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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

   REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from July 1, 2021 to June 30, 2022

OR

   SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report

Commission file number: 001-33176

Baijiayun Group Ltd

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Cayman Islands

24F, A1 South Building, No. 32 Fengzhan Road

Yuhuatai District, Nanjing, 210000

The People’s Republic of China

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(Address of principal executive offices)

Yong Fang, Chief Financial Officer

Tel.: +86-025-8222-1596

Email: fangyong@baijiayun.com

Address:

24F, A1 South Building, No. 32 Fengzhan Road

Yuhuatai District, Nanjing 210000

The People’s Republic of China

(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

Title of each class

    

Trading Symbol(s)

    

Name of each exchange on which registered

Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.519008 per share

RTC

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the transition report.

As of June 30, 2022, there were 3,265,837 ordinary shares, par value US$0.519008 per share of Fuwei Films (Holdings) Co., Ltd., the predecessor of Baijiayun Group Ltd.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer Accelerated filer  Non-accelerated filer  Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing.

U.S. GAAP 

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board

Other ☐

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 ☐ Item 18 ☐

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes ☐ No ☐

TABLE OF CONTENT

PART I

1

Explanatory Note

1

Item 1.

Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

1

Item 2.

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

1

Item 3.

Key Information

1

Item 4.

Information on the Company

49

Item 4A.

Unresolved Staff Comments

76

Item 5.

Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

77

Item 6.

Directors, Senior Management and Employees

93

Item 7.

Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

101

Item 8.

Financial Information

104

Item 9.

The Offer and Listing

104

Item 10.

Additional Information

105

Item 11.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

123

Item 12.

Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities

124

PART II

125

Item 13.

Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

125

Item 14.

Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

125

Item 15.

Controls and Procedures

125

Item 16A.

Audit Committee Financial Expert

126

Item 16B.

Code of Ethics

126

Item 16C.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

126

Item 16D.

Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

127

Item 16E.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

127

Item 16F.

Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

127

Item 16G.

Corporate Governance

128

Item 16H.

Mine Safety Disclosure

128

Item 16I.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

128

PART III

129

Item 17.

Financial Statements

129

Item 18.

Financial Statements

129

Item 19.

Exhibits

129

Conventions that apply to this transition report on Form 20-F

In this transition report on Form 20-F, each of the following terms has the meaning ascribed to it below:

“Beijing WFOE” means Beijing Baishilian Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC limited liability company.
“BOPET film business” means the manufacture and distribution of BOPET (biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate) film principally engaged by our predecessor Fuwei.
“BJY” means BaiJiaYun Limited, a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability and the wholly-owned subsidiary of Baijiayun Group Ltd.
“CAC” means the Cyberspace Administration of China.
“China” or “PRC” means the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purpose of this transition report on Form 20-F only, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau.
“Class A ordinary share” means a Class A ordinary share in the capital of our company, with a par value of US$0.519008 per share.
“Class B ordinary share” means a Class B ordinary share in the capital of our company, with a par value of US$0.519008 per share.
“Closing” means the closing of the Merger.
“Closing Date” means the date of the Closing.
“Code” means the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.
“Companies Act” means the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands.
“COVID-19” means SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19, and any evolutions thereof.
“CSRC” means the Chinese Securities Regulatory Commission.
“Effective Time” means the time when the plan of merger is registered by the Registrar of Companies of the Cayman Islands or such later time as Merger Sub and BJY may agree and specify in the plan of merger pursuant to the Companies Act subject to section 234 of the Companies Act.
“EIT Law” means the Enterprise Income Tax Law of the PRC.
“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
“fiscal year” means the period from July 1 of the previous calendar year to June 30 of the concerned calendar year.
“Fuwei” means Fuwei Films (Holdings) Co., Ltd., the predecessor of our company prior the consummation of the Merger.
“GAAP” means United States generally accepted accounting principles.
“HFCAA” means the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act.
“IDC’ means “International Data Corporation”, an independent market research, analysis, and consulting firm in the United States.
“iResearch” means “iResearch Consulting Group”, an independent market research, analysis, and consulting firm in China.
“IRS” means the U.S. Internal Revenue Service.
“JOBS Act” means the United States Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012.
“Merger” means the transaction pursuant to an agreement and plan of merger, dated as of July 18, 2022 (the “Merger Agreement”), by and between Fuwei and BJY, pursuant to which a wholly-owned subsidiary of Fuwei (“Merger Sub”) merged with and into BJY, with BJY being the surviving entity and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Fuwei. Shareholders of BJY exchanged all of the issued and outstanding shares of BJY immediately prior to the Merger for newly issued shares of Fuwei in a transaction exempt from the registration requirements under the Securities Act of 1933.
“MIIT” means the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China.
“MOFCOM” means the Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China.
“Nasdaq” means The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC.
“ordinary shares” means, collectively, our Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares.
“PCAOB” means the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board.
“RMB” or “Renminbi” means the legal currency of China.
“video-centric technology solution business” means Software-as-a-Service (“SaaS”) and Platform-as-a-Service (“PaaS”) solutions and cloud and software related solutions and enterprise AI and system solutions offered by BJY, which is expected to be our principal business after the Merger.
“SAFE” means the State Administration of Foreign Exchange.
“SAIC” means the State Administration for Industry and Commerce.
“SAT” means the State Administration of Taxation.
“SCNPC” means the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.
“SEC” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
“Securities Act” means the United States Securities Act of 1933.
“US$” or “U.S. dollars” means the legal currency of the United States of America.
“the variable interest entity” or “the VIE” means BaiJiaYun Group Co., Ltd, an entity that Baijiayun Group Ltd consolidates through contractual arrangements.
“we,” “us,” “our company” and “our” mean Baijiayun Group Ltd, a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability (or its predecessor, Fuwei Films (Holdings) Co., Ltd., as the context requires), and its subsidiaries, the VIE and their respective subsidiaries.
“WFOEs” means Beijing WFOE, Zhejiang WFOE, Shenzhen Baishilian Technology Co., Ltd., Nanning Baishilian Information Technology Co., Ltd., and Nanjing Baishilian Technology Co., Ltd.
“Zhejiang WFOE” means Zhejiang Baijiashilian Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC limited liability company.

Names of certain companies provided in this transition report are translated or transliterated from their original Chinese legal names.

Discrepancies in any table between the amounts identified as total amounts and the sum of the amounts listed therein are due to rounding.

This transition report on Form 20-F includes BaiJiaYun Limited’s audited consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) data and consolidated statements of cash flows data for the 2020, 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, and the consolidated balance sheets data as of June 30, 2021 and 2022. The reporting currency of BJY is U.S. dollars.

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-looking Statements

This transition report on Form 20-F contains certain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. All statements other than statements of historical fact in this transition report on Form 20-F are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements can be identified by words or phrases such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “is/are likely to,” “may,” “plan,” “should,” “will” and similar expressions. These forward-looking statements include, without limitation, statements relating to:

our ability to continuously develop new technology, services and products and keep up with changes in the industries that we operate;
the expected growth of China's video cloud industry and our future business development;
our expected growth in demand and market acceptance, for our products and services;
our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights;
our ability to attract and retain qualified executives and personnel;
the impact of ongoing COV1D-19 pandemic and the effects of government and other measures seeking to contain its spread;
U.S.-China trade war and its effect on our operation, fluctuations of the RMB exchange rate, and our ability to obtain adequate financing for our planned capital expenditure requirements;
the effect of the Merger on our ability to maintain relationships with its customers and business partners, or on our operating results and business generally; and
other risk factors discussed under “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors.”

You should thoroughly read this transition report and the documents that we refer to in this transition report with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. Other sections of this transition report include additional factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

EXPLANATORY NOTE

On July 18, 2022, Fuwei entered into an agreement and plan of merger (the “Merger Agreement”) with BJY, a leading video-centric technology solution provider in China with core expertise in Software-as-a-Service (“SaaS”) and Platform-as-a-Service (“PaaS”) solutions, pursuant to which a wholly-owned subsidiary of Fuwei (“Merger Sub”) will be merged with and into BJY (the “Merger”), with BJY being the surviving entity. Shareholders of BJY will exchange all of the issued and outstanding shares of BJY immediately prior to the Merger for newly issued shares of Fuwei in a transaction exempt from the registration requirements under the Securities Act of 1933. Upon consummation of the Merger, BJY will become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Fuwei. Copies of the Merger Agreement and the plan of merger in respect of the Merger are attached as Annex B and Annex D, respectively, to the proxy statement furnished as Exhibit 99.2 to our Current Report on Form 6-K filed with the SEC on August 22, 2022 and incorporated herein by reference.

The Merger and all transactions contemplated by the Merger Agreement and plans of merger (the “Transactions”) were consummated on December 23, 2022. Upon consummation of the Transactions, BJY became our wholly-owned subsidiary, and we changed our name from “Fuwei Films (Holdings) Co., Ltd.” to “Baijiayun Group Ltd” and our ticker from “FFHL” to “RTC”.

Prior to the Transactions, we developed, manufactured, and distributed high-quality plastic film using the biaxially-oriented stretch technique, otherwise known as BOPET film, through Fuwei and its then subsidiaries. As a result of the Transactions, we assumed and began conducting the video-centric technology solution business of BJY.

On December 23, 2022, our board of directors (the “Board”) approved a change of fiscal year end from December 31 to June 30. As a result, we are required to file this transition report on Form 20-F for the transition period of July 1, 2021 to June 30, 2022. After filing the transition report, our next fiscal year will be the fiscal year ending June 30, 2023.

PART I

Item 1.Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not applicable.

Item 2.Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not applicable.

Item 3.Key Information

Implications of Being a Company with the Holding Company Structure and the VIE Structure

Baijiayun Group Ltd is a Cayman Islands holding company with no substantive operations. We have carried out our video-centric technology solution business through Zhejiang WFOE since January 2, 2023 (and through Beijing WFOE from September 7, 2021 to January 1, 2023) and its contractual arrangements, commonly known as the VIE structure, with the VIE based in China and its shareholders, due to the PRC regulatory restrictions on direct foreign investment in internet-related services and certain other businesses. Our shareholders hold the equity securities of Baijiayun Group Ltd, the Cayman Islands holding company, rather than the equity securities of the VIE, in which our operations are conducted. Prior to the Transactions, we developed, manufactured, and distributed high-quality plastic film using the biaxially-oriented stretch technique, otherwise known as BOPET film, through Fuwei and its then subsidiaries.

The VIE structure was established through a series of agreements entered into between Zhejiang WFOE, the VIE and its shareholders, comprising an exclusive technical and consulting services agreement, the powers of attorney, the exclusive option agreements, and the equity interest pledge agreements. The contractual arrangements allow us to (1) be considered as the primary beneficiary of the VIE for accounting purposes and consolidate the financial results of the VIE, (2) receive substantially all of the economic benefits of the VIE, (3) have the pledge right over the equity interests in the VIE as the pledgee, and (4) have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in the VIE when and to the extent permitted by PRC law. For details, see “Item 4. Information on the Company — C. Organizational Structure — Contractual Arrangements and Corporate Structure.”

1

However, neither Baijiayun Group Ltd nor Zhejiang WFOE owns any equity interests in the VIE. Our contractual arrangements with the VIE and its shareholders are not equivalent of an investment in the equity interest of the VIE. Instead, as described above, we are regarded as the primary beneficiary of the VIE and consolidate the financial results of the VIE under U.S. GAAP in light of the VIE structure.

The VIE structure involves unique risks to holders of our ordinary shares. It may be less effective than direct ownership in providing us with operational control over the VIE or its subsidiaries, and we may incur substantial costs to enforce the terms of the arrangements. For instance, the VIE and its shareholder could breach their contractual arrangements with us by, among other things, failing to conduct the operations of the VIE in an acceptable manner or taking other actions that are detrimental to our interests. If we had direct ownership of the VIE in China, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of the VIE, which in turn could implement changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management and operational level. However, under the current contractual arrangements, we rely on the performance by the VIE and its shareholders of their obligations under the contracts to direct the VIE’s activities. The shareholders of the VIE may not act in the best interests of our company or may not perform its obligations under these contracts. If any dispute relating to these contracts remains unresolved, we will have to enforce our rights under these contracts through the operations of PRC law and arbitration, litigation and other legal proceedings and therefore will be subject to uncertainties in the PRC legal system.

We may face challenges in enforcing the contractual arrangements due to jurisdictional and legal limitations. There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules regarding the status of the rights of our Cayman Islands holding company with respect to its contractual arrangements with the VIE and its nominee shareholders through Zhejiang WFOE. As of the date of this transition report, the agreements under the contractual arrangements among Zhejiang WFOE, the VIE and its shareholders have not been tested in a court of law. It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to VIE structures will be adopted or, if adopted, what they would provide. If we or the VIE is found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations or fail to obtain or maintain any of the required licenses, permits, registrations or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures. The PRC regulatory authorities could disallow the VIE structure at any time in the future. If the PRC government deems that our contractual arrangements with the VIE do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change or are interpreted differently in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties and may incur substantial costs to enforce the terms of the arrangements, or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations. Our Cayman Islands holding company, our subsidiaries, the VIE and its subsidiaries, and our shareholders face uncertainty with respect to potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with the VIE and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of our company and the VIE and its subsidiaries as a whole. For details, see “— D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure.”

Revenues contributed by the VIE accounted for substantially all of the total revenues of BJY in the 2020, 2021 and 2022 fiscal years. For a condensed consolidation schedule depicting the results of operations, financial position and cash flows for us, Beijing WFOE and the VIE during the 2020, 2021 and 2020 fiscal years, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.” For details of the permissions and licenses required for operating our business in China and the related limitations, see “— Our Operations in China and Permissions Required from the PRC Authorities for Our Operations.”

2

Our Operations in China and Permissions Required from the PRC Authorities for Our Operations

Currently, we, through Zhejiang WFOE and the VIE, conduct our video-centric technology solution business in China. Our operations in China are governed by PRC laws and regulations. We and the VIE are required to obtain certain licenses, permits and approvals from relevant governmental authorities in China in order to operate our business. As of the date of this transition report, as advised by our PRC counsel, Beijing Dentons Law Offices, LLP (“Dentons”), Zhejiang WFOE and the VIE have obtained the licenses, permits and registrations from the PRC government authorities necessary for our business operations in China, including, among others, value-added telecommunication business operation licenses with service scope for provision of domestic multi-party communication services and for provision of information services. Given the uncertainties of interpretation and implementation of relevant laws and regulations and the enforcement practice by relevant government authorities, and the promulgation of new laws and regulations and amendment to the existing ones, we may be required to obtain additional licenses, permits, registrations, filings or approvals for our business operations in the future. We cannot assure you that we or the VIE will be able to obtain, in a timely manner or at all, or maintain such licenses, permits or approvals, and we or the VIE may also inadvertently conclude that such permissions or approvals are not required. Any lack of or failure to maintain requisite approvals, licenses or permits applicable to us or the VIE may have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects and cause the value of any securities we offer to significantly decline or become worthless. For details, see “— D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — We may be required to obtain and maintain permits, filings and licenses to operate our business in China.”

On December 28, 2021, the CAC and other twelve PRC regulatory authorities jointly revised and promulgated the Measures for Cybersecurity Review (the “Review Measures”), which became effective on February 15, 2022. See “Item 4. Information on the Company — Government Regulations — Regulation on Information Security and Censorship.” Pursuant to the Review Measures, in addition to “critical information infrastructure operators” who procure internet products and services that affect or may affect national security shall be subject to a cybersecurity review, any “network platform operators” carrying out data processing activities that affect or may affect national security should also be subject to the cybersecurity review requirements. The Review Measures also provide that if a “network platform operator” holding personal information of more than one million users intends to go public in a foreign country, it must apply for a cybersecurity review. In addition, the relevant PRC governmental authorities may initiate cybersecurity review if they determine certain network products, services, or data processing activities affect or may affect national security. As of the date of this transition report, we have not been informed by any PRC government authorities that we will be deemed as a critical information infrastructure operator, nor have we been involved in any formal investigations on cybersecurity review made by the CAC on such basis. However, if we are not able to comply with the cybersecurity and data privacy requirements in a timely manner, or at all, we may be subject to government enforcement actions and investigations, fines, penalties, suspension of our non-compliant operations, or removal of our applications from the relevant application stores, among other sanctions, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. See “— D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Video-centric Technology Solution Business — Our business is subject to a variety of PRC and international laws and regulations, including those regarding privacy, cybersecurity and data protection, and our customers may be subject to regulations related to the handling and transfer of certain types of sensitive and confidential information. Any failure of our platform to comply with or enable our customers to comply with applicable laws and regulations could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.”

On December 24, 2021, the CSRC released the Provisions of the State Council on the Administration of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments) and the Administrative Measures for the Filing of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments) (the “Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listing”). See “Item 4. Information on the Company — Government Regulations — Regulations Related to Overseas Listings.” As of the date of this transition report, as advised by our PRC counsel, considering that (1) the Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listing has not come into effect; and (2) no explicit provision under currently effective PRC laws, regulations and rules clearly requires an offering with contractual arrangements like ours to obtain approvals from the CSRC, we or the VIE are not required to obtain an approval from the CSRC in connection with the listing of our securities on the Nasdaq Stock Market.

3

However, the PRC regulatory authorities, including the CSRC, may adopt new laws, rules and regulations, or detailed implementation and interpretation of the current applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, and we cannot assure you that the relevant PRC regulatory authorities, including the CSRC, would reach the same conclusion as us or our PRC counsel. Furthermore, the PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas by and foreign investment in China-based issuers. For instance, the Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listing stipulates that the China-based companies, or the issuer, shall fulfill the filing procedures within three working days after the issuer makes an application for initial public offering and listing in an overseas market. In addition, an overseas offering and listing is prohibited under any of certain circumstances, including, among others, prohibition by national laws and regulations and relevant provisions, threatening to or endangering national security, material violation of laws by the company or its controllers or its directors, supervisors, or senior executives. If the Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listing were to be implemented as proposed in its current form, we might be subject to the filing requirements with the CSRC for the listing. Moreover, as the Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listing has not come into effect, there remains uncertainty in the final form and the interpretation and implementation of such overseas listing rules, and we cannot assure you that the relevant PRC government authorities, including the CSRC, would not promulgate new rules or new interpretation of current rules to require us or the VIE to obtain CSRC or other PRC government approvals or complete other compliance procedures for the listing of our securities on the Nasdaq Stock Market. We cannot assure you that we or the VIE would be able to obtain such approvals or complete such other compliance procedures, to the extent that they may be subsequently required by the relevant regulatory authorities, in a timely manner, or at all, or that any completion of review or approval or other compliance procedures would not be rescinded, in which case we may face regulatory sanctions for failure to complete the requisite compliance procedures or obtain the requisite approvals for the listing. If any of such event occurs, it could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to launch any new offering of our securities and could cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless. For details, see “— D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing business in China — Recent regulatory development in China may exert more oversight and control over listing and offerings that are conducted overseas. The approval of the CSRC may be required in connection with the listing of our securities on Nasdaq and our future capital raising activities, and, if required, we cannot assure you that we or the VIE will be able to obtain such approval.”

Cash and Asset Flows through Our Organization

In light of our holding company structure and the VIE structure, our ability to pay dividends to the shareholders, and to service any debt we may incur may highly depend upon dividends paid by Zhejiang WFOE to us and service fees paid by the VIE to Zhejiang WFOE, despite that we may obtain financing at the holding company level through other methods. For instance, if any of Zhejiang WFOE or the VIE incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing such debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends to us and our shareholders, as well as the ability to settle amounts owed under the contractual arrangements. As of the date of this transition report, none of Baijiayun Group Ltd, the WFOEs and the VIE has paid any dividends or made any distributions to their respective shareholder(s), including any U.S. investors. In the 2020, 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, the VIE did not pay any service fees to Beijing WFOE under the contractual arrangements. For details, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Financial Information Related to the VIE.” We expect to continue to distribute earnings and settle the service fees owed under the VIE agreements at the request of Zhejiang WFOE and based on our business needs, and do not expect to declare dividend in the foreseeable future. We currently have not maintained any cash management policies that specifically dictate how funds shall be transferred among Baijiayun Group Ltd, its subsidiaries (including Zhejiang WFOE), and the VIE. We will determine the payment of dividends and fund transfer based on our specific business needs in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations.

4

Under PRC laws and regulations, the WFOEs are permitted to pay dividends only out of their retained earnings, if any, as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Furthermore, the WFOEs and the VIE are required to make appropriations to certain statutory reserve funds or may make appropriations to certain discretionary funds, which are not distributable as cash dividends except in the event of a solvent liquidation of the companies. Remittance of dividends by the WFOEs out of China is also subject to certain procedures with the banks designated by the PRC State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”). These restrictions are benchmarked against the paid-in capital and the statutory reserve funds of the WFOEs and the net assets of the VIE in which we have no legal ownership. In addition, while there are currently no such restrictions on foreign exchange and our ability to transfer cash or assets between Baijiayun Group Ltd and BaiJia Cloud Limited, our Hong Kong subsidiary, if certain PRC laws and regulations, including existing laws and regulations and those enacted or promulgated in the future were to become applicable to our Hong Kong subsidiary in the future, and to the extent our cash or assets are in Hong Kong or a Hong Kong entity, such funds or assets may not be available due to interventions in or the imposition of restrictions and limitations on our ability to transfer funds or assets by the PRC government. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that the PRC government will not intervene or impose restrictions on Baijiayun Group Ltd, its subsidiaries, the VIE and its subsidiaries to transfer or distribute cash within the organization, which could result in an inability of or prohibition on making transfers or distributions to entities outside of mainland China and Hong Kong. For details, see “— D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — We may rely on dividends, loans and other distributions on equity paid by our principal operating subsidiaries to fund offshore cash and financing requirements. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC operating subsidiaries to make payments to us could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business,” and “— D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China —PRC regulation of loans to, and direct investment in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may restrict or prevent us from making loans to the WFOEs and the VIE, or to make additional capital contributions to the WFOEs.”

Under PRC laws and regulations, we, the Cayman Islands holding company, may fund the WFOEs only through capital contributions or loans, and fund the VIE only through loans, subject to satisfaction of applicable government registration and approval requirements. As of June 30, 2020, 2021 and 2022, (1) the aggregate amount of capital contribution by BJY to our subsidiaries in Hong Kong was nil, nil and US$22.9 million, respectively; and (2) the aggregate amount of capital contribution by BJY to the WFOEs through our subsidiaries in Hong Kong was nil, nil and US$36.9 million, respectively. For the 2020, 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, there were no loans between the VIE and the WFOEs, net cash transferred by the VIE to the WFOEs, or transfer of assets within our organization. For details, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Financial Information Related to the VIE.”

Dividend Distribution

As of the date of this transition report, none of Baijiayun Group Ltd, the WFOEs and the VIE has paid any dividends or made any distributions to their respective shareholders, including any U.S. investors, nor do we have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on our ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to operate and expand our business. See “Item 8. Financial Information — A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information —Dividend Policy” for details.

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act

The HFCAA was enacted on December 18, 2020. Pursuant to the HFCAA and related regulations, if we have filed an audit report issued by a registered public accounting firm that the PCAOB has determined that it is unable to inspect and investigate completely, the SEC will identify us as a “Commission-identified Issuer,” and the trading of our securities on any U.S. national securities exchanges, as well as any over-the-counter trading in the United States, will be prohibited if we are identified as a Commission-identified Issuer for three consecutive years. There have been various initiatives to reduce the number of consecutive non-inspection years required for triggering the prohibitions under the HFCAA from three to two years. On June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed a bill known as the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act to that effect, and on February 4, 2022, the United States House of Representatives passed a bill which contained, among others, an identical provision. In August 2022, the PCAOB, the CSRC and the Ministry of Finance of the PRC signed the Statement of Protocol, which establishes a specific and accountable framework for the PCAOB to conduct inspections and investigations of PCAOB-governed accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong.

5

On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it was able to secure complete access to inspect and investigate PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong completely in 2022. The PCAOB Board vacated its previous 2021 determinations that the PCAOB was unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong. However, whether the PCAOB will continue to be able to satisfactorily conduct inspections of PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong is subject to uncertainties and depends on a number of factors out of our and our auditor’s control. The PCAOB continues to demand complete access in mainland China and Hong Kong moving forward and is making plans to resume regular inspections in early 2023 and beyond, as well as to continue pursuing ongoing investigations and initiate new investigations as needed. The PCAOB has also indicated that it will act immediately to consider the need to issue new determinations with the HFCAA if needed. On December 29, 2023, the Consolidated Appropriations Act was signed into law, which, among others, amended the HFCAA to reduce the number of consecutive years an issuer can be identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer before the SEC must impose an initial trading prohibition on the issuer’s securities from three years to two. If the PCAOB is unable to inspect and investigate completely registered public accounting firms located in China and we fail to retain another registered public accounting firm that the PCAOB is able to inspect and investigate completely in 2023 and beyond, or if we otherwise fail to meet the PCAOB’s requirements, our ordinary shares will be delisted from the Nasdaq Stock Market, and will not be permitted for trading over the counter in the United States under the HFCAA and related regulations. The related risks and uncertainties could cause the value of our ordinary shares to significantly decline or become worthless. For details, see “— D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The ordinary shares will be delisted and prohibited from trading in the over-the-counter market under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely auditors located in China for three consecutive years or if proposed changes to the law are enacted, for two consecutive years. The delisting of the ordinary shares, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.”

A. Reserved

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D. Risk Factors

This section describes the risks that we currently believe may materially affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. The factors below should be considered in connection with any forward-looking statements in this transition report on Form 20-F. Although we will make reasonable efforts to mitigate or minimize these risks, one or more of a combination of these risks could materially and adversely impact our business, revenues, sales, net assets, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, capital resources and prospects. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe to be immaterial, may also become important factors that affect us.

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Risks Related to Our Video-centric Technology Solution Business

We operate in an emerging and evolving market, which may develop more slowly or differently than we expect. If the market does not grow as expected, or if we cannot expand our services to meet the demands of this market, our revenues may decline, or fail to grow.

The video cloud market in China is at an early stage of development. There is considerable uncertainty over the size and rate at which this market will grow, as well as whether our platform will be widely adopted. Prospective customers may be reluctant or unwilling to use our platform for a number of reasons, including concerns about costs, uncertainty regarding the reliability and security of cloud-based offerings, lack of awareness of the benefits of our platform, or that they have invested substantial personnel and financial resources to develop internal solutions. Our ability to expand sales depends on several factors that are out of its control, including but not limited to market awareness and acceptance, competition, end-user demand for applications with SaaS/PaaS features launched by its customers, technological challenges and developments. If the video cloud market or demand for its products does not grow or even decreases, our business, operating results and financial condition would be adversely affected.

Our operating results and growth prospects depend on acquiring and retaining customers and increasing usage of customers’ applications that integrate our products.

To successfully grow our business, we must continue to attract new customers in a cost-effective manner. We use a variety of marketing channels to promote our products and platform, such as developer conferences and events and public relations initiatives. If the costs of the marketing channels we use increase dramatically, we may choose to use alternative and less expensive channels, which may not be as effective as current ones. Alternatively, we may adopt or expand usage of more expensive channels, which could adversely affect our margins, profitability and financial condition. We invest in marketing before being able to assess whether they improve our brand awareness, customer acquisition or increase revenues in a cost-effective manner or at all. If our marketing programs are ineffective or inefficient, our business, operating results and growth prospects would be adversely affected.

Our success also depends on retaining customers and increasing their usage of our products and platform over time. We generate revenues from customers’ usage of our products, some of which are integrated into their applications. Increasing usage of our products and platform over time will require customers to develop new use cases and those use cases to mature. The majority of our customers do not have long-term contractual commitments to us, and may reduce or terminate their use of our products at any time without penalty or termination charges. End users’ demand for our customers’ applications that integrate our products are driven by many factors out of our or our customers’ control, making customers’ usage of our products and platform difficult to predict. Furthermore, if a significant number of customers reduce or cease their usage of our products, we may incur greater sales and marketing expenses than expected to maintain or increase revenues from other customers, which may impact our profitability. If usage levels fail to meet our expectations, our business, operating results and growth prospects would be adversely affected.

The market in which we participate is competitive, and if we do not compete effectively, our business, operating results and financial condition could be harmed.

The global market for video cloud is relatively new and rapidly evolving. The industry in which we operate include a number of enterprises that may or may not directly compete with us. We consider that our competitors fall into three different business lines: (1) companies that provide real time engagement services via companies’ cloud computing platform, (2) companies that offer customized software that are installed on customer’s own cloud computing platform, and (3) companies that provide systematic solutions to customers by integrating customized software into hardware. In many cases, our prospective customers may choose to use custom software developed in-house or by consultants, or legacy solutions repurposed by in-house developers to meet specific use cases. As we plan to sell products to prospective customers with existing internal solutions, we need to demonstrate to them that our video cloud products are superior to their current legacy solutions, and failure to do so may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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We expect competition to intensify in the future. Although a number of large software vendors or cloud providers currently do not have SaaS/PaaS offerings, some of them who operate in adjacent markets may bring such offerings to market through product development, acquisitions, or other means in the future. In addition, several of our competitors have greater brand recognition, longer operating histories, more and better-established customer relationships, larger sales forces, larger marketing and development budgets and significantly greater resources than we do. As a result, certain of our competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements than us. Furthermore, these large vendors may be willing to provide competing software for free as part of enterprise-wide agreements that include other products or services. In these cases, it may be more difficult for us to compete effectively with our competitors, especially if our competitors attempt to continuously strengthen or maintain their market positions.

Our competitors may offer products, services and functions that are same or similar to our products with more compelling pricing terms, more competitive advantages, or greater geographic coverage in the markets where we do not operate or are less established. Furthermore, our customers may choose to use our products and our competitors’ products at the same time, resulting in increased pricing pressures and competition. This, in turn, may cause the decrease in our revenues, profitability and market acceptance and harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

If our platform does not achieve sufficient market acceptance, our financial results and competitive position will suffer.

To meet our customers’ rapidly evolving demands, we invest substantial resources in research and development to incorporate additional functionalities, improve our technology capabilities and expand the use cases that our platform empowers. For the 2020, 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, the research and development expenses of BJY were US$3.7 million, US$5.8 million and US$13.0 million, respectively. If we are unable to develop products internally due to inadequate research and development resources, we may not be able to address our customers’ needs in a timely manner, or at all. In addition, if we seek to enhance our research and development capabilities or the breadth of our products through acquisitions, such acquisitions could be expensive and we may not successfully integrate acquired technologies or businesses into our existing business. When we develop or acquire new or enhanced products, we typically incur expenses and expend resources upfront to develop, market, promote and sell the new offerings. Therefore, new or enhanced products we develop, acquire or introduce need to achieve high market acceptance to justify the upfront investment.

Our new products or enhancements and changes to our existing products could fail to attain sufficient market acceptance for many reasons, including:

failure to accurately predict and meet market demand by launching products or functionalities desired by customers;
defects, errors, or failures in our products and solutions;
negative publicity about our platform’s performance or effectiveness;
developments in the legal or regulatory landscape that could adversely affect our platform, such as increased legal or regulatory scrutiny;
emergence of competitors whose products and technologies achieve earlier or wider market acceptance than us;
delays in releasing enhancements to our platform to the market, or failure to achieve adequate market acceptance for our platform and our enhancements; and
introduction or anticipated introduction of competing products by our competitors.

It is important that we maintain and increase the acceptance of our platform among the developers that work for our customers. We rely on developers to choose our platform over other options they may have, and to continue to use and promote our platform as they move between companies. These developers often make design decisions and influence the product and vendor processes within our customers. If we fail to gain or maintain their acceptance of our platform, our business would be harmed.

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We may not successfully manage our growth as expected. Our gross profit and net profit may not grow at same rate as our gross revenue, continued investment and expansion into low-margin business, significant investments in sales and marketing efforts and research and development may negatively impact our gross profit margin, net profit margin and growth rate in the future.

We have experienced rapid growth. The revenues of BJY were US$23.4 million, US$41.4 million and US$68.6 million for the 2020, 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, respectively. However, there can be no assurance that our business will continue to grow at any particular rate as we did in the past, or avoid any decline in the future.

Our ability to forecast our future operating results is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties. In particular, we cannot accurately predict customers’ usage of our products given the diversity of our customer base and the end users across industries, geographies, use cases and other factors. We consider that there are three primary risks in relation to its financial performance in the future. First, the COVID-19 pandemic has affected various aspects of our business, the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic will affect our operations and financial performance will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and unpredictable. Second, our gross profit and net profit may not grow at same rate as our gross revenue, continued investment and expansion into low-margin business may negatively impact our gross profit margin, net profit margin and growth rate. We are expanding and currently expect to continually expand into new business lines. Certain initiatives on our new business lines may be new and evolving, and may prove unsuccessful. We may not be able to successfully implement new business plans and realize all of the benefits that we expect to achieve, or it may be more costly to do so than we anticipate. Lastly, our profitability may be lower than expected if our strategy were to maximize short-term profitability. We intend to continuously increase research and development investment to improve the performance of our existing software and platform which may have new business breakthroughs, such as real-time communications (“RTC”). In addition, we intend to continue to invest significantly in sales and marketing efforts to explore new business lines and improve our brand image and influence. The above potential investments and expansions may not ultimately grow our business or result in long-term profitability as expected. Moreover, such increases in the cost may adversely impact our gross profit margin, net profit margin and growth rate.

Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and prospects and our operating results may fluctuate from time to time.

We conduct a significant portion of our businesses in China through the VIE. The VIE was founded in May 2017 and its limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our current business and future prospects, including our ability to predict and manage future growth. We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties as a rapidly growing company in a constantly evolving industry. If we do not address these risks successfully, our business may be harmed.

Our operating results have fluctuated and will continue to vary in the future as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are out of our control. For example, our revenue model of our video-centric technology solution business is based in large part on end user adoption and usage of our customers’ applications, which can constrain our ability to forecast revenues. Some factors that may cause our operating results to fluctuate from period to period include:

our ability to attract, retain and increase revenues from customers;
fluctuations in the amount of revenues from our customers;
market acceptance of our products and our ability to introduce new products and enhance existing products;
competition and the actions of our competitors, including pricing changes and the introduction of new products, services and geographies;
our ability to control costs and operating expenses, including the fees that we pay network and cloud service providers for data delivery and data centers for additional bandwidth;
our investments in research and development activities;
changes in our pricing as a result of our optimization efforts or otherwise;

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reductions in pricing as a result of negotiations with our larger customers;
the rate of expansion and productivity of our sales force;
change in the mix of products that our customers use;
changes in end user and customer demand as end users increase and decrease their time online due to the imposition or easing of stay-at-home, travel and other government mandates or changes in end user or customer demand for our products in response to the COVID-19 pandemic;
the expansion of our business, particularly in international markets;
changes in foreign currency exchange rates;
changes in laws, regulations or regulatory enforcement in China, the United States or other countries that impact our ability to market, sell or deliver our products;
the amount and timing of operating costs and capital expenditures related to the operations and expansion of our business, including investments in international expansion;
significant security breaches of, technical difficulties with, or interruptions to, the delivery and use of our products on our platform;
general economic and political conditions that may adversely affect a prospective customer’s ability or willingness to adopt our products, delay a prospective customer’s adoption decision, reduce the revenues that we generate from the use of our products or impact customer retention;
extraordinary expenses such as litigation or other dispute-related settlement payments;
sales tax and other tax determinations by authorities in the jurisdictions in which we conduct business;
the impact of new accounting pronouncements;
expenses incurred in connection with mergers, acquisitions, dispositions or other strategic transactions and integrating acquired (or carving out disposed) business, technologies, services, products and other assets; and
fluctuations in share-based compensation expense.

The occurrence of one or more of the foregoing factors may cause our operating results to vary significantly. For example, a significant percentage of our operating expenses such as payroll expense is fixed to some extent and we may not be able to adjust all costs and fees in accordance with the changes in revenue. Accordingly, in the event of a revenue shortfall, we may not be able to mitigate the negative impact on profitability in the short term.

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We generated a substantial portion of our revenues from a limited number of customers, and the loss of, or a significant reduction in usage by, one or more of such major customers would result in lower revenues and could harm our business.

Our future success is dependent on establishing and maintaining successful relationships with a diverse set of customers. For the 2022 fiscal year, BJY generated a substantial portion of its revenues from a limited number of customers, BJY’s top ten customers (after aggregating customers with multiple accounts) accounted for approximately 47.6% of its revenues, although no single customer contributed more than 10% of its revenue. Going forward, it is likely that we will continue to be dependent upon a limited number of customers for a significant portion of our revenues for the foreseeable future and, in some cases, the portion of our revenues attributable to individual customers may increase. The loss of one or more key customers or a reduction in usage by any major customers would reduce our revenues. If we fail to maintain existing customers or develop relationships with new customers, our business would be harmed.

Failure to effectively develop and expand our sales and marketing capabilities could harm our ability to increase our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our platform.

Historically, we relied on the adoption of our products by developers through our self-service model as well as more targeted sales efforts. Our ability to further increase our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our platform will significantly depend on our ability to expand our sales and marketing operations. We plan to continue expanding our sales force and network both domestically and internationally. We also plan to dedicate significant resources to sales and marketing programs. All of these efforts will require us to invest significant financial and other resources, and our business may be harmed if they fail to attract additional customers.

As we increase our target sales efforts to larger organizations, we expect to incur higher costs and longer sales cycles. The decision to adopt our products by such customers may require the approval of multiple technical and business decision makers, including security, compliance, procurement, operations and IT. In addition, while certain customers may quickly deploy our products on a limited basis before they commit to deploying our products at scale, they often require extensive education and customer support, engage in protracted pricing negotiations and seek dedicated product development resources. In addition, sales cycles for efforts targeted at larger organizations are inherently more complex and less predictable than the sales through our self-service model, and some customers may not use our products enough to generate revenues that offset the cost of customer acquisition. In addition, complex and resource-intensive sales efforts could place additional strain on our product and engineering resources.

We believe that there is significant competition for sales personnel, including sales representatives, sales managers, and sales engineers with required skills and technical knowledge. Our ability to achieve significant revenue growth will depend, in large part, on our success in recruiting, training, and retaining sufficient numbers of sales personnel to support our growth. New hires require significant training and may take significant time before we achieve full productivity. New hires may not become productive as quickly as expected, if at all, and we may be unable to hire or retain sufficient numbers of qualified individuals in the markets where we conduct business or plan to do business. In addition, particularly if we continue to grow rapidly, new members of our sales force will have relatively little experience working with us, our platform, and our business model. If we are unable to hire and train sufficient numbers of effective sales personnel, our sales personnel do not reach significant levels of productivity in a timely manner, or our sales personnel are not successful in acquiring new customers or expanding usage by existing customers, our business will be harmed.

We believe that continued growth in our business is also dependent upon identifying, developing and maintaining strategic relationships with additional third-party sales partners that can drive substantial revenues. If we fail to identify additional third-party sales partners in a timely and cost-effective manner, or at all, or are unable to assist our current and future third-party sales partners in independently selling and deploying our products, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.

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We have incurred and may continue to incur substantial share-based compensation expenses.

BJY uses share-based compensation to award its management members and employees, and it has incurred and may continue to incur share-based compensation expenses. For the 2020, 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, BJY incurred nil, nil and US$9.5 million in share-based compensation expenses. On October 1, 2021, the board of directors of BJY adopted an equity incentive plan and reserved 9,486,042 ordinary shares of BJY for issuance under share options to be granted to employees and directors of BJY in its PRC operations. The equity incentive plan stipulates that Duo Duo International Limited will be the incentive platform to hold the ordinary shares of BJY on behalf of the beneficiaries of the equity incentive plan. On October 1, 2021, pursuant to the incentive plan, options to acquire 6,816,417 ordinary shares of BJY were issued, with exercise price ranged from RMB0.0001 to RMB10.0 per share and varied vesting schedules, and 1,709,310 ordinary shares were issued as restricted stock units (the “RSUs”), at a price of RMB0.0001 per share. The total fair value of the issued share options and RSUs is between US$10.0 million to US$15.0 million, out of which nil and approximately US$9.5 million was recognized in the 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, respectively, and the rest will be recognized over the period from calendar year 2023 to 2025. As of June 30, 2022, awards with respect to 6,816,417 ordinary shares of BJY reserved under the equity incentive plan were issued, among which, awards with respect to 3,749,591 ordinary shares of BJY had been fully vested. In the future, if additional share incentives are granted to BJY’s employees or directors, BJY will incur additional share-based compensation expense, and our results of operations will be further adversely affected.

The COVID-19 pandemic brings uncertainties to our business, financial condition and prospects.

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant disruptions and distortions in the global economy since 2020. As the COVID-19 pandemic continued or reoccurred in China and globally, there has been and will continue to be significant uncertainties associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including the ultimate spread of the virus, the severity of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, the possibility of successive waves of outbreaks, further actions that may be taken by governmental authorities around the world to contain the virus or to treat its impact, and the scope and length of the resulting economic downturn.

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected various aspects of our business. For instance, we experienced certain difficulties in purchasing bandwidth, co-location space, servers and equipment on equally cost-efficient terms due to various government-imposed restrictions and other logistical hurdles. In addition, the economic downturn due to the COVID-19 pandemic may adversely affect our customers’ ability to pay, customer demand and end user usage, which would adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Furthermore, the continuing pandemic may further impact our ability to maintain and expand our network infrastructure, which could severely disrupt our and our customers’ business and operations and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic affects our operations and financial performance will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and unpredictable, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of COVID-19 and the actions to contain the coronavirus, such as the availability of effective vaccines or cure, among others. Our operations could be disrupted if any of our employees is suspected of having COVID-19, since it could lead our employees to be quarantined and/or offices to be disinfected.

We could incur substantial costs in protecting or defending our intellectual property rights, and we may in the future become involved in disputes relating to alleged infringement of others’ intellectual property rights. Any failure to protect our intellectual property rights, or alleged infringement of third-party intellectual property rights, could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

Our success depends, in part, on our ability to protect our brand, trade secrets, trademarks, patents, domain names, copyrights and proprietary methods and technologies, whether registered or not, that we develop under patent and other intellectual property laws of China, the United States and other jurisdictions, so that we can prevent others from using our inventions and proprietary information. We currently rely on patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secret law to protect our intellectual property rights. However, we cannot assure you that any of our intellectual property rights will not be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, or that our intellectual property will be sufficient to provide us with competitive advantages. Because of the rapid pace of technological change, we cannot assure you that all of our proprietary technologies and similar intellectual property rights can be patented in a timely or cost-effective manner, or at all.

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In addition, we may be subject to allegation of infringement of other parties’ intellectual proprietary rights, which, whether successful or not, could harm our brand, business, operating results and financial condition. There is considerable patent and other intellectual property development in our industry, and we may be unaware of the intellectual property rights of others that may cover some or all of our technologies. Our competitors or other third parties may in the future claim that our products or platform and underlying technology infringe their intellectual property rights, and we may be found to be infringing such rights. Any claims or litigation, if successfully asserted against us, could require that we pay substantial damages or ongoing royalty payments, indemnify our customers or business partners, obtain licenses or modify our products or platform, prevent us from offering products, develop alternative non-infringing technology or comply with other unfavorable terms, any of which could significantly increase our operating expenses. Even if we were to prevail in the event of claims or litigation against us, any claim or litigation regarding intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming and divert the attention of our management and other employees from our business.

We also rely, in part, on confidentiality agreements with our business partners, employees, consultants, advisors, customers and others in our efforts to protect our proprietary technology, processes and methods. These agreements may not effectively prevent disclosure of our confidential information, and it is possible for unauthorized parties to copy our software or other proprietary technology or information, or to develop similar software independently without an adequate remedy for unauthorized use or disclosure of our confidential information.

In addition, the laws of some countries do not protect intellectual property and other proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of others. It is often difficult to register, maintain and enforce intellectual property rights in China. Statutory laws and regulations are subject to judicial interpretation and enforcement and may not be applied consistently due to the lack of clear guidance on statutory interpretation. Confidentiality, invention assignment and non-compete agreements may be breached by counterparties, and there may not be adequate remedies available to us for any such breach. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or to enforce our contractual rights in China. To the extent we expand our international activities outside of China, our exposure to unauthorized copying, transfer and use of our proprietary technology or information may increase.

Preventing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly and the steps we take may be inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of our intellectual property. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce our intellectual property rights, determine the validity and scope of our proprietary rights or those of others, or defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Such litigation could be costly, time-consuming and distracting to management, result in a diversion of significant resources, the narrowing or invalidation of portions of our intellectual property and have an adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. Our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of its intellectual property rights or alleging that it infringes the counterclaimant’s own intellectual property. Any of our patents, trade secrets, copyrights, trademarks or other intellectual property rights could be challenged by others or invalidated through administrative process or litigation. There can be no assurance that we will prevail in such litigation. In addition, our proprietary methods and technologies that are regarded as trade secrets may be leaked or otherwise become available to, or be independently discovered by, our competitors. In these cases, we would not be able to assert any trade secret rights against those parties. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our proprietary rights, and failure to obtain or maintain trade secret protection could adversely affect our competitive business position. To the extent that our employees or consultants use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights in related know-how and inventions.

There can be no assurance that our particular ways and means of protecting our intellectual property and proprietary rights, including business decisions about when to file patent applications and trademark applications, will be adequate to protect our business, or that our competitors will not independently develop similar technology. We could be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect our intellectual property rights. If we fail to protect and enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights adequately, our competitors might gain access to our technology, and our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.

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We depend largely on the continued services of our senior management, the loss of any of whom could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

Our future performance depends on the continued services and contributions of our senior management to execute on our business plan, develop our products and platform, deliver our products to customers, attract and retain customers and identify and pursue business opportunities. The loss of services of senior management could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our development and strategic objectives. In particular, to a considerable degree, we depend on the vision, skills, experience and effort of the founder of BJY and our chief executive officer, Mr. Gangjiang Li and our president, Mr. Yi Ma. The replacement of any of our senior management personnel would likely involve significant time and costs, and such loss could significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives. The loss of the services of any of our senior management for any reason could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

We may acquire or invest in or dispose of or divest from business, technologies, services, products and other assets, which may divert our management’s attention and result in the incurrence of debt or dilution to our shareholders. Such transactions may subsequently turn out to be less favorable to us than expected. We may be unable to integrate acquired businesses and technologies successfully or achieve the expected benefits of such acquisitions or dispositions.

Similar to many other companies, we continuously evaluate and consider potential strategic transactions, including acquisitions of, investments in, dispositions of, or divestments from, businesses, technologies, services, products and other assets in the future, such as a potential disposition of the BOPET film business by us, the possibility of which was reviewed and discussed in the process of negotiating the Transactions. We also may enter into relationships with other businesses to expand our products and platform, which could involve preferred or exclusive licenses, additional channels of distribution, discount pricing or investments in other companies.

Any acquisition, investment, disposition, divestment or business relationship may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures. In particular, we may encounter difficulties assimilating or integrating the businesses, technologies, products, personnel or operations of the acquired companies, particularly if the key personnel of the acquired company choose not to work for us, our products or services are not easily adapted to work with our platform, or we have difficulty retaining the customers of any acquired business due to changes in ownership, management or otherwise. Acquisitions also may disrupt our business, divert our resources or require significant management attention that would otherwise be available for development of our existing business. Moreover, the anticipated benefits of any acquisition, investment, disposition, divestment or business relationship may not be realized, such transaction or relationship may turn out to be less favorable to us, or we may be exposed to unknown risks or liabilities. For example, an acquired business may perform worse than expected and a disposed business may perform better than expected. In addition, acquisitions and investments could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the incurrence of debt, the incurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired businesses and investment.

Negotiating these transactions can be time-consuming, difficult and expensive, and our ability to complete these transactions may often be subject to approvals that are beyond its control. Consequently, these transactions, even if announced, may not be completed. For one or more of those transactions, we may:

issue additional equity securities that would dilute our existing shareholders;
use cash that we may need in the future to operate our business;
incur large charges or substantial liabilities;
incur debt on terms unfavorable to us or that we are unable to repay;
encounter difficulties in retaining key employees of the acquired company or integrating diverse software codes or business cultures; or
become subject to adverse tax consequences, substantial depreciation, or deferred compensation charges.

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The occurrence of any of these foregoing could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

We may have insufficient transmission bandwidth and co-location space, which could result in disruptions to our platform and loss of revenues.

Our operations are dependent in part upon transmission bandwidth provided by third-party network or cloud providers and leasing co-location facilities for our servers and equipment. There can be no assurance that we are adequately prepared for unexpected increases in bandwidth demands by our customers. In the first quarter of 2020, we experienced a spike in usage as a result of demand for online real-time engagement spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic. Although we were able to scale our network infrastructure in response, the general increase in demand for bandwidth and servers increased prices which in turn adversely impacted our gross margin. Failure to contain the further spread, or any resurgence, of the COVID-19 pandemic may affect our ability to cost-effectively maintain and expand our network infrastructure, which could severely disrupt our business and operations and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

The bandwidth we have contracted to purchase may become unavailable for a variety of reasons, including service outages, payment disputes, suspension or termination of the network providers’ business, natural disasters, pandemics, networks imposing traffic limits, or governments adopting regulations that impact network operations. We may also be unable to move quickly enough to augment capacity to reflect growing traffic or security demands. Failure to put in place the capacity we require could result in a reduction in, or disruption of, services to our customers, or require us to issue credits and ultimately a loss of those customers. Such a failure could result in our inability to acquire new customers demanding capacity not available on our platform. If we are unable to provide sufficient bandwidth, we may also become contractually obligated to provide affected customers with service credits under service level commitments in our customer agreements.

We use open-source software, which could negatively affect our ability to sell our products and subject us to possible litigation.

Our products and platform incorporate open-source software, and we expect to continue to incorporate open-source software in our products and platform in the future. Few of the licenses applicable to open-source software have been interpreted by courts, and there is a risk that these licenses could be construed in a manner that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products and platform. Moreover, although we have implemented policies to regulate the use and incorporation of open-source software into our products and platform, we cannot be certain that we have not incorporated open-source software in our products or platform in a manner that is inconsistent with such policies. When we utilize open source software in our products in certain ways, the applicable open-source licenses may subject us and our customers to certain requirements, including requirements that we and our customers offer the products that incorporate the open-source software for no cost, make available source code for modifications or derivative works that are based on, incorporate or use the open-source software, and license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of applicable open-source licenses. In some cases, open-source software is also offered under commercial terms which do not include such requirements and obligations, in exchange for the payment of fees to be negotiated with the author or licensors. We have entered into a license agreement with a third-party licensor relating to certain open-source software incorporated in certain of our and our customers’ products. However, in the future, we may still receive notices alleging that its usage of other unlicensed open-source software does not comply with the applicable license, or such usage requires us to obtain a commercial license. If it were determined that we had not complied with the conditions of one or more of these open-source licenses, or if we are unable to successfully negotiate an acceptable commercial license, we and our customers could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending against such allegations and could be subject to significant damages, enjoined or otherwise prohibited from distributing our products that contained the open-source software, and be required to comply with onerous conditions or restrictions on these products. In any of these events, we and our customers could be required to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering the respective products and platforms, and to re-engineer products or platforms or discontinue offering products in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished in a timely manner. Any of the foregoing could require us and our customers to devote additional research and development resources to re-engineer products or platforms, harm our reputation, or result in customer dissatisfaction, and may adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

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Breaches of our networks or systems, or those of our service providers, could degrade our ability to conduct our business, compromise the integrity of our products, platform and data, result in significant data losses and leakage and the theft of our intellectual property, damage our reputation, expose us to liability to third parties and require us to incur significant additional costs to maintain the security of our networks and data.

We depend on our IT systems to conduct virtually all of our business operations, ranging from internal operations and research and development activities to marketing and sales efforts and communications with our customers, service providers and business partners. Individuals or entities may attempt to penetrate our network security, or that of our platform, and to cause harm to our business operations, including by misappropriating our proprietary information or that of our customers, employees, service providers and business partners or to cause interruptions of our products and platform. Because the vulnerabilities and techniques used by such individuals or entities to access, disrupt or sabotage devices, systems and networks change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these vulnerabilities and techniques, and may not become aware in a timely manner of such a security breach, which could exacerbate any damage we experience. Additionally, we depend on our employees and contractors to appropriately handle confidential and sensitive data, including customer data, and to deploy our IT resources in a safe and secure manner that does not expose our network systems to security breaches or the loss or leakage of data. Any data security incidents, including the leakage of data of customers or the end users, internal malfeasance by our employees, unauthorized access or usage, virus or similar breach or disruption of us or our service providers could result in loss of confidential information, damage to our reputation, loss of customers, litigation, regulatory investigations, fines, penalties and other liabilities. Accordingly, if our cybersecurity measures or those of our service providers fail to protect against unauthorized access, attacks (which may include sophisticated cyberattacks), compromise or the mishandling of data by our employees, service providers and business partners, our reputation, business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Our business is subject to a variety of PRC and international laws and regulations, including those regarding privacy, cybersecurity and data protection, and our customers may be subject to regulations related to the handling and transfer of certain types of sensitive and confidential information. Any failure of our platform to comply with or enable our customers to comply with applicable laws and regulations could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

We and our customers that use our products may be subject to privacy, cybersecurity and data protection- related laws and regulations that impose obligations in connection with the collection, processing and use of personal data, financial data, health or other similar data and general cybersecurity. The PRC government and governments in other countries have adopted or proposed limitations on, or requirements regarding, the collection, distribution, use, security and storage of information, including personally identifiable information of individuals. In the PRC, the PRC Cybersecurity Law and relevant regulations require network operators, which may include us, to ensure the security and stability of the services provided via network and to provide assistance and support in accordance with the law for public security and national security authorities to protect national security or assist with criminal investigations.

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In recent years, the PRC government has increasingly tightened the regulation of data privacy and data protection. The laws, regulations and governmental policies in the PRC for the data privacy and data protection are constantly evolving. For example, in June 2017, the PRC Cybersecurity Law promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, or the SCNPC, took effect. The PRC Cybersecurity Law requires network operators to perform certain functions related to cybersecurity protection. In addition, the PRC Cybersecurity Law provides that the critical information infrastructure operators generally shall, during their operations in the PRC, store the personal information and important data collected and produced within the territory of PRC, and shall conduct security assessment for cross-border data transfer. On June 10, 2021, the SCNPC promulgated the PRC Data Security Law, which took effect in September 2021. The PRC Data Security Law imposes data security and privacy obligations on entities and individuals carrying out data activities, including but not limited to the collection, storage, use, processing, transmission, provision, and public disclosure of data. The PRC Data Security Law, among other things, provides for a security review procedure for the data activities that may affect national security and imposes export restrictions on certain data and information. On July 30, 2021, the State Council of the PRC promulgated the Provisions on Protection of the Security of Critical Information Infrastructure, which took effect on September 1, 2021. Pursuant to the Provisions on Protection of the Security of Critical Information Infrastructure, critical information infrastructure shall mean any important network facilities or information systems of the important industry or field such as public communication and information service, energy, communications, water conservation, finance, public services, e-government affairs and national defense science, which may endanger national security, people’s livelihood and public interest in case of damage, function loss or data leakage. In addition, relevant administration departments of each critical industry and sector, which are referred to as the “Protection Departments,” shall be responsible for formulating eligibility criteria and identifying the critical information infrastructure operator, or the CIIO, in the respective industry or sector. The CIIOs shall take the responsibility to protect the CIIO’s security by performing certain prescribed obligations, including conducting network security test and risk assessment, reporting the assessment results to relevant regulatory authorities. On August 20, 2021, the SCPNC adopted the Personal Information Protection Law, which became effective on November 1, 2021. The Personal Information Protection Law reiterates the circumstances under which a personal information processor could process personal information and the requirements for such circumstances. The Personal Information Protection Law clarifies the scope of application, the definition of personal information and sensitive personal information, the legal basis of personal information processing and the basic requirements of notice and consent. Additionally, the Personal Information Protection Law stipulates that personal information processors who have a large user base and/or operate complex types of businesses are subject to certain obligations, such as establishing an internal personal information protection system in compliance with relevant laws, rules and regulations; and releasing social responsibility reports on personal information protection on a regular basis. Existing PRC laws and regulations do not provide clear parameters as to what constitutes “large user base” and/or “complex types of businesses.” Nevertheless, it is widely accepted in practice that at least one million users is required in order to reach the “large user base” threshold, and “complex types of businesses” usually refers to a business model under which a company either operates as an integrated online platform, for example, a social media or e-commerce platform, or operates with diversified business lines or product catalogues. We believe that we are not a personal information processor who has a large user base and/or operate complex types of businesses. However, since there has been no official interpretation or explanation as to the definition of same, it remains uncertain whether we would be deemed as a personal information processor who has a large user base and/or operate complex types of businesses by the PRC regulatory authorities, thus requiring us to perform the obligations stipulated under the Personal Information Protection Law. On June 7, 2022, the Measures on Security Assessment of Cross-Border Transfer of Data was released by the CAC, which became effective on September 1, 2022, stipulates that before cross-border data transfer under certain circumstances, data processors shall make self-assessment of the risks, and shall apply for security assessment. These laws and regulations require, among others, that the personal information and important data generated and collected during the operations in the PRC should be stored within the PRC unless, prior to the intended data transfer, certain specified criteria have been satisfied, such as a completed official security assessment carried out by the PRC government authorities. As a personal information processor defined under the Personal Information Protection Law, while we do not believe current business involves any transmission, use and exchange of information that comes under the definition of “cross-border transfer of personal information and important data” under the PRC Cybersecurity Law, we cannot assure you that the PRC regulatory authorities will not take a view contrary to our view, thus requiring us to comply with the data localization, security assessment and other requirements under these proposed laws and regulations. As our business continues to grow, there may arise circumstances where we engage in such cross-border transfer of personal data and/or important data, including in order to satisfy the legal and regulatory requirements, in which case we may need to comply with the foregoing requirements as well as any other limitations under PRC laws then applicable. Complying with these laws and requirements could cause us to incur substantial expenses or require us to alter or change our practices in ways that could harm our business. Additionally, to the extent we are found to be not in compliance with these laws and requirements, we may be subject to fines, regulatory orders to suspend its operations or other regulatory and disciplinary sanctions, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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On December 28, 2021, the CAC, together with 12 other government authorities, jointly issued the Review Measures, which became effective on February 15, 2022. Pursuant to the Review Measures, in addition to “critical information infrastructure operators” who procure internet products and services that affect or may affect national security shall be subject to a cybersecurity review, any “network platform operators” carrying out data processing activities that affect or may affect national security should also be subject to the cybersecurity review requirements. The Review Measures also provide that if a “network platform operator” holding personal information of more than one million users intends to go public in a foreign country, it must apply for a cybersecurity review. In addition, the relevant PRC governmental authorities may initiate cybersecurity review if they determine certain network products, services, or data processing activities affect or may affect national security. Furthermore, on November 14, 2021, the CAC released the consultation draft of the Network Data Security Management Regulations which provide, among other things, that a data processor who processes important data or who is listed overseas shall complete an annual data security assessment either self-conducted or conducted by a data security service organization engaged, and before January 31 of each year, submit the annual data security assessment report of the previous year to the local cyberspace affairs administration department. As of the date of this transition report, the Network Data Security Management Regulations was released for public comment only, and no interpretation or implementation rules for this proposed regulation have been issued by the CAC or any other PRC regulatory authorities. It remains uncertain when the Network Data Security Management Regulations will be adopted and become effective and whether it will be adopted as it was initial proposed. Also, there is no further explanation or interpretation as to how to determine what constitutes “affecting national security”. Therefore, it is uncertain whether we would be deemed as a “critical information infrastructure operator” or a “network platform operator” or a “data processors” holding one million users’ personal information, or whether our business will be deemed to affect or may affect national security under PRC laws, thus requiring us to go through a cybersecurity review process. As of the date of this transition report, we have not been informed by any PRC government authorities that we will be deemed as a critical information infrastructure operator. It also remains uncertain whether future regulatory changes would impose additional restrictions on companies like us. We cannot predict the impact of the Review Measures and the Network Data Security Management Regulations, if any, at this stage. We will closely monitor and assess any development in the rulemaking process. If the Review Measures and the enacted version of the Network Data Security Management Regulations mandate clearance of a cybersecurity review and other specific actions to be completed by China-based companies listed on a foreign stock exchange like us, we face uncertainties as to whether such clearance can be timely obtained, or at all. As of the date of this transition report, we have not been involved in any formal investigations on cybersecurity review made by the CAC on such basis. If we are not able to comply with the cybersecurity and data privacy requirements in a timely manner, or at all, we may be subject to government enforcement actions and investigations, fines, penalties, suspension of our non-compliant operations, or removal of our applications from the relevant application stores, among other sanctions, which could materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

In November 2021, one of BJY’s applications “Cloud Classroom” was tested and considered as violated relevant regulations in collecting personal information by National App Technology Testing Platform, which is an official platform under the MIIT. Upon receipt of the notice, BJY immediately conducted thorough reviews on relevant systems and made rectifications. In February 2022, such application was listed on a notice of criticism circulated by the MIIT, which determined it violated relevant regulations in using users’ personal information and mandatorily, frequently and excessively requesting for permissions of users’ personal information. BJY reviewed its application system immediately and carried out rectification measures. The rectified application was recognized and approved by the MIIT in March 2022.

Pursuant to the PRC Personal Information Protection Law, where personal information is handled in violation of this law or personal information is handled without fulfilling personal information protection duties in accordance with the provisions, the departments fulfilling personal information protection duties and responsibilities are to order correction, confiscate unlawful income, and order the provisional suspension or termination of service provision of the application programs unlawfully handling personal information. The above-mentioned matters have neither caused the cease of any of our applications nor adversely affected our business and results of operations. As advised by our PRC legal counsel, Dentons, based on the rectification measures BJY adopted and the confirmations received from the relevant authorities, the likelihood that we will be subject to further administrative punishment in the future due to the above-mentioned matters is remote. We believe the measures taken by BJY with respect to personal information protection are consistent with industry practice.

We also continue to see jurisdictions imposing data localization laws, which require personal information, or certain subcategories of personal information to be stored in the jurisdiction of origin. These regulations may inhibit our ability to expand into those markets or prohibit us from continuing to offer services in those markets without significant additional costs.

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The uncertainty and changes in the requirements of multiple jurisdictions may increase the cost of compliance, delay or reduce demand for our services, restrict our ability to offer services in certain locations, impact our customers’ ability to deploy our solutions in certain jurisdictions, or subject us to claims and litigation from private actors and investigations, proceedings, and sanctions by data protection regulators, all of which could harm our business, financial condition and operating results. Additionally, although we endeavor to have our products and platform comply with applicable laws and regulations, these and other obligations may be modified, they may be interpreted and applied in an inconsistent manner from one jurisdiction to another, and they may conflict with one another, other regulatory requirements, contractual commitments or our practices. We also may be bound by contractual obligations relating to our collection, use and disclosure of personal, financial and other data or may find it necessary or desirable to join industry or other self-regulatory bodies or other privacy, cybersecurity or data protection-related organizations that require compliance with their rules pertaining to privacy and data protection.

We expect that there will continue to be new proposed laws, rules of self-regulatory bodies, regulations and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection and information security in the PRC and other jurisdictions, and we cannot yet determine the impact that such future laws, rules, regulations and standards may have on our business. Moreover, existing PRC cybersecurity and data protection-related laws and regulations are evolving and subject to potentially differing interpretations, and various legislative and regulatory bodies may expand current or enact new laws and regulations regarding privacy, cybersecurity and data protection-related matters. Because global laws, regulations and industry standards concerning privacy, cybersecurity and data protection have continued to develop and evolve rapidly, it is possible that we or our products or platform may not be, or may not have been, compliant with each such applicable law, regulation and industry standard and compliance with such new laws or to changes to existing laws may impact our business and practices, require us to expend significant resources to adapt to these changes, or to stop offering our products in certain countries. These developments could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

Further, in many cases we rely on the data processing, privacy, data protection and cybersecurity practices of our suppliers and contractors, including with regard to maintaining the confidentiality, security and integrity of data. If we fail to manage our suppliers or contractors or their relevant practices, or if our suppliers or contractors fail to meet any requirements with regard to data processing, privacy, data protection or cybersecurity required by applicable legal or contractual obligations that we face (including any applicable requirements of our clients), we may be liable in certain cases. We may face difficulties in binding our suppliers and contractors to these agreements and otherwise managing their relevant practices, which may subject us to claims, proceedings and liabilities.

Any failure or perceived failure by us, our products or its platform to comply with new or existing PRC or other cybersecurity or data protection laws, regulations, policies, industry standards or legal obligations, any failure to bind our suppliers and contractors to appropriate agreements or to manage their practices or any systems failure or security incident that results in the unauthorized access to, or acquisition, release or transfer of, personally identifiable information or other data relating to customers or individuals may result in governmental investigations, inquiries, enforcement actions and prosecutions, private claims and litigation, fines and penalties, adverse publicity or potential loss of business.

We currently do not have insurance coverage covering all risks related to our business and operations. The lack of adequate D&O insurance may also make it difficult for us to retain and attract talented and skilled directors and officers.

We do not maintain insurance policies covering all of our business risks, such as risks relating to properties, receivables and public liability, among others. We cannot assume that the insurance coverage we currently have would be sufficient to cover our potential losses. In the event there is any damage to any assets or incidents for which we do not have sufficient insurance coverage, if at all, we would have to pay for the difference, and our cash flow and liquidity could be negatively affected.

As of the date of this transition report, we have not obtained directors and officers liability insurance, or D&O insurance for our directors and officers. In the future, we may be subject to additional litigation, including potential class action and shareholder derivative actions. Risks associated with legal liability are difficult to assess and quantify, and their existence and magnitude can remain unknown for significant periods of time. Without adequate D&O insurance, the amounts we would pay to indemnify our officers and directors should they be subject to legal action based on their service to us could have a material adverse effect on the financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. Furthermore, our lack of adequate D&O insurance may make it difficult for us to retain and attract talented and skilled directors and officers, which could adversely affect our business.

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Negative publicity about us, our services, operations and our management may adversely affect our reputation and business.

We may, from time to time, receive negative publicity, including negative internet and blog postings about its company, its business, its management or its services. Certain of such negative publicity may be the result of malicious harassment or unfair competition acts by third parties. We may even be subject to government or regulatory investigation as a result of such third-party conduct and may be required to spend significant time and incur substantial costs to defend ourselves against such third-party conduct, and we may not be able to conclusively refute each of the allegations within a reasonable period of time, or at all. Our brand and reputation may be materially and adversely affected as a result of any negative publicity, which in turn may cause us to lose market share, customers and other third parties with which we conduct business.

We may require additional capital to support our business, and this capital might not be available on acceptable terms, if at all.

We intend to continue to make investments to support our business and may require additional funds. In particular, we may seek additional funds to develop new products and enhance our platform and existing products, expand our operations, including our sales and marketing organizations and our presence outside of China, improve our infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses, technologies, services, products and other assets. Accordingly, we may need to engage in equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through future issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our shareholders could suffer significant dilution.

We are in the process of discussing with certain potential investors regarding a potential private investment in public equity (“PIPE”) investment, the terms of which are still subject to ongoing negotiation. The total number of shares to be issued by us in such PIPE financing is not expected to exceed 15% of our total outstanding shares, including ordinary shares subject to outstanding warrants (on a fully diluted and as converted basis and taking into account such PIPE financing). If such PIPE financing is consummated, our shareholders will experience dilution as a result.

Any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to holders of our equity securities currently issued and outstanding. Any debt financing that we may secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities. We may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when required, our ability to continue to support our business growth, scale our infrastructure, develop product enhancements and to respond to business challenges could be significantly impaired, and our business, operating results and financial condition may be adversely affected.

Heightened tensions in international relations, particularly between the United States and China, may adversely impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Recently there have been heightened tensions in international relations, particularly between the United States and China, but also as a result of the war in Ukraine and sanctions on Russia. These tensions have affected both diplomatic and economic ties among countries. Heightened tensions could reduce levels of trade, investments, technological exchanges, and other economic activities between the major economies. The existing tensions and any further deterioration in the relationship between the United States and China may have a negative impact on the general, economic, political, and social conditions in both countries and, given our reliance on the Chinese market, adversely impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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Our business is subject to the risks of earthquakes, fire, floods, pandemics and other natural catastrophic events, and to interruption by man-made problems such as power disruptions, computer viruses, data security breaches or terrorism.

A significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, fire, flood or pandemic, occurring at one of our headquarters, at one of our other facilities or where a business partner is located could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. Further, if a natural disaster or man-made problem were to affect our service providers, this could adversely affect the ability of our customers to use our products and platform. In addition, natural disasters and acts of terrorism could cause disruptions in our or our customers’ businesses, national economies or the world economy as a whole. We also rely on our network and third-party infrastructure and enterprise applications and internal technology systems for our engineering, sales and marketing, and operating activities. Although we maintain incident management and disaster response plans, in the event of a major disruption caused by a natural disaster or man-made problem, we may be unable to continue our operations and may endure system interruptions, reputational harm, delays in our development activities, lengthy interruptions in service, breaches of data security and loss of critical data, any of which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

In addition, computer malware, viruses and computer hacking, fraudulent use attempts and phishing attacks have become more prevalent in our industry, have occurred on our platform and have impacted some of our services providers in the past and may occur on our platform in the future. Any failure to maintain performance, reliability, security, integrity and availability of our products and technical infrastructure, including third-party infrastructure and services upon which we rely, may give rise to litigation, consumer protection actions, or harm to our reputation, and as a result, may hinder our ability to retain existing customers and attract new customers.

Risks Related to Our BOPET Film Business

A significant portion of revenue generated from our BOPET Film business is derived from the flexible packaging industry and electronics industry in the PRC; our revenue might be adversely impacted if the flexible packaging industry and electronics industry are adversely affected.

Our BOPET films are mainly used in the flexible packaging industry for consumer products such as tobacco packaging, alcoholic beverages, food, cosmetics, PCB industry, and so on. The demand for our BOPET films is therefore affected by the demand for flexible packaging and the electronics industry. Since the second half of 2011, supply has significantly outweighed demand in China. If this trend continues in the future, such as the continued slowdown of the market demand, or the increase of the demand continues to be less than that of the supply, it could continue to have an adverse impact on our financial condition and operation of our business.

Our acquisition of ownership of our main productive assets of the BOPET Film business is subject to litigation and dispute.

On September 24, 2004, the People’s Court of Weifang declared Shandong Neo-Luck bankrupt due to its financial difficulties. Shandong Neo-Luck pledged its main assets for the operation of the DMT production line to Weifang Commercial Bank before its bankruptcy.

The pledged DMT production line was auctioned on October 22, 2004, by the Shandong Neo-Luck Clearance Committee. DMT subsequently sought monetary damages from Shandong Neo-Luck for approximately US$1.25 million plus interest relating to a claim of partial non-payment for the DMT production line by way of application of the ICC arbitration; the hearing was held in Geneva in November 2007. Fuwei Shandong joined these discussions later as an interested party, in order to support a resolution of the pending dispute, and to achieve the resolution of certain outstanding service and spare part issues. All parties entered into a Settlement Agreement in March 2008, and the arbitration was withdrawn by the ICC. Under the Service Agreement entered into in connection with the Settlement Agreement, Shandong Fuwei would pay an amount of US$180,000 in two installments with respect to service and spare parts. The Company made its first payment in April 2008. As of December 31, 2021, Shandong Fuwei had paid US$135,000 and still owed US$45,000.

Under the Settlement Agreement, the Neoluck Group was obligated to pay an amount equal to US$900,000 in RMB by delivery of a bank draft to DMT. In April 2008, the Neoluck Group had not performed its obligation under the Settlement Agreement, and, the Neoluck Group and DMT entered into a Supplemental Agreement pursuant to which the Neoluck Group would pay the amount owed to DMT in two installments. The Neoluck Group paid the first installment equal to US$450,000 in April 2008. As agreed between Neoluck Group and DMT, the remaining US$450,000 was to be paid in installments by the end of December 2008. As of December 31, 2021, Neoluck Group had paid US$320,000 and still owed US$130,000 to DMT.

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Substantially, all of the operating assets of our BOPET Film were acquired through two auction proceedings under relevant PRC law. We acquired the Brückner production line in 2003 as a result of a foreclosure proceeding enforced by an effective court judgment, and the DMT production in 2004 as a result of a commercial auction from a consigner who obtained such assets through a bankruptcy proceeding. In the opinion of Concord & Partners, the PRC counsel of our BOPET Film business, these proceedings are both valid under Chinese auction and bankruptcy law based on certain factual assumptions. Our PRC counsel’s opinion solely relates to the legal procedure of the auctions and is based upon certain factual assumptions, our written representations, and written reports of the auction company and other related parties. There can be no assurance that relevant authorities or creditors of the predecessor owner of these assets will not challenge the effectiveness of these asset transfers based upon the facts and circumstances of these transfers, despite the existence of independent appraisals, and other facts and circumstances of the auctions that cannot be verified by our PRC counsel. Taking into consideration the facts known by our PRC counsel related to the auction of the Brückner production line and the significant difference in the price paid for the DMT production line at the two bankruptcy auctions involved in our purchase of that asset and, assuming the representations and reports received by our PRC counsel are true and correct in all material respects, our PRC counsel is of the opinion that the auctions of the Brückner and DMT production lines were valid under PRC law and the possibility of the creditors of Shandong Neo-Luck successfully exercising recourse, or claiming repayment with respect to our assets purchased in the bankruptcy proceeding should be remote. However, should any such challenge be brought in China (or elsewhere) and prevail, we may incur substantial liabilities and be required to pay substantial damages as a result of acquiring these assets, and this could materially affect our financial condition.

A disruption in the supply of utilities, fire, or other calamity at our manufacturing plant would disrupt the production of our products and adversely affect our sales.

Our BOPET films are manufactured solely at our production facilities located in Weifang City in the PRC. Any disruption in the supply of utilities, particularly electricity, water, or gas supply, or any outbreak of fire, flood, or other calamity resulting in significant damage at our facilities would severely affect our production of BOPET film and, as a result, we could incur on a substantial loss of equipment and properties.

While we maintain insurance policies covering losses with respect to damage to our properties, machinery, and inventories of raw materials and products, we cannot assure you that our insurance would be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses.

We have encountered anti-dumping investigations in South Korea and the United States and other trade protection measures, and our BOPET film business may be adversely affected.

Since 2007, the manufacturers in China, India, and other countries have encountered anti-dumping investigations conducted by South Korea and the United States.

The Korean Trading Committee (KTC) announced the final results of anti-dumping investigations for enterprises in China and India on August 27, 2008. We finally received the anti-dumping duties (ADD) rate of 5.67%, which is much lower than the average rate of 23.60% for other enterprises in China. On June 22, 2011, the Ministry of Strategy and Finance of the Republic of Korea initiated a sunset review concerning the continued imposition of anti-dumping duty on imports of the BOPET Films originating from China and India. The rate for Shandong Fuwei, the subsidiary of Fuwei Films, was set at 11.72%, higher than one of its counterparts at 5.87%. Punitive duties of 25.32% will be imposed on the PET films manufactured by six Chinese firms. The rate for the remaining Chinese manufacturers was set at 23.61%. The anti-dumping duties imposed on the Company’s exported biaxially oriented polyethylene-terephthalate (BOPET) films to South Korea will be extended for three more years, beginning on May 25, 2012.

On January 15, 2015, the Ministry of Strategy and Finance of the Republic of Korea initiated a sunset review concerning the continued imposition of anti-dumping duty on imports of Polyethylene Terephthalate originating from China and India. Eight Chinese exporters, including Fuwei Films, were required to participate in this review. On January 13, 2016, the Ministry of Strategy and Finance announced that the rate for Shandong Fuwei, the subsidiary of Fuwei Films, was set at 12.92%, and it would be extended for three more years beginning on January 13, 2016. On September 12, 2018, the Ministry of Strategy and Finance of the Republic of Korea initiated a sunset review concerning the continued imposition of anti-dumping duty on imports of Polyethylene Terephthalate originating from China and India. Eight Chinese exporters, including Fuwei Films, were required to participate in this review. On September 11, 2019, the Ministry of Strategy and Finance announced that the rate for Shandong Fuwei, the subsidiary of Fuwei Films, was set at 36.98%, and it would be extended for three more years beginning September 12, 2019.

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The US Department of Commerce conducted an anti-dumping investigation in October 2007, covering exporters in China, Brazil, Thailand, and the United Arab Emirates. A total of 41 exporters in China were under investigation. In October 2008, the anti-dumping judgments were announced. Although we received the lowest ADD rate of 3.49% among five exporters that received a duty, our exports to the United States, to a certain extent, were adversely affected by paying the ADD.

On January 23, 2010, the US Department of Commerce (“USDOC”) began a first-round annual review of Chinese BOPET exporters. Fuwei received the lowest anti-dumping duty (ADD) rate of 30.91% in this administrative review conducted by the USDOC, while the ADD rate of the other four Chinese companies reviewed by the USDOC exceeded 36.93%. In accordance with relevant laws and regulations in the US, the ADD rate of final results is retroactively applied to those US companies which imported Chinese-exported BOPET films, including Fuwei Films USA, LLC, during the period of the first review, so these US importers were obligated to pay a supplementary antidumping duty at this ADD rate. In March 2011, we submitted comments to the USDOC regarding perceived ministerial errors made in calculating the ADD applicable to us. As a result of a Court challenge brought on by Fuwei, in January 2013, the USDOC found that Fuwei did not dump goods in the United States market for the period from November 6, 2008, to October 31, 2009. The USDOC, after recalculating the rate, found that the level of dumping was “de minimis.” The de minimis rate is treated by the USDOC as a finding of zero. The final results of the second-round annual review were announced in March 2012, according to which an ADD rate of 8.48% was imposed on Fuwei Films, which was slightly higher than the lowest anti-dumping duty rate of 8.42% for all the Chinese exporters being reviewed.

On December 30, 2011, USDOC commenced its third routine annual review of BOPET films originated from China. In order to gain an opportunity to continue exporting to the United States, Fuwei Films, although not a mandatory respondent, actively responded to the review to the extent permitted by law and continued to seek the low rate which should have properly applied to its exports to the United States. In June 2013, the final results of the third round of annual review were issued, and an ADD rate of 12.80% was imposed on Fuwei Films. The preliminary results of the fourth-round annual review were announced in December 2013, according to which an ADD rate of 31.77% was imposed on Fuwei Films. In June 2014, the final results of the fourth-round annual review were announced, and Fuwei Films was imposed an ADD rate of 31.24%. There was no export to the United States in 2014. The preliminary results of the fifth-round annual review were announced in December 2014, which determined that Fuwei Films did not have any reviewable transactions during the fifth-round annual review, and no rate was assigned. On December 23, 2014, the USDOC initiated the sixth-round annual review. In February 2015, Fuwei Films filed a No Shipment Certification with USDOC as the Company had no exports to the U.S. during the sixth-round annual review. The domestic industry had withdrawn the request for the seventh-round annual review for the years 2015 and 2016, and as a result, the administrative review with respect to Fuwei was rescinded and no changes were made to the deposit rate.

In addition, if other countries or regions, such as the European Union, take trade protection measures against China’s BOPET film or downstream industries, our BOPET film business may be adversely affected.

China’s actions to save energy and reduce emissions may adversely affect our business, by subjecting us to significant new costs and restrictions on our operations.

Recently, the Chinese government has tightened its control over energy saving and emission reduction. The Chinese government intends to reduce energy consumption for gross domestic products and water consumption for industrial added value. Some of our manufacturing plants that use significant amounts of energy, including electricity and gas, are likely to be affected by this plan. Therefore, our operation might be influenced by the energy saving and emission reduction measures of the Chinese government. Regulations for restricting greenhouse gas emissions may increase the prices of the electricity we purchase, increase costs for our use of natural gas, potentially restrict access to or the use of natural gas, or require us to purchase allowances to offset our emissions or result in an overall increase in our costs of raw materials, any of which could increase costs and negatively affect our BOPET film business operations or financial results.

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Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

If the PRC government deems that the contractual arrangements in relation to the VIE do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.

The PRC government regulates telecommunications-related businesses through strict business licensing requirements and other government regulations. These laws and regulations also include limitations on foreign ownership of PRC companies that engage in telecommunications-related businesses. Specifically, subject to undertakings for opening telecommunication industries made by China for joining WTO, foreign investors are not allowed to own more than 50% equity interest in any PRC company engaging in value-added telecommunications businesses, except for those in a few categories, such as e-commerce, domestic multiparty communication, storage-and-forward, and call center services according to the Special Administrative Measures for Foreign Investment Access (Negative List) (Edition 2021) effective on January 1, 2022, which may be amended, supplemented or otherwise modified from time to time (the “Negative List”). It is further required under the currently effective Provisions on the Administration of Foreign Invested Telecommunications Enterprises (the “FITE Regulations”) that the primary foreign investor must also have experience and a good track record in providing value-added telecommunications services (the “VATS”) overseas. The FITE Regulations was recently amended on April 7, 2022 and has become effective since May 1, 2022, among which, the previous requirement on the primary foreign investor’s experience and good track record has been cancelled. However, this modification is relatively new, uncertainties still exist in relation to its interpretation and implementation.

Because we are an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are classified as a foreign enterprise under PRC laws and regulations, and its subsidiaries in the PRC are foreign-invested enterprises (the “FIEs”). As our current business and business plan are deemed as kinds of VATS, which are subject to restrictions or prohibitions, while FIEs may not be eligible to operate VATS business in China according to above mentioned restrictions, we conduct our business in China through its VIE. Given that the telecommunication authorities generally implement look-through approach for the supervision of the value-added telecommunications license, there are risks that we may be required by the telecommunication authorities to re-apply for value-added telecommunications license in accordance with the FITE Regulations, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. We have, through Zhejiang WFOE, entered into a series of contractual arrangements, including the exclusive technical and consulting services agreement, powers of attorney, exclusive option agreements and equity interest pledge agreements, as amended and restated, with the VIE, as well as the shareholders of the VIE. These contractual arrangements entered into with the VIE allow us to receive substantially all of the economic benefits of the VIE and its subsidiaries, and have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in the VIE when and to the extent permitted by PRC law. As a result of these contractual arrangements, we are the primary beneficiary of the VIE and hence consolidate the financial results of the VIE under U.S. GAAP.

We believe that our corporate structure and contractual arrangements comply with the current applicable PRC laws and regulations. Our PRC counsel, Dentons, is of the view that the contractual arrangement in relation to the VIE and all of the contracts among Zhejiang WFOE, the VIE and the shareholders of the VIE are valid and binding in accordance with its terms. However, as there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of PRC laws and regulations, including the PRC Foreign Investment Law, the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, and the Telecommunications Regulations and the relevant regulatory measures concerning the telecommunications industry, there can be no assurance that the PRC government authorities, such as the Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China (the “MOFCOM”), or the MIIT or other authorities that regulate internet content providers and other participants in the telecommunications industry, would agree that our corporate structure or any of the above contractual arrangements comply with PRC licensing, registration or other regulatory requirements, with existing policies or with requirements or policies that may be adopted in the future. PRC laws and regulations governing the validity of these contractual arrangements are uncertain and the relevant government authorities have broad discretion in interpreting these laws and regulations.

In addition, Mr. Gangjiang Li owns the majority of our voting shares. Mr. Guangjiang Li, along with a small number of other employees, together the nominee shareholders, own the majority of the voting shares of the VIE respectively. The enforceability, and therefore the benefits, of the contractual agreements between us and the VIE depend on these individuals enforcing the contracts. There is a risk that the benefits of ownership between us and the VIE may not be aligned in the future. Given the significance and importance of the VIE, there would be a significant negative impact to us if these contracts were not enforced. The fact that there are currently more than 20 shareholders and holders of warrants in the VIE further heightens this risk.

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If our corporate structure and contractual arrangements are deemed by the MIIT, the MOFCOM or other regulators having competent authority to be illegal, either in whole or in part, we may lose control of the VIE and have to modify such structure to comply with regulatory requirements. However, there can be no assurance that we can achieve this without material disruption to our business. Further, if our corporate structure and contractual arrangements are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, the relevant regulatory authorities would have broad discretion in dealing with such violations, including:

revoking our business and operating licenses;
levying fines on us;
confiscating any of our income that they deem to be obtained through illegal operations;
restricting our right to collect revenues;
shutting down our services;
discontinuing or restricting our operations in China;
imposing conditions or requirements with which we may not be able to comply;
requiring us to change our corporate structure and contractual arrangements;
restricting or prohibiting our use of the proceeds from overseas offering to finance the VIE’s business and operations; and
taking other regulatory or enforcement actions that could be harmful to our business.

Furthermore, new PRC laws, rules and regulations may be introduced to impose additional requirements that may be applicable to our corporate structure and contractual arrangements. Occurrence of any of these events could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. In addition, if the imposition of any of these penalties or requirement to restructure our corporate structure causes us to lose the rights to direct the activities of the VIE or the right to receive economic benefits, we would no longer be able to consolidate the financial results of such VIE in our consolidated financial statements.

We rely on contractual arrangements with the VIE and the shareholders of the VIE to operate our business, which may not be as effective as equity ownership in providing operational control and could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

We rely on contractual arrangements with the VIE and the shareholders of the VIE to operate our business in the PRC. These contractual arrangements may not be as effective as equity ownership in providing us with control over the VIE. If the VIE or the shareholders of the VIE fail to perform their respective obligations under these contractual arrangements, our recourse to the assets held by the VIE is indirect, and we may have to incur substantial costs and expend significant resources to enforce such arrangements in reliance on legal remedies under PRC law. The fact that there are currently more than 20 shareholders and holders of warrants in the VIE (all of which have entered into the VIE Contracts) further heightens this risk. These remedies may not always be effective, particularly in light of uncertainties in the PRC legal system. Furthermore, in connection with litigation, arbitration or other judicial or dispute resolution proceedings, assets under the name of any of record holder of equity interest in the VIE, including such equity interest, may be put under court custody. As a consequence, we cannot be certain that the equity interest will be disposed of pursuant to the contractual arrangement or ownership by the record holder of the equity interest. In addition, though we have entered into equity interest pledge agreements with the shareholders of the VIE, our remedies under the equity interest pledge agreements are primarily intended to help us collect debts owed to us by the VIE or the shareholders of the VIE under the contractual arrangements and may not help us in acquiring the assets or equity of the VIE.

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All the agreements under our contractual arrangements are governed by PRC laws and provide for the resolution of disputes through arbitration in China. Accordingly, these contracts would be interpreted in accordance with PRC laws and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures. The legal system in the PRC is not as developed as in some other jurisdictions. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit its ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Meanwhile, there are very few precedents and little formal guidance as to how such contractual arrangements should be interpreted or enforced under PRC laws. Significant uncertainties exist regarding the ultimate outcome of such arbitration should legal action become necessary. In addition, under PRC laws, rulings by arbitrators are final and parties cannot appeal arbitration results in court unless such rulings are revoked or determined unenforceable by a competent court. If the losing parties fail to carry out the arbitration awards within a prescribed time limit, the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would require additional expenses and delay. In the event that we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over the VIE and relevant rights and licenses held by us which we require in order to operate our business, and our ability to conduct our business may be adversely affected.

The arbitration provisions under these contractual arrangements have no effect on the rights of our shareholders to pursue claims against us under U.S. federal securities laws.

Our ability to enforce the equity interest pledge agreements among Zhejiang WFOE, the VIE and each shareholder of the VIE may be subject to limitations based on PRC laws and regulations.

Pursuant to the equity interest pledge agreements among Zhejiang WFOE, the VIE and each shareholder of the VIE, such shareholder pledges all of his or her equity interests in the VIE to Zhejiang WFOE to secure the performance by the VIE and its shareholders of their respective obligations under the applicable contractual agreements.

As of the date of this transition report, the pledge of the equity interests in the VIE has not been completed and the equity interest pledge under the equity interest pledge agreements has not been registered with local Administration for Market Regulation although the equity interest pledge agreements have been executed. Under the PRC Civil Code, when a pledgor fails to pay its debt when due, the pledgee may choose to either conclude an agreement with the pledgor to obtain the pledged equity or seek payments from the proceeds of the auction or sale of the pledged equity. The PRC Civil Code further provides that the registration is necessary to create security interest on the shares of a PRC company limited by shares, which means that before the equity interest pledge is duly registered, such pledge is unenforceable even though the relevant equity interest pledge agreement is binding. Prior to the completion of the registration, we may not be able to successfully enforce the equity interest pledges against any third parties who have acquired the equity interests in good faith in the VIE.

The shareholders of the VIE may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

The interests of the shareholders of the VIE in their capacities as such shareholders may differ from our interests as a whole. There can be no assurance that when conflicts of interest arise, any or all of these shareholders will act in our best interests, or those conflicts of interest will be resolved in our favor. In addition, these shareholders may breach or cause the VIE to breach or refuse to renew the existing contractual arrangements with us. Since there are more than 20 shareholders of the VIE including some shareholders who are concurrently holding (via themselves or their respective affiliate(s)) outstanding warrants to subscribe for Class A ordinary shares, there is a heightened risk of one or more shareholders of the VIE breaching or causing the VIE to breach or refusing to renew the existing contractual arrangements with us, and we may not be able to obtain consent and cooperation from all the shareholders in further actions with respect to the VIE, such as the transfer of equity interests in the VIE to our designee.

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Currently, we do not have arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest the shareholders of the VIE, on the one hand, and as our beneficial owners, on the other hand. We, however, could, at all times, exercise the option under the exclusive option agreement to cause the shareholders of the VIE to transfer all of their equity ownership in the VIE to our wholly-owned subsidiaries or an entity or individual designated by us as permitted by the then applicable PRC laws. In addition, if such conflicts of interest arise, we could also, in the capacity of attorney-in-fact of the then existing shareholders of the VIE as provided under the powers of attorney, directly appoint new directors of the VIE. We rely on the shareholders of the VIE to comply with PRC laws and regulations, which provide that directors and executive officers owe a duty of loyalty to its company and require them to avoid conflicts of interest and not to take advantage of their positions for personal gains, and with the laws of the Cayman Islands, which provide that directors have a duty of care and a duty of loyalty to act honestly in good faith with a view to its best interests. However, the legal frameworks of China and the Cayman Islands do not provide guidance on resolving conflicts in the event of a conflict with another corporate governance regime. If we cannot resolve any conflicts of interest or disputes between us and the shareholders of the VIE, we may have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

Contractual arrangements in relation to the VIE may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that the VIE owes additional taxes, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

Under applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities. The PRC enterprise income tax law requires every enterprise in China to submit its annual enterprise income tax return together with a report on transactions with its related parties to the relevant tax authorities. The tax authorities may impose reasonable adjustments on taxation if they have identified any related party transactions that are inconsistent with arm’s length principles. We may face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements among Zhejiang WFOE, the VIE and the shareholders of the VIE were not entered into on an arm’s length basis in such a way as to result in an impermissible reduction in taxes under applicable PRC laws, regulations and rules, and adjust their income in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment, which could increase their PRC tax liabilities and its overall tax liabilities. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction of expense deductions recorded by Zhejiang WFOE or the VIE for PRC tax purposes, which could in turn increase their tax liabilities without reducing their tax expenses. In addition, if Zhejiang WFOE requests the shareholders of the VIE to transfer their equity interests in the VIE at nominal or no value pursuant to these contractual arrangements, such transfer could be viewed as a gift and subject the relevant subsidiary to PRC income tax. Furthermore, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties on Zhejiang WFOE and VIE for adjusted but unpaid taxes according to applicable regulations. Our financial position could be materially and adversely affected if the tax liabilities of Zhejiang WFOE and VIE increase, or if they are required to pay late payment fees and other penalties.

We may lose the ability to use and enjoy assets held by the VIE that are material to the operation of our business if the VIE declares bankruptcy or becomes subject to a dissolution or liquidation proceeding.

The VIE holds substantially all of our assets in China. Under the contractual arrangements, the VIE may not and the shareholders of the VIE may not cause it to, in any manner, sell, transfer, mortgage or dispose of its assets or its legal or beneficial interests in the business without our prior consent. However, in the event that the shareholders of the VIE breach these contractual arrangements and voluntarily liquidate the VIE, or the VIE declares bankruptcy and all or part of their assets become subject to liens or rights of third-party creditors, or are otherwise disposed of without our consent, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business activities or otherwise benefit from the assets held by the VIE, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. If the VIE undergoes a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, independent third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of these assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

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Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the PRC Foreign Investment Law, and its enactment could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

The MOFCOM published a discussion draft of the proposed Foreign Investment Law (2015) (the “2015 Draft”), in January 2015 aiming to, upon its enactment, replace the major existing laws and regulations governing foreign investment in China. In December 2018, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, or the SCNPC published the draft Foreign Investment Law (2018), which was further amended and published in January 2019, as a second draft for comment. In March 2019, a new draft of Foreign Investment Law was submitted to the National People’s Congress for review and was approved on March 15, 2019, which came into effect recently on January 1, 2020. The Foreign Investment Law replaced the three laws on foreign investment, i.e., the Wholly Foreign-owned Enterprise Law of the PRC, the Cooperative Joint Venture Law of the PRC and the Equity Joint Venture Law of the PRC.

Pursuant to the Foreign Investment Law, “foreign investment” refers to investment activities directly or indirectly conducted by one or more natural persons, business entities, or otherwise organizations of a foreign country within China, or foreign investors, and the investment activities include the following situations: (1) a foreign investor, individually or collectively with other investors, establishes an FIE in China; (2) a foreign investor acquires stock shares, equity shares, shares in assets, or other similar rights and interests of an enterprise within China; (3) a foreign investor, individually or collectively with other investors, invests in a new project in China; and (4) investments in other means as provided by laws, administrative regulations, or the State Council.

The 2015 Draft introduced certain concepts for the regulation of “variable interest entity” structure, or the VIE structures, such as “actual control” and “controlling PRC companies by contracts or trusts”. However, the enacted Foreign Investment Law, as well as its implementation rules which was promulgated on December 26, 2019 and took effect on January 1, 2020, no longer mention the relevant concepts for the regulation of these variable interest entity structures. Instead, the newly promulgated Foreign Investment Law contains a catch-all provision, stating that investments made by foreign investors through means stipulated in laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council shall also be deemed as foreign investments. In consideration of the above, there are significant uncertainties as to the interpretation and implementation of such new legislation and how the control status of the VIE would be determined under the enacted Foreign Investment Law. We also face uncertainties as to whether the interpretation and implementation of such new legislation or regulations promulgated in the future would mandate further actions, such as MOFCOM market entry clearance or certain restructuring of corporate structure and operations, to be completed by companies with existing VIE structure and whether these actions can be timely completed, or at all, and our business and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected. If we are not able to obtain any approval when required, our contractual arrangements may be regarded as invalid and illegal, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. As a result, we may not be able to (1) continue our business in China through the contractual arrangements with the VIE, (2) exert effective control over the VIE, or (3) consolidate the financial results of, and receive economic benefits from the VIE under existing contractual arrangements.

In addition, our corporate governance practice may be impacted and our compliance costs could increase if the VIE was considered as FIEs under the Foreign Investment Law. For instance, the Foreign Investment Law purports to impose ad hoc and periodic information reporting requirements on foreign investors and the applicable FIEs. Any company found to be non-compliant with these information reporting obligations could potentially be subject to fines or administrative liabilities.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

Changes in the political and economic policies of the PRC government could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, and may result in our inability to sustain our growth and expansion strategies.

A substantial part of our operations are based in the PRC and a significant portion of our revenues are generated from our operations in the PRC. Accordingly, our business, operating results and financial condition are affected to a significant extent by economic, political and legal developments in the PRC.

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The PRC economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the extent of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the PRC government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China are still owned by the government. In addition, the PRC government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The PRC government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth by allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, regulating financial services and institutions and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

While the PRC economy has experienced significant growth in the past three decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. The PRC government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall PRC economy, but may also have a negative effect on us. Our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations that are applicable to us. In addition, the PRC government has implemented certain measures to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity, which in turn could lead to a reduction in demand for their services and consequently adversely affect their business, operating results and financial condition, and cause the value of their securities to significantly decline or become worthless.

Furthermore, we, as well as investors of our securities, face uncertainty about future actions by the PRC government that could significantly affect our financial performance and operations, including the enforceability of the VIE contractual arrangements. If future laws, administrative regulations or provisions mandate further actions to be taken by companies with respect to existing VIE contractual arrangements, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all. Failure to take timely and appropriate measures to adapt to any of these or similar regulatory compliance challenges could materially and adversely affect our current corporate structure and business operations.

As of the date of this transition report, there are no laws, regulations or other rules require us to obtain permission or approvals from Chinese authorities to list on U.S. exchanges, and we have not received or denied such permission. However, there is a risk that we will not receive or will be denied permission from Chinese authorities to list on U.S. exchanges in the future, which could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer the securities to investors and cause the value of the ordinary shares to significantly decline or be worthless.

We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC laws, rules and regulations, particularly of internet businesses. There is a risk that the PRC government may exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas, which could materially and adversely affect our business and hinder our ability to continue our operations, and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless.

A significant portion of our operations are conducted in the PRC and are governed by PRC laws, rules and regulations. Zhejiang WFOE and VIE are subject to laws, rules and regulations applicable to foreign investment in China. The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value in the PRC.

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In 1979, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws, rules and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation over the past three decades has significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investment in China. However, China has not developed a fully integrated legal system, and recently enacted laws, rules and regulations may not sufficiently cover all aspects of economic activities in China or may be subject to significant degrees of interpretation by PRC regulatory agencies. In particular, because these laws, rules and regulations are relatively new, the number of published decisions and the nonbinding nature of such decisions is limited, and the laws, rules and regulations often give the relevant regulator significant discretion in how to enforce them, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws, rules and regulations involve uncertainties and can be inconsistent and unpredictable. In addition, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published in a timely manner, or at all, and which may have a retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of the violation of these policies and rules until after the occurrence of the violation. Moreover, any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention. Since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. These uncertainties may impede their ability to enforce the contracts we have entered into and could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

There are uncertainties regarding the enforcement of PRC laws, and rules and regulations in China can change quickly with little advance notice. Any actions by the Chinese government to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas could materially and adversely affect our business and hinder our ability to offer securities overseas, or continue our operations, and cause the value of our securities to significantly decline or become worthless.

The Chinese government heavily regulates the internet industry, including relevant market access restrictions and limitations on foreign investment, license and permit requirements for service providers in the internet industry. Since some of the laws, regulations and legal requirements with respect to the internet are relatively new and evolving, their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties. Because the Chinese legal system is based on written statutes, such that prior court decisions can only be cited for reference and have little precedential value, it is in many cases difficult to determine what actions or omissions may result in liabilities.

Issues, risks and uncertainties relating to China’s government regulation of the Chinese internet sector include the following.

We operate our business in China through businesses controlled through contractual arrangements rather than equity ownership due to restrictions on foreign investment in businesses related to value- added telecommunication services.
Uncertainties relating to the regulation of the internet business in China, including evolving licensing practices, give rise to the risk that some of our permits, licenses or operations may be subject to challenges, which may be disruptive to our business, subject us to sanctions or require us to increase capital, compromise the enforceability of relevant contractual arrangements, or have other adverse effects on us. The numerous and often vague restrictions on acceptable content in China subject us to potential civil and criminal liability, temporary blockage or complete shut-down of our products. For example, the State Secrecy Bureau, which is directly responsible for the protection of state secrets of all Chinese government and Chinese Communist Party organizations, is authorized to block any website or mobile applications it deems to be leaking state secrets or failing to meet the relevant regulations relating to the protection of state secrets in the distribution of online information. In addition, the Law on Preservation of State Secrets which became effective on October 1, 2010 provides that whenever an internet service provider detects any leakage of state secrets in the distribution of online information, it should stop the distribution of such information and report to the authorities of state security and public security. As per request of the authorities of state security, public security or state secrecy, the internet service provider should delete any content on its website that may lead to disclosure of state secrets. Failure to do so on a timely and adequate basis may subject the service provider to liability and certain penalties imposed by the State Security Bureau, Ministry of Public Security or MIIT, or their respective local counterparts.

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In addition, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council recently jointly issued the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities According to Law, or the Opinions, which were made available to the public on July 6, 2021. The Opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the supervision over overseas listings by China-based companies. Effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems, are to be taken to deal with the risks and incidents of China-based overseas-listed companies, cybersecurity and data privacy protection requirements and similar matters. On December 28, 2021, the CAC, together with 12 other government agencies, jointly issued the Review Measures, which became effective on February 15, 2022 requiring that, among others, the purchase of network products and services by a “critical information infrastructure operator” and the data processing activities of a “network platform operator” that affect or may affect national security shall be subject to the cybersecurity review. In addition, the relevant PRC governmental authorities may initiate cybersecurity review if they determine certain network products, services, or data processing activities affect or may affect national security. The Review Measures also provides that any “network platform operators” holding over one million users’ personal information shall apply with the Cybersecurity Review Office for a cybersecurity review before any public offering at a foreign stock exchange. On November 14, 2021, the CAC published the Network Data Security Management Regulations for public comments, which among others further requires that a data processor who processes important data or who is listed overseas shall complete an annual data security assessment either self-conducted or conducted by a data security service organization engaged, and before January 31 of each year, submit the annual data security assessment report of the previous year to the local cyberspace affairs administration department. Since the Review Measures, the Network Data Security Management Regulations being drafted and the Opinions remain unclear on how it will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the relevant PRC governmental authorities, it remains uncertain how PRC governmental authorities will regulate overseas listing in general and how we will be affected. As of the date of this transition report, we have not received any notice from any authorities identifying any of its PRC subsidiaries or the VIE as a critical information infrastructure operator or requiring us to go through cybersecurity review or network data security review by the CAC. We believe that our listing in the U.S. will not be affected by the Review Measures or Network Data Security Management Regulations, and our PRC operations will not be subject to cybersecurity review or network data security review by the CAC for listing in the United States, because we are not a critical information infrastructure operator or data processing operators with personal information of more than one million users. There remains uncertainty, however, as to how the Review Measures and the Network Data Security Management Regulations will be interpreted or implemented and whether the PRC regulatory agencies, including the CAC, may adopt new laws, regulations, rules, or detailed implementation and interpretations related to the Review Measures and the Network Data Security Management Regulations. If the CSRC, CAC or other regulatory agencies later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain their approvals for future offshore offerings, we may be unable to obtain such approvals in a timely manner, or at all, and such approvals may be rescinded even if obtained. Any such circumstance could significantly limit or completely hinder their ability to continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless. In addition, implementation of industry-wide regulations directly targeting their operations could cause the value of our securities to significantly decline. Therefore, investors face potential uncertainty from actions taken by the PRC government affecting our business.

Due to the increasing popularity and use of the internet and other online services, it is possible that a number of laws and regulations may be adopted with respect to the internet or other online services covering issues such as user privacy, cybersecurity, data protection, pricing, content, copyrights, distribution, antitrust and characteristics and quality of products and services. The adoption of additional laws or regulations may impede the growth of the internet or other online services, which could, in turn, decrease the demand for our products and services and increase our cost of doing business. The interpretation and application of existing PRC laws, regulations and policies, the stated positions of relevant PRC government authorities and possible new laws, regulations or policies have created substantial uncertainties regarding the legality of existing and future foreign investments in, and the businesses and activities of, internet businesses in China, including our business.

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The Chinese government exerts substantial influence over the manner in which we must conduct our business, and may intervene or influence our operations at any time, which could result in a material change in our operations, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer securities overseas, and cause the value of the ordinary shares to significantly decline or be worthless.

The Chinese government has exercised and continues to exercise substantial control over virtually every sector of the Chinese economy through regulation and state ownership. Our ability to operate in China may be harmed by changes in its laws and regulations, including those relating to taxation, environmental regulations, land use rights, property and other matters. The central or local governments of these jurisdictions may impose new, stricter regulations or interpretations of existing regulations that would require additional expenditures and efforts on our part to ensure compliance with such regulations or interpretations. Accordingly, government actions in the future, including any decision not to continue to support recent economic reforms and to return to a more centrally planned economy or regional or local variations in the implementation of economic policies, could have a significant effect on economic conditions in China or particular regions thereof, and could require us to divest any interest we then hold in Chinese properties.

As such, our business is subject to various government and regulatory interferences. We could be subject to regulation by various political and regulatory entities, including various local and municipal agencies and government sub-divisions. We may incur increased costs necessary to comply with existing and newly adopted laws and regulations or penalties for any non-compliance incidents. Our operations could be adversely affected, directly or indirectly, by existing or future laws and regulations relating to our business or industry, which could result in a material change in our operation and the value of the ordinary shares.

Furthermore, given recent statements by the Chinese government indicating an intent to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas, although we are currently not required to obtain permission from any of the PRC federal or local government authorities and have not received any denial to list on a U.S. exchange, it is uncertain when and whether we will be required to obtain permission from the PRC government to list on U.S. exchanges in the future, and even when such permission is obtained, whether it will be denied or rescinded, which could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer securities overseas, and cause the value of its ordinary shares to significantly decline or be worthless.

We may be required to obtain and maintain permits, filings and licenses to operate our business in China.

Our business activities mainly include offering real-time engagement products that enable interactions through audio, video or message within mobile applications, which may be regarded as value-added telecommunications services under the Catalog of Telecommunications Business, or the Catalog, which was recently revised and promulgated on June 6, 2019. Considering the products we offer and the way our services are provided to our customers, we are of the view that our business activities fit into domestic multi-party communication services and information services under the Catalog. We are required to obtain the value-added telecommunication business operation licenses with service scope for provision of domestic multi-party communication services (the “DMPC license”), and for provision of information services (the “IS license”). Nanjing Baijiayun Technology Co., Ltd. obtained the DMPC license with national coverage on December 3, 2019. The VIE, Nanjing Baijiayun Technology Co., Ltd., Wuhan BaiJiaShiLian Technology Co., Ltd. and Guizhou Baijia Cloud Technology Co., Ltd. have obtained the IS licenses. However, the video cloud industry is still at a nascent stage of development and the laws and regulations regarding licenses for value added telecommunication services in the PRC are continuously evolving. Though the above licenses have already been obtained to minimize the risk arising from the PRC regulator’s different interpretation and enforcement on relevant laws, rules and regulations, it is possible that the businesses described in the Catalog, along with other relevant rules and regulatory requirements for the licenses, may further be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our understanding above, which means that we may be required by the PRC regulators to update our existing licenses or to obtain additional licenses under the current Catalog, or under future laws, rules and regulations applicable to our business as promulgated and amended from time to time.

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Currently, we hold two internet mobile applications, named “Cloud Classroom” and “Cloud Live”. According to the introduction of “Cloud Classroom” in the APP Store, it is an interactive live streaming tool that focuses on the education and training industry, helping customers in such industry to quickly develop online live courses business. The PRC Administrative Measures on Filing of Educational Mobile Apps requires the operators of educational mobile applications to file such application with competent provincial regulatory authorities. However, there is no specific punishment towards operators who fail to file such applications. We did not complete the filing of our operating applications, as we do not deem our applications as educational mobile applications. Based on the recent verbal consultations with competent authorities, our applications would not be regarded as educational mobile applications, and thus, we are not required to file these applications with competent authorities. As of the date of this transition report, we confirmed that we have never been interviewed, criticized, or included in the blacklist of educational mobile application operators by PRC government authorities due to our lack of filing of educational mobile applications. Pursuant to the Administrative Measures for the Graded Protection of Information Security, entities operating information systems shall determine the security protection grade of the information system pursuant to the Measures for the Graded Protection of Information Security and the Guidelines for Grading of Classified Protection of Cyber Security, and report such grade to the relevant department for examination and approval. Pursuant to the PRC Cybersecurity Law, if network operators do not perform cybersecurity protection duties of classified protection of cybersecurity, the competent authorities shall order the operator to make correction and give warnings. We operate several information systems, however, have only obtained the Information System Security Level Protection Record Certificate for our “Cloud Classroom” system. As of the date of this transition report, we confirm that we have never been warned, or ordered to make correction due to lack of filing of the information systems.

Though the lack of filing of educational mobile applications and information systems has not affected our business and results of operations at current stage, it is possible that the laws, rules and regulations may further be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with understanding above, or be promulgated and amended from time to time, which could adversely affect our business operations in the future.

We will continuously assess the need to obtain and renew permits, filings and licenses to operate our business, closely consult the supervisory authority having jurisdiction over us, and follow their guidance in a timely manner to ensure they run their business legally. However, we may fail, on acceptable terms and in a timely manner, or at all, to obtain, maintain or update the permits, filings and licenses they may need to operate and expand their business from time to time and as required by the supervisory authorities. Business operations without proper permits, filings and licenses may subject us to administrative penalties by relevant PRC regulators with measures including fines, and in very extreme cases, confiscation of the gains derived from the operations, being required to discontinue or restrict our operations and being placed in the credit blacklist made by the PRC regulator, and our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.

Our contractual arrangements with the VIE are governed by the laws of the PRC and it may have difficulty in enforcing any rights it may have under these contractual arrangements.

As all of our contractual arrangements with the VIE are governed by the PRC laws and provide for the resolution of disputes through arbitration in the PRC, they would be interpreted in accordance with PRC law and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures. Disputes arising from these contractual arrangements will be resolved through arbitration in China, although these disputes do not include claims arising under the United States federal securities law and thus do not prevent you from pursuing claims under the United States federal securities law. The legal environment in the PRC is not as developed as in the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could further limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements, through arbitration, litigation and other legal proceedings remain in China, which could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements and exert effective control over the VIE. Furthermore, these contracts may not be enforceable in China if PRC government authorities or courts take a view that such contracts contravene PRC laws and regulations or are otherwise not enforceable for public policy reasons. In the event we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to consolidate the financial results of the VIE under U.S. GAAP, and our ability to conduct our business may be materially and adversely affected.

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Recent regulatory development in China may exert more oversight and control over listing and offerings that are conducted overseas. The approval of the CSRC may be required in connection with the listing of our securities on Nasdaq and our future capital raising activities, and, if required, we cannot assure you that we or the VIE will be able to obtain such approval.

Under the current Regulations on Merger and Acquisition of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors (the “M&A Rules”), as jointly adopted by six PRC regulatory agencies in 2006 and amended in 2009, an offshore special purpose vehicle that is controlled by PRC domestic companies or individuals and that has been formed for the purpose of an overseas listing of securities through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies or assets is required to obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to the listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. However, substantial uncertainty remains regarding the scope and applicability of the M&A Rules to offshore special purpose vehicles.

Our PRC counsel, Dentons, has advised us based on their understanding of the current PRC laws, regulations and rules that the CSRC’s approval under the M&A Rules may not be required for the listing our securities on the Nasdaq Stock Market, given that: (1) the CSRC currently has not issued any definitive rule or interpretation concerning whether offerings like ours in this and the final prospectus are subject to the M&A Rules, (2) the WFOEs were incorporated as wholly foreign-owned enterprise by means of direct investment rather than by merger or acquisition of equity interest or assets of a PRC domestic company owned by PRC companies or individuals as defined under the M&A Rules, and (3) no explicit provision in the M&A Rules clearly classifies contractual arrangements as a type of acquisition transaction subject to the M&A Rules.

However, our PRC counsel has further advised us that it remains uncertain as to how the M&A Rules will be interpreted or implemented in the context of an overseas offering and its opinions summarized above are subject to any new laws, regulations and rules or detailed implementations and interpretations in any form relating to the M&A Rules. We cannot assure you that relevant PRC government agencies, including the CSRC, might, from time to time, further clarify or interpret the M&A Rules in writing or orally and require their approvals to be obtained for the listing of our securities on the Nasdaq Stock Market. We cannot assure you that relevant PRC government agencies, including the CSRC, would reach the same conclusion as our PRC counsel does. If it is determined that CSRC approval under the M&A Rules is required for the listing of our securities on the Nasdaq Stock Market, we may face sanctions by the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies for failure to obtain or delay in obtaining CSRC approval. These sanctions may include fines and penalties on the operations in China, delays in or restrictions on the repatriation of the proceeds from overseas offering into China, restrictions on or prohibition of the payments or remittance of dividends by the WFOEs or the VIE in China, or other actions that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, reputation and prospects, as well as the trading price of our ordinary shares.

Furthermore, the PRC regulatory authorities have recently exerted more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas. On July 6, 2021, the General Office of the State Council of the PRC, together with another regulatory authority, jointly promulgated the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down Illegal Securities Activities in Accordance with the Law, which calls for enhanced administration and supervision of overseas-listed China-based companies, proposes to revise the relevant regulation governing the overseas issuance and listing of shares by such companies, and clarifies the responsibilities of competent domestic industry regulators and government authorities. On December 24, 2021, the CSRC released the Provisions of the State Council on the Administration of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments) and the Administrative Measures for the Filing of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments) (the “Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listing”), for public comments until January 23, 2022. The Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listing comprehensively improved and reformed the exiting regulatory system for overseas offering and listing of domestic companies, and brought all overseas listing activities including both direct and indirect overseas offering and listing under regulation by adopting a filing-based administration system. The Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listing stipulates that the China-based companies, or the issuer, shall fulfill the filing procedures within three working days after the issuer makes an application for initial public offering and listing in an overseas market. In addition, an overseas offering and listing is prohibited under any of certain circumstances, including, among others, prohibition by national laws and regulations and relevant provisions, threatening to or endangering national security, material violation of laws by the company or its controllers or its directors, supervisors, or senior executives. The Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listing defines the legal liabilities of breaches such as failure in fulfilling filing obligations or fraudulent filing conducts, imposing a fine between RMB1 million and RMB10 million, and in cases of severe violations, a parallel order to suspend relevant business or halt operation for rectification, revoke relevant business permits or operational license.

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As of the date of this transition report, the Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listing has not come into effect, there remains uncertainty in the final form and the interpretation and implementation of such overseas listing rules, and we cannot assure you that the relevant PRC government authorities, including the CSRC, would not promulgate new rules or new interpretation of current rules to require us or the VIE to obtain CSRC or other PRC government approvals or complete other compliance procedures for the listing of our securities on the Nasdaq Stock Market. We cannot assure you that we or the VIE would be able to obtain such approvals or complete such other compliance procedures, to the extent that they may be subsequently required by the relevant regulatory authorities, in a timely manner, or at all, or that any completion of review or approval or other compliance procedures would not be rescinded. Any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining such approval or completing such procedures for the listing of our securities on the Nasdaq Stock Market or future capital raising activities as required under the Draft Rules Regarding Overseas Listing, or a rescission of any such approval obtained by us, would subject us to sanctions by the CSRC or other PRC regulatory authorities. These regulatory authorities may impose restrictions and penalties on the operations in China, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to launch any new offering of our securities, limit our ability to pay dividends outside of China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from future capital raising activities into China, or take other actions that could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects, as well as the trading price of the ordinary shares. Accordingly, the value of your investment may be materially and adversely affected or become worthless.

Furthermore, the PRC government authorities may further strengthen oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers like us. Any such action may adversely affect our operations and significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to you and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless.

Significant uncertainties exist in relation to the interpretation and implementation of, or proposed changes to, the PRC laws, regulations and policies regarding the online private education industry may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospect.

The regulatory environment with respect to the industry that we have been operating in China is changing rapidly for the past years and therefore is subject to substantial uncertainties. The PRC private education industry, especially the after-school tutoring sector, has experienced intense scrutiny and has been subject to significant regulatory changes recently. In particular, the Opinions on Further Alleviating the Burden of Homework and After-School Tutoring for Students in Compulsory Education jointly promulgated by the General Office of State Council and the General Office of Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on July 24, 2021, sets out a series of operating requirements on after-school tutoring institutions, including, among other things, online academic after-school tutoring institutions that have filed with the local education administration authorities will be subject to review and re-approval procedures by competent government authorities, and any failure to obtain such approval will result in the cancellation of its previous filing and internet content provider license, or the ICP license.

Since our customers operate in a broad range of industries, including private education industry, we are closely monitoring the evolving regulatory environment. However, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospect may be materially and adversely affected due to restrictions on private education industry. We also cannot assure that there will not be any new rules or regulations in China on business regarding education sector that our customers currently operate, or such new rules and regulations will not subject our business operations to further adjustments and in the event of such changes, our business operations may be adversely impacted.

The ordinary shares will be delisted and prohibited from trading in the over-the-counter market under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely auditors located in China for three consecutive years or if proposed changes to the law are enacted, for two consecutive years. The delisting of the ordinary shares, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.

As part of a continued regulatory focus in the United States on access to audit and other information currently protected by national law, in particular China’s, the HFCAA has been signed into law on December 18, 2020. The HFCAA states if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection for the PCAOB for three consecutive years, the SEC shall prohibit our ordinary shares from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter market in the United States.

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On December 2, 2021, the SEC adopted final amendments to its rules implementing the HFCAA, which include requirements to disclose information, including the auditor name and location, the percentage of shares of the issuer owned by governmental entities, whether governmental entities in the applicable foreign jurisdiction with respect to the auditor has a controlling financial interest with respect to the issuer, the name of each official of the Chinese Communist Party who is a member of the board of the issuer, and whether the articles of incorporation of the issuer contains any charter of the Chinese Communist Party. These amendments also establish procedures the SEC will follow in identifying issuers and prohibiting trading by certain issuers under the HFCAA, including that the SEC will identify an issuer as a “Commission-identified Issuer” if the issuer has filed an annual report containing an audit report issued by a registered public accounting firm that the PCAOB has determined it is unable to inspect or investigate completely, and will then impose a trading prohibition on an issuer after it is identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer for three consecutive years.

In March 2022, the SEC issued its first “Conclusive list of issuers identified under the HFCAA” indicating that those companies are now formally subject to the delisting provisions if they remain on the list for three consecutive years. As of the date of this transition report, more than 170 public companies have been listed in as issuers identified under the HFCAA.

In August 2022, the PCAOB, the CSRC and the Ministry of Finance of the PRC signed the Statement of Protocol, which establishes a specific and accountable framework for the PCAOB to conduct inspections and investigations of PCAOB-governed accounting firms in mainland China and Hong Kong. On December 15, 2022, the PCAOB announced that it was able to secure complete access to inspect and investigate PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong completely in 2022. The PCAOB Board vacated its previous 2021 determinations that the PCAOB was unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong. However, whether the PCAOB will continue to be able to satisfactorily conduct inspections of PCAOB-registered public accounting firms headquartered in mainland China and Hong Kong is subject to uncertainties and depends on a number of factors out of our and our auditor’s control. The PCAOB continues to demand complete access in mainland China and Hong Kong moving forward and is making plans to resume regular inspections in early 2023 and beyond, as well as to continue pursuing ongoing investigations and initiate new investigations as needed. The PCAOB has also indicated that it will act immediately to consider the need to issue new determinations with the HFCAA if needed. On December 29, 2023, the Consolidated Appropriations Act was signed into law, which, among others, amended the HFCAA to reduce the number of consecutive years an issuer can be identified as a Commission-Identified Issuer before the SEC must impose an initial trading prohibition on the issuer’s securities from three years to two. If the PCAOB is unable to inspect and investigate completely registered public accounting firms located in China in 2023 and beyond, or if we fail to, among others, meet the PCAOB’s requirements, including retaining a registered public accounting firm that the PCAOB determines it is able to inspect and investigate completely, we will be identified as a “Commission-identified Issuer,” and upon the expiration of the applicable years of non-inspection under the HFCAA and relevant regulations, the ordinary shares will be delisted from the Nasdaq Stock Market and our ordinary shares will not be permitted for trading over the counter either. If our ordinary shares are prohibited from trading in the United States, we cannot assure you that we will be able to list on a non-U.S. exchange or that a market for our ordinary shares will develop outside of the United States. Such a prohibition would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase the ordinary shares when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with delisting would have a negative impact on the price of the ordinary shares. Moreover, the HFCAA or other efforts to increase U.S. regulatory access to audit information could cause investor uncertainty for affected issuers, including us, and the market price of the ordinary shares could be adversely affected. Also, such a prohibition would significantly affect our ability to raise capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all, which would have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and prospects.

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PRC laws and regulations mandate complex procedures for some acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to make acquisitions in China.

PRC laws and regulations, such as the M&A Rules, and other relevant rules, established additional procedures and requirements that are expected to make merger and acquisition activities in China by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise, or that the approval from the MOFCOM be obtained in circumstances where overseas companies established or controlled by PRC enterprises or residents acquire affiliated domestic companies. PRC laws and regulations also require certain merger and acquisition transactions to be subject to a merger control security review. In August 2011, the MOFCOM promulgated the Rules of the Ministry of Commerce on the Implementation of the Security Review System for Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or MOFCOM Security Review Rules, effective from September 1, 2011, further provide that, when deciding whether a specific merger or acquisition of a domestic enterprise by foreign investors is subject to a security review by the MOFCOM, the principle of substance over form should be applied and foreign investors are prohibited from bypassing the security review requirement by structuring transactions through proxies, trusts, indirect investments, leases, loans, control through contractual arrangements of offshore transaction. Factors that the MOFCOM considers in its review are whether an important industry is involved, such transaction involves factors that have had or may have an impact on national economic security and such transaction will lead to a change in control of a domestic enterprise that holds a well-known PRC trademark or a time-honored PRC brand. If a business of any target company that we plan to acquire falls into the ambit of security review, we may not be able to successfully acquire such company. Complying with the requirements of the relevant regulations to complete any such transaction could be time-consuming, and any required approval process, including approval from the MOFCOM, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business.

PRC regulations relating to investments in offshore companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC-resident beneficial owners, Zhejiang WFOE or the VIE to liability or penalties, limit our ability to inject capital into Zhejiang WFOE and the VIE or limit the WFOE’s and the VIE’s ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits.

The SAFE promulgated the Circular of the SAFE on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, on July 4, 2014, which replaced the former circular commonly known as “SAFE Circular 75” promulgated by the SAFE on October 21, 2005. SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of the SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, referred to in SAFE Circular 37 as a “special purpose vehicle”. Pursuant to SAFE Circular 37, “control” refers to the act through which a PRC resident obtains the right to carry out business operation of, to gain proceeds from or to make decisions on a special purpose vehicle by means of, among others, shareholding entrustment arrangement. SAFE Circular 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as change of shareholders of the special purpose vehicle, increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC individuals, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material event. In the event that a PRC shareholder holding interests in a special purpose vehicle fails to fulfill the required SAFE registration, the PRC subsidiaries of that special purpose vehicle may be prohibited from making profit distributions to the offshore parent and from carrying out subsequent cross-border foreign exchange activities, and the special purpose vehicle may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital into its PRC subsidiaries. Moreover, failure to comply with the various SAFE registration requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of foreign exchange controls. According to the Notice of the SAFE on Further Simplifying and Improving Policies for the Foreign Exchange Administration of Direct Investment released on February 13, 2015 by the SAFE, local banks will examine and handle foreign exchange registration for overseas direct investment, including the initial foreign exchange registration and amendment registration, under SAFE Circular 37 from June 1, 2015.

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Mr. Gangjiang Li, Mr. Yi Ma and 11 natural persons completed the initial SAFE registration pursuant to SAFE Circular 37 in September 2021. We have notified substantial beneficial owners of ordinary shares who are PRC residents of their filing obligation, including the obligation to complete the SAFE registration and to make updates under SAFE Circular 37. Nevertheless, we may not be continuously aware of the identities of all of its beneficial owners who are PRC residents. We do not have control over its beneficial owners and there can be no assurance that all of our PRC-resident beneficial owners will comply with SAFE Circular 37 and subsequent implementation rules, and there is no assurance that the registration under SAFE Circular 37 and any amendment will be completed in a timely manner, or will be completed at all. The failure of our beneficial owners who are PRC residents to register or amend their foreign exchange registrations in a timely manner pursuant to SAFE Circular 37 and subsequent implementation rules, or the failure of future beneficial owners of its company who are PRC residents to comply with the registration procedures set forth in SAFE Circular 37 and subsequent implementation rules, may subject such beneficial owners, the WFOEs or the VIE to fines and legal sanctions. Failure to register or comply with relevant requirements may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital to the WFOEs and the VIE and limit the WFOEs’ ability to distribute dividends to us. These risks could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

Failure to make adequate contributions to various employee benefit plans as required by PRC regulations may subject us to penalties.

We are required under PRC laws and regulations to participate in various government sponsored employee benefit plans, including certain social insurance, housing funds and other welfare-oriented payment obligations, and contribute to the plans in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of our employees up to a maximum amount specified by the local government from time to time at locations where we operate our businesses. The requirement of employee benefit plans has not been implemented consistently by the local governments in China given the different levels of economic development in different locations. As of the date of this transition report, we have not made adequate employee benefit payments and may be required to make up the contributions for these plans in the amount of 110% of the amount in the preceding month. If we fail to make or supplement contributions of social security premiums within the stipulated period, the social security premiums collection agency may enquire into the deposit accounts of the employer with banks and other financial institutions. In an extreme situation, where we fail to contribute social security premiums in full amount and do not provide guarantee, the social security premiums collection agency may apply to a Chinese court for seizure, foreclosure or auction of our properties of value equivalent to the amount of social security premiums payable, and the proceeds from auction shall be used for contribution of social security premiums. If we are subject to deposit, seizure, foreclosure or auction in relation to the underpaid employee benefits, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding employee equity incentive plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

Pursuant to SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents who participate in equity incentive plans in overseas non-publicly-listed companies due to their position as director, senior management or employees of the PRC subsidiaries of the overseas companies may submit applications to SAFE or its local branches for the foreign exchange registration with respect to offshore special purpose companies. Our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC residents and who have been granted options may follow SAFE Circular 37 to apply for the foreign exchange registration before we become an overseas listed company. As an overseas listed company, we and our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC residents and who have been granted options are subject to the Notice of the SAFE on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly Listed Company, issued by SAFE in February 2012, according to which, employees, directors, supervisors and other management members participating in any equity incentive plans of an overseas publicly listed company who are PRC residents are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be a PRC subsidiary of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. We are making, and will make efforts to comply with these requirements, but there can be no assurance that they can successfully register with SAFE in full compliance with the rules. Failure to complete the SAFE registrations may subject relevant participants in the share incentive plans to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit the ability to make payment under the equity incentive plans or receive dividends or sales proceeds related thereto, or our ability to contribute additional capital into our wholly-foreign owned enterprise in China and limit the wholly-foreign owned enterprise’s ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional equity incentive plans for our directors and employees under PRC law.

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We may rely on dividends, loans and other distributions on equity paid by our principal operating subsidiaries to fund offshore cash and financing requirements. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC operating subsidiaries to make payments to us could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business.

We are a holding company and may rely on dividends, loans and other distributions on equity paid by our principal operating subsidiaries and on remittances from the VIE for our offshore cash and financing requirements, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders, fund inter-company loans, service any debt we may incur outside of China and pay our expenses. When our WFOEs or the VIE incur additional debt, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends, make loans or make other distributions or remittances to us. Furthermore, the laws, rules and regulations applicable to the WFOEs and the VIE permit payments of dividends only out of our retained earnings, if any, determined in accordance with applicable accounting standards and regulations.

Under PRC laws, rules and regulations, our WFOEs and the VIE are required to set aside at least 10% of their net income each year to fund certain statutory reserves until the cumulative amount of such reserves reaches 50% of their registered capital. These reserves, together with the registered capital, are not distributable as cash dividends. As a result of these laws, rules and regulations, our WFOEs and the VIE are restricted in their ability to transfer a portion of their respective net assets to their shareholders as dividends, loans or advances.

Limitations on the ability of the VIE to make remittance to the wholly-foreign owned enterprise and on the ability of its subsidiaries to pay dividends to us could limit our ability to access cash generated by the operations of those entities, including making investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our businesses, paying dividends to our shareholders or otherwise funding and conducting our business.

The discontinuation of the preferential tax treatment available to us in China could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

Under PRC tax laws and regulations, some of our PRC subsidiaries currently benefit from a number of preferential tax treatments. For example, the modified EIT Law and its implementation rules generally impose a uniform income tax rate of 25% on all enterprises, but grant preferential treatment to “high and new technology enterprises strongly supported by the state,” (the “HNTEs”), to enjoy a reduced enterprise tax rate of 15%. Wuhan Baijia Cloud Technology Co., Ltd., Wuhan BaiJiaShiLian Technology Co., Ltd., and Beijing Deran Technology Co., Ltd., and the VIE are now qualified as HNTEs. Continued qualification as a HNTE is subject to a three-year review by the relevant government authorities in China, and in practice certain local tax authorities also require annual evaluation of the qualification. In addition to the foregoing tax benefit, some of our PRC subsidiaries obtained the certificate of Qualified Software Enterprise and some of our products have obtained software product registration certificates, based on which the relevant PRC subsidiaries enjoy certain preferential enterprise income tax and value-added tax benefits, according to relevant rules including the Notice on Value-added Tax Policies for Software Products issued by the Ministry of Finance (the “MOF”), and the SAT, on October 13, 2011, the Notice on Enterprise Income Tax Policies for Further Encouraging the Development of Software and Integrated Circuit Industries issued by the MOF and the SAT on April 20, 2012, the Notice on Increasing the Proportion of Weighted Pre-tax Deduction for R&D Expenses issued by the MOF, the SAT and the Ministry of Science and Technology on September 20, 2018, and the Announcement on Enterprise Income Tax Policies for Promoting the High-Quality Development of Integrated Circuit and Software Industries issued by the MOF, the SAT, the National Development and Reform Commission, or the NDRC, and the MIIT on December 11, 2020. In the event the preferential tax treatment for our PRC subsidiaries are discontinued or are not verified by the local tax authorities, and the affected entity fails to obtain preferential tax treatments, we will become subject to the standard tax rates and policies, including the PRC enterprise income tax rate of 25%. We cannot assure you that the tax authorities will not, in the future, discontinue our preferential tax treatment, potentially with retroactive effect.

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We and our non-PRC subsidiaries may be treated as resident enterprises for PRC tax purposes under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, and we may therefore be subject to PRC income tax on our global income.

Under the modified Enterprise Income Tax Law of the PRC and its implementing rules, enterprises established under the laws of jurisdictions outside of China with “de facto management bodies” located in China may be considered PRC tax resident enterprises for tax purposes and may be subject to the PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on their global income. “De facto management body” refers to a managing body that exercises substantive and overall management and control over the production and business, personnel, accounting books and assets of an enterprise. The SAT issued the Notice Regarding the Determination of Chinese-Controlled Offshore-Incorporated Enterprises as PRC Tax Resident Enterprises on the Basis of De Facto Management Bodies, or Circular 82, on April 22, 2009. Circular 82 provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a Chinese- controlled offshore-incorporated enterprise is located in China. Although Circular 82 only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by foreign enterprises or individuals, the determining criteria set forth in Circular 82 may reflect the SAT’s general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups. If we or any of our non-PRC subsidiaries were to be considered a PRC resident enterprise, we or the subsidiary would be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at the rate of 25% on our or our subsidiary’s global income. In such case, our profitability and cash flow may be materially reduced as a result of our global income being taxed under the Enterprise Income Tax Law of the PRC. We believe that none of our entities outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body”.

If we become directly subject to the recent scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity involving U.S.-listed Chinese companies, we may have to expend significant resources to investigate and resolve the matter, which could harm our business operations and reputation, and could result in a loss of investors’ investment in our securities, especially if such matter cannot be addressed and resolved favorably.

Recently, U.S. public companies that have substantially all of their operations in China, have been the subject of intense scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity by investors, financial commentators and regulatory agencies, such as the SEC. Much of the scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity has centered around financial and accounting irregularities, a lack of effective internal controls over financial accounting, inadequate corporate governance policies or a lack of adherence thereto and, in many cases, allegations of fraud. As a result of the scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity, the publicly traded stock of many U.S. listed Chinese companies has sharply decreased in value and, in some cases, has become virtually worthless. Many of these companies are now subject to shareholder lawsuits and SEC enforcement actions and are conducting internal and external investigations into the allegations. It is not clear what effect this sector-wide scrutiny, criticism and negative publicity will have on us and our business. If we become the subject of any unfavorable allegations, whether such allegations are proven to be true or untrue, we will have to expend significant resources to investigate such allegations and/or defend itself. This situation may be a major distraction to our management. If such allegations are not proven to be groundless, we and our business operations will be severely hampered and investors’ investment in our securities could be rendered worthless.

It may be difficult for overseas regulators to conduct investigations or collect evidence within China.

Shareholder claims or regulatory investigation that are common in the United States generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to providing information needed for regulatory investigations or litigation initiated outside China. Although the authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the Unities States may not be efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. Furthermore, according to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law, which became effective in March 2020, no foreign securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigations or evidence collection activities within the PRC territory. While detailed interpretation of or implementation rules under Article 177 have yet to be promulgated, the inability for a foreign securities regulator to directly conduct investigations or evidence collection activities within China may further increase the difficulties you face in protecting your interests.

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There are uncertainties with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises or other assets attributed to a Chinese establishment of a non-Chinese company, or immovable properties located in China owned by non-Chinese companies.

On February 3, 2015, the SAT issued the Bulletin on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Transfers of Assets by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or Bulletin 7, which partially replaced and supplemented previous rules under the Notice of the SAT on Strengthening Administration of Enterprise Income Tax for Share Transfers by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises or SAT Circular 698, issued by the SAT on December 10, 2009. Pursuant to this Bulletin 7, an “indirect transfer” of assets, including equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, by non-PRC resident enterprises may be re-characterized and treated as a direct transfer of PRC taxable assets, if such arrangement does not have a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of avoiding payment of PRC enterprise income tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax. According to Bulletin 7, “PRC taxable assets” include assets attributed to an establishment in China, immovable properties located in China, and equity investments in PRC resident enterprises, in respect of which gains from their transfer by a direct holder, being a non-PRC resident enterprise, would be subject to PRC enterprise income taxes. When determining whether there is a “reasonable commercial purpose” of the transaction arrangement, features to be taken into consideration include: whether the main value of the equity interest of the relevant offshore enterprise derives from PRC taxable assets; whether the assets of the relevant offshore enterprise mainly consists of direct or indirect investment in China or if its income mainly derives from China; whether the offshore enterprise and its subsidiaries directly or indirectly holding PRC taxable assets have real commercial nature which is evidenced by their actual function and risk exposure; the duration of existence of the business model and organizational structure; the replicability of the transaction by direct transfer of PRC taxable assets; and the tax situation of such indirect transfer and applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements. In respect of an indirect offshore transfer of assets of a PRC establishment, the resulting gain is to be included with the enterprise income tax filing of the PRC establishment or place of business being transferred, and would consequently be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at a rate of 25%. Where the underlying transfer relates to the immovable properties located in China or to equity investments in a PRC resident enterprise, which is not related to a PRC establishment or place of business of a non-resident enterprise, a PRC enterprise income tax of 10% would apply, subject to available preferential tax treatment under applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements, and the party who is obligated to make the transfer payments has the withholding obligation. Bulletin 7 does not apply to transactions of sale of shares by investors through a public stock exchange where such shares were acquired from a transaction through a public stock exchange. On October 17, 2017, the SAT promulgated the Announcement on Issues Concerning the Withholding of Non-resident Enterprise Income Tax at Source, or SAT Circular 37, which was amended and became effective on June 15, 2018, and SAT Circular 698 then was repealed with effect from December 1, 2017. SAT Circular 37 also amends certain provisions in Bulletin 7, but does not touch upon other provisions of Bulletin 7, which remain in full force. SAT Circular 37, among other things, simplified procedures of withholding and payment of income tax levied on non-resident enterprises.

There is uncertainty as to the application of Bulletin 7 and SAT Circular 37. we face uncertainties as to the reporting and other implications of certain past and future transactions where PRC taxable assets are involved, such as offshore restructuring, sale of the shares in its offshore subsidiaries or investments. We may be subject to filing obligations or taxed if our company is transferor in such transactions, and may be subject to withholding obligations if our company is transferee in such transactions under Bulletin 7. For transfer of shares in our company by investors that are non-PRC resident enterprises, the WFOEs may be requested to assist in the filing under Bulletin 7. As a result, we may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with Bulletin 7 and SAT Circular 37 or to request the relevant transferors from whom we purchase taxable assets to comply with Bulletin 7 and SAT Circular 37, or to establish that we should not be taxed under Bulletin 7 and SAT Circular 37, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

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We will be subject to restrictions on currency exchange.

A substantial portion of our revenues is denominated in Renminbi. The Renminbi is currently convertible under the “current account,” which includes dividends, trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, but not under the “capital account,” which includes foreign direct investment and loans, including loans we may secure from the WFOEs or the VIE. Currently, the WFOEs may purchase foreign currency for settlement of “current account transactions,” including payment of dividends to us, without the approval of the SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, the relevant PRC governmental authorities may limit or eliminate its ability to purchase foreign currencies in the future for current account transactions. Foreign exchange transactions under the capital account remain subject to limitations and require approvals from, or registration with, the SAFE and other relevant PRC governmental authorities. Since a significant amount of our future revenues and cash flow will be denominated in Renminbi, any existing and future restrictions on currency exchange may limit their ability to utilize cash generated in Renminbi to fund their business activities outside of the PRC or pay dividends in foreign currencies to the shareholders, and may limit our ability to obtain foreign currency through debt or equity financing for the WFOEs and the VIE.

PRC regulation of loans to, and direct investment in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may restrict or prevent us from making loans to the WFOEs and the VIE, or to make additional capital contributions to the WFOEs.

We, as an offshore holding company, are permitted under PRC laws and regulations to provide funding to the WFOEs, which are treated as foreign-invested enterprises under PRC laws, through loans or capital contributions. However, loans by us to the WFOEs to finance our activities cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with the local counterpart of SAFE and capital contributions to the WFOEs are subject to the requirement of making necessary filings or registrations through enterprise registration system with relevant governmental authorities in China.

SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming the Administration of Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises (the “Circular 19”), effective on June 1, 2015, in replacement of the Circular of the General Affairs Department of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on the Relevant Operating Issues Concerning the Improvement of the Administration of the Payment and Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises (the “SAFE Circular 142”), the Notice from the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Relevant Issues Concerning Strengthening the Administration of Foreign Exchange Businesses (the “Circular 59”), and the Circular of the SAFE on Further Clarification and Regulation of the Issues Concerning the Administration of Certain Capital Account Foreign Exchange Businesses (the “Circular 45”). According to Circular 19, the flow and use of the Renminbi capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company is regulated such that Renminbi capital may not be used for the issuance of Renminbi entrusted loans, the repayment of inter-enterprise loans or the repayment of banks loans that have been transferred to a third party. Although Circular 19 allows Renminbi capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise to be used for equity investments within the PRC, it also reiterates the principle that Renminbi converted from the foreign currency- denominated capital of a foreign-invested company may not be directly or indirectly used for purposes beyond its business scope. Thus, it is unclear whether SAFE will permit such capital to be used for equity investments in the PRC in actual practice. SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Standardizing the Foreign Exchange Settlement Management Policy of Capital Account (the “Circular 16”), effective on June 9, 2016, which reiterates some of the rules set forth in Circular 19, but changes the prohibition against using Renminbi capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company to issue Renminbi entrusted loans to a prohibition against using such capital to issue loans to non-associated enterprises. Violations of Circular 19 and Circular 16 could result in administrative penalties. Circular 19 and Circular 16 may significantly limit its ability to transfer any foreign currency we hold to the WFOEs and the VIE, which may adversely affect our liquidity and ability to fund and expand our business in the PRC.

Due to the restrictions imposed on loans in foreign currencies extended to any PRC domestic companies, we are not likely to make such loans to the VIE. Meanwhile, we are not likely to finance the activities of the VIE by means of capital contributions given the potential restrictions on foreign investment in the businesses that are currently conducted by the VIE.

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In light of the various requirements imposed by PRC regulations on loans to, and direct investment in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies, we cannot assure you that we will be able to complete the necessary government registrations or obtain the necessary government approvals in a timely manner, if at all, with respect to future loans to the WFOEs or the VIE or future capital contributions by us to the WFOEs. As a result, uncertainties exist as to our ability to provide prompt financial support to the WFOEs or the VIE when needed. If we fail to complete such registrations or obtain such approvals, our ability to use foreign currency and to capitalize or otherwise fund our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and ability to fund and expand our business.

Risks Related to the Ownership of our Securities

The trading price of the ordinary shares is likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

The trading price of the ordinary shares is likely to be volatile. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, including the performance and fluctuation of the market prices of other companies with business operations located mainly in China that have listed their securities in the United States. The market price for the ordinary shares may be influenced by those factors discussed in this “Risk Factors” section and many others, including:

regulatory developments in the U.S., the PRC and foreign countries;
innovations or new products or solutions developed by us, or our competitors;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, dispositions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;
achievement of expected sales and profitability;
variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;
trading volume of the ordinary shares, and sales of the securities by insiders and shareholders;
an inability to obtain additional funding;
change in strategy or industry trend;
announcements of new investments, acquisitions/dispositions, strategic partnership or joint venture by us or our competitors;
general economic, industry and market conditions other events or factors, many of which are beyond our control;
additions or departures of key personnel;
the ongoing and future impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and actions taken to slow its spread; and
intellectual property, product liability or other litigation against us.

For example, if the Board decides to conduct a material acquisition or disposition such as a disposition of the plastic films business (the possibility of such a disposition was reviewed and discussed in the process of negotiating the Transactions), this could result in the distraction of our management and disruption of ongoing business, any of which could adversely affect our business and financial results, and the trading price of the ordinary shares. In addition, in the past, shareholders of public companies have initiated class action lawsuits against those companies following periods of volatility in the market prices of these companies’ shares. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could cause us to incur substantial costs and divert management’s attention and resources, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Substantial future sales or perceived sales of the ordinary shares in the public market could cause the price of the ordinary shares to decline.

Substantial future sales or perceived sales of the ordinary shares in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of the ordinary shares to decline. As of the date of this transition report, our issued and outstanding securities consist of: (1) 29,201,849 Class A ordinary shares; (2) 54,583,957 Class B ordinary shares; and (3) warrants to subscribe for 17,964,879 Class A ordinary shares. Assuming all of the warrants to subscribe for our Class A ordinary shares have been exercised, our issued and outstanding securities consist of: (1) 47,166,728 Class A ordinary shares; and (2) 54,583,957 Class B ordinary shares.

We are in the process of discussing with certain potential investors regarding a potential private investment in public equity (“PIPE”) investment, the terms of which are still subject to ongoing negotiation. The total number of shares to be issued by us in such PIPE financing is not expected to exceed 15% of our total outstanding shares, including ordinary shares subject to outstanding warrants (on a fully diluted and as converted basis and taking into account such PIPE financing). If such PIPE financing is consummated, our shareholders will experience dilution as a result, and the trading price of the ordinary shares may decline.

The dual-class share structure with different voting rights will significantly limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of the Class A ordinary shares may view as beneficial.

Our authorized and issued ordinary shares are divided into the Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares. In respect of matters requiring the votes of our shareholders, holders of the Class A ordinary shares and Class B ordinary shares vote together as one class, and holders of the Class A ordinary shares are entitled to one vote per share while holders of the Class B ordinary shares are entitled to 15 votes per share. Each Class B ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof, while the Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into the Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances. The third amended and restated memorandum of association and second amended and restated articles of association requires any Class B ordinary shares to be automatically converted into Class A ordinary shares upon, among others, a direct or indirect sale, transfer, assignment or disposition of such Class A ordinary shares or a direct or indirect transfer or assignment of the voting power attached to such Class B ordinary shares through voting proxy or otherwise, to any person or entity an affiliate of the holder of such Class B ordinary shares.

As of the date of this transition report, Jia Jia BaiJiaYun Ltd beneficially owns 28,055,888 Class B ordinary shares which account for an aggregate of 49.63% of the voting power represented by all our issued and outstanding ordinary shares, Duo Duo International Limited beneficially owns 17,886,414 Class B ordinary shares, which account for an aggregate of 31.64% of the voting power represented by all our issued and outstanding ordinary shares, and Nuan Nuan Ltd beneficially owns 8,641,655 Class B ordinary shares, which account for an aggregate of 15.29% of the voting power represented by all our issued and outstanding ordinary shares. Nuan Nuan Ltd and Mr. Gangjiang Li are parties to an acting in concert agreement, pursuant to which Nuan Nuan Ltd agreed to exercise its voting power as our shareholder at the direction of Mr. Gangjiang Li. As a result, Jia Jia BaiJiaYun Ltd, Duo Duo International Limited and Nuan Nuan Ltd, as holders of the Class B ordinary shares, will have the power to control all matters submitted to our shareholders for approval, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets and all other major corporate transactions.

Each of Jia Jia BaiJiaYun Ltd, Duo Duo International Limited, Nuan Nuan Ltd, Mr. Gangjiang Li and their respective ultimate beneficial owners Mr. Gangjiang Li, Ms. Xin Zhang and Mr. Yi Ma may have interests that differ from the interests of other shareholders, and may vote the Class B ordinary shares directly or indirectly held by him/her/it in ways with which other shareholders may disagree or which may be adverse to such other shareholders’ interests. The concentrated control over our company will likely exist regardless of whether and to what extent we distribute to our shareholders any ordinary shares, and will have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control of our company, could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their ordinary shares as part of a sale of our company, and could have a negative effect on the market price of the ordinary shares.

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The outstanding warrants to subscribe for our Class A ordinary shares held by certain investors of BJY may not ultimately be exercised. In the event of non-exercise of such warrants, our shareholding structure may be affected and there may be a negative impact on our financial condition.

As of the date of this transition report, there are outstanding warrants held by some of BJY’s investors to subscribe for Class A ordinary shares, which represent approximately 17.66% of our issued and outstanding ordinary shares in the aggregate, and are exercisable by their respective holders subject to certain conditions including the completion of overseas direct investment filings under the PRC laws, which is a prerequisite procedure for Chinese entities to make investment overseas. These warrants were assumed by us as a result of the Merger and the Transactions, pursuant which certain warrants issued to BJY investors in connection with the automatic conversion of the preferred shares issued by BJY to its investors before the merger were converted into warrants to subscribe for certain number of our Class A ordinary shares based on the conversion ratio as defined in the Merger Agreement.

We cannot guarantee that the overseas direct investment filings for all such investors who hold warrants to subscribe for Class A ordinary shares can be finally completed or all such investors will ultimately exercise their rights to subscribe for Class A ordinary shares.

In the event that any of such investors fails to complete its overseas direct investment filings or otherwise decides to not exercise its warrants to subscribe for Class A ordinary shares for any reason, such investor might request us to redeem (despite there being no contractual obligation us to redeem) the interests in the VIE held by such investor or its affiliate(s). In such event, the shareholding structure of the VIE and us may be affected. In addition, we may be requested to return the investment amount originally provided by such investor together with certain level of return expected by such investor or otherwise facilitate an exit by such investor (despite there being no contractual obligation for us to do so), which may negatively impact our financial condition.

We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules and, as a result, may rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements that provide protection to shareholders of other companies.

As of the date of this transition report, Jia Jia BaiJiaYun Ltd, Duo Duo International Limited and Nuan Nuan Ltd, as a group, have 96.56% of the voting power represented by all the issued and outstanding ordinary shares. As a result, we are a “controlled company” as defined under the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules as set forth in Listing Rule 5615, because Jia Jia BaiJiaYun Ltd, Duo Duo International Limited and Nuan Nuan Ltd, as a group, own more than 50% of our total voting power. For so long as we remain a controlled company, we may, and do rely on certain exemptions from corporate governance rules, including an exemption from the rule that a majority of our board of directors must be independent directors or that we have to establish a nominating committee and a compensation committee composed entirely of independent directors. As a result, you will not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to these corporate governance requirements.

We may be a passive foreign investment company for United States federal income tax purposes, which could result in adverse United States federal income tax consequences to United States investors in the Shares.

Generally, we will be a “passive foreign investment company” (a “PFIC”), if, in the case of any particular taxable year, either (1) 75.0% or more of our gross income for such year consists of certain types of passive income, or (2) 50.0% or more of the average quarterly value of our assets during such year produce or are held for the production of passive income. The determination of whether we are a PFIC will depend on the particular facts and circumstances (such as the valuation of our assets, including goodwill and intangible assets, and the composition of our income). In addition, pursuant to the “change of business exception,” a corporation that would otherwise be a PFIC for a taxable year is not treated as a PFIC for such year if (1) neither the corporation nor any of its predecessors was a PFIC for any prior taxable year, (2) either substantially all of the passive income for the taxable year is attributable to proceeds from the disposition of an active trade or business or substantially all of the passive assets on each measuring date are attributable to proceeds from such a disposition and (3) the corporation reasonably does not expect to be a PFIC and is not a PFIC for either of the first two taxable years following the relevant taxable year.

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We have not performed a definitive analysis as to our PFIC status for its 2022 taxable year, including whether it would qualify for the “change of business exception”, and we provide no assurance that we will make a determination as to our PFIC status for the current taxable year or any future taxable year. Further, since there is little administrative or judicial authority on which to rely to make a determination of PFIC status (including the availability of the “change of business exception”), the tests for determining PFIC status are applied annually after the close of the taxable year, and it is difficult to accurately predict future income and assets relative to this determination, there can be no assurance with respect to our PFIC status for our current taxable year or any future taxable year. If we are a PFIC in any taxable year, a U.S. Holder may incur significantly increased United States federal income tax on gain recognized on the sale or other disposition of the ordinary shares and on the receipt of distributions on the ordinary shares to the extent such gain or distribution is treated as an “excess distribution” under the United States federal income tax rules, and such holders may be subject to burdensome reporting requirements. Further, if we are a PFIC for any year during which a United States Holder holds the ordinary shares, we generally will continue to be treated as a PFIC for all succeeding years during which such U.S. Holder holds the ordinary shares. Investors should consult their own tax advisors regarding all aspects of the application of the PFIC rules to the ordinary shares.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands with limited liability. Our corporate affairs are governed by the third amended and restated memorandum and second amended and restated articles of association, the Companies Act and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders to take action against us and our directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the English common law, which are generally of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a different body of securities laws than the United States, and provide significantly less protection to investors. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have the standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States. There is no statutory recognition in the Cayman Islands of judgments obtained in the United States, although the courts of the Cayman Islands will in certain circumstances, recognize and enforce a non-penal judgment of a foreign court of competent jurisdiction without retrial on the merits.

Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records (other than the amended and restated memorandum and articles of association, the register of mortgages and charges, and copies of any special resolutions passed by its shareholders) or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under the third amended and restated memorandum of association and second amended and restated articles of association, to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder resolution or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands differ significantly from requirements for companies incorporated in other jurisdictions such as the U.S. If we choose to follow our home country practice in the future, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would under rules and regulations applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have greater difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by our management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States.

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Our corporate structure, together with applicable law, may impede our shareholders from asserting claims against us.

Almost all of our operations and records, and all of our senior management are located in China. Shareholders of companies such as us have limited ability to assert and collect on claims in litigation against our PRC subsidiaries. In addition, China has very restrictive secrecy laws that prohibit the delivery of many of the financial records maintained by a business located in China to third parties absent PRC government’s approval. Since discovery is an important part of proving a claim in litigation, and since most if not all of our records are in China, PRC secrecy laws could frustrate efforts to prove a claim against us or our management. In addition, in order to commence litigation in the United States against an individual such as an officer or director, that individual must be served. Generally, service requires the cooperation of the country in which a defendant resides. China has a history of failing to cooperate in efforts to affect such service upon PRC citizens in China.

As a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices for corporate governance matters that differ significantly from the Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards; these practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with the corporate governance listing standards.

As a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market, we are subject to the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules for corporate governance listing standards. However, we qualify as a foreign private issuer (as defined in Rule 3b-4 under the Exchange Act) under the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules and we are permitted to follow home country practice in respect of certain corporate governance matters. As a result, our corporate governance practices differ in some respects from those required to be followed by U.S. companies listed on the Nasdaq Capital Market. For example, we do not (1) have a majority of the board be independent; (2) have a compensation committee or a nominating and corporate governance committee consisting entirely of independent directors; or (3) have an audit committee be composed of at least three members. We may also continue to rely on these and other exemptions available to foreign private issuers in the future, and to the extent that we choose to do so, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would have under the Nasdaq Stock Market Rules applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.

We are a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, and exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K;
the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;
the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and
the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD promulgated by SEC.

We are required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC are less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

We will not pay dividends for the foreseeable future, investors must rely on price appreciation of the ordinary shares for return on their investment.

We have not paid any dividends on the ordinary shares for the last five years. We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. In addition, the terms of any future debt agreements may preclude us from paying dividends.

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The Board has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends, subject to certain requirements of Cayman Islands law. In addition, our shareholders may by ordinary resolution declare a dividend, but no dividend may exceed the amount recommended by the directors. Under Cayman Islands law, a Cayman Islands exempted company may pay a dividend out of either profit or its share premium account, provided that in no circumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in it being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. Even if the Board decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on our future results of operations and cash flow, capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiaries, financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by the Board. Accordingly, the return on the investment in the ordinary shares will depend on any future price appreciation of the ordinary shares. There is no guarantee that the ordinary shares will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which investors purchased the ordinary shares. Investors may not realize a return on the investment in the ordinary shares and investors may even lose their entire investment.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the market price for the ordinary shares and its trading volume could decline.

The trading market for the ordinary shares will depend in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us, our business, market or our competitors. To our knowledge, we do not currently have and may never obtain research coverage by securities and industry analysts. If no securities or industry analysts commence coverage of our business, the trading price for the ordinary shares would be negatively impacted. In the event that we obtain securities or industry analyst coverage, if one or more of the analysts downgrade the ordinary shares, the trading price of the ordinary shares would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, interest in the ordinary shares could decrease, which could cause the price or trading volume of the ordinary shares to decline.

If we fail to implement or maintain an effective system of internal controls in the future, we may be unable to accurately report our financial condition or results of operations, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us and, as a result, the market price of the ordinary shares.

In the course of auditing the consolidated financial statements of BJY as of and for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2022, BJY and its independent registered public accounting firm identified one material weakness in BJY’s internal control over financial reporting, in accordance with the standards established by the PCAOB. The material weakness that has been identified relates to the lack of sufficient number of financial reporting personnel with appropriate knowledge, experience and training of U.S. GAAP and SEC financial reporting requirements to properly address complex U.S. GAAP accounting issues and prepare and review financial statements and related disclosures in accordance with U.S. GAAP and reporting requirements set forth by the SEC.

Effective internal controls over financial reporting are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and, together with adequate disclosure controls and procedures, are designed to prevent fraud. Any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. Any testing by us conducted in connection with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or any subsequent testing by our independent registered public accounting firm, may reveal deficiencies in its internal controls over financial reporting that may require prospective or retroactive changes in our financial statements or identify other areas for further attention or improvement. An independent assessment of the effectiveness of our internal controls by an independent registered accounting firm could detect problems that our management’s assessment might not. Undetected material weaknesses in our internal controls could lead to restatements of our financial statements and require us to incur the expense of remediation. Inferior internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative effect on the market price of the ordinary shares.

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Item 4. Information on the Company

A. History and Development of the Company

Information about Fuwei

We were incorporated as a Cayman Islands exempted company with limited liability in August 2004 under the name “Neo-Luck Plastic Holdings Co., Ltd.” and changed our name to “Fuwei Films (Holdings) Co., Ltd.” in April 2005. Prior to the Merger, we develop, manufacture, and distribute high-quality plastic film using the biaxially-oriented stretch technique, otherwise known as BOPET film (biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate). The film is lightweight, non-toxic, odorless, transparent, glossy, temperature, and moisture-resistant, making it suitable for many forms of flexible packaging, printing, laminating, aluminum-plating, and other applications. In addition, it retains high dielectric strength and volume resistance even at high temperatures, which are essential qualities for electrical and electronic uses. Our BOPET film is widely used in consumer-based packaging (such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, tobacco, and alcohol industries), imaging (such as printing plates and microfilms), electronics and electrical industries (such as PCB products, capacitors, and motor insulation), as well as in magnetic products (such as audio and videotapes). We market our products under our brand name of “Fuwei Films.” Our main products are as below:

Dry film is generally used in circuit boards (PCB & FPC) production and sometimes used for nameplate and crafts etching;
Chemically treated film used to enhance properties including barrier resistance, printing properties, and electrostatic resistance;
Stamping foil base film and transfer base films used for packaging of luxury items of cigarettes and alcohol to increase the aesthetic presentation of the item and improve environmental performance;
Printing base film used in printing and lamination;
Metalized film or aluminum plating base film used for vacuum aluminum plating for flexible plastic lamination;
High-gloss film used for aesthetically enhanced packaging purposes;
Heat-sealable film used for construction, printing, and making heat-sealable bags;
Laser holographic base film used as an anti-counterfeit film for food, medicine, cosmetics, cigarettes, and alcohol packaging; and
Heat shrinkable film is widely used for special-shaped packaging for beverages and cosmetics.

Since our establishment, a significant portion of our revenues have been derived from the sales of BOPET film, particularly our printing film, stamping film, transfer film and chemical pretreated film, high-gloss film, heat sealable film, dry film, and heat shrinkable film and so on.

We operate two production lines as of December 31, 2021. The first line is a Brückner 6.3 m (in width) production line with an annual design capacity of 13,000 metric tons of BOPET film. The second line is a DMT production line which is three-layer co-extruded with 6.7 m (in width) and has an annual design capacity of 16,100 metric tons of BOPET film. The third production line had not been started up ever since April 2015. On December 20, 2020, we sold our third production line through open bidding. The successful bidder was Huizhou Yidu Yuzheng Digital Technology Co. LTD. (“Huizhou Yidu Yuzheng”). On January 16, 2021, we entered into Purchase Agreements with Huizhou Yidu Yuzheng. As of December 31, 2021, the third production line and the trial production line, which was made by Mitsubishi for R & D were dismantled and moved.

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Our top five customers in the year ended December 31, 2021, were Hunan Wujo Hi-Tech Materials Co., Ltd., Zhuhai Ruiming Technology Co., Ltd., Eternal Photo Electronic Materials (Guangzhou) Co., Ltd., Kolon Electronic Materials (Huizhou) Co., Ltd., and Eternal Electronic (Suzhou) Co., Ltd. We sell most of our BOPET film products to customers in the coastal region of China. In addition, we expect to continue to expand our product portfolio to exploit opportunities in different market sectors, such as the electronics industry. In 2021, our sales to our overseas customers constituted approximately 9.9% of our total revenue.

Information about BJY

Beijing Baijia Shilian Technology Co., Ltd., a PRC limited liability company, was incorporated in May 2017. Its name was changed into BaiJiaYun Group Co., Ltd. in September 2019. BaiJiaYun Limited (“BJY”) was incorporated in April 2021 as an exempted company with limited liability in the Cayman Islands. BaiJia Cloud Limited (“BJY HK”), a Hong Kong corporation with limited liability, was incorporated in May 2021. BJY HK is a wholly owned subsidiary of BJY. Beijing Baishilian Technology Co., Ltd. (“Beijing WFOE”), a PRC limited liability company, was incorporated in September 2021. Beijing WFOE is a wholly owned subsidiary of BJY HK.

Structure and Effects of the Merger

On July 18, 2022, Fuwei and BJY entered into the Merger Agreement, pursuant to which a wholly-owned subsidiary of Fuwei (“Merger Sub”) will be merged with and into BJY, with BJY being the surviving entity. Shareholders of BJY will exchange all of the issued and outstanding shares of BJY immediately prior to the Merger for newly issued shares of Fuwei in a transaction exempt from the registration requirements under the Securities Act of 1933. Upon consummation of the Merger, BJY will become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Fuwei (the “Surviving Entity”). At the Effective Time, BJY will adopt the memorandum and articles of association of Merger Sub, as in effect immediately prior to the Effective Time, as its memorandum and articles of association; provided, that at the Effective Time, all references to the name of Merger Sub will be amended to refer to “BaiJiaYun Limited” and all references to the authorized share capital of the Surviving Entity will be amended to refer to the authorized share capital of the Surviving Entity as approved in the plan of merger.

The Transaction and certain additional Transaction-related proposals were approved by Fuwei’s shareholders at an extraordinary general meeting held on September 24, 2022. Among such proposals, our company’s name was changed from “Fuwei Films (Holdings) Co., Ltd.” to “Baijiayun Group Ltd 百家云集团有限公司”. We continue to be listed on Nasdaq and our ticker was changed from “FFHL” to “RTC”. Immediately following the closing of the Merger and the Transactions, securities issued and outstanding of our company was: (1) 29,201,849 Class A ordinary shares, (2) 54,583,957 Class B ordinary shares, and (3) warrants to subscribe for 17,964,879 Class A ordinary shares.

Additional Information

Our principal executive offices are located at 24F, A1 South Building, No. 32 Fengzhan Road, Yuhuatai District, Nanjing, China. Our telephone number at this address is +86-025-8222-1596. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is at Cricket Square, Hutchins Drive, P.O. Box 2681, Grand Cayman, Cayman, KY1-1111, Cayman Islands. Our website can be found at investor.baijiayun.com. The information contained on our website is not a part of this transition report on Form 20-F. Our agent for service in the United States is CT Corporation System, located at 111 Eighth Avenue, NY, NY 10011.

The SEC maintains a website, www.sec.gov, that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding registrants, including us, that file electronically with the SEC.

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B. Business Overview

Our BOPET Film Business

Prior to the Merger, we have been principally engaged in the manufacture and distribution of BOPET film. BOPET is a high-quality plastic film manufactured using the biaxially-oriented stretch (transverse and machine direction) technique. Our advanced production process improves the physical properties of the plastic film, such as its tensile strength, resistance to impact, resistance to tearing, and malleability. The high dimensional stability of the film over a wide range of humidity and temperature fulfills the basic requirements for flexible packaging. The film is lightweight, non-toxic, odorless, transparent, glossy, moisture-resistant, and retains high barrier resistance, making it suitable for flexible packaging, printing, laminating, aluminum-plating, and other forms processes. In addition, it retains high dielectric strength even at high temperatures, which are essential qualities for electrical and electronic uses. The three-layer co-extruded structure enables us to develop high-quality BOPET products. BOPET film has been widely used in flexible packaging (such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, cigarettes, alcohol), imaging (such as printing plates and microfilms), and electronics and electrical (such as PCB products, capacitors, and motor insulation). Due to its unique qualities, it has become a popular choice as a flexible packaging material in these industries in recent years.

We market our products under our brand name “Fuwei Films.” Our operations are based primarily in Shandong Province, PRC, where we manufacture our products for sale to customers engaged in flexible packaging businesses and the PRC’s electronics industry, particularly in the coastal region. We also export our products to end-users and distributors mainly in Europe, Asia, and North America.

For details of our BOPET film business, see “Item 4. Information on the Company” in the annual report on Form 20-F for the year of December 31, 2021 of Fuwei, which was filed with the SEC on April 28, 2022 and incorporated herein by reference.

Our Video-centric Technology Solution Business

We operate our video-centric technology solution business through BJY, which is a leading video-centric technology solutions provider in China with core expertise in Software-as-a-Service (“SaaS”) and Platform-as-a-Service (“PaaS”) solutions. BJY is committed to delivering reliable, high-quality video experiences across devices and localities. Leveraging the strength of its industry-leading video-centric technologies, BJY offers a wealth of video-centric technology solutions including SaaS/PaaS solutions, cloud and software related solutions and enterprise AI and system solutions catered to the evolving communication and collaboration needs of enterprises of all sizes and across industries, which makes it a one-stop video technology solutions provider.

BJY helps customers quickly deploy dedicated live streaming systems and video-on-demand (“VoD”) systems to meet the customer’s communication and collaboration needs across departments and functions and throughout the business process and accelerate the digital transformation of the customer’s business.

Based on its live streaming service infrastructure, BJY can provide customers with different functional modules, which can get through the internal systems of the enterprise to achieve data linkage, in various live streaming scenarios such as enterprise training, dual-teacher classroom, small class courses, medical live streaming, etc. Moreover, BJY can also achieve customization for customers according to their needs and provide them with high-quality live streaming full-process operation and on-site execution services.

Since its establishment in 2017, BJY has been expanding its service scope from audio and video SaaS services focused on the education sector, to a wide range of industries. Adhering to its mission of “becoming the customers’ first choice for one-stop video technology services provider”, on the basis of providing standardized audio and video SaaS services, BJY also extended its capability down to the underlying technologies and in 2020, BJY launched its real-time audio and video communication PaaS services which provide one-stop video technology services such as private cloud deployment and in-depth customized development for government customers and large enterprises. BJY has completed the transformation from a product provider to a technology provider, and BJY has achieved the ability to deliver both standardized and customized services based on an integrated infrastructure.

“PaaS standardization + SaaS scenario-oriented” business layout has driven the explosive business growth of BJY. As of June 30, 2022, BJY had a total of 1,582 customers, representing an increase of 89.0% over 12 months compared with the number of customers as of June 30, 2021. Such customer growth enabled BJY to achieve a total revenue of approximately US$31.3 million in the 2022 fiscal year.

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During the 2021 fiscal year, the total number of user visits of BJY’s live streaming large-class courses was 57,702,088, the total duration of such live streaming courses exceeded 3.8 million hours, and the cumulative viewing time of such live streaming courses was 56,818,401 hours. In the subsequent year, BJY’s live streaming business continued to grow rapidly. During the 2022 fiscal year, the total number of user visits of BJY’s live streaming large-class courses reached 70,136,499, the total duration of such live streaming courses exceeded 4.3 million hours, and the cumulative viewing time of such live streaming courses was 70,646,749 hours. Since its establishment, BJY’s cumulative VoD duration has reached 342,443,402 hours. During the 2021 fiscal year, the number of total VoD user visits was 548,491,980, and the total VoD duration was 76,172,850 hours. During the 2022 fiscal year, the total number of VoD user visits increased to 633,506,876, and the total VoD duration increased to 109,623,453 hours, representing a year-on-year increase of 43.9% or an increase of 249.5% over two years compared to the 2020 fiscal year. BJY’s services cover a wide range of industries such as the internet, education, automotive, finance, health care, e-commerce, etc. As of June 30, 2022, BJY established branches, research and development centers and offices in more than a dozen cities in China, with more than 383 employees, including complete product design, testing, and R&D teams that support the rapid update iterations of BJY’s products.

BJY’s business scale continued to grow in recent years. BJY had revenues of US$23.4 million, US$41.4 million and US$68.6 million for the 2020, 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, respectively. BJY had net income of US$3.7 million and US$3.6 million for the 2020 and 2021 fiscal years, respectively, and net loss of US$12.6 million for the 2022 fiscal year.

BJY has built a high entry barrier for competitors. The advantage of BJY is its deep understanding of the digital transformation in various industries and sectors, which enables it to provide live streaming technology service to enterprises of all sizes and across industries, solve their pain points in video technology applications and help them reduce costs and improve efficiency. BJY provides SaaS applications through PaaS, which can effectively accelerate the development speed of SaaS applications. On the other hand, BJY’s matured SaaS business can enhance its PaaS business’s understanding of vertically related industries. In the longer term, this mutual support structure enables BJY to gradually transform customized requirements into standardized products, driving the rapid upgrade of audio and video services across industries.

Industry Overview

Over the past few years, China has continuously promoted the construction of network infrastructure, along with the development of 5G, artificial intelligence (“AI”) and Internet of things. BJY believes the underlying audio and video infrastructure are crucial to support the upper-tier application scenarios. Also, with the spread of the mobile internet and the widespread use of intelligent terminal devices, BJY believes real-time audio and video has become a mainstream method of online interaction. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the need for online interaction in various scenarios, and as result, we have seen solid demand for audio and video technologies in areas such as video conferencing, remote consultation and online learning.

With the improvement of 5G network coverage, we have observed a constant expansion across many industries of the scenarios in which audio and video technologies can be innovatively applied. These usage scenarios in turn often demand enhanced audio and video technologies to deliver the desired results. As a result, we expect many development and growth opportunities in audio and video related sectors.

According to IDC, for the second half of 2021, the overall size of China’s video cloud market reached US$5.04 billion, representing a year-on-year increase of 32.7%, and within such market, the size of the video cloud infrastructure sector and the video cloud solutions sector reached US$4.10 billion and US$950 million, respectively, representing a growth rate of 32.1% and 35.4%, respectively, compared to the second half of 2020 (after adjustment).

Looking towards to the future, according to IDC, the video cloud market in China is expected to continue to grow at a high speed by 2025, with the market size reaching US$31.76 billion and a CAGR of 35.5% from 2020 to 2025. According to IDC, with the continuous penetration of video cloud solution applications in China, the market share of solutions is expected to grow from 18.02% in 2020 to 21.6% of the total market, reaching US$6.9 billion by 2025.

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According to iResearch, the video cloud market has developed rapidly in the past few years for the following reasons:

The progress of core technology is an important driver for the development of video cloud industry. The implementation of 5G network infrastructure and the progress of network adaptation technology have effectively improved the quality of network transmission; the upgraded video encoding and decoding standards can support the encoding and decoding of higher-resolution videos under limited bandwidth. In addition, the services provided by the underlying IaaS vendors are gradually standardized and maturing. AI technology continues to accelerate innovation and is gradually integrated with real-time audio and video services to provide users with a smoother and higher-definition viewing experience.
The demand for interactivity drives the progress of the real-time video cloud industry. The new generation of users who grew up on the Internet age, prefer to solve problems online. The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated users’ adaption of the habit of going online, and users have a deeper understanding of video cloud services at this stage. On the one hand, video calls, webcast shopping and online education, etc. have become the “rigid demands” in people’s lives. On the other hand, the demand for telecommuting and video conferencing continues to grow. Cloud exhibitions, online press conferences and video conferences have become the priority choices for enterprises to reduce cost and increase efficiency during the COVID-19 pandemic.
The Chinese government’s efforts to promote the digital economy have benefited both cloud services and video services. “The 14th Five-Year Plan for the Development of the Digital Economy” puts forward an important development goal for the added value of the core industries of the digital economy to account for 10% of GDP by 2025. The plan affirmed the role of the internet platform in accelerating the integration of digital technology in various industries. In terms of industrial digitalization, online learning, remote conferencing, online shopping and live streaming are all important application scenarios.

BJY believes that in recent years, the infrastructure attribute of video has become more obvious, and the application of video cloud has been continuously developed and integrated with business scenarios closely. According to iResearch, the upstream players in the video cloud service value chain consist of hardware infrastructure manufacturers, IaaS manufacturers, telecom operators and third-party technology providers, mainly providing hardware facilities, network services, computing storage and other resources, the midstream players in the value chain consist of PaaS and SaaS manufacturers, which mainly provide audio and video communication products and interface services, and the downstream players in the value chain consist of audio and video cloud service demanders. More specifically, PaaS service providers provide platform services to downstream enterprises by integrating network, communication and other resources in the form of SDK/API. They emphasize universality and mainly serve enterprises with development capabilities. SaaS service providers integrate the platform functions of PaaS, emphasize scenario-oriented application capabilities and provide universal solutions in the form of software application services.

At present, the video cloud industry has various application scenarios for different demands. Focusing on the provision and optimization of video cloud service technology, BJY believes it is one of a few players in the industry that can provide both SaaS and PaaS services. Not only can BJY serve the whole industry and play the role of an industry enabler, it also has a deep understanding of customer demands and the characteristics of industries and scenarios which enables it to create value for customers. In addition, BJY divides video cloud services into the following subsectors, BJY sees significant market potential in each of these subsectors and believes that BJY’s products are leading in their respective subsectors.

Live streaming and VoD. According to iResearch, the SaaS market experienced significant growth in 2020 driven by the COVID-19 pandemic. In 2020, the size of the SaaS market reached US$7.94 billion, representing a year-on-year increase of 48.7%. IResearch expects the market to maintain a CAGR of 34% in the next three years.
Video conferencing. The cloud video conferencing market is constantly cultivated with the development of cloud services. According to iResearch, in 2021, the cloud video conferencing market in China reached US$2.66 billion, representing a year-on-year growth rate of 11.4%. According to iResearch, the COVID-19 pandemic has prompted cloud video conferencing systems to quickly penetrate into people’s lives in the short term, and iResearch estimates its market size to reach US$3.24 billion in 2023.

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Corporate training. In the post-epidemic era, with the support of new technologies, BJY believes digital learning and hybrid training will become new drivers for a new generation of corporate training products and services. iResearch predicted that the market size of China’s enterprise training industry is expected to reach US$40.42 billion in 2023, with a growth rate of 16.4%.
Solutions. BJY believes there is strong demand from enterprises for integrated services of technology, product and matching solutions when seeking video cloud services. BJY has observed that, to solve the bottleneck problem of traditional technology in the face of new development trends such as communication network complexity, user experience diversification and business scenario diversification, AI technology has been applied to the field of communication network intelligence. According to IDC, the market size of the AI software and applications in China reached US$5.28 billion in 2021, with a year-on-year increase of 43.1%.

To take advantage of the expected rapid growth in China and match the unique demands of the market, BJY has formed a new strategic pattern of comprehensive development of three main sectors, including one-stop solution for video cloud, SaaS service for video cloud application and PaaS service for video cloud technology. BJY plans to continue to focus on expanding new technology paths, cultivating vertical scenarios, and developing AI, while improving customer experience through strategic layout such as software optimization plus hardware adaptation to seize greater market share.

BJY’s Solutions

BJY offers comprehensive video-centric technology solutions that are tailored for the unique demands of the Chinese market. BJY’s solutions fall into three main categorizes:

Video-centric SaaS/PaaS solutions, which include real-time engagement services and SMS services (as defined below);
Video-centric cloud related solutions, which include customized software development, software license and other cloud related service, and
Video-centric industry AI solutions.

BJY’s video-centric technology solutions are intended to serve individuals and enterprises of all sizes and industry, providing them with a suite of simple-to-use, highly customizable and widely compatible solutions to support their communications and collaboration demands. BJY believes its video-centric technology solutions present the following compelling value propositions to its customers.

Video-centric omni-channel capabilities. Laser-focused on video-centric solutions since BJY’s inception, BJY has self-developed all of its audio and visual engines and accumulated extensive expertise and know-how in designing and implementing enterprise-grade video use cases. BJY also embeds multiple communication functions such as audio and live chat into its solutions to enable more productive communications and collaboration experiences.
Cloud-native infrastructure. Leveraging BJY’s cloud computing capability, BJY believes it enables its customers to have expedient, on-demand access to massive resources “over the cloud,” and be relieved from capacity constraints. BJY’s cloud-native infrastructure can scale with its customers as they grow without significant hardware investment or system downtime, and enables cross-device compatibility, including PCs and mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
Easy-to-integrate functional modules. BJY offers ready-to-use, highly customizable and widely compatible video and audio functionalities in the form of SDKs and APIs, which can be integrated into the business systems and physical infrastructure of its customers. BJY also offers à la carte options that allow customers to select functions that best suit their need.
Customizable experiences. BJY supports highly customizable video experiences with its feature-rich functional modules. Supported by the strong research and development capabilities, BJY offers customers tailor-made project-based video-centric solutions to address their specific business or industry demands. Furthermore, BJY offers public and private cloud deployment options carefully tailored to satisfy budgeting and information security considerations of its customers.

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Reliable performance. BJY believes its robust technology infrastructure is the backbone of its business. BJY believes it can support live streaming for up to 1,000,000 users at the same time, with a latency below 200 milliseconds under typical networking conditions. In addition, BJY provides ongoing customer support and operation maintenance services to safeguard reliable performance.

Video-centric SaaS/PaaS solutions

BJY’s video-centric SaaS/PaaS solutions include live streaming solution, VoD solution and real-time communications (“BRTC”) solution, which are readily deployable by enterprises to support their communications and collaboration demands. BJY’s SaaS/PaaS solutions are used in a wide range of scenarios and industries, including education, finance, medical services, auto industry, IT industry, etc. However, BJY does not collect, retain, store, or use any individual customers data while providing services to millions of end customers. In addition to these video-centric solutions set forth below, BJY also offers customers with a customer engagement platform with software designed to address specific use cases and a set of application programming interfaces to send and receive short messages (the “SMS services”). BJY utilizes intelligent sending features to ensure that messages can reliably reach end users wherever they are. Such customers may build use cases, such as appointment reminders, delivery notifications, order confirmations and many two-way and conversational use cases.

a.Live streaming solution

BJY takes pride in the enterprise-grade live streaming experiences. Backed by content delivery network (“CDN”) nodes deployed across China that are either developed in-house or supplied by reputable third-party CDN service providers, BJY enables stable, smooth and high-quality live streaming experiences even in certain remote areas with weak network connections. By broadly deploying CDN nodes closer to end-users’ location in an automated process, BJY believes it can support massive volumes of concurrent live streaming requests with high-definition and low latency. Its live streaming solution can also assess video quality in real time and automatically adapt the quality of video sources to network conditions. In addition to its low-latency and high-definition features, BJY’s live streaming solution is widely compatible with multiple protocols underlying the video inputs and supports transcoding and processing services at different resolutions, bitrates and frame rates, to suit different needs and application scenarios. Moreover, BJY offers its live streaming solution in the form of SDKs and APIs, which allows for seamless integration with web browser, Android and iOS devices and customizable live streaming experiences.

BJY offers a wide range of value-added services such as recording, editing, playback and real-time beautification effects as well as various interactive functions including live chatting, document sharing, interactive whiteboarding, etc. Furthermore, BJY also embeds multi-level security mechanisms in its live streaming solution, such as anti-leeching, anti-screen capturing and custom watermarking, to shield against video piracy.

BJY offers its live streaming solution primarily on a SaaS basis for a combination of subscription and usage. In the 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, BJY had over 837 and 1,583 customers for SaaS-based live streaming solution, respectively. In addition, while BJY has developed its live streaming solution to overcome hardware compatibility issues, BJY also supplements certain of its video-centric SaaS/PaaS solutions with hardware manufactured by third parties such as video camera, server, projector, and coding and decoding machines for audio and video signal, to further ensure the quality and reliability of video transmission.

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b.VoD solution

Leveraging its reliable cloud-native infrastructure and industry-leading video capability, BJY offers intuitive cloud-based VoD solution which enables customers to conveniently launch their own online video player. As a trusted provider of VoD solution, BJY has supported approximately 1.7 billion users’ visits for 342 million hours in cumulative playtime since its inception. BJY enables convenient upload function that supports batch upload, large file upload and breakpoint resume upload. Similar to the live streaming solution, BJY’s VoD solution can transcode video files into different formats so that they can be played on different devices. For example, to accommodate mobile users, BJY’s VoD solution allows developers to integrate video features through quick and easy steps with iOS and Android-based SDKs and APIs. BJY’s VoD solution is also compatible with major social media platforms in China, such as WeChat and Weibo, which enables customers to promote their video content by sharing the content to or forward the content on these platforms. BJY also offers video embedding function for those who want to incorporate video content into a WeChat official account or an H5 webpage to reach a wider audience. The VoD solution allows customers to change the logo, skin and other layout settings of the video player to satisfy personalized configuration needs, and provides customers with multi-dimensional data to assess the effectiveness of their video content and adjust their promoting strategies with valuable insights. In order to ensure content security and originality, BJY equips its VoD solution with various tools such as anti-leech and anti-screen capturing protection.

BJY offers its VoD solution primarily on a SaaS basis for a combination of subscription and usage. In the 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, BJY had over 548 million and 633 million customers’ visits for SaaS-based VoD solution, respectively.

c.BRTC solution

BJY also started to offer real-time communications (“RTC”) solutions internally in 2021 to support omni-channel interactions. BJY has launched six major modules focusing on real-time video, real-time audio, cloud-based recording, interactive live streaming, interactive whiteboarding and intelligent diagnostics and engineering, which serve as building blocks for developers to embed the respective functions into their systems and applications. By pooling communications resources in its cloud servers and distribute them on-demand through readily deployable functional modules in the forms of SDKs and APIs, BJY continues to help its customers improve their communication and operational efficiency. Leveraging its technology infrastructure, BJY’s BRTC solution ensures over 99.99% uptime, and supports secure, smooth and high-quality real-time communications across devices and localities.

BJY offers its BRTC solution on a PaaS basis for which BJY provides both the software and infrastructure needed to enable real-time communications. BJY generally charges its customers for PaaS-based BRTC solution based on usage.

d.Use cases
Video-centric solutions for education sector. BJY offers customers in education sectors video-centric solutions with audio capabilities and enables them to deliver highly engaging and interactive learning content. For example, its solutions contain live course function that enables students to participate in class discussions and teachers to take attendance, share courseware, post online quizzes and review real-time results, etc. In addition, its video-centric enables live chatting, document sharing as well as interactive whiteboarding, which can be readily utilized to encourage in-class discussions. Backed by its proprietary video system and technology infrastructure, BJY supports a variety of course formats tailored to different scenarios and education needs, including live video courses, recorded courses, in-person courses and courseware-only courses.

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BJY also enables online live courses in various settings, which BJY believes fundamentally differentiate BJY from its competitors. For example, BJY enables 1-on-1 online classes that provide exclusive and immersive learning experiences mimicking in-person tutoring, which is especially useful for scenarios such as oral language training and mock interviews. BJY uses methods including private link, QR code and invitation code to ensure authorized access to designated courses. Leveraging its reliable network infrastructure, BJY enables large-scale interactive online courses that can support thousands of participants in one session. With the self-developed video technology, students can “raise their hands” at class to interact with teachers through real-time video or audio chat, and teachers can use interactive tools such as screen sharing and whiteboarding to illustrate a topic in all dimensions. BJY believes this capability enables BJY’s customers to deliver rich learning experiences in a large scale with low latency, and further helps them to save teaching costs and improve operation efficiency. In the 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, BJY’s large-class courses served an accumulation of over 57 million and 70 million users’ visits, with 57 million and 71 million hours in cumulative live streaming time, respectively. With its robust video technology, BJY supports concurrent, multi-way video communications such as dual-teacher online courses, where tutors are assigned to a traditional one-teacher online classroom to improve the engagement and learning effectiveness of individual students, and capacity-free open courses, where students may join or leave the courses anonymously through an open link. In addition to online course function, BJY’s live streaming capability also helps customers in user acquisition and brand building activities, as potential users may access content and market activities through open links.

Communications and collaboration solutions for enterprise customers. BJY believes it empowers enterprise customers across industry verticals, in particular in the finance and medical service industries, to support highly efficient and effective communications and collaboration experiences.

Internal collaboration. Enterprise customers may use BJY’s technology to build internal communications portals where they can communicate and collaborate in an omni-channel manner, such as via live chatting, video and audio conferencing and document sharing, thereby streamlining their collaboration experiences.

Customer acquisition and support. Enterprise customers utilize BJY’s real-time video and audio technologies to establish contact center capabilities to answer customer inquiries, resolve customer complaints and conduct telemarketing campaigns. BJY believes that by enabling more diverse communications channels such as live chat, audio call and video call as compared to traditional on-premise contact centers relied on telecom-based phone call, customers who deploy its solutions can differentiate themselves from peers, therefore driving customer satisfaction and excelling from intense market competition.

Internal training. Enterprises can deploy BJY’s solutions to organize their internal training sessions, which allow for both self-studying recorded courses and enterprise-wide interactive live training. BJY believes video-based internal training can significantly increase participation and save costs as compared traditional face-to-face training.

Branding and marketing. Enterprises may use BJY’s solutions to build their own live streaming e-commerce platform to showcase their demos and products and effectively boost sales. BJY also enables enterprise customers to host internal training as well as promotional events such as roadshows and user conferences.

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IT solutions for social entertainment sector. BJY believes traditional live streaming, such as those involving live dancing or singing performances of a streamer, offers limited interactive options on the audience side. With BJY’s solutions, audiences are able to interact with streamers in real time through multiple channels such as video and audio. In online game streaming scenarios, streamers can share with audiences their real-time “battlefields” while commenting their in-game motions. Streamers can also co-stream in “PK” model using BJY’s solutions, i.e., to engage in real-time “battles” for dancing, singing or other performances.

Video-centric cloud related solutions

Leveraging its enterprise-grade video capabilities, BJY has been rapidly expanding the application scenarios of its video-centric solutions across a wide range of industry verticals including educational institutions, IT, finance, media and advertising, and e-commerce. BJY’s video-centric cloud related solutions primarily include online school solution, video conferencing and enterprise training solution. BJY creates software licenses for customers of its video-centric cloud related solutions, which are created based on an existing software framework with certain customization or design to meet the needs of different customers. BJY also offers customized platform development solutions that develop customized software modules to be integrated into the customer’s system, as well as other software related services to customers, including design of online advertising videos and operation of online accounts in popular apps.

a.Online school solution

In addition to supporting the customers’ various course offerings, BJY is dedicated to offering a one-stop, cloud-based solution that helps customers in education sectors enroll students, deliver courses, evaluate learning results and manage daily operations. To that end, BJY’s integrated online school solution incorporates well-designed tools covering all of the key activities involved in the online learning process, such as various course scenarios, live-streaming courses, VoD courses, exam and assessment, online school management. Furthermore, BJY empowers customers to provide superior user experience by integrating comprehensive and ready-to-use school management and sales and marketing capabilities into its cloud solution.

Course preparation. BJY helps organize its online education customers’ knowledge management system, which may be used to store courseware and other course materials and can group course materials by subject, grade or learning objective, and can be easily accessed by end-users and incorporated into tailor-made course materials. The various course administration functions allow teachers to create new courses, edit course information, upload course materials and arrange course curricula with ease.
Homework, exercise and academic assessment. End users of BJY’s online school solutions may access online question bank and quizzes to complete homework and academic assessment. BJY’s question bank tool supports all sorts of objective question formats with detailed explanation and answers for daily exercise and academic assessment process. Its customers can assort questions into different topics and based on their respective difficulty levels and related key takeaways to enable tailored sets of questions for students’ respective weaknesses and areas of improvement. BJY’s data-driven insights such as homework submission rate, student ranking and correct/wrong answer rate can be utilized to adjust teaching agenda in order to better address weaknesses or areas for improvement. BJY also assists teachers in various forms of academic assessments catering to their diverse needs. They can design, schedule, distribute and easily grade assessments for a range of assessment scenarios, from short quizzes to mid-term and final exams. Leveraging BJY’s data analytics capabilities, teachers can generate in-depth reports on grades and missed questions on both class-wide and individual levels, which enables valuable insights on future teaching efforts.

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Administration. BJY’s online school solution allows students to log in through username/password combination, social media account information or OTP-based authentication code, which ensures flexibility as well as the security of personal accounts. The customers may also assign several administrator accounts to supervise the course delivery process. For example, they may access screenshots of an online classroom that are automatically saved at designed intervals during a live course or enter into an online classroom in “invisible” mode to evaluate teachers and students’ real daily performance. BJY also tracks students’ purchasing orders and remaining learning hours dynamically. The customers may arrange courses based on students’ demands as well as teachers’ availability through the easy-to-navigate interface and deduct the remaining learning hours of the students accordingly. In addition, the system also enables an overview of business operations, including total revenue, number of students, teachers and tutors as well number of courses and purchasing orders through the unified user interface, allowing efficient central management.
Sales and marketing. The intuitive user interface of BJY’s online school solution presents a unified display of various sales and marketing functions on the administrator’s end, including personal work record, ticket tracking and customer profile. Moreover, BJY collects and analyzes various behavioral data generated at its system such as purchasing data and class participation data with BJY’s proprietary data-driven algorithms to enable informed sales and marketing efforts. BJY also equips its solution with the capabilities to organize online promotional events to facilitate the conversion from non-paying users to paying users. For example, BJY offers a useful tool to help generate user benefits such as coupons, vouchers and group discounts in a customizable manner, so that its customers can set their own promotional strategies by employing one or more of them. The customers can track the benefits claimed but unused and follow up with students to close the sale. BJY also supports the seamless integration with all major third-party payment platforms to assist its customers in order management. In addition, BJY incorporates a credit awarding system to encourage user engagement. Under this system, users will be awarded credits for online activities such as signup, subscribing courses, completing personal information, submitting housework assignments, reviewing teachers’ performances and sharing courses with friends, and then use the credits to redeem courses. BJY believes this tool can effectively help its customers to attract new students and retain existing ones.

BJY primarily offers its online school solution on a project basis. In the 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, BJY had over 122 and 191 customers for its online school solution, respectively.

b.Video conferencing solution

BJY believes its video conference solution enables customers to have reliable and interactive collaboration experiences through video conferencing across disparate devices and scattered worksites. BJY supports high-resolution real-time video and audio feeds from multiple locations with its latest multi-regional multi-center network infrastructure, to deliver reliable and interactive video-conferencing experience that BJY believes is akin to conventional in-person conferences. BJY also provides various supporting functions, such as conference scheduling, calendar invitation and virtual conference room administration, through an intuitive user interface. Customers can also control microphone and camera and edit conference encryption and accessibility information with ease through BJY’s video conferencing system. During a meeting, participants can interact through live chat, document sharing, screen sharing and digital whiteboarding to improve efficiency. In addition, it supports both cloud-based recording and local recording and enables participants and the host to generate a cloud-based playback link after each meeting session. Moreover, the video conferencing system is compatible with major operating systems and hardware and devices, including less sophisticated legacy on-premise video systems, which helps customers minimize deployment cycle and save costs. Meanwhile, benefiting from such combability, end users can join the meetings through diverse terminals including PCs, TVs and mobiles devices including smartphones and tablets with just one click. BJY also supports various customized options including private cloud deployment, where the data and information generated from intra-organizational communications are isolated and encrypted to ensure heightened security and privacy.

BJY primarily offers its video conferencing solution in the form of software on a project basis.

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c.Enterprise training solution

BJY offers a comprehensive solution targeting at large-scale, tasked-based enterprise training, to help customers share knowledge, teach skills and convey important information. BJY believes that apart from the low-latency, highly engaging training experiences backed by its industry-leading video capabilities and technology infrastructure, BJY enterprises training solution differentiates itself from competitors through its comprehensive supporting functions. The enterprise training system allows customers to create their own video training templates, upload training materials and compile online quizzes to evaluate their employees’ mastery of designated skillsets and the effectiveness of training sessions. Customer may even introduce a ranking and awarding system supported to improve training results. Moreover, the customers can also establish an internal community for employees to discuss knowledge points and share their learning and working experiences to further enhance engagement.

BJY primarily offers its enterprise training solution in the form of software on a project basis.

Video-centric industry AI solutions

BJY believes it combines cutting-edge AI technology with real-world scenarios to empower innovative use cases and application scenarios in multiple industry verticals.

BJY’s intelligent industry solutions are predicated on image analysis and recognition technology that it developed in-house using deep learning algorithms, and BJY believes its solutions are able to achieve high-precision detection and identification. The head count function, which accurately identifies entry and exit status and walking trajectory, can be deployed by schools, exhibitions and other public places for crowd statistics analysis. The skeleton point recognition function analyzes postures of the human body and is suitable for sports training, dance classes and monitoring of abnormal behaviors during exams. In addition, gesture recognition function intelligently captures and recognizes gestures in pictures and videos, and outputs the recognition results for interactive live streaming scenarios such as sign language and early childhood education. Furthermore, the indicator light identification function helps factories use machines to identify indicator lights of different colors, therefore detecting technical issues in real time and reducing manual workload and cost.

BJY’s customizable intelligent industry solutions have significant potential for application in industries such as education, retail, public affairs and industrial manufacturing.

BJY’s Technologies

Technologies underpin BJY’s high-quality solutions and operational efficiency.

RTC video technology. BJY believes its industry-leading RTC video capabilities are at the core of its business. BJY uses its proprietary technologies to capture and synchronize video and audio streams, and pre-process such raw streams to reduce noise, eliminate echo and enhance volume and/or resolution, and allows end users to add beautification, virtual background and other special effects to video and audio streams in real time to improve streaming quality. BJY then utilizes industry-leading encoding and decoding technologies to compress and decompress the streams before and after transmission. Specifically, BJY deploys C++ for video decoding, which greatly reduces latency on the streaming side to one to three seconds, far exceeding the performances of industry peers. The live streaming solution is compatible with multiple protocols underlying the video inputs and supports transcoding and processing services at different resolutions, bitrates and frame rates, to suit different needs and application scenarios. BJY can also assess video quality in real time and automatically adapt the quality of video sources to network conditions.

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Technology infrastructure. BJY believes its cloud-based network architecture allows for high combability, availability and scalability of its video-centric solutions. It can support live large-class courses with a latency below 200 milliseconds for upon to 1,000,000 users simultaneously. Backed by CDN nodes deployed across China that are either developed in-house or supplied by reputable third-party CDN service providers, BJY enables stable, smooth and high-quality live streaming experiences even in certain remote areas with weak network connections. BJY also selects the optimal CDN nodes closer to where end-users are located in an automated process to achieve consistently high performance. In addition, BJY deploys edge nodes coupled with Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) network nodes to safeguard the “last-mile” transmission and reduce costs. Moreover, BJY’s network infrastructure is based upon both the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which prioritizes lower latency as compared to TCP, to adapt to different use cases.
Artificial intelligence. BJY utilizes AI technologies in the video processing and transmission, among other processes. For example, BJY detects human faces in video streams and applies selected beautification effects in a dynamic manner.
Big data analytics. BJY applies big data analytics broadly in its operations to provide insights and guidance for the decision-making process of its customers. For example, BJY leverages technologies such as computer graphics, image processing, computer vision and computer-aided design to convert data into graphics or images for display and allow interactive processing in such data display to help customers understand and analyze the data in an effective way.

Data Privacy and Protection

BJY has access to certain data and information of enterprises which use its video-centric solutions. BJY may also have access to certain personal data and information of its customers’ end-users. Specifically, for BJY’s solutions deployed on public cloud, data and information are safely encrypted and stored in cloud servers, where customers can access as needed only with appropriate authorization. BJY does not have access to data and information of customers which use its solutions deployed on private cloud.

BJY is committed to protecting its customers’ data and privacy and has designed protocols on data collection, transmission, storage and usage to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations. In addition, BJY’s agreements with customers generally include a confidentiality clause under which BJY is obligated not to disclose or otherwise misappropriate the data and information of its customers or their end-users.

BJY takes safety precautions to maintain its technology infrastructure and protect its data and information, and is dedicated to upgrading its security programs to better meet growing customer needs, updated regulatory requirements, and the evolving security threat landscape. BJY has implemented detailed policies regarding system operation and maintenance, information security and management, and data backup and disaster recovery. BJY’s technological infrastructure applies safeguards such as web application firewalls to further ensure data security. As a general principle, data and information in relation to BJY’s business operations can only be accessed by its employees with designated authorization level. BJY enters into confidentiality agreements with its employees who have access to BJY’s data and information. The confidentiality agreements provide that, among others, these employees are legally obligated not to disclose or otherwise misappropriate confidential data and information in possession as a result of their employment. Such employees are also legally obligated to surrender all confidential data and information in possession upon resigning and to maintain their confidentiality obligations afterwards. They bear compensation liability if they breach their confidentiality obligations or otherwise commit misconduct resulting in leakage of BJY’s confidential data and information. Furthermore, BJY’s agreements with business partners generally include a confidentiality clause under which they are legally obligated not to disclose or misappropriate confidential data and information in possession as a result of their relationship with BJY.

As of the date of this transition report, BJY has not received any claim from any third party against it on the ground of infringement of such party’s right to data protection as prescribed by applicable laws and regulations in China and other jurisdictions, and BJY has not experienced any material data loss or breach incidents.

Sales and Marketing

BJY promotes its brand and markets its video-centric solutions primarily through its experienced sales and marketing team, which consisted of 96 and 107 personnel in the 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, respectively. The sales and marketing team is responsible for selling to prospective customers, renewing existing subscriptions, and identifying cross-selling opportunities.

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To market its products and solutions, BJY has not only established an online presence but also has actively participated in offline industry events and other events to improve its brand image and influence in the industry.

Customers and Customer Support

BJY’s Customers

BJY believes that with its robust technology infrastructure and comprehensive solution offerings, it has accumulated a loyal and diversified customer base. As of June 30, 2021 and 2022, BJY served a total of approximately 2,404 and 2,830 customers, respectively. BJY’s customers operate in a broad range of industries, including but not limited to education, finance, medical services and IT.

BJY’s Customer Support

BJY endeavors to improve customer experience and drive customer satisfaction at each juncture, from on-board training to post-sale support. BJY offers service level agreements on most of its solutions, which represent BJY’s service level commitments to customers and motivate itself to meet or exceed customers’ expectations. The customer support team is staffed with experienced agents and engineers trained in technology diagnostics and engineering to offer around-the-clock customer services via phone, live chat and built-in help desk. The customer support team also monitors service quality regularly to identify issues and offer assistance. In addition, BJY offers various self-service options on its website, including helper libraries, user guides and a wide range of code samples. As the customers grow, BJY may assign them to a dedicated support team to attend to their specific needs and ensure their continued satisfaction.

Competition

BJY offers a broad range of video-centric solutions and, as a result, BJY may compete with a wide range of video-centric solution providers in China and globally. BJY believes that BJY competes favorably on the basis of robust video technology, application of advanced technologies in industry solutions, effectiveness of customer services and sales and marketing efforts, and track record and brand recognition.

The industry in which BJY operates include a number of enterprises that may or may not directly compete with BJY. BJY considers that its competitors fall into three different business lines: (1) companies that provide real time engagement services via companies’ cloud computing platform, (2) companies that offer customized software that are installed on customer’s own cloud computing platform, and (3) companies that provide systematic solutions to customers by integrating customized software into hardware. Some of these enterprises, including BJY’s competitors, have greater financial, technological and other resources, greater brand recognitions, larger sales and marketing budgets and larger intellectual property portfolios. As a result, certain of the competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than BJY can to new or evolving opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements. In addition, some competitors may offer products or services that address one or a limited number of functions at lower prices, with greater depth than BJY’s solutions or in geographies where BJY does not operate. BJY expects competition to intensify in the future, with the introduction of new technologies and market entrants. Moreover, as BJY expands the scope of its solutions and services, BJY may face additional competition.

Research and Development

Since BJY’s inception, BJY believes it has internally developed substantially all core technologies underlying its video-centric solutions based on open-source software components. BJY is committed to constantly improving its technological capabilities and attracting and cultivating technology talents to stay ahead of the rapidly involving industry trends and market demands. In the 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, BJY had a stable and dedicated research and development team of 243 and 174 members, respectively, whose expertise spans a broad range of related fields, from video RTC, cloud computing, CDN infrastructure, artificial intelligence and big data analytics, to operational and infrastructure maintenance. As of June 30, 2022, BJY’s research and development personnel had an average of 6.8 years of relevant industry experience and had been with BJY for an average of 2.3 years.

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Intellectual Property

BJY depends upon a combination of trade secret, misappropriation, copyright, trademark, computer fraud and other laws; registration of patents, copyrights and trademarks; nondisclosure, noncompetition and other contractual provisions with employees; and technical measures to protect its proprietary rights in the software, trademarks and other intellectual property.

As of June 30, 2022, BJY was the registered holder of 94 software copyrights, 20 patents, 41 domain names and 31 trademarks in China. In addition, BJY had filed 31 patent applications in China as of the same date.

Legal Proceedings

From time to time, BJY may become a party to legal or administrative proceedings arising in the ordinary course of its business. BJY is currently not a party to, and is not aware of any threat of, any legal or administrative proceedings that, in the opinion of BJY’s management, is likely to have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, or results of operations.

Government Regulations

Set forth below is a summary of the most significant rules and regulations that affect our business activities in China, or the rights of our shareholders to receive dividends and other distributions from us.

Regulations Related to Foreign Investment

Investment activities in China by foreign investors are principally governed by the Catalog of Industries for Encouraging Foreign Investment (the “Encouraged Industries Catalog”) and the Special Administrative Measures for Foreign Investment Access (Negative List) (Edition 2021) (the “Negative List”), which were promulgated and are amended from time to time by the Ministry of Commerce (the “MOFCOM”) and the National Development and Reform Commission (the “NDRC”), and together with the PRC Foreign Investment Law (the “FIL”), and their respective implementation rules and ancillary regulations.

The Encouraged Industries Catalog and the Negative List lay out the basic framework for foreign investment in China, classifying businesses into three categories in terms of the level of participation permitted to foreign investment: “encouraged,” “restricted” and “prohibited”. Industries not listed in the Encouraged Industries Catalog are generally deemed as falling into a fourth category of “permitted” industries unless specifically restricted by other PRC laws. The Negative List sets forth the industries in which foreign investments are restricted or prohibited. The current effective Encouraged Industries Catalog is the 2020 version which became effective on January 27, 2021, and the 2022 version of the Encouraged Industries Catalog was released for public comments on May 10, 2022. The current effective Negative List is the 2021 version which came into force on January 1, 2022.

On March 15, 2019, the National People’s Congress (the “NPC”) promulgated the FIL, which became effective on January 1, 2020, and replaced the main body of laws and regulations then governing foreign investment in China. Pursuant to the FIL, “foreign investments” refer to investment activities conducted by foreign investors directly or indirectly in China, which include any of the following circumstances: (1) foreign investors setting up foreign-invested enterprises in China solely or jointly with other investors, (2) foreign investors obtaining shares, equity interests, interests in property or other similar rights and interests of enterprises within China, (3) foreign investors investing in new projects in China solely or jointly with other investors, and (4) investment by other means as specified in laws, administrative regulations, or as stipulated by the State Council.

According to the FIL, foreign investment shall enjoy pre-entry national treatment, except for those foreign invested entities that operate in industries deemed to be either “restricted” or “prohibited” in the Negative List. The FIL provides that foreign invested entities operating in “restricted” or “prohibited” industries will require entry clearance and other approvals. In particular, the Chinese government heavily regulates the internet industry, including relevant market access restrictions and limitations on foreign investment, license and permit requirements for service provides in the internet industry. Since some of the laws, regulations, and legal requirements with respect to the internet are relatively new and evolving, their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainties.

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On December 26, 2019, the State Council promulgated the Implementing Rules of the Foreign Investment Law, which became effective on January 1, 2020. The implementation rules further clarified that the state encourages and promotes foreign investment, protects the lawful rights and interests of foreign investors, regulates foreign investment administration, continues to optimize foreign investment environment, and advances a higher-level of openness.

On December 30, 2019, MOFCOM and the State Administration for Market Regulation (the “SAMR”) jointly promulgated the Measures for Information Reporting on Foreign Investment, which became effective on January 1, 2020. Pursuant to the Measures for Information Reporting on Foreign Investment, where a foreign investor carries out investment activities in China directly or indirectly, the foreign investor or the foreign-invested enterprise shall submit information relating to the investment to the competent commerce department.

Regulations Related to Value-Added Telecommunications Services

The Telecommunications Regulations of the PRC (the “Telecom Regulations”), which was promulgated by the State Council on September 25, 2000, and most recently amended on February 6, 2016, provides the regulatory framework for telecommunications service providers in China. The Telecom Regulations classifies telecommunications services into basic telecommunications services and value-added telecommunications services. Providers of value-added telecommunications services are required to obtain a license prior to commencing operations from the MIIT or its provincial level counterparts. According to the Catalog of Telecommunications Services, attached to the Telecom Regulations and most recently amended by the MIIT on June 6, 2019, information services provided via public communication network or the internet are value-added telecommunications services.

On March 5, 2009, the MIIT issued the Measures on the Administration of Telecommunications Business Operating Permits (the “Telecom License Measures”), which was amended on July 3, 2017, effective on September 1, 2017, to supplement the Telecom Regulations. The Telecom License Measures provide that there are two types of telecommunications operating licenses in China, one for basic telecommunication services and one for value-added telecommunications services. A distinction is also made to licenses for value-added telecommunications services (the “VAT License”) as to whether a license is granted for “intra-provincial” or “trans-regional” (inter-provincial) activities. An appendix to each license granted will detail the permitted activities of the enterprise to which it was granted. An approved telecommunication services operator must conduct its business in accordance with the specifications recorded in its telecommunication license.

The Provisions on the Administration of Foreign Invested Telecommunications Enterprises, (the “FITE Regulations”) promulgated by the State Council on December 11, 2001, and most recently amended on March 29, 2022, effective on May 1, 2022, requires that in general, the foreign party to a foreign-invested telecommunications enterprise (“FITE”) engaging in value-added telecommunications services may hold up to 50% of the equity of the FITE, of which the geographical area it may conduct telecommunications services is provided by the MIIT in accordance with relevant provisions as mentioned above.

On June 30, 2016, the MIIT issued an Announcement of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on Issues Concerning the Provision of Telecommunication Services in Mainland China by Service Providers from Hong Kong and Macau (the “MIIT Announcement”), which provides that investors from Hong Kong and Macau may hold no more than 50% of the equity in FITEs engaging in certain specified categories of value-added telecommunications services.

On July 13, 2016, the MIIT issued the Notice of the Ministry of Information Industry on Intensifying the Administration of Foreign Investment in Value-added Telecommunications Services (the “MIIT Notice”), which reiterates certain provisions of the FITE Regulations. In addition to the provisions stated in FITE Regulations, the MIIT Notice further provides that a domestic company that holds a value-added telecommunication license is prohibited from leasing, transferring, or selling the value-added telecommunication license to foreign investors in any form, and from providing any assistance, including providing resources, sites or facilities, to foreign investors to conduct value-added telecommunications businesses illegally in China. The MIIT Notice also requires each value-added telecommunication license holder to have appropriate facilities for its approved business operations and to maintain such facilities in the regions covered by its license, and specifically, with regard to the domain names and trademarks, the MIIT Notice required that trademarks and domain names that are used in the provision of internet content services must be owned by the ICP License holder or its shareholders.

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Due to a lack of interpretative materials from the relevant PRC governmental authorities, there are uncertainties regarding whether PRC governmental authorities would consider BJY’s corporate structure and contractual arrangements to constitute foreign ownership of a value-added telecommunications business. In order to comply with PRC regulatory requirements, BJY operates a significant portion of its business through its VIE, with which BJY has contractual relationships but in which BJY does not have an actual ownership interest. If BJY’s current ownership structure is found to be in violation of current or future PRC laws, rules, or regulations regarding the legality of foreign investment in the PRC internet sector, BJY could be subject to severe penalties.

Regulations Related to Internet Information Services

The Administrative Measures on Internet Information Services (the “Internet Content Measures”), which was promulgated by the State Council on September 25, 2000, and amended on January 8, 2011, set out guidelines on the provision of internet information services. The Internet Content Measures classify internet information services into commercial internet information services and non-commercial internet information services, and commercial internet information services refer to services that provide information or services to internet users with charge. A provider of commercial internet information services must obtain an internet content provider license (the “ICP License”), and prior to the application for such ICP License from the MIIT or its local branch at the provincial or municipal level, entities providing online information services regarding news, publishing, education, medicine, health, pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment must procure the consent of the national authorities responsible for such areas.

In addition to the approval and license requirements, various ministries and agencies in the PRC, including the MIIT, the News Office of the State Council, the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the General Administration of Press and Publication, have promulgated multiple measures relating to internet content, all of which specifically prohibit internet activities that result in the dissemination of any content that infringes the legal rights of others, is found to contain pornography, promote gambling or violence, instigate crimes, undermine public morality or the cultural traditions of the PRC, or compromise State security or secrets. For example, the Internet Content Measures specify a list of prohibited content. Internet information providers are prohibited from producing, copying, publishing, or distributing information that is humiliating or defamatory to others or that infringes the legal rights of others. Internet information providers that violate these measures may face criminal charges or administrative sanctions, such as fines, revoking any relevant business operation licenses. Internet information providers must monitor and control the information posted on their websites. If any prohibited content is found, they must remove the content immediately, keep a record of such content and report to the relevant authorities. On December 15, 2019, CAC promulgated the Provisions on Ecological Governance of Network Information Content, which became effective on March 1, 2020, to further regulate the network information and content.

Regulation on Information Security and Censorship

The SCNPC enacted the Decisions on the Maintenance of Internet Security on December 28, 2000, which was amended on August 27, 2009. Such decision makes it unlawful to: (1) gain improper entry into a computer or system of strategic importance; (2) disseminate politically disruptive information; (3) leak state secrets; (4) spread false commercial information; or (5) infringe intellectual property rights. The Ministry of Public Security has promulgated measures as below that prohibit the use of the internet in ways which, among other things, result in a leakage of state secrets or distribution of socially destabilizing content. The Ministry of Public Security has supervision and inspection rights in this regard.

On December 16, 1997, the Ministry of Public Security issued the Administration Measures on the Security Protection of Computer Information Network with International Connections which was amended on January 8, 2011. Such administration measures prohibit using the internet to leak state secrets or to spread socially destabilizing materials. If any operating license holder violates these measures, the PRC government may revoke its operating license and shut down its websites. Pursuant to the Ninth Amendment to the Criminal Law issued by the SCNPC on August 29, 2015 and becoming effective on November 1, 2015, any internet services provider that fails to fulfill the obligations related to internet information security administration as required by applicable laws and refuses to rectify upon orders, will be subject to criminal liability for (1) any dissemination of illegal information in large scale, (2) any severe effect due to the leakage of the client’s information, (3) any serious loss of evidence of criminal activities or (4) other severe situations, and any individual or entity that (a) sells or provides personal information to others unlawfully or (b) steals or illegally obtains any personal information, will be subject to criminal liability in severe situations.

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The Provisions on Technological Measures for Internet Security Protection (the “Internet Security Protection Measures”) promulgated on December 13, 2005 by the Ministry of Public Security require all internet services providers to keep records of certain information about their users (including user registration information, log-in and log-out time, IP address, content and time of posts by users) for at least 60 days and submit the above information as required by laws and regulations. Under these measures, value-added telecommunications services license holders must regularly update information security and content control systems for their websites and must also report any public dissemination of prohibited content to local public security authorities. If a value-added telecommunications services license holder violates these measures, the Ministry of Public Security and the local security bureaus may revoke its operating license and shut down its websites.

The Communication Network Security Protection Administrative Measures, which were promulgated by the MIIT on January 21, 2010, require that all communication network operators, including telecommunications service providers and Internet domain name service providers, divide their own communication networks into units. These communication network units shall be rated in accordance with degree of damage to national security, economic operation, social order, and public interest in the event a unit is damaged. Communication network operators must file the division and ratings of their communication networks with the MIIT or its local counterparts. If a communication network operator violates these measures, the MIIT or its local counterparts may order rectification or impose a fine up to RMB30,000 in case a violation is not duly rectified.

On November 7, 2016, the SCNPC promulgated the PRC Cybersecurity Law, which took effect on June 1, 2017. The PRC Cybersecurity Law applies to the construction, operation, maintenance, and use of networks as well as the supervision and administration of internet security in the PRC. The PRC Cybersecurity Law defines “networks” as systems that are composed of computers or other information terminals and relevant facilities used for the purpose of collecting, storing, transmitting, exchanging, and processing information in accordance with certain rules and procedures. “Network operators,” who are broadly defined as owners and administrator of networks and network service providers, shall meet their cybersecurity obligations and take technical measures and other necessary measures to protect the safety and stability of their networks. Under the Cybersecurity Law, network operators are subject to various security protection-related obligations, including:

complying with security protection obligations in accordance with tiered requirements with respect to maintenance of the security of internet systems, which include formulating internal security management rules and developing manuals, appointing personnel who will be responsible for internet security, adopting technical measures to prevent computer viruses and activities that threaten internet security, adopting technical measures to monitor and record status of network operations, holding internet security training events, retaining user logs for at least six months, and adopting measures such as data classification, key data backup, and encryption for the purpose of securing networks from interference, vandalism, or unauthorized visits, and preventing network data from leakage, theft, or tampering;
verifying users’ identities before signing agreements or providing services such as network access, domain name registration, landline telephone or mobile phone access, information publishing, or real-time communication services;
clearly indicating the purposes, methods and scope of the information collection, the use of information collection, and obtain the consent of those from whom the information is collected when collecting or using personal information;
strictly preserving the privacy of user information they collect, and establish and maintain systems to protect user privacy; and
strengthening management of information published by users. When the network operators discover information prohibited by laws and regulations from publication or dissemination, they shall immediately stop dissemination of that information, including taking measures such as deleting the information, preventing the information from spreading, saving relevant records, and reporting to the relevant governmental agencies.

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In December 2021, the CAC and several other administrations jointly promulgated the Review Measures which became effective on February 15, 2022. According to the Review Measures, to the extent the purchase of network products and services by a critical information infrastructure operator or the data processing activities conducted by a “network platform operator” affect or may affect national security, a cybersecurity review shall be conducted pursuant to the Review Measures. The Review Measures also expand the cybersecurity review to “internet platform operators” in possession of personal information of over one million users if such operators intend to list their securities “in a foreign country”. Furthermore, relevant governmental authorities in the PRC may initiate cybersecurity review if they determine an operator’s network products or services or data processing activities “affect or may affect national security”. Since the Review Measures are relatively new, significant uncertainties exist in relation to their interpretation and implementation. Additionally, the Review Measures do not provide the exact scope of “network platform operator” or the circumstances that would “affect or may affect national security”.

In addition, on November 14, 2021, the CAC released the consultation draft of the Network Data Security Management Regulations for public comment. According to the Network Data Security Management Regulations, data processors shall apply for a cybersecurity review when carrying out the following activities: (i) a merger, reorganization or separation of internet platform operators that have acquired a large number of data resources related to national security, economic development or public interests, which affect or may affect national security; (ii) data processors that handle personal information of more than one million people contemplating to list its securities on a foreign stock exchange; (iii) data processors contemplating to list its securities on a stock exchange in Hong Kong, which affects or may affect national security; and (iv) other data processing activities that affect or may affect national security. Among others, it further requires that a data processor who processes important data or who is listed overseas shall complete an annual data security assessment either self-conducted or conducted by a data security service organization engaged, and before January 31 of each year, submit the annual data security assessment report of the previous year to the local cyberspace affairs administration department. As of the date of this transition report, the Network Data Security Management Regulations was released for public comment only, and no interpretation or implementation rules for this proposed regulation have been issued by the CAC or any other PRC regulatory authorities. It remains uncertain when the Network Data Security Management Regulations will be adopted and become effective and whether it will be adopted as it was initial proposed.

On November 15, 2018, the Cyberspace Administration issued the Provisions on Security Assessment of the Internet Information Services with Public Opinion Attributes or Social Mobilization Capacity, which came into effect on November 30, 2018. The provisions require internet information providers to conduct security assessments on their internet information services if their services include forums, blogs, microblogs, chat rooms, communication groups, public accounts, short-form videos, online live-streaming, information sharing, mini programs or other functions that provide channels for the public to express opinions or have the capability of mobilizing the public to engage in specific activities. Internet information providers must conduct self-assessment on, among other things, the legality of new technology involved in the services and the effectiveness of security risk prevention measures and file the assessment report with the local competent cyberspace administration authority and public security authority.

Internet security in China is also regulated and restricted from a national security standpoint. On July 1, 2015, the SCNPC promulgated the new National Security Law, which took effect on the same date and replaced the former National Security Law promulgated in 1993. According to the new National Security Law, the state shall ensure that the information system and data in important areas are secure and controllable. In addition, according to the new National Security Law, the state shall establish national security review and supervision institutions and mechanisms and conduct national security reviews of key technologies and IT products and services that affect or may affect national security. There are uncertainties on how the new National Security Law will be implemented in practice.

Regulation on Privacy Protection

On December 28, 2012, the SCNPC enacted the Decision to Enhance the Protection of Network Information (the “Information Protection Decision”) to enhance the protection of user personal information in electronic form. The Information Protection Decision provides that internet services providers must expressly inform their users of the purpose, manner and scope of the internet services providers’ collection and use of user personal information, publish the internet services providers’ standards for their collection and use of user personal information, and collect and use user personal information only with the consent of the users and only within the scope of such consent. The Information Protection Decision also mandates that internet services providers and their employees must keep strictly confidential user personal information that they collect, and that internet services providers must take such technical and other measures as are necessary to safeguard the information against disclosure.

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On July 16, 2013, the MIIT issued the Order for the Protection of Telecommunication and Internet User Personal Information (the “Order”). Most of the requirements under the Order that are relevant to internet services providers are consistent with the requirements already established under the MIIT provisions discussed above, except that under the Order the requirements are often stricter and have a wider scope. If an internet services provider wishes to collect or use personal information, it may do so only if such collection is necessary for the services it provides. Further, it must disclose to its users the purpose, method, and scope of any such collection or use, and must obtain consent from the users whose information is being collected or used. Internet services providers are also required to establish and publish their protocols relating to personal information collection or use, keep any collected information strictly confidential, and take technological and other measures to maintain the security of such information. Internet services providers are also required to cease any collection or use of the user personal information, and de-register the relevant user account, when a given user stops using the relevant internet service. Internet services providers are further prohibited from divulging, distorting, or destroying any such personal information, or selling or providing such information unlawfully to other parties. The Order states, in broad terms, that violators may face warnings, fines, and disclosure to the public and, in the most severe cases, criminal liability.

On January 5, 2015, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce (“SAIC”) promulgated the Measures on Punishment for Infringement of Consumer Rights, which was most amended on October 23, 2020, pursuant to which business operators collecting and using personal information of consumers must comply with the principles of legitimacy, propriety and necessity, specify the purpose, method and scope of collection and use of the information, and obtain the consent of the consumers whose personal information is to be collected. Business operators may not (1) collect or use personal information of consumers without their consent, (2) unlawfully divulge, sell, or provide personal information of consumers to others or (3) send commercial information to consumers without their consent or request, or when a consumer has explicitly declined to receive such information.

Regulations Related to Intellectual Property Rights

Trademarks

On August 23, 1982, the SCNPC promulgated the Trademark Law of the PRC (the “Trademark Law”), which was amended in 1993, 2001, 2013 and 2019. The Implementation Regulation for the Trademark Law promulgated by the State Council came into effect on September 15, 2002 and was further amended on April 29, 2014.

Under the Trademark Law and the implementing regulation, the Trademark Office of the State Administration for Market Regulation, or the Trademark Office, is responsible for the registration and administration of trademarks. The Trademark Office handles trademark registrations. As with patents, China has adopted a “first-to-file” principle for trademark registration. If two or more applicants apply for registration of identical or similar trademarks for the same or similar commodities, the application that was filed first will receive preliminary approval and will be publicly announced. Registered trademarks are valid for ten years from the date the registration is approved. A registrant may apply to renew a registration within 12 months before the expiration date of the registration. If the registrant fails to apply in a timely manner, a grace period of six additional months may be granted. If the registrant fails to apply before the grace period expires, the registered trademark shall be deregistered. Renewed registrations are valid for ten years.

In addition to the above, the SAIC has established a Trademark Review and Adjudication Board for resolving trademark disputes. According to the Trademark Law, within three months since the date of the announcement of a preliminarily validated trademark, if a titleholder is of the view that is such trademark in application is identical or similar to its registered trademark for the same type of commodities or similar commodities which violates relevant provisions of the Trademark Law, such titleholder may raise an objection to the Trademark Office within the aforesaid period. In such event, the Trademark Office shall consider the facts and grounds submitted by both the dissenting party and the party being challenged and shall decide on whether the registration is allowed within 12 months upon the expiration of the announcement after investigation and verification and notify the dissenting party and the person challenged in writing.

Patents

The National People’s Congress adopted the Patent Law of the People’s Republic of China in 1984 and amended it in 1992, 2000, 2008 and 2020 respectively, with the latest amendment coming into effect on June 1, 2021.

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A patentable invention, utility model or design must meet three conditions: novelty, inventiveness, and practical applicability. Patents cannot be granted for scientific discoveries, rules and methods for intellectual activities, methods used to diagnose or treat diseases, animal and plant breeds or substances obtained by means of nuclear transformation. The Patent Office under the State Intellectual Property Office is responsible for receiving, examining, and approving patent applications. A patent is valid for a twenty-year term for an invention, a ten-year term for a utility model and a fifteen-year term for a design, starting from the application date. Except under certain specific circumstances provided by law, any third-party user must obtain consent or a proper license from the patent owner to use the patent, or else the use will constitute an infringement of the rights of the patent holder.

Copyrights

On September 7, 1990, the SCNPC promulgated the Copyright Law, which took effect on June 1, 1991, and was amended in 2001, 2010 and 2020, with the latest amendment coming into effect on June 1, 2021. The amended Copyright Law extends copyright protection to internet activities, products disseminated over the internet and software products. In addition, there is a voluntary registration system administered by the China Copyright Protection Center.

In order to further implement the Computer Software Protection Regulations promulgated by the State Council on June 4, 1991, and amended on January 30, 2013, the National Copyright Administration (“NCA”) issued the Computer Software Copyright Registration Procedures on April 6, 1992, and amended on February 20, 2002, which specify detailed procedures and requirements with respect to the registration of software copyrights. The China Copyright Protection Center shall grant registration certificates to the computer software copyrights applicants which meet the requirements of both the software copyright registration procedures and the computer software protection regulations.

Domain Names

The MIIT promulgated the Measures on Administration of Internet Domain Names (the “Domain Name Measures”), on August 24, 2017, which took effect on November 1, 2017, and replaced the Administrative Measures on China Internet Domain Name promulgated by MIIT on November 5, 2004. According to the Domain Name Measures, the MIIT is in charge of the administration of PRC internet domain names. The domain name registration follows a first-to-file principle. Applicants for registration of domain names shall provide the true, accurate and complete information of their identifications to domain name registration service institutions. The applicants will become the holder of such domain names upon the completion of the registration procedure.

Regulations Related to Foreign Exchange

Under the Foreign Currency Administration Rules of the PRC promulgated by the State Council on January 29, 1996, and amended on August 5, 2008, and various regulations issued by the SAFE, and other relevant PRC government authorities, Renminbi is convertible into other currencies for current account items, such as trade-related receipts and payments and payment of interest and dividends. The conversion of Renminbi into other currencies and remittance of the converted foreign currency outside the PRC for of capital account items, such as direct equity investments, loans, and repatriation of investment, requires the prior approval from the SAFE or its local office. Payments for transactions that take place within the PRC must be made in Renminbi. Unless otherwise approved, PRC companies may not repatriate foreign currency payments received from abroad or retain the same abroad. FIEs may retain foreign exchange in accounts with designated foreign exchange banks under the current account items subject to a cap set by the SAFE or its local office. Foreign exchange proceeds under the current accounts may be either retained or sold to a financial institution engaged in settlement and sale of foreign exchange pursuant to relevant SAFE rules and regulations. For foreign exchange proceeds under the capital accounts, approval from the SAFE is generally required for the retention or sale of such proceeds to a financial institution engaged in settlement and sale of foreign exchange.

Pursuant to the Circular of the SAFE on Further Improving and Adjusting Foreign Exchange Administration Policies for Direct Investment (“Circular 59”) promulgated by SAFE on November 19, 2012, which became effective on December 17, 2012 and was further amended on May 4, 2015 and October 10, 2018, approval is not required for opening a foreign exchange account and depositing foreign exchange into the accounts relating to the direct investments. Circular 59 also simplified foreign exchange-related registration required for the foreign investors to acquire the equity interests of PRC companies and further improve the administration on foreign exchange settlement for FIEs.

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The SAFE promulgated the Circular on Printing and Distributing the Provisions on Foreign Exchange Administration over Domestic Direct Investment by Foreign Investors and the Supporting Documents in May 2013, as amended, which specifies that the administration by SAFE or its local branches over direct investment by foreign investors in the PRC shall be conducted by way of registration and banks shall process foreign exchange business relating to the direct investment in the PRC based on the registration information provided by SAFE and its branches. On February 13, 2015, the SAFE promulgated the Circular on Simplifying and Improving the Foreign Currency Management Policy on Direct Investment (“Circular 13”), effective from June 1, 2015, which cancels the administrative approvals of foreign exchange registration of foreign direct investment and overseas direct investment. In addition, Circular 13 simplifies the procedure of foreign exchange-related registration, under which investors shall register with banks for foreign direct investment and overseas direct investment.

Regulations on Dividend Distribution

The principal laws and regulations regulating the dividend distribution of dividends by FIEs in the PRC include the Company Law of the PRC, as recently amended in 2018 and Foreign Investment Law promulgated by SCNPC on March 15, 2019, and recently came into effect on January 1, 2020, and its implementation regulations that took effect the same day.

Under the current regulatory regime in the PRC, FIEs in the PRC may pay dividends only out of their retained earnings, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. A PRC company is required to set aside as statutory reserve funds at least 10% of its after- tax profit, until the cumulative amount of such reserve funds reaches 50% of its registered capital unless laws regarding foreign investment provide otherwise. A PRC company shall not distribute any profits until any losses from prior fiscal years have been offset. Profits retained from prior fiscal years may be distributed together with distributable profits from the current fiscal year. In addition, failure to comply with the registration procedures set forth in SAFE Circular 37 may result in bans on the foreign exchange activities of the relevant onshore company, including the payment of dividends and other distributions to its offshore parent or affiliates.

Regulations on Taxation

Enterprise Income Tax

On March 16, 2007, the SCNPC promulgated the Law of the PRC on Enterprise Income Tax, which was recently amended on December 29, 2018, and on December 6, 2007, the State Council enacted the Regulations for the Implementation of the Law on Enterprise Income Tax, collectively, the EIT Law, which was recently amended on April 23, 2019. Under the EIT Law, both resident enterprises and non-resident enterprises are subject to tax in the PRC. Resident enterprises are defined as enterprises that are established in China in accordance with PRC laws, or that are established in accordance with the laws of foreign countries but are actually or in effect controlled from within the PRC. Non-resident enterprises are defined as enterprises that are organized under the laws of foreign countries and whose actual management is conducted outside the PRC, but have established institutions or premises in the PRC, or have no such established institutions or premises but have income generated from inside the PRC. Under the EIT Law and relevant implementing regulations, a uniform corporate income tax rate of 25% is applied. However, if non-resident enterprises have not formed permanent establishments or premises in the PRC, or if they have formed permanent establishment or premises in the PRC but there is no actual relationship between the relevant income derived in the PRC and the established institutions or premises set up by them, enterprise income tax is set at the rate of 20% with respect to their income sourced from inside the PRC.

Withholding Tax

The EIT Law provides that since January 1, 2008, an income tax rate of 10% will normally be applicable to dividends declared to non-PRC resident enterprise investors which do not have an establishment or place of business in the PRC, or which have such establishment or place of business, but the relevant income is not effectively connected with the establishment or place of business, to the extent such dividends are derived from sources within the PRC.

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Pursuant to an Arrangement Between the Mainland of China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income (the “Double Tax Avoidance Arrangement”) promulgated by the SAT on August 21, 2006, and other applicable PRC laws, if a Hong Kong resident enterprise is determined by the competent PRC tax authority to have satisfied the relevant conditions and requirements under such Double Tax Avoidance Arrangement and other applicable laws, the 10% withholding tax on the dividends the Hong Kong resident enterprise receives from a PRC resident enterprise may be reduced to 5%. However, based on the Circular on Certain Issues with Respect to the Enforcement of Dividend Provisions in Tax Treaties issued on February 20, 2009 by the SAT, if the relevant PRC tax authorities determine, in their discretion, that a company benefits from such reduced income tax rate due to a structure or arrangement that is primarily tax-driven, such PRC tax authorities may adjust the preferential tax treatment.

Value-added Tax

The Provisional Regulations of the PRC on Value-added Tax (the “VAT Regulations”) were promulgated by the State Council on December 13, 1993 and were most recently amended on November 19, 2017. The Detailed Rules for the Implementation of the Provisional Regulations of the PRC on Value-added Tax (Revised in 2011) were promulgated by the Ministry of Finance (“MOF”) on December 25, 1993 and amended on October 28, 2011 (collectively with the VAT Regulations, the “VAT Law”). According to the VAT Law, all enterprises and individuals engaged in the sale of goods, the provision of processing, repair and replacement services, and the importation of goods within the territory of the PRC must pay value-added tax. For taxpayers providing value-added telecommunication services, a rate of 6% applies, according to the Notice on Fully Promoting the Pilot Plan for Replacing Business Tax by Value-Added Tax, which was jointly promulgated by the MOF and the SAT on March 23, 2016 and became effective on May 1, 2016.

On April 4, 2018, the MOF and the SAT issued the Notice on Adjustment of VAT Rates, which came into effect on May 1, 2018. According to the notice, the taxable goods previously subject to VAT rates of 17% and 11% become subject to lower VAT rates of 16% and 10% starting from May 1, 2018.

Regulations on Employment

Labor Law and Labor Contract Law

The Labor Law, which was promulgated on July 5, 1994, and most recently amended on December 29, 2018, and the Labor Contract Law of the PRC (the “Labor Contract Law”) which took effect on January 1, 2008 and was amended on December 28, 2012, are primarily regulating rights and obligations of employer and employee relationships, including the establishment, performance and termination of labor contracts. Pursuant to the Labor Contract Law, labor contracts shall be concluded in writing if labor relationships are to be or have been established between employers and the employees. Employers are prohibited from forcing employees to work above certain time limit and employers shall pay employees for overtime work in accordance with national regulations. In addition, employee wages shall be no lower than local standards on minimum wages and shall be paid to employees timely. Violations of the Labor Contract Law and the Labor Law may result in the imposition of fines and other administrative and criminal liability in the case of serious violations.

Regulations on Social Insurance and Housing Fund

Under the Social Insurance Law of the PRC that was promulgated by the SCNPC on October 28, 2010, came into force as of July 1, 2011 and recently amended on December 29, 2018 and the Interim Regulations on the Collection and Payment of Social Insurance Premiums that was promulgated by the State Council on January 22, 1999 and was amended recently on March 24, 2019, employers are required to pay basic endowment insurance, unemployment insurance, basic medical insurance, employment injury insurance, maternity insurance and other social insurance for its employees at specified percentages of the salaries of the employees, up to a maximum amount specified by the local government regulations from time to time. Where an employer fails to fully pay social insurance premiums, relevant social insurance collection agency shall order it to make up for any shortfall within a prescribed time limit and may impose a late payment fee at the rate of 0.05% per day of the outstanding amount from the due date. If such employer still fails to make up for the shortfalls within the prescribed time limit, the relevant administrative authorities shall impose a fine of one to three times the outstanding amount upon such employer.

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In accordance with the Regulations on the Management of Housing Fund which was promulgated by the State Council in 1999 and amended in 2002 and 2019, employers must register at the designated administrative centers and open bank accounts for depositing employees’ housing funds. Employer and employee are also required to pay and deposit housing funds, with an amount no less than 5% of the monthly average salary of the employee in the preceding year in full and on time.

Regulations on Employee Share Incentive Plans

Pursuant to SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents who participate in share incentive plans in overseas non-publicly-listed companies may submit applications to SAFE or its local branches for the foreign exchange registration with respect to offshore special purpose companies. In addition, pursuant to the Notice of Issues Related to the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Listed Company (“SAFE Circular 7”), which was issued by the SAFE on February 15, 2012, employees, directors, supervisors, and other senior management participating in any share incentive plan of an overseas publicly-listed company who are PRC citizens or who are non-PRC citizens residing in China for a continuous period of not less than one year, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic agency as regulated in SAFE Circular 7.

In addition, the SAT has issued certain circulars concerning employee stock options and restricted shares, including the Circular on Issues Concerning the Individual Income Tax on Share-option Incentives (“Circular 461”) which was promulgated and took effect on August 24, 2009. Under Circular 461 and other relevant laws and regulations, employees working in the PRC who exercise stock options or are granted restricted shares will be subject to PRC individual income tax. The PRC subsidiaries of an overseas listed company are required to file documents related to employee stock options and restricted shares with relevant tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of employees who exercise their stock option or purchase restricted shares. If the employees fail to pay or the PRC subsidiaries fail to withhold income tax in accordance with relevant laws and regulations, the PRC subsidiary may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities or other PRC governmental authorities.

Regulations Related to Mergers and Acquisitions

M&A Rules

On August 8, 2006, six PRC governmental and regulatory agencies, including MOFCOM and CSRC, promulgated the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors (the “M&A Rules”), governing the mergers and acquisitions of domestic enterprises by foreign investors that became effective on September 8, 2006, and was revised on June 22, 2009. The M&A Rules requires that an offshore special vehicle, or a special purpose vehicle formed for overseas listing purposes and controlled directly or indirectly by the PRC companies or individuals, shall obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to overseas listing and trading of such special purpose vehicle’s securities on an overseas stock exchange. The M&A Rules also establish procedures and requirements that could make some acquisitions of PRC companies by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that the Ministry of Commerce be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. In addition, the Rules on Implementation of Security Review System for the Merger and Acquisition of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors issued by the Ministry of Commerce in 2011 specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise “national defense and security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise “national security” concerns are subject to strict review by the Ministry of Commerce, and prohibit any activities attempting to bypass such security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement.

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Regulations Related to Overseas Listings

SAFE Circular 37

Under SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents are required to register with the local SAFE branch prior to the establishment or control of an offshore special purpose vehicle, or the SPV, which is defined as offshore enterprises directly established or indirectly controlled by PRC residents for offshore equity financing of the enterprise assets or interests they hold in China. An amendment to registration or subsequent filing with the local SAFE branch by such PRC resident is also required if there is any change in basic information of the offshore company or any material change with respect to the capital of the offshore company. At the same time, the SAFE has issued the Operation Guidance for the Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration over Round-trip Investment regarding the procedures for SAFE registration under SAFE Circular 37, which became effective on July 4, 2014 as an attachment of SAFE Circular 37.

Under the relevant rules, failure to comply with the registration procedures set forth in SAFE Circular 37 may result in bans on the foreign exchange activities of the relevant onshore company, including the payment of dividends and other distributions to its offshore parent or affiliates, and may also subject relevant PRC residents to penalties under PRC foreign exchange administration regulations.

Potential CSRC Approval

On December 24, 2021, the CSRC published the draft Regulations of the State Council on the Administration of Overseas Issuance and Listing of Securities by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments) (the “Administrative Provisions”), and the draft Measures for the Record-Filing of Overseas Issuance and Listing of Securities by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments) (the “Filing Measures”, and collectively, the “Draft Overseas Listing Regulations”) for public comments, which set out the new regulatory requirements and filing procedures for domestic companies seeking direct or indirect listing in overseas markets.

The Draft Overseas Listing Regulations, among others, lay out specific requirements for filing. In addition, it stipulates that domestic companies that seek to offer and list securities in overseas markets shall strictly comply with laws, regulations and relevant provisions concerning national security in spheres of foreign investment, cybersecurity, and data security, and earnestly fulfill their obligations to protect national security. Domestic companies seeking to list abroad must carry out relevant security review procedures if their businesses involve such supervision. Moreover, an overseas offering and listing is prohibited under circumstances if (i) it is prohibited by PRC laws, (ii) it may constitute a threat to or endanger national security as reviewed and determined by competent PRC authorities, (iii) it has material ownership disputes over equity, major assets, or core technology, (iv) in past three years, the Chinese operating entities, and their controlling shareholders or actual controllers have committed relevant prescribed criminal offenses or are under investigations for suspicion of criminal offenses or major violations, (v) the directors, supervisors, or senior executives have been subject to administrative punishment for severe violations, or are under investigations for suspicion of criminal offenses or major violations, or (vi) it has other circumstances as prescribed by the State Council.

The Draft Overseas Listing Regulations further stipulate that a fine between RMB 1 million and RMB 10 million may be imposed if an applicant fails to fulfill the filing requirements with the CSRC or conducts an overseas offering or listing in violation of the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations, and in cases of severe violations, a parallel order to suspend relevant businesses or halt operations for rectification may be issued, and relevant business permits or operational license revoked.

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C. Organizational Structure.

The following table sets forth the details of our principal subsidiaries, the VIE and its subsidiaries as of the date of this transition report:

    

Date of

    

Place of

    

% of

    

Name of Entity

Incorporation

Incorporation

Ownership

Principal Activities

Fuwei Films (Shandong) Co., Ltd

 

January 5, 2005

 

PRC

 

100

 

BOPET film business

Fuwei Films (BVI) Co., Ltd.

 

April 26, 2004

 

British Virgin Islands

 

100

 

Investment holding

BaiJiaYun Limited

April 22, 2021

 

Cayman Islands

 

100

 

Investment holding

Subsidiaries of BaiJiaYun

  

 

  

 

  

BaiJia Cloud Limited (“BaiJiaYun HK”)

May 6, 2021

 

Hong Kong

 

100

 

Investment holding

Beijing Baishilian Technology Co., Ltd.

September 6, 2021

 

PRC

 

100

 

Investment holding

Shenzhen Baishilian Technology Co., Ltd. (“Shenzhen Baishilian”)

October 27, 2021

 

PRC

 

100

 

Investment holding

Nanning Baishilian Information Technology Co., Ltd. (“Nanning Baishilian”)

September 13, 2021

 

PRC

 

100

 

Investment holding

Nanjing Baishilian Technology Co., Ltd. (“Nanjing Baishilian”)

January 21, 2022

 

PRC

 

100

 

Investment holding

Zhejiang Baijiashilian Technology Co., Ltd.(“Zhejiang WFOE”)

December 28, 2022

PRC

100

Investment holding

VIE

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

BaiJiaYun Group Co., Ltd

May 22, 2017

 

PRC

 

VIE

 

Provision of cloud computing services

VIE’s Subsidiaries

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Wuhan Baijia Cloud Technology Co., Ltd. (“Wuhan BaiJiaYun”) (1)

August 7, 2017

 

PRC

 

100% owned by VIE

 

Provision of cloud computing services

Nanjing Baijia Cloud Technology Co., Ltd. (“Nanjing BaiJiaYun”)

June 13, 2018

 

PRC

 

100% owned by VIE

 

Provision of cloud computing services

Baijiayun Information Technology Co., Ltd. (“BaiJiaYun Information Technology”)

June 18, 2019

 

PRC

 

51% owned by VIE before January 1, 2021, and 100% owned by VIE afterwards

 

Provision of cloud computing services

Guizhou Baijia Cloud Technology Co., Ltd. (“Guizhou BaiJiaYun”)

April 8, 2019

 

PRC

 

100% owned by VIE

 

Provision of cloud computing services

Baijia Cloud Technology Co., Ltd. (“BaiJia Cloud Technology ”)

October 12, 2019

 

PRC

 

70% owned by VIE before January 1, 2021, and 100% owned by VIE afterwards

 

Provision of cloud computing services

Beijing Baijiayun Digital Technology Co., Ltd. (formerly known as “Beijing Haoyu Xingchen Cultural Communication Co., Ltd.”) (“Haoyu Xingchen”)

June 23, 2020

 

PRC

 

100% owned by VIE

 

Provision of cloud computing services

Xi’an Baijiayun Information Technology Co., Ltd. (“Xi’an BaiJiaYun”)

January 7, 2021

 

PRC

 

51% owned by VIE

 

Provision of cloud computing services

Henan Baijia Cloud Information Technology Co., Ltd. (“Henan BaiJiaYun”)

April 13, 2021

 

PRC

 

51% owned by VIE

 

Provision of cloud computing services

Chengdu Digital Bird Technology Co., Ltd. (“Chengdu BaiJiaYun”)

April 8, 2015

 

PRC

 

100% owned by VIE since August 3, 2020, and disposed of in June 2021

 

Provision of cloud computing services

Wuhan BaiJiaShiLian Technology Co., Ltd. (“Wuhan BaiJiaShiLian”) (2)

December 12, 2018

 

PRC

 

100% owned by VIE since September 15, 2021

 

Provision of cloud computing services

Guangxi Weifang Technology Co., Ltd. (“Guangxi Weifang”)

November 3, 2021

 

PRC

 

100% owned by VIE

 

Provision of cloud computing services

Shanghai BaiJiaYun Technology Co., Ltd.(“Shanghai BaiJiaYun”)

October 22, 2021

 

PRC

 

100% owned by VIE

 

Provision of cloud computing services

Beijing Deran Technology Co., Ltd (“Beijing Deran”)

May 29, 2012

 

PRC

 

51% owned by VIE since March 24, 2022

 

Provision of cloud computing services

Nanjing BaiJiaYunPeng Technology Co., Ltd.

August 18, 2022

PRC

60% owned by VIE

Provision of cloud computing services

BaiJiaYun Technology Development (Shanxi) Co., Ltd.

January 4, 2023

PRC

100% owned by VIE

Provision of cloud computing services

Guangxi Hengsheng Information Technology Co., Ltd.

September 16, 2022

PRC

100% owned by VIE

Provision of cloud computing services

Zhuhai BaiJiaYun Technology Co., Ltd.

October 20, 2022

PRC

100% owned by VIE

Provision of cloud computing services

Guangxi Chuanghe Technology Co., Ltd.

August 30, 2022

PRC

100% owned by VIE

Provision of cloud computing services

Notes:

(1)We disposed of Wuhan BaiJiaYun in September 2022.
(2)We acquired Wuhan BaiJiaShiLian in September 2021. Wuhan BaiJiaShiLian did not commence any operation at the acquisition date and has immaterial net assets.

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The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure as of the date of this transition report:

Graphic

Contractual Arrangements and Corporate Structure

Baijiayun Group Ltd is an exempted company with limited liability incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and currently conducts substantially all of its business and operations through the VIE in China. The VIE also holds our key operating licenses for our video-centric technology solution business, provides services to our customers, and enters into contracts with our suppliers. Current PRC laws and regulations impose certain restrictions or prohibitions on foreign ownership of companies that engage in internet-related services and certain other businesses. Accordingly, certain contractual arrangements were established for the business operations of BJY in the PRC. From September 7, 2021 to January 1, 2023, BJY, through Beijing WFOE, entered into a series of agreements with the VIE, and its shareholders, including the exclusive business cooperation agreement, powers of attorney, exclusive option agreements, and equity interest pledge agreements (collectively, the “Beijing WFOE Contractual Arrangements”). As part of our efforts to streamline our corporate structure, (1) each of Beijing WFOE, the VIE and its shareholders terminated each of the Beijing WFOE Contractual Arrangements, as a result of which Beijing WFOE will no longer receive substantially all of the economic benefits of, the VIE; and (2) on January 2, 2023, Zhejiang WFOE, entered into a series of contractual arrangements, including exclusive technical and consulting services agreement, powers of attorney, exclusive option agreements and equity interest pledge agreements (collectively, the “Zhejiang WFOE Contractual Arrangements”) with the VIE and its shareholders, through which we are considered as the primary beneficiary of the consolidated affiliate entities and consolidate the financial results of the VIE in our financial statements under U.S. GAAP. A summary of certain material terms of Zhejiang WFOE Contractual Arrangements is as follows:

Exclusive Technical and Consulting Services Agreement. Under the exclusive technical and consulting services agreement between Zhejiang WFOE and the VIE, Zhejiang WFOE has the exclusive right to provide, among other things, technical support and consulting services to the VIE. Zhejiang WFOE has the exclusive ownership of intellectual property rights created as a result of the performance of this agreement. In addition, the VIE irrevocably grants Zhejiang WFOE an exclusive option to purchase any or all of the assets and business of the VIE at the lowest price permitted under PRC law.

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Powers of Attorney. Under the powers of attorney among Zhejiang WFOE, the VIE, and each shareholder of the VIE, such shareholder irrevocably nominates, appoints, and constitutes Zhejiang WFOE and its successors as his or her attorney-in-fact to exercise any and all of his or her rights as a shareholder of the VIE, including rights to convene and attend shareholders’ meetings, nominate and elect directors, and appoint and dismiss the senior management of the VIE.
Exclusive Option Agreements. Under the exclusive option agreements among Zhejiang WFOE, the VIE, and each shareholder of the VIE, such shareholder irrevocably grants Zhejiang WFOE or its designated person(s) an exclusive option to purchase, at any time and to the extent permitted under PRC law, all or part of his or her equity interests in the VIE at the lowest price permitted under the PRC law.
Equity Interest Pledge Agreements. Under the equity interest pledge agreements among Zhejiang WFOE, the VIE, and each shareholder of the VIE, such shareholder pledges all of his or her equity interests in the VIE to Zhejiang WFOE to secure the performance by the VIE and its shareholders of their respective obligations under the applicable contractual agreements. If the pledger or the VIE breaches its obligations under these contractual arrangements, Zhejiang WFOE, as the pledgee, will be entitled to certain rights and remedies including priority in receiving the proceeds from the auction or disposal of the pledged equity interests in the VIE. The shareholders of the VIE undertakes that during the term of the pledge, without the prior written consent of Zhejiang WFOE, they shall not dispose of the pledged equity interests, create, or allow any encumbrance on the pledged equity interests or increase the registered capital of the VIE. Zhejiang WFOE also has the right to receive dividends distributed on the pledged equity interests during the term of the pledge.

In the opinion of Beijing Dentons Law Offices, LLP, our PRC legal counsel, (1) the ownership structures of Zhejiang WFOE and the VIE in China do not and will not violate any applicable PRC law, regulation or rule currently in effect; and (2) the contractual agreements among Zhejiang WFOE, the VIE and the VIE’s shareholders governed by PRC laws are valid and binding in accordance with their terms and applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations currently in effect, and will not violate any applicable PRC law, regulation or rule currently in effect. However, these contractual arrangements may not be as effective in providing control as direct ownership. There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, rules and regulations. Accordingly, the PRC regulatory authorities may in the future take a view that is contrary to the opinion of our PRC legal counsel. We have been further advised by Dentons that if the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our business do not comply with PRC government restrictions on foreign investment, we could be subject to severe penalties including being prohibited from continuing operations. See “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure.”

All the agreements under the Zhejiang WFOE Contractual Arrangements are governed by PRC laws and provide for the resolution of disputes through arbitration in China. See “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure — We rely on contractual arrangements with the VIE and the shareholders of the VIE to operate our business, which may not be as effective as equity ownership in providing operational control and could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.” Such arbitration provisions have no effect on the rights of our shareholders to pursue claims against us under United States federal securities laws.

D. Property, Plants and Equipment

After the consummation of the Merger, our principal executive offices are located at 24F, A1 South Building, No. 32 Fengzhan Road, Yuhuatai District, Nanjing, China. In the 2022 fiscal year, we leased and occupied its office space with an aggregate floor area of approximately 1,789 square meters in Beijing, and maintained other leased offices and warehouse space in other cities in China totaling approximately 5,587 square meters. We lease our premises from unrelated third parties under operating lease agreements. The lease terms for all of our leased properties in the 2022 fiscal year ranged from five months to five years.

We believe our existing leased facilities are adequate for its current business operations and that additional facilities can be obtained on commercially reasonable terms to accommodate our future expansion plans.

Item 4A.Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

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Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

The following discussion of the results of operations and financial condition of BJY is based upon and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and their related notes included in this transition report. This discussion includes forward-looking statements, and involves numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those described under “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors” in this transition report. We caution you that the business and financial performance of BJY may differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

A.Operating Results

Overview

BJY is a leading video-centric technology solutions provider in China with core expertise in SaaS and PaaS solutions. Leveraging the strength of its industry-leading video-centric technologies, BJY offers a wealth of video-centric technology solutions including SaaS/PaaS solutions, cloud and software related solutions and enterprise AI and system solutions catered to the evolving communication and collaboration needs of enterprises of all sizes and across industries, which makes it a one-stop video technology solutions provider.

BJY’s business scale continued to grow in recent years. The revenues of BJY were US$23.4 million, US$41.4 million and US$68.6 million for the 2020, 2021 and 2022 fiscal years, respectively. BJY had net income of US$3.7 million and US$3.6 million for the 2020 and 2021 fiscal years, respectively, and net loss of US$12.6 million for the 2022 fiscal year.

Key Components of Results of Operations

Revenues

The following table sets forth a breakdown of the total revenues of BJY, both in absolute amount and as a percentage of total revenues, for the fiscal years indicated.

Years ended June 30,

2020

2021

2022

    

US$

    

%

    

US$

    

%

    

US$

    

%

(in U.S. dollars, except for percentages)

SaaS/PaaS services

Real-time engagement services

 

21,387,895

 

91.5

 

15,344,241

 

37.0

 

14,841,071

 

21.6

SMS services

 

 

 

5,959,759

 

14.4

 

16,429,769

 

23.9

Subtotal

 

21,387,895

 

91.5

 

21,304,000

 

51.4

 

31,270,840

 

45.5

Cloud related services