Company Quick10K Filing
RSC Holdings
Price21.10 EPS0
Shares70 P/E90
MCap1,469 P/FCF7
Net Debt2,940 EBIT135
TEV4,409 TEV/EBIT33
TTM 2019-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios
10-K 2020-12-31 Filed 2021-02-23
10-Q 2020-09-30 Filed 2020-11-06
10-Q 2020-06-30 Filed 2020-08-07
10-Q 2020-03-31 Filed 2020-05-20
10-K 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-02-21
10-Q 2019-09-30 Filed 2019-11-07
10-Q 2019-06-30 Filed 2019-08-08
10-Q 2019-03-31 Filed 2019-05-08
10-K 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-02-26
10-Q 2018-09-30 Filed 2018-11-09
10-Q 2018-06-30 Filed 2018-08-06
10-Q 2018-03-31 Filed 2018-05-09
10-K 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-03-01
10-Q 2017-09-30 Filed 2017-11-09
10-Q 2017-06-30 Filed 2017-08-09
10-Q 2017-03-31 Filed 2017-05-10
10-K 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-03-13
10-Q 2016-09-30 Filed 2016-11-10
10-Q 2016-06-30 Filed 2016-08-15
10-Q 2016-03-31 Filed 2016-06-10
8-K 2020-10-27
8-K 2020-08-04
8-K 2020-06-11
8-K 2020-05-19
8-K 2020-05-11
8-K 2020-05-01
8-K 2020-03-24
8-K 2020-03-17
8-K 2020-02-07
8-K 2020-02-04
8-K 2020-01-24
8-K 2020-01-23
8-K 2019-11-05
8-K 2019-08-06
8-K 2019-06-13
8-K 2019-04-30
8-K 2019-02-18
8-K 2019-02-08
8-K 2018-11-07
8-K 2018-07-31
8-K 2018-06-14
8-K 2018-05-01
8-K 2018-02-27

RRR 10K Annual Report

Part I
Item 1.Business
Item 1A.Risk Factors
Item 1B.Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2.Properties
Item 3.Legal Proceedings
Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5.Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6.Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A.Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8.Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9.Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A.Controls and Procedures
Item 9B.Other Information
Part III
Item 10.Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11.Executive Compensation
Item 12.Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Unitholder Matters
Item 13.Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14.Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15.Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16.Form 10 - K Summary
EX-4.1 rrr12312020-ex41.htm
EX-14.1 rrr12312020-ex141.htm
EX-21.1 rrr12312020-ex211.htm
EX-23.1 rrr12312020-ex231.htm
EX-31.1 rrr12312020-ex311cert.htm
EX-31.2 rrr12312020-ex312cert.htm
EX-32.1 rrr12312020-ex321cert.htm
EX-32.2 rrr12312020-ex322cert.htm

RSC Holdings Earnings 2020-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
4.23.42.51.70.80.02015201620182020
Assets, Equity
0.50.40.30.10.0-0.12015201620182020
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
0.20.1-0.0-0.2-0.3-0.42015201620182020
Ops, Inv, Fin

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                                    to                                     .

Commission file number 001-37754
______________________________________________________________
RED ROCK RESORTS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware47-5081182
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

1505 South Pavilion Center Drive, Las Vegas, Nevada 89135
(Address of principal executive offices, Zip Code)
(702495-3000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act
Title of each classTrading symbolName of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, $.01 par valueRRRNASDAQ Stock Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes     No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes     No ☑

As of June 30, 2020, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s Class A common stock held by non-affiliates (all persons other than executive officers or directors) was $730.9 million, based on the closing price on that date as reported by the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC.

Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
ClassOutstanding at February 15, 2021
Class A Common Stock, $0.01 par value71,228,168
Class B Common Stock, $0.00001 par value46,085,804

Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year end of December 31, 2020.


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PART I
ITEM 1.BUSINESS
Introduction
Red Rock Resorts, Inc. (“we,” “our,” “us,” “Red Rock” or the “Company”) is a holding company that owns an indirect equity interest in and manages Station Casinos LLC (“Station LLC”), through which we conduct all of our operations. Station LLC is a gaming, development and management company established in 1976 that develops and operates strategically-located casino and entertainment properties. Station LLC owns and operates ten major gaming and entertainment facilities and ten smaller casinos (three of which are 50% owned). A subsidiary of Station LLC also managed Graton Resort & Casino (“Graton Resort”) in northern California on behalf of a Native American tribe through February 5, 2021.
We own all of the outstanding voting interests in Station LLC and have an indirect equity interest in Station LLC through our ownership of limited liability interests in Station Holdco LLC (“Station Holdco,” and such interests, “LLC Units”), which owns all of the economic interests in Station LLC. At December 31, 2020, we held 60.7% of the economic interests and 100% of the voting power in Station Holdco, subject to certain limited exceptions, and we are designated as the sole managing member of both Station Holdco and Station LLC. We control and operate all of the business and affairs of Station Holdco and Station LLC. Our only assets are our ownership interests in Station LLC and Station Holdco, other than cash and tax-related assets and liabilities. We have no operations outside of our management of Station Holdco and Station LLC.
Our Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Consolidated Financial Statements”) reflect the consolidation of Station LLC and its consolidated subsidiaries and Station Holdco. The financial position and results of operations attributable to LLC Units we do not own are reported separately as noncontrolling interest.
Our casino properties are conveniently located throughout the Las Vegas Valley and provide our customers a wide variety of entertainment and dining options. Over 90% of the Las Vegas population is located within five miles of one of our gaming facilities. We provide friendly service and exceptional value in a comfortable environment. We believe we surpass our competitors in offering casino patrons the newest and most popular slot and video games featuring the latest technology. We also believe the high-quality entertainment experience we provide our customers differentiates us from our competitors.
Most of our major properties are master-planned for expansion, enabling us to incrementally expand our facilities as demand dictates. We also control six highly desirable gaming-entitled development sites in Las Vegas.
Our principal source of revenue and operating income is gaming, and our non-gaming offerings include restaurants, hotels and other entertainment amenities. Approximately 80% to 85% of our casino revenue is generated from slot play. The majority of our revenue is cash-based and as a result, fluctuations in our revenues have a direct impact on our cash flows from operations. Because our business is capital intensive, we rely heavily on the ability of our properties to generate operating cash flow to repay debt financing and fund capital expenditures.
Impact of COVID-19
During 2020, our business was significantly negatively impacted by the global pandemic caused by a new strain of coronavirus (“COVID-19”). All of our Las Vegas properties were temporarily closed on March 17, 2020 in compliance with a statewide emergency order mandating the closure of all nonessential businesses in Nevada, including casinos. On June 4, 2020, we reopened our Red Rock, Green Valley Ranch, Santa Fe Station, Boulder Station, Palace Station and Sunset Station properties, as well as our Wildfire properties, subject to state-mandated occupancy and other operational restrictions. At December 31, 2020, our Texas Station, Fiesta Henderson, Fiesta Rancho and Palms properties had not reopened. We will continue to assess the performance of the reopened properties, as well as the recovery of the Las Vegas market and the economy as a whole, before considering whether to reopen some or all of the remaining properties, and we have no plans to reopen any of these properties in 2021.
Subsequent to the reopening of most of our properties in June 2020, we saw favorable customer trends which continued throughout the third and fourth quarters, including strong visitation from a younger demographic, increased spend per visit, more time spent on device, and increased return of our core customers. While these trends helped drive strong post-reopening operating results at our first-to-reopen properties, we cannot predict whether these trends will continue, nor can we predict the extent to which the impacts of COVID-19 on the United States and Las Vegas economies may affect our business in the future.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has had and may continue to have a detrimental impact on the United States and Las Vegas economies, including widespread unemployment as well as reduced consumer confidence, discretionary spending and travel. We have taken steps to mitigate these and potential future effects of COVID-19 on our results of operations through a combination of streamlining our business, optimizing our marketing initiatives, and reducing expenses, including staffing reductions in May 2020 that affected approximately 39% of our full-time workforce. However, we continue to have significant fixed and variable expenses that will impact our cash position and profitability. We have implemented comprehensive health and cleanliness standards designed to provide the safest and most secure environment possible for our guests and employees, which include COVID-19 testing of our employees and vendors, personal protective equipment and temperature checks for employees and guests, enhanced cleaning procedures and other measures.
The United States economy and the economy in the Las Vegas metropolitan area have been negatively affected by the unprecedented impacts of COVID-19. A significant portion of our business is dependent upon customers who live and/or work in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. As of December 2020, the unemployment rate in the Las Vegas metropolitan area was 10.4%, down from a high of 34% in April 2020. Statewide, the unemployment rate for December 2020 declined to 9.0%, as compared to 30% in April 2020. Despite the economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, the median price of an existing single-family home in Las Vegas was up 10.2% at December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year. This continues a trend of significant improvement in home values in Las Vegas since 2012, with the median home price remaining at an all-time high of $314,000 in December 2020 according to the Las Vegas Realtors®. In addition, Las Vegas remains one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States, posting a 1.5% growth rate in 2020. Due to uncertainties surrounding the ongoing pandemic, we cannot predict whether the recovery in unemployment and the positive trends in housing prices and population growth in the Las Vegas area will continue.
Our principal executive offices are located at 1505 South Pavilion Center Drive, Las Vegas, Nevada 89135. The telephone number for our executive offices is (702) 495-3000. We maintain a website at www.redrockresorts.com, the contents of which are expressly not incorporated by reference into this filing.
Business Strategy
Our primary operating strategy emphasizes attracting and retaining customers, primarily Las Vegas residents and, to a lesser extent, out-of-town visitors. Our properties attract customers through:
convenient locations with best-in-class assets;
offering our customers the latest in slot and video poker technology;
a variety of non-gaming amenities such as hotel resorts, restaurants, bars and entertainment options;
focused marketing efforts targeting our extensive customer database;
innovative, frequent and high-profile promotional programs; and
convention business.
The Las Vegas regional market is very competitive, and we compete with both large hotel casinos in Las Vegas and smaller gaming-only establishments throughout the Las Vegas Valley.
Provide a high quality, value-oriented gaming and entertainment experience. We are committed to providing a high-value entertainment experience for our guests, as our significant level of repeat visitors demand exceptional service, variety and quality in their overall experience. We offer a broad array of gaming options, including the most popular slot and video poker products, and the latest technological innovations in slots, table games and sports wagering. We believe that providing a wide variety of entertainment options is also a significant factor in attracting guests. In particular, we feature multiple dining options at all of our major properties, which is a primary motivation for casino visits. We are dedicated to ensuring a high level of guest satisfaction and loyalty by providing attentive guest service in a convenient, friendly and casual atmosphere. As part of our commitment to providing a high-value entertainment experience and to stimulate visitation, we regularly refresh and enhance our gaming and non-gaming amenities.
Generate revenue growth through targeted marketing and promotional programs. Our significant advertising programs generate consistent brand awareness and promotional visibility. Our ability to advertise under a single brand across our portfolio also allows us to achieve material economies of scale. While we advertise through traditional media such as television, radio and newspaper to reach our core guests, we continue to expand our focus and spend on social, digital and mobile platforms to respond to the evolving trends in methods through which guests receive information.
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We employ an innovative marketing strategy that utilizes our frequent high-profile promotional programs to attract and retain guests, while also establishing and maintaining a high level of brand recognition. Through our analytical approach to promotional development, we are also able to optimize reinvestment in those guests who deliver stronger results. Our proprietary customer relationship management systems are highly attuned to how guests interact with our properties and products. This information allows us to focus on targeting guests based on their preferences.
We have installed new technology on all of our slot machines which permits us to provide “on device” marketing, bonusing and guest communication, including real-time customized promotions and incentives. We believe that this investment in technology has resulted in an increase in guest loyalty and enhanced the value of our loyalty program. As we continue to introduce new features and brand titles for customized promotional incentives, the technology should continue to help drive participation in our my|Rewards Boarding Pass loyalty program.
Maximize business profitability. During our over 40-year history, we have developed a culture that focuses on operational excellence and cost management. We believe that this focus has contributed to adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“Adjusted EBITDA”) margins that compare favorably to our public peers over the past several years. Our internally developed proprietary systems and analytical tools provide us with the ability to closely monitor revenues and operational expenses and provide real-time information to management. Benchmarking across our properties also allows us to create and take advantage of best practices in all functional areas of our business. We believe our existing cost structure, which has low variable costs, can support significant incremental revenue growth while maximizing the flow through of revenue to Adjusted EBITDA.
Utilize flexible capital structure to drive growth and equity holder returns. We maintain a flexible capital structure that we believe allows us to pursue a balance of new growth opportunities and a disciplined return of capital to our equity holders. We believe our scalable platform and extensive development and management expertise provide us the ability to build master-planned expansions, pursue acquisitions and/or seek new development opportunities in an effort to maximize equity holder returns.
Maintain strong employee relations. Station LLC began as a family-run business in 1976 and has maintained close-knit relationships among our management, and we endeavor to instill this same sense of loyalty among our employees. Toward this end, we take a hands-on approach through active and direct involvement with employees at all levels. We believe we have excellent employee relations. See “Human Capital” for more information on our employee relations. In addition, see “Risk Factors—Business, economic, market and operating risks—Union organization activities could disrupt our business by discouraging patrons from visiting our properties, causing labor disputes or work stoppages, and, if successful, could significantly increase our labor costs.
Develop and operate Native American projects. We currently provide development and management services to a Native American tribe using our expertise in developing and operating regional entertainment destinations.
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Organizational Structure
The following chart summarizes our organizational structure as of December 31, 2020. This chart is provided for illustrative purposes only and does not purport to represent all legal entities owned or controlled by us:
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(1)    Shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock vote as a single class. Each outstanding share of Class A common stock is entitled to one vote; each outstanding share of Class B common stock that is held by a holder that, together with its affiliates, owned at least 30% of the outstanding LLC Units immediately following the consummation of the Company’s public offering in 2016 (the “IPO”) and, at the applicable record date, maintains direct or indirect beneficial ownership of at least 10% of the outstanding shares of Class A common stock (determined on an as-exchanged basis assuming that all of the LLC Units were exchanged for Class A common stock) is entitled to ten votes; and each other outstanding share of Class B common stock is entitled
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to one vote. The only holders of Class B common stock that satisfy the foregoing criteria are entities controlled by Frank J. Fertitta III, our Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, and Lorenzo J. Fertitta, our Vice Chairman of the Board. These entities are referred to herein as the “Fertitta Family Entities” or “Principal Equity Holders.” The exchange ratio for LLC Units and shares of Class B common stock for shares of Class A common stock is a fraction, the numerator of which shall be the number of shares of Class A common stock outstanding immediately prior to the applicable exchange and the denominator of which shall be the number of LLC Units owned by Red Rock and its subsidiaries immediately prior to applicable exchange. The initial exchange ratio and the exchange ratio as of December 31, 2020 was one share of Class A common stock for each LLC Unit and share of Class B common stock and is subject to adjustment in the event that the number of outstanding shares of Class A common stock does not equal the number of LLC Units held by Red Rock, including as a result of purchases of shares of Class A common stock by Red Rock with excess cash on hand that does not result in a reduction in the outstanding number of LLC Units held by Red Rock.
(2)    “Continuing Owners” refers to the owners of LLC Units at December 31, 2020 who held such units prior to the Company’s IPO in May 2016.
Properties
Set forth below is selected information about our properties at December 31, 2020. Due to the impacts of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and related operational restrictions, certain amenities listed within the property descriptions below are temporarily closed.
Hotel
Rooms
Slots (1)
Gaming
Tables (2)
Acreage
Las Vegas Properties
Red Rock795 2,505 70 64 
Green Valley Ranch495 2,136 37 40 
Palace Station575 1,516 51 30 
Boulder Station299 2,224 35 46 
Sunset Station457 1,993 31 80 
Santa Fe Station200 2,259 49 39 
Wild Wild West260 164 — 20 
Wildfire Rancho— 161 — 
Wildfire Boulder— 159 — 
Wildfire Sunset— 127 — 
Wildfire Lake Mead— 70 — 
Wildfire Valley View— 35 — — 
Wildfire Anthem— 15 — — 
50% Owned Properties
Barley’s— 184 — 
The Greens— 38 — 
Wildfire Lanes— 183 — 
3,081 13,769 273 339 
Closed Las Vegas Properties (3)
Palms (4)
1,363 1,420 53 37 
Texas Station199 1,668 23 47 
Fiesta Rancho100 1,010 12 25 
Fiesta Henderson224 1,398 18 35 
4,967 19,265 379 483 
Managed Property
Graton Resort & Casino (5)
200 3,185 115 254 
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(1)Includes slot and video poker machines.
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(2)Generally includes blackjack (“21”), craps, roulette, pai gow and baccarat.
(3)Prior to closing on March 17, 2020.
(4)Hotel rooms include 599 condominium units.
(5)Our management agreement for Graton Resort was terminated on February 5, 2021.
Red Rock
Red Rock opened in 2006 and is strategically located at the intersection of Interstate 215 and Charleston Boulevard in the Summerlin master-planned community in Las Vegas, Nevada. Red Rock is adjacent to Downtown Summerlin, a 1.6 million square-foot outdoor shopping, dining and entertainment center; City National Arena, which features two National Hockey League-sized ice sheets for use by both the Vegas Golden Knights team and the public; and Las Vegas Ballpark, the home of the Las Vegas Aviators professional Triple-A baseball team. Red Rock is a AAA Four Diamond resort featuring an elegant desert oasis theme with a contemporary design featuring luxury amenities. This resort offers six styles of suites, including one-of-a-kind custom villas and penthouse suites, in addition to standard guest rooms. Additional non-gaming amenities include nine full-service restaurants, a 16-screen movie theater complex, approximately 94,000 square feet of meeting and convention space, a full-service spa, a 72-lane bowling center, a Kid’s Quest child care facility and a gift shop. Red Rock also features numerous bars and lounges and offers a variety of quick-serve restaurants.
Green Valley Ranch
Green Valley Ranch opened in 2001 and is strategically located at the intersection of Interstate 215 and Green Valley Parkway in Henderson, Nevada. Green Valley Ranch is approximately five minutes from McCarran International Airport and seven minutes from the Las Vegas Strip. Green Valley Ranch was designed to complement the Green Valley master-planned community. This Mediterranean style AAA Four Diamond resort features standard guest rooms and suites, eight full-service restaurants, a 4,200-square-foot non-gaming arcade, a European Spa with outdoor pools, a 10-screen movie theater complex, a Kid’s Quest child care facility, a gift shop and approximately 65,000 square feet of meeting and convention space which includes the Grand Events Center and El Cielo Ballroom. Green Valley Ranch also offers an eight-acre outdoor complex featuring private poolside cabanas and a contemporary poolside bar and grill. Green Valley Ranch also features several bars and offers a variety of quick-serve restaurants.
Palace Station
Palace Station opened in 1976 and is strategically located at the intersection of Sahara Avenue and Interstate 15, one of Las Vegas’ most heavily traveled areas. Palace Station is a short distance from McCarran International Airport and very close to major attractions on the Las Vegas Strip and in downtown Las Vegas. In December 2018, Palace Station completed a $192.6 million redevelopment project, which added 178,000 square feet of gaming and entertainment space to the property, along with a refreshed exterior look. Highlights of the property include a fully renovated and expanded gaming floor, 575 updated hotel rooms and suites, a new resort-style pool area, a state-of-the-art bingo room, a fully renovated poker room, a fully renovated race and sports book, a nine-screen Regal Cinnebarre luxury movieplex and two LED marquee signs. In addition to the new venues and upgrades, Palace Station offers other non-gaming amenities including six full-service restaurants, three bars, an approximately 20,000-square-foot meeting and convention center and a gift shop. In addition to its many full-service restaurants, Palace Station also offers a variety of quick-serve restaurants.
Boulder Station
Boulder Station opened in 1994 and is strategically located at the intersection of Boulder Highway and Interstate 515. Boulder Station is located approximately four miles east of the Las Vegas Strip and approximately four miles southeast of downtown Las Vegas. Boulder Station features a turn-of-the-20th-century railroad station theme with non-gaming amenities including three full-service restaurants, a 750-seat entertainment lounge, four bars, an 11-screen movie theater complex, a Kid’s Quest child care facility, a swimming pool, a non-gaming video arcade and a gift shop. Boulder Station also offers a variety of quick-serve restaurants.
Sunset Station
Sunset Station opened in 1997 and is strategically located at the intersection of Interstate 515 and Sunset Road. Situated in a highly concentrated commercial corridor along Interstate 515, Sunset Station has prominent visibility from the freeway and the Sunset commercial corridor. Sunset Station is located approximately 4.5 miles east of McCarran International Airport and approximately 5.5 miles southeast of Boulder Station. Sunset Station features a Spanish/Mediterranean style theme. Additional non-gaming amenities include five full-service restaurants, approximately 13,000 square feet of meeting space, a 500-seat entertainment lounge, a 5,000-seat outdoor amphitheater, six bars, a gift shop, a non-gaming video arcade, a 13-screen
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luxury seating movie theater complex, a 72-lane bowling center, a Kid’s Quest child care facility and a swimming pool. In addition, the center of the casino features a bar highlighted by over 8,000 square feet of stained glass. Sunset Station also offers a variety of quick-serve restaurants.
Santa Fe Station
We purchased Santa Fe Station in 2000 and subsequently refurbished and expanded the facility. Santa Fe Station is strategically located at the intersection of U.S. Highway 95 and Rancho Drive, approximately five miles northwest of Texas Station. Santa Fe Station features non-gaming amenities including five full-service restaurants, a gift shop, a non-gaming video arcade, a swimming pool, a 500-seat entertainment lounge, four bars and grills, a 60-lane bowling center, a 16-screen luxury seating movie theater complex, a Kid’s Quest child care facility and over 14,000 square feet of meeting and banquet facilities. Santa Fe Station also features a bar which is a centerpiece of the casino. In addition, Santa Fe Station offers a variety of quick-serve restaurants.
Wild Wild West
We purchased Wild Wild West in 1998. Wild Wild West is strategically located on Tropicana Avenue immediately adjacent to Interstate 15. Wild Wild West’s non-gaming amenities include a hotel, a full-service restaurant, a bar, a gift shop and a truck plaza.
Wildfire Rancho
We purchased Wildfire Rancho in 2003. Wildfire Rancho is located on Rancho Drive across from Texas Station. Wildfire Rancho’s non-gaming amenities include a lounge, outdoor patio and quick-serve food offerings.
Wildfire Boulder and Wildfire Sunset
We purchased Wildfire Boulder and Wildfire Sunset in 2004. Both properties are located in Henderson, Nevada, and offer non-gaming amenities which include a quick-serve restaurant and a bar. Wildfire Boulder is located approximately seven miles southeast of Fiesta Henderson. Wildfire Sunset is located next to Sunset Station.
Wildfire Lake Mead
We purchased Wildfire Lake Mead in 2006. Wildfire Lake Mead is located in Henderson, Nevada, and features a bar and quick-serve food offerings.
Wildfire Valley View and Wildfire Anthem
We purchased Wildfire Valley View and Wildfire Anthem in 2013. Wildfire Valley View is located in Las Vegas and Wildfire Anthem is located in Henderson, Nevada. Non-gaming amenities offered by Wildfire Valley View and Wildfire Anthem include a bar and quick-serve food offerings.
Barley’s, The Greens and Wildfire Lanes
We own a 50% interest in three smaller properties in Henderson, Nevada including Barley’s, a casino and brew pub, The Greens, a restaurant and lounge, and Wildfire Lanes, which features a quick-serve restaurant, two bars and an 18-lane bowling center.
Palms
We purchased Palms in 2016. Palms is strategically located just west of the center of the Las Vegas Strip off Interstate 15 on Flamingo Road. In September 2019, Palms completed a $690 million redevelopment project, which repositioned and reimagined the property. The redevelopment included a completely renovated casino floor featuring the addition of approximately 300 slot machines and 16 table games; new slot and table games high limit rooms; 33,000 square feet of completely renovated meeting and convention space; a new hotel front desk registration and VIP registration and reception areas; 282 fully redesigned and renovated premium hotel rooms and one-of-a-kind luxury suites, as well as construction of 60 new hotel rooms in the Fantasy Tower; a casino connector integrating the adjacent 599-room Palms Place tower directly into the newly expanded casino floor; an indoor connector to the pre-existing self-park garage with ingress directly into the newly expanded casino floor; and an all-new exterior look, including a new marquee, state-of-the-art digital signage on the hotel tower exterior, a modernized porte cochere, and new exterior facades and lush landscaping.
The redevelopment also added several new full-service restaurants and dining options and an iconic center bar, Unknown, featuring signature art pieces from world-renowned artist Damien Hirst. In addition to its many full-service
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restaurants, Palms also offers a variety of quick-serve restaurants. Apart from these new venues and upgrades, Palms offers other non-gaming amenities that were upgraded in the redevelopment, including: a fully upgraded 14-screen Brendan Theatres luxury movieplex; a resort pool; a complete renovation of the 2,500-seat Pearl Concert Theater; a full-service and state-of-the art 8,000 square foot recording studio, and a new wellness spa and salon.
Texas Station
Texas Station opened in 1995 and is strategically located at the intersection of Lake Mead Boulevard and Rancho Drive in North Las Vegas. Texas Station features a friendly Texas atmosphere, highlighted by distinctive early Texas architecture with non-gaming amenities including four full-service restaurants, a Kid’s Quest child care facility, a 300-seat entertainment lounge, a 2,000-seat event center, six bars, an 18-screen movie theater complex, a swimming pool, two non-gaming video arcades, a gift shop, a 60-lane bowling center and approximately 40,000 square feet of meeting and banquet space. Texas Station also offers several unique bars and lounges as well as a variety of quick-serve restaurants.
Fiesta Rancho
We purchased Fiesta Rancho in 2001. Fiesta Rancho is strategically located at the intersection of Lake Mead Boulevard and Rancho Drive in North Las Vegas across from Texas Station. Fiesta Rancho features non-gaming amenities including full-service restaurants, a gift shop, a non-gaming video arcade, a swimming pool, a 700-seat entertainment lounge, a regulation-size ice skating rink and several bars. Fiesta Rancho’s restaurants also include a variety of quick-serve restaurants.
Fiesta Henderson
We purchased Fiesta Henderson in 2001 and subsequently refurbished and expanded the facility. Fiesta Henderson is strategically located at the intersection of Interstate 215 and Interstate 515 in Henderson, Nevada, approximately three miles southeast of Sunset Station. Fiesta Henderson features non-gaming amenities including four full-service restaurants, a 12-screen movie theater complex, a gift shop, a swimming pool, four bars and lounges and meeting space. Fiesta Henderson also offers a variety of quick-serve restaurants.
Graton Resort & Casino
Until February 5, 2021 we managed Graton Resort in northern California, which opened in November 2013, on behalf of the Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria, a federally recognized Native American tribe (the “FIGR”). The management agreement had a term of seven years from the opening date and was originally expected to expire in November 2020, but was extended as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic through February 5, 2021, when the FIGR terminated our management role at Graton Resort. We believe the FIGR terminated the management agreement prematurely and we are currently attempting to resolve that issue with the FIGR.
Developable Land
We own approximately 315 acres of developable land comprised of six strategically-located parcels in Las Vegas, Nevada, each of which is zoned for casino gaming and other commercial uses. We also own three additional development sites that are currently for sale. Following is a description of such parcels of land held for development or sale:
Land Held for Development
Durango/I-215: We own approximately 71 acres located at the intersection of Durango Road and Interstate 215 in the southwestern area of the Las Vegas Valley. The site has excellent visibility and access from Interstate 215. As a result of gaming and land use restrictions, there are no major casino sites, other than those owned by us, within approximately five miles of this site.
Wild Wild West: We own approximately 96 acres of land located at the intersection of Tropicana Boulevard and Interstate 15, less than one-half mile from the Las Vegas Strip. This site has excellent visibility and access from Interstate 15, on which approximately 290,000 cars per day pass by the site. Included in this site are the 20 acres on which Wild Wild West is located. On the remainder of the site, we own a number of commercial and industrial buildings that we lease to third-party tenants.
Flamingo/I-215: We own approximately 58 acres located between Flamingo Road and Interstate 215 in the master-planned community of Summerlin in Las Vegas. The site has excellent visibility and access from Interstate 215.
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Via Inspirada/Bicentennial Parkway: We own approximately 45 acres located on Via Inspirada near Bicentennial Parkway in the Las Vegas Valley, approximately six miles southwest of Green Valley Ranch. This site is the only casino gaming-entitled property in the master-planned community of Inspirada.
Skye Canyon: We own approximately 40 acres in northwestern Las Vegas off of U.S. Highway 95 approximately seven miles northwest of Santa Fe Station.
Boulder Highway: We own approximately five acres at the intersection of Boulder Highway and Oakey Boulevard approximately 1.5 miles southeast of downtown Las Vegas. This site has grandfathered gaming entitlements that predate room and other amenity requirements, which creates greater flexibility with respect to the potential development of this site.
Land Held for Sale
Mt. Rose Property (Reno): We own approximately 89 acres at the intersection of Mt. Rose Highway and South Virginia Street in Reno, Nevada.
Cactus Avenue: We own approximately 57 acres near the intersection of Cactus Avenue and Las Vegas Boulevard, approximately six miles south of the Las Vegas Strip.
South Virginia Street/I-580 (Reno): We own approximately eight acres on South Virginia Street near Interstate 580, directly across from the Reno-Sparks Convention Center.
From time to time we may acquire additional parcels or sell portions of our existing sites that are not necessary to the development of additional gaming facilities.
Native American Development
We have entered into development and management agreements with the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians (the “Mono”), a federally recognized Native American tribe located near Fresno, California, under which we will assist the Mono in developing and operating a gaming and entertainment facility (the “North Fork Project”) to be located on a 305-acre site (the “North Fork Site”) located adjacent to U.S. Highway 99 north of the city of Madera in Madera County, California. The North Fork Site was taken into trust for the benefit of the Mono by the United States Department of the Interior in February 2013.
We will receive a development fee of 4% of the costs of construction (as defined in the development agreement) for our development services, which will be paid upon the commencement of gaming operations at the facility. The management agreement provides for a management fee of 30% of the facility’s net income. As currently contemplated, the North Fork Project is expected to include approximately 2,000 slot machines, approximately 40 table games and several restaurants. The management agreement and the development agreement have a term of seven years from the opening of the facility.
Development of the North Fork Project is subject to certain governmental and regulatory approvals, including, but not limited to, approval of the management agreement by the National Indian Gaming Commission (“NIGC”).
The development of the North Fork Project is subject to several ongoing legal challenges, the receipt of required regulatory approvals and financing. There can be no assurance that the North Fork Project will be successfully completed nor that future events and circumstances will not change our estimates of the timing, scope, and potential for successful completion or that any such changes will not be material. There can be no assurance that we will recover all of our investment in the North Fork Project even if it is successfully completed and opened for business. See Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information about the North Fork Project.
Intellectual Property
We use a variety of trade names, service marks, trademarks, patents and copyrights in our operations and believe that we have all the licenses necessary to conduct our continuing operations. We have registered several service marks, trademarks, patents and copyrights with the United States Patent and Trademark Office or otherwise acquired the licenses to use those which are material to conduct our business. We file copyright applications to protect our creative artworks, which are often featured in property branding, as well as our distinctive website content.
Seasonality
Our cash flows from operating activities are somewhat seasonal in nature. Our operating results are traditionally strongest in the fourth quarter and weakest during the third quarter.
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Competition
Our casino properties face competition from all other casinos and hotels in the Las Vegas area, including to some degree, from each other. We compete with other nonrestricted casino/hotels, as well as restricted gaming locations, by focusing on repeat customers and attracting these customers through innovative marketing programs. Our value-oriented, high-quality approach is designed to generate repeat business. Additionally, our casino properties are strategically located and designed to permit convenient access and ample free parking, which are critical factors in attracting local visitors and repeat patrons.
At December 31, 2020, there were approximately 39 major gaming properties located on or near the Las Vegas Strip, 14 located in the downtown area and several located in other areas of Las Vegas. We also face competition from 141 nonrestricted gaming locations in the Clark County area primarily targeted to the local and repeat visitor markets. In addition, our casino properties face competition from restricted gaming locations (sites with 15 or fewer slot machines) in the greater Las Vegas area. At December 31, 2020, there were approximately 1,435 restricted gaming locations in Clark County with approximately 13,150 slot machines. Major additions, expansions or enhancements of existing properties or the construction of new properties by competitors could have a material adverse effect on our business.
The Nevada legislature enacted SB 208 in 1997. This legislation identified certain gaming enterprise districts wherein casino gaming development would be permitted throughout the Las Vegas Valley and established more restrictive criteria for the establishment of new gaming enterprise districts. We believe the growth in gaming supply in the Las Vegas regional market has been, and will continue to be, limited by the provisions of SB 208.
To a lesser extent, we compete with gaming operations in other parts of the state of Nevada, such as Reno, Laughlin and Lake Tahoe, and other gaming markets throughout the United States and in other parts of the world, and with state sponsored lotteries, on- and off-track wagering on horse and other races, card rooms, online gaming and other forms of legalized gambling. The gaming industry also includes land-based casinos, dockside casinos, riverboat casinos, racetracks with slots and casinos located on Native American land. There is intense competition among companies in the gaming industry, some of which have significantly greater resources than we do. In May 2018, the United States Supreme Court overturned a law prohibiting states from legalizing sports wagering which, together with the expansion of sports gaming as a result of the pandemic, has resulted in a substantial expansion of sports gaming outside the state of Nevada. Several states are also considering legalizing casino gaming in designated areas. Legalized casino and sports gaming in various states and on Native American land could result in additional competition and could adversely affect our operations, particularly to the extent that such gaming is conducted in areas close to our operations. We also face competition from internet poker operators in Nevada. In addition, internet gaming has commenced in Nevada, New Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania, and legislation permitting internet gaming has been approved or proposed by a number of other states. Expansion of internet gaming in new or existing jurisdictions and on Native American land could result in additional competition for our Las Vegas operations and for the gaming facilities that we manage for Native American tribes.
Native American gaming in California, as it currently exists, has had little, if any, impact on our Las Vegas operations to date, although there are no assurances as to the future impact it may have. In total, 78 Native American tribes have Tribal-State Compacts with the State of California or procedures with the Secretary of the Interior to operate Class III gaming in California. At December 31, 2020, there were 66 Native American gaming facilities in operation in the State of California. These Native American tribes are allowed to operate slot machines, lottery games, and banked and percentage games (including “21”) on Native American lands. A banked game is one in which players compete against the licensed gaming establishment rather than against one another. A percentage game is one in which the house does not directly participate in the game, but collects a percentage of the amount of bets made, winnings collected, or the amount of money changing hands. It is not certain whether any additional expansion of Native American gaming in California will affect our Las Vegas operations given that visitors from California make up Nevada’s largest visitor market. Increased competition from Native American gaming in California may result in a decline in our revenues and may have a material adverse effect on our business.
Regulation and Licensing
In addition to gaming regulations, our business is subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations of the United States and Nevada. These laws and regulations include, but are not limited to, restrictions concerning employment and immigration status, currency transactions, zoning and building codes, protection of human health and safety and the environment, marketing and advertising, privacy and telemarketing. Since we deal with significant amounts of cash in our operations we are subject to various reporting and anti-money laundering regulations. Any violations of anti-money laundering laws or any of the other laws or regulations to which we are subject could result in regulatory actions, fines, or other penalties.
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Any material changes, new laws or regulations or material differences in interpretations by courts or governmental authorities or material regulatory actions, fines, penalties or other actions could adversely affect our business and operating results.
Nevada Gaming Laws and Regulations
The ownership and operation of casino gaming facilities and the manufacture and distribution of gaming devices in Nevada are subject to the Nevada Gaming Control Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder (collectively, the “Nevada Act”) and various local ordinances and regulations. Our gaming operations in Nevada are subject to the licensing and regulatory control of the Nevada Gaming Commission (the “Nevada Commission”), the Nevada State Gaming Control Board (the “Nevada Board”), the Las Vegas City Council, the Clark County Liquor and Gaming Licensing Board (the “CCLGLB”), the North Las Vegas City Council, the Henderson City Council and certain other local regulatory agencies. The Nevada Commission, Nevada Board, Las Vegas City Council, CCLGLB, North Las Vegas City Council, Henderson City Council, and certain other local regulatory agencies are collectively referred to as the “Nevada Gaming Authorities.”
The laws, regulations and supervisory procedures of the Nevada Gaming Authorities are based upon declarations of public policy which are concerned with, among other things: (i) the prevention of unsavory or unsuitable persons from having a direct or indirect involvement with gaming at any time or in any capacity; (ii) the establishment and maintenance of responsible accounting practices and procedures; (iii) the maintenance of effective controls over the financial practices of gaming licensees, including the establishment of minimum procedures for internal controls and the safeguarding of assets and revenues, providing reliable record keeping and requiring the filing of periodic reports with the Nevada Gaming Authorities; (iv) the prevention of cheating and fraudulent practices; and (v) providing a source of state and local revenues through taxation and licensing fees. Changes in such laws, regulations and procedures could have an adverse effect on our gaming operations.
Our indirect subsidiaries that conduct gaming operations in Nevada are required to be licensed by the Nevada Gaming Authorities. The gaming licenses require the periodic payment of fees and taxes and are not transferable. NP Red Rock LLC, NP Boulder LLC, NP Palace LLC, NP Sunset LLC, NP Tropicana LLC, NP Fiesta LLC, NP Gold Rush LLC, NP Lake Mead, LLC, NP Magic Star LLC, NP Rancho LLC, NP Santa Fe LLC, NP Texas LLC, Station GVR Acquisition, LLC, SC SP 2 LLC, NP LML LLC, FP Holdings, L.P. and NP River Central LLC hold licenses to conduct nonrestricted gaming operations. NP Opco Holdings is registered as an intermediary company and is licensed as the sole member and manager of NP Opco LLC. NP Opco LLC is registered as an intermediary company, is licensed as the sole member and manager of NP Fiesta LLC, NP Lake Mead LLC, NP Santa Fe LLC, NP Gold Rush LLC, NP Magic Star LLC, NP Rancho LLC, NP Texas LLC, NP River Central LLC, and Station GVR Acquisition LLC. NP Opco LLC is found suitable as the sole member and manager of NP Green Valley LLC, SC SP Holdco LLC and NP LML LLC. Our ownership in NP Tropicana LLC is held through NP Landco Holdco LLC, which has a registration as an intermediary company and a license as the sole member of NP Tropicana LLC. Our ownership in SC SP 2 LLC is held through SC SP Holdco LLC which has a registration as an intermediary company and a license as a member and manager of SC SP 2 LLC. Town Center Amusements, Inc., a Limited Liability Company is licensed to conduct nonrestricted gaming operations at Barley’s. Greens Café, LLC is licensed to conduct nonrestricted gaming operations at The Greens, and Sunset GV, LLC is licensed to conduct nonrestricted gaming operations at Wildfire Lanes. A license to conduct “nonrestricted” operations is a license to conduct an operation of (i) at least 16 slot machines, (ii) any number of slot machines together with any other game, gaming device, race book or sports pool at one establishment, (iii) a slot machine route, (iv) an inter-casino linked system, or (v) a mobile gaming system. SC SP 4 LLC holds a restricted gaming license, which is a state gaming license to operate not more than 15 slot machines and no other gaming device, race book or sports pool. We are required to periodically submit detailed financial and operating reports to the Nevada Commission and provide any other information that the Nevada Commission may require. Substantially all material loans, leases, sales of securities and similar financing transactions by us and our licensed or registered subsidiaries must be reported to or approved by the Nevada Commission and/or the Nevada Board.
We have been found suitable to indirectly own the equity interests in our licensed and registered subsidiaries (the “Gaming Subsidiaries”) and we are registered by the Nevada Commission as a publicly traded corporation for purposes of the Nevada Act (a “Registered Corporation”). On August 27, 2020, the Nevada Commission issued its Sixth Revised Order of Registration for the Company that, among other things, reaffirmed our registration as a publicly traded corporation for the purposes of the Nevada Act (“Sixth Revised Order”). As a Registered Corporation, we are required to periodically submit detailed financial and operating reports to the Nevada Board and provide any other information the Nevada Board may require. No person may become a more than 5% stockholder or holder of more than a 5% interest in, or receive any percentage of gaming revenue from the Gaming Subsidiaries without first obtaining licenses, approvals and/or applicable waivers from the Nevada Gaming Authorities.
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The Nevada Gaming Authorities may investigate any individual who has a material relationship to, or material involvement with, a Registered Corporation or its licensed subsidiaries, in order to determine whether such individual is suitable or should be licensed as a business associate of a Registered Corporation or a gaming licensee. Officers, directors and certain key employees of our licensed subsidiaries must file applications and may be required to be licensed or found suitable by the Nevada Gaming Authorities. Our officers, directors and key employees who are actively and directly involved in gaming activities of our licensed subsidiaries may be required to be licensed or found suitable by the Nevada Gaming Authorities. The Nevada Gaming Authorities may deny an application for licensing for any cause that they deem reasonable. A finding of suitability is comparable to licensing, and both require submission of detailed personal and financial information followed by a thorough investigation. The applicant for licensing or a finding of suitability must pay all the costs of the investigation. Changes in licensed positions must be reported to the Nevada Gaming Authorities and, in addition to their authority to deny an application for a finding of suitability or licensure, the Nevada Gaming Authorities have jurisdiction to disapprove a change in corporate position.
If the Nevada Gaming Authorities were to find an officer, director or key employee unsuitable for licensing or unsuitable to continue to have a relationship with us or our licensed subsidiaries, the companies involved would have to sever all relationships with such person. In addition, the Nevada Commission may require our licensed subsidiaries to terminate the employment of any person who refuses to file the appropriate applications. Determinations of suitability or questions pertaining to licensing are not subject to judicial review in Nevada.
If it were determined that the Nevada Act was violated by a licensed subsidiary, the gaming licenses it holds could be limited, conditioned, suspended or revoked, subject to compliance with certain statutory and regulatory procedures. In addition, the Company, our licensed subsidiaries and the persons involved could be subject to substantial fines for each separate violation of the Nevada Act at the discretion of the Nevada Commission. Further, a supervisor could be appointed by the Nevada Commission to operate our properties, and under certain circumstances, earnings generated during the supervisor’s appointment (except for the reasonable rental value of the premises) could be forfeited to the State of Nevada. Limitation, conditioning or suspension of the gaming licenses of the licensed subsidiaries or the appointment of a supervisor could (and revocation of any such gaming license would) have a material adverse effect on our gaming operations.
Any beneficial owner of our equity securities, regardless of the number of shares owned, may be required to file an application, may be investigated, and may be required to obtain a finding of suitability if the Nevada Commission has reason to believe that such ownership would otherwise be inconsistent with the declared policies of the State of Nevada. If the beneficial owner of our equity securities who must be found suitable is a corporation, partnership, limited partnership, limited liability company or trust, it must submit detailed business and financial information, including a list of its beneficial owners, to the Nevada Board. The applicant must pay all costs of investigation incurred by the Nevada Gaming Authorities in conducting any such investigation.
The Nevada Act provides that persons who acquire beneficial ownership of more than 5% of the voting or non-voting securities of a Registered Corporation must report the acquisition to the Nevada Commission. The Nevada Act also requires that beneficial owners of more than 10% of the voting securities of a Registered Corporation must apply to the Nevada Commission for a finding of suitability within thirty days after the Chair of the Nevada Board mails the written notice requiring such filing. An “institutional investor,” as defined in the Nevada Commission’s regulations, which acquires beneficial ownership of more than 10%, but not more than 25%, of our voting securities may apply to the Nevada Commission for a waiver of such finding of suitability if such institutional investor holds the voting securities for investment purposes only. An institutional investor that has obtained a waiver may, in certain circumstances, hold up to 29% of our voting securities and maintain its waiver for a limited period of time. An institutional investor shall not be deemed to hold voting securities for investment purposes unless the voting securities were acquired and are held in the ordinary course of business as an institutional investor and not for the purpose of causing, directly or indirectly, the election of a majority of the members of our board of directors, any change in our corporate charter, bylaws, management policies or our operations, or any of our gaming affiliates, or any other action which the Nevada Commission finds to be inconsistent with holding our voting securities for investment purposes only. Activities which are not deemed to be inconsistent with holding voting securities for investment purposes only include: (i) voting on all matters voted on by stockholders; (ii) making financial and other inquiries of management of the type normally made by securities analysts for informational purposes and not to cause a change in our management, policies or operations; and (iii) such other activities as the Nevada Commission may determine to be consistent with such investment intent.
Any person who fails or refuses to apply for a finding of suitability or a license within thirty days after being ordered to do so by the Nevada Commission, or the Chair of the Nevada Board, may be found unsuitable. The same restrictions apply to a record owner if the record owner, after request, fails to identify the beneficial owner. Any equity holder who is found
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unsuitable and who holds, directly or indirectly, any beneficial ownership of the common equity of a Registered Corporation beyond such period of time as may be prescribed by the Nevada Commission may be guilty of a criminal offense. We will be subject to disciplinary action if, after we receive notice that a person is unsuitable to be an equity holder or to have any other relationship with us or our licensed or registered subsidiaries, we (i) pay that person any dividend or interest upon our securities, (ii) allow that person to exercise, directly or indirectly, any voting right conferred through securities held by that person, (iii) pay remuneration in any form to that person for services rendered or otherwise, or (iv) fail to pursue all lawful efforts to require such unsuitable person to relinquish his securities including, if necessary, the immediate purchase of said securities for the price specified by the relevant gaming authority or, if no such price is specified, the fair market value as determined by our board of directors. The purchase may be made in cash, notes that bear interest at the applicable federal rate or a combination of notes and cash. Additionally, the CCLGLB has the authority to approve all persons owning or controlling the stock of any corporation controlling a gaming licensee.
The Nevada Commission may, in its discretion, require the holder of any debt security of a Registered Corporation to file applications, be investigated and be found suitable to own the debt security of a Registered Corporation if the Nevada Commission has reason to believe that such ownership would otherwise be inconsistent with the declared policies of the State of Nevada. If the Nevada Commission determines that a person is unsuitable to own such security, then pursuant to the Nevada Act, the Registered Corporation can be sanctioned, including the loss of its approvals, if without the prior approval of the Nevada Commission, it: (i) pays to the unsuitable person any dividend, interest, or any distribution whatsoever; (ii) recognizes any voting right by such unsuitable person in connection with such securities; (iii) pays the unsuitable person remuneration in any form; or (iv) makes any payment to the unsuitable person by way of principal, redemption, conversion, exchange, liquidation or similar transaction.
We are required to maintain a current membership interest ledger in Nevada, which may be examined by the Nevada Gaming Authorities at any time. If any securities are held in trust by an agent or by a nominee, the record holder may be required to disclose the identity of the beneficial owner to the Nevada Gaming Authorities. Failure to make such disclosure may be grounds for finding the record holder unsuitable. We are also required to render maximum assistance in determining the identity of the beneficial owner.
We may not make a public offering of our securities without the prior approval of the Nevada Commission if the securities or proceeds therefrom are intended to be used to construct, acquire or finance gaming facilities in Nevada, or to retire or extend obligations incurred for such purposes. On September 26, 2019, the Nevada Commission granted us prior approval, subject to certain conditions, to make public offerings for a period of three years (the “Shelf Approval”). The Shelf Approval also applies to any affiliated company wholly owned by us which is a publicly traded corporation or would thereby become a publicly traded corporation pursuant to a public offering. The Shelf Approval may be rescinded for good cause without prior notice upon the issuance of an interlocutory stop order by the Chair of the Nevada Board. If the Shelf Approval is rescinded for any reason, it could adversely impact our capital structure and liquidity and limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry. The Shelf Approval does not constitute a finding, recommendation or approval by any of the Nevada Gaming Authorities as to the accuracy or adequacy of any offering memorandum or the investment merits of the securities offered thereby. Any representation to the contrary is unlawful.
Changes in control of the Company through merger, consolidation, stock or asset acquisitions (including stock issuances in connection with restructuring transactions), management or consulting agreements, or any act or conduct by a person whereby such person obtains control, may not occur without the prior approval of the Nevada Commission. Entities seeking to acquire control of a Registered Corporation must satisfy the Nevada Board and the Nevada Commission that they meet a variety of stringent standards prior to assuming control of such Registered Corporation. The Nevada Commission may also require controlling equity holders, officers, directors and other persons having a material relationship or involvement with the entity proposing to acquire control, to be investigated and licensed as part of the approval process relating to the transaction.
The Nevada legislature has declared that some corporate acquisitions opposed by management, repurchases of voting securities and corporate defense tactics affecting Nevada corporate gaming licensees, and Registered Corporations that are affiliated with those operations, may be injurious to stable and productive corporate gaming. The Nevada Commission has established a regulatory scheme to ameliorate the potentially adverse effects of these business practices upon Nevada’s gaming industry and to further Nevada’s policy to: (i) assure the financial stability of corporate gaming licensees and their affiliates; (ii) preserve the beneficial aspects of conducting business in the corporate form; and (iii) promote a neutral environment for the orderly governance of corporate affairs. Approvals are, in certain circumstances, required from the Nevada Commission before a Registered Corporation can make exceptional repurchases of voting securities above the current market price thereof and before a corporate acquisition opposed by management can be consummated. The Nevada Act also requires prior approval of a
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plan of re-capitalization proposed by the Registered Corporation’s board of directors or similar governing entity in response to a tender offer made directly to the Registered Corporation’s equity holders for the purpose of acquiring control of the Registered Corporation.
License fees and taxes, computed in various ways depending on the type of gaming or activity involved, are payable to the State of Nevada and to the counties and cities in which the Nevada licensee’s respective operations are conducted. Depending upon the particular fee or tax involved, these fees and taxes are payable either monthly, quarterly or annually and are based upon either: (i) a percentage of the gross revenues received; (ii) the number of gaming devices operated; or (iii) the number of table games operated. A live entertainment tax is also paid by casino operations where admission charges are imposed for entry into certain entertainment venues. Nevada licensees that hold a license as an operator of a slot route or manufacturer’s or distributor’s license also pay certain fees and taxes to the State of Nevada.
Any person who is licensed, required to be licensed, registered, required to be registered, or is under common control with such persons, and who proposes to become involved in a gaming venture outside of Nevada, is required to deposit with the Nevada Board, and thereafter maintain, a revolving fund in the amount of $10,000 to pay the expenses of investigation by the Nevada Board of their participation in such foreign gaming. The revolving fund is subject to increase or decrease at the discretion of the Nevada Commission. The Sixth Revised Order requires us to deposit with the Nevada Board and maintain a revolving fund of $50,000 for all purposes, including foreign gaming and compliance with the Sixth Revised Order. Thereafter, licensees are required to comply with certain reporting requirements imposed by the Nevada Act. Licensees are also subject to disciplinary action by the Nevada Commission if they knowingly violate any laws of the foreign jurisdiction pertaining to the foreign gaming operation, fail to conduct the foreign gaming operation in accordance with the standards of honesty and integrity required of Nevada gaming operations, engage in activities or enter into associations that are harmful to the State of Nevada or its ability to collect gaming taxes and fees, or employ, contract with or associate with a person in the foreign operation who has been denied a license or finding of suitability in Nevada on the grounds of unsuitability or whom a court in the state of Nevada has found guilty of cheating. The loss or restriction of our gaming licenses in Nevada would have a material adverse effect on our business and could require us to cease gaming operations in Nevada.
Nevada Liquor Regulations
There are various local ordinances and regulations as well as state laws applicable to the sale of alcoholic beverages in Nevada. Palace Station, Wildfire Rancho, Wildfire Valley View, and Santa Fe Station are subject to liquor licensing control and regulation by the Las Vegas City Council. Red Rock, Boulder Station, Palms, and Wild Wild West are subject to liquor licensing control and regulation by the CCLGLB. Texas Station and Fiesta Rancho are subject to liquor licensing control and regulation by the North Las Vegas City Council. Sunset Station, Green Valley Ranch, Fiesta Henderson, Barley’s, Wildfire Sunset, Wildfire Boulder, The Greens, Wildfire Anthem, Wildfire Lanes and Wildfire Lake Mead are subject to liquor licensing control and regulation by the Henderson City Council. All liquor licenses are revocable and are, in some jurisdictions, not transferable. The agencies involved have full power to limit, condition, suspend or revoke any such license, and any such disciplinary action could (and revocation would) have a material adverse effect on the operations of our licensed subsidiaries.
Native American Gaming Regulations
The terms and conditions of management contracts and the operation of casinos and all gaming on land held in trust for Native American tribes in the United States are subject to the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (the “IGRA”), which is administered by the NIGC and the gaming regulatory agencies of state and tribal governments. The IGRA is subject to interpretation by the NIGC and may be subject to judicial and legislative clarification or amendment.
The IGRA established three separate classes of tribal gaming: Class I, Class II and Class III. Class I gaming includes all traditional or social games solely for prizes of minimal value played by a Native American tribe in connection with celebrations or ceremonies. Class II gaming includes games such as bingo, pull-tabs, punchboards, instant bingo (and electronic or computer-aided versions of such games) and non-banked card games (those that are not played against the house), such as poker. Class III gaming is casino-style gaming and includes banked table games such as blackjack, craps and roulette, and gaming machines such as slots, video poker, lotteries and pari-mutuel wagering, a system of betting under which wagers are placed in a pool, management receives a fee from the pool, and the remainder of the pool is split among the winning wagers.
The IGRA requires NIGC approval of management contracts for Class II and Class III gaming, as well as the review of all agreements collateral to the management contracts. The NIGC will not approve a management contract if a director or a 10% shareholder of the management company: (i) is an elected member of the governing body of the Native American tribe which is the party to the management contract; (ii) has been or subsequently is convicted of a felony or gaming offense; (iii) has knowingly and willfully provided materially important false information to the NIGC or the tribe; (iv) has refused to respond to
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questions from the NIGC; or (v) is a person whose prior history, reputation and associations pose a threat to the public interest or to effective gaming regulation and control, or create or enhance the chance of unsuitable activities in gaming or the business and financial arrangements incidental thereto. In addition, the NIGC will not approve a management contract if the management company or any of its agents have attempted to unduly influence any decision or process of tribal government relating to gaming, or if the management company has materially breached the terms of the management contract or the tribe’s gaming ordinance or resolution, or a trustee, exercising the skill and due diligence that a trustee is commonly held to, would not approve the management contract. A management contract can be approved only after the NIGC determines that the contract provides for, among other things: (i) adequate accounting procedures and verifiable financial reports, which must be furnished to the tribe; (ii) tribal access to the daily operations of the gaming enterprise, including the right to verify daily gross revenues and income; (iii) minimum guaranteed payments to the tribe, which must have priority over the retirement of development and construction costs; (iv) a ceiling on the repayment of such development and construction costs; and (v) a contract term not exceeding five years and a management fee not exceeding 30% of net revenues (as determined by the NIGC); provided that the NIGC may approve up to a seven-year term and a management fee not to exceed 40% of net revenues if the NIGC is satisfied that the capital investment required, and the income projections for the particular gaming activity require the larger fee and longer term. There is no periodic or ongoing review of approved contracts by the NIGC. Other than an action by the parties, the only post-approval action that could result in possible modification or cancellation of a contract would be as the result of an enforcement action taken by the NIGC based on a violation of the law or an issue affecting suitability.
The IGRA prohibits all forms of Class III gaming unless the tribe has entered into a written agreement with the state that specifically authorizes the types of Class III gaming the tribe may offer (a “tribal-state compact”) or the Secretary of the Interior has issued procedures pursuant to which the tribe may conduct Class III gaming. These tribal-state compacts provide, among other things, the manner and extent to which each state will conduct background investigations and certify the suitability of the manager, its officers, directors, and key employees to conduct gaming on Native American lands.
Title 25, Section 81 of the United States Code states that “no agreement or contract with an Indian tribe that encumbers Indian lands for a period of 7 or more years shall be valid unless that agreement or contact bears the approval of the Secretary of the Interior or a designee of the Secretary.” An agreement or contract for services relative to Native American lands which fails to conform with the requirements of Section 81 is void and unenforceable. All money or other things of value paid to any person by any Native American or tribe for or on his or their behalf, on account of such services, in excess of any amount approved by the Secretary or his or her authorized representative will be subject to forfeiture. We intend to comply with Section 81 with respect to any other contract with an Indian tribe in the United States.
Native American tribes are sovereign nations with their own governmental systems, which have primary regulatory authority over gaming on land within the tribes’ jurisdiction. Therefore, persons engaged in gaming activities on tribal lands, including the Company, are subject to the provisions of tribal ordinances and regulations. Tribal gaming ordinances are subject to review by the NIGC under certain standards established by the IGRA. The NIGC may determine that some or all of the ordinances require amendment, and those additional requirements, including additional licensing requirements, may be imposed on us.
Several bills have been introduced in Congress that would amend the IGRA. Any amendment of the IGRA could change the governmental structure and requirements within which tribes could conduct gaming, and may have an adverse effect on our results of operations or impose additional regulatory or operational burdens. In addition, any amendment to or expiration of a tribal-state compact may have an adverse effect on our results of operations or impose additional regulatory or operational burdens.
General Gaming Regulations in Other Jurisdictions
If we become involved in gaming operations in any other jurisdictions, such gaming operations will subject us and certain of our officers, directors, key employees, equity holders and other affiliates (“Regulated Persons”) to strict legal and regulatory requirements, including mandatory licensing and approval requirements, suitability requirements, and ongoing regulatory oversight with respect to such gaming operations. Such legal and regulatory requirements and oversight will be administered and exercised by the relevant regulatory agency or agencies in each jurisdiction (the “Regulatory Authorities”). We and the Regulated Persons will need to satisfy the licensing, approval and suitability requirements of each jurisdiction in which we seek to become involved in gaming operations. These requirements vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but generally concern the responsibility, financial stability and character of the owners and managers of gaming operations as well as persons financially interested or involved in gaming operations. In general, the procedures for gaming licensing, approvals and findings of suitability require the Company and each Regulated Person to submit detailed personal history information and financial information to demonstrate that the proposed gaming operation has adequate financial resources generated from
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suitable sources and adequate procedures to comply with the operating controls and requirements imposed by law and regulation in each jurisdiction, followed by a thorough investigation by such Regulatory Authorities. In general, the Company and each Regulated Person must pay the costs of such investigation. An application for any gaming license, approval or finding of suitability may be denied for any cause that the Regulatory Authorities deem reasonable. Once obtained, licenses and approvals may be subject to periodic renewal and generally are not transferable. The Regulatory Authorities may at any time revoke, suspend, condition, limit or restrict a license, approval or finding of suitability for any cause that they deem reasonable. Fines for violations may be levied against the holder of a license or approval and in certain jurisdictions, gaming operation revenues can be forfeited to the state under certain circumstances. There can be no assurance that we will obtain all of the necessary licenses, approvals and findings of suitability or that our officers, directors, key employees, other affiliates and certain other stockholders will satisfy the suitability requirements in one or more jurisdictions, or that such licenses, approvals and findings of suitability, if obtained, will not be revoked, limited, suspended or not renewed in the future. We may be required to submit detailed financial and operating reports to Regulatory Authorities.
Failure by us to obtain, or the loss or suspension of, any necessary licenses, approval or findings of suitability would prevent us from conducting gaming operations in such jurisdiction and possibly in other jurisdictions, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Anti-Money Laundering Laws
Our services are subject to federal anti-money laundering laws, including the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970 (the “Bank Secrecy Act”). On an ongoing basis, these laws require us, among other things, to: (i) maintain an anti-money laundering program; (ii) designate and maintain individuals to assure compliance; (iii) train relevant personnel; (iv) identify and report large cash transactions and suspicious activity; (v) screen individuals and entities against sanctions and watch lists and; (vi) independently test for compliance.
Anti-money laundering regulations and regulator expectations thereof are constantly evolving. We implement policies and procedures to reasonably assure compliance with anti-money laundering regulations and continuously monitor our compliance with these regulations. We cannot predict how these future regulations and expectations thereof might affect us. Complying with future regulation could be expensive or require us to change the way we operate our business.
Environmental Matters
Although we are currently involved in monitoring activities at a few of our sites due to historical or nearby operations, compliance with federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment to date has not had a material effect upon our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position and we do not anticipate any material adverse effects in the future based on the nature of our future operations.
Human Capital
At January 31, 2021, we had approximately 7,600 employees, all of whom were employed in the United States. We have a talented and diverse workforce and believe we have excellent employee relations. We have always understood that our most important asset is our team members, and the events of 2020 exemplified their importance to our organization and our customers. Despite the challenging year, we continued to roll out our “Focus on Family” program to all of our team members to recognize the contribution that every team member has made to the Company. Some highlights of our accomplishments to date include:
We provided salary and benefits continuation for team members throughout the mandatory closure of our properties due to COVID-19, including full medical, dental and vision;
We provided on-site COVID-19 testing for all team members prior to the reopening of certain of our properties in June 2020 and periodic testing thereafter;
We installed thermal temperature screening equipment at all team member entrances;
We implemented strong health and safety protocols to protect team member health and well-being, including protocols relating to sanitization, masking and social distancing;
We offer free medical, dental and health benefits to all of our team members making less than $100,000 per year;
We opened two on-site medical centers offering free office visits, free generic prescriptions and lab services for team members and their families;
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We implemented pay for performance and competitive rate adjustments, which will positively impact the vast majority of our team members;
We contributed over $8.6 million to our team members’ 401(k) retirement program; and
We began implementing extensive training and development initiatives focusing on leadership and development.
These initiatives, together with a number of other positive changes we have made, were designed to enhance the long-term health, well-being and financial security of our team members and their families as well as give us the ability to recruit and retain the best team members and make Red Rock Resorts the employer of choice in the Las Vegas Valley.
Available Information
We are required to file annual, quarterly and other current reports and information with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). Because we submit filings to the SEC electronically, access to this information is available at the SEC’s website (www.sec.gov). This site contains reports and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.
We also make available, free of charge, at our principal internet address (www.redrockresorts.com) our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and, if applicable, amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Other information on our website is expressly not incorporated by reference into this filing.
We have adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (the “Code of Ethics”) that applies to all of our directors, officers (including our principal executive officer and our principal financial officer) and employees. The Code of Ethics and any waivers or amendments to the Code of Ethics are available on the Investor Relations section of our website at www.redrockresorts.com. Printed copies are also available to any person without charge, upon request directed to our Corporate Secretary, 1505 South Pavilion Center Drive, Las Vegas, Nevada 89135.
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements. Such statements contain words such as “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “project,” “may,” “will,” “might,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “seek,” “pursue,” and “anticipate” or the negative or other variation of these or similar words, or may include discussions of strategy or risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include, among other things, statements concerning:
projections of future results of operations or financial condition;
expectations regarding our business and results of operations of our existing casino properties and prospects for future development;
expenses and our ability to operate efficiently;
expectations regarding trends that will affect our market and the gaming industry generally and the impact of those trends on our business and results of operations;
our ability to comply with the covenants in the agreements governing our outstanding indebtedness;
our ability to meet our projected debt service obligations, operating expenses, and maintenance capital expenditures;
expectations regarding the availability of capital resources, including our ability to refinance our outstanding indebtedness;
our intention to pursue development opportunities and acquisitions and obtain financing for such development and acquisitions; and
the impact of regulation on our business and our ability to receive and maintain necessary approvals for our existing properties and future projects.
Any forward-looking statement is based upon a number of estimates and assumptions that, while considered reasonable by us, is inherently subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control, and are subject to change. Actual results of operations may vary materially from any forward-looking statement made herein. Forward-looking statements should not be regarded as a representation by us or any other
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person that the forward-looking statements will be achieved. Undue reliance should not be placed on any forward-looking statements. Some of the contingencies and uncertainties to which any forward-looking statement contained herein is subject include, but are not limited to, the following:
our reliance on the Las Vegas regional market;
the impact of business conditions, including competitive practices, changes in customer demand and the cyclical nature of the gaming and hospitality business generally, on our business and results of operations;
the impact of general economic conditions outside our control, including changes in interest rates, consumer confidence and unemployment levels, on our business and results of operations;
the effects of intense competition that exists in the gaming industry;
additional competition arising as a result of the approval of new gaming licenses or gaming activities such as internet gaming, and the expansion of sports betting outside the state of Nevada;
our substantial outstanding indebtedness and the effect of our significant debt service requirements on our operations and ability to compete;
the risk that we will not be able to finance our development and investment projects or refinance our outstanding indebtedness;
the impact of extensive regulation from gaming and other government authorities on our ability to operate our business and the risk that regulatory authorities may revoke, suspend, condition or limit our gaming or other licenses, impose substantial fines or take other actions that adversely affect us;
risks associated with changes to applicable gaming and tax laws that could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition;
adverse outcomes of legal proceedings and the development of, and changes in, claims or litigation reserves;
risks associated with development, construction and management of new projects or the expansion of existing facilities, including cost overruns, construction delays, environmental risks and legal or political challenges; and
risks associated with integrating operations of any acquired companies and developed properties.
For additional contingencies and uncertainties, see Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Given these risks and uncertainties, we can give no assurances that results contemplated by any forward-looking statements will in fact occur and therefore caution investors not to place undue reliance on them. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the forward-looking events discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K might not occur.
Market and Industry Data
Some of the market and industry data contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are based on independent industry publications or other publicly available information. Although we believe that these independent sources are reliable, we have not independently verified and cannot assure you as to the accuracy or completeness of this information. As a result, you should be aware that the market and industry data contained herein, and our beliefs and estimates based on such data, may not be reliable.

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ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS
The following risk factors should be considered carefully in addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Any of these risks and uncertainties could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results contemplated by the forward-looking statements. The following risk factors set forth the risks that we believe are material to our business, financial condition, assets, operations and equity interests. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. The risks described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks currently not known to us or that we believe to be immaterial could also adversely impact our business.
Any one of the factors discussed below or elsewhere in this report or the cumulative effect of some of the factors referred to herein may result in significant fluctuations in our financial and other operating results. This variability and unpredictability could result in our failure to meet investor expectations for our revenues or other operating results for a particular period. If we fail to meet or exceed such expectations for these or any other reasons, the market price of our common stock could decrease.
Business, economic, market and operating risks
The COVID-19 outbreak has negatively impacted our business and results of operations. Such negative impacts could continue for an extended period of time and may worsen.
The impact and effects of COVID-19 have adversely impacted and are expected to continue to adversely have an impact on our ability to attract customers to our properties and our results of operations. As a result of state-wide orders, all of our properties were closed from March 17, 2020 through June 3, 2020. We reopened the majority of our properties on June 4, 2020, but Texas Station, Fiesta Rancho, Fiesta Henderson and Palms have not reopened and will remain closed until we determine whether to reopen them based on our analysis of a number of factors, including the health of the economy as a whole, the health of the Las Vegas economy, customer demand, expense of operating the properties and restrictions on operations to implement social distancing and other health and safety protocols.
While we are currently operating the majority of our properties, shelter-in-place or other governmental orders or directives could require us to close the properties that are currently operating in the future or may prevent or discourage customers from visiting our properties. In addition, we cannot predict whether our properties that have not reopened will reopen or will remain operating if reopened. Social distancing measures have resulted in restrictions on our operations, including limiting the number of customers present in our facilities or within certain areas and reduced gaming operations, implementation of additional health and safety measures, such as enhanced cleaning protocols, restrictions on hotel, food and beverage outlets and limits on concerts, conventions or special events.
Our future financial results and cash flows will continue to be negatively impacted by a number of factors that are beyond our control, including the duration and extent of social distancing measures, the possibility that governmental regulations and directives enacted in the future may further limit the operations of our properties or prohibit or discourages customers from visiting our properties, the impact of such measures on our ability to operate our casinos profitably or at all and our ability to adjust our cost structure to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on our business and results of operations. We may also face unforeseen liability or be subject to additional obligations as a result of COVID-19, including as a result of claims alleging exposure to COVID-19 in connection with our operations or facilities or to the extent we are subject to a governmental enforcement action as a result of failing to comply with applicable health and safety regulations.
The impact of COVID-19 may also have the effect of exacerbating many of the other risks described herein. As a result of the foregoing, we cannot predict the ultimate scope, duration and impact that COVID-19 will have on our results of operations, but we expect that it will continue to have a material impact on our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations (including revenues and profitability) and stock price.
As a result of COVID-19, we have implemented aggressive cost reduction and efficiency improvement measures, which could adversely affect the loyalty of our guests and our ability to attract and retain employees.
We have taken steps to reduce our operating costs and improve efficiencies as a result of our property closures and the ongoing uncertainty surrounding COVID-19, and we may undertake additional steps in the future. Such steps may harm our reputation by adversely impacting guest loyalty and our ability to attract and retain employees. While we have retained a majority of our full-time team members, our reduced operations and continued closures have resulted in long-term reductions in our full-time workforce. When COVID-19 subsides, we may experience difficulties in resuming normal operations.
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We depend on the residents of the Las Vegas regional market and repeat visitors, which subjects us to greater risks than a gaming company with more diverse operations.
All of our casino properties are dependent upon attracting Las Vegas residents as well as out of town visitors. As a result of our concentration in the Las Vegas regional market, we have a greater degree of exposure to a number of risks than we would have if we had operations outside of the Las Vegas Valley. These risks include the following:
local economic and competitive conditions;
changes in local and state governmental laws and regulations, including gaming laws and regulations and COVID-19 related orders and directives;
natural and other disasters;
increased gasoline prices, which may discourage travelers from visiting our properties;
a decline in the local population; and
the impact of COVID-19 travel restrictions or warnings on visitation to our casinos, including from nearby areas such as Southern California.
Our strategy of growth through master-planning of certain of our major casinos for future expansion was developed, in part, based on projected population growth in Las Vegas. There can be no assurance that population growth will justify future development, additional casinos or expansion of any of our existing casinos, which limits our ability to expand our business.
Our business is sensitive to changes in consumer sentiment and discretionary spending.
Consumer demand for the offerings of casino hotel properties such as ours is sensitive to factors impacting consumer confidence, including downturns in the economy and other factors that impact discretionary spending on leisure activities. Changes in discretionary consumer spending or consumer preferences brought about by factors such as perceived or actual general economic conditions and customer confidence in the economy, unemployment, uncertainty and distress in the housing and credit markets, the impact of high energy, fuel, food and healthcare costs, perceived or actual changes in disposable consumer income and wealth, taxes, and effects or fears of war, civil unrest, terrorism, violence, widespread illnesses or epidemics could further reduce customer demand for our offerings and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. In particular, visitation to our properties has been, and is expected to continue to be effected by widespread unemployment, consumer concerns about safety and economic uncertainty arising as a result of COVID-19.
Our casinos draw a substantial number of customers from the Las Vegas metropolitan area, as well as nearby geographic areas, including Southern California, Arizona and Utah. While our business is affected by the general economic conditions in the United States, our business and results of operations would be particularly negatively impacted if our target markets experience an economic downturn or other adverse conditions, including restrictions on travel as a result of COVID-19.
We face substantial competition in the gaming industry and we expect that such competition will intensify.
Our casino properties face competition for customers and employees from all other casinos and hotels in the Las Vegas metropolitan area including, to some degree, each other. In addition, our casino properties face competition from all smaller nonrestricted gaming locations and restricted gaming locations (locations with 15 or fewer slot machines) in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, including those that primarily target the local and repeat visitor markets. Major additions, expansions or enhancements of existing properties or the construction of new properties by competitors could also have a material adverse effect on the business of our casino properties. If our competitors operate more successfully than we do, or if they attract customers away from us as a result of aggressive pricing and promotion or enhanced or expanded properties, we may lose market share and our business could be adversely affected.
To a lesser extent, our casino properties compete with gaming operations in other parts of the state of Nevada and other gaming markets in the United States and in other parts of the world, with state sponsored lotteries, on- and off-track pari-mutuel wagering (a system of betting under which wagers are placed in a pool, management receives a fee from the pool, and the remainder of the pool is split among the winning wagers), card rooms, other forms of legalized gaming and online gaming. The gaming industry also includes dockside casinos, riverboat casinos, racetracks with slot machines and casinos located on Native American land. There is intense competition among companies in the gaming industry, some of which have significantly greater resources than we do. Our properties have encountered additional competition as large-scale Native American gaming on Indian lands, particularly in California, has increased and competition may intensify if more Native American gaming facilities are developed. Several states are currently considering the approval of legalized casino gaming in designated areas and
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the expansion of existing gaming operations or additional gaming sites. In May 2018, the United States Supreme Court overturned a law prohibiting states from legalizing sports wagering which, together with the expansion of sports gaming as a result of the pandemic, has resulted in a substantial expansion of sports betting outside the state of Nevada, including online sports betting. In addition, internet gaming has commenced in Nevada and a number of other states, and internet gaming has been approved or proposed in a number of other states. Internet gaming and the expansion of legalized casino gaming or legalized sports betting in new or existing jurisdictions and on Native American land could result in additional competition that could adversely affect our operations, particularly to the extent that such gaming is conducted in areas close to our operations. For further details on competition in the gaming industry, see Item 1. Business—Competition.
Our success depends on key executive officers and personnel.
Our success depends on the efforts and abilities of our executive officers and other key employees, many of whom have significant experience in the gaming industry, including, but not limited to, Frank J. Fertitta III, our Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer. Competition for qualified personnel in our industry is intense, and it would be difficult for us to find experienced personnel to replace our current executive officers and employees. We believe that a loss of the services of these officers and/or personnel could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Our results of operations may be adversely impacted by the expiration or termination of our Native American management agreements and we may not be successful in entering into additional management or development agreements for Native American gaming opportunities.
Our management agreement for Graton Resort was terminated by the FIGR on February 5, 2021. For the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, our management fees from Graton Resort were $77.4 million, $85.6 million and $77.5 million respectively, which, based on the margins applicable to our management activities, contributed significantly to our net income for such periods. Our results of operations may be adversely impacted by the expiration or termination of such agreement. We have a development agreement and management agreement with the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians relating to development and operation of a casino to be located in Madera County, California and we intend to seek additional development and management contracts with Native American tribes. However, we cannot be sure that we will be able to develop the North Fork project or that we will be successful in entering into agreements for new development opportunities. While we believe that the ongoing legal challenges to the North Fork project will be resolved and that development of the North Fork project will proceed, the development of Native American gaming facilities is subject to numerous conditions and is frequently subject to protracted legal challenges. As a result, even if we are able to enter into development and management agreements for Native American gaming projects, we cannot be sure that the projects, including the North Fork project, will be completed or, if completed, that they will generate significant management fees or return on our investment.
Union organization activities could disrupt our business by discouraging patrons from visiting our properties, causing labor disputes or work stoppages, and, if successful, could significantly increase our labor costs.
Our properties have been subject to ongoing efforts of union activists to enter into collective bargaining agreements and to organize our employees into collective bargaining units. The Local Joint Executive Board of Las Vegas (the “LJEBLV”) has been certified as the collective bargaining representative of non-gaming employees at Sunset Station, Green Valley Ranch, Fiesta Rancho, Fiesta Henderson and Palms. We have not yet entered into collective bargaining agreements with the bargaining units represented by the LJEBLV at any of these properties. The LJEBLV had been recognized as the collective bargaining representative for a unit of non-gaming employees at Palace Station and Boulder Station, but we no longer recognize the LJEBLV as the bargaining representative of those employees at either of those properties, as each of those properties received a petition indicating that a majority of its bargaining unit employees no longer desired to be represented by the LJEBLV. In an election held in December 2019, a proposed bargaining unit consisting of non-gaming employees of Red Rock rejected the LJEBLV as their bargaining representative. The LJEBLV is contesting both the withdrawal of recognition of the LJEBLV at Boulder Station and Palace Station and the election results at Red Rock. Accordingly, it is uncertain whether we will be subject to any bargaining obligation or whether we will eventually agree to enter into a collective bargaining agreement at any of those three properties. In addition, slot technicians are represented by the International Union of Operating Engineers, Local 501 (“Local 501”) at Palms, Palace Station, Green Valley Ranch, Sunset Station, Fiesta Henderson and Red Rock and Teamsters Local Union 986 was certified as the bargaining representative for a bargaining unit of Palms warehouse receivers, valet parking attendants and bell desk employees. We are bargaining with, but have not yet entered into collective bargaining agreements with, the bargaining units represented by Local 501 or Teamsters Local Union 986 at any of these properties. None of our other casino properties is currently subject to any bargaining obligation, collective bargaining agreement or similar arrangement with any union; however, we believe that organizing efforts are ongoing at this time. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that our casino properties will not ultimately be unionized.
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Union organization efforts could cause disruptions to our casino properties and discourage patrons from visiting our properties and may cause us to incur significant costs, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, union activities may result in labor disputes, including work stoppages, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, collective bargaining involving any of our existing or future properties in the event that they become organized introduces an element of uncertainty into planning our future labor costs, which could have a material adverse effect on the business of our casino properties and our financial condition and results of operations.
The concentration and evolution of the slot machine manufacturing industry or other technological conditions could impose additional costs on us.
We rely on a variety of hardware and software products to maximize revenue and efficiency in our operations. Technology in the gaming industry is developing rapidly, and we may need to invest substantial amounts to acquire the most current gaming and hotel technology and equipment in order to remain competitive in the markets in which we operate. In addition, we may not be able to successfully implement and/or maintain any acquired technology.
We are subject to extensive federal, state and local regulation and governmental authorities have significant control over our operations; this control and the cost of compliance or failure to comply with such regulations that govern our operations in any jurisdiction where we operate could have an adverse effect on our business.
Our ownership and operation of gaming facilities is subject to extensive regulation, including licensing requirements, by the states, counties and cities in which we operate. These laws, regulations and ordinances vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but generally concern the responsibility, financial stability and character of the owners and managers of gaming operations as well as persons financially interested or involved in gaming operations, and we are subject to extensive background investigations and suitability standards in our gaming business. We also will become subject to regulation in any other jurisdiction where we choose to operate in the future. As such, our gaming regulators can require us to disassociate ourselves from suppliers or business partners found unsuitable by the regulators or, alternatively, cease operations in that jurisdiction. In addition, unsuitable activity on our part, on the part of individuals investing in or otherwise involved with us or on the part of our owners, managers or unconsolidated affiliates in any jurisdiction could have a negative effect on our ability to continue operating in other jurisdictions.
In addition, we are subject to various gaming taxes, which are subject to possible increase at any time, and federal income tax. Tax laws are dynamic and subject to change as new laws are passed and new interpretations of the law are issued or applied. In addition, governmental tax authorities are increasingly scrutinizing the tax positions of companies. If United States or state tax authorities change applicable tax laws, including laws relating to taxation of gaming operations, our overall taxes could increase, and our business, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely impacted.
We also deal with significant amounts of cash in our operations and are subject to various reporting and anti-money laundering regulations. As a result of such regulations, we may be subject to periodic examinations by the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (“FinCEN”) and we may be required to pay substantial penalties if we fail to comply with applicable regulations. Any violations of anti-money laundering laws or regulations by any of our properties could have an adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. Such laws and regulations could change or could be interpreted differently in the future, or new laws and regulations could be enacted.
For a more complete description of the regulatory requirements, see Item 1. Business—Regulation and Licensing.
We are subject to a variety of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment and human health and safety, which could materially affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment and human health and safety, including those relating to air emissions, water discharges and remediation of contamination. Such laws and regulations require us to obtain, maintain and renew environmental operating or construction permits or approvals, particularly in connection with our development activities. Certain environmental laws can impose joint and several liability without regard to fault on responsible parties, including past and present owners and operators of sites, related to the investigation or remediation of sites at which hazardous wastes or materials were disposed or released. Private parties may also bring claims arising from the presence of hazardous materials on a site or exposure to such materials. We are currently involved in monitoring activities at a few of our sites due to historical or nearby operations. Increasingly stringent environmental laws, regulations or standards may make compliance with such requirements more difficult or costly or otherwise adversely affect our
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operations. Failure to comply with environmental laws or regulations, or any liabilities or claims arising under such laws or regulations, could require us to incur potentially significant costs or sanctions, including fines, penalties or cessation of operations, or otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may incur losses that are not adequately covered by insurance, which may harm our results of operations. In addition, our insurance costs may increase and we may not be able to obtain similar insurance coverage in the future.
Although we maintain insurance that is customary and appropriate for our business, each of our insurance policies is subject to certain exclusions and our coverage is in an amount that may be significantly less than the expected replacement cost of rebuilding our facilities in the event of a total loss. To the extent that we are inadequately insured for certain types or levels of risk, we may be exposed to significant losses in the event of a catastrophe. In addition to the damage caused to our properties by a casualty loss, we may suffer business disruption or be subject to claims by third parties that may be injured or harmed. While we carry general liability insurance and business interruption insurance, there can be no assurance that insurance will be available or adequate to cover all loss and damage to which our business or our assets might be subjected. Certain casualty events, such as labor strikes, nuclear events, loss of income due to terrorism or epidemics, deterioration or corrosion, insect or animal damage and pollution, may not be covered under our policies. Any losses we incur that are not adequately covered by insurance may decrease our future operating income, require us to fund replacements or repairs for destroyed property and reduce the funds available for payments of our obligations.
We renew our insurance policies on an annual basis. To the extent that the cost of insurance coverage increases, we may be required to reduce our policy limits or agree to exclusions from our coverage.
We may incur delays and budget overruns with respect to current or future construction projects. Any such delays or cost overruns may have a material adverse effect on our operating results.
We evaluate expansion opportunities as they become available, and in the future we may construct new facilities or enhance our existing properties by constructing additional facilities. Such construction projects entail significant risks, including the following, any of which can give rise to delays or cost overruns:
shortages of material or skilled labor;
unforeseen engineering, environmental or geological problems;
work stoppages;
weather interference;
floods;
unanticipated cost increases; and
legal or political challenges.
The anticipated costs and construction periods are based upon budgets, conceptual design documents and construction schedule estimates prepared by us in consultation with our architects and contractors. Construction, equipment, staffing requirements, problems or difficulties in obtaining and maintaining any of the requisite licenses, permits, allocations or authorizations from regulatory authorities can increase the cost or delay the construction or opening of each of the proposed facilities or otherwise affect the project’s planned design and features. We cannot be sure that we will not exceed the budgeted costs of these projects, that the projects will commence operations within the contemplated time frame, if at all, or that we will receive the return on investment that we expect from such projects. Budget overruns and delays with respect to expansion and development projects could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
We may pursue new gaming acquisition and development opportunities and may not be able to recover our investment or successfully expand to additional locations.
We have invested in real property in connection with development and expansion opportunities and we evaluate and may pursue acquisition opportunities in existing and emerging jurisdictions. To the extent that we decide to pursue any new gaming acquisition or development opportunities, our ability to benefit from such investments will depend upon a number of factors including:
our ability to identify and acquire attractive acquisition opportunities and development sites;
our ability to secure required federal, state and local licenses, permits and approvals, which in some jurisdictions are limited in number;
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certain political factors, such as local support or opposition to development of new gaming facilities or legalizing casino gaming in designated areas;
restrictions in our existing credit arrangements and the availability of adequate financing on acceptable terms; and
our ability to identify and develop satisfactory relationships with joint venture partners.
Most of these factors are beyond our control. Therefore, we cannot be sure that we will be able to recover our investment in any of our existing or new gaming development opportunities or acquired facilities, or successfully expand to additional locations.
We require significant capital to fund capital expenditures, pursue proposed development, expansion or acquisition opportunities or refinance our indebtedness.
Our businesses are capital intensive. For our casino properties to remain attractive and competitive we must periodically invest significant capital to keep the properties well-maintained, modernized and refurbished. Similarly, future construction and development projects, including but not limited to, the proposed North Fork Project, and acquisitions of other gaming operations could require significant additional capital. We rely on earnings and cash flow from operations to finance our business, capital expenditures, development, expansion and acquisitions and, to the extent that we cannot fund such expenditures from cash generated by operations, funds must be borrowed or otherwise obtained. We will also be required in the future to refinance our outstanding debt. Our ability to effectively operate and grow our business may be constrained if we are unable to borrow additional capital or refinance existing borrowings on reasonable terms.
We may be unable to generate sufficient revenues and cash flows to service our debt obligations as they come due, finance capital expenditures and meet our operational needs.
If we are unable to access sufficient capital from operations or borrowings, we may be precluded from:
maintaining or enhancing our properties;
taking advantage of future opportunities;
growing our business; or
responding to competitive pressures.
Further, our failure to generate sufficient revenues and cash flows could lead to cash flow and working capital constraints, which may require us to seek additional working capital. We may not be able to obtain such working capital when it is required. Further, even if we were able to obtain additional working capital, it may only be available on unfavorable terms. For example, we may be required to incur additional debt, and servicing the payments on such debt could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. Limited liquidity and working capital may also restrict our ability to maintain and update our casino properties, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage to casinos offering more modern and better maintained facilities.
If we do not have access to credit or capital markets at desirable times or at rates that we would consider acceptable, the lack of such funding could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to service our indebtedness.
We may incur impairments to goodwill, indefinite-lived intangible assets, or long-lived assets which could negatively affect our results of operations.
We test our goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment during the fourth quarter of each year and when a triggering event occurs, and we test other long-lived assets for impairment whenever changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. If we do not achieve our projected cash flow estimates related to such assets, we may be required to record an impairment charge, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial statements. We have recognized significant impairment charges in the past as a result of a number of factors including negative industry and economic trends, reduced estimates of future cash flows, and slower than expected growth. We could be required to recognize additional impairment charges, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations if events that negatively impact our business should occur in the future.
Any failure to protect our trademarks could have a negative impact on the value of our brand names and adversely affect our business.
The development of intellectual property is part of our overall business strategy, and we regard our intellectual property to be an important element of our success. While our business as a whole is not substantially dependent on any one
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trademark or combination of several of our trademarks or other intellectual property, we seek to establish and maintain our proprietary rights in our business operations through the use of trademarks. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, parties may infringe our trademarks and our rights may be invalidated or unenforceable. Monitoring the unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult. Litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. Litigation of this type could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources. We cannot assure you that all of the steps we have taken to protect our trademarks will be adequate to prevent imitation of our trademarks by others. The unauthorized use or reproduction of our trademarks could diminish the value of our brand and its market acceptance, competitive advantages or goodwill, which could adversely affect our business.
Shortages or increases in prices of energy or water may adversely affect our business and our results of operations.
Our casinos and hotels use significant amounts of electricity, natural gas, other forms of energy and water. The southwest United States is currently experiencing a drought, which may result in governmentally-imposed restrictions on water use or increases in the cost of water. Any such restrictions on use of water or increases in cost could adversely impact our business and our results of operations. While no shortages of energy have been experienced recently, energy shortages or substantial increases in the cost of electricity have negatively affected our operating results in the past.
Win rates for our gaming operations depend on a variety of factors, some beyond our control, and the winnings of our gaming customers could exceed our casino winnings.
The gaming industry is characterized by an element of chance. In addition to the element of chance, win rates are also affected by other factors, including players’ skill and experience, the mix of games played, the financial resources of players, the spread of table limits, the volume of bets placed and the amount of time played. Our gaming profits are mainly derived from the difference between our casino winnings and the casino winnings of our gaming customers. Since there is an inherent element of chance in the gaming industry, we do not have full control over our winnings or the winnings of our gaming customers. If the winnings of our gaming customers exceed our winnings, we may record a loss from our gaming operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We face the risk of fraud and cheating.
Our gaming customers may attempt or commit fraud or cheat in order to increase winnings. Acts of fraud or cheating could involve the use of counterfeit chips or other tactics, possibly in collusion with our employees. Internal acts of cheating could also be conducted by employees through collusion with dealers, surveillance staff, floor managers or other casino or gaming area staff. Failure to discover such acts or schemes in a timely manner could result in losses in our gaming operations. In addition, negative publicity related to such schemes could have an adverse effect on our reputation, potentially causing a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Failure to maintain the integrity of our internal or customer data, including defending our information systems against hacking, security breaches, computer malware, cyber-attacks and similar technology exploitation risks, could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows, and/or subject us to costs, fines or lawsuits.
Our business requires the collection and retention of large volumes of data about our customers, employees, suppliers and business partners, including customer credit card numbers and other personally identifiable information of our customers and employees, in various information systems that we maintain and in those maintained by third-party service providers. The integrity and protection of that data is important to our business and is subject to privacy laws enacted by various jurisdictions. The regulatory environment and the requirements imposed on us by the payment card industry surrounding information, security and privacy are evolving and may be inconsistent. Our systems may be unable to meet changing regulatory and payment card industry requirements and employee and customer expectations, or may require significant additional investments or time in order to do so. Our information systems and records, including those maintained by service providers, may be subject to cyber-attacks, security breaches, system failures, viruses, operator error or inadvertent releases of data. Cyber-attacks and security breaches may include, but are not limited to, attempts to access information, including customer and company information, computer malware such as viruses, denial of service, ransomware attacks that encrypt, exfiltrate, or otherwise render data unusable or unavailable in an effort to extort money or other consideration as a condition to purportedly returning the data to a usable form, operator errors or misuse, or inadvertent releases of data, and other forms of electronic security breaches. The steps we have taken to mitigate these risks may not be sufficient and a significant theft, loss or fraudulent use of customer, employee or company data maintained by us or by a service provider could have an adverse effect on our reputation and employee relationships and could result in remedial and other expenses, fines or litigation. A breach in the security of our information systems or those of our service providers could lead to an interruption in the operation of our systems or loss,
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disclosure or misappropriation of our business information or other unintended consequences. If any of these risks materialize, they could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and cash flows.
Risks Related to our Indebtedness
We have a substantial amount of indebtedness, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and our ability to obtain financing in the future and to react to changes in our business.
We have a substantial amount of debt, which requires significant principal and interest payments. As of December 31, 2020, the principal amount of our outstanding indebtedness totaled approximately $2.92 billion and we had $1.0 billion of undrawn availability under our Revolving Credit Facility, which is net of the issuance of approximately $29.4 million of letters of credit and similar obligations. Our ability to make interest payments on our debt will be significantly impacted by general economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control.
Our substantial indebtedness could:
make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations under our senior notes and senior secured credit facilities and other indebtedness;
increase our vulnerability to adverse economic and general industry conditions, including interest rate fluctuations, because a portion of our borrowings, including those under our senior secured credit facilities, are and will continue to be at variable rates of interest;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our debt, which would reduce the availability of our cash flow from operations to fund working capital, capital expenditures or other general corporate purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry;
place us at a disadvantage compared to competitors that may have proportionately less debt;
limit our ability to obtain additional debt or equity financing due to applicable financial and restrictive covenants in our debt agreements; and
cause us to incur higher interest expense in the event of increases in interest rates on our borrowings that have variable interest rates or if we refinance existing debt at higher interest rates.
Our indebtedness imposes restrictive financial and operating covenants that limit our flexibility in operating our business and may adversely affect our ability to compete or engage in favorable business or financing activities.
Our credit agreements and the indenture governing our senior notes contain a number of covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us, including certain limitations on our and our subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things:
incur additional debt or issue certain preferred units;
pay dividends on or make certain redemptions, repurchases or distributions or make other restricted payments;
make certain investments;
sell certain assets;
create liens on certain assets;
consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets; and
enter into certain transactions with our affiliates.
In addition, our credit agreements contain certain financial covenants, including maintenance of a minimum interest coverage ratio and adherence to a maximum total leverage ratio.
As a result of these covenants and restrictions, we are limited in how we conduct our business and we may be unable to raise additional debt or equity financing to compete effectively or to take advantage of new business opportunities. Our ability to comply with covenants and restrictions contained in the agreements governing our indebtedness also may be affected by general economic conditions, industry conditions and other events beyond our control. As a result, we cannot assure you that we will be able to comply with these covenants and restrictions.
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A failure to comply with the covenants contained in the credit agreements, the indentures governing our senior notes, or other indebtedness that we may incur in the future could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of the indebtedness and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Despite our current indebtedness levels, we and our subsidiaries may still incur significant additional indebtedness, which could increase the risks associated with our substantial indebtedness.
We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness, including additional secured indebtedness, in the future. The terms of the documents governing our indebtedness restrict, but do not completely prohibit, us from doing so. As of December 31, 2020, we had $1.0 billion of undrawn availability under our Revolving Credit Facility, which is net of the issuance of approximately $29.4 million of letters of credit and similar obligations. In addition, the indentures governing our senior notes allow us to issue additional notes under certain circumstances. The indentures also allow us to incur certain other additional secured and unsecured debt. Further, the indentures do not prevent us from incurring other liabilities that do not constitute indebtedness. If new debt or other liabilities are added to our current debt levels, the related risks that we and our subsidiaries now face could intensify.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness, and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on or to refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which is subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business, legislative, regulatory and other factors beyond our control. We cannot assure you that we will maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness.
If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, or to sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. If our operating results and available cash are insufficient to meet our debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of significant assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain the proceeds that we could realize from them, and these proceeds may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due. Additionally, the documents governing our indebtedness limit the use of the proceeds from any disposition; as a result, we may not be allowed, under these documents, to use proceeds from such dispositions to satisfy all current debt service obligations.
Our ability to remain in compliance with our covenants contained in the agreements governing our indebtedness and our liquidity may be negatively impacted by COVID-19, measures implemented to curtail its spread, and changes in the economy, discretionary spending and consumer confidence.
We rely on our casino operations as a primary source of income and operating cash flows to remain in compliance with covenants contained in the documents governing our outstanding indebtedness. At December 31, 2020 we believe we were in compliance with such covenants; however, our ability to remain in compliance with the covenants contained in such agreements may be negatively impacted if COVID-19, measures implemented to curtail its spread, and changes in the economy, discretionary spending and consumer confidence have a protracted negative effect on our business. Failure to satisfy such debt covenants would require us to seek waivers or amendments of such covenants. If we are unable to obtain such waivers or amendments, our creditors would be entitled to exercise remedies under the documents governing such obligations, including acceleration of the outstanding principal amount of such indebtedness. In addition, while we believe that our cash on hand and our borrowing availability under our revolving credit facility will be sufficient to provide liquidity to meet our obligations during the current period that our operations are impacted by COVID-19, our ability to make required payments under our outstanding indebtedness or other obligations may be negatively impacted by additional measures that we are required to take in response to COVID-19 and widespread unemployment and disruption to the economy caused by COVID-19.
In addition, we may be unable to raise additional debt or equity financing to provide liquidity if COVID-19, measures implemented to curtail its spread, and changes in the economy, discretionary spending and consumer confidence have a protracted negative effect on our business.
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Risks Related to Our Structure and Organization
Red Rock’s only material asset is its interest in Station Holdco and Station LLC. Accordingly, it is dependent upon distributions from Station Holdco to make payments under the tax receivable agreement, pay dividends, if any, and pay taxes and other expenses.
Red Rock is a holding company. Its only assets are its ownership of LLC Units and its voting interest in Station LLC, other than cash and tax-related assets and liabilities. In connection with the IPO, Red Rock entered into a tax receivable agreement (“TRA”) with certain pre-IPO owners of Station Holdco. Red Rock intends to cause Station Holdco to make distributions to its members, including us, in an amount sufficient to cover all applicable taxes at assumed tax rates, payments under the TRA and dividends, if any, declared by it. To the extent Station LLC or Station Holdco is restricted from making such distributions pursuant to the terms of the agreements governing its debt or under applicable law or regulation, or is otherwise unable to provide such funds, it could materially and adversely affect Red Rock’s liquidity and financial condition and impair Red Rock’s ability to pay taxes and other expenses, make payments under the TRA or pay dividends on the Class A common stock.
Payments of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors after taking into account various factors, including our business, operating results and financial condition, current and anticipated cash needs, plans for expansion and any legal or contractual limitations on our ability to pay dividends. Our credit facility and the indentures governing our senior notes include, and any financing arrangement that we enter into in the future may include, restrictive covenants that limit our ability to pay dividends and make distributions. In addition, Station Holdco is generally prohibited under Delaware law from making a distribution to a member to the extent that, at the time of the distribution, after giving effect to the distribution, liabilities of Station Holdco (with certain exceptions) exceed the fair value of its assets. Subsidiaries of Station Holdco are generally subject to similar legal limitations on their ability to make distributions to Station Holdco.
Our Principal Equity Holders have control over our management and affairs, and their interests may differ from our interests or those of our other stockholders.
Each outstanding share of Class B common stock that is held by a holder that, together with its affiliates, owned LLC Units representing at least 30% of the outstanding LLC Units immediately following the IPO and, at the applicable record date, maintains direct or indirect beneficial ownership of at least 10% of the outstanding shares of Class A common stock (determined on an as-exchanged basis assuming that all of the LLC Units were exchanged for Class A common stock) is entitled to ten votes, and each other outstanding share of Class B common stock and each share of Class A common stock is entitled to one vote. As a result, Fertitta Family Entities held 87.9% of the combined voting power of Red Rock as of December 31, 2020. Due to their ownership, the Fertitta Family Entities have the power to control our management and affairs, including the power to:
elect all of our directors;
agree to sell or otherwise transfer a controlling stake in our Company, which may result in the acquisition of effective control of our Company by a third party; and
determine the outcome of substantially all actions requiring stockholder approval, including transactions with related parties, corporate reorganizations, acquisitions and dispositions of assets and dividends.
The interests of the Fertitta Family Entities may differ from our interests or those of our other stockholders and the concentration of control in the Fertitta Family Entities will limit other stockholders’ ability to influence corporate matters. The concentration of ownership and voting power of the Fertitta Family Entities may also prevent or cause a change of control of our Company or a change in the composition of our board of directors and will make many transactions impossible without the support of the Fertitta Family Entities, even if such events are in the best interests of our other stockholders. As a result of the concentration of voting power among the Fertitta Family Entities, we may take actions that our other stockholders do not view as beneficial, which may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition and cause the value of your investment in our Class A common stock to decline.
In addition, because the Principal Equity Holders hold most of their ownership interest in part of our business directly and/or indirectly through Station Holdco, rather than through Red Rock, the public company, they may have conflicting interests with holders of shares of our Class A common stock. For example, if Station Holdco makes distributions to Red Rock, the Principal Equity Holders will also be entitled to receive distributions pro rata in accordance with the percentages of their respective LLC Units and their preferences as to the timing and amount of any such distributions may differ from those of our public stockholders. The Principal Equity Holders may also have different tax positions from us which could influence their
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decisions regarding whether and when to dispose of assets, especially in light of the existence of the TRA, whether and when to incur new, or refinance existing, indebtedness, and whether and when Red Rock should terminate the TRA and accelerate its obligations thereunder. The structuring of future transactions may take into consideration these Principal Equity Holders’ tax or other considerations even where no similar benefit would accrue to us. For example, a disposition of real estate or other assets in a taxable transaction could accelerate then-existing obligations under the TRA, which may result in differing incentives between the Principal Equity Holders and Red Rock with respect to such a transaction. For more information, see “Tax Receivable Agreement” within Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the rules of NASDAQ and, as a result, qualify for, and intend to rely on, exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements. You will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to such requirements.
The Fertitta Family Entities hold more than 50% of the voting power of our shares eligible to vote. As a result, we are a “controlled company” under the rules of NASDAQ. Under these rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power in the election of directors is held by an individual, group or another company is a “controlled company” and may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements, including the requirements that (i) a majority of the board of directors consist of independent directors and (ii) that the board of directors have compensation and nominating and corporate governance committees composed entirely of independent directors. Although a majority of the members of our board of directors are independent and our compensation and nominating and corporate governance committees are comprised entirely of independent directors, in the future we may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements that are not applicable to controlled companies.
We will be required to pay certain of our pre-IPO Owners for certain tax benefits we may claim arising in connection with the reorganization transactions, and the amounts we may pay could be substantial.
The TRA provides for the payment by Red Rock to certain of our pre-IPO owners of 85% of the amount of benefits, if any, that Red Rock realizes (or is deemed to realize in the case of an early termination payment by us, a change in control or a material breach by us of our obligations under the TRA, as discussed below) as a result of (i) increases in tax basis resulting from our purchases or exchanges of LLC Units and (ii) certain other tax benefits related to our entering into the TRA, including tax benefits attributable to payments that we are required to make under the TRA. See “Tax Receivable Agreement” within Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Any increases in tax basis, as well as the amount and timing of any payments under the TRA, cannot reliably be predicted at this time. The amount of any such increases and payments will vary depending upon a number of factors, including, but not limited to, the timing of exchanges, the price of our Class A common stock at the time of the exchanges, the amount, character and timing of our income and the tax rates then applicable.
The payments that we may make under the TRA could be substantial. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, our liability under the TRA with respect to previously consummated transactions was $27.4 million and $25.1 million, respectively. Assuming no material changes in the relevant tax law and based on our current operating plan and other assumptions, including our estimate of the tax basis of our assets as of December 31, 2020 and that Red Rock earns sufficient taxable income to realize all the tax benefits that are subject to the TRA, we expect to make payments under the TRA over a period of approximately 40 years. The foregoing numbers are merely estimates based on current assumptions. The amount of actual payments could differ materially.
Future payments to our pre-IPO owners in respect of any subsequent exchanges of LLC Units for Class A common stock would be in addition to these amounts and are expected to be substantial. It is possible that future transactions or events could increase or decrease the actual tax benefits realized and the corresponding TRA payments. There may be a material negative effect on our liquidity if, as a result of timing discrepancies or otherwise (as described below), the payments under the TRA exceed the actual benefits we realize in respect of the tax attributes subject to the TRA and/or distributions to Red Rock by Station Holdco are not sufficient to permit Red Rock to make payments under the TRA after it has paid taxes.
In certain cases, payments under the TRA may be accelerated and/or significantly exceed the actual benefits, if any, we realize in respect of the tax attributes subject to the TRA.
The TRA provides that in the event that we exercise our right to early termination of the TRA, there is a change in control or a material breach by us of our obligations under the TRA, the TRA will terminate, and we will be required to make a payment equal to the present value of future payments under the TRA, which payment would be based on certain assumptions, including those relating to our future taxable income, and may substantially exceed the actual benefits, if any, we realize in
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respect of the tax attributes subject to the TRA. In these situations, our obligations under the TRA could have a substantial negative impact on our liquidity, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to finance our obligations under the TRA. In addition, these obligations could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing certain mergers, asset sales, other forms of business combinations or other changes of control, in particular in circumstances where our Principal Equity Holders have interests that differ from those of other stockholders. Because our Principal Equity Holders have a controlling ownership interest in the Company, they are able to control the outcome of votes on all matters requiring approval by our stockholders. Accordingly, actions that affect such obligations under the TRA may be taken even if other stockholders oppose them.
Payments under the TRA will be based on the tax reporting positions that we determine. Although we are not aware of any material issue that would cause the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) to challenge a tax basis increase, we will not be reimbursed for any payments previously made under the TRA (although we would reduce future amounts otherwise payable under such TRA). No assurance can be given that the IRS will agree with the allocation of value among our assets. As a result, in certain circumstances, payments could be made under the TRA in excess of the benefit that we actually realize in respect of the increases in tax basis resulting from our purchases or exchanges of LLC Units and certain other tax benefits related to our entering into the TRA.
We may not be able to realize all or a portion of the tax benefits that are expected to result from the exchanges of LLC Units and payments made under the TRA itself.
Our ability to benefit from any depreciation or amortization deductions or to realize other tax benefits that we currently expect to be available as a result of the increases in tax basis created by the exchanges of LLC Units, including exchanges associated with the sale of the shares of Class A common stock offered hereby, and our ability to realize certain other tax benefits attributable to payments under the TRA itself, depend on a number of assumptions, including that we earn sufficient taxable income each year during the period over which such deductions are available and that there are no adverse changes in applicable law or regulations. If our actual taxable income is insufficient and/or there are adverse changes in applicable law or regulations, we may be unable to realize all or a portion of these expected benefits and our cash flows and stockholders’ equity could be negatively affected. However, absent a change in control or other termination event with respect to the TRA, we will generally not be required to make payments under that agreement with respect to projected tax benefits that we do not actually realize, as reported on our tax return. See “Tax Receivable Agreement” within Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock
The market price of our Class A common stock could decline upon the exchange of LLC Units by our Continuing Owners.
At December 31, 2020, approximately 46 million LLC Units of Station Holdco were owned by our Continuing Owners, or 39.3% of Red Rock Class A common stock on a fully exchanged basis, and may be sold in the future. In addition, under the Exchange Agreement, each holder of shares our Class B common stock is entitled to exchange its LLC Units for shares of our Class A common stock, as described under “Tax Receivable Agreement” within Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
The market price of our Class A common stock could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares of our Class A common stock eligible for future sale, or the perception that such sales could occur. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, may make it more difficult for holders of our Class A common stock to sell such stock in the future at a time and at a price that they deem appropriate. They also may make it more difficult for us to raise additional capital by selling equity securities in the future.
We may not have sufficient funds to pay dividends on our Class A common stock.
Although we have in the past and may in the future pay dividends on our Class A common stock to the extent that we have sufficient funds available for such purpose, the declaration, amount and payment of any future dividends on shares of Class A common stock will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors and if we reinstate the payment of dividends we may reduce or discontinue entirely the payment of such dividends at any time thereafter. Our board of directors may take into account general and economic conditions, our financial condition and operating results, our available cash and current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, contractual, legal, tax and regulatory restrictions and implications on the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by our subsidiaries to us, and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant. The existing debt agreements of Station LLC limit the ability of Station LLC to make distributions to Station Holdco, which effectively restricts the ability of Station Holdco to distribute sufficient funds to permit Red Rock to pay dividends to its stockholders. Red Rock will be required to apply funds distributed by Station Holdco to pay taxes and make payments under
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the TRA. Therefore, we cannot assure you that you will receive any dividends on your Class A common stock. Accordingly, you may need to sell your shares of Class A common stock to realize a return on your investment, and you may not be able to sell your shares above the price you paid for them. See Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Anti-takeover provisions and shareholder requirements in our charter documents, provisions of Delaware law and Nevada gaming laws may delay or prevent our acquisition by a third party, which might diminish the value of our Class A common stock. Provisions in our debt agreements may also require an acquirer to refinance our outstanding indebtedness if a change of control occurs, which could discourage or increase the costs of a takeover.
In addition to the Fertitta Family Entities owning 87.9% of the combined voting power of our common stock, which permits them to control decisions made by our stockholders, including election of directors and change of control transactions, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that make it harder for a third party to acquire us. These provisions include certain super-majority approval requirements and limitations on actions by written consent of our stockholders at any time that the Fertitta Family Entities hold less than 10% of the LLC Units. In addition, our board of directors has the right to issue preferred stock without stockholder approval that could be used to dilute a potential hostile acquirer. Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation also imposes some restrictions on mergers and other business combinations between us and any holder of 15% or more of our outstanding common stock other than the Fertitta Family Entities.
The Nevada Act provides that persons who acquire beneficial ownership of more than 5% of the voting or non-voting securities of a Registered Corporation under Nevada gaming laws must report the acquisition to the Nevada Commission. The Nevada Act also requires that beneficial owners of more than 10% of the voting securities of a Registered Corporation must apply, subject to certain exceptions, to the Nevada Commission for a finding of suitability within thirty days after the Chair of the Nevada Board mails the written notice requiring such filing. Further, changes in control of the Company through merger, consolidation, stock or asset acquisitions (including stock issuances in connection with restructuring transactions), management or consulting agreements, or any act or conduct by a person whereby such person obtains control, may not occur without the prior approval of the Nevada Commission.
These anti-takeover provisions, shareholder requirements and other provisions under Delaware law and Nevada gaming laws could discourage, delay or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our Company, including transactions that our stockholders may deem advantageous, and negatively affect the trading price of our Class A common stock. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other stockholders to elect directors of your choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions you desire.
Under the agreements governing our indebtedness, a takeover of our Company would likely constitute a “change of control” and be deemed to be an event of default under such facility, which would therefore require a third-party acquirer to refinance any outstanding indebtedness under the credit facility in connection with such takeover. In addition, the TRA provides that, in the event of a change of control, we are required to make a payment equal to the present value of estimated future payments under the TRA, which would result in a significant payment becoming due in the event of a change of control. These change of control provisions, and similar provisions in future agreements, are likely to increase the costs of any takeover and may discourage, delay or prevent an acquisition of our Company by a third party.
Future offerings of debt securities or additional or increased loans, which would rank senior to our common stock upon our bankruptcy or liquidation, and future offerings of equity securities that may be senior to our common stock for the purposes of dividend and liquidating distributions, may adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock.
In the future, we may attempt to increase our capital resources through offerings of debt securities, entering into or increasing amounts under our loan agreements or additional offerings of equity securities. Upon bankruptcy or liquidation, holders of our debt securities, including holders of our senior notes, and shares of preferred stock, if any is issued, and lenders with respect to our indebtedness, including our credit facility, will receive a distribution of our available assets prior to the holders of our common stock. Additional equity offerings may dilute the holdings of our existing stockholders or reduce the market price of our common stock, or both. Our preferred stock, if issued, will likely have a preference on liquidating distributions or a preference on dividend payments or both that could limit our ability to make a dividend distribution to the holders of our common stock. Our decision to issue securities in any future offering or enter into or increase loan amounts will depend on our management’s views on our capital structure and financial results, as well as market conditions and other factors beyond our control. As a result, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of any such future transaction, and purchasers of our Class A common stock bear the risk of our future transactions reducing the market price of our Class A common stock and diluting their ownership interest in our Company.
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General Risks
The share price for our Class A common stock may fluctuate significantly.
The market price of our Class A common stock may be significantly affected by factors such as quarterly variations in our results of operations, changes in government regulations, general market conditions specific to the gaming industry, changes in interest rates, changes in general economic and political conditions, volatility in the financial markets, threatened or actual litigation or government investigations, the addition or departure of key personnel, actions taken by our stockholders, including the sale or other disposition of their shares of our Class A common stock, differences between our actual financial and operating results and those expected by investors and analysts and changes in analysts’ recommendations or projections. These and other factors may lower the market price of our Class A common stock, even though they may or may not affect our actual operating performance.
Furthermore, in recent years the stock market has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations. This volatility has had a significant impact on the market price of securities issued by many companies, including companies in our industry. The changes frequently appear to occur without regard to the operating performance of the affected companies. Hence, the price of our Class A common stock could fluctuate based upon factors that have little or nothing to do with us, and these fluctuations could materially reduce the price of our Class A common stock and materially affect the value of your investment.
We are subject to litigation in the ordinary course of our business. An adverse determination with respect to any such disputed matter could result in substantial losses.
We are, from time to time, during the ordinary course of operating our businesses, subject to various litigation claims and legal disputes, including contract, lease, employment and regulatory claims as well as claims made by visitors to our properties. There are also litigation risks inherent in any construction or development of any of our properties. Certain litigation claims may not be covered entirely or at all by our insurance policies or our insurance carriers may seek to deny coverage. In addition, litigation claims can be expensive to defend and may divert our attention from the operations of our businesses. Further, litigation involving visitors to our properties, even if without merit, can attract adverse media attention. As a result, litigation can have a material adverse effect on our businesses and, because we cannot predict the outcome of any action, it is possible that adverse judgments or settlements could significantly reduce our earnings or result in losses.
Work stoppages, labor problems and unexpected shutdowns may limit our operational flexibility and negatively impact our future profits.
Any work stoppage at one or more of our casino properties, including any construction projects which may be undertaken, could require us to expend significant funds to hire replacement workers, and qualified replacement labor may not be available at reasonable costs, if at all. Strikes and work stoppages could also result in adverse media attention or otherwise discourage customers from visiting our casino properties. Strikes and work stoppages involving laborers at any construction project which may be undertaken could result in construction delays and increases in construction costs. As a result, a strike or other work stoppage at one of our casino properties or any construction project could have an adverse effect on the business of our casino properties and our financial condition and results of operations. There can be no assurance that we will not experience a strike or work stoppage at one or more of our casino properties or any construction project in the future.
Any unexpected shutdown of one of our casino properties or any construction project could have an adverse effect on the business of our casino properties and our results of operations. There can be no assurance that we will be adequately prepared for unexpected events, including political or regulatory actions, which may lead to a temporary or permanent shutdown of any of our casino properties.
ITEM 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2.PROPERTIES
Substantially all of the property that we own and lease is subject to liens to secure borrowings under our credit agreements and include the following:
Red Rock, which opened in 2006, is situated on approximately 64 acres that we own on the west side of Las Vegas, Nevada.
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Green Valley Ranch, which opened in 2001, is situated on approximately 40 acres that we own in Henderson, Nevada.
Palms, which we purchased in 2016, is situated on approximately 37 acres that we own in Las Vegas, Nevada.
Palace Station, which opened in 1976, is situated on approximately 30 acres that we own in Las Vegas, Nevada.
Boulder Station, which opened in 1994, is situated on approximately 46 acres that we own on the east side of Las Vegas, Nevada.
Texas Station, which opened in 1995, is situated on approximately 47 acres that we own in North Las Vegas, Nevada.
Sunset Station, which opened in 1997, is situated on approximately 80 acres that we own in Henderson, Nevada.
Santa Fe Station, which we purchased in 2000, is situated on approximately 39 acres that we own on the northwest side of Las Vegas, Nevada.
Fiesta Rancho, which we purchased in 2001, is situated on approximately 25 acres that we own in North Las Vegas, Nevada.
Fiesta Henderson, which we purchased in 2001, is situated on approximately 35 acres that we own in Henderson, Nevada.
Wild Wild West, which we purchased in 1998, is situated on approximately 20 acres of land in Las Vegas, Nevada. The land on which Wild Wild West is situated is part of a 96-acre site that we own, which is being held for future development.
Wildfire Rancho, which we purchased in 2003, is situated on approximately five acres that we own in Las Vegas, Nevada.
Wildfire Boulder, which we purchased in 2004, is situated on approximately two acres that we own in Henderson, Nevada.
Wildfire Sunset, which we purchased in 2004, is situated on approximately one acre that we own in Henderson, Nevada.
Wildfire Lake Mead, which we purchased in 2006, is situated on approximately three acres that we own in Henderson, Nevada.
Wildfire Valley View and Wildfire Anthem, which we purchased in 2013, lease land and buildings used in their operations in Las Vegas, Nevada and Henderson, Nevada, respectively, from third-party lessors.
Barley’s and The Greens, which are 50% owned, lease land and buildings in Henderson, Nevada used in their operations from third-party lessors. Wildfire Lanes, which is 50% owned, owns the land and building in Henderson, Nevada used in its operations. We opened Barley’s in 1996 and purchased The Greens in 2005 and Wildfire Lanes in 2007.
We own 315 acres of developable land comprised of six strategically-located parcels in Las Vegas, each of which is zoned for casino gaming and other commercial uses. We also own three additional development sites that are currently for sale, comprising a 57-acre site in Las Vegas, an 89-acre site in Reno and an eight-acre site in Reno. From time to time we may acquire additional parcels or sell portions of our existing sites that are not necessary to the development of additional gaming facilities.
Subsequent to the opening or purchase of certain of our properties, we have completed a variety of expansion and renovation projects. From time to time we also renovate portions of our properties, such as hotel rooms and restaurants.
ITEM 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We and our subsidiaries are defendants in various lawsuits relating to routine matters incidental to our business. No assurance can be provided as to the outcome of such matters and litigation inherently involves significant costs.
ITEM 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Our Class A common stock has traded on the NASDAQ under the symbol “RRR” since April 27, 2016. Prior to that date, there was no public market for our Class A common stock. The declaration, amount and payment of dividends on shares of Class A common stock are at the discretion of the board of directors, subject to legally available funds.
Dividends
The declaration, amount and payment of any future dividends on shares of Class A common stock will be at the sole discretion of our board of directors and if we reinstate the payment of dividends we may reduce or discontinue entirely the payment of such dividends at any time. Our board of directors may take into account general and economic conditions, our financial condition and operating results, our available cash and current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, contractual, legal, tax and regulatory restrictions and implications on the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by our subsidiaries to us, and such other factors as our board of directors may deem relevant. See Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details on dividends.
During the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, we declared and paid cash dividends of $0.10 and $0.40, respectively, per share to Class A common stockholders. On May 19, 2020, we announced that our board of directors had elected to suspend the payment of dividends for the remainder of 2020.
Holders
At February 15, 2021, there were 13 holders of record of our Class A common stock, although we believe there are a significantly larger number of beneficial owners of our Class A common stock because many shares are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
In November 2020, we repurchased 585 shares of Class A common stock in satisfaction of tax withholding obligations on vested restricted stock at a price of $21.73 per share, for a total purchase price of approximately $12,700. The shares were retired upon repurchase.
In February 2019, our board of directors approved an equity repurchase program authorizing the repurchase of up to an aggregate of $150 million of our Class A common stock. In February 2021, our board of directors extended its approval of the equity repurchase program through December 31, 2022. Through December 31, 2020, no equity repurchases were made under the program. See Note 10 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information about our equity repurchase program.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities—None.
Stock Performance Graph
The following graph for the period beginning on April 27, 2016 (the date our common stock commenced trading on the NASDAQ) and ending on December 31, 2020 compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our Class A common stock with the cumulative total return on the Standard & Poor’s MidCap 400 Index (“S&P MidCap 400”), the Standard & Poor’s 1500 Casinos & Gaming Index (“S&P 1500 Casinos & Gaming Index”) and a peer group previously selected by the Company.
The S&P 1500 Casinos & Gaming Index is intended to replace the previous peer group. Management believes that the transition to a published industry index provides a better representation of industry performance. The presentation of the cumulative total return of the previous peer group is provided pursuant to SEC rules requiring presentation in the year of change. The peer group will not be presented in future periods.
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rrr-20201231_g2.jpg
Cumulative Total Return
April 27, 2016December 31,
20162017201820192020
RRR$100.00 $125.13 $185.18 $113.04 $135.56 $143.46 
S&P MidCap 400100.00 116.34 135.23 120.24 151.75 172.48 
S&P 1500 Casinos & Gaming Index100.00 118.79 174.63 128.13 182.77 189.33 
Peer Group (a)100.00 123.82 164.47 121.18 173.78 229.57 
_______________________________________
(a)    Includes Boyd Gaming Corporation, Caesars Entertainment Corporation, MGM Resorts International and Penn National Gaming, Inc. Eldorado Resorts, Inc. has been excluded from the peer group for all periods presented due to merger with Caesars Entertainment Corporation in 2020.
Past stock price performance is not necessarily indicative of future results. The performance graph should not be deemed filed or incorporated by reference into any other of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act of 1934, unless we specifically incorporate the performance graph by reference therein.
ITEM 6.SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Not applicable.
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ITEM 7.     MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data within this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Impact of COVID-19
During 2020, our business was significantly negatively impacted by the global pandemic caused by a new strain of coronavirus (“COVID-19”). All of our Las Vegas properties were temporarily closed on March 17, 2020 in compliance with a statewide emergency order mandating the closure of all nonessential businesses in Nevada, including casinos. On June 4, 2020, we reopened our Red Rock, Green Valley Ranch, Santa Fe Station, Boulder Station, Palace Station and Sunset Station properties, as well as our Wildfire properties, subject to state-mandated occupancy and other operational restrictions. At December 31, 2020, our Texas Station, Fiesta Henderson, Fiesta Rancho and Palms properties had not reopened. We will continue to assess the performance of the reopened properties, as well as the recovery of the Las Vegas market and the economy as a whole, before considering whether to reopen some or all of the remaining properties, and we have no plans to reopen any of these properties in 2021.
In addition, our managed property, Graton Resort, located in northern California, was temporarily closed from March 17, 2020 through June 17, 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The management agreement was originally expected to expire in November 2020 but was extended as a result of the pandemic through February 5, 2021, when the tribe terminated our management role at the facility.
Subsequent to the reopening of most of our properties in June 2020, we saw favorable customer trends which continued throughout the third and fourth quarters, including strong visitation from a younger demographic, increased spend per visit, more time spent on device, and increased return of our core customers. These positive trends, in combination with business optimization and cost reduction measures, drove strong operating results at our first-to-reopen properties for the second half of 2020. However, we cannot predict whether these trends will continue, nor can we predict the extent to which the impacts of COVID-19 on the United States and Las Vegas economies may affect our business in the future.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had and may continue to have a detrimental impact on the United States and Las Vegas economies, including widespread unemployment as well as reduced consumer confidence, discretionary spending and travel. We have taken steps to mitigate these and potential future effects of COVID-19 on our results of operations through a combination of streamlining our business, optimizing our marketing initiatives, and reducing expenses, including staffing reductions in May 2020 that affected approximately 39% of our full-time workforce. However, we continue to have significant fixed and variable expenses that will impact our cash position and profitability. We have implemented comprehensive health and cleanliness standards designed to provide the safest and most secure environment possible for our guests and employees, which include COVID-19 testing of our employees and vendors, personal protective equipment and temperature checks for employees and guests, enhanced cleaning procedures and other measures.
On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the “CARES Act”) was signed into law. We have received certain benefits from the CARES Act, including payroll retention credits of up to $5,000 per employee for the wages and health insurance we continued to provide to team members who were not providing services during the temporary closures of our properties, a deferral of employer social security taxes through December 31, 2020, and certain additional federal income tax benefits. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized $38.2 million in payroll retention credits. We will continue to review and consider other potential benefits, if any, that may become available to us under government programs.
Overview
Red Rock was formed as a Delaware corporation in 2015 to own an indirect equity interest in, and manage, Station Casinos LLC, a Nevada limited liability company (“Station LLC”). Station LLC is a gaming, development and management company established in 1976 that owns and operates ten major gaming and entertainment facilities and ten smaller casinos (three of which are 50% owned) in the Las Vegas regional market. Four of our major properties had not reopened as of December 31, 2020 as discussed above. Excluding the four closed properties, we currently offer approximately 13,769 slot machines, 273 table games and 3,081 hotel rooms in the Las Vegas market. A subsidiary of Station LLC also managed Graton Resort in northern California on behalf of a Native American tribe through February 5, 2021.
We own all of the outstanding voting interests in Station LLC and have an indirect equity interest in Station LLC through our ownership of limited liability company interests in Station Holdco (“LLC Units”), which owns all of the economic
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interests in Station LLC. At December 31, 2020, we held 60.7% of the economic interests and 100% of the voting power in Station Holdco, subject to certain limited exceptions, and we are designated as the sole managing member of both Station Holdco and Station LLC. We control and operate all of the business and affairs of Station Holdco and Station LLC, and conduct all of our operations through these entities. Our only assets are our ownership interests in Station LLC and Station Holdco, other than cash and tax-related assets and liabilities. We have no operations outside of our management of Station Holdco and Station LLC.
Our Consolidated Financial Statements reflect the consolidation of Station LLC and its consolidated subsidiaries, and Station Holdco. The financial position and results of operations attributable to LLC Units we do not own are reported separately as noncontrolling interest.
Our principal source of revenue and operating income is gaming, and our non-gaming offerings include restaurants, hotels and other entertainment amenities. Approximately 80% to 85% of our casino revenue is generated from slot play. The majority of our revenue is cash-based and as a result, fluctuations in our revenues have a direct impact on our cash flows from operations. Because our business is capital intensive, we rely heavily on the ability of our properties to generate operating cash flow to repay debt financing and fund capital expenditures.
The United States economy and the economy in the Las Vegas metropolitan area have been negatively affected by the unprecedented impacts of COVID-19. A significant portion of our business is dependent upon customers who live and/or work in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. As of December 2020, the unemployment rate in the Las Vegas metropolitan area was 10.4%, down from a high of 34% in April 2020. Statewide, the unemployment rate for December 2020 declined to 9.0% in December 2020, as compared to 30% in April 2020. Despite the economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, the median price of an existing single-family home in Las Vegas was up 10.2% at December 31, 2020 as compared to the prior year. This continues a trend of significant improvement in home values in Las Vegas since 2012, with the median home price remaining at an all-time high of $314,000 in December 2020 according to the Las Vegas Realtors®. In addition, Las Vegas remains one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States, posting a 1.5% growth rate in 2020. Due to uncertainties surrounding the ongoing pandemic, we cannot predict whether the recovery in unemployment and the positive trends in housing prices and population growth in the Las Vegas area will continue.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the temporary closure of all of our properties, and the ongoing closure of four of our properties, our year-over-year operating results are not comparable. In addition, our operating results for 2019 were impacted by construction disruption and costs associated with the $690 million redevelopment project at Palms, which was completed in the third quarter of 2019.
Information about our results of operations is included herein and in the notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Our Key Performance Indicators
We use certain key indicators to measure our performance.
Gaming revenue measures:
Slot handle, table game drop and race and sports write are measures of volume. Slot handle represents the dollar amount wagered in slot machines, and table game drop represents the total amount of cash and net markers issued that are deposited in table game drop boxes. Race and sports write represents the aggregate dollar amount wagered on race and sports events.
Win represents the amount of wagers retained by us.
Hold represents win as a percentage of slot handle or table game drop.
As our customers are primarily Las Vegas residents, our hold percentages are generally consistent from period to period. Fluctuations in our casino revenue are primarily due to the volume and spending levels of customers at our properties.
Food and beverage revenue measures:
Average guest check is a measure of food sales volume and product offerings at our restaurants, and represents the average amount spent per customer visit.
Number of guests served is an indicator of volume.
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Room revenue measures:
Occupancy is calculated by dividing occupied rooms, including complimentary rooms, by rooms available.
Average daily rate (“ADR”) is calculated by dividing room revenue, which includes the retail value of complimentary rooms, by rooms occupied, including complimentary rooms.
Revenue per available room is calculated by dividing room revenue by rooms available.
Results of Operations
The following table presents information about our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 2019 (dollars in thousands). Information about our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2019 as compared to 2018 can be found under Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 21, 2020.
 Year Ended December 31,
 20202019Percent
change
Net revenues$1,182,445 $1,856,534 (36.3)%
Operating income88,589 186,001 (52.4)%
Casino revenues764,255 984,253 (22.4)%
Casino expenses232,939 351,043 (33.6)%
Margin69.5 %64.3 %
Food and beverage revenues192,899 481,558 (59.9)%
Food and beverage expenses195,963 465,505 (57.9)%
Margin(1.6)%3.3 %
Room revenues87,035 192,305 (54.7)%
Room expenses49,363 81,064 (39.1)%
Margin43.3 %57.8 %
Other revenues56,279 106,773 (47.3)%
Other expenses23,034 52,329 (56.0)%
Management fee revenue81,977 91,645 (10.5)%
Selling, general and administrative expenses324,644 416,355 (22.0)%
Percent of net revenues27.5 %22.4 %
Depreciation and amortization231,391 222,211 4.1%
Write-downs and other charges, net36,537 82,123 n/m
Interest expense, net128,465 156,679 (18.0)%
Gain (loss) on extinguishment/modification of debt, net240 (19,939)n/m
Change in fair value of derivative instruments(21,590)(19,467)n/m
(Provision) benefit for income tax(114,081)1,734 n/m
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests(24,146)(3,386)n/m
Net loss attributable to Red Rock Resorts, Inc.(150,397)(3,351)n/m
________________________________________________
n/m = not meaningful
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We view each of our Las Vegas casino properties as an individual operating segment. We aggregate all of our Las Vegas operating segments into one reportable segment because all of our Las Vegas properties offer similar products, cater to the same customer base, have the same regulatory and tax structure, share the same marketing programs, are directed by a centralized management structure and have similar economic characteristics. We also aggregate our Native American management activities into one reportable segment. The results of operations for our Native American management segment are discussed under “Management Fee Revenue” below and the results of operations of our Las Vegas operations are discussed in the remaining sections below.
Net Revenues. Net revenues for the year ended December 31, 2020 decreased by $674.1 million to $1.18 billion as compared to $1.86 billion for the year ended December 31, 2019. The 36.3% decrease in net revenues was due to the mandated closure of all of our properties from March 17, 2020 through June 3, 2020 and the ongoing closures of Texas Station, Fiesta Rancho, Fiesta Henderson and Palms, as well as the state-mandated occupancy, social distancing and other restrictions in place at our reopened properties.
Operating Income. Operating income decreased by $97.4 million to $88.6 million for 2020 as compared to $186.0 million for 2019. The 52.4% decrease was primarily due to the mandated closure of all of our properties from March 17, 2020 through June 3, 2020 and the ongoing closure of four of our properties, partially offset by the impact of cost reduction measures we instituted in March 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Additional information about factors impacting our operating income are discussed below.
Casino.  Casino revenues decreased by 22.4% and casino expenses decreased by 33.6% for year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to 2019. The decreases were attributable to the mandated closure of all of our properties from March 17, 2020 through June 3, 2020 and the ongoing closure of four of our properties, as well as cost reduction measures at our reopened properties. Slot handle decreased by 32.8%, table games drop decreased by 35.5% and race and sports write decreased by 22.5% for 2020 as compared to 2019.
Food and Beverage.  Food and beverage includes revenue and expenses from restaurants, bars and catering at all of our Las Vegas properties, as well as the revenue and expenses associated with the nightclub and dayclub at Palms, which operated from April 2019 to November 2019. For the year ended December 31, 2020, food and beverage revenue decreased by 59.9% and food and beverage expenses decreased by 57.9%, each as compared to 2019. The decreases were due to the impact of the four closed properties, primarily Palms, the closure of our buffets, the mandated closure of all of our properties from March 17, 2020 through June 3, 2020, and ongoing mandatory operational restrictions.
Room. Information about our hotel operations is presented below:
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
Occupancy65.4 %88.1 %
Average daily rate$118.01 $128.51 
Revenue per available room$77.17 $113.15 
For the year ended December 31, 2020, room revenues decreased by 54.7% as compared to 2019. The year over year decline in revenues was due to decreased travel amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the temporary closure of all of our properties from March 17, 2020 through June 3, 2020 and the ongoing closure of the four properties, all of which negatively impacted our occupancy and average daily rate. For the year ended December 31, 2020, room expenses decreased by 39.1% as compared to 2019 due to the same factors, as well as our cost reduction measures. For year ended December 31, 2020, our ADR decreased by 8.2%, our revenue per available room decreased by 31.8%, and our occupancy rate decreased by 22.7 percentage points, each as compared to 2019.
Other. Other primarily includes revenues from tenant leases, retail outlets, bowling, spas, entertainment and other amenities and their corresponding expenses. Other revenues and other expenses decreased 47.3% and 56.0%, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2020, as compared to 2019, due to the temporary closure of all of our properties from March 17, 2020 through June 3, 2020, the ongoing closure of the four properties, a reduction in non-gaming amenities offered at our reopened properties, such as movie theaters, and lower revenues from amenities that were operating.
Management Fee Revenue. Management fee revenue primarily represents fees earned from our agreement with a Native American tribe to manage Graton Resort. For 2020 as compared to 2019, management fee revenue decreased by 10.5% due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the temporary closure of Graton Resort from March 17, 2020 through
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June 17, 2020 and the mandatory operational restrictions that have existed since Graton Resort reopened. The Graton Resort management agreement was originally expected to expire in November 2020 but was extended as a result of the pandemic through February 5, 2021, when the tribe terminated our management role at the facility. Whether the management agreement provides for an additional extension beyond that date is in dispute.
Selling, General and Administrative (“SG&A”).  SG&A expenses decreased by 22.0% to $324.6 million for 2020 as compared to $416.4 million for 2019, primarily due to the property closures and various cost reduction initiatives, including employee costs.
Depreciation and Amortization.  Depreciation and amortization expense for 2020 increased to $231.4 million as compared to $222.2 million for 2019. The increase was primarily due to additional portions of the Palms redevelopment project being placed into service in April 2019 and September 2019.
Write-downs and Other Charges, net. For the year ended December 31, 2020, write-downs and other charges, net totaled $36.5 million, which included net losses on asset disposals, including the write-off of assets due to the closure of our buffets, severance, including insurance benefits through September 2020 for employees who were terminated in connection with the workforce reduction in May 2020, and asset write-offs related to various technology projects. For the year ended December 31, 2019, write-downs and other charges, net totaled $82.1 million, which included $39.8 million in artist performance agreement termination costs associated with the closure of the nightclub and dayclub at Palms and $25.9 million in Palms redevelopment and preopening expenses, comprising various costs associated with the brand repositioning campaign, as well as preopening related to new restaurants, nightclubs, bars and other amenities.
Interest Expense, net.  The following table presents summarized information about our interest expense (amounts in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
Interest cost, net of interest income$117,993 $143,035 
Amortization of debt discount and debt issuance costs10,472 16,421 
Capitalized interest— (2,777)
Interest expense, net$128,465 $156,679 
Interest expense, net, for 2020 was $128.5 million as compared to $156.7 million for 2019. The decrease in interest expense, net was due primarily to lower variable interest rates on our credit facility as a result of a decrease in the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”). Interest rates decreased in 2020 in response to economic and growth uncertainty surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. See Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information about our long-term debt.
Gain (Loss) on Extinguishment/Modification of Debt, net. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized a net gain of $0.2 million on extinguishment/modification of debt comprising a gain of $12.7 million on repurchases of $96.6 million of our outstanding indebtedness, partially offset by a loss of $12.5 million on amendments to our credit facility in February 2020. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we recognized a $19.9 million loss on extinguishment/modification of debt primarily arising from the purchase of our corporate office building.
Change in Fair Value of Derivative Instruments. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized a net loss of $21.6 million in the fair value of our interest rate swaps, as compared to a net loss of $19.5 million for 2019. The losses were primarily due to downward movements in the forward interest rate curve. Our interest rate swaps will expire in July 2021.
(Provision) Benefit for Income Tax. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recognized income tax expense of $114.1 million as compared to income tax benefit of $1.7 million for the prior year, primarily relating to the establishment of a full valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of realizing the tax benefits. Our effective tax rate of (188.7)% for 2020 was less than the statutory rate with differences primarily related to the establishment of a full valuation allowance, as well as net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest, tax credits and permanent items. Station Holdco is treated as a partnership for income tax reporting and Station Holdco’s members are liable for federal, state and local income taxes based on their share of Station Holdco’s taxable income.
Net Loss Attributable to Noncontrolling Interests. Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 represented the portion of net loss attributable to the ownership interest in Station Holdco not held by us.
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Adjusted EBITDA
Adjusted EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 for our two reportable segments and a reconciliation of net income to Adjusted EBITDA are presented below (amounts in thousands). The Las Vegas operations segment includes all of our Las Vegas area casino properties and the Native American management segment includes our Native American management arrangements.
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
Net revenues
Las Vegas operations$1,094,442 $1,758,760 
Native American management81,440 91,074 
Reportable segment net revenues1,175,882 1,849,834 
Corporate and other6,563 6,700 
Net revenues$1,182,445 $1,856,534 
Net loss$(174,543)$(6,737)
Adjustments
Depreciation and amortization231,391 222,211 
Share-based compensation10,886 16,848 
Write-downs and other charges, net36,537 82,123 
Tax receivable agreement liability adjustment(15)(97)
Interest expense, net128,465 156,679 
(Gain) loss on extinguishment/modification of debt, net(240)19,939 
Change in fair value of derivative instruments21,590 19,467 
Provision (benefit) for income tax114,081 (1,734)
Other333 316 
Adjusted EBITDA$368,485 $509,015 
Adjusted EBITDA
Las Vegas operations$335,134 $472,921 
Native American management77,440 85,562 
Corporate and other(44,089)(49,468)
Adjusted EBITDA$368,485 $509,015 
The year-over-year decline in Adjusted EBITDA is primarily due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Additional information about the factors impacting the year-over-year decline are described under Results of Operations above.
Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP measure that is presented solely as a supplemental disclosure. We believe that Adjusted EBITDA is a widely used measure of operating performance in our industry and is a principal basis for valuation of gaming companies. We believe that in addition to net income (loss), Adjusted EBITDA is a useful financial performance measurement for assessing our operating performance because it provides information about the performance of our ongoing core operations excluding non-cash expenses, financing costs, and other non-operational or non-recurring items. Adjusted EBITDA includes net income (loss) plus depreciation and amortization, share-based compensation, write-downs and other charges, net (including net losses on asset disposals, severance, redevelopment and preopening expenses, business innovation and technology enhancements), tax receivable agreement liability adjustment, interest expense, net, (gain) loss on extinguishment/modification of debt, net, change in fair value of derivative instruments, provision (benefit) for income tax and other.
To evaluate Adjusted EBITDA and the trends it depicts, the components should be considered. Each of these components can significantly affect our results of operations and should be considered in evaluating our operating performance, and the impact of these components cannot be determined from Adjusted EBITDA. Further, Adjusted EBITDA does not represent net income or cash flows from operating, investing or financing activities as defined by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and should not be considered as an alternative to net income as an indicator of our operating performance. Additionally, Adjusted EBITDA does not consider capital expenditures and other
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investing activities and should not be considered as a measure of our liquidity. It should be noted that not all gaming companies that report EBITDA or adjustments to this measure may calculate EBITDA or such adjustments in the same manner as we do, and therefore, our measure of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other gaming companies.
Beginning in 2020, we changed our methodology for allocating certain corporate technology expenses to our reportable segments. Historically, all technology costs incurred at the corporate level were allocated to our operating properties on a pro rata basis. Under the new methodology, only technology costs that are directly related to operating properties are allocated to those properties, and expenses associated with corporate technology initiatives remain within corporate expense. Such corporate technology expenses were $14.5 million and $18.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The amount for the prior year period has been reclassified from the Las Vegas operations segment to Corporate and other within Adjusted EBITDA to conform with the current year presentation.
Holding Company Financial Information
The indenture governing the 5.00% Senior Notes and the indenture governing the 4.50% Senior Notes contain certain covenants that require Station LLC to furnish to the holders of the notes certain annual and quarterly financial information relating to Station LLC and its subsidiaries. The obligation to furnish such information may be satisfied by providing consolidated financial information of the Company along with additional disclosure explaining the differences between such information and the financial information of Station LLC and its subsidiaries on a standalone basis. The following financial information about the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries, exclusive of Station LLC and its subsidiaries (the “Holding Company”), is furnished to explain the differences between the financial information of the Holding Company and the financial information of Station LLC and its subsidiaries for the periods presented in this report. As discussed below, the primary differences between the financial information of the Holding Company and that of Station LLC relate to income taxes and the liability relating to the tax receivable agreement (“TRA”).
At December 31, 2020, the difference between the balance sheet for Station LLC and its consolidated subsidiaries and the balance sheet for the Holding Company is that the Holding Company had a $27.4 million noncurrent liability under the TRA and $0.6 million of other net current liabilities that are solely liabilities of the Holding Company. At December 31, 2019, the Holding Company had cash of $0.2 million and a net deferred tax asset of $113.2 million that are solely assets of the Holding Company, offset by a $25.1 million noncurrent liability under the TRA and $0.8 million of other net current liabilities.
For the year ended December 31, 2020, the difference between the statement of operations for Station LLC and its consolidated subsidiaries and the statement of operations for the Holding Company is that the Holding Company had a net loss of $114.2 million primarily representing provision for income tax to establish a full valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets. For 2019, the difference between the statement of operations for Station LLC and its consolidated subsidiaries and the statement of operations for the Holding Company is that the Holding Company had net income of $1.7 million which represented its income tax benefit.
Financial Condition, Capital Resources and Liquidity
The following financial condition, capital resources and liquidity discussion contains certain forward-looking statements with respect to our business, financial condition, results of operations, dispositions, acquisitions, expansion projects and issuances of debt and equity, which involve risks and uncertainties that cannot be predicted or quantified, and consequently, actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied herein. Such risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the risks described in Item 1A. Risk Factors.
At December 31, 2020, we had $121.2 million in cash and cash equivalents. We have taken steps to reduce our operating costs while our business continues to be negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, but we continue to have substantial payment obligations, including salaries, wages and employee benefits, payments with respect to our outstanding indebtedness, service contracts, property taxes, insurance and other obligations. On May 19, 2020, we announced that our board of directors had suspended the payment of dividends for the remainder of 2020, and the suspension of dividend payments will continue until further notice. In order to preserve financial flexibility in light of uncertainty in the global markets, Station LLC maintains its borrowing availability under its revolving credit facility, subject to continued compliance with the terms of the credit facility. On February 7, 2020, we amended Station LLC’s credit facility, increasing the outstanding borrowing availability under the revolving credit facility by $135.1 million to $1.03 billion, and at December 31, 2020, that borrowing availability was $1.0 billion, which was net of $29.4 million in outstanding letters of credit and similar obligations. See Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for more information about our long-term debt.
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Our primary capital requirements for the near term are expected to be related to the operation and maintenance of our properties and debt service payments. Our anticipated uses of cash for 2021 include required principal and interest payments on Station LLC’s indebtedness totaling $22.8 million and $115.3 million, respectively, and approximately $65.0 million to $75.0 million for maintenance and investment capital expenditures. In addition, we anticipate making cash distributions, which we refer to as “tax distributions” to the holders of LLC Units. We anticipate that these tax distributions will be made quarterly and in amounts that may vary from quarter to quarter. On February 22, 2021, we completed a partial redemption of $250 million in principal amount of 5.00% Senior Notes, which was funded using borrowings under the revolving credit facility and cash on hand.
We are obligated to make payments under the TRA, which is described in Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. At December 31, 2020, such obligations with respect to previously consummated transactions totaled $27.4 million. Future payments in respect of any subsequent exchanges of LLC Units for Class A common stock would be in addition to these amounts and are expected to be substantial. The timing of payments under the TRA may vary. The payments that we are required to make will generally reduce the amount of overall cash that might have otherwise been available to us, but we expect the cash tax savings we will realize from the utilization of the related deferred tax assets to fund the required payments.
In February 2019, our board of directors approved an equity repurchase program authorizing the repurchase of up to an aggregate of $150 million of our Class A common stock. In February 2021, our board of directors approved an extension of the equity repurchase program through December 31, 2022. We are not obligated to repurchase any shares under this program. Subject to applicable laws and the provisions of any agreements restricting our ability to do so, repurchases may be made at our discretion from time to time through open market purchases, negotiated transactions or tender offers, depending on market conditions and other factors. Through December 31, 2020, no equity repurchases were made under the program. From time to time, we may also seek to repurchase our outstanding indebtedness. Any such purchases may be funded by existing cash balances or the incurrence of debt, including borrowings under our credit facility. The amount and timing of any repurchase will be based on business and market conditions, capital availability, compliance with debt covenants and other considerations. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we repurchased $96.6 million of our outstanding indebtedness.
We expect that cash on hand, cash generated from operations and, to the extent necessary, borrowings available under the credit facility, will be sufficient to fund our operations and capital requirements and service our outstanding indebtedness for the next twelve months. We regularly assess our projected capital requirements for capital expenditures, repayment of debt obligations, and payment of other general corporate and operational needs. In the long term, we expect that we will fund our capital requirements with a combination of cash generated from operations, borrowings under the credit facility and the issuance of debt or equity as market conditions may permit. However, our cash flow and ability to obtain debt or equity financing on terms that are satisfactory to us, or at all, may be affected by a variety of factors, including competition, general economic and business conditions and financial markets, all of which may be adversely impacted by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, we cannot provide any assurance that we will generate sufficient income and liquidity to meet all of our liquidity requirements or other obligations.
Following is a summary of our cash flow information (amounts in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
 20202019
Cash flows provided by (used in):
Operating activities$212,790 $316,632 
Investing activities(69,557)(405,137)
Financing activities(150,443)103,162 
Cash Flows from Operations
Our operating cash flows primarily consist of operating income generated by our properties (excluding depreciation and other non-cash charges), interest paid and changes in working capital accounts such as inventories, prepaid expenses, receivables and payables. The majority of our revenue is generated from our slot machine and table game play, which is conducted primarily on a cash basis. Our food and beverage, room and other revenues are also primarily cash-based. As a result, fluctuations in our revenues have a direct impact on our cash flow from operations.
Net cash provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 totaled $212.8 million, compared to $316.6 million for 2019. For 2020, operating cash flows were negatively impacted by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic,
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including the temporary closure of all of our properties and the continued closure of four of our properties, the effects of state-mandated occupancy and social distancing restrictions, and reduced consumer confidence, discretionary spending and travel. For 2019, operating cash flows were negatively impacted by write-downs and other charges, net, including Palms redevelopment, preopening and artist performance agreement termination costs as well as an $18.7 million increase in cash paid for interest.
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
During 2020 and 2019, we paid $58.5 million and $353.3 million, respectively, for capital expenditures. For 2019, capital expenditures were primarily related to the redevelopment project at Palms that was completed in the third quarter of 2019 and the purchase of slot machines and related gaming equipment. During 2019, we also paid $57.4 million for the purchase of land held for development in Las Vegas.
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
For the year ended December 31, 2020, we reduced our outstanding indebtedness by $129.9 million. In February 2020, we issued $750.0 million in principal amount of 4.50% Senior Notes, the proceeds of which were used to repay a portion of the amounts outstanding under the credit facility, to pay fees and costs associated with the offering and for general corporate purposes. In March 2020, we drew $997.5 million under our revolving credit facility to secure our liquidity position and preserve financial flexibility amid the COVID-19 pandemic, all of which was repaid during 2020. In addition, for the year ended December 31, 2020, we paid $82.6 million to repurchase $96.6 million in principal amount of our outstanding indebtedness, primarily our senior notes. We also paid $7.3 million in dividends to Class A common stockholders and $4.6 million in cash distributions to the noncontrolling interest holders of Station Holdco, as well as $22.9 million in fees and costs related to the amendment of the credit facility and the new senior notes.
During 2019, we incurred net borrowings under the revolving credit facility of $195.0 million, which were primarily used to fund capital expenditures. We also paid $27.9 million in dividends to Class A common stockholders and $18.7 million in cash distributions to the noncontrolling interest holders of Station Holdco. In addition, we purchased our corporate building for $57.0 million, which was previously leased under a sale-leaseback transaction accounted for as a financing transaction, and settled the associated $37.4 million liability. The $19.6 million difference between the purchase price and the liability extinguished was recognized as a loss on early extinguishment of debt.
Restrictive Covenants
Certain customary covenants are included in both the credit agreement governing the credit facility and the indentures governing Station LLC’s senior notes that, among other things and subject to certain exceptions, restrict Station LLC’s ability and the ability of its restricted subsidiaries to incur or guarantee additional debt; create liens on collateral; engage in mergers, consolidations or asset dispositions; pay distributions; make investments, loans or advances; engage in certain transactions with affiliates or subsidiaries; engage in lines of business other than its core business and related businesses; or issue certain preferred units.
The credit facility also includes certain financial ratio covenants that Station LLC is required to maintain throughout the term of the credit facility, measured as of the end of each quarter. As most recently amended in February 2020, these financial ratio covenants include an interest coverage ratio of not less than 2.50 to 1.00 and a maximum consolidated total leverage ratio, with step-downs over the term of the credit facility, ranging from 6.50 to 1.00 at December 31, 2021 to 5.25 to 1.00 at December 31, 2023 and thereafter. A breach of the financial ratio covenants shall only become an event of default under the term loan B facility if the lenders providing the term loan A facility and the revolving credit facility take certain affirmative actions after the occurrence of a default of such financial ratio covenants. We believe Station LLC was in compliance with all applicable covenants at December 31, 2020. However, the ongoing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and results of operations may negatively impact our ability to remain in compliance with such covenants.
We may be unable to raise additional debt or equity financing to provide liquidity if the COVID-19 pandemic, measures implemented to curtail its spread, and changes in the economy, discretionary spending and consumer confidence have a protracted negative effect on our business. In addition, the aforementioned covenants and restrictions may limit our ability to compete effectively or to take advantage of new business opportunities. Further, our ability to comply with covenants and restrictions contained in the agreements governing our indebtedness may be adversely affected by general economic conditions and industry conditions resulting from COVID-19 and other factors.
Failure to satisfy the covenants contained in the credit agreements, indentures or other agreements governing our indebtedness would require us to seek waivers or amendments of such covenants. There can be no assurance that we will be
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able to obtain required waivers or amendments, as such matters depend, in part, on factors outside of our control. If we fail to satisfy our covenants and are unable to obtain such waivers or amendments, our creditors could exercise remedies under the applicable documents governing such indebtedness, including acceleration of such indebtedness.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
At December 31, 2020, we had no variable interests in unconsolidated entities that provide off-balance sheet financing, liquidity, market risk or credit risk support, or that engage in leasing, hedging or research and development arrangements with us, nor did we have retained or contingent interests in assets transferred to an unconsolidated entity. Our derivative instruments comprise interest rate swaps as described in Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. At December 31, 2020, we had outstanding letters of credit and similar obligations totaling $29.4 million.
Native American Development
We have development and management agreements with the Mono, a federally recognized Native American tribe located near Fresno, California, pursuant to which we will assist the Mono in developing, financing and operating a gaming and entertainment facility to be located on Highway 99 north of the city of Madera, California. See Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Regulation and Taxes
We are subject to extensive regulation by Nevada gaming authorities, as well as regulation by gaming authorities in the other jurisdictions in which we operate, including the NIGC, the California Gambling Control Commission and the Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria Gaming Commission. We will also be subject to regulation, which may or may not be similar to that in Nevada, by any other jurisdiction in which we may conduct gaming activities in the future. For a more complete description of our regulatory requirements, see Item 1. Business—Regulation and Licensing.
The gaming industry represents a significant source of tax revenue, particularly to the State of Nevada and its counties and municipalities. From time to time, various state and federal legislators and officials have proposed changes in tax law, or in the administration of such law, affecting the gaming industry. The Nevada legislature meets every two years for 120 days and when special sessions are called by the Governor. The current legislative session began on February 1, 2021. There are no assurances that an increase in taxes on gaming or other revenue will not be proposed and passed by the Nevada legislature in the future.
Description of Certain Indebtedness
Long-term Debt
A description of our indebtedness is included in Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Derivative Instruments
A description of our derivative and hedging activities and the related accounting is included in Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to make estimates and judgments that are subject to an inherent degree of uncertainty. Certain accounting estimates and assumptions may have a material impact on our financial statements due to the significant levels of subjectivity and judgment involved and the susceptibility of such estimates and assumptions to change. We base our estimates on historical experience, information that is currently available to us and various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, and we evaluate our estimates on an ongoing basis. Actual results may differ from our estimates, and such differences could have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Following is a discussion of our accounting policies that involve critical estimates and assumptions.
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Long-Lived Assets
Our business is capital intensive and a significant portion of our capital is invested in property and equipment, finite-lived intangible assets and other long-lived assets. We review long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. We evaluate the recoverability of our long-lived assets by estimating the future cash flows the asset is expected to generate, and comparing these estimated cash flows, on an undiscounted basis, to the carrying amount of the asset. If the carrying amount is greater, the asset is considered to be impaired, and we recognize an impairment charge equal to the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value. We test our long-lived assets for impairment at the reporting unit level, and each of our operating properties is considered a separate reporting unit.
Inherent in the calculation of fair values are various estimates and assumptions, including estimates of future cash flows expected to be generated by an asset or asset group. We base our cash flow estimates on the current regulatory, political and economic climates in the areas where we operate, recent operating information and projections for our properties. These estimates could be negatively impacted by changes in federal, state or local regulations, economic downturns, changes in consumer preferences, or events affecting various forms of travel and access to our properties. Future cash flow estimates are, by their nature, subjective and actual results may differ materially from our estimates. The most significant assumptions used in determining cash flow estimates include forecasts of future operating results, Adjusted EBITDA margins, tax rates, capital expenditures, working capital requirements, long-term growth rates and terminal year free cash flows. Cash flow estimates and their impact on fair value are highly sensitive to changes in many of these assumptions. If our estimates of future cash flows are not met, we may be required to record impairment charges in the future.
In the first quarter of 2020, the initial economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant adverse effect on our actual and projected operating results. We determined that those effects represented indicators of potential asset impairment and performed impairment assessments for all of our long-lived assets. No impairment losses were recognized as a result of the interim impairment testing.
As of December 31, 2020, our Texas Station, Fiesta Henderson, Fiesta Rancho and Palms properties had not reopened, and we have no plans to reopen any of these properties in 2021. We determined these ongoing closures to be an indicator of potential impairment at those reporting units. Accordingly, we tested the long-lived assets of those reporting units for impairment by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flows of those properties to the carrying amounts of the reporting units. Our cash flow projections were based on a number of assumptions that are highly judgmental due to the uncertainties surrounding the ongoing pandemic, including economic conditions, the projected timing of reopening, changes in regulations, such as operational and travel restrictions, and consumer preferences. Based on our undiscounted cash flow analysis, no impairment charges were recognized. However, we cannot predict the future impact or duration of the ongoing negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and as a result, cannot reasonably predict the probability or amount of impairment losses that may be incurred in future periods.
Property and Equipment. At December 31, 2020, the carrying amount of our property and equipment was approximately $2.9 billion, which represents 76.4% of our total assets. We make estimates and assumptions when accounting for property and equipment. We compute depreciation using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, and our depreciation expense is highly dependent on the assumptions we make about the estimated useful lives of our assets. We estimate the useful lives of our property and equipment based on our experience with similar assets and our estimate of the usage of the asset. Whenever events or circumstances occur that change the estimated useful life of an asset, we account for the change prospectively. We must also make judgments about the capitalization of costs. Costs of major improvements are capitalized, while costs of normal repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. If an asset or asset group is disposed or retired before the end of its previously estimated useful life, we may be required to accelerate our depreciation expense or recognize a loss on disposal.
Finite-Lived Intangible Assets. Our finite-lived intangibles assets primarily include assets related to our customer relationships, condominium rental contracts, certain trademarks and management contracts. We amortize our finite-lived intangible assets over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method. We periodically evaluate the remaining useful lives of our finite-lived intangible assets to determine whether events and circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining period of amortization. Whenever events or circumstances occur that change the estimated remaining useful life of an asset, we account for the change prospectively.
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Goodwill. We test our goodwill for impairment annually as of October 1, and whenever events or circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that impairment may have occurred. Impairment testing for goodwill is performed at the reporting unit level, and we consider each of our operating properties to be a separate reporting unit.
When performing the annual goodwill impairment testing, we either conduct a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the asset is impaired, or elect to bypass this qualitative assessment and perform a quantitative test for impairment. Under the qualitative assessment, we consider both positive and negative factors, including macroeconomic conditions, industry events, financial performance and other changes in facts and circumstances, and make a determination of whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of goodwill is less than its carrying amount. If, after assessing the qualitative factors, we determine it is more likely than not the asset is impaired, we perform a quantitative test in which the estimated fair value of the reporting unit is compared with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its estimated fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to the excess, limited to the amount of goodwill allocated to the reporting unit.
When performing the quantitative test, we estimate the fair value of each reporting unit using the expected present value of future cash flows along with value indications based on our current valuation multiple and multiples of comparable publicly traded companies. The estimation of fair value requires management to make critical estimates, judgments and assumptions, including estimating expected future cash flows and selecting appropriate discount rates, valuation multiples and market comparables. Application of alternative estimates and assumptions could produce significantly different results.
At December 31, 2020, our goodwill totaled $195.7 million. Approximately 86.8% of our goodwill is associated with one of our properties. As of our most recent annual goodwill testing date, the estimated fair value of each of our properties with goodwill exceeded its respective carrying value by a significant amount. If the fair value of any of these properties should decline in the future, we may be required to recognize a goodwill impairment charge, which could be material. A property’s fair value may decline as a result of a decrease in the property’s actual or projected operating results or changes in other significant assumptions and judgments used in the estimation process, including the discount rate and market multiple.
Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets. Our indefinite-lived intangible assets primarily represent the value of our brands. At December 31, 2020, the carrying amount of our indefinite-lived intangible assets totaled $77.5 million. Indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized unless management determines that their useful life is no longer indefinite. We test our indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually as of October 1, and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that an asset may be impaired, by comparing the carrying amount of the asset to its estimated fair value. If the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its estimated fair value, we recognize an impairment charge equal to the excess. We estimate the fair value of our brands using a derivation of the income approach to valuation based on the present value of estimated royalties avoided through ownership of the assets. The fair values of our indefinite-lived intangible assets are highly sensitive to changes in projected operating results. Accordingly, any decrease in the projected operating results of a property could require us to recognize an impairment charge, which could be material.
Native American Development Costs. We incur certain costs associated with our development and management agreements with Native American tribes which are reimbursable by the tribes, and we capitalize these costs as long-term assets. The assets are typically transferred to the tribe at such time as the tribe secures financing, or the gaming facility is completed. We earn a return on the costs incurred for the acquisition and development of Native American projects. Due to the uncertainty surrounding the timing and amount of the stated return, we recognize the return on a cash basis. Development costs and the related return are typically repaid by the tribe from a project’s financing or from operating cash flows of the casino after opening. Accordingly, the recoverability of our development costs is highly dependent upon the tribe’s success in obtaining financing and our ability to operate the project successfully upon its completion. Our evaluation of the recoverability of our Native American development costs requires us to apply a significant amount of judgment.
We evaluate our Native American development costs for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the project might not be recoverable, taking into consideration all available information. Among other things, we consider the status of the project, any contingencies, the achievement of milestones, any existing or potential litigation and regulatory matters when evaluating our Native American projects for impairment. If an indicator of impairment exists, we compare the estimated future cash flows of the asset, on an undiscounted basis, to the carrying amount of the asset. If the undiscounted expected future cash flows for a project do not exceed its carrying amount, the asset is written down to its estimated fair value. We estimate a project’s fair value using a discounted cash flow model and market comparables, when available. Our estimate of the undiscounted future cash flows of a Native American development project is based on consideration of all positive and negative evidence about the future cash flow potential of the project including, but not limited to, the likelihood that the project will be successfully completed, the status of required approvals, and the status and
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timing of the construction of the project, as well as current and projected economic, political, regulatory and competitive conditions that may adversely impact the project’s operating results. In certain circumstances, we may discontinue funding of a project due to a revision of its expected potential, or otherwise determine that our advances are not recoverable and as a result, we may be required to write off the entire carrying amount of a project.
Litigation, Claims and Assessments
We are defendants in various lawsuits relating to routine matters incidental to our business and we assess the potential for any lawsuits or claims brought against us on an ongoing basis. For ongoing litigation and potential claims, we use judgment in determining the probability of loss and whether a reasonable estimate of loss, if any, can be made. We accrue a liability when we believe a loss is probable and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. As the outcome of litigation is inherently uncertain, it is possible that certain matters may be resolved for materially different amounts than previously accrued or disclosed.
Income Taxes
We are taxed as a corporation and pay corporate federal, state and local taxes on income allocated to us by Station Holdco. Station Holdco operates as a partnership for federal, state and local tax reporting and holds 100% of the economic interests in Station LLC. The members of Station Holdco are liable for any income taxes resulting from income allocated to them by Station Holdco as a pass-through entity.
We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities based on the differences between the book value of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and those amounts applicable for income tax purposes using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred tax assets represent future tax deductions or credits. Realization of the deferred tax assets ultimately depends on the existence of sufficient taxable income of the appropriate character in either the carryback or carryforward period.
Each reporting period, we analyze the likelihood that our deferred tax assets will be realized. A valuation allowance is recorded if, based on the weight of all available positive and negative evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion, or all, of a deferred tax asset will not be realized. On an annual basis, we perform a comprehensive analysis of all forms of positive and negative evidence based on year end results. During each interim period, we update our annual analysis for significant changes in the positive and negative evidence. We have determined that our deferred tax assets do not meet the “more likely than not” threshold required under the accounting standard for income taxes and as a result, have provided a full valuation allowance on our net deferred tax assets.
We record uncertain tax positions on the basis of a two-step process in which (1) we determine whether it is more likely than not the tax positions will be sustained on the basis of the technical merits of the position, and (2) for those tax positions meeting the more likely than not recognition threshold, we recognize the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50% likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority. We do not believe that we have any tax positions for which it is reasonably possible that we will be required to record a significant liability for unrecognized tax benefits within the next twelve months.
ITEM 7A.QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Market risk is the risk of loss arising from adverse changes in market rates and prices, such as interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates and commodity prices.
Our primary exposure to market risk is interest rate risk associated with our long-term debt. We evaluate our exposure to market risk by monitoring interest rates in the marketplace. We attempt to limit our exposure to interest rate risk by managing the mix of our long-term and short-term borrowings and may use interest rate swaps to limit cash flow variability on a portion of our variable-rate debt. Borrowings under our credit agreements bear interest at a margin above LIBOR or base rate (each as defined in the credit agreements) as selected by us. The total amount of outstanding borrowings is expected to fluctuate and may be reduced from time to time.
LIBOR is expected to be discontinued after 2021. The interest rate per annum applicable to loans under our credit facility is, at our option, either LIBOR plus a margin or a base rate plus a margin. The credit facility permits the administrative agent to approve a comparable successor base rate in the event that LIBOR is discontinued, but there can be no assurances as to what the alternative base rate may be and whether such base rate will be more or less favorable than LIBOR or any other unforeseen impacts of the potential discontinuation of LIBOR. We intend to continue monitoring the developments with respect to the potential phasing out of LIBOR after 2021 and are working with our lenders to ensure the transition away from LIBOR
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will have minimal impact on our financial condition, but can provide no assurance regarding the impact of the discontinuation of LIBOR.
At December 31, 2020, $1.7 billion of the borrowings under our credit agreements were based on variable rates, primarily LIBOR, plus applicable margins of 1.75% to 2.25%. The LIBOR rate underlying our LIBOR-based borrowings outstanding under our credit facility ranged from 0.75% to 2.25%. The weighted-average interest rates for variable-rate debt shown in the long-term debt table below were calculated using the rates in effect at December 31, 2020. We cannot predict the LIBOR or base rate interest rates that will be in effect in the future, and actual rates will vary. Based on our outstanding borrowings at December 31, 2020, an assumed 1% increase in variable interest rates would cause our annual interest cost to increase by approximately $4.3 million, after giving effect to our interest rate swaps.
We are also exposed to interest rate risk related to our interest rate swap agreements which we use to hedge a portion of our variable-rate debt. At December 31, 2020, our interest rate swaps had a combined notional amount of $1.3 billion and a weighted-average fixed pay rate of 1.94%. Our interest rate swaps will expire in July 2021.
Although we no longer apply hedge accounting to these interest rate swaps, they continue to meet our risk management objectives by achieving fixed cash flows attributable to interest payments on the debt principal being hedged. See Note 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information about our interest rate swaps. We do not use derivative financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
Interest rate movements affect the fair value of our interest rate swaps. The fair values of our interest rate swaps are determined using widely accepted valuation techniques including discounted cash flow analysis on the expected cash flows of the instrument. This analysis reflects the contractual terms of the agreements, including the period to maturity, and uses observable market-based inputs, including forward interest rate curves. We incorporate credit valuation adjustments to appropriately reflect both our own nonperformance risk and the respective counterparty’s nonperformance risk in the fair value measurement. Fair value is subject to significant estimation and a high degree of variability between periods and changes in the fair values of our interest rate swaps are recognized in our Consolidated Statements of Operations in the period of change. In addition, we are exposed to credit risk should the counterparties fail to perform under the terms of the interest rate swap agreements; however, we seek to minimize our exposure to this risk by entering into interest rate swap agreements with highly rated counterparties, and we do not believe we were exposed to significant credit risk at December 31, 2020.
Following is information about future principal maturities of our long-term debt and the related weighted-average contractual interest rates in effect at December 31, 2020 (dollars in millions):
 Expected maturity date
 20212022202320242025ThereafterTotalFair value
Long-term debt:       
Fixed rate$1.5 $1.1 $1.2 $1.2 $567.4 $690.9 $1,263.3 $1,274.7 
Weighted-average interest rate4.47 %3.80 %3.80 %3.80 %4.92 %4.50 %
Variable rate (a)$21.3 $24.8 $24.8 $24.8 $159.4 $1,427.2 $1,682.3 $1,661.7 
Weighted-average interest rate2.23 %2.27 %2.27 %2.27 %1.96 %2.50 %
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(a)     Based on variable interest rates and margins in effect at December 31, 2020.
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Following is information about the combined notional amount and weighted-average interest rate by contractual maturity date for our interest rate swap agreements, as well as the fair value of our interest rate swap liabilities at December 31, 2020 (dollars in millions):
 Expected maturity dateFair value (c)
 20212022202320242025ThereafterTotal
Interest rate swaps:      
Notional amount$1,250.0 $— $— $— $— $— $1,250.0 $11.8 
Fixed interest rate payable (a)1.94 %— %— %— %— %— %
Variable interest rate receivable (b)0.15 %— %— %— %— %— %
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(a)Represents the weighted-average fixed interest rate payable on our interest rate swaps.
(b)Represents the variable receive rate in effect at December 31, 2020.
(c)Liability excludes accrued interest.
Additional information about our long-term debt and interest rate swaps is included in Notes 7 and 8 to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
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ITEM 8.FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA



INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 Page

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Red Rock Resorts, Inc.

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Red Rock Resorts, Inc. (the Company) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive (loss) income, stockholders' equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes and the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a)2 (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”