Company Quick10K Filing
Red River Bancshares
Price43.10 EPS0
Shares7,340 P/E17,498
MCap316,375 P/FCF16,327
Net Debt-106 EBIT30
TEV316,269 TEV/EBIT10,598
TTM 2019-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios
10-K 2020-12-31 Filed 2021-03-19
10-Q 2020-09-30 Filed 2020-11-13
10-Q 2020-06-30 Filed 2020-08-10
10-Q 2020-03-31 Filed 2020-05-15
10-K 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-03-27
10-Q 2019-09-30 Filed 2019-11-14
10-Q 2019-06-30 Filed 2019-08-14
S-1 2019-04-10 Public Filing
10-Q 2019-03-31 Filed 2019-06-07
8-K 2020-11-19
8-K 2020-10-29
8-K 2020-09-18
8-K 2020-08-27
8-K 2020-08-10
8-K 2020-07-29
8-K 2020-06-12
8-K 2020-05-28
8-K 2020-04-29
8-K 2020-02-27
8-K 2020-01-29
8-K 2020-01-23
8-K 2019-10-29
8-K 2019-09-18
8-K 2019-08-08
8-K 2019-07-30
8-K 2019-07-29
8-K 2019-06-30
8-K 2019-06-17
8-K 2019-06-13
8-K 2019-05-07
8-K 2019-05-02

RRBI 10K Annual Report

Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
EX-10.22 rrbiexhibit1022202010-k.htm
EX-21.1 rrbiexhibit211202010-k.htm
EX-23.1 rrbiexhibit231202010-k.htm
EX-31.1 rrbiexhibit311q42020.htm
EX-31.2 rrbiexhibit312q42020.htm
EX-32.1 rrbiexhibit321q42020.htm
EX-32.2 rrbiexhibit322q42020.htm

Red River Bancshares Earnings 2020-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

rrbi-20201231
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from       to      

Commission file number 001-38888 
Red River Bancshares, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Louisiana 
72-1412058
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
1412 Centre Court Drive, Suite 501, Alexandria, Louisiana
71301
(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (318) 561-5028
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, no par valueRRBIThe Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports); and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
o
Accelerated filer
o
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. o
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was $207.8 million as of June 30, 2020, the last business day of the Registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter. Solely for the purposes of this computation, it has been assumed that executive officers and directors of the Registrant (and any trusts or entities that they own or control) are "affiliates".
As of March 5, 2021, the registrant had 7,308,537 shares of common stock, no par value, issued and outstanding.



DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Registrant's Definitive Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareholders of Red River Bancshares, Inc. to be held on May 6, 2021, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. Such Definitive Proxy Statement will be filed with the SEC within 120 days after the end of the Registrant's fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.
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GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this filing to “we,” “our,” “us,” “the Company,” and “our company” refer to Red River Bancshares, Inc., a Louisiana corporation and bank holding company, and its consolidated subsidiaries. All references in this report to “Red River Bank,” the “bank,” and the “Bank” refer to Red River Bank, our wholly owned bank subsidiary.
Other abbreviations or acronyms used in this report are defined below.
ABBREVIATION OR ACRONYMDEFINITION
2018 2-for-1 stock splitA stock split that was accomplished by a stock dividend with a record date of October 1, 2018, whereby each holder of the Company's common stock received one additional share of common stock for each share owned as of such date.
ACHAutomated clearing house
AFSAvailable-for-sale
AOCIAccumulated other comprehensive income or loss
ASCAccounting Standards Codification
ASUAccounting Standards Update
Basel IIIBasel Committee's 2010 Regulatory Capital Framework (Third Accord)
BOLIBank-owned life insurance
bp(s)Basis point(s)
CARES ActCoronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, as amended
CBLRCommunity bank leverage ratio
CCBCapital conservation buffer
CECL
Current Expected Credit Losses, related to ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments
CFPBConsumer Financial Protection Bureau
COVID-19Coronavirus Disease 2019
CRACommunity Reinvestment Act
Director Compensation ProgramCompensation program which allows directors of the Company and the Bank an opportunity to select how to receive their annual director fees.
Dodd-Frank ActDodd-Frank and Wall Street Consumer Protection Act of 2010
Economic Aid ActEconomic Aid to Hard-Hit Small Businesses, Nonprofits, and Venues Act
Economic Growth ActEconomic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act
EPSEarnings per share
Exchange ActSecurities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards Board
FDIAFederal Deposit Insurance Act
FDICFederal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Federal ReserveBoard of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
FHAUnited States Federal Housing Administration
FHLBFederal Home Loan Bank of Dallas
FTEFully taxable equivalent basis
GAAPGenerally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States of America
HFIHeld for investment
HFSHeld for sale
HTMHeld-to-maturity
IPOInitial public offering
JOBS ActJumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012
LIBORLondon Interbank Offered Rate
MSAMetropolitan statistical area
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ABBREVIATION OR ACRONYMDEFINITION
NOWNegotiable order of withdrawal
NPA(s)Nonperforming asset(s)
OCCOffice of the Comptroller of the Currency
OFACOffice of Foreign Assets Control
OFIOffice of Financial Institutions
OREOOther real estate owned
OTTIOther-than-temporary impairment
PPPPaycheck Protection Program
SBASmall Business Administration
SBICSmall Business Investment Company
Securities ActSecurities Act of 1933, as amended
SECSecurities and Exchange Commission
Source BIDCOSource Business and Industrial Development Company, LLC
TDR(s)Troubled debt restructuring(s)
USDUnited States dollar
VAUnited States Department of Veterans Affairs
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements, which reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, future events and our financial performance. These statements are often, but not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “may,” “should,” “could,” “predict,” “potential,” “believe,” “will likely result,” “expect,” “continue,” “will,” “anticipate,” “seek,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “projection,” “would,” and “outlook,” or the negative version of those words, or such other comparable words or phrases of a future or forward-looking nature. These forward-looking statements are not historical facts, and are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about our industry, management’s beliefs and certain assumptions made by management, many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and beyond our control. Accordingly, we caution you that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, assumptions, and uncertainties that are difficult to predict. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the date made, actual results may prove to be materially different from the results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
There are or will be important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, the following:
business and economic conditions generally and in the financial services industry, nationally and within our local market areas;
the impact of COVID-19 on our business, the communities where we have our banking centers, the state of Louisiana, and the United States, related to the economy and overall financial stability;
government and regulatory responses to the COVID-19 pandemic;
government intervention in the U.S. financial system, including the effects of recent and future legislative, tax, accounting, and regulatory actions and reforms, including the CARES Act and the Economic Aid Act which established the SBA PPP and the PPP Second Draw programs, and other changes in banking, securities, accounting, and tax laws and regulations, and their application by our regulators;
changes in management personnel;
increased competition in the financial services industry, particularly from regional and national institutions;
volatility and direction of market interest rates;
our ability to maintain important deposit customer relationships, our reputation, and to otherwise avoid liquidity risks;
factors that can impact the performance of our loan portfolio, including real estate values and liquidity in our primary market areas, the financial health of our commercial borrowers, and the success of construction projects that we finance, including any loans acquired in acquisition transactions;
changes in the value of collateral securing our loans;
risks associated with system failures or failures to protect against cybersecurity threats, such as breaches of our network security;
deterioration of our asset quality;
the adequacy of our reserves, including our allowance for loan losses;
operational risks associated with our business;
natural disasters and adverse weather, acts of terrorism, pandemics, an outbreak of hostilities or other international or domestic calamities, and other matters beyond our control;
our ability to prudently manage our growth and execute our strategy;
compliance with the extensive regulatory framework that applies to us;
uncertainty regarding the future of LIBOR and the impact of any replacement alternatives on our business;
changes in the laws, rules, regulations, interpretations, or policies relating to financial institution, accounting, tax, trade, monetary, and fiscal matters; and
other risks and uncertainties listed from time to time in our reports and documents filed with the SEC.
The foregoing factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read together with the other cautionary statements included in this report. Additional information on these and other risk factors can be found in "Item 1A. Risk Factors" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. If one or more events related to these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may differ materially from what we anticipate. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments, or otherwise. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which will arise. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.
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PART I
Item 1. Business
OUR COMPANY
Red River Bancshares, Inc., a Louisiana corporation, was founded in 1998 and is a bank holding company headquartered in Alexandria, Louisiana. Through our wholly owned subsidiary, Red River Bank, a Louisiana state-chartered bank, we provide a fully integrated suite of banking products and services tailored to the needs of our commercial and retail customers. Our mission is to be the premier statewide banking organization in Louisiana.
We completed an IPO of our common stock in May 2019 as an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act. Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "RRBI."
As of December 31, 2020, we were the third largest financial institution headquartered in Louisiana based on assets, with total assets of $2.64 billion, loans HFI of $1.59 billion, total deposits of $2.34 billion, and total stockholders’ equity of $285.5 million.
OUR MARKETS
We operate from a network of 25 banking centers throughout Louisiana and one combined loan and deposit production office in Lafayette, Louisiana. Banking centers are located in the following Louisiana markets: Central, which includes the Alexandria MSA; Northwest, which includes the Shreveport-Bossier City MSA; Capital, which includes the Baton Rouge MSA; Southwest, which includes the Lake Charles MSA; and the Northshore, which includes Covington.
We believe our markets offer us an attractive combination of growth opportunities and core deposit stability, as well as loan diversity. We operate nine banking centers, including our main office, in the Central Louisiana market, which we define to include Rapides and Avoyelles Parishes. We operate seven banking centers in our Northwest Louisiana market, which we define to include Caddo, Bossier, and DeSoto Parishes. In our Capital market, which we define to include East Baton Rouge and Ascension Parishes, we operate six banking centers. We also operate two banking centers in our Southwest Louisiana market, which we define to include Calcasieu Parish. In our Northshore Louisiana market, which we define to include St. Tammany Parish, we operate one banking center. We operate one combined loan and deposit production office in our Acadiana market, which we define to include Lafayette Parish.
We believe our current markets provide ample opportunities for the continued growth of our customer base, loans, and deposits, as well as the expansion of our overall market share in each area. Our goal is to replicate this growth in new markets as we continue to expand and implement our growth and expansion strategy. Our current markets, which are in diverse parts of Louisiana, are economic centers that provide for natural credit diversification and a hedge against industry downturns.
We are purposeful in choosing banking center locations and have sought out key locations in Louisiana through de novo development, as well as through two whole-bank acquisitions. Our emphasis on having a strategic network of banking centers, staffed by experienced bankers, differentiates us from our national and regional bank competitors, who are increasingly moving their customers to digital banking only platforms with limited personal service.
GROWTH AND EXPANSION STRATEGY
We have concentrated our efforts on building our market presence in key metropolitan markets within the state of Louisiana where our target customers are underserved and well-suited for the commercial, retail, and private banking products and services that we provide. We intend to leverage our competitive strengths to take advantage of what we believe are significant growth opportunities within our existing footprint and other strategic market areas that we believe complement our strategic plan. Our growth strategy includes the following:
Expand Market Share in Existing Markets
We want to be the market leader and have a significant market share in all the communities we serve. Organic growth is our primary focus, which may be supplemented with strategic, targeted acquisitions when and if appropriate. We intend to expand our banking center network by opening additional banking centers in our existing markets to provide our customers with more convenient banking locations. We understand that relationships are our strategic advantage, and we continually seek to identify and recruit experienced bankers with broad relationship networks within our existing markets. We then strengthen those relationships by offering personalized products and services. We attract new customers through personal outreach by our bankers, targeted marketing campaigns, advertising in a variety of traditional and social media, and by filling the void left by competitors who are closing banking offices. Other outreach activities include helping our communities during times of need and having a presence at community events.
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Opportunistic New Market Expansion
When evaluating potential new market opportunities, our standard due diligence includes both an assessment of the local economy as well as analysis of the local banking landscape. As part of our new market expansion plan, we expanded operations to three new markets between 2017 and 2020. In 2017, we began operations in the Southwest Louisiana market, which includes the Lake Charles, Louisiana MSA. During 2018 and 2019, we entered the Northshore market, located on the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain, near New Orleans, Louisiana. We most recently entered the Acadiana Louisiana market, which includes the Lafayette, Louisiana MSA. In 2020, we opened a combined loan and deposit production office in Lafayette and purchased banking center locations in Lafayette and Lake Charles, Louisiana.
Disciplined Acquisition Strategy
Our primary focus continues to be on organic expansion; however, we will identify and evaluate opportunities for strategic business acquisitions as they arise. Our historic approach to potential acquisitions has been strategic and disciplined. Since inception, we completed two whole-bank acquisitions of institutions with customer-oriented, compatible philosophies and in desirable geographic areas. These acquisitions provided us the opportunity to expand the delivery of our relationship-driven brand of banking. We will continue to emphasize organic expansion going forward, and we are not currently a party to any formal or informal acquisition arrangements. We will, however, carefully consider acquisition opportunities, primarily within the state of Louisiana, that we believe are consistent with our mission and which can provide opportunities for improved profitability and to gain market share.
BANKING SERVICES
We are primarily a business-focused banking organization, delivering specialized services to our customers. We target privately-owned commercial and industrial operating companies for both credit and treasury management services, while also providing owners and key employees with the same customized, personal service for their individual financial needs. Our personal banking business supports our commercial banking focus, provides attractive customer diversification, and enhances our growing base of core deposits. We offer each of these customers sophisticated products and services similar to those of much larger banks but delivered by bankers who can provide local and responsive decision-making, personal assistance, and an interest in their personal goals and the success of their businesses.
Lending
Lending activities originate from the efforts of our bankers, with an emphasis on lending to individuals, professionals, small and medium-sized businesses, and commercial companies located in our market areas.
Real Estate Loans
Commercial Real Estate Loans (Owner Occupied). Given our strategy of focusing on the banking needs of established operating companies within our geographic footprint, 20.1% of loans HFI as of December 31, 2020, consisted of owner occupied office and industrial real estate loans. Risks associated with owner occupied commercial real estate include fluctuations in the value of real estate, the overall strength of the economy, new job creation trends, environmental contamination, and the quality of the borrower's management. In addition to a proven management team and track record, we focus on businesses with a history of strong, recurring cash flows. In particular, we target wholesale and professional service companies, as well as businesses with unique strengths in niche markets. Loans are conservatively underwritten and typically carry the personal guarantee of the business owners. We believe this portfolio segment is well diversified by industry type.
Commercial Real Estate Loans (Non-Owner Occupied). Our pursuit of non-owner occupied commercial real estate properties is reserved primarily for developers and other persons or entities of influence in our local markets who present additional business and personal relationship opportunities. This strategy is evidenced by our modest level of these loans relative to our capital, which has been consistent for many years. Risks associated with non-owner occupied commercial real estate include fluctuations in the value of real estate, the overall strength of the economy, new job creation trends, tenant vacancy rates, environmental contamination, and the quality of the borrower's management. We target property types with a greater ability to withstand changes in market forces. Our underwriting criteria for non-owner occupied properties is even more conservative than our underwriting criteria for owner occupied properties due to the higher inherent risks generally associated with the former. Our target rate of return is also higher for non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans. As of December 31, 2020, our non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans were 14.9% of loans HFI.
One-to-Four Family Residential Loans. We offer first and second lien one-to-four family mortgage loans, as well as home equity lines of credit, in each case primarily on owner occupied primary residences. Our retail consumer real estate lending products are offered primarily to consumer customers within our geographic markets. Although our consumer real estate loan portfolio presents lower levels of risk than our commercial and industrial, commercial real estate, and construction and development loan portfolios, we are exposed to risk based on fluctuations in the value of the real estate
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collateral securing the loan, as well as changes in the borrower’s financial condition, which could be affected by numerous factors, including divorce, job loss, illness, or other personal hardship. As of December 31, 2020, our one-to-four family residential loans were 27.9% of loans HFI.
Construction and Development Loans. Our construction and development portfolio includes loans to small and medium-sized businesses to construct owner occupied facilities, loans to developers of commercial real estate investment properties and residential developments and, to a lesser extent, loans to individual clients for construction of single-family homes in our market areas. Risks associated with construction loans include fluctuations in the value of real estate, project completion risk, and change in market trends. We are also exposed to risk based on the ability of the construction loan borrower to finance the loan or sell the property upon completion of the project, which may be affected by changes in secondary market terms and criteria for permanent financing since the time that we funded the construction loan. As of December 31, 2020, our construction and development loans were 8.0% of loans HFI.
Commercial and Industrial Loans
We have expertise in meeting the financing needs of commercial operating companies. Our specialists in these areas understand the cash cycle, working capital, and the fixed asset acquisition needs of businesses, and this allows us to deliver customizable and effective financing solutions. The risks associated with commercial and industrial loans are derived from the expectation that the loans are generally serviced from the operations of the business, and those operations may not be successful. In addition, the collateral securing commercial and industrial loans generally includes movable property which may decline in value more rapidly than anticipated. We recommend and utilize sound commercial and industrial loan structures that limit our risks as a lender, while also helping to drive the success of our clients’ businesses. Commercial and industrial loans comprised 15.8% of loans HFI as of December 31, 2020.
SBA PPP Loans
SBA PPP loans are made to small businesses and other entities and individuals according to the criteria set forth by the CARES Act in March 2020. These loans are guaranteed by the SBA, have a 24-month term at an interest rate of 1.0%, and are subject to forgiveness by the SBA dependent upon meeting eligibility requirements. As of December 31, 2020, our SBA PPP loans were 7.5% of loans HFI.
Tax-Exempt Loans
We make tax-exempt loans to political subdivisions of the State of Louisiana including parishes, municipalities, utility districts, school districts, and development authorities. These loans undergo the same underwriting as any of our other loans and are typically secured by and paid for by ad valorem taxes. As of December 31, 2020, our tax-exempt loans were 4.3% of loans HFI.
Consumer Loans
We also make a variety of loans to individuals for personal, family, and household purposes, including secured and unsecured installment and term loans. We offer consumer loans as an accommodation to our existing customers and do not market consumer loans to persons who do not have a pre-existing relationship with us. Our consumer loans, which are underwritten primarily based on the borrower’s financial condition and, in some cases, are unsecured credits, subject us to risk based on changes in the borrower’s financial condition, which could be affected by numerous factors, including divorce, job loss, illness or other personal hardship, and fluctuations in the value of the real estate or personal property securing the consumer loan, if any. As of December 31, 2020, our consumer loans were 1.5% of loans HFI.
Loans Held for Sale
Our mortgage lending group originates home mortgage loans that are sold to investors on the secondary market. Loan types include conventional, VA, FHA, and Rural Development. In addition, the mortgage lending department plays a critical role in meeting our community reinvestment and fair lending goals. The mortgage group has a community specialist in each market focused on low-income and first-time home buyers, and we participate in various down payment assistance and low-income home loan programs to ensure the needs of our entire banking community are satisfied.
Commitments to Extend Credit
We had outstanding commitments to extend credit in the forms of lines of credit and standby letters of credit of approximately $293.8 million as of December 31, 2020. We use the same credit policies in making these commitments as we do for our other loans.
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Deposits
An important aspect of our business franchise is the ability to gather deposits. We offer a wide range of deposit products including checking, savings, money market accounts, and time deposits. We obtain most of our deposits from individuals, partnerships, corporations, and public entities primarily in our market areas. Our bankers are experienced business developers with extensive contacts and connections with targeted clients and centers of influence throughout our communities. Our team is focused on driving relationships and noninterest-bearing accounts. We believe that the rates we offer for core deposits are competitive with those offered by other financial institutions in our market areas.
Treasury Management Services
Many of our clients and prospective clients have sophisticated depository needs. Our full array of commercial treasury services is designed to be competitive with banks of all sizes. Treasury management services include ACH, sweep, balance reporting, transfers between accounts, and stop payments. Cash management deposit products consist of remote deposit capture, merchant services, positive pay and automated fraud detection tools, account reconciliation services, zero balance accounts, and sweep accounts, including loan sweep accounts. We have a dedicated team of Treasury Management Officers (“TMOs”) who partner with our commercial and private bankers to meet those needs. Our TMOs analyze clients’ account activity and cash utilization and then recommend and implement solutions that enhance our clients’ efficiency, mitigate risks to their businesses, and maximize their earnings on available liquidity. Our TMOs provide in-person assistance with the initial setup of treasury services, as well as on-going client support post-implementation.
Private Banking Services
Our private banking group provides specialized deposit and loan products and services to high net worth individuals, business owners, and professionals. Consistent with our overall business philosophy, we seek to develop long-term relationships with our private banking clients through an emphasis on personal service and products tailored to their specific needs. From checking and savings products to sophisticated financing structures, we work to meet our clients’ changing needs.
Brokerage Services
We offer a broad range of products and services designed to meet the investment needs of all of our customers through our investment group. For the past 13 years, Cetera Investment Services LLC served as our registered broker-dealer. During the second quarter of 2020, we converted from Cetera Investment Services LLC to LPL Financial LLC as our registered broker-dealer. Our investment group executives, who are located in each of our markets, strive to fully understand each client’s unique financial situation, deliver a comprehensive plan, and provide the appropriate products to meet their needs. Our investment products include stocks, bonds, mutual funds, alternative investments, annuities, and insurance products. Through our partnership with registered investment advisors, our investment group also provides investment advisory services, financial planning services, and a comprehensive suite of retirement plans. As of December 31, 2020, our investment group had $647.8 million of assets under management.
Other Banking Services
We offer banking products and services that are attractively priced with a focus on customer convenience and accessibility. We offer a full suite of online banking services including access to account balances, online transfers, online bill payment, and electronic delivery of customer statements. In addition, we offer banking services in person, through ATMs, drive-through facilities, night deposits, telephone, mail, mobile banking, and remote deposits. We also offer debit cards, credit cards, direct deposits, cashier’s checks, and wire transfer services.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS
We continue to make investments in our information technology systems supporting our deposit and lending operations and treasury management initiatives. We believe these investments are essential to enhancing our capabilities for offering new products and services, improving the overall customer experience, providing scale for future growth and acquisitions, and increasing controls and efficiencies in corporate support areas. We utilize a core data processing platform from a nationally recognized bank software vendor providing us with capabilities to support the continued growth of the Bank. While we operate and manage our internal network infrastructure, we leverage the capabilities of third-party service providers to provide technical expertise around network design, architecture, and cybersecurity services required for us to operate as an effective and efficient organization.
The majority of our systems used to conduct day-to-day banking operations are operated by a third-party service provider. Also, certain key transaction processing platforms, such as debit card processing, credit card processing, mobile banking, online banking, telephone banking, and web-site services, are outsourced to third-party service providers. These third-party providers provide the scalability, infrastructure, and disaster recovery capabilities to support our operating strategy.
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EMPLOYEES
As of December 31, 2020, we had 336 full-time equivalent employees. We believe that we maintain employment and benefit programs which are appropriate with respect to position responsibilities, competitive with the external market, and capable of attracting, retaining, and motivating competent employees. We seek to engage personnel at all levels by offering opportunities for learning, growth, and the achievement of career objectives, and we encourage our employees to volunteer in community service activities in the markets that we serve. We are an Equal Opportunity Employer committed to workplace diversity and inclusion.
We offer comprehensive compensation and benefits packages to our employees including a 401(k) Plan, healthcare and insurance benefits, health and childcare flexible spending accounts, and paid vacation and sick time. We also offer stock-based compensation to key employees as a way to attract and retain talent. For more information on our benefit plans and stock-based compensation, see "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 9. Employee Benefits" and " - Note. 10 Stock-Based Compensation Plans," respectively, in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Beginning in March 2020, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we continued our commitment to the safety of our employees and the communities we serve by taking precautions to protect both employees and customers. We continue to carefully monitor local health conditions and follow recommended health and safety protocols.
None of our employees are represented by any collective bargaining unit or are parties to a collective bargaining agreement. We believe that our relations with our employees are very good.
CORPORATE INFORMATION
Our principal executive offices are located at 1412 Centre Court Drive, Suite 501, Alexandria, Louisiana 71301, and our telephone number is (318) 561-5028. Our website is www.redriverbank.net. We make available at this address, free of charge, our annual reports on Form 10-K, our annual reports to shareholders, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. These documents are also available on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov. The information contained on or accessible from our website does not constitute a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and is not incorporated by reference herein.
SUPERVISION AND REGULATION
General
The U.S. banking industry is highly regulated under federal and state law. Consequently, our growth and earnings performance will be affected not only by management decisions and general and local economic conditions, but also by the statutes administered by, and the regulations and policies of, various governmental regulatory authorities. These authorities include the Federal Reserve, FDIC, Louisiana OFI, CFPB, Internal Revenue Service, and state taxing authorities. The effect of these statutes, regulations, and policies and any changes to such statutes, regulations, and policies can be significant and cannot be predicted.
The primary goals of the bank regulatory plan are to maintain a safe and sound banking system, facilitate the conduct of sound monetary policy, and promote fairness and transparency for financial products and services. The system of supervision and regulation applicable to us and the Bank establishes a comprehensive framework for their respective operations and is intended primarily for the protection of the FDIC’s Deposit Insurance Fund, the Bank’s depositors, and the public, rather than our shareholders or creditors. The description below summarizes certain elements of the applicable bank regulatory framework. This description is not intended to describe all laws and regulations applicable to us and the Bank, and the description is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the statutes, regulations, policies, interpretive letters, and other written guidance that are described herein.
Bank Holding Company Regulation
As a bank holding company, we are subject to regulation under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, and to supervision, examination, and enforcement by the Federal Reserve. The Bank Holding Company Act and other federal laws subject bank holding companies to particular restrictions on the types of activities in which they may engage, and to a range of supervisory requirements and activities, including regulatory enforcement actions for violations of laws and regulations. The Federal Reserve’s jurisdiction also extends to any company that we directly or indirectly control, such as any nonbank subsidiaries and other companies in which we own a controlling investment.
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Financial Services Industry Reform
As final rules and regulations implementing the Dodd-Frank Act have been adopted, and may continue to be adopted, this law has changed the bank regulatory framework and has affected the lending, deposit, investment, trading, and operating activities of banks and their holding companies.
A number of the effects of the Dodd-Frank Act are described or otherwise accounted for in various parts of this “Supervision and Regulation” section. In addition to those requirements, the Dodd-Frank Act addresses many investor protection, corporate governance, and executive compensation matters that affect most U.S. publicly traded companies. The Dodd-Frank Act (1) requires certain publicly traded companies to give shareholders a non-binding vote on executive compensation and golden parachute payments; (2) enhances independence requirements for compensation committee members; (3) requires national securities exchanges to require listed companies to adopt incentive-based compensation clawback policies for executive officers; and (4) authorizes the SEC to promulgate rules that would allow shareholders to nominate their own director candidates using a company’s proxy materials.
While much of the Dodd-Frank Act has been implemented in the form of final rules from the banking agencies, the full extent of its impact on our operations is not yet determined. It is possible that existing rules may still be modified or repealed or that new rules may be implemented.
The Economic Growth Act, which was signed into law in May 2018, provides certain limited amendments to the Dodd-Frank Act, as well as certain targeted modifications to prior financial services reform regulatory requirements. Provisions in the Economic Growth Act generally address access to mortgage credit; consumer access to credit; protections for veterans, consumers, and homeowners; and protections for student borrowers. One of the Economic Growth Act’s highlights with potential implications for us is its increase in the asset threshold under the Federal Reserve’s Small Bank Holding Company Policy Statement from $1.0 billion to $3.0 billion. Another significant provision is the Economic Growth Act’s directive that federal bank regulatory agencies adopt a threshold for a CBLR framework. The CBLR framework and its implications for us are discussed in more detail below under the heading " - Bank Regulation - Capital Adequacy Requirements."
At this time, it is difficult to anticipate the continued impact the above-described legislation may have on our business, our customers, and the financial industry generally. Changes resulting from further implementation of, changes to, or repeal of the Dodd-Frank Act may impact the profitability of our business activities; require changes to certain of our business practices; impose upon us more stringent capital, liquidity, and leverage requirements; or otherwise adversely affect our business. These changes may also require us to invest significant management attention and resources to evaluate and make any changes necessary to comply with new statutory and regulatory requirements. Failure to comply with any new requirements may negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.
Imposition of Liability for Undercapitalized Subsidiaries
Federal banking regulations require FDIC-insured banks that become undercapitalized to submit a capital restoration plan. The capital restoration plan of a bank controlled by a bank holding company will not be accepted by the regulators unless each company having control of the undercapitalized institution guarantees the subsidiary’s compliance with the capital restoration plan up to a certain specified amount. Any such guarantee from a bank holding company is entitled to a priority of payment in bankruptcy.
The aggregate liability of the holding company of an undercapitalized bank in such a guarantee is limited to the lesser of 5.0% of the bank’s assets at the time it became undercapitalized or the amount necessary to cause the institution to be adequately capitalized. The bank regulatory agencies have greater power in situations where a bank becomes significantly or critically undercapitalized or fails to submit a capital restoration plan. For example, a bank holding company controlling such a bank can be required to obtain prior Federal Reserve approval of proposed dividends, or might be required to divest the bank or other affiliates.
Acquisitions by Bank Holding Companies
We must obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before (1) acquiring more than 5.0% of the voting stock of any bank or other bank holding company, (2) acquiring all or substantially all of the assets of any bank or bank holding company, or (3) merging or consolidating with any other bank holding company. In evaluating applications with respect to these transactions, the Federal Reserve is required to consider, among other things, the effect of the acquisition on competition; the financial condition, managerial resources, and future prospects of the bank holding company and the banks concerned; the convenience and needs of the communities to be served (including the record of performance under the CRA); the effectiveness of the applicant in combating money laundering activities; and the extent to which the proposed acquisition would result in greater or more concentrated risks to the stability of the U.S. banking or financial system. The Federal Reserve can deny an application based on the above criteria or other considerations. In addition, as a condition to receiving regulatory approval, the Federal Reserve can impose conditions on the acquiror or the business to be acquired, which may not be acceptable or, if acceptable, may reduce the benefit of a proposed acquisition.
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Control Acquisitions
Subject to various exceptions, the Bank Holding Company Act and the Change in Bank Control Act, together with related regulations, require Federal Reserve approval or non-objection prior to any person or company acquiring “control” of a bank holding company. Although “control” is based on all of the facts and circumstances surrounding the investment, control is conclusively presumed to exist if a person or company acquires 25.0% or more of any class of voting securities of the bank holding company. Control of a bank holding company is rebuttably presumed to exist under the Change in Bank Control Act if the acquiring person or entity will own 10.0% or more of any class of voting securities immediately following the transaction and either no other person will hold a greater percentage of that class of voting securities after the acquisition or the bank holding company has publicly registered securities.
Regulatory Restrictions on Dividends; Source of Strength
As a bank holding company, we are subject to certain restrictions on dividends under applicable banking laws and regulations. The Federal Reserve has issued a supervisory letter on the payment of cash dividends by bank holding companies, which expresses the Federal Reserve's view that a bank holding company should pay cash dividends only to the extent that: (1) the holding company's net income for the past four quarters, net of any dividends previously paid during that period, is sufficient to fully fund the dividends; (2) the prospective rate of earnings retention is consistent with the bank holding company's capital needs, asset quality, and overall financial condition; and (3) the bank holding company will continue to meet, and is not in danger of failing to meet, minimum regulatory capital adequacy ratios. Failure to comply with the supervisory letter could result in a supervisory finding that the bank holding company is operating in an unsafe and unsound manner. In addition, our ability to pay dividends may also be limited as a result of the capital conservation buffer under the Basel III regulatory capital framework to the extent it becomes applicable to us. In the current financial and economic environment, the Federal Reserve has indicated that bank holding companies should carefully review their dividend policy and has discouraged payment ratios that are at maximum allowable levels unless both asset quality and capital are very strong. The Federal Reserve may further restrict the payment of dividends by engaging in supervisory action to restrict dividends or by requiring us to maintain a higher level of capital than would otherwise be required under any applicable minimum capital requirements.
Under longstanding Federal Reserve policy, which has been codified by the Dodd-Frank Act, we are expected to act as a source of financial strength to, and to commit resources to support, Red River Bank. This support may be required at times when we may not be inclined to provide it. In addition, any capital loans that we make to Red River Bank are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of Red River Bank. As discussed above, in certain circumstances, we could also be required to guarantee the capital restoration plan of Red River Bank, if the Bank became undercapitalized for purposes of the FDIC’s prompt corrective action regulations. In the event of our bankruptcy, any commitment by us to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of Red River Bank under a capital restoration plan would be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to a priority of payment.
Scope of Permissible Activities
In general, the Bank Holding Company Act limits the activities permissible for bank holding companies to the business of banking, managing, or controlling banks, and such other activities as the Federal Reserve has determined to be so closely related to banking as to be properly incident thereto. Permissible activities for a bank holding company include, among others, operating a mortgage, finance, credit card, or factoring company; performing certain data processing operations; providing investment and financial advice; acting as an insurance agent for certain types of credit-related insurance; leasing personal property on a full-payout, nonoperating basis; and providing certain stock brokerage services. A bank holding company may also make an investment of up to 5.0% of any class of voting securities of any company that is otherwise a non-controlling investment.
If a bank holding company has elected to become a financial holding company, it may engage in activities that are (1) financial in nature or incidental to such financial activity, or (2) complementary to a financial activity and which do not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of a depository institution or to the financial system generally. These activities include securities dealing, underwriting and market making, insurance underwriting and agency activities, merchant banking, and insurance company portfolio investments. Expanded financial activities of financial holding companies generally will be regulated according to the type of such financial activity: banking activities by banking regulators, securities activities by securities regulators, and insurance activities by insurance regulators. A bank holding company may elect to be treated as a financial holding company if all of its depository institution subsidiaries are “well capitalized” and “well managed,” and have received a rating of not less than Satisfactory on each such institution’s most recent examination under the CRA. We currently have no plans to make a financial holding company election, although we may make a financial holding company election in the future if we engage in any lines of business that are impermissible for bank holding companies but permissible for financial holding companies.
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Volcker Rule
Section 13 of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, commonly known as the "Volcker Rule," has generally prohibited insured depository institutions and their affiliates from sponsoring or acquiring an ownership interest in certain investment funds, including hedge funds and private equity funds. The Volcker Rule also places restrictions on proprietary trading. The Economic Growth Act exempts insured depository institutions with $10.0 billion or less in total consolidated assets from the Volcker Rule, and the Federal Reserve has effectively extended the exemption to bank holding companies with $10.0 billion or less in total consolidated assets.
Safe and Sound Banking Practices
Bank holding companies are not permitted to engage in unsafe and unsound banking practices. For example, the Federal Reserve’s Regulation Y generally requires a bank holding company to provide the Federal Reserve with prior notice of any redemption or repurchase of its own equity securities, if the consideration to be paid, together with the consideration paid for any repurchases or redemptions in the preceding year, is equal to 10.0% or more of the bank holding company’s consolidated net worth. The Federal Reserve may oppose the transaction if it believes that the transaction would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice or would violate any law or regulation. In certain circumstances, the Federal Reserve could take the position that paying a dividend would constitute an unsafe or unsound banking practice. The Federal Reserve has broad authority to prohibit activities of bank holding companies and their nonbanking subsidiaries which represent unsafe and unsound banking practices, result in breaches of fiduciary duty, or which constitute violations of laws or regulations, and can assess civil money penalties or impose enforcement action for such activities.
Bank Regulation
Red River Bank is a commercial bank chartered under the laws of the State of Louisiana. As such, Red River Bank is subject to extensive regulation, supervision, and examination by the Louisiana OFI and the FDIC. In addition, Red River Bank’s deposits are insured to the maximum extent permitted by law by the FDIC. The bank regulatory agencies have the power to enforce compliance with applicable banking laws and regulations. These requirements and restrictions include requirements to maintain reserves against deposits, restrictions on the nature and amount of loans that may be made and the interest that may be charged thereon, and restrictions relating to investments and other activities of Red River Bank.
Capital Adequacy Requirements
The FDIC and Louisiana OFI monitor the capital adequacy of Red River Bank by using a combination of risk-based guidelines and leverage ratios. These agencies consider the Bank’s capital levels when taking action on various types of applications and when conducting supervisory activities related to the safety and soundness of the Bank and the banking system. Under the Basel III capital rules, Red River Bank is required to maintain four minimum capital standards: (1) a leverage ratio of at least 4.0%, (2) a common equity Tier I risk-based capital ratio of 4.5%, (3) a Tier I risk-based capital ratio of at least 6.0%, and (4) a total risk-based capital ratio of at least 8.0%. The Basel III capital rules also require the Bank to establish a capital conservation buffer equal to 2.500% of total risk-weighted assets. The capital conservation buffer is designed to ensure that banks build up capital buffers outside periods of stress, which can be drawn down as losses are incurred. An institution that does not satisfy the conservation buffer will be subject to restrictions on certain activities including payment of dividends, stock repurchases, and discretionary bonuses to executive officers.
These capital requirements are minimum requirements. The FDIC or Louisiana OFI may also set higher capital requirements if warranted by the risk profile of Red River Bank, economic conditions impacting its markets, or other circumstances particular to the Bank. For example, FDIC guidance provides that higher capital may be required to take adequate account of, among other things, interest rate risk and the risks posed by concentrations of credit, nontraditional activities, or securities trading activities. In addition, the FDIC’s prompt corrective action regulations discussed below, in effect, increase the minimum regulatory capital ratios for banking organizations. Failure to meet capital guidelines could subject Red River Bank to a variety of enforcement remedies, including issuance of a capital directive, restrictions on business activities, and other measures under the FDIC’s prompt corrective action regulations.
In September 2019, the FDIC and other federal bank regulatory agencies approved the CBLR framework. This optional framework became effective January 1, 2020, and is available to the Bank as an alternative to the Basel III risk-based capital framework. The CBLR framework provides for a simple measure of capital adequacy for certain community banking organizations. Specifically, depository institutions and depository institution holding companies that have less than $10.0 billion in total consolidated assets and meet other qualifying criteria, including a Tier I leverage ratio of greater than 9.00% (subsequently temporarily reduced to 8.00% as a COVID-19 relief measure), are considered qualifying community banking organizations and are eligible to opt into the CBLR framework and replace the applicable Basel III risk-based capital requirements.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company and the Bank qualify for the CBLR framework. Management does not intend to utilize the CBLR framework.
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Corrective Measures for Capital Deficiencies
The federal banking regulators are required by the FDIA to take “prompt corrective action” with respect to capital-deficient banks that are FDIC-insured. For this purpose, a bank is placed in one of the following five capital tiers: “well capitalized,” “adequately capitalized,” “undercapitalized,” “significantly undercapitalized,” and “critically undercapitalized.” A bank’s capital tier depends upon how its capital levels compare with various relevant capital measures and certain other factors, as established by regulation.
To be well capitalized, a bank must have a total risk-based capital ratio of at least 10.0%, a Tier I risk-based capital ratio of at least 8.0%, a common equity Tier I risk-based capital ratio of at least 6.5%, and a leverage ratio of at least 5.0%, and must not be subject to any written agreement, order, or directive requiring it to maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure. The most recent notification from the FDIC (as of December 31, 2019) categorized the Bank as "well capitalized" under the regulatory framework for prompt corrective action.
Banks that are adequately, but not well, capitalized may not accept, renew, or rollover brokered deposits without a waiver from the FDIC and are subject to restrictions on the interest rates that can be paid on deposits. The FDIC’s prompt corrective action regulations also generally prohibit a bank from making any capital distributions (including payment of a dividend) or paying any management fee to its parent holding company if the bank would thereafter be undercapitalized. Undercapitalized banks are also subject to growth limitations, may not accept, renew, or rollover brokered deposits, and are required to submit a capital restoration plan. The FDIC may not accept such a plan without determining, among other things, that the plan is based on realistic assumptions and is likely to succeed in restoring the bank’s capital. Significantly undercapitalized banks may be subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient shares or obligations to become adequately capitalized, limitations on asset growth, and cessation of receipt of deposits from correspondent banks. Generally, subject to a narrow exception, the FDIC must appoint a receiver or conservator for an institution that is critically undercapitalized. The capital classification of a bank also affects the bank’s ability to engage in certain activities and the deposit insurance premiums paid by the bank.
Bank Mergers
Section 18(c) of the FDIA, known as the “Bank Merger Act,” requires the written approval of a bank’s primary federal regulator before the bank may (1) acquire through merger or consolidation, (2) purchase or otherwise acquire the assets of, or (3) assume the deposit liabilities of, another bank. The Bank Merger Act prohibits the reviewing agency from approving any proposed merger transaction that would result in certain significant anti-competitive effects. In every proposed merger transaction, the reviewing agency must also consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the existing and proposed institutions, the convenience and needs of the community to be served, the bank's CRA performance, and the effectiveness of each insured depository institution involved in the proposed merger transaction in combating money-laundering activities.
Branching
Under Louisiana law, Red River Bank is permitted to establish additional branch offices within Louisiana, subject to the approval of the Louisiana OFI. As a result of the Dodd-Frank Act, the Bank may also establish additional branch offices outside of Louisiana, subject to prior regulatory approval, so long as the laws of the state where the branch is to be located would permit a state bank chartered in that state to establish a branch. Any new branch, whether located inside or outside of Louisiana, must also be approved by the FDIC, as the Bank’s primary federal regulator. Red River Bank may also establish offices in other states by merging with banks or by purchasing branches of other banks in other states, subject to certain restrictions.
Restrictions on Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders
Federal law strictly limits the ability of banks to engage in transactions with their affiliates, including their bank holding companies. Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, and Federal Reserve’s Regulation W, impose quantitative limits, qualitative standards, and collateral requirements on certain transactions by a bank with, or for the benefit of, its affiliates. Generally, Sections 23A and 23B (1) limit the extent to which the bank or its subsidiaries may engage in “covered transactions” with any one affiliate to an amount equal to 10.0% of such bank’s capital stock and surplus, and limit the aggregate of all such transactions with all affiliates to an amount equal to 20.0% of such capital stock and surplus, and (2) require that all such transactions be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable, to the bank or subsidiary as those that would be provided to a non-affiliate. The term “covered transaction” includes the making of loans to the affiliate, purchase of assets from the affiliate, issuance of a guarantee on behalf of the affiliate, and several other types of transactions.
The Dodd-Frank Act expanded the coverage and scope of the limitations on affiliate transactions within a banking organization, including an expansion of what types of transactions are covered transactions to include credit exposures related to derivatives, repurchase agreements, and securities lending arrangements, and an increase in the amount of time for which collateral requirements regarding covered transactions must be satisfied.
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Federal law also limits a bank’s authority to extend credit to its directors, executive officers, and 10.0% shareholders, as well as to entities controlled by such persons. Among other things, extensions of credit to insiders are required to be made on terms that are substantially the same as, and follow credit underwriting procedures that are not less stringent than, those prevailing for comparable transactions with unaffiliated persons. Also, the terms of such extensions of credit may not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features and may not exceed certain limitations on the amount of credit extended to such persons, individually and in the aggregate, which limits are based, in part, on the amount of the bank’s capital. Insiders may be subject to enforcement actions for accepting loans in violation of applicable restrictions.
Regulatory Restrictions on Dividends
Red River Bank is subject to certain restrictions on dividends under federal and state laws, regulations, and policies. In general, Louisiana law provides that Red River Bank may not pay any dividends to the Company unless the Bank has surplus at least equal to 50.0% of its capital stock and such surplus will not be reduced below 50.0% following payment of the dividend. Prior approval of the Louisiana OFI is required for Red River Bank to pay any dividend that would exceed its net profits earned during the current year combined with its retained net profits of the immediately preceding year.
In addition, under federal law, Red River Bank may not pay any dividend to the Company if it is undercapitalized or the payment of the dividend would cause it to become undercapitalized. The FDIC may further restrict the payment of dividends by engaging in supervisory action to restrict dividends or by requiring the Bank to maintain a higher level of capital than would otherwise be required to be adequately capitalized for regulatory purposes. Under the Basel III regulatory capital framework, the failure to maintain an adequate capital conservation buffer, as discussed above, may also result in dividend restrictions. Moreover, if, in the opinion of the FDIC, Red River Bank is engaged in an unsound practice (which could include the payment of dividends), the FDIC may require, generally after notice and hearing, the Bank to cease such practice. The FDIC has indicated that paying dividends that deplete a depository institution’s capital base to an inadequate level would be an unsafe banking practice. The FDIC has also issued guidance providing that a bank generally should pay dividends only when (1) the bank’s net income available to common shareholders over the past year has been sufficient to fully fund the dividends, and (2) the prospective rate of earnings retention appears consistent with the bank’s capital needs, asset quality, and overall financial condition.
Incentive Compensation Guidance
The federal banking agencies have issued comprehensive guidance on incentive compensation policies intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of banking organizations do not undermine the safety and soundness of those organizations by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The incentive compensation guidance sets expectations for banking organizations concerning their incentive compensation arrangements and related risk-management, control, and governance processes. The incentive compensation guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of an organization, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon three primary principles: (1) balanced risk-taking incentives, (2) compatibility with effective controls and risk management, and (3) strong corporate governance. Any deficiencies in compensation practices that are identified may be incorporated into the organization’s supervisory ratings, which can affect its ability to make acquisitions or take other actions. In addition, under the incentive compensation guidance, a banking organization’s primary federal regulator may initiate enforcement action if the organization’s incentive compensation arrangements pose a risk to the safety and soundness of the organization. Further, the capital conservation buffer described above would limit discretionary bonus payments to bank executives if the institution’s regulatory capital ratios failed to exceed certain thresholds. The scope and content of the U.S. banking regulators’ policies on executive compensation are continuing to develop and evolve.
Deposit Insurance Assessments
FDIC-insured banks are required to pay deposit insurance assessments to the FDIC. The amount of the assessment is based on the size of the bank’s assessment base, which is equal to its average consolidated total assets less its average tangible equity, and its risk classification under an FDIC risk-based assessment system. Institutions assigned to higher risk classifications (that is, institutions that pose a higher risk of loss to the Deposit Insurance Fund) pay assessments at higher rates than institutions that pose a lower risk. An institution’s risk classification is assigned based on its capital levels and the level of supervisory concern that the institution poses to the regulators. At least semi-annually, the FDIC updates its loss and income projections for the Deposit Insurance Fund and, if needed, will increase or decrease assessment rates, following notice-and-comment rulemaking, if required. The FDIC can also impose special assessments in certain instances. If there are additional bank or financial institution failures or if the FDIC otherwise determines to increase assessment rates, Red River Bank may be required to pay higher FDIC insurance premiums.
Financial Modernization
Under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, banks may establish financial subsidiaries to engage, subject to limitations on investment, in activities that are financial in nature, other than insurance underwriting as principal, insurance company portfolio investment, real estate development, real estate investment, annuity issuance, and merchant banking activities.
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To do so, a bank must be well capitalized, well managed, and have a CRA rating from its primary federal regulator of "Satisfactory" or better. Subsidiary banks of financial holding companies or banks with financial subsidiaries must remain well capitalized and well managed in order to continue to engage in activities that are financial in nature without regulatory actions or restrictions. Such actions or restrictions could include divestiture of the financial subsidiary or subsidiaries. In addition, a financial holding company or a bank may not acquire a company that is engaged in activities that are financial in nature unless each of the subsidiary banks of the financial holding company or the bank has a CRA rating of Satisfactory or better.
Concentrated Commercial Real Estate Lending Regulations
The federal banking regulatory agencies have promulgated guidance governing financial institutions with concentrations in commercial real estate lending. The guidance provides that a bank may have a concentration in commercial real estate lending if (1) total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land represent 100.0% or more of total risk-based capital, or (2) total commercial real estate loans represent 300.0% or more of the bank’s total risk-based capital and the outstanding balance of the bank’s commercial real estate loan portfolio has increased 50.0% or more during the prior 36 months. If a concentration is present, the bank will be subject to further regulatory scrutiny with respect to its risk management practices for commercial real estate lending. As of December 31, 2020, Red River Bank’s total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land represented less than 100.0% of the Bank’s total risk-based capital, and its total commercial real estate loans represented less than 300.0% of the Bank’s total risk-based capital.
Community Reinvestment Act
The CRA and the related regulations are intended to encourage banks to help meet the credit needs of their entire assessment area, including low and moderate income neighborhoods, consistent with the safe and sound operations of such banks. These regulations also provide for regulatory assessment of a bank’s CRA performance record when considering applications to establish branches, merger applications, and applications to acquire the assets and assume the liabilities of another bank. The CRA requires federal banking agencies to make public their ratings of banks’ performance under the CRA. In the case of a bank holding company transaction, the CRA performance record of the subsidiary banks of the bank holding companies involved in the transaction are reviewed in connection with the filing of an application to acquire ownership or control of shares or assets of a bank or to merge with any other bank holding company. An unsatisfactory CRA record could substantially delay approval or result in denial of an application.
In December 2019, the OCC and the FDIC issued a notice of proposed rulemaking intended to (1) clarify which activities qualify for CRA credit; (2) update which areas are eligible for activity that qualifies for CRA credit; (3) create a more transparent and objective method for measuring CRA performance; and (4) provide for more transparent, consistent, and timely CRA-related data collection, recordkeeping, and reporting. In May 2020, the OCC issued its final CRA rule, which became effective for national banks on October 1, 2020. The FDIC has not yet finalized the corresponding revisions to its CRA rule that would apply to Red River Bank as a state-chartered institution. Red River Bank received a “Satisfactory” rating in its most recent CRA examination in 2019.
Consumer Laws and Regulations
Red River Bank is subject to numerous laws and regulations intended to protect consumers in transactions with the Bank. These laws include, among others, laws regarding unfair, deceptive, and abusive acts and practices, and other federal consumer protection statutes. These federal laws include the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Real Estate Procedures Act of 1974 (“RESPA”), the S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008, the Truth in Lending Act (“TILA”), and the Truth in Savings Act, among others. Many states and local jurisdictions have consumer protection laws analogous, and in addition, to those enacted under federal law. These laws and regulations mandate certain disclosure requirements and regulate the manner in which financial institutions must deal with customers when taking deposits, making loans, and conducting other types of transactions. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations could give rise to regulatory sanctions, customer rescission rights, action by state and local attorneys general, and civil or criminal liability.
In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act created the CFPB, which has broad authority to regulate the offering and provision of consumer financial products. The CFPB has authority to promulgate regulations; issue orders, guidance, interpretations, and policy statements; conduct examinations; and bring enforcement actions with regard to consumer financial products and services. In general, banks with assets of $10.0 billion or less, such as Red River Bank, will continue to be examined for consumer compliance, and subject to enforcement actions, by their primary federal regulator. However, the CFPB may participate in examinations of these smaller institutions on a “sampling basis” and may refer potential enforcement actions against such institutions to their primary federal regulators. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act permits states to adopt consumer protection laws and regulations that are stricter than those regulations promulgated by the CFPB, and state attorneys general are permitted to enforce certain consumer protection rules adopted by the CFPB against certain institutions.
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Mortgage Lending Rules
The Dodd-Frank Act authorized the CFPB to establish certain minimum standards for the origination of residential mortgages, including a determination of the borrower’s ability to repay. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, financial institutions may not make a residential mortgage loan unless they make a “reasonable and good faith determination” that the consumer has a “reasonable ability” to repay the loan. The Dodd-Frank Act allows borrowers to raise certain defenses to foreclosure but provides a presumption or rebuttable presumption of compliance for loans that are “qualified mortgages.” The CFPB has also issued regulations that, among other things, specify the types of income and assets that may be considered in the ability-to-repay determination, the permissible sources for income verification, and the required methods of calculating the loan’s monthly payments. These regulations extend the requirement that creditors verify and document a borrower’s income and assets to include a requirement to verify all information that creditors rely on in determining repayment ability. The rules also define “qualified mortgages” based on adherence to certain underwriting standards and certain restrictions on loan terms. Points and fees are subject to a relatively stringent cap, and the terms include a wide array of payments that may be made in the course of closing a loan. Certain loans, including interest-only loans and negative amortization loans, cannot be "qualified mortgages." Also, the Dodd-Frank Act and the CFPB’s final rule on loan originator compensation prohibit certain compensation payments to loan originators and the steering of consumers to loans not in their interest, particularly if the loans will result in greater compensation for a loan originator. The Dodd-Frank Act and the CFPB’s implementing regulations, including the TILA-RESPA integrated disclosure rules, also impose disclosure requirements with respect to the origination and sale of residential mortgages.
Anti-Money Laundering and OFAC
Under federal law, financial institutions are required to maintain anti-money laundering programs that include established internal policies, procedures, and controls; a designated compliance officer; an ongoing employee training program; and testing of the program by an independent audit function. Financial institutions are also prohibited from entering into specified financial transactions and account relationships and must meet enhanced standards for due diligence and customer identification especially in their dealings with foreign financial institutions and foreign customers. Financial institutions must take reasonable steps to conduct enhanced scrutiny of account relationships to guard against money laundering and to report any suspicious transactions, and law enforcement authorities have been granted increased access to financial information maintained by financial institutions.
OFAC administers laws and Executive Orders that prohibit U.S. entities from engaging in transactions with certain prohibited parties. OFAC publishes lists of persons and organizations suspected of aiding, harboring, or engaging in terrorist acts, known as Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons. Generally, if a bank identifies a transaction, account, or wire transfer relating to a person or entity on an OFAC list, it must freeze the account or block the transaction, file a suspicious activity report, and notify the appropriate authorities.
Bank regulators routinely examine institutions for compliance with these obligations, and they must consider an institution’s compliance in connection with the regulatory review of applications, including applications for bank mergers and acquisitions. Failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing and comply with OFAC sanctions, or to comply with relevant laws and regulations, could have serious legal, reputational, and financial consequences for the institution.
Privacy
Federal law and regulations limit the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose non-public information about consumers to non-affiliated third parties. These limitations require disclosure of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to a non-affiliated third party. These regulations affect how consumer information is transmitted through financial services companies and conveyed to outside vendors. In addition, consumers may also prevent disclosure of certain information among affiliated companies that is assembled or used to determine eligibility for a product or service, such as that shown on consumer credit reports and asset and income information from applications. Consumers also have the option to direct banks and other financial institutions not to share information about transactions and experiences with affiliated companies for the purpose of marketing products or services. In addition to applicable federal privacy regulations, Red River Bank is subject to certain state privacy laws.
Federal law and regulations also include certain information security guidelines that require a bank, under the supervision and ongoing oversight of its board of directors or an appropriate committee of the board, to develop, implement, and maintain a comprehensive written information security program designed to ensure the security and confidentiality of customer information, to protect against anticipated threats or hazards to the security or integrity of such information, and to protect against unauthorized access to or use of such information that could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any customer. Federal banking regulators regularly issue guidance regarding cybersecurity intended to enhance cybersecurity risk management. A financial institution is expected to implement multiple lines of defense against cyber-attacks.
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Federal Home Loan Bank System
Red River Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas, which is one of the 12 regional Federal Home Loan Banks composing the Federal Home Loan Bank system. The Federal Home Loan Banks make loans to their member banks in accordance with policies and procedures established by the Federal Home Loan Bank system and the board of directors of each regional Federal Home Loan Bank. Any advances from a Federal Home Loan Bank must be secured by specified types of collateral, and all long-term advances may be obtained only for the purpose of providing funds for the financing of residential housing. As a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas, Red River Bank is required to acquire and hold shares of capital stock in the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas. All loans, advances, letters of credit and other extensions of credit made by the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas to Red River Bank are secured by a portion of Red River Bank's loan portfolio, as well as capital stock of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas held by Red River Bank.
Enforcement Powers
The bank regulatory agencies have broad enforcement powers, including the power to terminate deposit insurance and impose substantial fines and other civil and criminal penalties. Failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations, and supervisory agreements, breaches of fiduciary duty, or the maintenance of unsafe and unsound conditions or practices, could subject us or our subsidiaries, including Red River Bank, as well as their respective officers, directors, and other institution-affiliated parties, to administrative sanctions and potentially substantial civil money penalties.
FDIC Conservatorship or Receivership
The bank regulatory agencies may appoint the FDIC as conservator or receiver for a bank (or the FDIC may appoint itself, under certain circumstances) if any one or more of a number of circumstances exist, including, without limitation, the fact that the bank is undercapitalized and has no reasonable prospect of becoming adequately capitalized, fails to become adequately capitalized when required to do so, fails to submit a timely and acceptable capital restoration plan, or materially fails to implement an accepted capital restoration plan.
Effect of Governmental Monetary Policies
The commercial banking business is affected not only by general economic conditions but also by U.S. fiscal policy and the monetary policies of the Federal Reserve. Some of the instruments of monetary policy available to the Federal Reserve include changes in the discount rate on member bank borrowings, the fluctuating availability of borrowings at the “discount window,” open market operations, the imposition of, and changes in reserve requirements against, member banks’ deposits and certain borrowings by banks and their affiliates and assets of foreign branches. These policies have a significant influence on the overall growth of bank loans, investments, and deposits, and the interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits. We cannot predict the nature of future fiscal and monetary policies or the effect of these policies on our operations and activities, financial condition, results of operations, growth plans, or future prospects.
Impact of Current Laws and Regulations
The cumulative effect of these laws and regulations, while providing certain benefits, adds significantly to the cost of our operations and thus have a negative impact on our profitability. There has also been a notable expansion in recent years of financial service providers that are not subject to the examination, oversight, and other rules and regulations to which we are subject. Those providers, because they are not so highly regulated, may have a competitive advantage over us and may continue to draw customers away from traditional banking institutions, with a continuing adverse effect on the banking industry in general.
Future Legislation and Regulatory Reform
In light of current conditions and the market outlook, regulators may increase their focus on the regulation of financial institutions. From time to time, various legislative and regulatory initiatives are introduced in Congress and state legislatures. New regulations and statutes are regularly proposed that contain wide-ranging proposals for altering the structures, regulations, and competitive relationships of financial institutions operating in the U.S. We cannot predict whether or in what form any proposed regulation or statute will be adopted or the extent to which our business may be affected by any new regulation or statute. Future legislation, regulation and policies, and the effects of that legislation, regulation, and policies, may have a significant influence on our operations and activities, financial condition, results of operations, growth plans, or future prospects, and the overall growth and distribution of loans, investments, and deposits. Such legislation, regulation, and policies have had a significant effect on the operations and activities, financial condition, results of operations, growth plans, and future prospects of commercial banks in the past and are expected to continue to do so.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
Ownership of our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the disclosures in "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data." We believe the risks described below are the risks that are material to us as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any of the following risks, as well as risks of which we are not now aware or currently deem immaterial, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Further, to the extent that any of the information in this report constitutes forward-looking statements, the risk factors below also are cautionary statements identifying important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf.
Risks Related to the Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely affecting our business, financial condition, and results of operations, and the ultimate impact will depend on future developments which are uncertain and cannot be predicted.
The COVID-19 pandemic is creating extensive disruptions to the global economy and to the lives of individuals throughout the world. Governments, businesses, and the public are taking unprecedented actions to contain the spread of COVID-19 and to mitigate its effects, including quarantines, travel bans, shelter-in-place orders, closures of businesses and schools, fiscal stimulus, and legislation designed to deliver monetary aid and other relief. The pandemic and related efforts to contain it have disrupted global economic activity, adversely affected the functioning of financial markets, prompted decreases in interest rates, increased economic and market uncertainty, and disrupted trade and supply chains. If these implications continue for a prolonged period or result in sustained economic stress, many of the risk factors identified in this Annual Report on Form 10-K could be exacerbated and such effects could have a material adverse effect on us related to credit, collateral, interest rate risk, profitability, and operations as described in the following sections.
Credit and Collateral Risk. The spread of COVID-19 has caused, and may continue to cause, business shutdowns, limitations on commercial activity and financial transactions, labor shortages, supply chain interruptions, increased unemployment and commercial property vacancy rates, reduced profitability and ability for property owners to make mortgage payments, and overall economic and financial market instability. All of these factors could cause our customers to be unable to make scheduled loan payments. If the effects of COVID-19 result in widespread and sustained repayment shortfalls on loans in our portfolio, we could incur significant delinquencies, foreclosures, and credit losses, particularly if the available collateral is insufficient to cover our exposure.
The effects of COVID-19 on economic activity could negatively affect collateral values and our ability to liquidate such collateral. Further, in the event of delinquencies, regulatory changes and policies designed to protect borrowers may slow or prevent us from making business decisions or may result in a delay in our taking certain remedial actions, such as foreclosure. All of these factors could cause the level of our nonperforming loans, charge-offs, and delinquencies to increase, potentially requiring significant future provisions for credit losses.
Interest Rate Risk. Our net interest income, lending activities, deposits, and profitability could be negatively affected by volatility in interest rates and other factors resulting from uncertainties stemming from COVID-19. In March 2020, the Federal Reserve lowered the target federal funds rate to 0.25%, citing concerns about the impact of COVID-19 on markets and stress in the energy sector. This low interest rate environment has and could continue to negatively impact our net interest income and net income. Higher income volatility from changes in interest rates and spreads to benchmark indices could also cause decreases in current fair market values of our assets. Fluctuations in interest rates may impact both the level of income and expense recorded on some of our assets and liabilities and the market value of applicable interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, which could, in turn, negatively affect our net income.
Profitability Risk. Our profitability has and could continue to be negatively affected by changes in interest rates as well as other aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the second quarter of 2020, we temporarily reduced or eliminated (and could reduce or eliminate again) several of our normal customer service fees, which decreased our noninterest income, and in turn, our net income. We have also experienced (and could continue to experience) lower than normal demand for our non-PPP loans due to the economic downturn related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Operational Risk. While we continue to take precautions related to COVID-19 in terms of physical separation of employees from each other and from customers, resuming all precautions implemented earlier in the pandemic could limit our ability to meet customer servicing expectations and have a material adverse effect on our operations. We rely on business processes and banking center activity that largely depend on people and technology, including access to information technology systems, as well as information, applications, payment
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systems, and other services provided by third parties. Technology in employees’ homes may not be as robust as in our offices and could cause the networks, information systems, applications, and other tools available to employees to be more limited or less reliable than in our offices. Work-from-home measures and increased electronic interaction with our customers also introduces additional operational risk, including increased cybersecurity risk. These cyber risks include greater phishing, malware, and other cybersecurity attacks, vulnerability to disruptions of our information technology infrastructure and telecommunications systems for remote operations, increased risk of unauthorized dissemination of confidential information, limited ability to restore the systems in the event of a systems failure or interruption, greater risk of a security breach resulting in destruction or misuse of valuable information, and potential impairment of our ability to perform critical functions, including wiring funds, all of which could expose us to risks of data or financial loss, litigation, and liability, and could seriously disrupt our operations and the operations of any affected customers.
Moreover, we rely on many third parties in our business operations, including appraisers of real property collateral; title companies; vendors that supply essential services such as loan servicers, providers of financial information, systems, analytical tools, and electronic payment and settlement systems; and local, state, and federal government agencies, offices, and courthouses. In light of the measures in responding to the pandemic, many of these entities have limited and may continue to limit the availability of and access to their services. Loan closings could be delayed related to reductions in available staff in recording offices or the closing of courthouses in certain parishes, which slows the process for title work, mortgage, and Uniform Commercial Code filings in those parishes. If the third-party service providers continue to have limited capacities for a prolonged period or if additional limitations or potential disruptions in these services materialize, it may materially and adversely affect our operations.
Because there have been no recent global pandemics of comparable global impact, we do not yet know the full extent of COVID-19’s effects on our business, operations, or the global economy as a whole. Any future development will be highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the scope and duration of the pandemic, the effectiveness of our social-distancing accommodation arrangements, third party providers’ ability to support our operations, and any actions taken by governmental authorities and other third parties in response to the pandemic. The uncertain future development of this crisis and the pandemic’s enhancement of the various risks described above could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
As a participating lender in the PPP, we are subject to risks related to the SBA program and related PPP loans.
The CARES Act in March of 2020 and the Economic Aid Act in December of 2020 include a significant loan program administered through the SBA referred to as the PPP which includes the PPP Second Draw program. Under the PPP, small businesses and other entities and individuals can apply for loans from existing SBA lenders and other approved regulated lenders that enroll in the program, subject to numerous limitations and eligibility criteria. We are participating as a lender in the PPP. The PPP became available on April 3, 2020. Due to how quickly each act was passed, there was and continues to be a significant amount of ambiguity and changes in the laws, rules, and guidance regarding requirements for eligibility, underwriting, origination, funding, and forgiveness of PPP loans. This ambiguity and changes and the speed which was necessary to implement the program expose us to regulatory and legal risks relating to noncompliance with the PPP.
PPP loans are also subject to regulatory requirements that require forbearance of loan payments for a specified time and limit our ability to pursue all available remedies in the event of a loan default. If a borrower under a PPP loan fails to qualify for loan forgiveness, our risk is heightened because we hold these loans at unfavorable interest rates.
We also have credit risk on PPP loans if the SBA determines that there is a deficiency in the manner in which the loan was originated, funded, or serviced by us, such as an issue with the eligibility of a borrower to receive a PPP loan. In the event of a loss resulting from a default on a PPP loan and a determination by the SBA that there was a deficiency in the manner in which the PPP loan was originated, funded, or serviced, the SBA may deny its liability under the guaranty, reduce the amount of the guaranty, or seek recovery from us of any loss related to the deficiency. In addition, we have credit risk related to how forgiveness of PPP loans is handled and how the forgiveness amounts are determined. Governmental agencies have, and may continue to change the rules, create new rules, have a very detailed review process, or require additional forms or paperwork that the borrower may not complete appropriately. All of these items could negatively impact us.
Since the commencement of the PPP, numerous other banks have been subject to litigation regarding the process and procedures that those banks used in processing applications for the PPP. We may be exposed to similar litigation from customers, non‑customers, and agents that approach us regarding PPP loans and regarding our procedures for processing applications, funding PPP loans, and coordinating the forgiveness of the loans. If any such litigation is initiated against us, it may result in significant financial liability, significant litigation costs, or adversely affect our reputation. Any of these legal, regulatory, and credit risks related to our participation in the PPP could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
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Risks Related to Our Credit Activities
We may not be able to adequately measure and limit our credit risk, which could lead to unexpected losses.
Our business depends on our ability to successfully measure and manage credit risk. As a lender, we are exposed to the risk that our borrowers will be unable to repay their loans according to their terms, and the collateral securing repayment of their loans, if any, may not be sufficient to ensure repayment. In addition, there are risks inherent in making any loan, including risks with respect to the period of time over which the loan may be repaid, risks relating to proper loan underwriting, risks resulting from changes in economic and industry conditions, and risks inherent in dealing with individual borrowers. The creditworthiness of a borrower is affected by many factors including local market conditions and general economic conditions. If the overall economic climate in the U.S., generally, or in Louisiana, specifically, experiences material disruption, our borrowers may experience difficulties in repaying their loans, the collateral we hold may decrease in value or become illiquid, and the level of nonperforming loans, charge-offs, and delinquencies could rise and require significant additional provisions for credit losses.
Our risk management practices, such as monitoring the concentration of our loans within specific industries and our credit approval, review, and administrative practices may not adequately reduce credit risk. Further, our credit administration personnel, policies, and procedures may not adequately adapt to changes in economic or any other conditions affecting customers and the quality of our loan portfolio. A failure to effectively measure and limit our credit risk could result in loan defaults, foreclosures, and additional charge-offs. As a result, we may need to significantly increase our allowance for loan losses, which could adversely affect our net income. All of these consequences could, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
A significant portion of our loan portfolio consists of real estate loans which subjects us to potential impairment of the collateral securing the loan if the real estate economy experiences negative changes as well as costs and potential risks associated with the ownership of the real property if we are forced to foreclose.
The market value of real estate can fluctuate significantly in a short period of time as a result of market conditions in the geographic area in which the real estate is located. Real estate values in many Louisiana markets have experienced periods of fluctuation over the last several years. As of December 31, 2020, $1.13 billion, or 70.9%, of loans HFI were secured by real estate as the primary component of collateral. We also make loans secured by real estate as a supplemental source of collateral. Real estate values and real estate markets are affected by many factors, such as changes in national, regional, or local economic conditions; the rate of unemployment; fluctuations in interest rates and the availability of loans to potential purchasers; changes in tax laws and other governmental statutes; regulations and policies; and acts of nature, such as hurricanes and other natural disasters. Adverse changes affecting real estate values and the liquidity of real estate in one or more of our markets could increase the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio, significantly impair the value of property pledged as collateral on loans, and affect our ability to sell the collateral upon foreclosure without a loss or additional losses. Consequently, we could be required to increase our allowance for loan losses, adversely affecting profitability. Additionally, we may have to foreclose on the collateral property to protect our investment. We may thereafter own and operate such property, in which case we would be exposed to the risks inherent in the ownership of real estate, including potential environmental liability due to contamination of a property either during ownership or after divesting of it. As of December 31, 2020, we held approximately $896,000 in OREO. This amount could increase in the future, depending upon the level of our real estate foreclosures and our ability to efficiently divest of the foreclosed OREO. The amount that we, as a mortgagee, may realize after a default is dependent upon factors outside of our control, including, but not limited to, general or local economic conditions, environmental cleanup liability, assessments, interest rates, real estate tax rates, operating expenses of the mortgaged properties, ability to obtain and maintain adequate occupancy of the properties, zoning laws, governmental and regulatory rules, and natural disasters. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our commercial real estate loan portfolio exposes us to risks that may be greater than the risks related to other types of loans.
Our loan portfolio includes non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans for individuals and businesses for various purposes, which are secured by commercial properties, as well as real estate construction and development loans. As of December 31, 2020, our construction and development loans, non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans, and non-real estate secured loans financing commercial real estate activities totaled $365.5 million, or 23.0%, of loans HFI. These loans typically involve repayment dependent upon income generated, or expected to be generated, by the property securing the loan in amounts sufficient to cover operating expenses and debt service. This projected income may be adversely affected by changes in the economy or local market conditions. Commercial real estate loans expose us to greater credit risk than loans secured by residential real estate because there are fewer potential purchasers for the commercial real estate collateral, which can make liquidation more difficult. Additionally, non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans generally involve relatively large balances to single borrowers or related groups of borrowers. Accordingly, charge-offs on non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans may be larger on an individual loan basis than those incurred with our residential or consumer loan portfolios. Unexpected deterioration in the credit quality of our
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commercial real estate loan portfolio would require us to increase our provision for loan losses, which would reduce our profitability. Any of these potential consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our business may be adversely affected by credit risk associated with residential property.
As of December 31, 2020, $442.9 million, or 27.9%, of our total loan portfolio was secured by first liens on one-to-four family residential loans. One-to-four family residential loans are generally sensitive to regional and local economic conditions that significantly impact the borrowers’ ability to meet their loan payment obligations. A decline in residential real estate values resulting from a downturn in the housing market in our market areas may reduce the value of the real estate collateral securing these types of loans and increase our risk of losses due to default. A downturn in the housing market coupled with elevated unemployment rates may also result in a decline in demand for our products and services.
In addition, interest rate increases often result in larger payment requirements for our borrowers, which increases the potential for default and could result in a decrease in the demand for residential loans. At the same time, the marketability of the property securing a residential loan may be adversely affected by any reduced demand resulting from higher interest rates. In a declining interest rate environment, there may be an increase in prepayments on residential loans as borrowers refinance their loans at lower rates. Losses or declines in profitability as a result of these potential negative events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
A significant portion of our loan portfolio is comprised of commercial and industrial loans secured by receivables, inventory, equipment, or other commercial collateral, the deterioration in value of which could expose us to credit losses.
As of December 31, 2020, approximately $250.4 million, or 15.8%, of loans HFI were commercial and industrial loans collateralized, in general, by general business assets including, among other things, accounts receivable, inventory, equipment, and available real estate and most are backed by a personal guaranty of the borrower or principal. These commercial and industrial loans are typically larger in amount than loans to individuals and, therefore, have the potential for larger losses on an individual loan basis. Additionally, the repayment of commercial and industrial loans is subject to the ongoing business operations of the borrower. The collateral securing such loans generally includes movable property, such as equipment and inventory. These types of collateral may decline in value more rapidly than we anticipate, exposing us to increased credit risk. In addition, a portion of our customer base, including customers in the energy and real estate business, may be exposed to volatile businesses or industries which are sensitive to commodity prices or market fluctuations, such as energy prices. Accordingly, negative changes in commodity prices, real estate values, or liquidity could impair the value of the collateral securing these loans. Significant adverse changes in the economy or local market conditions in which our commercial lending customers operate could cause rapid declines in loan collectability and the values associated with general business assets resulting in inadequate collateral coverage. These events, in turn, may expose us to credit losses that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our allowance for loan losses may prove to be insufficient to absorb losses inherent in our loan portfolio.
We establish our allowance for loan losses and maintain it at a level considered adequate by management to absorb probable loan losses based on our analysis of our loan portfolio, our historical loss experience, and conditions within our markets. As of December 31, 2020, our allowance for loan losses totaled $18.0 million, which represents approximately 1.13% of loans HFI. The allowance for loan losses represents our estimate of probable losses in our loan portfolio at each balance sheet date and is based upon relevant information available to us. The allowance contains provisions for probable losses that have been identified relating to specific borrowing relationships, as well as probable losses inherent in the loan portfolio and credit undertakings that are not specifically identified. Additions to the allowance for loan losses, which are charged to earnings through the provision for loan losses, are determined based on a variety of factors, including an analysis of our loan portfolio, historical loss experience, and an evaluation of current economic conditions in our market areas. The actual amount of loan losses is affected by changes in economic, operating, and other conditions within our markets, as well as changes in the financial condition, cash flows, and operations of our borrowers. All of these factors are beyond our control, and such losses may exceed our current estimates.
Additional loan losses will likely occur in the future and may occur at a rate greater than we have previously experienced or than we anticipate. We may be required to make additional provisions for loan losses to further supplement our allowance for loan losses, due either to our management’s decision or as a regulatory requirement. In addition, bank regulatory agencies will periodically review our allowance for loan losses and the value attributed to nonaccrual loans or to real estate acquired through foreclosure. Such regulatory agencies may require us to recognize future charge-offs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Finally, the measure of our allowance for loan losses will be subject to new accounting standards. FASB has adopted a new accounting standard that will be effective for us on January 1, 2023, due to our classification as an SEC registrant with smaller reporting company filing status. This new standard, referred to as CECL, will require financial institutions to determine periodic estimates of lifetime expected credit losses on loans and recognize the expected credit losses as
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allowances for loan losses. This will change the current method of providing allowances for loan losses that are probable, which could require us to increase our allowance for loan losses. CECL will also greatly increase the types of data we would need to collect and review to determine the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses. The CECL model could create more volatility in the level of our allowance for loan losses after it becomes applicable to us. Any increase in our allowance for loan losses or expenses incurred to determine the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Appraisals and other valuation techniques we use in evaluating and monitoring loans secured by real property, OREO, and repossessed personal property may not accurately describe the net value of the asset.
In considering whether to make a loan secured by real property, we generally require an appraisal of the property. However, an appraisal is only an estimate of the value of the property at the time the appraisal is made. Because real estate values may change significantly in relatively short periods of time (especially in periods of heightened economic uncertainty), this estimate may not accurately describe the net value of the real property collateral after the loan is made. As a result, we may not be able to realize the full amount of any remaining indebtedness when we foreclose on and sell the relevant property. In addition, we rely on appraisals and other valuation techniques to establish the value of our OREO and personal property that we acquire through foreclosure and to determine certain loan impairments. If any of these valuations are inaccurate, our combined and consolidated financial statements may not reflect the correct value of our OREO or personal property, and our allowance for loan losses may not reflect accurate loan impairments. These consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The amount of our nonperforming and classified assets may increase significantly, resulting in additional losses, costs, and expenses.
As of December 31, 2020, we had nonperforming assets of $4.2 million, or 0.16% of total assets. Nonperforming assets adversely affect our net income in various ways. We do not record interest income on OREO or on nonperforming loans, which adversely affects our income. When we take collateral in foreclosures and similar proceedings, we are required to mark the related asset to market value of the collateral, which may ultimately result in a loss. An increase in the level of nonperforming assets also increases our risk profile, which may cause our regulators to require additional amounts of capital. Finally, nonperforming assets can take significant time and resources to resolve, causing the related costs of maintaining those assets to increase. These effects may be particularly pronounced in a market of reduced real estate values and excess inventory. Such losses and expenses due to any increase in nonperforming assets could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The small to medium-sized businesses that we lend to may have fewer resources to weather adverse business developments, which may impair our borrowers’ ability to repay loans.
A significant portion of our business development and marketing strategy is focused on small to medium-sized businesses. Small to medium-sized businesses frequently have smaller market shares than their competition, may be more vulnerable to economic downturns, often need substantial additional capital to expand or compete, and may experience substantial volatility in operating results. Any of these factors may impair a borrower’s ability to repay a loan. In addition, the success of a small or medium-sized business often depends on the management skills, talents, and efforts of one individual or a small group of individuals. The death, disability, or resignation of one or more of these people could have an adverse impact on the business and its ability to repay loans. If our small to medium-sized business customers are negatively impacted by general economic conditions or other adverse business developments, this, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We could be subject to losses, regulatory action, or reputational harm due to fraudulent and negligent acts on the part of loan applicants, our employees, and other parties.
In deciding whether and upon what terms to extend credit or enter into other transactions with customers and counterparties, we may rely on information furnished by or on behalf of customers and counterparties, including financial statements, property appraisals, title information, employment and income documentation, account information, and other financial information. We may also rely on representations of customers and counterparties as to the accuracy and completeness of that information and, with respect to financial statements, on reports of independent auditors. Any misrepresentation or incorrect or incomplete information, whether fraudulent or inadvertent, may not be detected prior to entering into the transaction. In addition, one or more of our employees could cause a significant breakdown or failure, either as a result of human error or where an individual purposefully sabotages or fraudulently manipulates our loan documentation, operations, or systems. Whether a misrepresentation is made by the applicant or another third party, we generally bear the risk of loss associated with the misrepresentation. We are often contractually required to indemnify counterparties for losses caused by a material misrepresentation, and a loan subject to a material misrepresentation is typically not marketable or, if sold, is subject to repurchase. The sources of the misrepresentations may also be difficult to locate, and we may be unable to recover any of the monetary losses we may suffer as a result. Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
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Risks Related to Interest Rates and Economic Conditions
Interest rate shifts could reduce net interest income.
The majority of our banking assets are monetary in nature and subject to risk from changes in interest rates. Like most financial institutions, our earnings and cash flows depend to a great extent upon the level of our net interest income. Net interest income represents the difference between the interest income we earn on loans, investments, and other interest-earning assets, and the interest we pay on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. When interest-earning assets mature or reprice more quickly, or to a greater degree than interest-bearing liabilities, falling interest rates could reduce net interest income. Similarly, when interest-bearing liabilities mature or reprice more quickly, or to a greater degree than interest-earning assets in a period, an increase in interest rates could reduce net interest income. Our interest sensitivity profile was asset sensitive as of December 31, 2020, meaning that our assets have the opportunity to reprice at a faster pace than our liabilities. Consequently, we estimate our net interest income would decrease in a falling interest rate environment and increase in a rising interest rate environment.
Interest rates are affected by many factors outside of our control, including governmental monetary policies, inflation, deflation, recession, changes in unemployment, the money supply, international disorder, and instability in domestic and foreign financial markets. Changes in the level of market interest rates affect our net yield on interest-earning assets, our cost of funds, and our loan origination volume. A decrease in the general level of interest rates may, among other things, increase prepayments within the loan portfolio and on mortgage-backed securities within the securities portfolio, and increase competition for deposits. An increase in the general level of interest rates may, among other things, reduce the demand for loans and decrease loan repayment rates. In light of these considerations, a failure to effectively manage our interest rate risk could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
The geographic concentration of our markets in Louisiana makes us sensitive to adverse changes in the local economy.
We are a community banking franchise concentrated in Louisiana. As of December 31, 2020, 93.6% of loans HFI were made to borrowers who reside or conduct business in Louisiana, and substantially all of our real estate loans are secured by properties located in Louisiana. A deterioration in local economic conditions or in the residential or commercial real estate markets could have an adverse effect on the quality of our loan portfolio, the demand for our products and services, the ability of borrowers to timely repay loans, and the value of the collateral securing loans. If the population, employment, or income growth in any of our markets is negative or slower than projected, income levels, deposits, and real estate development could be adversely impacted. Any of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Volatility in oil prices and downturns in the energy industry, particularly in Louisiana, could lead to increased credit losses in our loan portfolio.
As of December 31, 2020, we had non-PPP energy loans of $20.4 million, or 1.4%, of non-PPP loans HFI (non-GAAP). For further information on non-GAAP financial measures, see "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Non-GAAP Financial Measures." We also may have indirect exposure to energy prices, as some of our non-energy customers’ businesses may be affected by volatility with the oil and gas industry and energy prices. Prolonged or further pricing pressure on oil and gas could lead to increased credit stress with respect to those borrowers. Such a decline or general uncertainty resulting from continued volatility could have other adverse impacts such as job losses in industries tied to energy, lower borrowing needs, higher transaction deposit balances, or a number of other effects that are difficult to isolate or quantify, particularly in states with significant dependence on the energy industry like Louisiana. All of these potential consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism, the impact of pandemics, civil unrest, and other external events could result in a disruption of our operations and increases in loan losses.
A significant portion of our business is generated from Louisiana markets that have been, and may continue to be, damaged by major hurricanes, floods, tropical storms, tornadoes, and other natural disasters. Natural disasters can disrupt our operations, cause widespread property damage, and severely depress the local economies in which we operate. Moreover, the value of real estate or other collateral that secures our loans could be materially and adversely affected by a natural disaster. Additionally, our business could be adversely affected by the effects of civil unrest or a widespread outbreak of disease pandemics, including the ongoing pandemic caused by COVID-19.
If the economies in our primary markets experience an overall decline as a result of these types of external events, demand for loans and our other products and services could be reduced. In addition, the rate of delinquencies, foreclosures, bankruptcies, and losses on loan portfolios may increase substantially, as uninsured property losses or sustained job interruption or loss may materially impair borrowers’ ability to repay their loans. Such external events could,
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therefore, result in decreased revenue and increased loan losses. All of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
As a business operating in the financial services industry, our business and operations may be adversely affected in numerous and complex ways by weak economic conditions.
Our business and operations, which primarily consist of lending money to customers in the form of loans, borrowing money from customers in the form of deposits, and investing in securities, are sensitive to general business and economic conditions in the U.S. The business environment in which we operate can be impacted by uncertainty about the federal fiscal and monetary policymaking process. Changes in any of these policies are influenced by macroeconomic conditions and other factors that are beyond our control. The medium and long-term fiscal outlook of the federal government and U.S. economy are concerns for businesses, consumers, and investors in the U.S. In addition, economic conditions in foreign countries, including global political hostilities, could affect the stability of global financial markets, which could hinder domestic economic growth. Uncertainty regarding both short and long-term interest rates impacts our ability to attract deposits and manage net interest margin. Adverse economic conditions and government policy responses to such conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The borrowing needs of our customers may increase, especially during a challenging economic environment, which could result in increased borrowing against our contractual obligations to extend credit.
A commitment to extend credit is a formal agreement to lend funds to a customer as long as there is no violation of any condition established under the agreement. The actual borrowing needs of our customers under these credit commitments have historically been lower than the contractual amount of the commitments. Because of the credit profile of our customers, we typically have a substantial amount of total unfunded credit commitments, which is not reflected on our balance sheet. As of December 31, 2020, we had $293.8 million in unfunded credit commitments to our customers. Actual borrowing needs of our customers may exceed our expectations, especially during a challenging economic environment when our customers may be more dependent on our credit commitments due to the lack of available credit elsewhere, the increasing costs of credit, or the limited availability of financings from alternative sources. This could adversely affect our liquidity, which could impair our ability to fund operations and meet obligations as they become due. Such an inability to satisfy our obligations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Operations
We rely heavily on our executive management team and other key employees, and we could be adversely affected by an unexpected loss of their service.
Our success depends in large part on the performance of our key personnel, as well as on our ability to attract, motivate, and retain highly qualified management and employees. Competition for employees is intense, and the process of locating key personnel with the combination of skills and attributes required to execute our business plan may be lengthy. We may not be successful in retaining our key employees. If we unexpectedly lose the services of one or more of our key personnel, we would also lose the benefit of their skills, knowledge of our primary markets, and years of industry experience. We may not be able to identify and hire qualified replacement personnel on terms acceptable to us, or at all, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Unauthorized access, cyber-crime, and other threats to data security may require significant resources, harm our reputation, and otherwise cause harm to our business.
In the ordinary course of our business, we necessarily collect, use, and hold personal and financial information concerning individuals and businesses with which we have a banking relationship. Threats to data security such as unauthorized access and cyber-attacks emerge and change rapidly. These threats may increase our costs for protection or remediation. They may also result in competing time constraints between applicable privacy and other requirements and our ability to secure data in accordance with customer expectations.
It is difficult or impossible to defend against every risk posed by changing technologies and criminals intent on committing cyber-crime. Increasing sophistication of cyber-criminals and terrorists makes it increasingly difficult to prevent a security breach. Controls employed by our information technology department, our other employees, and our vendors could prove inadequate. We could also experience a breach due to circumstances such as intentional or negligent conduct on the part of employees or other internal sources, software bugs, or other technical malfunctions. Any of these threats may cause our customer accounts to become vulnerable to account takeover schemes or cyber-fraud. A breach of our security that results in unauthorized access to our data could expose us to disruption or challenges relating to our daily operations as well as to data loss, litigation, damages, fines, significant increases in compliance costs, and reputational damage. Any of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
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We rely on third parties to provide key components of our business infrastructure, and a failure of these parties to perform for any reason could disrupt our operations.
Third parties provide key components of our business infrastructure such as data processing, internet connections, network access, core application processing, statement production, and account analysis. Our business depends on the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our information technology and telecommunications systems and third-party servicers. The failure of these systems, or the termination of a third-party software license or service agreement on which any of these systems is based, could interrupt our operations. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third-party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such services exceeds capacity. Additionally, our operations could be interrupted if any of our third-party service providers experience financial difficulty, are inadvertently or intentionally negligent, are subject to cybersecurity breaches, terminate their services, or fail to comply with applicable banking regulations. Any of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We have a continuing need for technological change, and we may not have the resources to effectively implement new technology, or we may experience operational challenges when implementing new technology.
The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. In addition to better serving customers, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs. As we continue to grow, our success will be partially dependent upon our ability to address the needs of our customers and enhance operational efficiencies through the use of technology. We may experience operational challenges as we implement these new technology products or enhancements. As a result, we may not fully realize the anticipated benefits from our new technology, or we may incur significant costs to overcome related challenges in a timely manner.
Many of our larger competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. As a result, they may be able to offer additional or superior products, which would put us at a competitive disadvantage. Accordingly, we may lose customers seeking technology-driven products and services that we are not able to provide. Our inability to overcome any of these technological challenges could, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our financial results depend on management’s selection of accounting methods and certain assumptions and estimates.
The preparation of our financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of certain assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, and the reported amount of related revenues and expenses. Certain accounting policies are inherently based to a greater extent on estimates, assumptions, and judgments of management and, as such, have a greater possibility of producing results that could be materially different than originally estimated. These critical accounting policies include the allowance for loan losses, accounting for income taxes, the determination of fair value for financial instruments, and accounting for stock-based compensation. Management’s judgment and the data relied upon by management may be based on assumptions that prove to be inaccurate, particularly in times of market stress or other unforeseen circumstances. Even if the relevant, factual assumptions are accurate, our decisions may prove to be inadequate or inaccurate because of other flaws in the design or use of analytical tools used by management. Any such failure in our process for producing accounting estimates and managing risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We are dependent on the use of data and modeling in our management’s decision-making, and faulty data or modeling approaches could negatively impact our decision-making ability or subject us to regulatory scrutiny.
The use of statistical and quantitative models and other quantitative analysis is intrinsic to bank decision-making and is becoming increasingly widespread in our operations. It is also becoming more prevalent in regulatory compliance. While we are not currently subject to annual stress testing under the Dodd-Frank Act and the Federal Reserve's Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review submissions, we currently utilize stress testing for monitoring and managing interest rate risk and liquidity. While we believe the quantitative techniques and approaches of these models improve our decision-making, they also create the possibility that faulty data, flawed quantitative approaches, or misunderstanding or misuse of their outputs could negatively impact our decision-making ability or, if we become subject to regulatory stress-testing in the future, cause adverse regulatory scrutiny. Any of these items could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We are subject to claims, litigation, and other proceedings that could result in legal liability.
From time to time, we, including our subsidiaries, are or may be involved in various legal matters arising in the ordinary course of business. One or more unfavorable outcomes of these ordinary course claims or litigation against us or our subsidiaries could have a material adverse effect for the period in which they are resolved. In addition, regardless of their merits or ultimate outcomes, such matters are costly, divert management’s attention, and may materially and adversely
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affect our reputation or that of our subsidiaries, even if resolved favorably. Regardless of the scope or validity of such matters, or the merits of any claims by potential or actual litigants, we may have to engage in protracted litigation. Such litigation is often expensive, time-consuming, disruptive to our operations, and distracting to management. If legal claims were resolved against us or settled, we could be required to make payments in amounts that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We may be adversely affected by the condition or performance of our third-party brokerage partners.
We are not registered with the SEC as an investment advisor or broker-dealer. To provide a broader range of financial and investment services to our customers, we partner with third-parties who are licensed and registered to serve in those capacities. The investment products and services provided to our customers by virtue of these third-party channels generally are not insured by the FDIC. To the extent our customers use those products and services, we may have exposure for illegal, negligent, fraudulent, or other acts of these investment advisors and brokers. Although we seek to limit this exposure through clear disclosure, ongoing oversight, and contractual provisions requiring indemnification, limitations of liability, insurance coverage, and other similar protections, those obligations may not always be enforceable, or our third-party service providers ultimately may not have sufficient financial strength to fully comply. Losses due to this exposure or our inability to effectively manage the related third-party risks may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Competition and Services
Our ability to attract and retain customers and maintain our reputation is critical to our growth, profitability, and market share.
We operate in the highly competitive banking industry and face significant competition for customers from bank and non-bank competitors. Our business plan emphasizes relationship banking in order to originate loans, attract deposits, and provide other financial services. As a result, our reputation is one of the most valuable components of our business. Our competitors are generally larger and may have significantly more resources, greater name recognition, and more extensive and established branch networks or geographic footprints. Because of their scale, many of these competitors can be more aggressive on loan and deposit pricing. Also, many of our non-bank competitors have fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. We expect competition to continue to intensify due to financial institution consolidation; legislative, regulatory, and technological changes; and the emergence of alternative sources for financial services, including fintech companies, which could cause us to lose some of our existing customers, and we may not be successful attracting new customers. Our failure to compete effectively in our primary markets could cause us to lose market share and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We may not be able to implement our expansion strategy, which may adversely affect our ability to maintain our historical earnings trends.
Our expansion strategy focuses on organic growth, supplemented by strategic acquisitions and expansion of the Bank’s banking center network, or de novo expansion. De novo expansion carries with it certain potential risks, including possibly significant startup costs and anticipated initial operating losses; an inability to gain regulatory approval; an inability to secure the services of qualified senior management to operate the de novo banking center and successfully integrate and promote our corporate culture; poor market reception for de novo banking centers established in markets where we do not have a preexisting reputation; challenges posed by local economic conditions; challenges associated with securing attractive locations at a reasonable cost; and additional strain on management resources and internal systems and controls. Failure to adequately manage these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Further, we may not be able to execute on more general aspects of our expansion strategy, which may impair our ability to sustain our historical rate of growth or prevent us from growing at all. We may not be able to generate sufficient new loans and deposits within acceptable risk and expense tolerances, obtain the personnel or funding necessary for additional growth, or find suitable acquisition candidates. Various factors, such as economic conditions and competition with other financial institutions, may impede or prohibit the growth of our operations, the opening of new banking centers, and the consummation of acquisitions. The success of our strategy also depends on our ability to effectively manage growth, which is dependent upon a number of factors, including our ability to adapt our credit, operational, technology, and governance infrastructure to accommodate expanded operations. Acquisitions typically involve the payment of a premium over book and market values; therefore, some dilution of our tangible book value and earnings per common share may occur in connection with any future acquisition. Further, the carrying amount of any goodwill that we currently maintain or may acquire may be subject to impairment in future periods. If we fail to implement one or more aspects of our expansion strategy, we may be unable to maintain our historical growth and earnings trends, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
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New lines of business, products, product enhancements, or services may subject us to additional risks.
From time to time, we implement new lines of business or offer new products and product enhancements as well as new services within our existing lines of business. In doing so, we may invest significant time and resources. At the same time, we may not allocate the appropriate level of resources or expertise necessary to make these new efforts successful or to realize their expected benefits. Further, initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business, products, product enhancements, or services may not be achieved, and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives, and shifting market preferences, may also impact the ultimate implementation. Any new line of business, product, product enhancement, or service could also have a significant impact on the effectiveness of our system of internal controls. Consequently, our failure to successfully manage these types of development and implementation risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
We may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions.
Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services companies are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, and other relationships. We have exposure to different industries and counterparties, and through transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including broker-dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, and other financial intermediaries. In addition, we participate in loans originated by other institutions, and we participate in syndicated transactions (including shared national credits) in which other lenders serve as the lead bank. As a result, defaults by, declines in the financial condition of, or even rumors or questions about one or more financial institutions, financial service companies, or the financial services industry generally, may lead to market-wide liquidity, asset quality, or other problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. These problems, losses, or defaults could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Financial Stability
We may need to raise additional capital in the future, and if we fail to maintain sufficient capital, we may not be able to satisfy regulatory requirements or maintain adequate protection against financial stress.
We must satisfy ongoing regulatory capital requirements, and regulatory capital requirements could increase from current levels. We may then need to raise additional capital to comply with these requirements or to provide us with sufficient capital resources and liquidity to meet our commitments and business needs, which could include the possibility of financing acquisitions. Our ability to raise additional capital depends on a number of factors, including without limitation our financial condition and performance, conditions in the capital markets, economic conditions, investor perceptions regarding the banking industry, and governmental activities. Many of these factors are beyond our control, and as such, there is no assurance we will be able to raise additional capital if needed or on terms acceptable to us. If we fail to maintain capital sufficient to meet regulatory requirements, we may not be able to withstand periods of financial stress and we could be subject to enforcement actions or other regulatory consequences. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
A lack of liquidity could impair our ability to fund operations.
Liquidity is essential to our business. We rely on our ability to generate deposits and effectively manage the repayment and maturity schedules of our loans and investment securities, respectively, to ensure that we have adequate liquidity to fund our operations. Our most important source of funds is deposits. Historically, our deposits have provided a stable source of funds. However, deposit balances can decrease when customers perceive alternative investments as providing a better risk/return tradeoff. Even though a majority of our certificates of deposit renew upon maturity with what we believe are competitive rates, some of our more rate-sensitive customers may move those funds to higher-yielding alternatives. If our customers move money out of bank deposits and into other investments such as money market funds, we would lose a relatively low-cost source of funds, increasing our funding costs, and reducing our net interest income and net income.
Our other primary sources of liquidity consist of cash flows from operations, maturities and sales of investment securities, and proceeds from the issuance and sale of our equity to investors. As a secondary source of liquidity, we have the ability to borrow overnight funds from other financial institutions with whom we have a correspondent relationship. We also have the ability to borrow from the FHLB. Historically, we have not utilized brokered or internet deposits to meet liquidity needs.
Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our activities or on terms that are acceptable to us, could be impaired by factors that affect us, the financial services industry, or the economy in general. These factors may include disruptions in the financial markets or negative expectations about the industry’s prospects. Our access to funding sources could also be affected by regulatory actions against us or by a decrease in the level of our business activity due to a downturn in the Louisiana economy or in economic conditions generally. A decline in available funding could adversely impact our ability to originate loans, invest in securities, meet our expenses, or fulfill obligations such as
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meeting deposit withdrawal demands or repaying our borrowings. Any of these consequences could, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The fair value of our investment securities can fluctuate due to factors outside of our control.
Factors beyond our control can significantly influence the fair value of securities in our investment portfolio, potentially resulting in adverse changes to the portfolio’s fair value. These factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency actions related to the securities, defaults by the issuer or with respect to the underlying collateral, and changes in market interest rates and instability in the capital markets. Any of these factors, among others, could cause OTTI and realized or unrealized losses in future periods and declines in other comprehensive income, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, the process for determining whether impairment of a security is other-than-temporary often requires complex, subjective judgments about whether there has been a significant deterioration in the financial condition of the issuer, whether management has the intent or ability to hold a security for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value, the future financial performance and liquidity of the issuer and any underlying collateral, and other relevant factors. Our failure to correctly and timely assess any impairments or losses with respect to our securities could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We may be adversely affected by the transition from LIBOR.
In July 2017, the United Kingdom Financial Conduct Authority (the authority that regulates LIBOR) announced it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. The Alternative Reference Rates Committee (“ARRC”) has proposed that the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) is the rate that represents best practice as the alternative to USD-LIBOR for use in derivatives and other financial contracts that are currently indexed to USD-LIBOR.
As of December 31, 2020, 3.6% of loans HFI were indexed to LIBOR. While many of these loans contain either provisions for the designation of an alternate benchmark rate or “fallback” provisions providing for alternative rate calculations in the event LIBOR is unavailable, not all of our loans, derivatives, or financial instruments contain such provisions, and the existing provisions and/or recent modifications to our documents to address transition may not adequately address the actual changes to LIBOR or the financial impact of successor benchmark rates. We may not be able to successfully amend these loans, derivatives, and financial instruments to provide for alternative benchmarks or alternative rate calculations. Even with provisions allowing for designation of alternative benchmarks or “fallback” provisions, changes to or the discontinuance of LIBOR could result in customer uncertainty and disputes arising as a consequence of the transition from LIBOR. All of this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Risks Related to the Regulation of Our Industry
We operate in a highly regulated environment and the laws and regulations that govern our operations, corporate governance, executive compensation, and accounting principles, or changes in them, or our failure to comply with them, could subject us to regulatory action or penalties.
We are subject to extensive regulation, supervision, and legal requirements that govern almost all aspects of our operations. These laws and regulations are not intended to protect our shareholders. Rather, these laws and regulations are intended to protect consumers, customers, depositors, the FDIC Deposit Insurance Fund, and the overall financial stability of the U.S. These laws and regulations, among other matters, prescribe minimum capital requirements, impose limitations on the business activities in which we can engage, limit the dividends or distributions that Red River Bank can pay to us and that we can pay to our shareholders, impose certain specific accounting requirements on us that may be more restrictive and may result in greater or earlier charges to earnings or reductions in our capital than GAAP would require, require us to have an effective anti-money laundering program, and prohibit discriminatory lending practices and unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts. Compliance with laws and regulations can be difficult and costly, and changes to laws and regulations often impose additional compliance costs. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations, even if the failure follows good faith efforts or reflects a difference in interpretation, could subject us to restrictions on our business activities, fines, and other penalties, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations, capital base, and the price of our securities. Further, any new laws, rules, and regulations could make compliance more difficult or expensive. All of these laws and regulations, and the supervisory framework applicable to our industry, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Legislative and regulatory actions taken now or in the future, may increase our costs.
Current and past economic conditions, particularly in the financial markets, have resulted in government regulatory agencies and political bodies placing increased focus and scrutiny on the financial services industry. New proposals for legislation continue to be introduced in the U.S. Congress that could substantially increase regulation of the financial services industry; impose restrictions on the operations and general ability of firms within the industry to conduct business
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consistent with historical practices, including in the areas of compensation, interest rates, financial product offerings, and disclosures; and have an effect on collection and bankruptcy proceedings with respect to consumer residential real estate mortgages, among other things.
Certain aspects of current or proposed regulatory or legislative changes, if enacted or adopted, may impact the profitability of our business activities by requiring more oversight or changing certain of our business practices, including our ability to offer new products, obtain financing, attract deposits, make loans, and achieve satisfactory interest spreads. They also may require us to invest significant management attention and resources to make necessary operational changes to comply. All of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Federal and state banking agencies periodically conduct examinations of our business, and our failure to comply with any supervisory actions as a result of such examinations could result in regulatory action or penalties.
As part of the bank regulatory process, the FDIC, the Louisiana OFI, and the Federal Reserve periodically conduct examinations of our business, including our compliance with laws and regulations. If, as a result of an examination, a federal or state banking agency were to determine that our financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity, or other aspects of any of our operations had become unsatisfactory, or that we or Red River Bank were in violation of any law or regulation, such agency may take a number of different remedial actions as it deems appropriate. These actions include the power to stop any practices such agency found to be unsafe or unsound; to require affirmative action to correct any conditions resulting from any violation or practice; to issue an administrative order that can be judicially enforced; to direct an increase in our capital; to restrict our ability to pay dividends; to restrict our growth; to assess civil money penalties against us, Red River Bank, or our respective officers or directors; to remove officers and directors; and, if it is concluded that such conditions cannot be corrected or there is an imminent risk of loss to depositors, to terminate Red River Bank’s deposit insurance and place it into receivership or conservatorship. Any such regulatory action could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
We are subject to stringent capital requirements, which may result in lower returns on equity, require us to raise additional capital, limit growth opportunities, result in regulatory restrictions, or require us to commit capital resources to support Red River Bank.
Because Red River Bank does not intend to utilize the simplified CBLR framework, it remains subject to rules designed to implement the recommendations with respect to regulatory capital standards, commonly known as Basel III. The rules establish a regulatory capital standard based on common equity Tier I, require the Bank to satisfy a minimum capital adequacy requirement, and impose a capital conservation buffer. Failure to meet the capital conservation buffer will result in certain limitations on dividends, capital repurchases, and discretionary bonus payments to executive officers.
Our subsidiary, Red River Bank, is also subject to separate regulatory capital requirements imposed by the FDIC. If Red River Bank does not meet minimum capital requirements, it will be subject to prompt corrective action by the FDIC. Prompt corrective action can include progressively more restrictive constraints on operations, management, and capital distributions. Even if we satisfy the objectives of our capital plan and meet minimum capital requirements, it is possible that our regulators may ask us to raise additional capital. For example, banking organizations experiencing significant internal growth or making acquisitions are often expected to maintain strong capital positions substantially above the minimum supervisory levels, without significant reliance on intangible assets.
In addition, the Federal Reserve may require us to commit capital resources to support Red River Bank. The Federal Reserve requires a bank holding company to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to its subsidiary banks and to commit resources to support its subsidiary banks. Under this “source of strength” doctrine, the Federal Reserve may require a bank holding company to make capital injections into a troubled subsidiary bank at times when the bank holding company may not be inclined to do so and may charge the bank holding company with engaging in unsafe and unsound practices for failure to commit resources to such a subsidiary bank. Accordingly, we could be required to make a capital injection to Red River Bank if it experiences financial distress. Such a capital injection may be required at a time when our resources are limited, and we may be required to borrow the funds or to raise additional equity capital to make the required capital injection. Any of these scenarios could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and the value of our common stock.
New activities and expansion require regulatory approvals, and failure to obtain them may restrict our growth.
We may complement and expand our business by pursuing strategic acquisitions of financial institutions and other complementary businesses. Generally, we must receive state and federal regulatory approval before we can acquire an FDIC-insured depository institution or related business. Such regulatory approvals may not be granted on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. We may also be required to open or sell banking centers as a condition to receiving regulatory approval, which condition may not be acceptable to us or, if acceptable to us, may reduce the benefit of any acquisition.
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In addition to the acquisition of existing financial institutions, as opportunities arise, we plan to continue establishing de novo banking centers as a part of our organic growth strategy. De novo expansion and any acquisitions carry with them numerous risks, including the inability to obtain all required regulatory approvals. The failure to obtain these regulatory approvals for potential future strategic acquisitions and de novo banking centers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Federal, state, and local consumer lending laws may restrict our ability to originate certain mortgage loans, increase our risk of liability with respect to such loans, increase the time and expense associated with the foreclosure process, or prevent us from foreclosing at all.
Certain federal, state, and local laws are intended to eliminate lending practices which are considered “predatory.” These laws prohibit practices such as steering borrowers away from more affordable products, selling unnecessary insurance to borrowers, repeatedly refinancing loans, and making loans without a reasonable expectation that the borrowers will be able to repay the loans irrespective of the value of the underlying property. It is our policy not to make predatory loans, but these laws create the potential for liability with respect to our lending and loan investment activities. They increase our cost of doing business and, ultimately, may prevent us from making certain loans. They also may cause us to reduce the average percentage rate or the points and fees on loans that we do make. Additionally, consumer protection initiatives or changes in state or federal law may substantially increase the time and expense associated with the foreclosure process or prevent us from foreclosing at all. If new state or federal laws or regulations are ultimately enacted that significantly raise the cost of foreclosure or raise outright barriers, such laws or regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We are generally unable to control the amount of premiums that we are required to pay for FDIC insurance.
Deposits are insured by the FDIC up to legal limits and subject to the payment of FDIC deposit insurance assessments. The Bank’s regular assessments are determined by the level of its assessment base and its risk classification, which is based on its regulatory capital levels and the level of supervisory concern that it poses. The FDIC has the power to change deposit insurance assessment rates, the manner in which deposit insurance is calculated, and also to charge special assessments to FDIC-insured institutions. Any future additional assessments, increases, or required prepayments in FDIC insurance premiums could adversely impact our earnings. This, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We are subject to laws regarding the privacy, information security, and protection of personal information and any violation of these laws or another incident involving personal, confidential, or proprietary information of individuals could damage our reputation and otherwise adversely affect our operations and financial condition.
Our business requires the collection and retention of large volumes of customer data, including personally identifiable information in various information systems that we maintain and in those maintained by third party data service providers. We also maintain important internal company data such as personally identifiable information about our employees and information relating to our operations. We are subject to complex and evolving laws and regulations governing the privacy and protection of personal information of individuals (including customers, employees, suppliers, and other third parties). Ensuring that our collection, use, transfer, and storage of personal information complies with all applicable laws and regulations can increase our costs. Furthermore, we may not be able to ensure that all of our clients, suppliers, counterparties, and other third parties have appropriate controls in place to protect the confidentiality of the information that they exchange with us, particularly where such information is transmitted by electronic means. If personal, confidential, or proprietary information of customers or others were to be mishandled or misused, we could be exposed to litigation or regulatory sanctions under personal information laws and regulations. Concerns regarding the effectiveness of our measures to safeguard personal information, or even the perception that such measures are inadequate, could cause us to lose customers or potential customers for our products and services and thereby reduce our revenues. Accordingly, any failure or perceived failure to comply with applicable privacy or data protection laws and regulations may subject us to inquiries, examinations, and investigations that could result in requirements to modify or cease certain operations or practices or incur significant liabilities, fines, or penalties, and could damage our reputation and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We may be adversely affected by changes in U.S. tax laws and regulations.
Future changes in tax laws may have an adverse effect on our income tax expense, deferred tax balances, and the amount of taxes payable. This, in turn, could reduce our profitability, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
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Risks Related to an Investment in Our Common Stock
The market price of our common stock may be subject to substantial fluctuations, which may make it difficult to sell shares at the volumes, prices, or times desired.
There are many factors that may impact the market price and trading volume of our common stock. In particular, the realization of any of the risks described in this "Item 1A. Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock, causing the value of any investment to decline. The stock market and, in particular, the market for financial institution stocks has experienced substantial fluctuations in recent years, which in many cases has been unrelated to the operating performance and prospects of particular companies. In addition, significant fluctuations in the trading volume in our common stock may cause significant price variations to occur. Increased market volatility could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock, which could make it difficult for investors to sell shares at volumes, prices, or times desired.
Future sales or the availability for sale of substantial amounts of our equity securities in the public market could adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through future sales of equity securities.
We may issue shares of equity securities as consideration for future acquisitions and investments and under compensation and incentive plans. We may also grant registration rights covering those shares of our equity securities in connection with any such acquisition or investment. Sales of substantial amounts of our equity securities, or the perception that such sales could occur, may adversely affect prevailing market prices for our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through future sales of our securities.
Our directors and executive officers have significant control over our business.
As of December 31, 2020, our directors and executive officers beneficially owned approximately 23.9% of our issued and outstanding shares of common stock. Consequently, our management and board of directors may be able to significantly affect the outcome of the election of directors and the potential outcome of other matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, such as mergers, the sale of substantially all of our assets, and other extraordinary corporate matters. The interests of these insiders could conflict with the interests of our other shareholders.
The rights of our common shareholders may be subordinate to the holders of any debt securities or preferred stock that we may issue in the future.
As of December 31, 2020, we do not have any outstanding long-term debt. However, any future indebtedness that we may incur may be senior to our common stock. As a result, we would make payments on our potential future indebtedness before any dividends could be paid on our common stock, and, in the event of our bankruptcy, dissolution, or liquidation, the holders of our potential future indebtedness would be satisfied in full before any distributions could be made to the holders of our common stock.
Although we have not historically issued shares of preferred stock, our board of directors has the authority to issue in the aggregate up to 1,000,000 such shares, and to determine the terms of each issuance of preferred stock and any indebtedness, without shareholder approval. Accordingly, you should assume that any shares of preferred stock and any indebtedness that we may issue in the future will also be senior to our common stock. As a result, holders of our common stock bear the risk that our future issuances of debt or equity securities or our incurrence of other borrowings may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.
We are an emerging growth company, and the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an emerging growth company, as defined in the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company we are eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These include, without limitation, an exemption from the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, reduced financial reporting requirements, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.
We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (1) the end of the fiscal year during which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or more, (2) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of our IPO on May 7, 2019, (3) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities, or (4) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the Exchange Act. Investors may find our common stock less attractive if we rely on these exemptions, which may result in a less active trading market and increased volatility in our stock price.
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Our dividend policy may change without notice, and our future ability to pay dividends is subject to restrictions.
Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive only such cash dividends as our board of directors may declare out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends. Although we anticipate paying quarterly dividends going forward, we have no obligation to continue paying dividends, and we may change our dividend policy at any time without notice to our shareholders. Our ability to pay dividends may also be limited on account of any potential future outstanding indebtedness, as we generally would make payments on outstanding indebtedness before any dividends could be paid on our common stock. Also, because our primary earning asset is our investment in the capital stock of Red River Bank, we may become dependent upon dividends from the Bank to pay our operating expenses, satisfy our obligations, and pay dividends on our common stock. Red River Bank’s ability to pay dividends on its common stock will substantially depend upon its earnings and financial condition, liquidity and capital requirements, the general economic and regulatory climate, and other factors deemed relevant by its board of directors. There are numerous laws and banking regulations and guidance that limit our and Red River Bank’s ability to pay dividends. For more information on dividend regulations, see “Item 1. Business - Supervision and Regulation.”
Our corporate governance documents, and certain corporate and banking laws applicable to us, could make a takeover more difficult.
Certain provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws, each as amended and restated, and corporate and federal banking laws, could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of our organization or conduct a proxy contest, even if those events were perceived by many of our shareholders as beneficial to their interests. These provisions, and the corporate and banking laws and regulations applicable to us, enable our board of directors to issue additional shares of authorized, but unissued capital stock; do not provide preemptive rights to our shareholders; enable our board of directors to issue “blank check” preferred stock with such designations, rights, and preferences as may be determined from time to time by the board; enable our board of directors to increase the size of the board and fill the vacancies created by the increase; do not provide for cumulative voting in the election of directors; enable our board of directors to amend our bylaws without shareholder approval; require the request of holders of at least 25.0% of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote at a meeting to call a special shareholders’ meeting; establish an advance notice procedure for director nominations and other shareholder proposals; and require prior regulatory application and approval of any transaction involving control of our organization.
These provisions may discourage potential acquisition proposals and could delay or prevent a change in control, including under circumstances in which our shareholders might otherwise receive a premium over the market price of our shares.
An investment in our common stock is not an insured deposit and is subject to risk of loss.
An investment in our common stock is not a bank deposit and is not insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other government agency. An investment in our common stock is subject to investment risk, and the entire investment may be lost.
Securities analysts may not continue coverage on us.
The trading market for our common stock depends, in part, on the research and reports that securities analysts publish about us and our business. We do not have any control over these securities analysts, and they may not cover us. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to publish regular reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause the price or trading volume of our common stock to decline. If we are covered by securities analysts and are the subject of an unfavorable report, the price of our common stock may decline.
Our stock repurchase program may not enhance long-term stockholder value and stock repurchases, if any, could increase the volatility of the price of our common stock and will diminish our cash reserves.
On August 27, 2020, our board of directors approved a stock repurchase program. The repurchase program authorizes us to purchase up to $3.0 million of our outstanding shares of common stock through August 27, 2021. Repurchases may be made from time to time in the open market at prevailing prices and based on market conditions, or in privately negotiated transactions. Repurchases pursuant to our stock repurchase program could affect our stock price and increase its volatility. The existence of a stock repurchase program could also cause our stock price to be higher than it would be in the absence of such a program and could potentially reduce the market liquidity for our stock. Additionally, repurchases under our stock repurchase program will diminish our cash reserves, which impacts our ability to pursue possible future strategic opportunities and acquisitions, support our operations, invest in securities, and pay dividends and could result in lower overall returns on our cash balances. Stock repurchases may not enhance shareholder value because the market price of our common stock may decline below the levels at which we repurchased shares of stock, and short-term stock price fluctuations could reduce the program’s effectiveness.
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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
Red River Bank operates from a network of 25 banking centers throughout Louisiana and one combined loan and deposit production office in Lafayette, Louisiana. The Bank's principal executive office is located at 1412 Centre Court Drive, Alexandria, Louisiana. Banking centers are located in the following Louisiana markets: Central, which includes the Alexandria MSA; Northwest, which includes the Shreveport-Bossier City MSA; Capital, which includes the Baton Rouge MSA; Southwest, which includes the Lake Charles MSA; and the Northshore, which includes Covington.
As of December 31, 2020, Red River Bank owned its main office building and 18 of its banking centers. The remaining banking office facilities were subject to lease agreements. Our facilities are in good condition and are adequate to meet our operating needs for the foreseeable future.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
The Company is named as a defendant in a purported class action lawsuit, Aeron Averette v. Red River Bancshares, filed on August 28, 2020, in the 19th Judicial District Court of the State of Louisiana. The lawsuit alleges the Bank wrongfully imposed multiple non-sufficient funds fees on what the plaintiff describes as a single item presented for payment, thereby resulting in the Bank breaching its customer account agreement, abusing its rights, and being unjustly enriched. The plaintiff purports to represent a class consisting of all account holders in Louisiana who incurred similar charges by the Bank within the applicable statute of limitations. The plaintiff seeks unspecified damages, costs, fees, attorney’s fees, and general and equitable relief for herself and the purported class. The Company and Bank deny the allegations and intend to vigorously defend the matter. At this early stage of the lawsuit, we cannot determine the probability of a materially adverse result or reasonably estimate the potential exposure, if any.
From time to time, the Company, including its subsidiaries, are or may be involved in various legal matters arising in the ordinary course of business. In the opinion of management, neither the Company, nor any of its subsidiaries, are involved in such legal proceedings that the resolution is expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows. However, one or more unfavorable outcomes in these ordinary claims or litigation against the Company or its subsidiaries could have a material adverse effect for the period in which they are resolved. In addition, regardless of their merits or ultimate outcomes, such matters are costly, divert management’s attention, and may materially and adversely affect the reputation of the Company or its subsidiaries, even if resolved favorably.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information for Common Stock
Shares of our common stock are traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “RRBI.” Our shares have been traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market since May 3, 2019. Prior to that date, there was no public trading market for our common stock.
Holders of Record
As of March 5, 2021, there were approximately 300 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividends and Dividend Policy
Taking into consideration our performance and capital levels, we began paying quarterly cash dividends of $0.06 per share in 2020, resulting in $0.24 per share in cash dividends for the year ended December 31, 2020. Although we anticipate paying quarterly dividends going forward, we have no obligation to continue paying dividends, and we may change our dividend policy at any time without notice to our shareholders. Any future determination relating to dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on a number of factors, including our historical and projected financial condition, liquidity, and results of operations; our capital levels and needs; any acquisitions or potential acquisitions that we are considering; contractual, statutory, and regulatory prohibitions and other limitations; general economic conditions; and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors.
For information on regulatory restrictions on our and the Bank's present and future ability to pay dividends, see "Item 1. Business - Supervision and Regulation - Bank Holding Company Regulation - Regulatory Restrictions on Dividends; Source of Strength" and " - Bank Regulation - Regulatory Restrictions on Dividends."
Use of Proceeds from Registered Sales of Equity Securities
On May 7, 2019, we sold 663,320 new shares of our common stock at a public offering price of $45.00 per share in our IPO, including 90,000 shares sold pursuant to the exercise of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares in the offering. The offer and sale of shares in the IPO were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-230798), which the SEC declared effective on May 2, 2019. FIG Partners, LLC and Stephens Inc. acted as underwriters. The offering commenced on May 3, 2019, and did not terminate until the sale of all of the shares offered. There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our IPO as described in our Prospectus that was filed with the SEC on May 3, 2019, pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) under the Securities Act.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On August 27, 2020, our board of directors approved a stock repurchase program. The repurchase program authorizes us to purchase up to $3.0 million of our outstanding shares of common stock through August 27, 2021. Repurchases may be made from time to time in the open market at prevailing prices and based on market conditions, or in privately negotiated transactions. We did not repurchase any of our shares of common stock under a share repurchase plan during the three months ended December 31, 2020. As of December 31, 2020, approximately $2.9 million remains available to repurchase shares under the stock repurchase program.
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Item 6. Selected Financial Data
The following tables set forth selected historical consolidated financial information for each of the periods indicated. The historical financial information as of and for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, except for the selected ratios, is derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this document. The historical financial information as of and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, except for the selected ratios, is derived from our audited consolidated financial statements that are not included in this document. Our historical results may not be indicative of our future performance.
You should read the selected historical consolidated financial and operating data set forth below in conjunction with “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” as well as our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected historical consolidated financial information presented below contains financial measures that are not presented in accordance with GAAP and have not been audited. See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Non-GAAP Financial Measures” for a reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures.
As of and for the Years Ended December 31,
(in thousands)20202019201820172016
Selected Period End Balance Sheet Data:
Total assets$2,642,634 $1,988,225 $1,860,588 $1,724,264 $1,644,877 
Cash and due from banks29,537 25,937 34,070 29,819 27,588 
Interest-bearing deposits in other banks417,664 107,355 117,836 29,848 92,921 
Securities available-for-sale498,206 335,573 307,877 345,344 304,766 
Securities held-to-maturity— — — 8,991 10,193 
Loans held for sale29,116 5,089 2,904 1,867 3,146 
Loans held for investment1,588,446 1,438,924 1,328,438 1,247,666 1,146,675 
Allowance for loan losses17,951 13,937 12,524 10,895 10,544 
Noninterest-bearing deposits943,615 584,915 547,880 504,286 475,164 
Interest-bearing deposits1,396,745 1,136,205 1,097,703 1,021,699 997,725 
Total deposits2,340,360 1,721,120 1,645,583 1,525,985 1,472,889 
Junior subordinated debentures— — 11,341 11,341 11,341 
Total stockholders’ equity285,478 251,898 193,703 178,103 151,823 
Selected Income Statement Data:
Interest and dividend income$77,378 $73,725 $66,886 $58,405 $54,256 
Interest expense8,378 10,086 7,649 6,560 6,430 
Net interest income69,000 63,639 59,237 51,845 47,826 
Provision for loan losses6,293 1,810 1,990 1,555 1,658 
Noninterest income23,167 15,970 14,531 12,714 12,902 
Operating expenses51,406 47,335 43,422 40,473 38,361 
Income before income tax expense34,468 30,464 28,356 22,531 20,709 
Income tax expense6,323 5,640 5,300 8,546 5,607 
Net income$28,145 $24,824 $23,056 $13,985 $15,102 
Common stock cash dividends$1,759 $1,326 $1,009 $— $— 
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As of and for the Years Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)20202019201820172016
Per Common Share Data: (1)
Earnings per share, basic
$3.84 $3.51 $3.43 $2.16 $2.37 
Earnings per share, diluted
$3.83 $3.49 $3.41 $2.14 $2.35 
Book value per share
$38.97 $34.48 $29.23 $26.50 $23.86 
Tangible book value per share(2,3)
$38.76 $34.27 $28.99 $26.27 $23.62 
Cash dividends per share
$0.24 $0.20 $0.15 $— $— 
Shares outstanding7,325,333 7,306,221 6,627,358 6,721,146 6,362,910 
Weighted average shares outstanding, basic
7,322,158 7,072,689 6,716,943 6,483,958 6,378,568 
Weighted average shares outstanding, diluted
7,345,045 7,115,514 6,756,102 6,526,828 6,416,708 
Summary Performance Ratios:
Return on average assets
1.22 %1.30 %1.29 %0.82 %0.95 %
Return on average equity
10.39 %10.86 %12.46 %8.45 %10.09 %
Net interest margin
3.09 %3.47 %3.42 %3.14 %3.11 %
Net interest margin (FTE)(4)
3.14 %3.52 %3.44 %3.20 %3.21 %
Efficiency ratio(5)
55.77 %59.46 %58.86 %62.69 %63.17 %
Loans HFI to deposits ratio
67.87 %83.60 %80.73 %81.76 %77.85 %
Noninterest-bearing deposits to deposits ratio
40.32 %33.98 %33.29 %33.05 %32.26 %
Noninterest income to average assets
1.00 %0.84 %0.81 %0.74 %0.81 %
Operating expense to average assets
2.22 %2.49 %2.43 %2.37 %2.42 %
Summary Credit Quality Ratios:
Nonperforming assets to total assets
0.16 %0.33 %0.38 %0.60 %0.36 %
Nonperforming loans to loans HFI
0.21 %0.37 %0.49 %0.83 %0.49 %
Allowance for loan losses to loans HFI
1.13 %0.97 %0.94 %0.87 %0.92 %
Net charge-offs to average loans
0.14 %0.03 %0.03 %0.10 %0.06 %
Capital Ratios:
Total stockholders’ equity to total assets
10.80 %12.67 %10.41 %10.33 %9.23 %
Tangible common equity to tangible assets(2,6)
10.75 %12.60 %10.34 %10.25 %9.14 %
Total risk-based capital to risk-weighted assets
18.68 %18.02 %16.55 %15.91 %14.56 %
Tier I risk-based capital to risk-weighted assets
17.55 %17.07 %15.62 %15.06 %13.69 %
Common equity Tier I capital to risk-weighted assets
17.55 %17.07 %14.80 %14.20 %12.78 %
Tier I risk-based capital to average assets
10.92 %12.82 %11.40 %11.21 %10.04 %
(1)2017 and 2016 amounts adjusted to give effect to the 2018 2-for-1 stock split.
(2)Non-GAAP financial measure. For calculations and reconciliations to GAAP of non-GAAP financial measures, see "Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Non-GAAP Financial Measures" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(3)We calculate tangible book value per common share as total stockholders’ equity, less intangible assets, divided by the outstanding number of shares of our common stock at the end of the relevant period.
(4)Net interest margin FTE includes an FTE adjustment using a 21% federal income tax rate for 2020, 2019, and 2018, and a 35% tax rate for 2017 and 2016 on tax-exempt securities and tax-exempt loans.
(5)Efficiency ratio represents operating expenses divided by the sum of net interest income and noninterest income.
(6)We calculate tangible common equity as total stockholders’ equity, less intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization, and we calculate tangible assets as total assets, less intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization.

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Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The purpose of this discussion and analysis is to focus on significant changes in financial condition and results of operations of Red River Bancshares, Inc. on a consolidated basis during the year ended December 31, 2020 and selected prior periods. This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with information presented elsewhere in this report, including "Item 6. Selected Financial Data" and our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in "Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data."
The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, future events and our financial performance. We caution that assumptions, expectations, projections, intentions, or beliefs about future events may, and often do, vary from actual results and the differences can be material. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” Also, see risk factors and other cautionary statements described in "Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We do not undertake any obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements except as otherwise required by applicable law.
CORPORATE SUMMARY
Red River Bancshares, Inc. is the bank holding company for Red River Bank, a Louisiana state-chartered bank established in 1999 that provides a fully integrated suite of banking products and services tailored to the needs of our commercial and retail customers. Red River Bank operates from a network of 25 banking centers throughout Louisiana and one combined loan and deposit production office in Lafayette, Louisiana. Banking centers are located in the following Louisiana markets: Central, which includes the Alexandria MSA; Northwest, which includes the Shreveport-Bossier City MSA; Capital, which includes the Baton Rouge MSA; Southwest, which includes the Lake Charles MSA; and the Northshore, which includes Covington.
Our priority is to drive shareholder value through the establishment of a market-leading commercial banking franchise in Louisiana. We provide services through relationship-oriented bankers who are committed to their customers and the communities in which we offer our products and services. Our strategy is to expand geographically through the establishment of de novo banking centers in new markets and, to a lesser extent, through the acquisition of financial institutions with customer-oriented, compatible philosophies and in desirable geographic areas.
OVERVIEW
The year ended December 31, 2020, had many challenges and successes. We were impacted by the global outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the passage of the CARES Act, changing government orders, economic shutdowns, a low interest rate environment, and two hurricanes that impacted our markets. Despite these challenges, we participated in the SBA PPP program, welcomed many new customers, implemented a stock buyback program, opened a new banking center, purchased two banking center locations, and had record high levels of mortgage activity, balance sheet growth, and earnings.
2020 Financial and Operational Highlights
Net income for the year ended December 31, 2020, was $28.1 million, or $3.83 diluted EPS, an increase of $3.3 million, or 13.4%, compared to $24.8 million, or $3.49 diluted EPS, for the year ended December 31, 2019.
The return on average assets was 1.22% for 2020 and 1.30% for 2019.
The return on average equity was 10.39% for 2020 and 10.86% for 2019.
Assets increased $654.4 million, or 32.9%, to $2.64 billion as of December 31, 2020, compared to $1.99 billion as of December 31, 2019. This increase was driven by a $619.2 million, or 36.0%, increase in deposits for the same period. The deposit growth in 2020 was due to customers receiving funds from various government stimulus programs, customers depositing the proceeds from their PPP loans, strong deposit account opening activity, and customers maintaining larger deposit balances.
Loans HFI increased $149.5 million, or 10.4%, to $1.59 billion as of December 31, 2020, compared to $1.44 billion as of December 31, 2019. The increase in loans was mainly due to PPP loans originated during the year.
Red River Bank participated in the SBA PPP, supporting Louisiana businesses with PPP loans. In the second quarter of 2020, Red River Bank originated 1,384 PPP loans totaling $199.0 million, with an average loan size of $144,000. In the fourth quarter of 2020, the SBA began approving our initial PPP loan forgiveness applications. As of December 31, 2020, PPP loans, net of deferred income, were $118.4 million.
Mortgage loan production and income in 2020 were at record high levels for the Company.
During 2020, our investment group successfully converted our registered broker-dealer relationship to LPL Financial LLC. This conversion allows us to support future brokerage services growth, as well as provide better technology and benefits to our customers and investment group.
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We expanded organically throughout Louisiana with the following:
Late in 2019, we purchased a banking center building in Sulphur, Louisiana, located in our Southwest Louisiana market. This property was remodeled and opened as a Red River Bank banking center late in the first quarter of 2020.
In the third quarter of 2020, we began operations in our newest market, Acadiana, which includes the Lafayette, Louisiana MSA. We hired an Acadiana market president and opened a combined loan and deposit production office in Lafayette.
In the fourth quarter of 2020, we purchased a banking center building in Lake Charles, Louisiana. This location allows us to continue to expand banking services in our Southwest Louisiana market. This property is being remodeled and is expected to open as a full-service banking center in the second quarter of 2021, pending all necessary regulatory approvals.
In the fourth quarter of 2020, we purchased a banking center building in Lafayette, Louisiana. This property is being remodeled and is expected to open as our Acadiana market's first, full-service banking center in the summer of 2021, pending all necessary regulatory approvals.
Beginning in the first quarter of 2020, we began paying cash dividends on a quarterly basis. Quarterly cash dividends of $0.06 per common share were paid in 2020, resulting in cash dividends of $0.24 per common share for 2020, compared to $0.20 per common share for 2019.
In August 2020, our board approved a stock repurchase program that authorizes us to purchase up to $3.0 million of our outstanding shares through August 27, 2021. In 2020, we repurchased 2,824 shares.
Our Southwest and Central Louisiana markets were impacted by Hurricane Laura in August 2020 and Hurricane Delta in October 2020. Banking center locations in the impacted areas were temporarily closed prior to and after the hurricane; however, banking services quickly resumed. Red River Bank did not sustain any significant damage to its locations from these hurricanes.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Net income for the year ended December 31, 2020, was $28.1 million, or $3.83 diluted EPS, an increase of $3.3 million, or 13.4%, compared to $24.8 million, or $3.49 diluted EPS, for the year ended December 31, 2019. The increase in net income was primarily due to a $7.2 million increase in noninterest income and a $5.4 million increase in net interest income, partially offset by a $4.5 million increase in provision for loan losses and a $4.1 million increase in operating expenses. The return on average assets for the year ended December 31, 2020, was 1.22%, compared to 1.30% for the prior year. The return on average equity was 10.39% for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to 10.86% for the prior year. Our efficiency ratio for the year ended December 31, 2020, was 55.77%, compared to 59.46% for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Net Interest Income and Net Interest Margin
Our operating results depend primarily on our net interest income. Fluctuations in market interest rates impact the yield on interest-earning assets and the rate paid on interest-bearing liabilities. Changes in the amount and type of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities also impact our net interest income. To evaluate net interest income, we measure and monitor: (1) yields on loans and other interest-earning assets; (2) the costs of deposits and other funding sources; (3) net interest spread; and (4) net interest margin. Since noninterest-bearing sources of funds, such as noninterest-bearing deposits and stockholders’ equity, also fund interest-earning assets, net interest margin includes the benefit of these noninterest-bearing funding sources.
The Federal Reserve sets the target federal funds rate, which is the cost of immediately available overnight funds, and influences other market rates, such as the prime rate. These market rates impact pricing of certain assets and liabilities used by financial institutions. Our net interest income and net interest margin are directly affected by these rates and their changes. During 2019, the target federal funds rate remained consistent between January and July, decreased 75 bps in the second half of the year, and was 1.75% as of December 31, 2019. During 2020, the target federal funds rate decreased 150 bps in March, remained consistent the rest of the year, and was 0.25% as of December 31, 2020. Due to these fluctuations, the average effective federal funds rate was 2.16% for 2019 and 0.38% for 2020. In 2020, the lower interest rate environment impacted yields on new, renewing, and floating rate loans, short-term liquid assets, and taxable securities. For the year ended December 31, 2020, net interest income and net interest margin FTE were impacted by the lower interest rate environment.
Net interest income for the year ended December 31, 2020, totaled $69.0 million, a $5.4 million, or 8.4%, increase from the year ended December 31, 2019. Net interest income increased due to a $3.7 million, or 5.0%, increase in interest and dividend income, combined with a $1.7 million, or 16.9%, decrease in interest expense. The increase in interest and dividend income was due to $5.6 million of PPP loan income recorded during 2020 and a $360,000 increase in interest
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income for total securities, partially offset by a $1.4 million decrease in interest income on short-term liquid assets and a $904,000 decrease in non-PPP loan income. In 2020, deposit growth exceeded loan growth which created excess liquidity. During 2020, this excess liquidity was deployed into interest-bearing deposits in other banks, as well as securities. For the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the year ended December 31, 2019, average short-term liquid assets increased $110.1 million, while the interest income for these liquid assets decreased $1.4 million because of the lower interest rate environment. For the same period, average total securities increased $83.5 million resulting in an increase in interest income for total securities that was partially offset by a decrease in yield. For the year ended December 31, 2020, average non-interest bearing deposits increased $229.8 million, or 39.8%, and average interest-bearing transaction deposits increased $138.3 million, or 18.7%, compared to the prior year. Interest expense decreased as a result of our decision to reduce interest rates on deposits during the year ended December 31, 2020, combined with redeeming the junior subordinated debentures mid-2019 and eliminating the related interest expense.
Net interest margin FTE decreased 38 bps to 3.14% for the year ended December 31, 2020, from 3.52% for the year ended December 31, 2019, mainly due to the Federal Reserve lowering interest rates 225 bps since August 2019. The yield on loans decreased 29 bps to 4.30% for the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to 4.59% for the prior year, due to the impact of the low interest rate environment on new, renewed, and floating rate loans. As of December 31, 2020, floating rate loans were 14.6% of loans HFI. For the year ended December 31, 2020, the yield on taxable securities decreased 53 bps to 1.60%, compared to 2.13% for the prior year. The yield decreased as securities purchased throughout 2020 were at lower yields than the portfolio yield for taxable securities as of December 31, 2019, combined with an increase in amortization expense on mortage-backed securities. For the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to the prior year, the yield on federal funds sold decreased 184 bps, and the yield on interest-bearing balances due from banks decreased 190 bps, due to the lower interest rate environment. The resulting yield on interest-earning assets was 3.47% for the year ended December 31, 2020, a 56 bp decrease, compared to 4.03% for the prior year. The cost of deposits was 0.41% for the year ended December 31, 2020, an 18 bp decrease, compared to 0.59% for the prior year. The cost of deposits was lower for the year ended December 31, 2020, due to average noninterest-bearing deposits increasing $229.8 million, or 39.8%, combined with a 21 bp decrease in the rate on interest-bearing deposits for the same period as a result of our adjustments to deposit rates.
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The following table presents average balance sheet information, interest income, interest expense, and the corresponding average yields earned and rates paid for the years presented:
For the Years Ended December 31,
202020192018
(dollars in thousands)Average
Balance
Outstanding
Interest
Earned/
Interest
Paid
Average
Yield/
Rate
Average
Balance
Outstanding
Interest
Earned/
Interest
Paid
Average
Yield/
Rate
Average
Balance
Outstanding
Interest
Earned/
Interest
Paid
Average
Yield/
Rate
Assets
Interest-earning assets:
Loans(1,2)
$1,587,351 $69,228 4.30 %$1,388,702 $64,570 4.59 %$1,312,078 $58,747 4.42 %
Securities - taxable287,591 4,598 1.60 %257,090 5,466 2.13 %277,337 5,624 2.03 %
Securities - tax-exempt128,416 3,003 2.34 %75,385 1,775 2.35 %57,776 1,327 2.30 %
Federal funds sold67,328 207 0.30 %34,637 753 2.14 %17,790 356 1.97 %
Interest-bearing balances due from banks
129,090 322 0.25 %51,694 1,127 2.15 %40,768 798 1.93 %
Nonmarketable equity securities
2,842 20 0.71 %1,330 23 1.69 %1,286 18 1.36 %
Investment in trusts— — — %181 11 6.34 %341 16 4.83 %
Total interest-earning assets
2,202,618 $77,378 3.47 %1,809,019 $73,725 4.03 %1,707,376 $66,886 3.86 %
Allowance for loan losses(15,192)(13,444)(11,713)
Noninterest earning assets125,028 107,390 89,155 
Total assets$2,312,454 $1,902,965 $1,784,818 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Interest-bearing liabilities:
Interest-bearing transaction deposits
$877,836 $2,824 0.32 %$739,554 $3,898 0.53 %$708,818 $2,735 0.39 %
Time deposits333,260 5,538 1.66 %335,024 5,803 1.73 %320,699 4,349 1.36 %
Total interest-bearing deposits
1,211,096 8,362 0.69 %1,074,578 9,701 0.90 %1,029,517 7,084 0.69 %
Junior subordinated debentures
— — — %6,017 385 6.39 %11,341 558 4.92 %
Other borrowings
4,664 16 0.35 %— 2.80 %191 3.66 %
Total interest-bearing liabilities
1,215,760 $8,378 0.69 %1,080,600 $10,086 0.93 %1,041,049 $7,649 0.73 %
Noninterest-bearing liabilities:
Noninterest-bearing deposits807,528 577,701 545,547 
Accrued interest and other liabilities
18,192 16,118 13,124 
Total noninterest-bearing liabilities
825,720 593,819 558,671 
Stockholders’ equity270,974 228,546 185,098 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$2,312,454 $1,902,965 $1,784,818 
Net interest income$69,000 $63,639 $59,237
Net interest spread2.78 %3.10 %3.13%
Net interest margin3.09 %3.47 %3.42%
Net interest margin FTE(3)
3.14 %3.52 %3.44%
Cost of deposits0.41 %0.59 %0.45%
Cost of funds0.38 %0.56 %0.45%
(1)Includes average outstanding balances of loans HFS of $14.2 million, $4.1 million, and $2.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively.
(2)Nonaccrual loans are included as loans carrying a zero yield.
(3)Net interest margin FTE includes an FTE adjustment using a 21% federal income tax rate on tax-exempt securities and tax-exempt loans.
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In 2020, Red River Bank participated in the SBA PPP and originated 1,384 PPP loans totaling $199.0 million. For the year ended December 31, 2020, average PPP loans, net of deferred income, totaled $127.4 million at an interest rate of 1.0%. Under the terms of the PPP, we received loan origination fees from the SBA ranging from 1.0% to 5.0% of the initial principal amount of the loans. PPP origination fees were $7.0 million, or 3.52%, of originated PPP loans and are being recorded to interest income over the 24-month loan term or until the loans are forgiven by the SBA. As PPP loan forgiveness payments are received, the remaining portion of origination fees are recorded to income. In the fourth quarter of 2020, 39.4% of our PPP loans originated were forgiven by the SBA, and $77.7 million of PPP loan payments were received from the SBA and our borrowers. For the year ended December 31, 2020, PPP loan income totaled $5.6 million, resulting in a 4.35% yield.
Excluding PPP loan income, net interest income (non-GAAP) for the year ended December 31, 2020, was $63.4 million, which was $201,000, or 0.30%, lower than the prior year. Also, with PPP loans excluded for the year ended December 31, 2020, the yield on non-PPP loans (non-GAAP) was 4.29%, and the net interest margin FTE (non-GAAP) was 3.07%. For the year ended December 31, 2020, PPP loans had a one bp accretive impact to the yield on loans and a seven bp accretive impact to the net interest margin FTE. For further information on non-GAAP financial measures, see " - Non-GAAP Financial Measures" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The following table presents interest income for total loans, PPP loans, total non-PPP loans (non-GAAP), and net interest ratios excluding PPP loans (non-GAAP) for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018.
For the Years Ended December 31,
202020192018
(dollars in thousands)Average
Balance
Outstanding
Interest/Fee
Earned
Average
Yield
Average
Balance
Outstanding
Interest/Fee
Earned
Average
Yield
Average
Balance
Outstanding
Interest/Fee
Earned
Average
Yield
Loans(1,2)
$1,587,351 $69,228 4.30 %$1,388,702 $64,570 4.59 %$1,312,078 $58,747 4.42 %
Less: PPP loans, net
Average127,410 — — 
Interest1,351 — — 
Fees4,211 — — 
Total PPP loans, net127,410 5,562 4.35 %— — — %— — — %
Non-PPP loans (non-GAAP)(4)
$1,459,941 $63,666 4.29 %$1,388,702 $64,570 4.59 %$1,312,078 $58,747 4.42 %
Ratios excluding PPP loans, net (non-GAAP)(4)
Net interest spread2.72 %3.10 %3.13 %
Net interest margin3.01 %3.47 %3.42 %
Net interest margin FTE(3)
3.07 %3.52 %3.44 %
(1)Includes average outstanding balances of loans HFS of $14.2 million, $4.1 million, and $2.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively.
(2)Nonaccrual loans are included as loans carrying a zero yield.
(3)Net interest margin FTE includes an FTE adjustment using a 21% federal income tax rate on tax-exempt securities and tax-exempt loans.
(4)Non-GAAP financial measure. See also " - Non-GAAP Financial Measures" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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Rate/Volume Analysis
Increases and decreases in interest income and interest expense result from changes in average balances (volume) of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, as well as changes in average interest rates. The following table presents the dollar amount of changes in interest income and interest expense for major components of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. It distinguishes between the changes related to outstanding balances and those due to changes in interest rates. The change in interest attributable to rate has been determined by applying the change in rate between periods to average balances outstanding in the earlier period. The change in interest due to volume has been determined by applying the rate from the earlier period to the change in average balances outstanding between periods. For purposes of this table, changes attributable to both rate and volume that cannot be segregated have been allocated to rate.