10-Q 1 rytm-20230930x10q.htm 10-Q
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2023

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from           to         

Commission file number 001-38223

RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

46-2159271

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

222 Berkeley Street

12th Floor

Boston, MA 02116

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(Zip Code)

(857264-4280

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)

N/A

(Former Name, Former Address and Former Fiscal Year, if Changed Since Last Report)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share

RYTM

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (Nasdaq Global Market)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No  .

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock as of November 1, 2023 was 59,096,454.

RHYTHM PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

FORM 10-Q

INDEX

    

Page No.

PART I

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)

3

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

3

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

4

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

5

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

6

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

7

Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

22

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

36

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

36

PART II

OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

37

Item 1A. Risk Factors

37

Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities, Use of Proceeds, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

94

Item 3. Defaults Upon Senior Securities

94

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosure

94

Item 5. Other Information

94

Item 6. Exhibits

95

SIGNATURES

97

2

PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.Financial Statements

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(Unaudited)

September 30, 

December 31, 

    

2023

    

2022

Assets

Current assets:

 

  

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

$

64,593

$

127,677

Short-term investments

 

234,667

 

205,611

Accounts receivable, net

14,541

6,224

Inventory

7,762

2,917

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

7,638

 

11,807

Total current assets

 

329,201

 

354,236

Property and equipment, net

 

1,545

 

2,197

Right-of-use asset

888

1,182

Intangible assets, net

7,242

7,883

Restricted cash

 

328

 

328

Other long-term assets

14,995

16,655

Total assets

$

354,199

$

382,481

Liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

  

 

  

Current liabilities:

 

  

 

  

Accounts payable

$

3,839

$

4,797

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

44,271

 

32,894

Deferred revenue

1,286

1,434

Lease liability

 

748

 

684

Total current liabilities

 

50,144

 

39,809

Long-term liabilities:

 

  

 

  

Deferred royalty obligation

104,699

75,810

Lease liability

 

692

 

1,260

Derivative liability

1,190

1,340

Total liabilities

 

156,725

 

118,219

Stockholders’ equity:

 

  

 

  

Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value: 10,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022

 

 

Common stock, $0.001 par value: 120,000,000 shares authorized; 59,089,352 and 56,612,429 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively

 

59

 

56

Additional paid-in capital

1,050,631

974,356

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

(113)

(92)

Accumulated deficit

 

(853,103)

 

(710,058)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

197,474

 

264,262

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

$

354,199

$

382,481

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

3

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(Unaudited)

Three months ended September 30, 

Nine months ended September 30, 

    

2023

    

2022

    

2023

    

2022

Revenues:

Product revenue, net

$

22,504

$

4,284

$

53,194

$

8,094

License revenue

6,754

Total revenues

22,504

4,284

53,194

14,848

Costs and expenses:

Cost of sales

2,412

497

6,069

1,105

Research and development

33,570

21,116

105,059

85,082

Selling, general, and administrative

 

30,475

 

21,938

 

85,158

 

65,715

Total costs and expenses

 

66,457

 

43,551

 

196,286

 

151,902

Loss from operations

 

(43,953)

 

(39,267)

 

(143,092)

 

(137,054)

Other income (expense):

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Other income (expense), net

 

(159)

 

(370)

 

(369)

 

(370)

Interest expense

(3,149)

(2,144)

(9,342)

(2,190)

Interest income

 

3,466

 

920

 

10,126

 

988

Total other income (expense), net

 

158

 

(1,594)

 

415

 

(1,572)

Loss before taxes

(43,795)

(40,861)

(142,677)

(138,626)

Provision for income taxes

368

368

Net loss

$

(44,163)

$

(40,861)

$

(143,045)

$

(138,626)

Net loss per share, basic and diluted

$

(0.76)

$

(0.79)

$

(2.50)

$

(2.73)

Weighted-average common shares outstanding, basic and diluted

57,874,960

51,400,922

57,154,803

50,712,452

Other comprehensive loss:

Net loss

$

(44,163)

$

(40,861)

$

(143,045)

$

(138,626)

Reclassification of losses on RareStone equity into net loss

300

Foreign currency translation adjustment

76

49

Unrealized gain (loss), net on marketable securities

 

(175)

 

267

 

(70)

 

(338)

Comprehensive loss

$

(44,262)

$

(40,294)

$

(143,066)

$

(138,964)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

4

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

(in thousands, except share data)

(Unaudited)

Accumulated

Additional

Other

Total

Common Stock

Paid-In

Comprehensive

Accumulated

Stockholders’

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Income (Loss)

Deficit

    

Equity

Balance at December 31, 2022

 

56,612,429

$

56

 

$

974,356

 

$

(92)

$

(710,058)

 

$

264,262

Stock-based compensation expense

 

6,376

 

6,376

Issuance of common stock in connection with ESPP

32,169

665

665

Issuance of common stock in connection with exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock units

207,806

553

553

Foreign currency translation adjustment

21

21

Net unrealized gains on short-term investments

 

65

 

65

Net loss

 

(52,179)

 

(52,179)

Balance at March 31, 2023

56,852,404

$

56

$

981,950

$

(6)

$

(762,237)

$

219,763

Stock-based compensation expense

8,891

8,891

Issuance of common stock in connection with exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock units

43,664

1

341

342

Foreign currency translation adjustment

(48)

(48)

Net unrealized gains on short-term investments

40

40

Net loss

(46,703)

(46,703)

Balance at June 30, 2023

56,896,068

$

57

$

991,182

$

(14)

$

(808,940)

$

182,285

Stock-based compensation expense

8,612

 

8,612

Issuance of common stock in connection with ESPP

17,650

388

388

Issuance of common stock in connection with exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock units

156,389

1,576

1,576

Issuance of common stock upon completion of ATM equity offering, net of offering costs

2,019,245

2

48,873

48,875

Foreign currency translation adjustment

76

76

Net unrealized losses on short-term investments

(175)

 

(175)

Net loss

(44,163)

 

(44,163)

Balance at September 30, 2023

59,089,352

$

59

$

1,050,631

$

(113)

$

(853,103)

$

197,474

Balance at December 31, 2021

 

50,283,574

$

50

 

$

813,041

 

$

(1)

$

(528,939)

 

$

284,151

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

4,611

 

 

4,611

Issuance of common stock in connection with ESPP

61,518

399

399

Issuance of common stock in connection with exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock units

48,639

Unrealized loss on marketable securities

 

 

 

 

(628)

 

(628)

Net loss

 

 

 

 

(52,764)

 

(52,764)

Balance at March 31, 2022

50,393,731

$

50

$

818,051

$

(629)

$

(581,703)

$

235,769

Stock compensation expense

5,137

5,137

Issuance of common stock in connection with exercise of stock options

60,439

Unrealized gain on marketable securities

23

23

Unrealized loss on RareStone equity

(300)

(300)

Net loss

(45,001)

(45,001)

Balance at June 30, 2022

50,454,170

$

50

$

823,188

$

(906)

$

(626,704)

$

195,628

Stock compensation expense

 

 

4,796

 

 

4,796

Issuance of common stock in connection with ESPP

31,414

227

227

Issuance of common stock in connection with exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock units

470,672

1

3,863

3,864

Issuance of common stock upon completion of public offering, net of offering costs

4,800,000

5

116,969

116,974

Unrealized gain on marketable securities

 

 

 

267

 

267

Reclassification of losses on RareStone equity into net loss

300

300

Net loss

 

 

 

(40,861)

 

(40,861)

Balance at September 30, 2022

55,756,256

$

56

$

949,043

$

(339)

$

(667,565)

$

281,195

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

5

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(in thousands)

(Unaudited)

Nine months ended September 30, 

    

2023

    

2022

Operating activities

Net loss

$

(143,045)

$

(138,626)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

  

 

  

Stock-based compensation expense

 

23,879

 

14,544

Depreciation and amortization

 

1,341

 

1,230

Non-cash interest expense and amortization of debt issuance costs

9,342

2,190

Non-cash rent expense

 

294

 

(198)

Loss on RareStone equity investment

1,040

Change in fair value of embedded derivative liability

(150)

Acquired IPR&D assets classified as investing activities

5,667

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

Accounts receivable

(8,317)

(2,303)

Inventory

(4,845)

(1,575)

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

(2,367)

 

2,806

Deferred revenue

(148)

474

Other long-term assets, net

 

1,660

 

(4,841)

Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities

 

9,915

 

(14,169)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

(106,774)

 

(139,428)

Investing activities

 

  

 

  

Purchases of short-term investments, net

 

(314,265)

 

(151,521)

Maturities of short-term investments

 

291,675

 

224,607

Payment of milestone obligation under license agreement

(4,000)

Acquisition of IPR&D assets, including transaction costs

(5,667)

Purchases of property and equipment

 

(48)

 

(282)

Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities

 

(28,305)

 

68,804

Financing activities

 

  

 

  

Net proceeds from issuance of common stock

48,875

116,974

Proceeds from the exercise of stock options

 

2,471

 

3,863

Proceeds from issuance of common stock from ESPP

 

1,053

 

626

Repayments on deferred royalty obligation

(4,824)

Proceeds from royalty financing agreement, net of issuance costs

24,370

75,000

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

71,945

 

196,463

Effect of exchange rates on cash

50

Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

(63,084)

 

125,839

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period

 

128,005

 

59,576

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period

$

64,921

$

185,415

Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing activities:

Deferred financing costs in accrued expenses

$

$

957

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

6

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Notes to Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

(In thousands, except share and per share information)

1. Nature of Business

Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company” or “we”) is a global, commercial-stage biopharmaceutical company dedicated to transforming the lives of patients and their families living with rare diseases. We are focused on advancing our lead asset, IMCIVREE® (setmelanotide), as a precision medicine designed to treat hyperphagia and severe obesity caused by rare melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) pathway diseases. While obesity affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, we are advancing IMCIVREE® (setmelanotide) for a subset of individuals who have hyperphagia, a pathological hunger that leads to abnormal food-seeking behaviors, and severe obesity due to an impaired MC4R pathway, which may be caused by traumatic injury or genetic variants. The MC4R pathway is an endocrine pathway in the brain that is responsible for regulating hunger, caloric intake and energy expenditure, which consequently affect body weight. IMCIVREE, an MC4R agonist for which we hold worldwide rights, is the first-ever therapy developed for patients with certain ultra-rare diseases that is approved or authorized in the United States (US), European Union (EU) and Great Britain.

The Company is a Delaware corporation organized in February 2013 under the name Rhythm Metabolic, Inc., and as of October 2015, under the name Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. The Company has wholly-owned subsidiaries in the US, Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Canada.

The Company is subject to risks and uncertainties common to commercial-stage companies in the biotechnology industry, including but not limited to, risks associated with the commercialization of approved products, completing preclinical studies and clinical trials, receiving regulatory approvals for product candidates, development by competitors of new biopharmaceutical products, dependence on key personnel, protection of proprietary technology, compliance with government regulations and the ability to secure additional capital to fund operations. Commercialization of approved products will require significant resources and in order to market IMCIVREE, the Company must continue to build its sales, marketing, managerial and other non-technical capabilities or make arrangements with third parties to perform these services. Product candidates currently under development will require significant additional research and development efforts, including preclinical and clinical testing and regulatory approval, prior to commercialization. These efforts require significant amounts of additional capital, adequate personnel and infrastructure and extensive compliance-reporting capabilities.

Liquidity

The Company has incurred operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception. As of September 30, 2023, the Company had an accumulated deficit of $853,103.  The Company has primarily funded these losses through the proceeds from the sales of common and preferred stock, asset sales, royalty financing, out-license arrangements, as well as capital contributions received from the former parent company, Rhythm Holdings LLC. To date, the Company has minimal product revenue and management expects operating losses to continue for the foreseeable future. The Company has devoted substantially all of its resources to its drug development efforts, comprising of research and development, the acquisition of in process research and development assets, manufacturing, conducting clinical trials for its product candidates, protecting its intellectual property, commercialization activities and general and administrative functions relating to these operations. The future success of the Company is dependent on its ability to develop its product candidates and ultimately upon its ability to attain profitable operations.

At September 30, 2023, the Company had $299,260 of cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments on hand.  In the future, the Company will be dependent on obtaining funding from third parties, such as proceeds from the issuance of debt, sale of equity, product sales and funded research and development programs to maintain the Company's operations and meet the Company's obligations. There is no guarantee that additional equity or other financings will be available to the Company on acceptable terms, or at all. If the Company fails to obtain additional funding when needed, the Company would be forced to scale back, terminate its operations or seek to merge with or be acquired by another

7

company. Management believes that the Company's existing cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments will be sufficient to fund the Company’s operations through at least the next twelve months from the filing of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q with the SEC.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The Company's unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, or GAAP, and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, regarding interim financial reporting. Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to the authoritative United States generally accepted accounting principles as found in the Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, and Accounting Standards Updates, or ASU, of the Financial Accounting Standards Board, or FASB. As permitted under these rules, certain footnotes or other financial information that are normally required by GAAP have been condensed or omitted.

The accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheet as of September 30, 2023, the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, the condensed consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 and the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 and the related footnote disclosures are unaudited. In management's opinion, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2022 and include all adjustments, which are all normal recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair presentation of the interim financial statements. The results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 are not necessarily indicative of the results expected for the full fiscal year, any other interim periods, or any future year or period.

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect the application of certain significant accounting policies as described below and elsewhere in these notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. As of September 30, 2023, there have been no material changes in the Company's significant accounting policies from those that were disclosed in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and other market-specific or other relevant assumptions that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. This process may result in actual results differing materially from those estimated amounts used in the preparation of the financial statements if these results differ from historical experience, or other assumptions do not turn out to be substantially accurate, even if such assumptions are reasonable when made. Significant estimates relied upon in preparing these financial statements include estimates related to determining our net product revenue, license revenue, accruals related to research and development expenses, assumptions used to record stock-based compensation expense, interest expense on our deferred royalty obligation, assumptions used to value the embedded derivative in our deferred royalty obligation, assumptions used to value the common stock received from RareStone Group Ltd., or RareStone, and the valuation allowance on the Company's deferred tax assets.  Estimates are periodically reviewed in light of changes in circumstances, facts and experience.  Changes in estimates are recorded in the period in which they become known.  Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.

Principles of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Rhythm Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

8

Reclassification of Prior Year Balances

Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on the reported results of operations or cash flows. In the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows, the Company reclassified $2,303 to accounts receivable and $1,465 to inventory from prepaid expenses and other current assets for the nine months ended September 30, 2022.  The reason for the reclassification was to conform with the current year’s presentation.

Segment Information

Operating segments are defined as components of an entity about which separate discrete information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company currently operates in one business segment, which is the development and commercialization of therapies for patients with rare diseases. A single management team that reports to the Chief Executive Officer comprehensively manages the entire business. The Company does not operate separate lines of business with respect to its product or product candidates. Accordingly, the Company has one reportable segment.

Off-Balance Sheet Risk and Concentrations of Credit Risk

Financial instruments, which potentially subject the Company to significant concentration of credit risk, consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments, which are maintained at two federally insured financial institutions. The deposits held at these two institutions are in excess of federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and management believes that the Company is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions in which those deposits are held. The Company has no off-balance sheet risk, such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts, or other foreign hedging arrangements.

The Company is exposed to risks associated with extending credit to customers related to the sale of products. The Company does not require collateral to secure amounts due from its customers. For the three months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, approximately 80% and 86%, respectively, of all of the Company’s revenue was generated from a single customer in the United States. For the nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, approximately 84% and 86%, respectively, of all of the Company’s revenue was generated from a single customer in the United States. As of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, approximately 73% and 78%, respectively, of the Company’s accounts receivable was outstanding from a single customer in the United States.

The Company relies on third-party manufacturers and suppliers for the manufacture and supply of its product. The inability of the suppliers or manufacturers to fulfill supply requirements of the Company could materially impact future operating results. A change in the relationship with the suppliers or manufacturer, or an adverse change in their business, could materially impact future operating results.

The Company relies on separate third parties to perform genetic testing in the United States and Europe, respectively. The inability of the vendor to fulfill testing services for the Company could materially impact future operating results and adversely impact our ability to further develop setmelanotide. A change in the relationship with the genetic testing service providers, or an adverse change in their business, could materially impact future operating results.

Accounts Receivable, net

Accounts receivable consists of amounts due from customers, net of customer allowances for cash discounts and any estimated expected credit losses. The Company's measurement of expected credit losses is based on relevant information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. To date, the Company has not experienced any credit losses. The Company's contracts with its customers have customary payment terms that generally require payment within 90 days. The Company analyzes amounts that are past due for collectability, and periodically evaluates the creditworthiness of its

9

customers.  As of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the Company determined an allowance for doubtful accounts was not required based upon our review of contractual payments and our customers’ circumstances. 

Revenue Recognition

The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, or ASC 606. Under ASC 606, an entity recognizes revenue when its customer obtains control of promised goods or services in an amount that reflects the consideration which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services.

Product Revenue, net

In the United States (the “U.S.”), which accounts for the largest portion of our total revenues, the Company sells its product to a limited number of specialty pharmacies. The product is distributed through third-party logistics, or 3PL, distribution agent that does not take title to the product. Once the product is delivered to the Company’s specialty pharmacy provider, our customer in the U.S., the customer (or “wholesaler”) takes title to the product. The wholesaler then distributes the product to patients. In our distribution agreement with the 3PL company, the Company acts as principal because we retain control of the product. Internationally, we make sales primarily to specialty distributors and retail pharmacy chains, as well as hospitals, many of which are government-owned or supported. The Company generally does not offer returns of product sold to the customer.

Revenue from product sales is recognized when the customer obtains control of our product, which occurs at a point in time, upon transfer of title to the customer because at that point in time we have no ongoing obligations to the customer.  There are no other performance obligations besides the sale of product.  We classify payments to our customers or other parties in the distribution channel for services that are distinct and priced at fair value as selling, general and administrative expenses in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive (loss) income. Otherwise, payments to a customer or other parties in the distribution channel that do not meet those criteria are classified as a reduction of revenue, as discussed further below.  Taxes collected from the customer relating to product sales and remitted to governmental authorities are excluded from revenue.  Because our payment terms are generally ninety days or less, the Company concluded there is not a significant financing component because the period between the transfer of a promised good or service to the customer and when the customer pays for that good or service will be one year or less.  The Company expenses incremental costs of obtaining a contract as and when incurred since the expected amortization period of the asset that we would have recognized is one year or less.

Reserves for Variable Consideration

Revenues from product sales are recorded at the net sales price, or the transaction price, which includes estimates of variable consideration for which reserves are established and which result from discounts, returns, chargebacks, rebates, co-pay assistance and other allowances that are offered within contracts between us and our customers, health care providers and other indirect customers relating to the sale of IMCIVREE.  These reserves are based on the amounts earned or to be claimed on the related sales and are classified as reductions of accounts receivable (if the amount is payable to the customer) or a current liability (if the amount is payable to a party other than a customer).  Where appropriate, these estimates take into consideration a range of possible outcomes that are probability-weighted for relevant factors such as our historical experience, current contractual and statutory requirements, specific known market events and trends, industry data and forecasted customer buying and payment patterns.  Overall, these reserves reflect our best estimates of the amount of consideration to which we are entitled based on the terms of the contract.  The amount of variable consideration that is included in the transaction price may be constrained and is included in the net sales price only to the extent that it is considered probable that a significant reversal in the amount of the cumulative revenue recognized will not occur in a future period.  Actual amounts of consideration ultimately received may differ from our estimates.  If actual results in the future vary from our estimates, we will adjust these estimates, which would affect net product revenue and earnings in the period such variances become known.

10

The following are the components of variable consideration related to product revenue:

Chargebacks:  The Company estimates obligations resulting from contractual commitments with the government and other entities to sell products to qualified healthcare providers and patients at prices lower than the list prices charged to our customers.  The government and other entities charge us for the difference between what they pay for the product and the selling price to our customers.  The Company records reserves for these chargebacks related to product sold to our customers during the reporting period, as well as our estimate of product that remains in the distribution channel at the end of the reporting period that we expect will be sold to qualified healthcare providers and patients in future periods.

Government rebates:  The Company is subject to discount obligations under government programs, including Medicaid programs, Medicare and Tricare in the United States as well as certain government rebates and pricing adjustments in certain international markets that we operate.  We estimate Medicaid, Medicare and Tricare rebates based upon a range of possible outcomes that are probability-weighted for the estimated payer mix.  These reserves are recorded in the same period the related revenue is recognized, resulting in a reduction of product revenue and the establishment of a liability that is included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets.  For Medicare, we also estimate the number of patients in the prescription drug coverage gap for whom we will owe an additional liability under the Medicare Part D program.  On a quarterly basis, we update our estimates and record any adjustments in the period that we identify the adjustments.

Trade discounts and allowances:  The Company provides customary invoice discounts on IMCIVREE sales to certain of our customers for prompt payment that are recorded as a reduction of revenue in the period the related product revenue is recognized.  In addition, we receive and pay for various distribution services from our customers in the distribution channel.  For services that are either not distinct from the sale of our product or for which we cannot reasonably estimate the fair value, such fees are classified as a reduction of product revenue.

Product returns:  Our customers have limited return rights related to the product’s damage or defect.  The Company estimates the amount of product sales that may be returned and records the estimate as a reduction of revenue and a refund liability in the period the related product revenue is recognized. Based on the distribution model for IMCIVREE and the price of IMCIVREE, the Company believes there will be minimal returns.

Other incentives:  Other incentives include co-payment assistance the Company provides to patients with commercial insurance that have coverage and reside in states that allow co-payment assistance.  The calculation of the accrual for co-pay assistance is based on an estimate of claims and the cost per claim that we expect to receive associated with product that has been recognized as revenue.  The estimate is recorded as a reduction of revenue in the same period the related revenue is recognized.

Provisions for cash discounts are recorded as reductions of accounts receivable, and fees, rebates, and other incentives are recorded as a component of accrued expenses.

License Agreements

We generate revenue from license or similar agreements with pharmaceutical companies for the development and commercialization of certain of our products and product candidates. Such agreements may include the transfer of intellectual property rights in the form of licenses, transfer of technological know-how, delivery of drug substances, research and development services, and participation on certain committees with the counterparty. Payments made by the customers may include non-refundable upfront fees, payments upon the exercise of customer options, payments based upon the achievement of defined milestones, and royalties on sales of products and product candidates if they are approved and commercialized.

If a license to our intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, we recognize the transaction price allocated to the license as revenue upon transfer of control of the license. We evaluate all other promised goods or services in the agreement to determine if they are distinct. If they are not distinct, they are combined with other promised goods or services to create a bundle of promised goods or services that is distinct. Optional future services where any additional consideration paid to us reflects their standalone selling

11

prices do not provide the customer with a material right and, therefore, are not considered performance obligations. If optional future services are priced in a manner which provides the customer with a significant or incremental discount, they are material rights, and are accounted for as separate performance obligations.

We utilize judgment to determine the transaction price. In connection therewith, we evaluate contingent milestones at contract inception to estimate the amount which is not probable of a material reversal to include in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. Milestone payments that are not within our control, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received and therefore the variable consideration is constrained. The transaction price is then allocated to each performance obligation on a relative stand-alone selling price basis, for which we recognize revenue as or when the performance obligations under the contract are satisfied. At the end of each reporting period, we re-evaluate the probability of achieving development milestone payments that may not be subject to a material reversal and, if necessary, adjust our estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect license and other revenue, as well as earnings, in the period of adjustment.

We then determine whether the performance obligations or combined performance obligations are satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue from non-refundable, upfront fees. We evaluate the measure of progress, as applicable, for each reporting period and, if necessary, adjust the measure of performance and related revenue recognition.

When consideration is received, or such consideration is unconditionally due, from a customer prior to transferring goods or services to the customer under the terms of a contract, a contract liability is recorded within deferred revenue. Contract liabilities within deferred revenue are recognized as revenue after control of the goods or services is transferred to the customer and all revenue recognition criteria have been met.

For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including sales-based milestone payments, and a license of intellectual property that is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, we recognize revenue at the later of when the related sales occur or when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalties have been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).

RareStone Group Ltd.

In December 2021, the Company entered into an Exclusive License Agreement with RareStone Group Ltd., or the RareStone License. Pursuant to the RareStone License, we granted to RareStone an exclusive, sublicensable, royalty-bearing license under certain patent rights and know-how to develop, manufacture, commercialize and otherwise exploit any pharmaceutical product that contains setmelanotide in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of conditions and diseases in humans in China, including mainland China, Hong Kong and Macao. RareStone has a right of first negotiation in the event that the Company chooses to grant a license to develop or commercialize the licensed product in Taiwan. The arrangement includes a license and an additional performance obligation to supply product upon the request of RareStone.

According to the terms of the RareStone License, RareStone has agreed to seek local approvals to commercialize IMCIVREE for the treatment of obesity and hyperphagia due to biallelic POMC, PCSK1 or LEPR deficiency, as well as Bardet-Biedl and Alström syndromes. Additionally, RareStone has agreed to fund efforts to identify and enroll patients from China in the Company’s global EMANATE trial, a Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate setmelanotide in four independent sub-studies in patients with obesity due to a heterozygous variant of POMC/PCSK1 or LEPR; certain variants of the SRCI gene, and certain variants of the SH2B1 gene. In accordance with the terms of the RareStone License, RareStone made an upfront payment to Rhythm of $7,000 and issued Rhythm 1,077,586 ordinary shares. The Company is eligible to receive development and commercialization milestones of up to $62,500, as well as tiered royalty payments on annual net sales of IMCIVREE.

The Company initially estimated the fair value of the RareStone equity to be $2,440 based on a preliminary valuation during the first quarter of 2022.  Upon completion of the valuation procedures during the second quarter of 2022, the Company concluded the initial fair value of the RareStone equity to be $1,040.  During the third quarter of 2022, the Company estimated the fair value of the RareStone equity to be de minimis based upon the results of an updated valuation

12

and recorded an other-than-temporary impairment of $1,040 related to the decline in fair value as a component of other expense in our consolidated statements of operations and other comprehensive loss for the year ended December 31, 2022 (recorded in the third quarter of 2022).  The other-than-temporary impairment of $1,040 included the reclassification of a $300 unrealized loss previously recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in our condensed consolidated statement of stockholders’ equity during the second quarter of 2022.  

The Company received total upfront consideration of $8,040 comprised of an upfront payment of $7,000, and the estimated fair value of the RareStone equity of $1,040.  The Company determined that the RareStone License contains two performance obligations, the delivery of the license and the supply of clinical and commercial product. The Company further determined the supply of commercial product to RareStone contains a significant future discount and estimates the discount to be $1,286, which is recorded as a component of deferred revenue on the condensed consolidated balance sheet at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022.

Based on a relative fair-value allocation between the license and the manufacture of clinical and commercial product, the Company recognized $6,754 of license revenue in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 upon the Company fulfilling its obligations in transferring the license to RareStone. The discount related to commercial manufacturing supply will be deferred and recognized over the commercial supply period or upon termination of the agreement.  No license revenue was recognized during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023.

On October 28, 2022, we delivered written notice, or the October Notice, to RareStone that we have terminated the RareStone License for cause. In accordance with the Notice, we maintain that RareStone has materially breached its obligations under the RareStone License to fund, perform or seek certain key clinical studies and waivers, including with respect to our global EMANATE trial, among other obligations. On December 21, 2022, RareStone provided written notice to us that it objects to the claims in the Notice, including our termination of the RareStone License for cause.  On March 16, 2023, we provided written notice, or the March Notice, to RareStone reaffirming our position that RareStone has materially breached its obligations under the RareStone License and that we have terminated the RareStone License for cause, and also requested documentation supporting RareStone’s purported dispute notice objecting to the claims in the Notice. On May 10, 2023, RareStone provided written notice to the Company reaffirming its objections to the claims in our October Notice and March Notice, including to the Company’s termination of the RareStone License for cause.  The Company has had no additional correspondence with RareStone through September 30, 2023.

Deferred Royalty Obligation

The Company treats the debt obligation to HealthCare Royalty Management, LLC as discussed further in Note 12, “Long-Term Obligations”, as a deferred royalty obligation, amortized using the effective interest rate method over the estimated life of the revenue streams. The Company recognizes interest expense thereon using the effective rate, which is based on our current estimates of future revenues over the life of the arrangement. In connection therewith, the Company periodically assesses its expected revenues using internal projections, imputes interest on the carrying value of the deferred royalty obligation, and records interest expense using the imputed effective interest rate. To the extent the Company’s estimates of future revenues are greater or less than previous estimates or the estimated timing of such payments is materially different than previous estimates, the Company will account for any such changes by adjusting the effective interest rate on a prospective basis, with a corresponding impact to the reclassification of our deferred royalty obligation. The assumptions used in determining the expected repayment term of the deferred royalty obligation and amortization period of the issuance costs requires the Company to make estimates that could impact the classification of such costs, as well as the period over which such costs will be amortized.

Inventory

Prior to receiving approval from the FDA in November 2020 to sell IMCIVREE in the United States, the Company expensed all costs incurred related to the manufacture of IMCIVREE as research and development expense because of the inherent risks associated with the development of a drug candidate, the uncertainty about the regulatory approval process and the lack of history for the Company of regulatory approval of drug candidates. The Company values inventories at the lower of cost or estimated net realizable value. The Company determines the cost of inventories, which

13

includes amounts related to materials and manufacturing overhead, on a first-in, first-out basis. Raw materials and work in process includes all inventory costs prior to packaging and labelling, including raw materials, active pharmaceutical ingredient, and drug product. Finished goods include packaged and labelled products. Raw materials and work in process that may be used for either research and development or commercial sale are classified as inventory until the material is consumed or otherwise allocated for research and development. If the material is intended to be used for research and development, it is expensed as research and development once that determination is made.  

Cost of Product Sales

Cost of product sales consists of manufacturing costs, transportation and freight, amortization of capitalized intangibles, royalty payments and indirect overhead costs associated with the manufacturing and distribution of IMCIVREE. Cost of product sales may also include periodic costs related to certain manufacturing services and inventory adjustment charges.  Finally, cost of sales may also include costs related to excess or obsolete inventory adjustment charges, abnormal costs, unabsorbed manufacturing and overhead costs, and manufacturing variances.

Intangible Assets, Net

Definite-lived intangible assets related to capitalized milestones under license agreements are amortized on a straight-line basis over their remaining useful lives, which are estimated to be the remaining patent life. If our estimate of the product’s useful life is shorter than the remaining patent life, then a shorter period is used. Amortization expense is recorded as a component of cost of sales on the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

The Company evaluates its long-lived assets, which consist primarily of property and equipment and finite lived intangible assets, for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. Factors that the Company considers in deciding when to perform an impairment review include significant underperformance of the business in relation to expectations, significant negative industry or economic trends and significant changes or planned changes in the use of the assets. The Company measures recoverability of assets to be held and used by comparing the carrying amount of an asset to the future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the Company measures the impairment to be recognized by the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset, less the cost to sell.  No events or changes in circumstances existed to require an impairment assessment during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively.

Acquired IPR&D and Milestone Expense

In an asset acquisition, payments incurred prior to regulatory approval to acquire rights to in-process research and development projects are expensed as acquired IPR&D and recorded as a component of research and development expense in the condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive net loss unless the project has an alternative future use. These costs include upfront and development milestone payments related to licensing arrangements, or other asset acquisitions that provide rights to develop, manufacture and/or sell pharmaceutical products. Where contingent development milestone payments are due to third parties, prior to regulatory approval, the payment obligations are expensed when the milestone results are achieved. Regulatory and commercial milestone payments made to third parties subsequent to regulatory approval are capitalized as intangible assets and amortized to cost of products sold over the remaining useful life of the related product.

Foreign Currency Translation

The majority of the Company’s operations occurs in subsidiaries that have the U.S. dollar denominated as its functional currency. The assets and liabilities of the Company’s subsidiaries with functional currencies other than the U.S. dollar are translated into U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Revenue and expense amounts for these subsidiaries are translated using the average exchange rates for the period. Changes resulting from foreign currency translation are included in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) on the Company’s consolidated

14

statement of stockholders’ equity.  Net foreign currency exchange transaction gains (losses), which are included in other (expense) income, net on our consolidated statements of operations, were immaterial for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022. 

Fair Value Measurements

Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.  Financial assets and liabilities carried at fair value are classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:

Level 1 — Quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

Level 2 — Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.

Level 3 — Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.

The Company’s cash equivalents and marketable securities, derivative liability and RareStone equity at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 were carried at fair value, determined according to the fair value hierarchy.  See Note 6 for further discussion.

The carrying amounts reflected in the consolidated balance sheets for accounts payable and accrued expenses and other current liabilities approximate their fair values due to their short-term maturities at September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.

Net Loss Per Share

Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period, without consideration of potential dilutive securities. Diluted net loss per common share is computed by adjusting the weighted average shares outstanding for the potential dilutive effects of common stock equivalents outstanding during the period calculated in accordance with the treasury stock method. For purposes of the diluted net loss per share calculation, stock options, performance stock units and restricted stock units are considered to be common stock equivalents but have been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share, as their effect would be anti-dilutive for all periods presented. Therefore, basic and diluted net loss per share is the same for all periods presented.

The following table includes the potential common shares that were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share as their effect would have been anti-dilutive for the periods indicated:

Three Months Ended

Nine Months Ended

September 30, 

September 30, 

    

    

2023

    

2022

2023

    

2022

Stock options

6,881,198

6,584,725

6,881,198

6,584,725

Restricted stock units

 

1,081,619

 

726,080

 

1,081,619

 

726,080

Performance stock units

582,319

811,128

582,319

811,128

Potential common shares

8,545,136

8,121,933

8,545,136

8,121,933

Subsequent Events

The Company considers events or transactions that occur after the balance sheet date but prior to the issuance of the financial statements to provide additional evidence for certain estimates or to identify matters that require additional

15

disclosure. Subsequent events have been evaluated as required. No events or transactions occurred subsequent to the balance sheet date that require disclosure.

Application of New or Revised Accounting Standards

From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the FASB and adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date. Unless otherwise discussed, the Company believes that the impact of recently issued standards that are not yet effective will not have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations upon adoption.

3. Asset Acquisition

Xinvento B.V.

On February 27, 2023, the Company, through its wholly-owned Dutch subsidiary, Rhythm Pharmaceuticals Netherlands B.V., a Dutch private limited liability company (“Rhythm BV”), entered into a Share Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”) with Xinvento B.V., a Dutch private limited liability company based in the Netherlands (“Xinvento”), and the other parties named therein, pursuant to which, and concurrently with the execution thereof, Rhythm BV acquired all of the issued and outstanding shares of Xinvento. The aggregate consideration at closing was approximately $5,667, inclusive of transaction costs, as adjusted pursuant to the terms of the Purchase Agreement and subject to the distribution and payment terms set forth therein (the “Closing Purchase Price”).  

In addition to the Closing Purchase Price, the Purchase Agreement provides for the payment of additional contingent consideration totaling up to $206,000 upon achievement of certain development, regulatory and commercial milestones by Xinvento, as follows: (i) up to an aggregate of $6,000 in clinical development milestones; (ii) up to an aggregate of $125,000 in regulatory approval and commercial milestones; and (iii) up to an aggregate of $75,000 in sales milestones in the event a second molecule is selected, developed and approved.

The total purchase consideration of $5,667 was composed of $4,520 of cash paid at closing, a $500 holdback, payable on the one-year anniversary of the acquisition, and $647 of acquisition-related costs.  The Company determined that substantially all of the value as of acquisition date related to Xinvento’s In-Process Research and Development.  As a result, the Company determined this transaction should be accounted for as an asset acquisition.    

The assets acquired were In-Process Research and Development (IPR&D) assets.  However, since the IPR&D assets were determined to have no alternative future use, the Company recognized the $5,667 of purchase consideration as research and development expense in the nine months ended September 30, 2023.

The Company determined that the additional contingent consideration did not meet the definition of a derivative as of the acquisition date.  Therefore, the Company did not record a contingent consideration liability on the acquisition date.  The Company will recognize any future contingent consideration payments related to the Xinvento transaction in the period in which the achievement of the underlying milestones becomes probable.

Xinvento's results of operations are included in the condensed consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, the net loss associated with the operations of Xinvento was de minimis in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations.

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4. Inventory

Inventory consists of the following:

September 30, 

December 31, 

    

2023

    

2022

Raw Materials

$

3,085

$

2,722

WIP

 

3,498

 

Finished Goods

 

1,179

 

195

Total Inventory

$

7,762

$

2,917

5. Accrued Expenses and Other Current Liabilities

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities consisted of the following:

September 30, 

December 31, 

    

2023

    

2022

Research and development costs

$

13,529

$

11,379

Professional fees

 

7,375

 

4,502

Payroll related

 

10,039

 

11,444

Royalties

1,125

440

Sales Allowances

8,450

2,710

Other

 

3,753

 

2,419

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

$

44,271

$

32,894

6. Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities

As of September 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments was $299,260 and $333,288, respectively, which approximates fair value. Cash and cash equivalents and short-term investments includes investments in U.S. treasury securities and money market funds that invest in U.S. government securities that are valued using quoted market prices. Accordingly, money market funds and government funds are categorized as Level 1.  The financial assets valued based on Level 2 inputs consist of corporate debt securities and commercial paper, which consist of investments in highly-rated investment-grade corporations.

The following tables present information about the Company's financial assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis and indicate the level of the fair value hierarchy utilized to determine such fair value:

Fair Value Measurements as of

September 30, 2023 using:

    

Level 1

    

Level 2

    

Level 3

    

Total

Assets:

Cash equivalents:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Money market funds

$

52,666

$

$

$

52,666

Marketable securities:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Corporate debt securities and commercial paper

234,667

234,667

Total

$

52,666

$

234,667

$

$

287,333

Liabilities:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Derivative liability

$

$

$

1,190

$

1,190

Total

$

$

$

1,190

$

1,190

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Fair Value Measurements as of

December 31, 2022 using:

    

Level 1

    

Level 2

    

Level 3

    

Total

Assets:

Cash equivalents:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Commercial paper

$

$

8,484

$

$

8,484

Money market funds

 

99,962

 

 

 

99,962

Marketable securities:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Corporate debt securities and commercial paper

205,611

205,611

Total

$

99,962

$

214,095

$

$

314,057

Liabilities:

Derivative liability