10-K 1 rjf-20210930.htm 10-K rjf-20210930
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021
Or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from            to           
Commission file number 1-9109
RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Florida59-1517485
(State or other jurisdiction of(I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)Identification No.)
880 Carillon Parkway St. PetersburgFlorida33716
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(727) 567-1000
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.01 par valueRJFNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act:None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
 
As of March 31, 2021, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant computed by reference to the price at which the common stock was last sold was $15,122,502,109.

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock as of November 18, 2021 was 206,161,694.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement to be delivered to shareholders in connection with the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held February 24, 2022 are incorporated by reference into Part III.



RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
  PAGE
PART I. 
   
Item 1.Business
 3
Item 1A.Risk factors
Item 1B.Unresolved staff comments
Item 2.Properties
Item 3.Legal proceedings
Item 4.Mine safety disclosures
PART II.
  
Item 5.
Market for registrant’s common equity, related shareholder matters and issuer purchases of equity securities
Item 6.Reserved
Item 7.Management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations
Item 7A.Quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk
Item 8.Financial statements and supplementary data
Item 9.Changes in and disagreements with accountants on accounting and financial disclosure
Item 9A.Controls and procedures
Item 9B.Other information
Item 9C.Disclosure regarding foreign jurisdictions that prevent inspection
PART III.
Item 10.Directors, executive officers and corporate governance
Item 11.Executive compensation
Item 12.Security ownership of certain beneficial owners and management and related shareholder matters
Item 13.Certain relationships and related transactions, and director independence
Item 14.Principal accountant fees and services
PART IV. 
Item 15.Exhibits and financial statement schedules
Item 16.Form 10-K summary
  
 Signatures

2

RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Raymond James Financial, Inc. (“RJF” or the “firm”) is a leading diversified financial services company providing private client group, capital markets, asset management, banking and other services to individuals, corporations and municipalities.  The firm, together with its subsidiaries, is engaged in various financial services activities, including providing investment management services to retail and institutional clients, merger & acquisition and advisory services, the underwriting, distribution, trading and brokerage of equity and debt securities, and the sale of mutual funds and other investment products. The firm also provides corporate and retail banking services, and trust services. The firm operates predominantly in the United States (“U.S.”) and, to a lesser extent, in Canada, the United Kingdom (“U.K.”), and other parts of Europe. As used herein, the terms “our,” “we,” or “us” refer to RJF and/or one or more of its subsidiaries.

Established in 1962 and public since 1983, RJF is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “RJF.” As a bank holding company (“BHC”) and financial holding company (“FHC”), RJF is subject to supervision, examination and regulation by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (“the Fed”).

Among the keys to our historical and continued success, our emphasis on putting the client first is at the core of our corporate values. We also believe in maintaining a conservative, long-term focus in our decision making. We believe that this disciplined decision-making approach translates to a strong, stable financial services firm for clients, associates, and shareholders.

REPORTABLE SEGMENTS

We currently operate through the following five segments: Private Client Group (“PCG”); Capital Markets; Asset Management; Raymond James Bank; and Other.

The following graph depicts the relative net revenue contribution of each of our business segments for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021.
rjf-20210930_g1.jpg
* The preceding chart does not include intersegment eliminations or the Other segment.



Private Client Group

We provide financial planning, investment advisory and securities transaction services to clients through financial advisors. Total client assets under administration (“AUA”) in our PCG segment as of September 30, 2021 were $1.12 trillion, of which $627.1 billion related to fee-based accounts (“fee-based AUA”). We had 8,482 financial advisors affiliated with us as of September 30, 2021.




3

RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
Affiliation

We offer multiple affiliation options, which we refer to as AdvisorChoice. Financial advisors primarily affiliate with us directly as either employees or independent contractors, or as employees of the third-party firms to which we provide services through our RIA and Custody Services (“RCS”) division.

Employee financial advisors

Employee financial advisors work in a traditional branch supported by local management and administrative staff. They provide services predominantly to retail clients. Compensation for these financial advisors primarily includes a payout on revenues they generate and such advisors also participate in the firm’s employee benefit plans.

Independent contractor financial advisors

Our financial advisors who are independent contractors are responsible for all of their direct costs and, accordingly, receive a higher payout percentage on the revenues they generate than employee financial advisors. Our independent contractor financial advisor option is designed to help our advisors build their businesses with as much or as little of our support as they determine they need. With specific approval, and on a limited basis, they are permitted to conduct certain other approved business activities, such as offering insurance products, independent registered investment advisory services, and accounting and tax services.

RIA and Custody Services

Through our domestic RCS division, we offer third-party RIAs and broker-dealers a range of products and services including custodial services, trade execution, research and other support and services (including access to clients’ account information and the services of the Asset Management segment) for which we receive fees, which may be either transactional or based on assets under administration. Firms affiliated with us through RCS retain the fees they charge to their clients and are responsible for all of their direct costs. Financial advisors associated with firms in RCS are not included in our financial advisor counts, although their client assets, which totaled $92.7 billion as of September 30, 2021, are included in our AUA.

Products and services

We offer a broad range of third-party and proprietary investment products and services to meet our clients’ various investment and financial needs. Revenues from this segment are typically driven by AUA and are generally either asset-based or transactional in nature.

PCG segment net revenues for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 are presented in the following graph.

rjf-20210930_g2.jpg
* Included in “Brokerage revenues” on our Consolidated Statements of Income and Comprehensive Income.

4

RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

We provide the following products and services through this segment:

Investment services for which we charge sales commissions or asset-based fees based on established schedules.

Portfolio management services for which we charge either a fee computed as a percentage of the assets in the client’s account or a flat periodic fee.

Insurance and annuity products.

Mutual funds.

Support to third-party product partners, including sales and marketing support, distribution and accounting and administrative services.

Administrative services to banks to which we sweep a portion of our clients’ cash deposits as part of the Raymond James Bank Deposit Program (“RJBDP”), our multi-bank sweep program. Fees received from third-party banks for these services are variable in nature and fluctuate based on client cash balances in the program, as well as the level of short-term interest rates relative to interest paid to clients by the third-party banks on balances in the RJBDP. PCG also earns servicing fees from Raymond James Bank, which are based on the number of accounts that are swept to Raymond James Bank as part of the RJBDP. These fees are eliminated in consolidation.

Margin loans to clients that are collateralized by the securities purchased or by other securities owned by the client. Interest is charged to clients on the amount borrowed based on current interest rates.

Securities borrowing and lending activities with other broker-dealers, financial institutions and other counterparties. The net revenues of this business generally consist of the interest spreads generated on these activities.

Diversification strategies and alternative investment products to qualified clients of our affiliated financial advisors.

Capital Markets

Our Capital Markets segment conducts investment banking, institutional sales, securities trading, the syndication and management of investments in low-income housing funds, the majority of which qualify for tax credits (referred to as our “tax credit funds” business), and equity research.

Capital Markets segment net revenues for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 are presented in the following graph.
rjf-20210930_g3.jpg
* Included in “Investment banking” on our Consolidated Statements of Income and Comprehensive Income.


5

RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
We provide the following products and services through this segment.

Investment banking

Merger & acquisition and advisory - We provide a comprehensive range of strategic and financial advisory assignments, including with respect to mergers and acquisitions, divestitures and restructurings, across a number of industries throughout the U.S., Canada and Europe.

Equity underwriting - We provide public and private equity financing services, including the underwriting of common and preferred stock and other equity securities, to corporate clients throughout the U.S., Canada and Europe across a number of industries.

Debt underwriting - Our services include public finance and debt underwriting activities where we serve as a placement agent or underwriter to various issuers, including private and public corporate entities, state and local government agencies (and their political subdivisions), and non-profit entities including healthcare and higher education institutions.

Brokerage

Fixed income - We earn revenues from institutional clients who purchase and sell both taxable and tax-exempt fixed income products, primarily municipal, corporate, government agency and mortgage-backed bonds, and whole loans. We carry inventories of debt securities to facilitate client transactions.

We also enter into interest rate derivatives to facilitate client transactions or to actively manage risk exposures that arise from our client activity, including a portion of our trading inventory. In addition, we conduct a “matched book” derivatives business where we may enter into interest rate derivative transactions with clients. In this matched book business, for every derivative transaction we enter into with a client, we enter into an offsetting derivative transaction with a credit support provider that is a third-party financial institution.

Equity - We earn brokerage revenues on the sale of equity products to institutional clients. Client activity is influenced by a combination of general market activity and our ability to identify attractive investment opportunities for our institutional clients. Revenues on equity transactions are generally based on trade size and the amount of business conducted annually with each institution.

Our global research department supports our institutional and retail sales efforts and publishes research on a wide variety of companies. This research primarily focuses on U.S. and Canadian companies across a multitude of industries. Research reports are made available to both institutional and retail clients.

Tax credit funds

We act as the general partner or managing member in partnerships and limited liability companies that invest in real estate entities, the majority of which qualify for tax credits under Section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code and/or provide a mechanism for banks and other institutions to meet their Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”) obligations throughout the U.S. We earn fees for the origination and sale of these investment products as well as for the oversight and management of the investments, including over the statutory tax credit compliance period when applicable.

Asset Management

Our Asset Management segment earns asset management and related administrative fees for providing asset management, portfolio management and related administrative services to retail and institutional clients. This segment oversees a portion of our fee-based AUA for our PCG clients through our Asset Management Services division (“AMS”) and through Raymond James Trust, N.A. (“RJ Trust”). This segment also provides asset management services through Carillon Tower Advisers and affiliates (collectively, “Carillon Tower Advisers”) for certain retail accounts managed on behalf of third-party institutions, institutional accounts and proprietary mutual funds that we manage.

Management fees in this segment are generally calculated as a percentage of the value of our fee-billable financial assets under management (“AUM”) in both AMS, which includes the portion of fee-based AUA in PCG that is overseen by AMS, and Carillon Tower Advisers, where investment decisions are made by in-house or third-party portfolio managers or investment committees. The fee rates applied are dependent upon various factors, including the distinctive services provided and the level

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RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
of assets within each client relationship. The fee rates applied in Carillon Tower Advisers may also vary based on the account objective (i.e., equity, fixed income, or balanced). Our AUM are impacted by market fluctuations and net inflows or outflows of assets, including transfers between fee-based accounts and traditional transaction-based accounts within our PCG segment. Fees are generally collected quarterly and are based on balances as of the beginning of the quarter (particularly in AMS) or the end of the quarter, or based on average daily balances throughout the quarter.

Our Asset Management segment also earns administrative fees on certain fee-based assets within PCG that are not overseen by our Asset Management segment, but for which the segment provides administrative support (e.g., record-keeping).

Our AUM and our Carillon Tower Advisers AUM by objective as of September 30, 2021 are presented in the following graphs.

rjf-20210930_g4.jpgrjf-20210930_g5.jpg

Raymond James Bank

Raymond James Bank is a Florida state-chartered bank and Fed member bank that provides various types of loans, including corporate loans (commercial and industrial (“C&I”), commercial real estate (“CRE”) and real estate investment trust (“REIT”)), tax-exempt loans, residential loans, securities-based loans (“SBL”) and other loans. Raymond James Bank is active in corporate loan syndications and participations. Raymond James Bank also provides Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”)-insured deposit accounts, including to clients of our broker-dealer subsidiaries. Raymond James Bank generates net interest income principally through the interest income earned on loans and an investment portfolio of securities, which is offset by the interest expense it pays on client deposits and on its borrowings.

As of September 30, 2021, corporate and tax-exempt loans represented approximately 38% of Raymond James Bank’s total assets, and 87% of such loans were U.S. and Canadian syndicated loans. Residential mortgage loans are originated or purchased and held for investment or sold in the secondary market. Raymond James Bank’s investment portfolio is primarily comprised of agency mortgage-backed securities (“MBS”) and agency collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and is classified as available-for-sale. Raymond James Bank’s liabilities primarily consist of cash deposits that are swept from the investment accounts of PCG clients through the RJBDP.














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RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

The following graph details the composition of Raymond James Bank’s total assets as of September 30, 2021.
rjf-20210930_g6.jpg

Other

Our Other segment includes our private equity investments, interest income on certain corporate cash balances, certain acquisition-related expenses, and certain corporate overhead costs of RJF, including the interest costs on our public debt and any losses on extinguishment of such debt. The Other segment also includes the reduction in workforce expenses, primarily the result of the elimination of certain positions, that occurred in our fiscal fourth quarter of 2020 in response to the economic environment at that time.

Our private equity portfolio includes various direct investments, as well as investments in third-party private equity funds and various legacy private equity funds which we sponsor.

HUMAN CAPITAL

Our “associates” (which include our employee financial advisors and all of our other employees) and our independent contractor financial advisors (which we call our “independent advisors”) are vital to our success in the financial services industry. As a human capital-intensive business, our ability to attract, develop and retain exceptional and diverse associates and independent advisors is critical, not only in the current competitive labor market, but also to our long-term success. It is important to us to maintain a strong commitment to diversity and inclusion. To compete effectively, we must offer attractive compensation and health and wellness programs, as well as provide formal and informal opportunities for associates and advisors to develop their capabilities and reach their full potential. We also endeavor to foster and maintain our unique and long-standing values-based culture.

As of September 30, 2021, we had approximately 15,000 associates (including 3,461 employee financial advisors) and 5,021 independent advisors. Our associates are spread across four countries in North America and Europe. However, the vast majority of our associates are located in the U.S. Of our global associates, 42% self-identify as women, and among our U.S.-based employees 24% self-identify as ethnically diverse.

Culture

We strive to attract individuals who are people-focused and share our values. Our culture is people-focused and rooted in the values established at the firm’s foundation. Our pledge to clients, to our advisors, and to all our other associates is that:

We put clients first,
We act with integrity,
We think long term, and
We value independence.

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Our values are memorialized in a presentation we refer to as our culture “blueprint” that is communicated to all associates. One way in which we measure the health of our culture is our overall “engagement” score, which is the percentage of employees that respond to an annual associate insight survey with a positive response to several satisfaction metrics, including that they are proud to work at Raymond James. In 2021, our overall employee engagement score amongst survey respondents was 88% favorable, with a strong survey response rate of 73%.

Diversity and inclusion

We are committed to maintaining a diverse workforce, and an inclusive work environment is a natural extension of our culture. We are committed to ensuring that all our associates feel welcomed, valued, respected and heard, so that they can fully contribute their unique talents for the benefit of their careers, our clients, our firm and our communities. Our diversity strategy is centered on three pillars: the workplace, the workforce, and the community. In our recruiting efforts, we seek to identify a diverse group of candidates for each role we seek to fill. To that end, we have built strong relationships with a variety of industry associations that represent diverse professionals, as well as with diversity groups at the colleges and universities where we recruit. We have firmwide and business unit-specific diversity and inclusion networks, which are open to all professionals at the firm and are designed to promote and advance inclusion, understanding and belonging. These networks also host various events and conferences to educate and provide avenues for all associates and independent advisors to gain understanding and capability to have an inclusive work environment, and offer mentorship opportunities to our associates. In 2021, we launched the Pride Financial Advisor Network, which provides support and resources for LGBTQ+ advisors through educational programs, interactive networking and business development opportunities. We also invest in community-supporting organizations that are dedicated to improving the lives of diverse individuals. Our firmwide diversity and inclusion advisory council stewards the firm’s efforts and provides guidance on priorities. This council is composed of associate representatives from all areas of our business and across geographic locations. In all of our diversity efforts, we strive to create opportunities for allies of diverse communities to participate, contribute and grow. We believe that to truly achieve all of the benefits of having a diverse and inclusive workforce, all associates and advisors need to be engaged in these discussions.

Recruitment, talent development, and retention

We seek to build a workforce that provides outstanding client service and helps clients achieve their financial goals. We have competitive programs dedicated to selecting new talent and enhancing the skills of our associates. Among other opportunities, we offer selected college students summer internships, which may lead to permanent roles, and we offer pipeline programs which accelerate the progression from entry level positions for recent graduates across many areas of the firm. We are also committed to supporting associates in reaching their professional goals. We conduct a formal annual goal setting and performance review process for each employee. We also offer associates the opportunity to participate in a variety of professional development programs. Our extensive program catalog includes courses designed to expand our associates’ industry, product, technical, professional, business development, and regulatory knowledge and provide development opportunities. The firm also provides leadership development programs that prepare our leaders for challenges they will face in new roles or with expanded responsibilities. To provide associates equal opportunity to compete for new positions, we require that all roles, with the exception of certain revenue-generating positions and certain senior-level roles, be posted on our internal online career platform. We conduct ongoing and robust succession planning for roles that are within two levels of our Executive Committee and we strive to ensure we have a diverse group of candidates for such roles. We discuss the results with executive leadership and the Board of Directors several times per year.

An important driver of our success is the continuous recruitment and retention of financial advisors. Our ability to attract high quality advisors is based on our values-based culture, our commitment to service, and the unique ways in which we provide services to our financial advisors. Individuals who want to become financial advisors can gain relevant branch experience through our Wealth Management Associate Program or move to our Advisor Mastery Program and begin building their client base. We have a department dedicated to providing practice education and management resources to our financial advisors. We also offer these advisors the opportunity to participate in conferences and workshops, and we offer resources and coaching at all levels to help them grow their businesses. These include separate national conferences for our employee and independent contractor financial advisor channels, each of which is attended by thousands of advisors each year.

We seek to retain our associates by using their feedback to create and continually enhance programs that support their needs. We use firmwide short and targeted surveys in which we routinely ask our associates about their experiences at the firm. We also monitor and evaluate various turnover and attrition metrics. Our overarching commitment to the attraction, development, and retention of our associates results in a relatively low annualized voluntary turnover rate. Importantly, our financial advisor regrettable attrition rate for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2021, was only approximately 1%.


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Compensation

We have designed a compensation structure, including an array of benefit plans and programs, that is intended to be attractive to current and prospective associates, while also reinforcing our core values and mitigating excessive risk taking. Our competitive pay packages include base salary, incentive bonus, and equity compensation programs. Additionally, the firm makes annual contributions to support the retirement goals of each associate through our Employee Stock Ownership Plan and our Profit Sharing Plan, in addition to a matching contribution program for the 401(k) retirement savings plan. We also offer associates the opportunity to participate in an Employee Stock Purchase Plan that enables them to acquire our common stock at a discount, further increasing their ability to participate in the growth and success of the firm. As an additional retention tool, we may grant equity awards in connection with initial employment or under various retention programs for individuals who are responsible for contributing to our management, growth, and/or profitability. For certain employees who meet compensation, production, or other criteria, we also offer various non-qualified deferred compensation plans that provide a return to the participant, as well as a retention tool to the firm.

We strive to ensure that our programs are designed to promote equitable rewards for all associates. We have enhanced our compensation practices with the goal of achieving pay equity at all levels of the organization for female and ethnically diverse associates. Every year, we conduct pay equity studies in the U.S., U.K., and Canada and make adjustments in situations if there is a pay equity gap.

The physical, emotional, and financial wellbeing of our associates is a high priority of the firm. To that end, programs including healthcare insurance, health and flexible savings accounts, paid time off, family leave, flexible work schedules, tuition assistance, counseling services, as well as on-site services at our headquarters location of a health clinic and fitness center, are available to associates. We responded to the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic by putting the health and safety of our associates first in all of our decisions. Since March 2020, remote work has been the primary work environment for the vast majority of our associates and advisors. For the small population of those who have worked in the office during the pandemic, we have established protocols designed to mitigate the risk of community spread of the virus. We also implemented changes to some of our benefit plans to support those of our associates who were most severely affected by COVID-19. These changes included an expansion of our paid time off policy for those infected or giving care to someone infected by COVID-19, offering flexible work hours for caregivers of children or elders during times when schools were closed or only open for virtual schooling and child/adult care facilities were shut down, offering new programs to assist those in need of mental health services, and implementing extended roll-over opportunities for flexible spending accounts.

OPERATIONS AND INFORMATION PROCESSING

We have operations personnel at various locations who are responsible for processing securities transactions, custody of client securities, support of client accounts, the receipt, identification and delivery of funds and securities, and compliance with regulatory and legal requirements for most of our securities brokerage operations.

The information technology department develops and supports the integrated solutions that provide a customized platform for our businesses. These include a platform for financial advisors designed to allow them to spend more time with their clients and enhance and grow their businesses; systems that support institutional and retail sales and trading activity from initiation to settlement and custody; and thorough security protocols to protect firm and client information. In the area of information security, we have developed and implemented a framework of principles, policies and technology to protect our own information and that of our clients.  We apply numerous safeguards to maintain the confidentiality, integrity and availability of both client and firm information.

Our business continuity program has been developed to provide reasonable assurance that we will continue to operate in the event of disruptions at our critical facilities or other business disruptions. We have developed operational plans for such disruptions, and we have devoted significant resources to maintaining those plans. Our business continuity plan continues to be enhanced and tested to allow for continuous operations in the event of weather-related or other interruptions at our corporate headquarters in Florida, one of our operations processing or data center sites (located in Florida, Colorado, Tennessee or Michigan), and our branch and office locations throughout the U.S., Canada and Europe.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we activated and successfully executed on our business continuity protocols and continue to monitor the COVID-19 pandemic under such protocols. We have endeavored to protect the health and well-being of our associates and our clients while ensuring the continuity of business operations for our clients. As a result, a substantial portion of our associates continue to work remotely. The firm continues to monitor conditions and has developed a phased approach to reopening our offices in compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (“CDC”) guidelines. We have reopened our offices in a limited capacity and have been operating under strict public

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health and safety protocols in such locations. We are planning for a full return to office in the second quarter of our fiscal 2022, which will include more work location flexibility for our associates; however, disruptions caused by variants may impact the timing of the implementation of these plans.

COMPETITION

The financial services industry is intensely competitive. We compete with many other financial services firms, including a number of larger securities firms, most of which are affiliated with major financial services companies, insurance companies, banking institutions and other organizations. We also compete with companies that offer web-based financial services and discount brokerage services to individual clients, usually with lower levels of service, and, more recently, financial technology companies (“fintechs”). We compete principally on the basis of the quality of our associates, services, product selection, performance records, location and reputation in local markets.

Our ability to compete effectively is substantially dependent on our continuing ability to develop or attract, retain and motivate qualified financial advisors, investment bankers, trading professionals, portfolio managers and other revenue-producing or specialized personnel.

REGULATION

The following summarizes the principal elements of the regulatory and supervisory framework applicable to us as a participant in the financial services industry. The framework includes extensive regulation under U.S. federal and state laws, as well as the applicable laws of the jurisdictions outside the U.S. in which we do business. While this framework is intended to protect our clients, the integrity of the financial markets, our depositors and the Federal Deposit Insurance Fund, it is not intended to protect our creditors or shareholders. These rules and regulations limit our ability to engage in certain activities, as well as our ability to fund RJF from our regulated subsidiaries, which include Raymond James Bank, our broker-dealer subsidiaries and our trust subsidiaries. To the extent that the following information describes statutory and regulatory provisions, it is qualified in its entirety by reference to the particular statutory and regulatory provisions that are referenced. A change in applicable statutes or regulations or in regulatory or supervisory policy may have a material effect on our business.

We continue to experience a period of notable changes in financial regulation and supervision. We continue to monitor the likelihood of changes in taxation and regulations due to changes in the political environment. Changes in both corporate and individual taxation, as well as business regulations, could have a significant impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows in the future; however, we cannot predict the exact changes or quantify their potential impacts (see “Item 1A - Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K for further discussion of the potential future impact on our operations).

Banking supervision and regulation

RJF is a BHC under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHC Act”), that has made an election to be a FHC and is subject to regulation, oversight and consolidated supervision, including periodic examination, by the Fed. Under the system of “functional regulation” established under the BHC Act, the primary regulators of our U.S. non-bank subsidiaries directly regulate the activities of those subsidiaries, with the Fed exercising a supervisory role. Such “functionally regulated” subsidiaries include our broker-dealers registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), such as Raymond James & Associates, Inc. (“RJ&A”) and Raymond James Financial Services, Inc. (“RJFS”), and investment advisors registered with the SEC with respect to their investment advisory activities, among other subsidiaries.

Our depository institution, Raymond James Bank, is an FDIC-insured depository institution that converted on June 1, 2021 from a national bank supervised by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”) to a Florida-chartered state member bank of the Fed, supervised jointly by the Florida Office of Financial Regulation (“OFR”) and the Fed. Raymond James Bank is also subject to supervision by the FDIC and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”). We also have two non-depository trust company subsidiaries: RJ Trust, which is regulated, supervised, and examined by the OCC, and Raymond James Trust Company of New Hampshire (“RJTCNH”) which is regulated, supervised, and examined by the New Hampshire Banking Department (“NHBD”). RJTCNH was organized during fiscal 2021 and provides Individual Retirement Account (“IRA”) custodial services and trust services for our PCG clients.

Collectively, the rules and regulations of the Fed, the OFR, the FDIC, the CFPB, the OCC and the NHBD cover all aspects of our banking and trust businesses, including, for example, lending practices, the receipt of deposits, capital structure, transactions with affiliates, conduct and qualifications of personnel and, as discussed further in the following sections, capital requirements. This regulatory, supervisory and oversight framework is subject to significant changes that can affect the operating costs and permissible businesses of RJF and our subsidiaries. As a part of their supervisory functions, the Fed, the

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OFR, the FDIC the CFPB, the OCC and the NHBD also have the power to bring enforcement actions for violations of law and, in the case of the Fed, the OFR, the FDIC, the OCC, and the NHBD for unsafe or unsound practices.

Basel III and U.S. capital rules

We are subject to the Fed’s capital rules which establish an integrated regulatory capital framework and implement, in the U.S., the Basel III capital framework developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and certain Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank Act”) and other capital provisions, and set the prompt corrective action framework to reflect the regulatory capital minimums (the “U.S. Basel III Rules”). The U.S. Basel III Rules: (i) establish minimum requirements for both the quantity and quality of regulatory capital; (ii) set forth a capital conservation buffer; and (iii) define the calculation of risk-weighted assets. The capital requirements could restrict our ability to grow, including during favorable market conditions, and to return capital to shareholders, or require us to raise additional capital. As a result, our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects could be adversely affected. See “Item 1A - Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K for more information.

Failure to meet minimum capital requirements can trigger discretionary, and in certain cases, mandatory actions by regulators that could have a direct material effect on the financial results of RJF and Raymond James Bank. In addition, failure to maintain the capital conservation buffer would result in constraints on distributions, including limitations on dividend payments and stock repurchases, and certain discretionary bonus payments based on the amount of the shortfall and eligible retained income. Under the capital adequacy rules, RJF and Raymond James Bank must meet specific capital ratio requirements that involve quantitative measures of assets, liabilities and certain off-balance sheet items as calculated under the rules. The capital amounts and classification for RJF and Raymond James Bank are also subject to the qualitative judgments of U.S. regulators based on components of capital, risk-weightings of assets, off-balance sheet transactions and other factors.

Under applicable capital rules, RJF would need to obtain prior approval from the Fed if its repurchases or redemptions of equity securities over a twelve-month period would reduce its net worth by ten percent or more and an exemption were not available. Guidance from the Fed also provides that RJF would need to inform the Fed in advance of repurchasing common stock in certain prescribed situations, such as if it were experiencing, or at risk of experiencing, financial weaknesses or considering expansion, either through acquisitions or other new activities, or if the repurchase would result in a net reduction in common equity over a quarter. Further, Fed guidance indicates that, pursuant to the Fed’s general supervisory and enforcement authority, Fed supervisory staff should prevent a BHC from repurchasing its common stock if such action would be inconsistent with the BHC’s prospective capital needs and safe and sound operation.

See Note 24 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for further information.

Source of strength

The Fed requires that BHCs, such as RJF, serve as a source of financial strength for any of its subsidiary depository institutions. The term “source of financial strength” is defined as the ability of a company to provide financial assistance to its insured depository institution subsidiaries in the event of financial distress at such subsidiaries. Under this requirement, RJF could be required to provide financial assistance to Raymond James Bank in the future should it experience financial distress.

Transactions between affiliates

Transactions between (i) Raymond James Bank, RJ Trust, or their subsidiaries on the one hand and (ii) RJF or its other subsidiaries or affiliates on the other hand are subject to compliance with Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act and Regulation W issued by the Fed, which generally limit the types and amounts of such transactions that may take place and generally require those transactions to be on market terms. These laws and regulations generally do not apply to transactions between Raymond James Bank or RJ Trust and their respective subsidiaries.

The Volcker Rule, a provision of the Dodd-Frank Act, generally prohibits certain transactions and imposes a market terms requirement on certain other transactions between (i) RJF or its affiliates on the one hand and (ii) covered funds for which RJF or its affiliates serve as the investment manager, investment advisor, commodity trading advisor or sponsor, or other covered funds organized and offered by RJF or its affiliates on the other hand. See “The Volcker Rule” in the following section.

Deposit insurance

Raymond James Bank is subject to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act because it provides deposits covered by FDIC insurance, generally up to $250,000 per account ownership type. For banks with greater than $10 billion in assets, which includes

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Raymond James Bank, the FDIC’s current assessment rate calculation relies on a scorecard designed to measure financial performance and ability to withstand stress, in addition to measuring the FDIC’s exposure should the bank fail.

Prompt corrective action

The U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (“FDICIA”) requires the U.S. federal bank regulatory agencies to take “prompt corrective action” with respect to depository institutions that do not meet specified capital requirements. FDICIA establishes five capital categories for FDIC-insured banks, such as Raymond James Bank: well-capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized.

An institution may be downgraded to, or deemed to be in, a capital category that is lower than the category indicated by its capital ratios if the institution is determined to be in an unsafe or unsound condition or if it receives an unsatisfactory examination rating with respect to certain matters. FDICIA imposes progressively more restrictive constraints on operations, management and capital distributions, as the capital category of an institution declines. Failure to meet the capital requirements could also require a depository institution to raise capital. Ultimately, critically undercapitalized institutions are subject to the appointment of a receiver or conservator.

Although the prompt corrective action regulations do not apply to BHCs, such as RJF, the Fed is authorized to take appropriate action at the BHC level, based upon the undercapitalized status of the BHC’s depository institution subsidiaries. In certain instances related to an undercapitalized depository institution subsidiary, the BHC would be required to guarantee the performance of the undercapitalized subsidiary’s capital restoration plan and might be liable for civil money damages for failure to fulfill its commitments on that guarantee. Furthermore, in the event of the bankruptcy of the BHC, this guarantee would take priority over the BHC’s general unsecured creditors. As of September 30, 2021, Raymond James Bank was categorized as well-capitalized.

The Volcker Rule

RJF is subject to the Volcker Rule, which generally prohibits BHCs and their subsidiaries and affiliates from engaging in proprietary trading or acquiring or retaining an ownership interest in, sponsoring, or having certain relationships with hedge funds and private equity funds, subject to certain exceptions.

We have proprietary private equity investments that meet the definition of covered funds under the Volcker Rule. The conformance period for compliance with the rule with respect to investments in covered funds was July 2017; however, banking entities were able to apply for an extension to provide up to an additional five years to conform investments in certain illiquid funds. The majority of our covered fund investments meet the criteria to be considered an illiquid fund under the Volcker Rule and we received approval from the Fed to continue to hold such investments until July 2022. We have executed the appropriate strategies to comply with the Volcker Rule for many of our covered fund investments and plan to either divest or restructure the remainder of our covered fund investments on or prior to the July 2022 deadline such that any holdings will be in compliance with the Volcker Rule after the extension expires in July 2022.

Compensation practices

Our compensation practices are subject to oversight by the Fed. Compensation regulation in the financial industry continues to evolve, and we expect these regulations to change over a number of years. The U.S. federal bank regulatory agencies have provided guidance designed to ensure incentive compensation policies do not encourage imprudent risk-taking and are consistent with safety and soundness. The Dodd-Frank Act requires the U.S. financial regulators to adopt rules on incentive-based payment arrangements. The U.S. financial regulators proposed revised rules in 2016, which have not yet been finalized.

Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”) regulations

Raymond James Bank is subject to the CRA, which is intended to encourage banks to help meet the credit needs of their communities, including low and moderate income neighborhoods, consistent with safe and sound bank operations. Under the CRA, the Fed, the FDIC and/or the OCC are required to periodically examine and assign to each bank a public CRA rating. If any insured depository institution subsidiary of a FHC fails to maintain at least a “satisfactory” rating under the CRA, the FHC would be subject to restrictions on certain new activities and acquisitions.

On July 20, 2021, the Fed, the FDIC and the OCC issued a joint statement in which they committed to working together to jointly modernize the CRA regulations. Until such new regulations are implemented, Raymond James Bank will continue to

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operate under the Fed’s CRA regulations currently in effect. At this time, it is uncertain what impact, if any, the impending CRA regulations will have on Raymond James Bank and other depositories with respect to their CRA activities.

Other restrictions

FHCs, such as RJF, generally can engage in a broader range of financial and related activities than are otherwise permissible for BHCs as long as they continue to meet the eligibility requirements for FHCs. Among other things, the broader range of permissible activities for FHCs includes underwriting, dealing and making markets in securities and making investments in non-FHCs or merchant banking activities. We are required to obtain Fed approval before engaging in certain banking and other financial activities both within and outside the U.S.

The Fed, however, has the authority to limit an FHC’s ability to conduct activities that would otherwise be permissible, and will likely do so if the FHC does not satisfactorily meet certain requirements of the Fed. For example, if an FHC or any of its U.S. depository institution subsidiaries ceases to maintain its status as “well-capitalized” or “well-managed,” the Fed may impose corrective capital and/or managerial requirements, as well as additional limitations or conditions. If the deficiencies persist, the FHC may be required to divest its U.S. depository institution subsidiaries or to cease engaging in activities other than the business of banking and certain closely related activities.

Broker-dealer and securities regulation

The SEC is the federal agency charged with administration of the federal securities laws in the U.S. Our U.S. broker-dealer subsidiaries are subject to SEC regulations relating to their business operations, including sales and trading practices, public offerings, publication of research reports, use and safekeeping of client funds and securities, capital structure, record-keeping, privacy requirements, and the conduct of directors, officers and employees. Financial services firms are also subject to regulation by state securities commissions in those states in which they conduct business. Our primary U.S. broker-dealers, RJ&A and RJFS, are currently registered as broker-dealers in all 50 states.

Financial services firms are also subject to regulation by various foreign governments, securities exchanges, central banks and regulatory bodies, particularly in those countries where they have established offices. Outside of the U.S., we have additional offices primarily in Canada and Europe and are subject to regulations in those areas. Much of the regulation of broker-dealers in the U.S. and Canada, however, has been delegated to self-regulatory organizations (“SROs”), such as the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”), the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (“IIROC”), and securities exchanges. These SROs adopt and amend rules for regulating the industry, subject to the approval of government agencies. These SROs also conduct periodic examinations of member broker-dealers.

The SEC, SROs and state securities regulators may conduct administrative proceedings that can result in censure, fine, suspension or expulsion of a broker-dealer, its officers, employees or other associated persons. Such administrative proceedings, whether or not resulting in adverse findings, can require substantial expenditures and may adversely impact the reputation of a broker-dealer.

Our U.S. broker-dealer subsidiaries are subject to the Securities Investor Protection Act (“SIPA”) and are required by federal law to be members of the Securities Investors Protection Corporation (“SIPC”). The SIPC was established under SIPA, and oversees the liquidation of broker-dealers during liquidation or financial distress. The SIPC fund provides protection for cash and securities held in client accounts up to $500,000 per client, with a limitation of $250,000 on claims for cash balances.

U.S. broker-dealer capital

Our broker-dealer subsidiaries are subject to certain of the SEC’s financial stability rules, including the: (i) net capital rule; (ii) customer protection rule; (iii) record-keeping rules; and (iv) notification rules. Broker-dealers are required to maintain the minimum net capital deemed necessary to meet their continuing commitments to customers and others, and are required to keep their assets in relatively liquid form. These rules also limit the ability of broker-dealers to transfer capital to parent companies and other affiliates. See Note 24 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for further information pertaining to our broker-dealer regulatory minimum net capital requirements.

Standard of care

Pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act, the SEC was charged with considering whether broker-dealers should be subject to a standard of care similar to the fiduciary standard applicable to registered investment advisors. In June 2019, the SEC adopted a package of rule-makings and interpretations related to the provision of advice by broker-dealers and investment advisers, including

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Regulation Best Interest and Form CRS. Among other things, Regulation Best Interest requires a broker-dealer to act in the best interest of a retail client when making a recommendation to that client of any securities transaction or investment strategy involving securities. Form CRS requires that broker-dealers and investment advisers provide retail investors with a brief summary document containing simple, easy-to-understand information about the nature of the relationship between the parties. Our implementation of these regulations resulted in our review and modification of certain of our policies and procedures and associated supervisory and compliance controls, as well as the implementation of additional client disclosures, which included us providing related education and training to financial advisors.

Various states have also proposed, or adopted, laws and regulations seeking to impose new standards of conduct on broker-dealers that may differ from the SEC’s new regulations, which may lead to additional implementation costs. The Department of Labor (“DOL”) has also reinstated the historical “five-part test” for determining who is an investment advice “fiduciary” when dealing with certain retirement plans and accounts and proposed a new exemption to allow investment advice fiduciaries to receive transaction-based compensation and engage in certain principal trades. In addition, the DOL is expected to amend the rule that determines whether an investment professional is a fiduciary to their clients’ retirement accounts under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act and Internal Revenue Code. Imposing such a new standard of care on additional client relationships could result in incremental costs for our business and we are evaluating how these regulatory changes may further impact our business.

Other non-U.S. regulation

Raymond James Ltd. (“RJ Ltd.”) is currently registered as an investment dealer in all provinces and territories in Canada. The financial services industry in Canada is subject to comprehensive regulation under both federal and provincial laws. Securities commissions have been established in all provinces and territorial jurisdictions, which are charged with the administration of securities laws. Investment dealers in Canada are subject to regulation by IIROC, a SRO under the oversight of the securities commissions that make up the Canadian Securities Administrators. IIROC is responsible for the enforcement of, and conformity with, securities legislation for their members and has been granted the powers to prescribe their own rules of conduct and financial requirements of members, including RJ Ltd. IIROC also requires that RJ Ltd. be a member of the Canadian Investors Protection Fund, whose primary role is investor protection. This fund provides protection for securities and cash held in client accounts up to 1 million Canadian dollars (“CAD”) per client, with additional coverage of CAD 1 million for certain types of accounts.

Certain of our subsidiaries are registered in, and operate from, the U.K. which has a highly developed and comprehensive regulatory regime. Certain of these subsidiaries operate in the retail sector, providing investment and financial planning services to high-net-worth individuals, while others provide brokerage and investment banking services to institutional clients. These subsidiaries are authorized and regulated by the U.K. conduct regulator, the Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”), and have limited permissions to carry out business in certain other E.U. countries as part of treaty arrangements. We do not expect the U.K.’s withdrawal from the E.U. (“Brexit”) to materially impact our business.

Investment management regulation

Our investment advisory operations, including the mutual funds that we sponsor, are also subject to extensive regulation in the U.S. The majority of our asset managers are registered as investment advisers with the SEC under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 as amended, and are also required to make notice filings in certain states. Virtually all aspects of our asset management business are subject to various federal and state laws and regulations. These laws and regulations are primarily intended for the benefit of our clients.

Anti-money laundering, economic sanctions, and anti-bribery and corruption regulation

The U.S. Bank Secrecy Act (“BSA”), as amended by the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (“PATRIOT Act”), the Customer Due Diligence Rule, and the Anti-Money Laundering Act of 2020 (“AMLA”), contain anti-money laundering and financial transparency laws and mandates the implementation of various regulations applicable to all financial institutions, including standards for verifying client identification at account opening, and obligations to monitor client transactions and report suspicious activities. Through these and other provisions, the BSA, the PATRIOT Act, and AMLA seek to promote the identification of parties that may be involved in terrorism, money laundering or other suspicious activities. Anti-money laundering laws outside the U.S. contain some similar provisions.

The U.S. Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control administers economic and trade sanctions programs and enforces sanctions regulations with which all U.S. persons must comply. The European Union (“E.U.”) as well as various countries have

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also adopted economic sanctions programs targeted at countries, entities and individuals that are involved in terrorism, hostilities, embezzlement or human rights violations.

In addition, various countries have adopted laws and regulations, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the U.K. Bribery Act, related to corrupt and illegal payments to, and hiring practices with regard to, government officials and others. The scope of the types of payments or other benefits covered by these laws is very broad and is subject to significant uncertainties that may be clarified only in the context of further regulatory guidance or enforcement proceedings.

RJF and its affiliates have implemented and maintain internal policies, procedures, and controls to meet the compliance obligations imposed by such U.S. and non-U.S. laws and regulations concerning anti-money laundering, economic sanctions, and anti-bribery and corruption. Failure to continue to meet the requirements of these regulations could result in supervisory action, including fines.

Privacy and data protection

U.S. federal law establishes minimum federal standards for financial privacy by, among other provisions, requiring financial institutions to adopt and disclose privacy policies with respect to consumer information and setting forth certain limitations on disclosure to third parties of consumer information. U.S. state laws and regulations adopted under U.S. federal law impose obligations on RJF and its subsidiaries for protecting the confidentiality, integrity and availability of client information, and require notice of data breaches to certain U.S. regulators and to clients. The SEC’s Regulation S-ID mandates the development and implementation of a written Identity Theft Prevention Program that is designed to detect, prevent, and mitigate identity theft. The California Consumer Privacy Act, which became effective on January 1, 2020, imposes privacy compliance obligations with regard to the personal information of California residents, including requiring companies to provide certain specific disclosures to California consumers, and provides for a number of specific rights for California residents.

Similarly, the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) imposes additional requirements for companies that collect or store personal data of E.U. residents, including residents of the U.K. since GDPR was adopted into U.K. law following the U.K.’s departure from the E.U. GDPR’s legal requirements extend to all foreign companies that solicit and process personal data of E.U. and U.K. residents, imposing a strict data protection compliance regime that includes new consumer rights actions that must be responded to by organizations. Canadian data privacy laws contain many provisions similar to U.S. financial privacy laws and are currently undergoing legislative reform at a federal and provincial level. We have implemented policies, processes, and training with regard to communicating to our clients and business partners required information relating to financial privacy and data security. We continue to monitor regulatory developments on both a domestic and international level to assess requirements and potential impacts on our global business operations.

The multitude of data privacy laws and regulations adds complexity and cost to managing compliance and data management capabilities and can result in potential litigation, regulatory fines and reputational harm. Data privacy requirements compel companies to track personal information use and provide greater transparency on data practices to consumers. In addition, technology advances in the areas of artificial intelligence, mobile applications, and remote connectivity solutions have increased the collection and processing of personal information as well as the risks associated with unauthorized disclosure and access to personal information.

Legislative and regulatory changes in connection with COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in governments around the world implementing numerous measures to help control the spread of the virus, including, among others, quarantines, travel restrictions and business curtailments. In addition, governments globally intervened with fiscal policy to mitigate the impact of the pandemic, including the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (“CARES”) Act in the U.S., which aimed to provide economic relief to businesses and individuals. In addition to the CARES Act enacted in March 2020, the U.S. government enacted the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 in December 2020. The December 2020 stimulus bill provides additional emergency COVID-19 relief, as well as extends certain provisions of the CARES Act. In March 2021, the U.S. government enacted the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, which provides further economic relief resulting from to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Under the CARES Act, financial institutions were permitted to temporarily suspend any determination of a loan modification as a result of the effects of COVID-19 as being a troubled debt restructuring (“TDR”), including impairment for accounting purposes. The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 extends such relief until the earlier of: (1) 60 days after the date on which the national emergency concerning COVID-19 terminates; or (2) January 1, 2022. We elected to apply the extension for relief under the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 to certain loan modifications that primarily relate to short-term payment

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deferral and have not classified such modifications as TDRs. See “Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Risk management - Credit risk” for further information.

The CARES Act further provides a number of consumer finance protections. The act provides a range of forbearance rights with respect to any federally backed residential or multi-family mortgage loan and generally limits the ability of a lender or servicer to institute foreclosure or similar proceedings. These provisions are consistent with supervisory guidance previously issued by federal banking agencies, which also stated that they would not criticize financial institutions for working with customers affected by the outbreak in a safe and sound manner. We have modified our processes to ensure full compliance and have continued, as appropriate, to support affected businesses and individuals during this time. Many state and local authorities have also taken, or are considering taking, legislative, executive, or other action to respond to the economic disruptions caused by the spread of COVID-19, including with respect to foreclosure and repossession moratoriums.

On November 4, 2021, the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) issued an Emergency Temporary Standard (“ETS”) mandating that all employers with more than 100 employees ensure their workers are either fully vaccinated against COVID-19 or produce, on a weekly basis, a negative COVID test, and imposing substantial penalties for noncompliance. The ETS provides for compliance dates of December 5, 2021 and January 4, 2022. On November 12, 2021, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals extended its stay of the rule’s enforcement pending further judicial review and ordered that OSHA take no steps to implement or enforce the mandate until further court order. OSHA has announced that it suspended activities related to the implementation and enforcement of the ETS pending future developments in the litigation. We will continue to monitor federal, state and local legislative and regulatory developments and endeavor to comply with all applicable final rules.

The Company’s legislative and regulatory environment may continue to change in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, as new or modified laws, regulations and guidance may continue to be promulgated at very short notice.

Alternative reference rate transition

Central banks and regulators have convened working groups to transition away from the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) to replacement interest rate benchmarks. On March 5, 2021, the FCA, which regulates LIBOR, announced it will cease publication of the most commonly used U.S. dollar LIBOR tenors after June 30, 2023, though the less commonly used tenors will cease publication after December 31, 2021. U.S. federal banking agencies have issued guidance strongly encouraging institutions to cease entering into contracts that reference LIBOR as soon as practicable, and no later than December 31, 2021. Central banks and regulators in the U.S. and other jurisdictions are working to implement the transition to suitable replacements for LIBOR. To facilitate an orderly transition away from LIBOR, we established an enterprise-wide team to assess and implement necessary changes to our contracts pursuant to the Alternative Reference Rates Committee’s recommendations. This team has identified the inventory of existing contracts that will be impacted by the discontinuance of LIBOR and is working to transition those contracts accordingly. Our enterprise-wide team has also directed updates to systems, processes, documentation, and models, with additional updates expected through 2023, as we continue our transition. In conjunction with our corporate communications department, we created a plan to advise our financial advisors and clients of the change for certain impacted products. We have selected replacement rates for our LIBOR-based products based on peer benchmarking and industry research and have created a product strategy for offering non-LIBOR based products in advance of the December 31, 2021 deadline. Under that strategy, we began offering Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”)-linked derivatives and plan to offer SOFR-based SBL beginning December 2021. We have identified a plan to respond to the impacts of the alternative reference rate transition, and have taken action, or plan to take action, timely.


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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

Executive officers of the registrant (which includes officers of certain significant subsidiaries) are as follows:

Paul D. Allison65Chairman, President and CEO - Raymond James Ltd. since January 2009
James E. Bunn48President - Global Equities and Investment Banking - Raymond James & Associates, Inc. since December 2018 and Head of Investment Banking - Raymond James & Associates, Inc. since January 2014; Co-President - Global Equities and Investment Banking - Raymond James & Associates, Inc., October 2017 - December 2018
John C. Carson, Jr.65President since April 2012; President - Morgan Keegan & Company, LLC, formerly known as Morgan Keegan & Company, Inc., since July 2013
George Catanese62Chief Risk Officer since February 2006
Scott A. Curtis59President - Private Client Group since June 2018; President - Raymond James Financial Services, Inc. since January 2012
Jeffrey A. Dowdle57Chief Operating Officer and Head of Asset Management Group since October 2019; Chief Administrative Officer, August 2018 - October 2019; President - Asset Management Group, May 2016 - October 2019; Executive Vice President - Asset Management Group, February 2014 - May 2016
Tashtego S. Elwyn50Chief Executive Officer and President - Raymond James & Associates, Inc. since June 2018; President - Private Client Group - Raymond James & Associates, Inc., January 2012 - June 2018
Thomas A. James79Chairman Emeritus since February 2017; Executive Chairman, May 2010 - February 2017
Bella Loykhter Allaire68Executive Vice President - Technology and Operations - Raymond James & Associates, Inc. since June 2011
Jodi L. Perry50President - Independent Contractor Division - Raymond James Financial Services, Inc. since June 2018; Senior Vice President, National Director - ICD - Raymond James Financial Services, Inc., May 2018 - June 2018; Senior Vice President, ICD Regional Director - Raymond James Financial Services, Inc., June 2012 - May 2018
Steven M. Raney56Chairman - Raymond James Bank, since November 2020; President and CEO - Raymond James Bank since January 2006
Paul C. Reilly67Chairman since February 2017 and Chief Executive Officer since May 2010; Director since January 2006
Jonathan N. Santelli50Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since May 2016; Senior Vice President and Deputy General Counsel - First Republic Bank, October 2013 to April 2016
Paul M. Shoukry38
Chief Financial Officer since January 2020 and Treasurer since February 2018; Senior Vice President - Finance and Investor Relations, January 2017 - December 2019; Senior Vice President - Treasury, January 2017 - February 2018; Vice President - Finance and Investor Relations, July 2012 - December 2016

Except where otherwise indicated, the executive officer has held his or her current position for more than five years.


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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Our Internet address is www.raymondjames.com. We make available on our website, free of charge and in printer-friendly format including “.pdf” file extensions, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Our reports and other information that we electronically file with the SEC are also available free of charge on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.

FACTORS AFFECTING “FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS”

Certain statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may constitute “forward-looking statements” under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements include information concerning future strategic objectives, business prospects, anticipated savings, financial results (including expenses, earnings, liquidity, cash flow and capital expenditures), anticipated timing and benefits of our acquisitions and our level of success in integrating acquired businesses, industry or market conditions, demand for and pricing of our products, anticipated results of litigation, regulatory developments, impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, effects of accounting pronouncements, and general economic conditions. In addition, words such as “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “plans,” “projects,” and future or conditional verbs such as “will,” “may,” “could,” “should,” and “would,” as well as any other statement that necessarily depends on future events, are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees, and they involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions.  Although we make such statements based on assumptions that we believe to be reasonable, there can be no assurance that actual results will not differ materially from those expressed in the forward-looking statements.  We caution investors not to rely unduly on any forward-looking statements and urge you to carefully consider the risks described in “Item 1A - Risk Factors” of this report. We expressly disclaim any obligation to update any forward-looking statement in the event it later turns out to be inaccurate, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.


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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including those described in the following sections, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and the trading price of our common stock. The list of risk factors provided in the following sections is not exhaustive; there may be other factors that adversely impact our results of operations, harm our reputation or inhibit our ability to generate new business prospects. The following sections should be read in conjunction with “Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes in “Item 8 - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In particular, see “Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and capital resources” for additional information on liquidity and how we manage our liquidity risk and “Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Risk management” for additional information on our exposure and how we monitor and manage our market, credit, operational, compliance and certain other risks.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY

The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic may negatively impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic and related measures intended to control the spread of the virus have had a significant impact on global economic conditions and may negatively impact certain aspects of our business and results of operations in the future. Although certain economic conditions improved throughout fiscal 2021, the pandemic continues to evolve, as recently experienced with the rapid spread of the Delta variant, and certain of the impacts of the pandemic may continue to affect our results in the future, including: near-zero short-term interest rates resulting in lower net interest income and RJBDP fees from third-party program banks; volatility in our brokerage revenues and investment banking revenues due to market uncertainty caused by the pandemic; and increased credit risk, particularly with regard to industries most vulnerable to the pandemic (e.g., airline, restaurant, gaming, entertainment/leisure and energy), which may result in an elevated bank loan loss provision and charge-offs. In addition, should market conditions deteriorate, or if there is a decline in equity markets similar to that experienced during our fiscal 2020 second quarter, the value of our clients’ assets and certain of our investments would also be negatively affected.

We may also continue to experience business disruptions as a result of the continued spread of COVID-19 and its variants, resulting from restrictions on our employees’ ability to travel, as well as temporary partial or full closures of our facilities and the facilities of our clients, suppliers, or other vendors. We often recruit skilled professionals by visiting their offices or having them visit our offices. Although we have reinstated the majority of our in-person recruiting, renewed travel restrictions or other disruptions that prevent us from meeting with professional prospects may adversely impact our ability to recruit such professional prospects. Further, the increased availability of remote working arrangements in response to the pandemic has intensified and may continue to intensify competition for prospective new associates and impair our ability to retain current associates. Recently promulgated OSHA rules related to required vaccines or alternative testing protocols for unvaccinated associates may also have negative effects on our current associates, including additional administrative burdens and concerns related to perceived health and safety risks, and may result in an increase in employee complaints as well as difficulty attracting and retaining associates. While we maintain contingency plans for events such as pandemic outbreaks, the further spread of COVID-19, or a similar contagious disease could also impair the effectiveness of our executive officers or other associates who are necessary to conduct our business. In addition, the continued spread of COVID-19 could harm the operations of third-party service providers who perform critical services for our business. In some cases, the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the transition from traditional to digital financial services and heightened customer expectations in this area, and this transition may require us to invest greater resources in technological improvements.

If COVID-19 or another highly infectious or contagious disease, continues to spread or the response to contain it is unsuccessful, we may experience adverse effects on our business, financial condition, liquidity, and results of operations. A prolonged period of economic deterioration could ultimately result in impairment of our goodwill and identifiable intangible assets. In addition, if financial markets deteriorate as a result of the current or a future pandemic, our access to capital and other sources of funding may become constrained, which may require us to restructure debt or obtain additional financing on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive.

The extent of any of the previously-described effects on our business will depend on future developments which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and the possible further impacts on the global economy.


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Damage to our reputation could damage our businesses.

Maintaining our reputation is critical to attracting and maintaining clients, investors, and associates. If we fail to address, or appear to fail to address, issues that may give rise to reputational risk, we could significantly harm our business prospects. These issues may include, but are not limited to, any of the risks discussed in this Item 1A, including appropriately dealing with potential conflicts of interest, legal and regulatory requirements, ethical issues, money laundering, cybersecurity and privacy, record-keeping, sales and trading practices, and associate misconduct. In addition, the failure to either sell securities we have underwritten at anticipated price levels or to properly identify and communicate the risks inherent in the products and services we offer could also give rise to reputational risk. Failure to maintain appropriate service and quality standards or a failure or perceived failure to treat clients fairly can result in client dissatisfaction, litigation and heightened regulatory scrutiny, all of which can lead to lost revenue, higher operating costs and reputational harm. Negative publicity about us, whether or not true, may also harm our reputation. Further, failures at other large financial institutions or other market participants, regardless of whether they relate to our activities, could lead to a general loss of customer confidence in financial institutions that could negatively affect us, including harming the market perception of the financial system in general.

We are affected by domestic and international macroeconomic conditions that impact the global financial markets.

We are engaged in various financial services businesses. As such, we are affected by domestic and international macroeconomic and political conditions, as well as economic output levels, interest and inflation rates, employment levels, prices of commodities, consumer confidence levels and changes in consumer spending, international trade policy, and fiscal and monetary policy. For example, Fed policies determine, in large part, the cost of funds for lending and investing and the return earned on those loans and investments. The market impact from such policies can also decrease materially the value of certain of our financial assets, most notably debt securities, as well as our cash flows, such as those associated with client cash balances. Changes in tax law and regulation, or any market uncertainty caused by a change in the political environment, may negatively affect our business. Macroeconomic conditions may also directly and indirectly impact a number of factors in the global financial markets that may be detrimental to our operating results.

If we were to experience a period of sustained downturn in the securities markets, credit market dislocations, reductions in the value of real estate, increases in mortgage and other loan delinquencies, or other negative market factors, including from the continuing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, our revenues could be adversely impacted. Market uncertainty could also cause clients to move their investments to lower margin products, or withdraw them, which could have an adverse impact on our profitability. We could also experience a material reduction in trading volume and lower asset prices in times of market uncertainty, which would result in lower brokerage revenues, including losses on firm inventory, as well as losses on certain of our investments. Conversely, periods of severe market volatility may result in a significantly higher level of transactions and other activity which may cause operational challenges that may result in losses. These can include, but are not limited to, trade errors, failed transaction settlements, late collateral calls to borrowers and counterparties, or interruptions to our system processing. Periods of reduced revenue and other losses could lead to reduced profitability because certain of our expenses, including our interest expense on debt, rent, facilities and salary expenses, are fixed, and our ability to reduce them over short time periods is limited.

U.S. markets may also be impacted by political and civil unrest occurring in other parts of the world. Our businesses and revenues derived from non-U.S. operations may also be subject to risk of loss from currency fluctuations, social or political instability, less established regulatory regimes, changes in governmental or central bank policies, downgrades in the credit ratings of sovereign countries, expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets and unfavorable legislative, economic and political developments. For example, continued uncertainties loom over the future of the U.K.’s relationship with the E.U., including future trading arrangements between the U.K. and the E.U., following the expiration of the transition period on December 31, 2020. During the transition period of Brexit, we took steps to make certain changes to our European operations in an effort to ensure that, where possible, we can continue to provide cross-border services in E.U. member states without the need for separate regulatory authorizations in each member state. There is also continued uncertainty regarding the outcome of the E.U.’s financial support programs and the stability of the E.U.’s sovereign debt. It is possible that other E.U. member states may experience financial troubles in the future, or may choose to follow the U.K.’s lead and leave the E.U. Any negative impact on economic conditions and global markets from these developments could adversely affect our business, financial condition and liquidity.


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Lack of liquidity or access to capital could impair our business and financial condition.

Our inability to maintain adequate liquidity or to easily access credit and capital markets could have a significant negative effect on our financial condition. If liquidity from our brokerage or banking operations is inadequate or unavailable, we may be required to scale back or curtail our operations, such as limiting our recruiting of additional financial advisors, limiting lending, selling assets at unfavorable prices, and cutting or eliminating dividend payments. Our liquidity could be negatively affected by: the inability of our subsidiaries to generate cash to distribute to the parent company in the form of dividends from earnings; liquidity or capital requirements applicable to our subsidiaries that may prevent us from distributing cash to the parent company; limited or no accessibility to credit markets for secured and unsecured borrowings by our subsidiaries; diminished access to the capital markets for RJF; and other commitments or restrictions on capital as a result of adverse legal settlements, judgments, or regulatory sanctions. Furthermore, as a bank holding company, we may become subject to prohibitions or limitations on our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders and/or repurchase our stock. Certain of our regulators have the authority, and under certain circumstances, the duty, to prohibit or to limit dividend payments by regulated subsidiaries to their parent company.

The availability of financing, including access to the credit and capital markets, depends on various factors, such as conditions in the debt and equity markets, the general availability of credit, the volume of securities trading activity, the overall availability of credit to the financial services sector, and our credit ratings. Our cost of capital and the availability of funding may be adversely affected by illiquid credit markets and wider credit spreads. Additionally, lenders may from time to time curtail, or even cease to provide, funding to borrowers as a result of future concerns over the strength of specific counterparties, as well as the stability of markets generally.

We are exposed to credit risk.

We are generally exposed to the risk that third parties that owe us money, securities or other assets will fail to meet their obligations to us due to numerous causes, including bankruptcy, lack of liquidity, or operational failure, among others. This risk was and may further be exacerbated by the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in certain sectors. We actively buy and sell securities from and to clients and counterparties in the normal course of our broker-dealers’ trading and underwriting activities, which exposes us to credit risk. Although generally collateralized by the underlying security to the transaction, we still face risk associated with changes in the market value of collateral through settlement date. We also hold certain securities, loans and derivatives as part of our trading operations. Deterioration in the actual or perceived credit quality of the underlying issuers of securities or loans or the non-performance of counterparties to certain derivatives could result in losses.

We borrow securities from, and lend securities to, other broker-dealers and may also enter into agreements to repurchase and/or resell securities as part of our financing activities. A sharp change in the market values of the securities utilized in these transactions may result in losses if counterparties to these transactions fail to honor their commitments. We manage the risk associated with these transactions by establishing and monitoring credit limits, as well as by evaluating collateral and transaction levels on a recurring basis. Significant deterioration in the credit quality of one of our counterparties could lead to widespread concerns about the credit quality of other counterparties in the same industry, thereby exacerbating our credit risk. In addition, we permit our clients to purchase securities on margin. During periods of steep declines in securities prices, the value of the collateral securing client margin loans may fall below the amount of the loan. If clients are unable to provide additional collateral for these margin loans, we may incur losses on those margin transactions. This may cause us to incur additional expenses defending or pursuing claims or litigation related to counterparty or client defaults.

We deposit our cash in depository institutions as a means of maintaining the liquidity necessary to meet our operating needs, and we also facilitate the deposit of cash awaiting investment in depository institutions on behalf of our clients. A failure of a depository institution to return these deposits could severely impact our operating liquidity, result in significant reputational damage, and adversely impact our financial performance.

We also incur credit risk by lending to businesses and individuals, including through offering C&I loans, CRE loans, REIT loans, residential mortgage loans, tax-exempt loans, SBL and other loans. We also incur credit risk through certain of our investments. Our credit risk and credit losses can increase if our loans or investments are concentrated among borrowers or issuers engaged in the same or similar activities, industries, or geographies, or to borrowers or issuers who as a group may be uniquely or disproportionately affected by economic or market conditions, such as those most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Declines in the real estate market or sustained economic downturns may cause us to experience credit losses or charge-offs related to our loans, sell loans at unattractive prices or foreclose on certain real estate properties. Credit quality may also be affected by adverse changes in the financial performance or condition of our debtors or deterioration in the strength of the U.S. economy. The deterioration of an individually large exposure, for example due to natural disasters, health emergencies

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or pandemics, acts of terrorism, severe weather events or other adverse economic events, could lead to additional credit loss provisions and/or charges-offs, and subsequently have a material impact on our net income and regulatory capital.

We are exposed to market risk, including interest rate risk.

Market risk generally represents the risk that values of assets and liabilities or revenues will be adversely affected by changes in market conditions, which directly and indirectly affect us. Market conditions that change from time to time, thereby exposing us to market risk, include fluctuations in interest rates, equity prices, foreign exchange rates, and price deterioration or changes in value due to changes in market perception or actual credit quality of an issuer.

Market risk is inherent in financial instruments associated with our operations and activities, including loans, deposits, securities, short-term borrowings, long-term debt, trading assets and liabilities, derivatives and private equity investments. For example, interest rate changes could adversely affect the value of our fixed income trading inventories held to facilitate client transactions, as well as our net interest spread, which is the difference between the yield we earn on our interest-earning assets and the interest rate we pay for deposits and other sources of funding, in turn impacting our net interest income and earnings. Interest rate changes could affect the interest earned on assets differently than interest paid on liabilities.

A rising interest rate environment generally results in our earning a larger net interest spread and an increase in servicing fees received on cash swept to third-party program banks as part of the RJBDP. Conversely, in those operations, a falling interest rate environment generally results in our earning a smaller net interest spread and lower RJBDP fees from third-party program banks. Moreover, while there is no indication currently that the Fed plans to reduce its targeted Fed funds rate to a negative rate, if such a policy were to be adopted, the cost to hold both firm and client deposits would have an adverse impact on our profitability. If we are unable to effectively manage our interest rate risk, changes in interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our profitability.

Our private equity investments are carried at fair value with unrealized gains and losses reflected in earnings. The value of our private equity portfolio can fluctuate and earnings from our investments can be volatile and difficult to predict. When, and if, we recognize gains can depend on a number of factors, including general economic conditions, the prospects of the companies in which we invest and whether these companies become subject to a monetization event.

In addition, disruptions in the liquidity or transparency of the financial markets may result in our inability to sell, syndicate or realize the value of security positions, thereby leading to increased concentrations. The inability to reduce our positions in specific securities may not only increase the market and credit risks associated with such positions, but also increase the level of risk-weighted assets on our balance sheet, thereby increasing our capital requirements, which could have an adverse effect on our business results, financial condition and liquidity.

Significant volatility in our domestic clients’ cash balances could negatively impact our net revenues and/or our ability to fund Raymond James Bank’s growth and may impact our regulatory ratios.

The majority of Raymond James Bank’s deposits are driven by the RJBDP. The RJBDP is a source of relatively low-cost, stable deposits for Raymond James Bank and we rely heavily on the RJBDP to fund Raymond James Bank’s asset growth. A significant reduction in PCG clients’ cash balances, a change in the allocation of that cash between Raymond James Bank and third-party banks within the RJBDP, or a transfer of cash away from the firm could significantly impact Raymond James Bank’s ability to continue growing interest-earning assets and/or require Raymond James Bank to use higher-cost deposit sources to grow interest-earning assets.

The RJBDP also generates fees from third-party banks related to the deposits they receive through their participation in the RJBDP. If PCG clients’ cash balances remain elevated or increase further and third-party bank demand or capacity for RJBDP deposits do not improve or decline from current levels our RJBDP fees from third-party banks could continue to be adversely affected. In addition, our inability to deploy client cash to third-party banks through RJBDP would require us to retain more cash at Raymond James Bank or in our Client Interest Program (“CIP”), both of which may cause a significant increase in our assets. Such an increase in our assets may negatively impact certain of our regulatory ratios.


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Our business depends on fees generated from the distribution of financial products, fees earned from the management of client accounts, and asset management fees.

A large portion of our revenues are derived from fees generated from the distribution of financial products, such as mutual funds and variable annuities, and the various services we perform related to such products. Changes in the structure or amount of the fees paid by the sponsors of these products could directly affect our revenues, business and financial condition. In addition, if these products experience losses or increased investor redemptions, we may receive lower fees from the distribution and other services we provide on behalf of the mutual fund and annuity companies.

The asset management fees we are paid are dependent upon the value of client assets in fee-based accounts in our PCG segment, as well as AUM in our Asset Management segment. The value of our fee-based assets and AUM is impacted by market fluctuations and inflows or outflows of assets. As our PCG clients increasingly show a preference for fee-based accounts over traditional transaction-based accounts, a larger portion of our client assets are more directly impacted by market movements. Therefore, in periods of declining market values, the values of fee-based accounts and AUM may resultantly decline, which would negatively impact our revenues. In addition, below-market investment performance by our funds, portfolio managers or financial advisors could result in reputational damage that might cause outflows or make it more difficult to attract new investors into our asset management products and thus, further impact our business and financial condition.

Our asset management fees may also decline over time due to factors such as increased competition and the renegotiation of contracts. In addition, the market environment in recent years has resulted in a shift to passive investment products, which generate lower fees than actively managed products. A continued trend toward passive investments or changes in market values or in the fee structure of asset management accounts would negatively affect our revenues, business and financial condition.

Our underwriting, market-making, trading, and other business activities place our capital at risk.

We may incur losses and be subject to reputational harm to the extent that, for any reason, we are unable to sell securities we have underwritten at the anticipated price levels. As an underwriter, we also are subject to heightened standards regarding liability for material misstatements or omissions in prospectuses and other offering documents relating to offerings in which we are involved. From time to time as part of our underwriting processes, we may carry significant positions in securities of a single issuer or issuers engaged in a specific industry. Sudden changes in the value of these positions, despite our risk mitigation policies, could impact our financial results.

As a market maker, we take ownership of positions in specific securities, and these undiversified holdings concentrate the risk of market fluctuations and may result in greater losses than would be the case if our holdings were more diversified. Despite risk mitigation policies, we may incur losses as a result of positions we hold in connection with these activities.

We have made and, to the limited extent permitted by applicable regulations, may continue to make principal investments in private equity funds and other illiquid investments. We may be unable to realize our investment objectives if we cannot sell or otherwise dispose of our interests at attractive prices or complete a desirable exit strategy. In particular, these risks could arise from changes in the financial condition or prospects of the portfolio companies in which investments are made, changes in economic conditions or changes in laws, regulations, fiscal policies or political conditions. It could take a substantial period of time to identify attractive investment opportunities and then to realize the cash value of such investments.

Any cyber-attack or other security breach of our technology systems, or those of our clients or other third-party vendors we rely on, could subject us to significant liability and harm our reputation.

Our operations rely heavily on the secure processing, storage and transmission of sensitive and confidential financial, personal and other information in our computer systems and networks. There have been several highly publicized cases involving financial services companies reporting the unauthorized disclosure of client or other confidential information in recent years, as well as cyber-attacks involving the theft, dissemination and destruction of corporate information or other assets, in some cases as a result of failure to follow procedures by employees or contractors or as a result of actions by third parties. There have also been several highly publicized cases where hackers have requested “ransom” payments in exchange for not disclosing customer information or for restoring access to information or systems. Like other financial services firms, we experience malicious cyber activity directed at our computer systems, software, networks and its users on a daily basis. This malicious activity includes attempts at unauthorized access, implantation of computer viruses or malware, and denial-of-service attacks. We also experience large volumes of phishing and other forms of social engineering attempted for the purpose of perpetrating fraud against the firm, our associates, or our clients. Additionally, like many large enterprises, since mid-March 2020, we have shifted the majority of our associates to remote work arrangements in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and expect that

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many of our associates will continue to work remotely to some extent following the pandemic. This change in our operating model has enabled us to successfully continue business operations, but also introduces potential new vulnerabilities to cyber threats. We also face increased cybersecurity risk as we deploy additional mobile and cloud technologies. We seek to continuously monitor for and nimbly react to any and all such malicious cyber activity, and we develop our systems to protect our technology infrastructure and data from misuse, misappropriation or corruption. Senior management of our Information Technology department gives a quarterly update on cybersecurity to the Audit and Risk Committee of our Board of Directors and an annual update to our full Board of Directors.

Cyber-attacks can originate from a variety of sources, including third parties affiliated with foreign governments, organized crime or terrorist organizations. Third parties may also attempt to place individuals within our firm, or induce employees, clients or other users of our systems, to disclose sensitive information or provide access to our data, and these types of risks may be difficult to detect or prevent. Although cybersecurity incidents among financial services firms are on the rise, we have not experienced any material losses relating to cyber-attacks or other information security breaches. However, the techniques used in these attacks are increasingly sophisticated, change frequently and are often not recognized until launched. Although we seek to maintain a robust suite of authentication and layered information security controls, including our cyber threat analytics, data encryption and tokenization technologies, anti-malware defenses and vulnerability management programs, any one or combination of these controls could fail to detect, mitigate or remediate these risks in a timely manner. Despite our implementation of protective measures and endeavoring to modify them as circumstances warrant, our computer systems, software and networks may be vulnerable to human error, equipment failure, natural disasters, power loss, spam attacks, unauthorized access, supply chain attacks, distributed denial of service attacks, computer viruses and other malicious code, and other events that could result in significant liability and damage to our reputation, and have an ongoing impact on the security and stability of our operations.

We also rely on numerous third-party service providers to conduct other aspects of our business operations, and we face similar risks relating to them. While we regularly conduct security assessments on these third-party vendors, we cannot be certain that their information security protocols are sufficient to withstand a cyber-attack or other security breach. We also cannot be certain that we will receive timely notification of such cyber-attacks or other security breaches. In addition, in order to access our products and services, our clients may use computers and other devices that are beyond our security control systems.

Notwithstanding the precautions we take, if a cyber-attack or other information security breach were to occur, this could jeopardize the information we confidentially maintain, or otherwise cause interruptions in our operations or those of our clients and counterparties, exposing us to liability. As attempted attacks continue to evolve in scope and sophistication, we may be required to expend substantial additional resources to modify or enhance our protective measures, to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures or to communicate about cyber-attacks to our clients. Though we have insurance against some cyber-risks and attacks, we may be subject to litigation and financial losses that exceed our policy limits or are not covered under any of our current insurance policies. A technological breakdown could also interfere with our ability to comply with financial reporting and other regulatory requirements, exposing us to potential disciplinary action by regulators. Further, successful cyber-attacks at other large financial institutions or other market participants, whether or not we are affected, could lead to a general loss of confidence in financial institutions that could negatively affect us, including harming the market perception of the effectiveness of our security measures or the financial system in general, which could result in reduced use of our financial products and services.

Further, in light of the high volume of transactions we process, the large number of our clients, partners and counterparties, the increasing sophistication of malicious actors, and our remote work environment, a cyber-attack could occur and persist for an extended period of time without detection. We expect that any investigation of a cyber-attack would take substantial amounts of time, and that there may be extensive delays before we obtain full and reliable information. During such time we would not necessarily know the extent of the harm or how best to remediate it, and certain errors or actions could be repeated or compounded before they are discovered and remediated, all of which would further increase the costs and consequences of such an attack.

We may also be subject to liability under various data protection laws. In providing services to clients, we manage, utilize and store sensitive or confidential client or employee data, including personal data. As a result, we are subject to numerous laws and regulations designed to protect this information, such as U.S. federal, state and international laws governing the protection of personally identifiable information. These laws and regulations are increasing in complexity and number. If any person, including any of our associates, negligently disregards or intentionally breaches our established controls with respect to client or employee data, or otherwise mismanages or misappropriates such data, we could be subject to significant monetary damages, regulatory enforcement actions, fines and/or criminal prosecution. In addition, unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential client or employee data, whether through system failure, employee negligence, fraud or misappropriation, could damage our reputation and cause us to lose clients and related revenue. Potential liability in the event of a security breach of

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client data could be significant. Depending on the circumstances giving rise to the breach, this liability may not be subject to a contractual limit or an exclusion of consequential or indirect damages.

A continued interruption to our telecommunications or data processing systems, or the failure to effectively update the technology we utilize, could be materially adverse to our business.

Our businesses rely extensively on data processing and communications systems. In addition to better serving clients, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables us to reduce costs. Adapting or developing our technology systems to meet new regulatory requirements, client needs, and competitive demands is critical for our business. Introduction of new technology presents challenges on a regular basis. There are significant technical and financial costs and risks in the development of new or enhanced applications, including the risk that we might be unable to effectively use new technologies or adapt our applications to emerging industry standards.

Our continued success depends, in part, upon our ability to: (i) successfully maintain and upgrade the capability of our technology systems on a regular basis; (ii) maintain the quality of the information contained in our data processing and communications systems; (iii) address the needs of our clients by using technology to provide products and services that satisfy their demands; and (iv) retain skilled information technology employees. Failure of our technology systems, which could result from events beyond our control, including a systems malfunction or cyber-attack, failure by a third-party service provider, or an inability to effectively upgrade those systems or implement new technology-driven products or services, could result in financial losses, liability to clients, violations of applicable privacy and other applicable laws and regulatory sanctions.

The soundness of other financial institutions and intermediaries affects us.

We face the risk of operational failure, termination or capacity constraints of any of the clearing agents, exchanges, clearing houses or other financial intermediaries that we use to facilitate our securities and derivative transactions. As a result of regulatory changes and the consolidation over the years among clearing agents, exchanges and clearing houses, our exposure to certain financial intermediaries has increased and could affect our ability to find adequate and cost-effective alternatives should the need arise. Any failure, termination or constraint of these intermediaries could adversely affect our ability to execute transactions, service our clients and manage our exposure to risk.

Our ability to engage in routine trading and funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services institutions are interdependent as a result of trading, clearing, funding, counterparty or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and we routinely execute transactions with counterparties in the financial industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, mutual and hedge funds and other institutional clients. Defaults by, or even rumors or questions about the financial condition of, one or more financial services institutions, or the financial services industry generally, have historically led to market-wide liquidity problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of our counterparty or client. In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held by us cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure due us. Losses arising in connection with counterparty defaults may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

Our risk management and conflicts of interest policies and procedures may leave us exposed to unidentified or unanticipated risk.

We seek to manage, monitor and control our market, credit, operational, liquidity and legal and regulatory compliance risk through operational and compliance reporting systems, internal controls, management review processes and other mechanisms; however, there can be no assurance that our procedures will be effective. While we use limits and other risk mitigation techniques, those techniques and the judgments that accompany their application cannot always anticipate unforeseen economic and financial outcomes or the specifics and timing of such outcomes. Our risk management methods may not predict future risk exposures effectively. In addition, some of our risk management methods are based on an evaluation of information regarding markets, clients and other matters that are based on assumptions that may no longer be accurate or may have limited predictive value. A failure to manage our growth adequately, including growth in the products or services we offer, or to manage our risk effectively, could materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Financial services firms are subject to numerous actual or perceived conflicts of interest, which are routinely examined by regulators and SROs such as FINRA and are often used as the basis for claims for legal liability by plaintiffs in actions against us. Our risk management processes include addressing potential conflicts of interest that arise in our business. Management of potential conflicts of interest has become increasingly complex as we expand our business activities. A perceived or actual

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failure to address conflicts of interest adequately could affect our reputation, the willingness of clients to transact business with us or give rise to litigation or regulatory actions. Therefore, there can be no assurance that conflicts of interest will not arise in the future that could result in material harm to our business and financial condition.

We continue to experience pricing pressures in areas of our business which may impair our future revenue and profitability.

We continue to experience pricing pressures on trading margins and commissions in fixed income and equity trading. In fixed income markets, regulatory requirements have resulted in greater price transparency, leading to price competition and decreased trading margins. In equity markets, we experience pricing pressure from institutional clients to reduce commissions, partially due to the industry trend toward the separate payment for research and execution services. Our trading margins have been further compressed by the shift from high- to low-touch execution services over time, which has created additional competitive pressure. We believe that price competition and pricing pressures in these and other areas will continue as institutional investors continue to reduce the amounts they are willing to pay, including by reducing the number of brokerage firms they use, and some of our competitors seek to obtain market share by reducing fees, commissions or margins.

We face intense competition and may not be able to keep pace with technological change.

We are engaged in intensely competitive businesses. We compete on the basis of a number of factors, including the quality of our associates, our products and services, pricing (such as execution pricing and fee levels), technology solutions, and location and reputation in relevant markets. Over time, there has been substantial consolidation and convergence among companies in the financial services industry, which has significantly increased the capital base and geographic reach of our competitors. See “Item 1 - Business - Competition” of this Form 10-K for additional information about our competitors.

We compete directly with other national full service broker-dealers, investment banking firms, commercial banks, and investment advisors, and to a lesser extent, with discount brokers and dealers. We face competition from more recent entrants into the market, including fintechs, and increased use of alternative sales channels by other firms. Technology has lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for fintechs to compete with larger financial institutions in providing electronic, internet-based, and mobile phone-based financial solutions. This competition has grown significantly over recent years and is expected to intensify. In addition, commercial firms and other non-traditional competitors have applied for banking licenses or have entered into partnerships with banks to provide banking services. We also compete indirectly for investment assets with insurance companies, real estate firms and hedge funds, among others. This competition could cause our business to suffer.

Our future success also depends in part on our ability to develop, maintain, and enhance our products and services, including factors such as customer experience, and the pricing and range of our offerings. The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. If we are not able to develop new products and services, enhance existing offerings, effectively implement new technology-driven products and services, or successfully market these products and services to our customers, our business, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected. Furthermore, both financial institutions and their non-banking competitors face the risk that payments processing and other services could be significantly disrupted by technologies, such as cryptocurrencies, that require no intermediation. New technologies have required, and could require us in the future, to spend more to modify or adapt our products to attract and retain clients and customers or to match products and services offered by our competitors, including technology companies.

Our ability to attract and retain senior professionals, qualified financial advisors and other associates is critical to the continued success of our business.

Our ability to recruit, serve and retain our clients depends on the reputation, judgment, leadership, business generation capabilities and client service skills of our client-serving professionals, members of our executive team, as well as employees who support revenue-generating professionals and their clients. To compete effectively we must attract, develop, and retain qualified professionals, including successful financial advisors, investment bankers, trading professionals, portfolio managers and other revenue-producing or specialized personnel. Competitive pressures we experience could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.

Turnover in the financial services industry is high. The cost of recruiting and retaining skilled professionals in the financial services industry has been considerable in recent years, but has intensified further during the recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. Financial industry employers are increasingly offering guaranteed contracts, upfront payments, increased compensation and increased opportunities to work remotely on a permanent basis. These can be important factors in a current associate’s decision to leave us as well as in a prospective associate’s decision to join us. As competition for skilled

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professionals in the industry remains intense, we may have to devote significant resources to attract and retain qualified personnel. To the extent we have compensation targets, we may not be able to retain our associates, which could result in increased recruiting expense or result in our recruiting additional associates at compensation levels that are not within our target range. In particular, our financial results may be adversely affected by the costs we incur in connection with any loans or other incentives we may offer to newly recruited financial advisors and other key personnel. If we were to lose the services of any of our investment bankers, senior equity research, sales and trading professionals, asset managers, or executive officers to a competitor or otherwise, we may not be able to retain valuable relationships and some of our clients could choose to use the services of a competitor instead of our services. If we are unable to retain our senior professionals or recruit additional professionals, our reputation, business, results of operations and financial condition will be adversely affected. Further, new business initiatives and efforts to expand existing businesses generally require that we incur compensation and benefits expense before generating additional revenues.

Moreover, companies in our industry whose employees accept positions with competitors frequently claim that those competitors have engaged in unfair hiring practices. We have been subject to several such claims and may be subject to additional claims in the future as we seek to hire qualified personnel, some of whom may work for our competitors. Some of these claims may result in material litigation. We could incur substantial costs in defending against these claims, regardless of their merits. Such claims could also discourage potential associates who work for our competitors from joining us. We participate in the Protocol for Broker Recruiting (“Protocol”), a voluntary agreement among many firms in the industry that governs, among other things, the client information that financial advisors may take with them when they affiliate with a new firm. The ability to bring such customer data to a new broker-dealer generally means that the clients of the financial advisor are more likely to choose to open accounts at the advisor’s new firm.  Participation is voluntary and it is possible that certain of our competitors will withdraw from the Protocol. If the broker-dealers from whom we recruit new financial advisors prevent, or significantly limit, the transfer of client data, our recruiting efforts may be adversely affected and we could continue to experience claims against us relating to our recruiting efforts.

A downgrade in our credit ratings could have a material adverse effect on our operations, earnings and financial condition.

If our credit ratings were downgraded, or if rating agencies indicate that a downgrade may occur, our business, financial position, and results of operations could be adversely affected, perceptions of our financial strength could be damaged, and as a result, adversely affect our client relationships. Such a change in our credit ratings could also adversely affect our liquidity and competitive position, increase our borrowing costs, limit our access to the capital markets, trigger obligations under certain financial agreements, or decrease the number of investors, clients and counterparties willing or permitted to do business with or lend to us, thereby curtailing our business operations and reducing profitability.

We may not be able to obtain additional outside financing to fund our operations on favorable terms, or at all. The impact of a credit rating downgrade to a level below investment grade would result in our breaching provisions in certain of our derivative instruments, and may result in a request for immediate payment and/or ongoing overnight collateralization on our derivative instruments in liability positions. A credit rating downgrade would also result in the firm incurring a higher facility fee on its $500 million unsecured revolving credit facility agreement (the “Credit Facility”), in addition to triggering a higher interest rate applicable to any borrowings outstanding on the line as of and subsequent to such downgrade (see “Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources” of this Form 10-K and Note 16 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for information on the Credit Facility).

Business growth, including through acquisitions, could increase costs and regulatory and integration risks.

We continue to grow, including through acquisitions and through our recruiting efforts. Integrating acquired businesses, providing a platform for new businesses and partnering with other firms involve risks and present financial, managerial and operational challenges. While cultural fit is a requirement for both our recruiting and acquisition efforts, there can be no assurance that recruited talent and/or acquisition targets will ultimately assimilate into our firm in a manner which results in the expected financial benefits. We may incur significant expense in connection with expanding our existing businesses, recruiting financial advisors or making strategic acquisitions or investments. Our overall profitability would be negatively affected if investments and expenses associated with such growth are not matched or exceeded by the earnings derived from such investments or growth. Assumptions which underlie the basis of our acquisition decisions, such as the retention of key personnel, future revenue growth of an acquired business, cost efficiencies to be realized, or the value created through the application of specialized expertise we plan to bring to the acquired business, may not be fully realized post-acquisition, resulting in an adverse impact on the value of our investment and potential dilution of the value of our shares.


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Expansion may also create a need for additional compliance, risk management and internal control procedures, and often involves hiring additional personnel to address these procedures. To the extent such procedures are not adequate or not adhered to with respect to our expanded business or any new business, we could be exposed to a material loss or regulatory sanction.

Moreover, to the extent we pursue acquisitions, or enter into acquisition commitments, a number of factors may prevent us from completing such acquisitions on acceptable terms. For example, regulators such as the Fed or the FDIC could fail to approve a proposed transaction or such approvals could result in the imposition of conditions that could adversely affect the combined company or the expected benefits of the transaction. The shareholders of a publicly-traded target company could fail to approve the transaction. Closing conditions in the transaction agreement could fail to be satisfied, or there could be an unexpected delay in closing. Other developments that may affect future results of an acquired company may occur, including changes in asset quality and credit risk, changes in interest rates and capital markets, inflation, and/or changes in customer borrowing, repayment, investment and deposit practices. Finally, an event, change, or other circumstance could occur that gives rise to the termination of the transaction agreement.

We may be unable to integrate an acquired business into our existing business successfully, or such integration may be materially delayed or become more costly or difficult than expected. Further, either company’s clients, suppliers, employees or other business partners may react negatively to the transaction. Such developments could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, we may need to raise capital or borrow funds in order to finance an acquisition, which could result in dilution or increased leverage. We may not be able to obtain such financing on favorable terms or perhaps at all. Further, we may issue our shares as a component of some or all of the purchase consideration for an acquisition, which may result in dilution.

Securities class action lawsuits and derivative lawsuits are often brought against public companies that have entered into merger agreements. Even if such lawsuits are without merit, defending against these claims could result in substantial costs and divert management time and resources. An adverse judgment could result in monetary damages, which could have a negative impact on our liquidity and financial condition.

Associate misconduct, which is difficult to detect and deter, could harm us by impairing our ability to attract and retain clients and subject us to significant legal liability and reputational harm.

There is a risk that our associates could engage in misconduct that adversely affects our business. For example, our investment banking business often requires that we deal with confidential matters of great significance to our clients. Our associates interact with clients, customers and counterparties on an ongoing basis. All associates are expected to exhibit the behaviors and ethics that are reflected in our framework of principles, policies and technology to protect both our own information as well as that of our clients. If our associates improperly use or disclose confidential information provided by our clients, we could be subject to future regulatory sanctions and suffer serious harm to our reputation, financial position, current client relationships and ability to attract future clients. We are also subject to a number of obligations and standards arising from our asset management business and our authority over our assets under management. In addition, our financial advisors may act in a fiduciary capacity, providing financial planning, investment advice and discretionary asset management. The violation of these obligations and standards by any of our associates would adversely affect our clients and us. Associate conduct on non-business matters, such as social issues, could be inconsistent with our policies and ethics and result in reputational harm to our business as a result of their employment by us or affiliation with us. It is not always possible to deter or prevent every instance of associate misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in all cases. If our associates engage in misconduct, our business would be adversely affected.

We are exposed to litigation risks, which could materially and adversely impact our business operations and prospects.

Many aspects of our business involve substantial risk of liability. We have been named as a defendant or co-defendant in lawsuits and arbitrations primarily involving claims for damages. The risks associated with potential litigation often may be difficult to assess or quantify and the existence and magnitude of potential claims often remain unknown for substantial periods of time. Unauthorized or illegal acts of our associates could also result in substantial liability.

In challenging market conditions, the volume of claims and amount of damages sought in litigation and regulatory proceedings against financial institutions have historically increased. Litigation risks include potential liability under securities laws or other laws for: alleged materially false or misleading statements made in connection with securities offerings and other transactions; issues related to our investment recommendations, including the suitability of such recommendations or potential concentration of investments; the inability to sell or redeem securities in a timely manner during adverse market conditions; contractual issues; employment claims; and potential liability for other advice we provide to participants in strategic transactions. Substantial legal liability could have a material adverse financial impact or cause us significant reputational harm, which in turn

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could seriously harm our business and future business prospects. In addition to the foregoing financial costs and risks associated with potential liability, the costs of defending individual litigation and claims continue to increase over time. The amount of attorneys’ fees incurred in connection with the defense of litigation and claims could be substantial and might materially and adversely affect our results of operations. See “Item 3 - Legal Proceedings” of this Form 10-K for further information about legal matters.

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires the use of estimates that may vary from actual results and new accounting standards could adversely affect future reported results.

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the reporting period. Such estimates and assumptions may require management to make difficult, subjective and complex judgments about matters that are inherently uncertain. One of our most critical estimates is our allowance for credit losses. At any given point in time, conditions in real estate and credit markets may increase the complexity and uncertainty involved in estimating the losses inherent in our loan portfolio. If management’s underlying assumptions and judgments prove to be inaccurate, the allowance for credit losses could be insufficient to cover actual losses. Our financial condition, including our liquidity and capital, and results of operations could be materially and adversely impacted.

Our financial instruments, including certain trading assets and liabilities, derivatives, available-for-sale securities, certain loans and investments, among other items, require management to make a determination of their fair value in order to prepare our consolidated financial statements. Where quoted market prices are not available, we may make fair value determinations based on internally developed models or other means, which ultimately rely to some degree on our subjective judgment. Some of these instruments and other assets and liabilities may have no directly observable inputs, making their valuation particularly subjective and, consequently, based on estimation and judgment. In addition, sudden illiquidity in markets or declines in prices of certain securities may make it more difficult to value certain items, which may lead to the possibility that such valuations will be subject to further change or adjustment, as well as declines in our earnings in subsequent periods.

Our accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) and the SEC have at times revised the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. In addition, accounting standard setters and those who interpret the accounting standards may change or even reverse their previous interpretations or positions on how these standards should be applied. These changes can be hard to predict and can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, we could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in our restating prior-period financial statements. For further discussion of our significant accounting estimates, policies and standards, see “Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Critical accounting estimates” and “Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Recent accounting developments” of this Form 10-K and Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K.

Our operations could be adversely affected by serious weather conditions.

Certain of our principal operations are located in St. Petersburg, Florida. While we have a business continuity plan that provides for significant operations to be conducted out of remote locations, as well as our Southfield, Michigan and Memphis, Tennessee corporate offices and our U.S. information systems processing to be conducted out of our information technology data center in the Denver, Colorado area, our operations could be adversely affected by hurricanes or other serious weather conditions that could affect the processing of transactions, communications, and the ability of our associates to get to our offices, or work remotely. In addition, since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, we have allowed nearly all of our associates to work remotely and, as a result, our operations are dependent on our associates’ ability to relocate to a secondary location in the event of a power outage or other disruption in their primary remote work location. As previously mentioned, weather events could also adversely impact the value of certain loans within our bank loan portfolio.


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Climate change and sustainability concerns could disrupt our businesses, adversely affect client activity levels, adversely affect the creditworthiness of our counterparties and damage our reputation.

Climate change may cause extreme weather events that disrupt operations at one or more of our primary locations, which may negatively affect our ability to service and interact with our associates, clients, and other key stakeholders. Climate change may also have a negative impact on the financial condition of our clients, which may decrease revenues from those clients and increase the credit risk associated with loans and other credit exposures to those clients. Additionally, our reputation and client relationships may be damaged as a result of our clients’ involvement in certain industries or projects associated with causing or exacerbating climate change or by our failure or our clients’ failure to support sustainability initiatives. New regulations or guidance relating to environmental, social, and governance standards, as well as the perspectives of shareholders, employees and other stakeholders regarding these standards, may affect our business activities and increase disclosure requirements, which may increase costs.

The phase-out of LIBOR could negatively impact our financial condition and require significant operational work.

Central banks and regulators in the U.S. and other jurisdictions are working to implement the transition to suitable replacements for LIBOR. The discontinuance of LIBOR has resulted in significant uncertainty regarding the transition to suitable alternative reference rates and could adversely impact our business, operations, and financial results. Although alternative reference rates have been proposed to replace LIBOR, market and client adoption of these rates varies across products, services, and contracts, leading to market fragmentation, reduced liquidity in the market, and increased operational complexity. Alternative reference rates have different characteristics than LIBOR, and may demonstrate less predictable behavior over time and across different monetary, market, and economic environments. Although the full impact of transition remains unclear, this change may have an adverse impact on the value of, return on and trading markets for a broad array of financial products, including any LIBOR-based securities, loans and derivatives that are included in our financial assets and liabilities. However, we do not believe the transition to an alternative reference rate will have a material impact on our financial condition, cash flows, or results of operations.

We are exposed to risks related to our insurance programs.

Our operations and financial results are subject to risks and uncertainties related to our use of a combination of insurance, self-insured retention and self-insurance for a number of risks. To a large extent, we have elected to self-insure our errors and omissions liability and our employee-related health care benefit plans. We have self-insured retention risk related to several exposures, including our property and casualty, workers compensation and general liability benefit plans.

While we endeavor to purchase insurance coverage appropriate to our risk assessment, we are unable to predict with certainty the frequency, nature or magnitude of claims for direct or consequential damages. Our business may be negatively affected if our insurance proves to be inadequate or unavailable. In addition, claims associated with risks we have retained either through our self-insurance retention or by self-insuring may exceed our recorded liabilities which could negatively impact future earnings. Insurance claims may divert management resources away from operating our business.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT

Financial services firms are highly regulated and such regulation may increase the risk of financial liability and reputational harm resulting from adverse regulatory actions.

Financial services firms operate in an evolving regulatory environment. The industry has experienced an extended period of significant change in laws and regulations governing the financial services industry, as well as a high degree of scrutiny from various regulators, including the SEC, the Fed, the OCC and the CFPB, in addition to stock exchanges, FINRA and state attorneys general. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act resulted in sweeping changes to the regulatory regime, including a significant increase in the supervision and regulation of the financial services industry. Penalties and fines imposed by regulatory authorities have been substantial in recent years. We may be adversely affected by changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws, rules and regulations. Existing and new laws and regulations could affect our revenue, limit our ability to pursue business opportunities, impact the value of our assets, require us to alter at least some of our business practices, impose additional compliance costs, and otherwise adversely affect our businesses.

There is also increased regulatory scrutiny (and related compliance costs) as we continue to grow and surpass certain consolidated asset thresholds, which have the effect of imposing enhanced standards and requirements on larger institutions. These include, but are not limited to, Raymond James Bank’s oversight by the CFPB. Any action taken by the CFPB could

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RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
result in requirements to alter or cease offering affected products and services, make such products and services less attractive, impose additional compliance measures, or result in fines, penalties or required remediation.

We are also required to comply with the Volcker Rule’s provisions. Although we have not historically engaged in significant levels of proprietary trading, due to our underwriting and trading activities and our investments in covered funds, we have experienced and expect to continue to experience increased operational and compliance costs and changes to our private equity investments. Any changes to regulations or changes to the supervisory approach may also result in increased compliance costs to the extent we are required to modify our existing compliance policies, procedures and practices.

Broker-dealers and investment advisors are subject to regulations covering all aspects of the securities business, including, but not limited to: sales and trading methods; trade practices among broker-dealers; use and safekeeping of clients’ funds and securities; capital structure of securities firms; anti-money laundering efforts; recordkeeping; and the conduct of directors, officers and employees. Any violation of these laws or regulations could subject us to the following events, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and prospects: civil and criminal liability; sanctions, which could include the revocation of our subsidiaries’ registrations as investment advisors or broker-dealers; the revocation of the licenses of our financial advisors; censures; fines; or a temporary suspension or permanent bar from conducting business.

The majority of our affiliated financial advisors are independent contractors. Legislative or regulatory action that redefines the criteria for determining whether a person is an employee or an independent contractor could materially impact our relationships with our advisors and our business, resulting in an adverse effect on our results of operations.

Raymond James Bank is subject to the CRA, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act and other U.S. federal fair lending laws and regulations that impose nondiscriminatory lending requirements on financial institutions. The U.S. Department of Justice and other federal agencies, including the CFPB, are responsible for enforcing these laws and regulations. An unfavorable CRA rating or a successful challenge to an institution’s performance under the fair lending laws and regulations could result in a wide variety of sanctions, including the required payment of damages and civil monetary penalties, injunctive relief, and the imposition of restrictions on mergers, acquisitions and expansion activity. Private parties may also have the ability to challenge a financial institution’s performance under fair lending laws by bringing private class action litigation.

As discussed in “Item 1 - Business - Regulation” of this Form 10-K, on July 20, 2021, the Fed, the FDIC, and the OCC issued a joint statement in which they committed to working together to jointly modernize the CRA regulations. These developments create uncertainty in planning our CRA activities. Any revisions to the CRA regulations may negatively impact our business, including through increased costs related to compliance.

In addition, we have certain international business operations that are subject to laws, regulations, and standards in the countries in which we operate. Any violations of these laws, regulations or standards could subject us to a range of potential regulatory events or outcomes that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and prospects including potential adverse impacts on continued operations in the relevant international jurisdiction.

Regulatory actions brought against us may result in judgments, settlements, fines, penalties or other results, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. There is no assurance that regulators will be satisfied with the policies and procedures implemented by RJF and its subsidiaries. In addition, from time to time, RJF and its subsidiaries may become subject to additional findings with respect to supervisory, compliance or other regulatory deficiencies, which could subject us to additional liability, including penalties and restrictions on our business activities. Among other things, these restrictions could limit our ability to make investments, complete acquisitions, expand into new business lines, pay dividends on our common stock and/or engage in share repurchases. See “Item 1 - Business - Regulation” of this Form 10-K for additional information regarding our regulatory environment.

Changes in requirements relating to the standard of conduct for broker-dealers applicable under federal and state law have increased our costs.

In June 2019, the SEC adopted a package of rulemakings and interpretations related to the provision of advice by broker-dealers and investment advisers, including Regulation Best Interest. Since June 30, 2020, Regulation Best Interest requires, among other things, a broker-dealer to act in the best interest of a retail client when making a recommendation to that client of any securities transaction or investment strategy involving securities. The regulation imposes heightened standards on broker-dealers, and we have incurred substantial costs in order to review and modify our policies and procedures, including associated supervisory and compliance controls. We anticipate that we will continue to incur costs in the future to comply with the standard.


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In addition to the SEC, various states have adopted, or are considering adopting, laws and regulations seeking to impose new standards of conduct on broker-dealers that, as written, differ from the SEC’s new regulations and may lead to additional implementation costs. Implementation of the new SEC regulations, as well as any new state rules that are adopted addressing similar matters, has resulted in (and may continue to result in) increased costs related to compliance, legal, operations and information technology.

The DOL has also reinstated the historical “five-part test” for determining who is an investment advice “fiduciary” when dealing with certain retirement plans and accounts and proposed a new exemption to allow investment advice fiduciaries to receive transaction-based compensation and engage in certain principal trades. In addition, the DOL is expected to amend the rule that determines whether an investment professional is a fiduciary to their clients’ retirement accounts under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act and Internal Revenue Code. As such, imposing a new standard of care on additional client relationships could lead to incremental costs for our business.

Numerous regulatory changes and enhanced regulatory and enforcement activity relating to our investment management activities may increase our compliance and legal costs and otherwise adversely affect our business.

As some of our wholly-owned subsidiaries are registered as investment advisors with the SEC, increased regulatory scrutiny and rulemaking initiatives may result in additional operational and compliance costs or the assessment of significant fines or penalties against our asset management business, and may otherwise limit our ability to engage in certain activities. While it is not possible to determine the extent of the long-term impact of any new laws or regulations that have been promulgated, or initiatives that have been or may be proposed, even the short-term impact of preparing for or implementing changes to our infrastructure and processes could negatively impact the ways we conduct business and increase our compliance and legal costs. Conformance with any new law or regulations could also make compliance more difficult and expensive and affect our product and service offerings.

Investment management businesses have been affected by the SEC’s Regulation Best Interest which, in addition to creating a standard of care a financial advisor owes its clients, also impacts investment advice provided by investment advisers. The result has been increased scrutiny within the industry regarding how advisory products are offered and sold. Such changes could impact our revenues and profitability.

New regulations regarding the management of hedge funds and the use of certain investment products, including additional recordkeeping and disclosure requirements, may also impact our asset management business and result in increased costs.

Failure to comply with regulatory capital requirements primarily applicable to RJF, Raymond James Bank or our broker-dealer subsidiaries would significantly harm our business.

As discussed in “Item 1 - Business - Regulation” of this Form 10-K, RJF and Raymond James Bank are subject to capital requirements administered by various federal regulators in the U.S. and, accordingly, must meet specific capital guidelines that involve quantitative measures of RJF and Raymond James Bank’s assets, liabilities and certain off-balance sheet items, as calculated under regulatory guidelines. Failure to meet minimum capital requirements can trigger certain mandatory (and potentially discretionary) actions by regulators that, if undertaken, could harm either RJF or Raymond James Bank’s operations and financial condition. Further, we are subject to the SEC’s Uniform Net Capital Rule (Rule 15c3-1) and FINRA’s net capital rule, which may limit our ability to make withdrawals of capital from our broker-dealer subsidiaries. RJ Ltd. is subject to similar limitations under applicable regulations in Canada by IIROC. Regulatory capital requirements applicable to some of our significant subsidiaries may impede access to funds that RJF may need to make payments on any of its obligations. See Note 24 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for further information on regulations and capital requirements.

The Basel III regulatory capital standards impose capital and other requirements on us that could negatively impact our profitability.

The Fed and other federal banking regulators have implemented the global regulatory capital requirements of Basel III and certain requirements implemented by the Dodd-Frank Act. The U.S. Basel III Rules establish the quantity and quality of regulatory capital, set forth a capital conservation buffer and define the calculation of risk-weighted assets. The capital requirements stipulated under the U.S. Basel III Rules could restrict our ability to grow during favorable market conditions or require us to raise additional capital. Revisions to the Basel III Rules, including in connection with the implementation of the standards released by the Basel Committee in December 2017 could, when implemented in the United States, negatively impact our regulatory capital ratio calculations. As a result, our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could

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RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
be adversely affected. See “Item 1 - Business - Regulation” of this Form 10-K for further information on the Basel III regulatory capital standards.

As a financial holding company, RJF’s liquidity depends on payments from its subsidiaries, which may be subject to regulatory restrictions.

RJF as a financial holding company depends on dividends, distributions and other payments from its subsidiaries in order to meet its obligations, including its debt service obligations. RJF’s subsidiaries are subject to laws and regulations that restrict dividend payments or authorize regulatory bodies to prevent or reduce the flow of funds from those subsidiaries to RJF. RJF’s broker-dealers and bank subsidiary are limited in their ability to lend or transact with affiliates and are subject to minimum regulatory capital and other requirements, as well as limitations on their ability to use funds deposited with them in brokerage or bank accounts to fund their businesses. These requirements may hinder RJF’s ability to access funds from its subsidiaries. RJF may also become subject to a prohibition or limitations on its ability to pay dividends or repurchase its common stock. Federal regulators, including the Fed and the SEC (through FINRA), have the authority and under certain circumstances, the obligation, to limit or prohibit dividend payments and stock repurchases by the banking organizations they supervise, including RJF and its bank subsidiaries.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

We operate our business from our principal location in St. Petersburg, Florida in 1.25 million square feet of office space that we own in the Carillon Office Park. We conduct certain operations from our owned facility in Southfield, Michigan, comprising approximately 90,000 square feet, and operate a 40,000 square foot information technology data center on land we own in the Denver, Colorado area. Generally, our owned locations and principal leases, identified below, support all of our business segments.

We lease the premises we occupy in other U.S. and foreign locations, including employee-based branch office operations. Leases for branch offices for independent contractors are the responsibility of the respective independent contractor financial advisors and are not included in the amounts listed below. Our leases contain various expiration dates through fiscal year 2032. Our principal leases are in the following locations:

We occupy leased space of approximately 250,000 square feet in Memphis, along with approximately 165,000 square feet in New York City, 70,000 square feet in Chicago and 30,000 square feet in Denver, with other office and branch locations throughout the U.S.;

We occupy leased space of approximately 80,000 and 85,000 square feet in Vancouver and Toronto, respectively, along with other office and branch locations throughout Canada;

We occupy leased space of approximately 30,000 square feet in London, along with other office locations in Europe, primarily in Germany.

Additionally, we own approximately 65 acres of land located in Pasco County, Florida for potential development, as needed. We regularly monitor the facilities we own or occupy to ensure that they suit our needs, particularly as we introduce more flexibility in work location for our associates as we return to office. To the extent that they do not meet our needs, we will expand, contract or relocate, as necessary. See Note 2 and Note 14 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for information regarding our lease obligations.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

In the normal course of our business, we have been named, from time to time, as a defendant in various legal actions, including arbitrations, class actions and other litigation, arising in connection with our activities as a diversified financial services institution.

RJF and certain of its subsidiaries are subject to regular reviews and inspections by regulatory authorities and self-regulatory organizations. Reviews can result in the imposition of sanctions for regulatory violations, ranging from non-monetary censures to fines and, in serious cases, temporary or permanent suspension from conducting business, or limitations on certain business

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RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
activities. In addition, regulatory agencies and SROs institute investigations from time to time, among other things, into industry practices, which can also result in the imposition of such sanctions.

We may contest liability and/or the amount of damages, as appropriate, in each pending matter. Over the last several years, the level of litigation and investigatory activity (both formal and informal) by government and self-regulatory agencies in the financial services industry continues to be significant. There can be no assurance that material losses will not be incurred from claims that have not yet been asserted or are not yet determined to be material.

For many legal and regulatory matters, we are unable to estimate a range of reasonably possible loss as we cannot predict if, how or when such proceedings or investigations will be resolved or what the eventual settlement, fine, penalty or other relief, if any, may be. A large number of factors may contribute to this inherent unpredictability: the proceeding is in its early stages; the damages sought are unspecified, unsupported or uncertain; it is unclear whether a case brought as a class action will be allowed to proceed on that basis; the other party is seeking relief other than or in addition to compensatory damages (including, in the case of regulatory and governmental proceedings, potential fines and penalties); the matters present significant legal uncertainties; we have not engaged in settlement discussions; discovery is not complete; there are significant facts in dispute; and numerous parties are named as defendants (including where it is uncertain how liability might be shared among defendants). Subject to the foregoing, after consultation with counsel, we believe that the outcome of such litigation and regulatory proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition. However, the outcome of such litigation and regulatory proceedings could be material to our operating results and cash flows for a particular future period, depending on, among other things, our revenues or income for such period.

See Note 19 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for additional information regarding legal and regulatory matter contingencies, and refer to “Item 7 - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Critical accounting estimates” in the section “Loss provisions for legal and regulatory matters” and Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for information on our criteria for establishing accruals.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our common stock is traded on the NYSE under the symbol “RJF.” As of November 18, 2021, we had 309 holders of record of our common stock. Shares of our common stock are held by a substantially greater number of beneficial owners, whose shares are held of record by banks, brokers, and other financial institutions.

See Note 24 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for information regarding our intentions for paying cash dividends and the related capital restrictions.

Information related to our compensation plans under which equity securities are authorized for issuance is presented in Note 23 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and Part III, Item 12 of this Form 10-K.

We did not have any sales of unregistered securities for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021, 2020 or 2019.


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RAYMOND JAMES FINANCIAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
We purchase our own stock from time to time in conjunction with a number of activities, each of which is described in the following paragraphs. The following table presents information on our purchases of our own stock, on a monthly basis, for the twelve months ended September 30, 2021. Share and per share information has been retroactively adjusted to reflect the September 2021 three-for-two stock split.
<
 Total number of shares
purchased
Average price
per share
Number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programsApproximate dollar value (in millions) at each month-end, of securities that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs
October 1, 2020 – October 31, 20201,806 $53.36  $487
November 1, 2020 – November 30, 2020139,838 $60.33  $487
December 1, 2020 – December 31, 2020175,139 $62.01 161,625 $740
First quarter316,783 $61.23 161,625 
January 1, 2021 – January 31, 20213,602 $66.71  $740
February 1, 2021 – February 28, 202110,412 $66.62  $740
March 1, 2021 – March 31, 2021752,640 $80.03 750,000 $680
Second quarter766,654 $79.79 750,000