons will continue to be a critical source of energy for the foreseeable future, despite significant relative growth in alternative energy technologies, which remain less economical versus hydrocarbons.  Economic forecasts indicate that countries that are not members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development will continue to experience population growth and improvement in living standards, which will compound the increase in energy demand for the foreseeable future.  We believe that these factors will contribute to robust demand for oil and gas.

The existing supply of oil and gas is depleting and requires replenishment.  The replacement of reserves remains critically important given the significant underinvestment during the last several years and the challenges to new exploration and production investments imposed on many industry participants by investors and the governments of oil and gas producing nations.  Additionally, energy security will remain an important geopolitical factor across Europe, the U.S. and elsewhere with the growing understanding that hydrocarbons are not easily displaced by alternatives for much of the world’s energy needs.

With deepwater and harsh environment fields generating favorable economic returns and relatively lower carbon intensity than other hydrocarbon sources, we expect a significant portion of the required spending in fossil fuel development will continue to be allocated to deepwater and harsh environment projects.  Although the price for oil may continue to exhibit volatility in response to several factors outside of our control, including uncertainty about future output from the major oil and gas producing countries, interest rate changes, geopolitical events and global economic growth, we nevertheless expect prices to remain at levels that are robustly supportive of investment in deepwater and harsh environment exploration and development projects.

Significantly reduced offshore contracting activity during the previous downcycle has also resulted in a much smaller marketable global fleet of floating rigs available to meet the current upcycle in expected customer demands, specifically with respect to the highest specification drilling units preferred by many of our customers for their projects.  In recent quarters, marketable supply and demand for deepwater and harsh environment rigs has become more balanced.  Customers are now planning further into the future to ensure availability of rigs for their drilling programs and are signing contracts with longer lead times and durations, as well as higher dayrates.  Our customers continue to pursue offshore projects in deepwater and harsh environments where rates of return and production volumes are anticipated to be very attractive, which is reflected in the resumption of postponed projects, commencement of new drilling and exploration campaigns and extensions of current drilling campaigns.

Offshore drilling activity remains robust in every major ultra-deepwater geographic sector.  Several new exploration and development programs have commenced as our customers return their focus to reserve replacement.  Consequently, tendering activity improved meaningfully during 2023 and several multi-year tenders and direct negotiations for work in Brazil, West Africa, North America and Australia were awarded.  Many tenders remain active and are expected to be awarded in the first half of 2024.

South America, the Gulf of Mexico and, increasingly, Africa are key ultra-deepwater market sectors.  In the last two years, we observed sustained increases in dayrates for projects in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and Brazil.  We continue to see these trends expand to other deepwater sectors.

In Norway, the largest market for harsh environment rigs, we anticipate demand will accelerate and extend through at least 2027, primarily due to previously enacted Norwegian tax incentive programs.  Several rigs have departed the region to work in other emerging harsh environment regions that require high-specification, high-efficiency semisubmersibles.  Contract durations, including subsequent extensions, on most of these units could make them unavailable to relocate for the foreseeable future.  We believe that these and other factors affecting supply and demand for drilling rigs are likely to have a favorable influence on dayrates and contracting terms as competition increases for high-specification, high-efficiency semisubmersibles.

As we project that this increased demand for both our asset groups will be sustained in the coming years, and as there are now fewer high-specification offshore drilling rigs capable of operating in these markets, we believe this demand may prompt the reactivation of cold-stacked rigs and the delivery of remaining stranded newbuild assets.

- 28 -

As of February 14, 2024, our contract backlog was $9.01 billion compared to $9.40 billion as of October 18, 2023.  The risks of drilling project delays, contract renegotiations and contract terminations and cancellations remain low as oil prices have stayed at levels that are supportive of investment in deepwater and harsh environment projects.

Fleet status—We refer to the availability of our rigs in terms of the uncommitted fleet rate.  The uncommitted fleet rate is defined as the number of uncommitted days divided by the total number of rig calendar days in the measurement period, expressed as a percentage.  An uncommitted day is defined as a calendar day during which a rig is idle or stacked, is not contracted to a customer and is not committed to a shipyard.  The uncommitted fleet rates exclude the effect of priced options.  As of February 14, 2024, our uncommitted fleet rates for each of the five years in the period ending December 31, 2028 were as follows:

    

2024

    

2025

    

2026

    

2027

    

2028

 

Uncommitted fleet rate

Ultra-deepwater floaters

47

%  

58

%  

69

%  

79

%  

92

%

Harsh environment floaters

23

%  

37

%  

69

%  

93

%  

100

%

Performance and Other Key Indicators

Contract backlog—We believe our industry leading contract backlog sets us apart from the competition and provides indicators of our future revenue-earning opportunities.  Contract backlog is defined as the maximum contractual operating dayrate multiplied by the number of days remaining in the firm contract period, excluding revenues for mobilization, demobilization, contract preparation, other incentive provisions or reimbursement revenues, which are not expected to be significant to our contract drilling revenues.  The contract backlog represents the maximum contract drilling revenues that can be earned considering the contractual operating dayrate in effect during the firm contract period.  The contract backlog for our fleet was as follows:

February 14,

October 18,

February 9,

 

   

2024

   

2023

   

2023

 

(in millions)

 

Contract backlog

Ultra-deepwater floaters

$

6,951

 

$

7,426

 

$

7,378

Harsh environment floaters

2,057

1,969

1,159

Total contract backlog

 

$

9,008

 

$

9,395

 

$

8,537

Our contract backlog includes only firm commitments, including amounts associated with our contracted newbuild units under construction, which are represented by signed drilling contracts or, in some cases, by other definitive agreements awaiting contract execution.  It does not include conditional agreements and options to extend firm commitments.

The average contractual dayrate relative to our contract backlog is defined as the average maximum contractual operating dayrate to be earned per operating day in the measurement period.  An operating day is defined as a day for which a rig is contracted to earn a dayrate during the firm contract period after operations commence.  At February 14, 2024, the contract backlog and average contractual dayrates for our fleet were as follows:

For the years ending December 31,

 

    

Total

    

2024

    

2025

    

2026

    

2027

    

2028

    

Thereafter

 

(in millions, except average dayrates)

 

Contract backlog

Ultra-deepwater floaters

 

$

6,951

 

$

1,984

 

$

1,965

$

1,486

$

1,031

$

381

$

104

Harsh environment floaters

2,057

762

791

415

89

Total contract backlog

 

$

9,008

 

$

2,746

 

$

2,756

$

1,901

$