SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
|☒||ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023
|☐||TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
For the transition period from to .
Commission File Number 0-21272
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)||(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)|
|2700 N. First St.,||San Jose||CA||95134|
|(Address of principal executive offices)||(Zip Code)|
|Registrant's telephone number, including area code:|
|Title of each class||Trading symbol(s)||Name of each exchange on which registered|
|Common Stock||SANM||NASDAQ Global Select Market|
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large Accelerated Filer||☒|
Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☐
|Smaller reporting company||☐|
| || ||Emerging growth company||☐|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $1.9 billion as of April 1, 2023 based upon the last reported sale price of the common stock on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on March 31, 2023.
As of November 9, 2023, the number of shares outstanding of the registrant's common stock was 56,838,987.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Certain information is incorporated into Part III of this report by reference to the Proxy Statement for the registrant's 2024 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal year covered by this annual report on Form 10-K.
Item 1. Business
Sanmina Corporation (“we” or “Sanmina” or the “Company”) is a leading global provider of integrated manufacturing solutions, components, products and repair, logistics and after-market services. We provide these comprehensive offerings primarily to original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) in the following industries: industrial, medical, defense and aerospace, automotive, communications networks and cloud infrastructure. Our customer-focused organization with 34,000 employees supports our customers from 21 countries on four continents. We locate our facilities near our customers and their end markets in major centers for the electronics industry or in lower-cost locations. The combination of our advanced technologies, extensive manufacturing expertise and economies of scale enables us to meet the specialized needs of our customers. All references in this report to years refer to our fiscal years unless otherwise noted.
Our end-to-end solutions, combined with our global supply chain management expertise, allow us to manage our customers' products throughout their life cycles. These solutions include:
•product design and engineering, including concept development, detailed design, prototyping, validation, preproduction services and manufacturing design release and product industrialization;
•manufacturing of components, subassemblies and complete systems;
•high-level assembly and test;
•direct order fulfillment and logistics services;
•after-market product service and support; and
•global supply chain management.
We manage our operations as two businesses:
1) Integrated Manufacturing Solutions (“IMS”). Our IMS business consists of printed circuit board assembly and test, high-level assembly and test and direct-order-fulfillment. This segment generated approximately 80% of our total revenue in 2023.
2) Components, Products and Services (“CPS”). Components include advanced printed circuit boards (“PCBs”), backplanes and backplane assemblies, cable assemblies, fabricated metal parts, precision machined parts, and plastic injected molded parts. Products include optical, radio frequency (“RF”) and microelectronic design and manufacturing services from our Advanced Microsystems Technologies division; multi-chip package memory solutions from our Viking Technology division; high-performance storage platforms for hyperscale and enterprise solutions from our Viking Enterprise Solutions division; defense and aerospace products, design, manufacturing, repair and refurbishment services from our SCI Technology, Inc. (“SCI”) subsidiary; and cloud-based smart manufacturing execution software from our 42Q division. Services include design, engineering, and logistics and repair. CPS generated approximately 20% of our total revenue in 2023.
We target markets that we believe offer significant growth opportunities and in which OEMs sell complex mission critical products that are subject to strict regulatory requirements and/or rapid technological change. We believe these markets offer an opportunity to deliver higher margins as they require higher value-added manufacturing services and provide better opportunities for us to sell customers our advanced vertically integrated components. In addition, diversification across market segments and customers helps mitigate our dependency on any market or customer. We report our end markets as follows:
1) Industrial, Medical, Defense and Aerospace, and Automotive:
a. Industrial. Security and safety, industrial power inverters, renewable energy (solar and wind), LED lighting, EV chargers, smart meters, airport security, test and measurement, warehouse asset management equipment, semiconductor equipment and heavy machinery.
b. Medical. Lab diagnostic, patient monitoring, medical imaging, disposable glucose sensors and insulin pumps, glucose meters, genome sequencing, ventilators and medication delivery.
c. Defense and Aerospace. Aircraft systems, tactical and secure network communications systems, unmanned aerial systems, and counter-unmanned aerial systems.
d. Automotive. Autonomous and advanced driver assistance systems computing and sensing, Light Detection and Ranging (“LIDAR”) and radar systems, e-motor power management, infotainment, safety systems and electronic control systems.
2) Communications Networks and Cloud Infrastructure: Networking, IP routing, advanced optical systems and transceivers, 5G and other wireless systems, data center applications, edge solutions, enterprise computing and storage.
The industry in which we operate has historically been comprised of companies that provide a range of design and manufacturing services to companies that utilize electronic components in their products. In recent years, the industry has expanded to respond to customer demands for products and services beyond electronic components, including product design and engineering, manufacturing, high-level assembly and test, direct order fulfillment and logistics services, after-market product services and support, and global supply chain management.
We monitor the current economic environment and its potential impact on both the customers we serve as well as our end markets and closely manage our costs and capital resources so that we can respond appropriately as circumstances change. Over the long term, we believe our customers and potential customers rely on our industry’s services to:
•focus on their core competencies;
•access leading design and engineering capabilities;
•optimize their supply chain while reducing risk and maximizing purchasing power;
•reduce their fixed and operating costs and capital investment;
•access global manufacturing services; and
•accelerate their time to market and time to volume.
We believe each of our market sectors is high value and well-aligned with our expertise in more complex and highly-regulated products. This provides us with an opportunity for increased value-add, higher profitability and greater market share as we seek to capitalize on increased outsourcing in our served markets.
Our Business Strategy
Our vision is to be the trusted leader in providing mission critical products, services and supply chain solutions to accelerate customer success. Key elements of our business strategy to deliver this vision include:
Capitalizing on Our Comprehensive Solutions. Capitalizing on our end-to-end solutions allows us to sell additional solutions to our existing customers and attract new customers. Our end-to-end solutions include product design and engineering, manufacturing, high-level assembly and test, direct order fulfillment and logistics services, after-market product service and support, and global supply chain management. Our vertically integrated manufacturing solutions enable us to manufacture additional system components and subassemblies for our customers. When we provide a customer with multiple services, such as component manufacturing or higher value-added solutions, we can often improve our margins and profitability. Consequently, our goal is to increase the number of manufacturing programs for which we provide multiple solutions. To achieve this goal, our sales and marketing organization seeks to cross-sell our solutions to customers.
Extending Our Technology Capabilities. We rely on advanced processes and technologies to provide our products, components and vertically integrated manufacturing solutions. We continually improve our manufacturing processes and develop more advanced technologies, providing a competitive advantage for our customers. We work with our customers to anticipate their future product and manufacturing requirements and align our technology investment activities with their needs. We use our design expertise to develop product technology platforms that we can customize by incorporating other components and subassemblies to meet the needs of particular OEMs. These technologies enhance our ability to manufacture complex, high-value added products, maximizing our potential to continue to win business from existing and new customers.
Attracting and Retaining Long-Term Customer Partnerships. A core component of our strategy is to attract, build and retain long-term partnerships with companies in growth industries that will benefit from our global/regional footprint and unique value proposition in advanced electronics manufacturing.
Promoting New Product Introduction (“NPI”) and Joint Design Manufacturing (“JDM”) Solutions. As a result of customer feedback and our customers' desire to manage research and development expenses, we offer product design services to develop systems and components jointly with our customers. Our NPI services include quick-turn prototyping, supply chain readiness, functional test development, and release-to-volume production. In a JDM model, our customers bring market knowledge and product requirements, and we bring complete design engineering and NPI services. Our design engineering offerings include product architecture development, detailed design, simulation, test and validation, system integration, regulatory and qualification services.
Continuing to Penetrate Diverse End Markets. We focus our marketing and sales efforts on end markets that we believe offer significant growth opportunities and for which OEMs sell mission critical products that are subject to strict regulatory requirements and/or rapid technological change because the manufacturing of these products requires higher value-added services. We have invested in technologies and capabilities that further strengthen our value proposition in industries such as industrial, medical, defense and aerospace, and automotive. Our market focused approach increases our customers’ competitiveness by leveraging our vertical capabilities, industry expertise, global scale and regional presence, and global IT systems.
Pursuing Strategic Transactions. We continually seek to identify and undertake strategic transactions that give us the opportunity to grow our business by accessing new customers' products, manufacturing solutions, repair service capabilities, intellectual property, technologies and geographic markets.
Continuing to Seek Cost Savings and Efficiency Improvements. We seek to optimize our facilities to provide cost-effective services for our customers. We continue to invest in factory automation, process improvements, robotics and artificial intelligence (“AI”) to further enhance our efficiency output. We maintain extensive operations in lower-cost locations and we plan to expand our presence as appropriate to meet the needs of our customers. We believe we are well positioned to take advantage of future opportunities on a global/regional basis.
Our Competitive Strengths
We believe our competitive strengths differentiate us from our competitors and enable us to better serve the needs of OEMs. Our competitive strengths include:
Customer-Focused Organization. We target customers that are leaders in their industries and value our superior capabilities in design, manufacturing and supply chain services. We focus on high growth industries and markets where we have distinctive competence and unique value proposition. We believe customer relationships are critical to our success and we are focused on providing a high level of customer service. Account teams led by global account managers are directly responsible for account management. Global account managers coordinate the additional resources required to facilitate customer-specific solutions. These teams may include subject matter experts in design, specific technology components, services, products, and supply chain. These teams create a hub for interaction between the customer and our locations, providing local support to customers worldwide.
End-to-End Solutions. We provide solutions throughout the world to support our customers' products during their entire life cycle, from product design and engineering, through manufacturing, to direct order fulfillment, logistics and after-market product service and support. We believe our end-to-end solutions are among the most comprehensive in the industry because we focus on adding value before, during and after the actual manufacturing of our customers' products. These solutions also enable us to 1) provide our customers with a single source of supply for their design, supply chain and manufacturing needs, 2) accelerate time to market and time to volume production and 3) lower product costs, while allowing our customers to focus on those activities they expect to add the highest value to their business. We believe our end-to-end solutions allow us to develop closer relationships with our customers and more effectively compete for their future business.
Product Design and Engineering Resources. We provide product design and engineering services for new product designs, cost reductions and Design-for-Manufacturability/Assembly/Test (“DFx”). Our engineers work with our customers during the complete product life cycle. Our design and NPI centers provide turnkey system design services, including: electrical, mechanical, thermal, software, layout, simulation, test development, design verification, validation, regulatory compliance and testing services. We design high-speed digital, analog, radio frequency, mixed-signal, wired, wireless, optical and electro-mechanical modules and systems.
Our engineering engagement models include Joint Design Manufacturing (“JDM”), Contract Design Manufacturing (“CDM”) and consulting engineering for DFx and Value Engineering (cost reduction re-design). In these engagement models, our customers bring market knowledge and product requirements and we provide complete design engineering and new product introductions services. For JDM products, the intellectual property is typically jointly owned by us and the customer, and we perform manufacturing and logistics services. For CDM projects, customers pay for all services and own the intellectual property.
Vertically Integrated Manufacturing Solutions. We provide a range of vertically integrated manufacturing solutions, including high-technology components, new product introduction and test development services. These solutions are provided in every major region worldwide, with design and prototyping close to our customer’s product development centers. Our customers benefit significantly from our experience in these areas, including product cost reduction, minimization of assets deployed for manufacturing, accelerated time-to-market and a simplified supply chain. Key system components we manufacture include high-technology printed circuit boards, printed circuit board assemblies, backplanes and backplane assemblies, cable assemblies, fabricated metal parts, precision machined parts, plastic injected molded parts, memory modules, and optical, RF microelectronics modules. These components and sub-assemblies are integrated into a final product or system, configured and tested to our customer’s or the end-customer’s specifications and delivered to the final point of use, with us managing the entire supply chain. By manufacturing system components and subassemblies ourselves, we enhance continuity of supply and reduce costs for our customers.
Advanced Component Technologies. We provide advanced component technologies, which we believe allow us to differentiate ourselves from our competitors. These advanced technologies include the fabrication of complex printed circuit boards, printed circuit board assemblies, backplanes and backplane assemblies, cable assemblies fabricated metal parts, precision machined parts, plastic injected molded parts, memory modules, and optical, RF and microelectronics modules.
We utilize a centralized Technology Council to coordinate the development and introduction of new technologies to meet our customers' needs in various locations and to increase technical collaboration among our facilities and divisions.
Global Manufacturing Capabilities. Most of our customers compete and sell their products on a global basis. As such, they require global solutions that include regional manufacturing for selected end markets, especially when time to market, local manufacturing or content and best cost solutions are critical objectives. Our global network of manufacturing facilities provides our customers a combination of sites to maximize both the benefits of regional and best cost manufacturing solutions and repair services. In addition to our manufacturing and repair locations, we support our customers’ logistics and repair requirements through a certified partner network.
Comprehensive IT Systems and Global Supply Chain Management. To manage and coordinate our global operations, we employ an enterprise-wide Enterprise Resource Planning (“ERP”) system at substantially all of our manufacturing locations that operates on a single IT platform and provides us with company-wide inventory planning and purchasing capabilities. This system enables us to standardize planning and purchasing at the facility level and to optimize inventory visibility and management, improve asset utilization worldwide and reduce risk throughout the entire product lifecycle. Our systems also enable our customers to receive key information regarding the status of their programs.
We purchase large quantities of electronic components and other materials from a wide range of suppliers. We are committed to selecting ethical business partners that adhere to the Responsible Business Alliance (“RBA”) Code of Conduct. Our primary supply chain goal is to consolidate our global spend to create the synergy and leverage to drive our supply base for better cost competitiveness, more favorable terms and leading-edge supply chain solutions. As a result, we often receive favorable terms and supply chain solutions from suppliers, which generally enables us to provide our customers with greater total cost reductions than they could obtain themselves. Our strong supplier relationships are beneficial when electronic components and other materials are in short supply and provide us the necessary support to better optimize the use of our inventories.
Supply chain management also involves the planning, purchasing, transportation and warehousing of product components. We use state of the art production management systems to manage our procurement and manufacturing processes in an efficient and cost-effective manner. We collaborate with our customers to enable us to respond to their changing component requirements and to reflect any changes in these requirements in our ERP system. This system enables us to forecast future supply and demand imbalances and develop strategies to help our customers manage their component requirements, especially during supply shortages that have affected our industry in the recent past. Our enterprise-wide ERP systems provide us with company-wide information regarding component inventories and orders to help optimize inventories, planning and purchasing at the facility level.
Expertise in Serving Diverse End Markets. We have experience in serving customers in the industrial, medical, defense and aerospace, automotive, communications networks and cloud infrastructure end markets. In order to service to the specialized needs of customers in particular market segments, we have dedicated personnel, and in some cases facilities, with industry-specific capabilities and expertise.
Expertise in Industry Standards and Regulatory Requirements. We maintain compliance with industry standards and regulatory requirements applicable to certain markets, including, among others, medical, automotive and defense and aerospace.
Our Products and Solutions
Integrated Manufacturing Solutions includes:
Printed Circuit Board Assembly (“PCBA”) and Test. To meet the ever-changing needs across our diverse customer base, we continue to evolve in support of their current and future requirements. PCBAs are at the core of all electronic systems, and we continue to work to ensure that our PCBA manufacturing capabilities are aligned with the requirements for such systems. Printed circuit board assembly involves attaching electronic components, such as integrated circuits, capacitors, microprocessors, resistors, memory modules, and connectors to printed circuit boards. The most common technologies used to attach components to printed circuit boards employ surface mount technology (“SMT”) and pin-through-hole assembly (“PTH”) and press-fit technology for connectors. We use SMT, PTH, press-fit and other attachment technologies focused on miniaturization and increasing the density of component placement on printed circuit boards. These technologies, which support the needs of our customers to provide greater functionality in smaller products, include chip-scale packaging, ball grid array, direct chip attach and high-density interconnect. We perform in-circuit and functional testing of printed circuit board assemblies. In-circuit testing verifies that all components are properly inserted and attached and that electrical circuits are complete. Functional tests are performed to confirm the board or assembly operates in accordance with its final design and manufacturing specifications. We design and procure test fixtures and develop our own test software or use our customers' test fixtures and test software. In addition, we provide environmental stress tests of the board or assembly that are designed to confirm that the board or assembly will meet the environmental stresses, such as heat, to which it will be subjected.
High-Level Assembly and Test. We provide high-level assembly and test in which assemblies and modules are combined to form complete, finished products. Examples include complex electro-mechanical assemblies, fluid and blood analysis systems, food dispensing equipment, diagnostic medical devices, high-voltage power management systems, rotating x-ray equipment for airport security, particle analyzers for homeland security and motorized magnetic resonance imaging units. Our facilities also support full system level assembly and test and logistic support for a variety of complex electronic systems, including radio base stations and transmission equipment for 5G wireless networks, optical central offices and wireline switching and routing hardware, server and storage systems for data centers, carriers central offices and video streaming service providers, surgical controllers, ultrasound systems, patient monitoring systems, automotive sensor assemblies, and electric vehicle power control systems and modules. With decades of experience in automated system assembly and test, we have focused on glucose meters, disposable sensors, IOT communication modules and disposable drug delivery systems. These products require highly specialized manufacturing capabilities and processes, as well as integrated IT systems and, in some cases, industry-specific certifications.
Direct-Order-Fulfillment. We provide direct-order-fulfillment for our OEM customers. Direct-order-fulfillment involves receiving customer orders, configuring products to quickly fill the orders and delivering the products either to the OEM, a distribution channel, or directly to the end customer. We manage our direct-order-fulfillment processes using a core set of common systems and processes that receive order information from the customer and provide comprehensive supply chain management, including procurement and production planning. These systems and processes enable us to process orders for multiple system configurations and varying production quantities including single units. Our direct-order-fulfillment services include BTO and CTO capabilities: in BTO, we build a system with the particular configuration ordered by the OEM customer; in CTO, we configure systems to an end customer's order, for example by installing software desired by the end customer. The end customer typically places this order by choosing from a variety of possible system configurations and options. Using advanced manufacturing processes and a real-time warehouse management and data control system on the manufacturing floor, we can usually meet a 48-to-72 hour turn-around-time for BTO and CTO requests. We support our direct-order-fulfillment services with logistics that include delivery of parts and assemblies to the final assembly site, distribution and shipment of finished systems and processing of customer returns.
Components, Products and Services includes:
Product Design and Engineering. Our design and engineering groups provide customers with comprehensive services from initial product design and detailed product development to prototyping and validation, production launch and end-of-life support for a wide range of products covering all our market segments. These groups complement our vertically integrated manufacturing capabilities by providing component level design services for printed circuit boards, backplanes and a variety of electro-mechanical systems. Our offerings in design engineering include product architecture, detailed development, simulation, test and validation, integration and regulatory and qualification services, and our NPI services include quick-turn prototypes, functional test development and release-to-volume production. We also offer post-manufacturing and end-of-life support, including repair and sustaining engineering support through our Global Services division. We can also complement our customer's design team with our unique skills and services which can be used to develop custom, high-performance products that are manufacturable and cost optimized to meet product and market requirements. Such engineering services can help in improving a customer’s time-to-market and cost-to-market objectives.
Printed Circuit Boards. We produce a wide range of multilayer printed circuit boards on a global basis with high layer counts and fine line circuitry. Specialized production equipment along with an in-depth understanding of high-performance laminate materials allow us to fabricate some of the largest form factor and highest speed circuit boards in the industry.
Our ability to support NPI and quick-turn fabrication followed by manufacturing in both North America and Asia allows our customers to accelerate their time-to-market as well as their time-to-volume. Standardized processes and procedures make transitioning of products easier for our customers. Our worldwide engineering teams support designers in Design for Manufacturability analysis and assemblers with field applications support.
Backplanes and Backplane Assemblies. Backplanes are typically very large printed circuit boards that serve as the backbones of sophisticated electronics products, such as internet routers. Backplanes provide interconnections for printed circuit board assemblies, power supplies, and other electronic components. Backplane fabrication is significantly more complex than printed circuit board fabrication due to the large size and thickness of the backplanes. We manufacture backplane assemblies by press-fitting high-density connectors into plated through-holes in the fabricated backplane. In addition, many of the newer, advanced technology backplanes require surface-mounted attachment of components, including active high-pin count packages that come in a variety of sophisticated package types. These advanced assembly processes require specialized equipment and a strong focus on quality and process control. We often perform in-circuit and functional tests on backplane assemblies. We have developed proprietary technologies and process “know-how” which enable backplanes to run at data rates in excess of 50 gigahertz. We currently have capabilities to manufacture backplanes at greater than 60 layers in sizes up to 26x40 inches and up to a nominal thickness of 0.425 inches and in a wide variety of high-performance laminate materials. These are among the largest and most complex commercially manufactured backplanes and the test equipment we have ensures the quality and performance of these backplane systems is “world class.” We are capable of testing the signal integrity of these backplanes, and often also utilize state of the art x-ray equipment to verify defect-free installation of the new high density/high speed connectors.
Cable Assemblies. Cable assemblies are used to connect modules, assemblies and subassemblies, including backplane assemblies in electronic systems. We provide a broad range of cable assembly products and services, from cable assemblies and harnesses for automobiles to very complex harnesses for industrial products and semiconductor manufacturing equipment. We also provide mechanical assembly and integration services where we often assemble, integrate and test cables with electromechanical systems or sub-systems. We design and manufacture a broad range of high-speed data, radio frequency and fiber optic cabling products. We build cable assemblies that are used in power systems typically classified as low and medium voltage.
Fabricated Metal Parts. Parts that are fabricated from metal are often used in sub-assemblies and full enclosures, racks or cabinets used to house and protect complex, critical and fragile electronic components, modules and sub-systems so that the system's functional performance is not compromised due to mechanical, environmental or any other use conditions. Our mechanical systems manufacturing services are capable of fabricating mechanical components that range from single parts to complex enclosures, racks or cabinets and we often integrate these with various electronic components and sub-systems including backplane assemblies and cables with power and thermal management, and other sensor and control systems.
Precision Machined Parts. We offer a suite of world-class precision machining services in the U.S. and Israel. We use advanced numerically controlled machines enabling the manufacture of components that are machined to very tight tolerances and we often perform further assembly services with these components in clean-room environments. Our capabilities
include complex medium and large format mill and lathe machining of aluminum, stainless steel, plastics, ferrous and nonferrous alloys and exotic alloys. We also have helium and hydrostatic leak-test capabilities. By leveraging our established supply chain, we oversee lapping, anodizing, electrical discharge machining, heat-treating, cleaning, laser inspection, painting and packaging. We have specialized facilities supporting machining and complex integration with access to a range of state-of-the-art, computer-controlled machining equipment that can satisfy rigorous demands for production and quality and meet very tight tolerance specifications. With some of the largest horizontal milling machines in the U.S., we are a supplier of vacuum chamber systems for the semiconductor, flat-panel display, LED equipment, industrial, medical and AS9100-certified aerospace markets.
Plastic Injection Molded Parts. Plastic injection molded parts are used to create a vast array of everyday items, from very small intricate plastic parts to enclosures designed to protect sensitive electronic equipment. Our diverse capability within the plastic injection molding space spans all major markets and industries. We are equipped with nearly 80 plastic injection molding machines with a wide variety of clamping pressures. Our experienced tooling, process, quality and resin engineers work concurrently using a scientific molding approach to develop cost-effective, highly reliable manufacturing solutions for medical, industrial, defense, multimedia, computing and data storage customers.
Advanced Microsystems Technologies. Our Advanced Microsystems Technologies product technology and engineering division focuses on optical, RF and microelectronics design and manufacturing services. Our mission is to deliver leading-edge technology solutions that enable our customer products while optimizing the value and performance of our customers’ applications.
We currently supply a wide range of optical products from 10G to 800G supporting optical communication, AI, high performance computing and data center marketplaces. For the medical end market, we develop components and subassemblies that support Sanmina’s medical manufacturing operations for products such as blood analyzers, food contamination analyzers, and specialized optical spectrometers and fluorometers utilizing the latest optical technologies. In the automotive and industrial end markets, we are working with customers on next generation photonics based LIDAR product offerings.
Viking Technology. Our Viking Technology division provides advanced high technology hardware products, such as Solid-State Drives (SSDs), DRAM memory modules, and Non-Volatile DIMMs. Furthermore, Viking Technology specializes in delivering state-of-the-art ruggedized Microelectronics Multi-Chip Package (MCP) memory solutions. Viking Technology product offerings cater to the networking, industrial, transportation, medical, AI, data centers, and defense and aerospace markets.
Viking Enterprise Solutions. Our Viking Enterprise Solutions division (“VES”) is a market leader in high-performance storage platforms for hyperscale and enterprise data centers worldwide. Leveraging our portfolio of proven product designs, VES provides advanced data center products, including NVMe flash memory and disk-based storage server appliances, JBOD storage systems and related products for a variety of storage and data center applications including rack scale and AI/ML solutions. With advances in interconnect speeds and architectural changes to disaggregate storage and compute for scale, VES is well positioned with a product portfolio to take advantage of these trends.
SCI. Our SCI subsidiary has provided engineering services, products, manufacturing, test, and depot and repair solutions to the global defense and aerospace industry for nearly 60 years. SCI offers advanced products for aircraft systems and tactical communications, unmanned aerial systems and components, counter-unmanned aerial systems and components, and fiber-optics capabilities for use in a variety of defense-related applications.
SCI's customers include U.S. government agencies, U.S. allies and major defense and aerospace prime contractors. SCI has the infrastructure and facility security clearance to support the stringent certifications, regulations, processes and procedures required by these customers.
Global Services. Sanmina Global Services complements our end-to-end manufacturing strategy by integrating engineering, supply chain, manufacturing, logistics, repair and environmentally friendly disposition into a seamless solution for customers, for both Sanmina manufactured, and non-Sanmina manufactured products around the world. We provide a wide range of services, including new product introduction, high-level assembly, distribution services and warranty management, life-extension services and end-of-life management as well as programs that focus on reuse, repair, refurbishment, recycle, recover and redesign. Our reverse logistics services include detailed failure analysis and feedback to enhance product design and product quality. Our IT systems provide full traceability of the product returns, the repair process, component swaps, manufacturing process (when manufactured by Sanmina) and product test results.
42Q. Our 42Q division provides an innovative, world-class cloud-based smart manufacturing execution solution that is scalable, flexible, secure and easy to implement. Our solution provides customers advantages in efficiencies and costs relative to legacy systems and offers traceability and genealogy, multi-plant visibility, compliance management and on-demand work instructions.
Because of the diversity of our customer base, we generally have not experienced significant seasonality in our business in recent years. However, we cannot predict whether this trend will continue.
We generally do not obtain firm, long-term commitments from our customers and our customers usually do not make firm orders for product delivery more than thirty to ninety days in advance. Additionally, customers may cancel or postpone scheduled deliveries, in some cases without significant penalty. Therefore, we do not believe the backlog of expected product sales covered by firm orders is a meaningful measure of future sales.
Customers and Marketing
A key component of our strategy is to attract and retain long-term customer partnerships with leading companies in growth industries that will benefit from our global/regional footprint and unique value proposition in advanced electronics manufacturing. We develop relationships with our customers and market our vertically integrated manufacturing solutions through our sales and marketing staff. Our sales team works closely with our customers' engineering and technical personnel to understand their strategy and roadmaps to enable their go-to-market strategy. Our sales and marketing staff supports our business strategy of providing end-to-end solutions by encouraging cross-selling vertically integrated manufacturing solutions and component manufacturing across a broad range of major OEM products. We utilize our existing technical capabilities in design, technology components, and complex assembly, integration, and after-sales services to provide tailored solutions to our customers. With our extensive market knowledge and global/regional footprint, we can align these solutions to our facilities in each region around the world.
Sales to our ten largest customers typically represent approximately 50% of our net sales. Nokia represented 10% or more of our net sales in 2023 and 2021. Nokia and Motorola each represented 10% or more of our net sales in 2022.
We typically enter into supply agreements with our major OEM customers with terms ranging from three to five years. Our supply agreements generally do not obligate the customer to purchase minimum quantities of products. However, the customer is typically liable for the cost of the materials and components we have ordered to meet their production forecast but which are not used, provided that the material was ordered in accordance with an agreed-upon procurement plan. In some cases, the procurement plan contains provisions regarding the types of materials for which our customers will assume responsibility. Our supply agreements generally contain provisions permitting cancellation and rescheduling of orders upon notice and are subject to cancellation charges and, in some cases, rescheduling charges. In some circumstances, our supply agreements with customers include provisions for cost reduction objectives during the term of the agreement, which can have the effect of reducing revenue and profitability from these arrangements.
Our business is highly competitive. We compete against numerous domestic and foreign electronic manufacturing service providers, diversified manufacturing service providers and design providers. For our integrated manufacturing solutions business, we face competition from other major global EMS companies such as Benchmark Electronics, Inc., Celestica, Inc., Flex Ltd., Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. (Foxconn), Jabil Inc. and Plexus Corp. Our components, products and services business faces competition from EMS and non-EMS companies that often have a regional product, service or industry-specific focus. In addition, our potential customers may also compare the benefits of outsourcing their manufacturing to us with the merits of manufacturing products themselves.
We compete with different companies depending on the type of solution or geographic area. We believe the primary competitive factors in our industry include manufacturing technology, quality, global/regional footprint, delivery,
responsiveness, provision of value-added solutions and price. We believe we are extremely competitive with regard to all of these factors.
We hold U.S. and foreign patents and patent applications relating to, among other things, printed circuit board manufacturing technology, enclosures, cables, memory modules, optical technology, medical devices and computing and storage. For other proprietary processes, we rely primarily on trade secret protection. A number of our patents have expired or will expire in the near term. The expiration and abandonment of patents reduces our ability to assert claims against competitors or others who use similar technologies and to license such patents to third parties. We have registered a number of trademarks and have pending trademark applications in both the U.S. and internationally. Sanmina, Viking, Viking Enterprise Solutions, Viking Technology and 42Q are registered trademarks of Sanmina Corporation.
Compliance with Government Regulations
We are subject to a variety of local, state, federal and foreign environmental laws and regulations relating to the storage and use of hazardous materials used in our manufacturing processes, as well as the storage, treatment, discharge, emission and disposal of hazardous waste that are by-products of these processes. We are also subject to occupational safety and health laws, product labeling and product content requirements, either directly or as required by our customers. Proper waste disposal is a major consideration for printed circuit board manufacturers due to the metals and chemicals used in the manufacturing process. Water used in the printed circuit board manufacturing process must be treated to remove metal particles and other contaminants before it can be discharged into municipal sanitary sewer systems. We operate on-site wastewater treatment systems at our printed circuit board manufacturing plants in order to treat wastewater generated in the fabrication process.
Additionally, the electronics assembly process can generate lead dust. Upon vacating a facility, we are responsible for remediating lead dust from the interior of the manufacturing facility. Although there are no applicable standards for lead dust remediation in manufacturing facilities, we endeavor to remove the residues. To date, lead dust remediation costs have not been material to our results of operations. We also monitor for airborne concentrations of lead in our buildings and are unaware of any significant lead concentrations that exceed the applicable OSHA or other local standards.
We have a range of corporate programs that aim to reduce the use of hazardous materials in manufacturing. We developed corporate-wide standardized environmental management systems, auditing programs and policies to enable better management of environmental compliance activities. For example, almost all of our manufacturing facilities are certified under ISO 14001, a set of standards and procedures relating to environmental compliance management. In addition, the electronics industry must adhere to the European Union's Restrictions of Hazardous Substances (“RoHS”) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (“WEEE”). Parallel initiatives have been adopted in other jurisdictions throughout the world, including several states in the U.S. and the Peoples' Republic of China. RoHS limits the use of lead, mercury and other specified substances in electronics products. WEEE requires producers to assume responsibility for the collection, recycling and management of waste electronic products and components. We have implemented procedures intended to ensure our manufacturing processes are compliant with RoHS and the European Union's Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (“REACH”) legislation, when required. WEEE compliance is primarily the responsibility of OEMs.
Asbestos containing materials (“ACM”) are present at several of our manufacturing facilities. Although ACM is being managed and controls have been put in place pursuant to ACM operations and maintenance plans, the presence of ACM could give rise to remediation obligations and other liabilities.
Our facilities generally operate under environmental permits issued by governmental authorities. For the most part, these permits must be renewed periodically and are subject to revocation in the event of violations of environmental laws. Any such revocation may require us to cease or limit production at one or more of our facilities, adversely affecting our results of operations.
In connection with certain acquisitions, we have incurred liabilities associated with environmental contamination. These include ongoing investigation and remediation activities at a number of current and former sites, including those located in Owego, New York; Derry, New Hampshire; and Brockville, Ontario. In addition, we have been found liable in a lawsuit alleging operations at our current and former facilities in Orange County, California contributed to groundwater contamination,
and also have ongoing investigation activities at and adjacent to a former facility to determine the extent of any soil, soil vapor, and groundwater contamination. Finally, there are some sites, including our acquired facility in Gunzenhausen, Germany, which are known to have groundwater contamination caused by a third-party, and that third-party has provided indemnification to us for the related liability. However, in certain situations, third-party indemnities may not be effective to reduce our liability for environmental contamination.
We use environmental consultants primarily for risk assessments and remediation, including remedial investigation and feasibility studies, remedial action planning and design and site remediation. Our consultants provide information regarding the nature and extent of site contamination, acceptable remediation alternatives and estimated costs associated with each remediation alternative. We consider their recommendations together with other information when determining the appropriate amount to accrue for environmental liabilities.
Our capital expenditures for environmental control facilities were not material in any of the last three fiscal years and we do not expect to make material expenditures for this purpose during the current fiscal year.
We are also subject to a number of domestic and foreign regulations relating to our operations worldwide. In particular, our sales activities must comply with restrictions relating to the export of controlled technology and sales to denied or sanctioned parties contained in the U.S. International Traffic in Arms Regulations, U.S. Export Administration Regulations and sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Asset Controls of the U.S. Treasury Department. We must also comply with regulations relating to the award, administration and performance of U.S. government contracts and subcontracts with respect to our defense business, including regulations that govern price negotiations, cost accounting standards, procurement practices, termination at the election of the government and many other aspects of performance under government contracts and subcontracts. These regulations are complex, require extensive compliance efforts and expenditures in the form of additional personnel, systems and processes, and, in some cases, require us to ensure that our suppliers adhere to such regulations. Furthermore, our compliance with these regulations is subject to audit or investigation by governmental authorities and, from time to time, we receive formal and informal inquiries from government agencies and regulators regarding our compliance. Finally, the design, manufacture and repair of products that we conduct for the medical industry often requires compliance with domestic and foreign regulations, including the Food and Drug Administration’s quality system regulations and the European Union’s medical device directive. In addition to complying with these standards, our medical facilities comply with ISO 13485 (formerly EN 46002) and ISO 9001, where required. Should we be found to have violated one or more of such regulations, we could become subject to civil damages (which in some cases can be trebled) or criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including fines, penalties, appointment of government monitors, termination of our government contracts and, ultimately, debarment from doing further business with the U.S. government. Any of such results would increase our expenses, reduce our revenue and damage our reputation as both a commercial and government supplier.
Human Capital Resources
General Information About Our Human Capital Resources
As of September 30, 2023, we had approximately 34,000 employees and approximately 4,000 temporary employees, in 21 countries.
|Region||Approximate Breakdown of Employees|
At Sanmina, we believe our employees are the key to our success. We cultivate an agile, innovative workplace culture fueled by collaboration, diversity, equity and inclusion. Having highly engaged employees is essential to our culture and achieving our mission. We embrace diverse perspectives and empower our employees to improve our organization, help us innovate, and continuously strengthen our workplace.
As a founding member of the RBA, its principles are fundamental to our corporate culture and core values and are reflected in our commitments to our customers, stakeholders, employees and communities in which we do business around the world. We have aligned our work programs, processes and procedures to the RBA Code of Conduct to help ensure a safe and positive work environment for our employees that emphasizes learning and professional development, respect for individuals and ethical conduct, and that is facilitated by a direct management-employee engagement model.
For over a decade, we have tracked human capital metrics that we consider to be key to our business, including health and safety, career growth and development, turnover, hiring and diversity, equity and inclusion. Management regularly reviews these metrics and seeks to improve them.
Health and Safety
The health and safety of our employees is of utmost importance to us. In the U.S., we are subject to the requirements of the United States Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety & Health Administration (“OSHA”) and we are guided by the Environmental Health and Safety principles as described in the RBA’s Code of Conduct worldwide. We conduct regular self-assessments and audits to ensure compliance with our health and safety guidelines and regulatory requirements. Our ultimate goal is to achieve a level of work-related injuries as close to zero as possible through continuous investment in our safety programs. We provide protective gear (e.g., eye protection, masks and gloves) as required by applicable standards and as appropriate given employee job duties.
Career Growth and Development
We invest resources in professional development and growth as a means of improving employee performance and retaining our employees. We leverage both formal and informal programs, including in-person, virtual, social and self-directed learning, mentoring, coaching, and outside seminars and educational programs, when applicable, to identify, foster, and retain top talent. Employees have access to courses through our learning and development platforms including Pilgrim, Sanmina Online Education and Sanmina University.
Our performance review process is intended to promote transparent communication of team member performance, which we believe is a key factor in our success. The performance reviews enable ongoing assessments, reviews, and mentoring to identify career development and learning opportunities for our employees. Our emphasis on employee retention, talent reviews, employee evaluations and succession planning contributed to a promotion rate of approximately 9% in 2023.
We continually monitor employee turnover rates, both regionally and as a whole, as our success depends upon retaining our highly trained manufacturing and operating personnel. We believe the combination of competitive compensation, career growth and development opportunities have helped increase employee tenure and reduce voluntary turnover. The average tenure of our employees is approximately eight years and approximately 30% of our employees have been employed by us for more than ten years.
We recruit the best people for the job without regard to gender, ethnicity or other protected characteristics and it is our policy to comply fully with all domestic, foreign and local laws relating to discrimination in hiring.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion
We are focused on creating a culture of belonging where employees can be their authentic selves and cultivate a workplace where everyone has an opportunity to succeed. Recognizing and respecting our global presence, we strive to maintain a diverse, equitable and inclusive workforce everywhere we operate. Almost 50% of our employees worldwide are female and, in the U.S., non-Caucasian employees account for approximately 57% of the employee base. Our diversity, equity and inclusion principles are reflected in our employee training, in particular with respect to our policies against harassment and bullying and the elimination of bias in the workplace.
Management Engagement Practices
We believe in a direct management-employee engagement model by which managers and employees maintain a regular dialogue about working conditions, compensation, compliance with laws and applicable standards, safety and advancement opportunities. This model is also reflected in our training and compliance programs, which emphasize the need to report concerns about violations of policy or law. None of our U.S. employees are represented by a labor union. In some international locations, our employees are represented by labor unions on either a national or plant level or are subject to collective bargaining agreements.
INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The following table sets forth the name, position and age of our current executive officers and their ages as of September 30, 2023.
|Jure Sola||72||Chairman and Chief Executive Officer|
|Kurt Adzema||54||Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer|
|Alan Reid||60||Executive Vice President, Global Human Resources|
|Charles C. Mason||58||Executive Vice President, Worldwide Sales|
Jure Sola has served as our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer since August 2020. Prior to that time, from October 2017 until August 2020, Mr. Sola served as our Executive Chairman. Mr. Sola also served as our Chief Executive Officer from April 1991 until October 2017, as Chairman of our Board of Directors from April 1991 until December 2001 and from December 2002 until October 2017, and as Co-Chairman of our Board of Directors from December 2001 until December 2002. In 1980, Mr. Sola co-founded Sanmina and initially held the position of Vice President of Sales. In October 1987, he became the Vice President and General Manager of Sanmina, responsible for manufacturing operations, sales and marketing. Mr. Sola served as our President from October 1989 to March 1996.
Kurt Adzema has served as our Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since October 2019. Mr. Adzema previously served as the Executive Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer of Finisar Corporation, an optical components company, from March 2010 until September 2019. Prior to March 2010, Mr. Adzema held the positions of Vice President of Strategy and Corporate Development at Finisar, which he joined in January 2005. Prior to joining Finisar, Mr. Adzema held various positions at SVB Alliant, a subsidiary of Silicon Valley Bank, which advised technology companies on merger and acquisition transactions, at Montgomery Securities/Banc of America Securities, an investment banking firm, and in the financial restructuring group of Smith Barney.
Alan Reid has served as our Executive Vice President of Global Human Resources since October 2012. Mr. Reid has held various roles at Sanmina, including Senior Vice President of Global Human Resources and Human Resources Director of EMEA, from July 2001 to October 2012. Prior to joining us, he was Group Human Resources Manager at Kymata Ltd., an optoelectronic technology startup from June 2000 to July 2001. Prior to Kymata, Mr. Reid held various roles in operations and human resources with The BOC Group PLC. (British Oxygen Company), a global industrial gases and engineering company, from September 1986 to June 2000.
Charles C. Mason has served as our Executive Vice President, Worldwide Sales since March 2023. Mr. Mason has held various senior sales and marketing roles at Sanmina since joining us through an acquisition in 1997, most recently Executive Vice President, Sales for Integrated Manufacturing Services and Senior Vice President, Strategic Accounts.
Our principal executive offices are located at 2700 North First Street, San Jose, CA 95134, and our telephone number is (408) 964-3500. We were originally incorporated in California in 1980 and reincorporated in Delaware in May 1989. Our Internet address is http://www.sanmina.com. We make available through our website, free of charge, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. All reports we file with the SEC are also available free of charge via EDGAR through the SEC's website at http://www.sec.gov.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
End Market and Operational Risks
Adverse changes in the key end markets we target could harm our business by reducing our sales.
We provide products and services to companies that serve the industrial, medical, defense and aerospace, automotive, communications networks and cloud infrastructure industries. Adverse changes in any of these end markets could reduce demand for our customers’ products or make these customers more sensitive to the cost of our products and services, either of which could reduce our sales, gross margins and net income. A number of factors could affect these industries in general and our customers in particular, leading to reductions in net sales. These factors include:
•intense competition among our customers and their competitors, leading to reductions in prices for their products and increases in pricing pressure placed on us;
•failure of our customers’ products to gain widespread commercial acceptance, which could decrease the volume of orders our customers place with us;
•changes in regulatory requirements affecting the products we build for our customers, leading to product redesigns or obsolescence and potentially causing us to lose business; and
•the negative effects of inflation, rising interest rates and any potential resultant recession on customers’ end markets and their demand for our products and services.
We realize a substantial portion of our revenues from communications equipment customers. This market is highly competitive, particularly in the area of price. Should any of our larger customers in this market fail to effectively compete with their competitors, they could reduce their orders to us or experience liquidity difficulties, either of which could have the effect of substantially reducing our revenue and net income. There can be no assurance that we will not experience declines in demand in this or in other end markets in the future.
Our operating results are subject to significant uncertainties, which can cause our future sales, net income and cash generated from operations to be variable.
Our operating results can vary due to a number of significant uncertainties, including:
•our ability to replace declining sales from end-of-life programs and customer disengagements with new business wins;
•conditions in the global economy as a whole and in the industries we serve, which have been significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, supply chain disruptions, inflationary pressures and rising interest rates;
•fluctuations in component prices, component shortages and extended component lead times caused by high demand and supply chain constraints, disruptions relating to the COVID-19 pandemic, geopolitical events, such as the war in Ukraine and conflict in the Middle East, natural disasters or otherwise;
•timing and success of new product developments and ramps by our customers, which create demand for our services, but which can also require us to incur start-up costs relating to new tooling and processes;
•levels of demand in the end markets served by our customers;
•timing of orders from customers, the accuracy of their forecasts which drive the amount of components we order and the extent to which customers reschedule or cancel their orders;
•our inventory levels, which have been driven higher as a result of ongoing supply chain disruptions, with higher levels of inventory reducing our operating cash flow;
•customer payment terms and the extent to which we factor customer receivables during the quarter;
•increasing labor costs in the regions in which we operate;
•mix of products ordered by and shipped to major customers, as high volume and low complexity manufacturing services typically have lower gross margins than more complex and lower volume services;
•our ability to pass tariffs and price increases of components through to our customers;
•resolution of quality or other claims made by our customers;
•the degree to which we are able to fully utilize our available manufacturing capacity or expand, when necessary to satisfy customer demand;
•customer insolvencies resulting in bad debt or inventory exposures that are in excess of our reserves;
•our ability to efficiently move manufacturing operations to lower cost regions when requested by our customers;
•changes in our tax provision due to changes in our estimates of pre-tax income in the jurisdictions in which we operate, uncertain tax positions and our continued ability to utilize our deferred tax assets;
•political and economic developments in countries in which we or our customers or our suppliers have operations, which could restrict our operations or those of our suppliers and/or customers or increase our costs; and
•Accuracy of management’s estimates for materials, labor and subcontractor costs relating to long-term contracts particularly for new products, as any impact due to changes in estimates must be recognized in the period of change.
Variability in our operating results may also lead to variability in cash generated by operations, which can adversely affect our ability to make capital expenditures, engage in strategic transactions and repurchase stock.
We are subject to risks arising from our international operations.
The substantial majority of our net sales are generated through our non-U.S. operations. As a result, we are or can be negatively impacted by economic, political and other conditions in the foreign countries in which we do business, including:
•changes in trade and tax laws that may result in us or our customers being subject to increased taxes, duties and tariffs and import and export restrictions, which could increase our costs and/or reduce our customers’ willingness to use our services in countries in which we are currently manufacturing their products;
•compliance with foreign laws, including labor laws that generally provide for increased notice, severance and consultation requirements compared to U.S. labor laws;
•labor unrest, including strikes;
•difficulties in staffing due to immigration or travel restrictions imposed by national governments, including the U.S.;
•political instability and/or regional military tension or hostilities, such as the war in Ukraine and conflict in the Middle East, the possibility of such conflicts broadening to areas outside the area of immediate hostilities and the actions taken by national governments in response to such hostilities;
•fluctuations in currency exchange rates, which may either increase or decrease our operating costs and for which we have significant exposure;
•the imposition of currency controls, which would have the effect of preventing us from repatriating profits from our foreign subsidiaries;
•exposure to heightened corruption risks;
•aggressive, selective or lax enforcement of laws and regulations by national governmental authorities; and
•potentially increased risk of misappropriation of intellectual property.
We operate in countries that have experienced labor unrest, political instability or conflict and strife in the past, including China, India, Israel, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand, and we have experienced work stoppages and similar disruptions at our plants in these countries. To the extent these factors prevent us from adequately staffing our plants and manufacturing and shipping products in those jurisdictions, our margins and net income could be reduced and our reputation as a reliable supplier could be negatively impacted.
We rely on a relatively small number of customers for a substantial portion of our sales and declines in sales to these customers could significantly reduce our net sales and net income.
Sales to our ten largest customers have historically represented approximately half of our net sales. We expect to continue to depend upon a relatively small number of customers for a significant percentage of our sales for the foreseeable future. The loss of, a significant reduction in sales or pricing to, or an inability to recover components liabilities from our largest customers could therefore substantially reduce our revenue and margins.
Customer order cancellations, push-outs and reduced forecasts could reduce our sales, net income and liquidity.
We generally do not obtain firm, long-term purchase commitments from our customers and our bookings may generally be canceled prior to the scheduled shipment date. Although customers are generally liable for components we procure on their behalf, finished goods and work-in-process at the time of cancellation, customers may fail to honor this commitment or we may be unable to, or, for other business reasons, choose not to, enforce our contractual rights. Cancellations, reductions or
push-outs of orders by customers and reduced customer forecasts, whether due to changes in individual customer circumstances or end market changes or recessionary conditions in general, could cause our inventory levels to increase, consume working capital, lead to write-offs of inventory that customers fail to purchase for any reason, which could reduce our sales, net income and liquidity.
Our strategy to pursue higher margin business depends in part on the success of our CPS businesses, which, if not successful, could cause our future gross margins and operating results to be lower.
A key part of our strategy of providing end-to-end manufacturing solutions is to grow our CPS businesses, which supplies printed circuit boards, backplane and backplane assemblies, cable assemblies, fabricated metal parts, precision machined parts, and plastic injected molded parts, memory, RF, optical and microelectronic solutions, and data storage solutions and design, engineering, logistics and repair services and our SCI defense and aerospace products. A decrease in orders for these components, products and services can have a disproportionately adverse impact on our profitability since these components, products and services generally yield higher margins than our core IMS business. In addition, in order to grow this portion of our business profitably, we must continue to make substantial investments in the development of our product development capabilities, research and development activities, test and tooling equipment and skilled personnel, all of which reduce our operating results in the short term. The success of our CPS businesses also depends on our ability to increase sales of our proprietary products, convince our customers to purchase our components rather than those of third parties for use in the manufacture of their products, and expand the number of our customers who contract for our design, engineering, logistics and repair services. We may face challenges in achieving commercially viable yields and difficulties in manufacturing components in the quantities and to the specifications and quality standards required by our customers, as well as in qualifying our components for use in our customers’ designs. Our proprietary products and design, engineering, logistics and repair services must compete with products and services offered by established vendors which focus solely on development of similar technologies or the provision of similar services. Any of these factors could reduce the revenue and margins of our CPS businesses, which in turn would have an adverse and potentially disproportionate effect on our overall revenues and profitability.
Worldwide supply chain shortages caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the resumption of strong worldwide demand for electronic products and components and geopolitical events have collectively limited our ability to manufacture and ship all of the products for which we have demand; our profitability will be reduced if we are unable to continue to pass on increasing component costs.
Over the past three years, our supply chain has been significantly impacted by interruptions in supplier and port operations resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, the resumption of strong worldwide demand for electronic products and components following the easing of COVID-19 restrictions, and geopolitical events, such as the war in Ukraine and the conflict in the Middle East. As a result, we have experienced and continue to experience delays in delivery and shortages of certain components, particularly certain types of capacitors, resistors and discrete semiconductors needed for many of the products we manufacture. These conditions limited our ability to manufacture and ship all of the products for which we have demand and that require these components and have resulted in an increase in our inventories of other components that cannot be assembled into finished products without these components. These factors are exacerbated by the fact that we are dependent on a number of limited and sole source suppliers to provide key components that we incorporate into our products. Although conditions have recently improved, we expect some level of delays and shortages to continue to persist in some form in the short to medium term. Any such shortages could result in delays in shipments to our customers, which would reduce our revenue, margins and operating cash flow for the periods affected.
In addition, inflationary pressures resulting from supply chain constraints and generally improved economic conditions have led to sustained increases in the prices we pay for components and materials used in production and in our labor and transportation costs. While we seek to pass on to our customers the increased prices for components and shipping, plus a margin, our gross margins and profitability could decrease, perhaps significantly, over a sustained period of time if we are unable to do so.
The COVID-19 pandemic had, and any future outbreak could have, a significant impact on our results of operations and financial condition by reducing demand from our customers, interrupting the flow of components needed for our customers’ products, limiting the operations and productivity of our manufacturing facilities and creating health risks to our employees.
Our business, operations and results of operations were significantly and negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic over the past three years and may continue to be impacted in the future to some degree. The COVID-19 pandemic 1) caused our customers to reduce their demand from us, 2) interrupted the availability of components we need for our customers’
products, 3) limited the operations and productivity of our manufacturing resources and 4) created health risks to our employees.
Although conditions have improved, our operations could again be similarly and negatively impacted in the event of any future outbreaks, including outbreaks caused by variants of COVID-19, such as the Omicron variant of COVID-19 and its subvariants, and actions that government authorities may take in response.
Current U.S. trade policy could increase the cost of using both our onshore and offshore manufacturing services for our U.S. customers, leading them to reduce their orders to us.
Although we maintain significant manufacturing capacity in the U.S., the majority of our manufacturing operations are located outside the U.S. The U.S., China, the E.U. and several other countries have imposed tariffs on certain imported products. In particular, the U.S. has imposed tariffs impacting certain components and products imported from China by us into the U.S. These tariffs apply to both components imported into the U.S. from China for use in the manufacture of products at our U.S. plants and to certain of our customers’ products that we manufacture for them in China and that are then imported into the U.S. Any decision by a large number of our customers to cease using our manufacturing services due to the application of tariffs would materially reduce our revenue and net income. In addition, our gross margins would be reduced in the event we are for any reason unable to pass on any tariffs that we incurred to our customers. Although our customers are generally liable for tariffs we pay on their behalf on importation of components used in the manufacture of their products, our gross margins would be reduced in the event we are for any reason unable to recover tariffs or duties from our customers. Further, although we are required to pay tariffs upon importation of the components, we may not be able to recover these amounts from our customers until sometime later, if at all, which would adversely impact our operating cash flow in a given period.
Transfers of business or operations may increase our costs and cause disruptions in our ability to service our customers.
Our customers sometimes require that we transfer the manufacturing of their products from one of our facilities to another to achieve cost reductions, tariff reductions and other objectives. These transfers have resulted in increased costs to us due to facility downtime, less than optimal utilization of our manufacturing capacity and delays and complications related to the transition of manufacturing programs to new locations. These transfers, and any decision by a significant customer to terminate manufacturing services in a particular facility, could require us to close or reduce operations at certain facilities and, as a result, we may incur in the future significant costs for the closure of facilities, employee severance and related matters. We may be required to relocate or close additional manufacturing operations in the future and, accordingly, we may incur additional costs that decrease our net income.
In addition, certain of our foreign manufacturing facilities are leased from third parties. To the extent we are unable to renew the leases covering such facilities as they expire on reasonable terms, or are forced to move our operations at those facilities to other locations as a result of a failure to agree upon renewal terms, production for our customers may be interrupted, we may breach our customer agreements, we could incur significant start-up costs at new facilities and our lease expense may increase, potentially significantly.
Regulatory, Compliance and Litigation Risks
We are subject to a number of U.S. export control and regulatory requirements relating to our defense business, with which the failure to comply could result in fines and reduction of future revenue.
We are subject to a number of laws and regulations relating to the export of U.S. technology, anti-corruption and the award, administration and performance of U.S. government contracts and subcontracts. In particular, our activities must comply with the restrictions relating to the export of controlled technology and sales to denied or sanctioned parties contained in the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”), the U.S. Export Administration Regulations and sanctions administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Treasury Department (“OFAC”). The U.S. Commerce Department recently released rules that in some cases significantly restrict the export of U.S. technology to or from China. These laws could negatively impact our operations in China by making it more difficult to import components containing U.S. technology into China and to export finished products containing such components out of China. Any failure to comply with export control laws could result in significant fines or penalties. We must also comply with regulations relating to the award, administration and performance of U.S. government contracts and subcontracts with respect to our defense business, including regulations that govern price negotiations, cost accounting standards, procurement practices, termination at the election of the government and many other aspects of performance under government contracts and subcontracts. These laws and regulations are complex, require extensive compliance efforts and expenditures in the form of additional systems and personnel, and, in some cases, require us to ensure that our suppliers adhere to such regulations. Furthermore, our compliance with such regulations is subject
to audit or investigation by governmental authorities. From time to time, we receive formal and informal inquiries from government agencies and regulators regarding our compliance. For example, we have received and are responding to several Civil Investigative Demands from the U.S. Department of Justice relating to certain contracts, projects, proposals, and business activities of our SCI subsidiary. Should we be found to have violated one or more government contracting laws or regulations, we could become subject to civil damages (which in some cases could be trebled) or criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including appointment of government monitors, termination of our government contracts and, ultimately, debarment from doing further business with the U.S. government. Any of such results would increase our expenses, reduce our revenue and damage our reputation as both a commercial and government supplier.
If we manufacture or design defective products, if there are manufacturing defects in the components we incorporate into customer products or if our manufacturing processes do not comply with applicable statutory and regulatory requirements and standards, we could be subject to claims, damages and fines and lose customers.
We manufacture products to our customers’ specifications, and in some cases our manufacturing processes and facilities need to comply with various statutory and regulatory requirements and standards. For example, many of the medical products that we manufacture, as well as the facilities and manufacturing processes that we use to produce them, must comply with standards established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and products we manufacture for the automotive end market are generally subject to the IATF 16949:2016 standard. In addition, our customers’ products and the manufacturing processes that we use to produce them often are highly complex. As a result, products that we design or manufacture may at times contain design or manufacturing defects, and our manufacturing processes may be subject to errors or may not be in compliance with applicable statutory and regulatory requirements and standards. Finally, customer products can experience quality problems or failures as a result of defects in the components customers specify to be included in the products we manufacture for them. Defects in the products we design or manufacture, even if caused by components specified by the customer, may result in product recalls, warranty claims by customers, including liability for repair costs, delayed shipments to customers or reduced or canceled customer orders. The failure of the products that we design or manufacture or of our manufacturing processes and facilities to comply with applicable statutory and regulatory requirements and standards may subject us to legal fines or penalties, cause us to lose business and, in some cases, require us to shut down or incur considerable expense to correct a manufacturing program or facility. In addition, these defects may result in product liability claims against us by third parties. The risk and magnitude of such claims may increase as we continue to expand our presence in the medical and automotive end markets since defects in these types of products can result in death or significant injury to end users of these products. Even when our customers or suppliers are contractually responsible for defects in the design of a product and defects in components used in the manufacture of such products, there is no guarantee that any indemnities provided by such parties will be adequate to cover all damages to which we may become subject or that these parties will have the financial resources to indemnify us for such liabilities, in which case we could be required to expend significant resources to defend ourselves if named in a product liability suit over such defects.
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property or if we infringe, or are alleged to infringe, upon the intellectual property of others, we could be required to pay significant amounts in costs or damages.
We rely on a combination of copyright, patent, trademark and trade secret laws and contractual restrictions to protect our intellectual property rights. However, a number of our patents covering certain aspects of our manufacturing processes or products have expired and will continue to expire in the future. Such expirations reduce our ability to assert claims against competitors or others who use or sell similar technology. Any inability to protect our intellectual property rights could diminish or eliminate the competitive advantages that we derive from our proprietary technology. In addition, should a current or former employee use or disclose any of our or our customers’ proprietary information, we could become subject to legal action by our customers or others, our key technologies could become compromised and our ability to compete could be adversely impacted.
In addition, we may become involved in administrative proceedings, lawsuits or other proceedings if others allege that the products we manufacture for our customers or our own manufacturing processes and products infringe on their intellectual property rights. If successful, such claims could force our customers and us to stop importing or producing products or components of products that use the challenged intellectual property, to pay up to treble damages and to obtain a license to the relevant technology or to redesign those products or services so as not to use the infringed technology. The costs of defense and potential damages and/or impact on production of patent litigation could be significant and have a materially adverse impact on our financial results. In addition, although our customers typically indemnify us against claims that the products we manufacture for them infringe others’ intellectual property rights, there is no guaranty that these customers will have the financial resources to stand behind such indemnities should the need arise, nor is there any guarantee that any such indemnity could be fully enforced. We sometimes design products on a contract basis or jointly with our customers. In such situations, we may become subject to claims that products we design infringe third party intellectual property rights and may also be required to indemnify our customer against liability caused by such claims.
Any of these events could reduce our revenue, increase our costs and damage our reputation with our customers.
Allegations of failures to comply with domestic or international employment and related laws could result in the payment of significant damages, which would reduce our net income.
We are subject to a variety of domestic and foreign employment laws, including those related to safety, wages and overtime, discrimination, harassment, organizing, whistleblowing, classification of employees, privacy and severance payments. We may be required to defend against allegations that we have violated such laws. Allegations that we have violated labor laws could lead to damages being awarded to employees or fines from or settlements with plaintiffs or federal, state or foreign regulatory authorities, the amounts of which could be substantial, and which would reduce our net income. For example, in the first quarter of 2022, we paid approximately $4 million in a judicially approved settlement in connection with a lawsuit against us alleging violations of California Labor Code provisions governing overtime, meal and rest periods, wages, wage statements and reimbursements of business expenses.
Cyberattacks and other disruptions of our information technology network and systems could interrupt our operations, lead to loss of our customer and employee data and subject us to damages.
We rely on internal and cloud-based networks and systems furnished by third parties for worldwide financial reporting, inventory management, procurement, invoicing, employee payroll and benefits administration and email communications, among other functions. In addition, our 42Q manufacturing execution solutions software used by us and certain of our customers operates in the cloud. Despite our business continuity planning, including maintaining redundant data sites and network availability, both our internal and cloud-based infrastructure may be susceptible to outages due to fire, floods, power loss, telecommunications failures, terrorist attacks and similar events. In addition, our systems, like those of other large companies, are regularly subject to third party hacking attempts. Despite the implementation of numerous network security measures, both our internal and our cloud-based infrastructure may also be vulnerable to such hacking attempts, the installation of computer viruses, malware or similar disruptions either by third parties or employees with access to key IT infrastructure. Cybersecurity attacks can come in many forms, including distributed denial of service attacks, advanced persistent threat, phishing, business email compromise efforts and ransomware attacks. There can be no assurance that a future malware attack or hacking attempt will not be successful in breaching our systems. Hacking, malware and other cybersecurity attacks, if not prevented, could lead to the collection and disclosure of sensitive personal or confidential information relating to our business, customers, employees or others, exposing us to legal liability and causing us to suffer reputational damage. In addition, our SCI defense and aerospace business is subject to U.S. government regulations requiring the safeguarding of certain unclassified government information and to report to the U.S. government certain cyber incidents that affect such information. The increasing sophistication of cyberattacks requires us to continually evaluate new technologies and processes intended to detect and prevent these attacks. Our insurance coverage for cyberattacks is limited. There can be no assurance that our cybersecurity measures will be sufficient to protect the data we manage. If we and our cloud infrastructure vendors are not successful in preventing such outages and cyberattacks, our operations could be disrupted, we could incur losses, including losses relating to claims by our customers, employees or privacy regulators relating to loss of personal or confidential business information, the willingness of customers to do business with us may be damaged and, in the case of our defense business, we could be barred from future participation in U.S. government programs.
Global, national and corporate initiatives addressing climate change could increase our costs.
Concern over climate change may lead to state, federal and international legislative and regulatory initiatives aimed at reducing carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions through incentives, taxes or mandates and there is increased interest generally in voluntary corporate commitments to reduce the generation of greenhouse gases. Collectively, such initiatives and commitments could lead to an increase in both the price of energy and our operating costs. A sustained increase in energy prices for any reason could increase our raw material, components, operations and transportation costs, which we may not be able to pass on to our customers and which would therefore reduce our profitability, as would increased operating costs and investments due to our adoption, whether voluntary or mandatory, of measures to reduce our carbon footprint. We could also suffer reputational damage if our sustainability practices are perceived to be inadequate.
Any failure to comply with applicable environmental laws could adversely affect our business by causing us to pay significant amounts for cleanup of hazardous materials or for damages or fines.
We are subject to various federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations, including those governing the use, generation, storage, discharge and disposal of hazardous substances and waste in the ordinary course of our
manufacturing operations. If we violate environmental laws or if we own or operate, or owned or operated in the past, a site at which we or a predecessor company caused contamination, we may be held liable for damages and the costs of remedial actions. For example, in April 2023, a court issued a ruling finding us and other defendants liable for certain investigation and remediation costs relating to a site owned by a predecessor company in Southern California at which a disposal was alleged to have occurred. Although we estimate and regularly reassess our potential liability with respect to violations or alleged violations and accrue for such liability, our accruals may not be sufficient. Any increase in existing reserves or establishment of new reserves for environmental liability would reduce our net income. Our failure or inability to comply with applicable environmental laws and regulations could also limit our ability to expand facilities or could require us to acquire costly equipment or to incur other significant expenses to comply with these laws and regulations.
Partly as a result of certain of our acquisitions, we have incurred liabilities associated with environmental contamination. These liabilities include ongoing investigation and remediation activities at a number of current and former sites. The time required to perform environmental remediation can be lengthy and there can be no assurance that the scope, and therefore cost, of these activities will not increase as a result of the discovery of new contamination or contamination on adjoining landowners’ properties or the adoption of more stringent regulatory standards covering sites at which we are currently performing remediation activities.
We cannot assure that past disposal activities will not result in liability that will materially affect us in the future, nor can we provide assurance that we do not have environmental exposures of which we are unaware and which could adversely affect our future operating results. Changes in or restrictions on discharge limits, emissions levels, permitting requirements and material storage or handling could require a higher than anticipated level of remediation activities, operating expenses and capital investment or, depending on the severity of the impact of the foregoing factors, costly plant relocation, any of which would reduce our net income.
Changes in financial accounting standards or policies have affected, and in the future may affect, our reported financial condition or results of operations; there are inherent limitations to our system of internal controls; changes in corporate governance requirements, policies and practices may impact our business.
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP. The preparation of our financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires that we make estimates and assumptions that affect the recorded amounts of assets, liabilities and net income during the reporting period. A change in the facts and circumstances surrounding those estimates could result in a change to our estimates and could impact our future operating results. GAAP is subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), the SEC and various bodies formed to interpret and create accounting policies. A change in those policies can have a significant effect on our reported results and may affect our reporting of transactions which are completed before a change is announced. For example, in fiscal 2019, we implemented the new revenue recognition standard, which is complex and requires significant management judgment. Although we believe the judgments we applied in implementation of the new revenue recognition standard are appropriate, there can be no assurance that we will not be required to change our judgments relating to implementation of such standard in the future, whether as a result of new guidance or otherwise. A significant change in our accounting judgments could have a significant impact on our reported revenue, gross profit, assets and liabilities. In general, changes to accounting rules or challenges to our interpretation or application of the rules by regulators may have a material adverse effect on our reported financial results or on the way we conduct business.
Our system of internal and disclosure controls and procedures was designed to provide reasonable assurance of achieving its objectives. However, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, have been or will be detected. As a result, there can be no assurance that our system of internal and disclosure controls and procedures will be successful in preventing all errors, theft and fraud, or in informing management of all material information in a timely manner. For example, as disclosed in Item 9A of this annual report, we have identified material weaknesses in the control environment at one of our divisions due in part to the division maintaining an inappropriate tone at the top. This division accounted for approximately 3% of our revenues on an annual basis.
Finally, corporate governance, public disclosure and compliance practices continue to evolve based upon continuing legislative action, SEC rulemaking and policy positions taken by large institutional stockholders and proxy advisors. As a result, the number of rules, regulations and standards applicable to us may become more burdensome to comply with, could increase scrutiny of our practices and policies by these or other groups and increase our legal and financial compliance costs and the amount of time management must devote to governance and compliance activities. For example, the SEC has recently adopted rules requiring that issuers provide significantly increased disclosures concerning cybersecurity risk management, strategy, governance and incident reporting and adopt more stringent executive compensation clawback policies and California
has enacted legislation that will require large companies doing business in the state to provide significant disclosures concerning their greenhouse gas emissions and financial risks relating to climate change. Increasing regulatory burdens and corporate governance requirements could make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our Board of Directors and qualified executive officers.
Liquidity and Credit Risks
Our customers could experience credit problems, which could reduce our future revenues and net income.
Certain of our customers have experienced significant financial difficulties in the past, with a few filing for bankruptcy. Financial difficulties experienced by one or more of our customers, could negatively affect our business by decreasing demand from such customers and through the potential inability of these companies to make full payment on amounts owed to us. Customer bankruptcies also entail the risk of potential recovery by the bankruptcy estate of amounts previously paid to us that are deemed a preference under bankruptcy laws. There can be no assurance that additional customers will not declare bankruptcy or suffer financial distress, in which case our future revenues, net income and cash flow could be reduced.
We may be unable to generate sufficient liquidity to maintain or expand our operations, which would reduce the amount of business our customers and vendors are able to do with us and impact our ability to continue operations at current levels without seeking additional funding; increasing interest rates will reduce our net income and operating cash flow; we could experience losses if one or more financial institutions holding our cash or other financial counterparties were to fail; repatriation of foreign cash could increase our taxes.
Our liquidity is dependent on a number of factors, including profitability, business volume, inventory levels, the extension of trade credit by our suppliers, the degree of alignment of payment terms from our suppliers with payment terms granted to our customers, the amount we invest in our facilities and equipment, the timing of acquisitions and divestitures, the schedule for repayment of our outstanding indebtedness, the timing of stock repurchases, the amount available to borrow under our credit agreement and the amount of accounts receivable eligible for sale under our factoring programs. In the event we need or desire additional liquidity beyond the sources described above to maintain or expand our business levels, make acquisitions or repurchase stock, there can be no assurance that such additional liquidity will be available on acceptable terms or at all. The sale of receivables under our factoring programs is subject to the approval of the banks or customers involved and there can be no assurance that we will be able to sell the maximum amount of receivables permitted by these programs when desired. In addition, because the interest rate we pay for borrowings under the Credit Agreement and the interest rate used to calculate the purchase price for receivables under our factoring programs are variable, recent sustained increases in interest rates resulting from actions taken by the Federal Reserve to reduce inflation both increases the amount of interest expense we pay, which reduces net income, and also reduces the amount of proceeds we receive from purchasers under our receivables factoring program, which reduces operating cash flow.
Any failure to maintain adequate liquidity would prevent us from maintaining operations at current or desired levels, which in turn would reduce both our revenue and profitability.
Although we believe our existing cash resources and sources of liquidity, together with cash generated from operations, will be sufficient to meet our working capital requirements for at least the next 12 months, should demand for our services increase significantly over the next 12 months or should we experience significant increases in delinquent or uncollectible accounts receivable for any reason, including recessionary economic conditions, our cash provided by operations could decrease significantly and we could be required to seek additional sources of liquidity to continue our operations at their current level. In such a case, there can be no assurance that such additional sources of financing would be available.
A principal source of our liquidity is our cash and cash equivalents, which are held with various financial institutions. Although we distribute such funds among a number of financial institutions that we believe to be of high quality, there can be no assurance that one or more of such institutions will not become insolvent in the future. For example, in the spring of 2023, three mid-sized regional banks failed and were placed under the temporary control of federal regulators. Although our cash and cash equivalents were not deposited in any of such banks, should the financial institutions in which our cash and cash equivalents are deposited fail and not be backstopped by the federal government or otherwise guaranteed, all or a portion of our uninsured funds on deposit with such institutions could be lost. Similarly, should the financial institutions holding the cash and cash equivalents of our customers fail and not be backstopped or otherwise guaranteed, our customers may become unable to satisfy their obligations to us. Finally, if one or more counterparties to our interest rate or foreign currency hedging instruments were to fail, we could suffer losses and our hedging of risk could become less effective.
As of September 30, 2023, approximately 59% of our cash was held in foreign jurisdictions. Some of these jurisdictions restrict the amount of cash that can be transferred to the U.S. or impose taxes and penalties on such transfers of cash. To the extent we have excess cash in foreign locations that could be used in, or is needed by, our U.S. operations, we may incur significant foreign taxes to repatriate these funds which would reduce the net amount ultimately available for such purposes.
Our credit agreement contains covenants that may adversely impact our business; the failure to comply with such covenants or the occurrence of an event of default could cause us to be unable to borrow additional funds and cause our outstanding debt to become immediately payable.
Our credit agreement contains a maximum leverage and minimum interest coverage ratio and a number of restrictive covenants, including restrictions on incurring additional debt, making investments and other restricted payments, selling assets and paying dividends, subject to certain exceptions, with which we must comply. Collectively, these covenants could constrain our ability to grow our business through acquisition or engage in other strategic transactions. Such facility also contains customary events of default, including that a material business interruption or cessation has not occurred. Finally, such facility includes covenants requiring, among other things, that we timely file quarterly and annual financial statements with the SEC, comply with all laws, pay all taxes and maintain casualty insurance. If we are not able to comply with these covenants or if an event of default were to occur and not be cured, all of our outstanding debt would become immediately due and payable and the incurrence of additional debt under our Credit Agreement would not be allowed, either of which would have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and ability to continue to conduct our business.
General Risk Factors
We are subject to intense competition in the EMS industry, which could cause us to lose sales and, therefore, harm our financial performance.
The EMS industry is highly competitive and the industry has experienced a surplus of manufacturing capacity. Our competitors include major global EMS providers, including Benchmark Electronics, Inc., Celestica, Inc., Flex Ltd., Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. (Foxconn), Jabil Inc. and Plexus Corp., as well as other companies that have a regional, product, service or industry-specific focus. We also face competition from current and potential OEM customers who may elect to manufacture their own products internally rather than outsource to EMS providers.
Competition is based on a number of factors, including end markets served, price and quality. We may not be able to offer prices as low as some of our competitors for any number of reasons, including the willingness of competitors to provide EMS services at prices we are unable or unwilling to offer. There can be no assurance that we will win new business or maintain existing business due to competitive factors, which could decrease our sales and net income. In addition, due to the extremely price sensitive nature of our industry, business that we do win or maintain may have lower margins than our historical or target margins. As a result, competition may cause our gross and operating margins to fall.
Consolidation in the electronics industry may adversely affect our business by increasing customer buying power and increasing prices we pay for components.
Consolidation in the electronics industry among our customers, our suppliers and/or our competitors may increase, which could result in a small number of very large electronics companies offering products in multiple sectors of the electronics industry. If one of our customers is acquired by another company that does not rely on us to provide EMS services, we may lose that customer’s business. Similarly, consolidation among our suppliers could result in a sole or limited source for certain components used in our customers’ products. Any such consolidation could cause us to be required to pay increased prices for such components, which could reduce our gross margin and profitability if we are unable to pass on the corresponding cost to our customers.
Unanticipated changes in our income tax rates or exposure to additional tax liabilities or expiration of our net operating loss carryforwards could increase our taxes and decrease our net income; developments in pending audits could result in an increase in our tax expenses which would decrease our net income.
We are or may become subject to income, sales, value-added, goods and services, withholding and other taxes in the United States and various foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for taxes and, in the ordinary course of business, there are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax
determination is uncertain. Our effective income tax rates and liability for other taxes could increase as a result of changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in enacted tax laws, the effectiveness of our cash and tax management strategies, our ability to negotiate advance pricing agreements with foreign tax authorities, compliance with local trade laws and other factors. International initiatives require multinational enterprises, like ours, to report profitability on a country-by-country basis, which could increase scrutiny by foreign tax authorities. In addition, our tax determinations are regularly subject to audit by tax authorities. For example, we are currently undergoing audits of our tax returns for certain recent tax years in a number of jurisdictions, including the United States. Developments in these or future audits could adversely affect our tax provisions, including through the disallowance or reduction of deferred tax assets or the assessment of back taxes, interest and penalties, any of which could result in a material increase to income tax expense and therefore a material decrease in our net income. Further, as of September 30, 2023, we have cumulative net operating loss carryforwards (“NOLs”) for federal, state and foreign tax purposes of $155 million, $337 million and $433 million, respectively. Our federal and state NOLs begin expiring in fiscal years 2028 and 2024, respectively, and expire completely at various dates through September 29, 2035. Certain foreign NOLs will begin expiring in 2024. As and when the NOLs begin expiring, our federal and state income tax rates will increase, which will reduce our net income.
We can experience losses due to foreign exchange rate fluctuations and currency controls, which could reduce our net income and impact our ability to repatriate funds.
Because we manufacture the majority of our products abroad, our operating results can be negatively impacted due to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. We use financial instruments, primarily short-term foreign currency forward contracts, to hedge our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. However, the success of our foreign currency hedging activities in preventing foreign exchange losses depends largely upon the accuracy of our forecasts of future sales, expenses, capital expenditures and assets and liabilities. As such, our foreign currency hedging program may not fully cover all of our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. If our hedging activities are not successful, our net income may be reduced. In addition, certain countries in which we operate have adopted currency controls requiring that local transactions be settled only in local currency rather than in our functional currency, which is generally different than the local currency. Such controls could require us to hedge larger amounts of local currency than we otherwise would and/or prevent us from repatriating cash generated by our operations in such countries.
We may not have sufficient insurance coverage for potential claims and losses, which could leave us responsible for certain costs and damages.
We carry various forms of business and liability insurance in types and amounts we believe are reasonable and customary for similarly situated companies in our industry. However, our insurance program does not generally cover losses due to failure to comply with typical customer warranties for workmanship, product and medical device liability, intellectual property infringement, product recall claims, or environmental contamination. In particular, our insurance coverage with respect to damages to or closure of our facilities, or damages to our customers’ products caused by cyberattacks and certain natural disasters, such as earthquakes, epidemics and pandemics (such as the COVID-19 pandemic), is limited and is subject to policy deductibles, coverage limits, and exclusions, and as a result, may not be sufficient to cover all of our losses. For example, our policies have very limited coverage for damages due to earthquakes or losses caused by business disruptions. In addition, such coverage may not continue to be available at commercially reasonable rates and terms. Our policies generally have deductibles and/or limits or may be limited to certain lines or business or customer engagements that reduce the amount of our potential recoveries from insurance. As a result, not all of our potential business losses are covered under our insurance policies. Should we sustain a significant uncovered loss, our net income will be reduced. Additionally, if one or more counterparties to our insurance coverage were to fail, we would bear the entire amount of an otherwise insured loss.
Recruiting and retaining our key personnel is critical to the continued growth of our business.
Our success depends upon the continued service of our key personnel, particularly our highly skilled sales and operations executives, managers and engineers with many years of experience in the EMS industry. Such individuals can be difficult to identify, recruit and retain and are heavily recruited by our competitors. As our key employees choose to retire or terminate their employment with us, we will be required to replace them with new employees with the required experience, which has become challenging in the U.S. recently due to the strong employment market. Should we be unable to recruit new employees to fill key positions with us, our operations and growth prospects could be negatively impacted.
We may not be successful in implementing and integrating strategic transactions or in divesting assets or businesses, which could harm our operating results; we could become required to book a charge to earnings should we determine that goodwill and other acquired assets are impaired.
From time to time, we may undertake strategic transactions that give us the opportunity to access new customers and new end markets, increase our proprietary product offerings, obtain new manufacturing and service capabilities and technologies, enter new geographic manufacturing locations, lower our manufacturing costs, increase our margins or further develop existing customer relationships. For example, in the first quarter of fiscal 2023, we entered into a joint venture with a wholly-owned subsidiary of Reliance Industries Limited intended to create a world-class electronic manufacturing hub in India. The success of this joint venture is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including the timing of the joint venture obtaining “Trusted Source” designation under the India government’s “Make in India” initiative, adverse changes in the key markets the joint venture will target and the risks described above under the caption “We are subject to risks arising from our international operations.” Strategic transactions involve a number of risks, uncertainties and costs, including integrating acquired operations and workforce, businesses and products, resolving quality issues involving acquired products, incurring severance and other restructuring costs, diverting management attention from their normal operational duties, maintaining customer, supplier or other favorable business relationships of acquired operations, terminating unfavorable commercial arrangements, losing key employees, integrating the systems of acquired operations into our management information systems and satisfying the liabilities of acquired businesses, including liability for past violations of law and material environmental liabilities. Any of these risks could cause our strategic transactions not to be ultimately profitable. We may also choose to divest plants, businesses or products lines in the future. Divestitures reduce revenue and, potentially, margins and can involve the risk of retained liabilities from the operations divested, including environmental liabilities.
In addition, we have in the past recorded, and may be required to record in the future, goodwill and other intangible assets in connection with our acquisitions. We evaluate, at least on an annual basis, whether events or circumstances have occurred that indicate all, or a portion, of the carrying amount of our goodwill and other intangible assets may no longer be recoverable. Should we determine in the future that our goodwill or other intangible assets have become impaired, an impairment charge to earnings would become necessary, which could be significant. For example, during our fiscal 2018 annual goodwill impairment analysis, we fully impaired goodwill of $31 million associated with the acquisition of a storage software business we purchased in 2016.
We are subject to risks associated with natural disasters and global events.
Our activities, including manufacturing, administration and information technology management, can be adversely affected by natural disasters such as major earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, tornadoes, fires and epidemics or pandemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Climate change may cause certain of these events to become more severe and therefore more damaging. In the event of a major natural disaster affecting one or more of our facilities, our operations and management information systems, which control our worldwide procurement, inventory management, shipping and billing activities, could be significantly disrupted. Such events could delay or prevent product manufacturing for an extended period of time. Any extended inability to continue our operations at affected facilities following such an event could reduce our revenue. Further, geopolitical events like the war in Ukraine and conflict in the Middle East may also impact our operations by affecting our supply chain or impacting our plants located in the region of instability.
Risks of Investing in Our Stock
The market price of our common stock is volatile and is impacted by factors other than our financial performance.
The stock market in recent years has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have affected our stock price. These fluctuations have often been unrelated to our operating performance. Factors that can cause such fluctuations include announcements by our customers, suppliers, competitors or other events affecting companies in the electronics industry, such as component shortages, currency fluctuations, the impact of natural disasters and global events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, geopolitical tensions, such as the war in Ukraine and conflict in the Middle East, general market fluctuations and macroeconomic conditions, including concerns about inflation and recession, any of which may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate widely.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 1C. Cybersecurity
Item 2. Properties
We own or lease facilities located primarily in the geographies listed below. We believe that our properties are generally in good condition, are well maintained and are generally suitable and adequate to carry out our business at expected capacity for the foreseeable future.
As of September 30, 2023, the approximate square footage of our active manufacturing facilities by region was as follows:
As of September 30, 2023, our active manufacturing facilities consist of nine million square feet in facilities that we own and two million square feet in leased facilities with lease terms expiring between 2023 and 2042.
Certifications and Registrations. Certifications and registrations under industry standards are important to our business because many customers rely on them to confirm our adherence to manufacturing process and quality standards. Certain markets, such as telecommunications, medical, defense, aerospace, automotive and oil and gas, require adherence to industry-specific standards. Substantially all of our manufacturing facilities are certified to ISO 9001:2015, a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization. As part of the ISO 9001:2015 certification process, we have a highly developed quality management system and continually improve its effectiveness in accordance with its requirements. We use this certification to demonstrate our ability to consistently provide product that meets customer and applicable regulatory requirements and enhance customer satisfaction through its effective application.
In addition to ISO 9001:2015, many of our facilities are TL 9000 6.3 certified. The TL 9000 quality system requirements and quality system metrics are designed specifically for the telecommunications industry to promote consistency and efficiency, reduce redundancy and improve customer satisfaction. Included in the TL 9000 system are performance-based metrics that quantify reliability and quality performance of the product. The majority of our facilities are also compliant with the standards set by Underwriters Laboratories. These standards define requirements for quality, manufacturing process control and manufacturing documentation and are required by many OEMs in the communications sector of the electronics industry.
Our medical systems division has identified certain manufacturing facilities to be centers of excellence for medical products manufacturing. These facilities are ISO 13485:2016 certified and, where appropriate, FDA registered and MDSAP certified. All such facilities are fully compliant with the FDA's quality systems regulations.
Our SCI Technology defense and aerospace operations are headquartered in Huntsville, Alabama in a facility dedicated to meeting the specialized needs of our defense and aerospace customers. These operations are AS9100 Rev D, 2016 certified and maintain other certifications in accordance with various U.S. military specifications, ANSI and other standards as appropriate for defense and aerospace suppliers. Other selected operations around the world are also AS9100 Rev. D certified.
Our automotive facilities are strategically located worldwide. Substantially all of our automotive facilities are certified to IATF16949:2016, the automotive industry standard.
Our oil and gas related manufacturing operations are, as applicable, certified to American Petroleum Institute requirements.
Other certifications and registrations are obtained and maintained at our sites in accordance with specific customer requirements.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
For a description of our material legal proceedings, see Note 10 “Contingencies” of the notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in this report.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol SANM. As of November 9, 2023, we had approximately 739 holders of record of our common stock.
The following graph compares the cumulative 5-year total stockholder return on our common stock relative to the cumulative total returns of the S&P 500 index and a new peer group index consisting of Flex Ltd., Jabil Inc., Celestica Inc., Benchmark Electronics, Inc., and Plexus Corp. In previous years, we compared our cumulative total returns to the NASDAQ Electronic Components index. This year, we have elected to replace such index with the new peer group index, as the NASDAQ Electronic Components index was discontinued in December 2022 and is no longer available for comparison this year, and because the companies included in the new peer group are in the same industry as we are.
An investment of $100 (with reinvestment of all dividends, if any) is assumed to have been made in our common stock on September 29, 2018 and in each of such indices at month end starting on September 29, 2018 and its relative performance is tracked through September 30, 2023.
* $100 invested on 9/29/2018 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends. Index performance is calculated on a month-end basis.
Copyright @ 2023 Standard & Poor's, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.
|Sanmina Corporation||100.00 ||116.38 ||96.20 ||141.96 ||166.96 ||196.67 |
|S&P 500||100.00 ||104.25 ||120.05 ||156.07 ||131.92 ||160.44 |
|Peer Group||100.00 ||99.51 ||101.04 ||160.44 ||151.51 ||276.77 |
Sanmina's stock price performance included in this graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently expect to retain future earnings for use in our operations, for expansion of our business, share repurchases and debt repayment and do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Additionally, our ability to pay dividends is limited pursuant to covenants contained in our credit agreements. See also “Item 7-Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources.”
During the third quarter of 2023, our Board of Directors authorized us to repurchase up to $200 million of our common stock in the open market or in negotiated private transactions. This program has no expiration date.
The table below sets forth information regarding repurchases of our common stock during the fourth quarter of 2023.
|Period (1)||Total Number of Shares Purchased||Average Price Paid Per Share|
|Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Programs||Maximum Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under The Programs|
|July 2, 2023 - July 29, 2023||— ||$||— ||— ||$||312,321,196 |
|July 30, 2023 - August 26, 2023||458,368 ||$||55.17 ||458,368 ||$||287,034,902 |
|August 27, 2023 - September 30, 2023||145,408 ||$||52.99 ||145,408 ||$||279,329,725 |
|Total||603,776 ||$||54.64 ||603,776 |
(1) All months shown are our fiscal months.
(2) Amounts do not include commissions payable on shares repurchased. The total average price paid per share is a weighted average based on the total number of shares repurchased during the period and does not include the effect of the excise tax under the provision of the Inflation Reduction Act.
Item 6. [Reserved]
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. These statements relate to our expectations for future events and time periods. All statements other than statements of historical fact are statements that could be deemed to be forward-looking statements, including any statements regarding trends in future revenue or results of operations, gross margin, operating margin, expenses, earnings or losses from operations, or cash flow; any statements of the plans, strategies and objectives of management for future operations and the anticipated benefits of such plans, strategies and objectives; any statements regarding future economic conditions or performance; any statements regarding litigation or pending investigations, claims or disputes; any statements regarding the timing of closing of, future cash outlays for, and benefits of acquisitions and other strategic transactions, any statements regarding expected restructuring costs and benefits; any statements concerning the adequacy of our current liquidity and the availability of additional sources of liquidity; any statements regarding the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, results of operations and financial condition; any statements regarding the potential impact of supply chain shortages and inflation on our business; any statements regarding the future impact of tariffs and export controls on our business; any statements relating to our expectations concerning developments in the audit by the IRS of certain tax returns filed by us; any statements relating to the expected impact of accounting pronouncements not yet adopted; any statements regarding future repurchases of our common stock; any statements of expectation or belief; and any statements of assumptions underlying any of the foregoing. Generally, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “plan,” “expect,” “future,” “intend,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “continue” and similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements are based on current expectations, forecasts and assumptions and are subject to risks and uncertainties, including those contained in Part I, Item 1A of this report. As a result, actual results could vary materially from those suggested by the forward looking statements. We undertake no obligation to publicly disclose any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances occurring subsequent to filing this report with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Investors and others should note that Sanmina announces material financial information to our investors using our investor relations website (http://ir.sanmina.com/investor-relations/overview/default.aspx), SEC filings, press releases, public conference calls and webcasts. We use these channels to communicate with our investors and the public about Sanmina, its products and services and other issues. It is possible that the information we post on our investor relations website could be deemed to be material information. Therefore, we encourage investors, the media, and others interested in Sanmina to review the information we post on our investor relations website. The contents of our investor relations website are not incorporated by reference into this annual report on Form 10-K or in any other report or document we file with the SEC.
We are a leading global provider of integrated manufacturing solutions, components, products and repair, logistics and after-market services. Our revenue is generated from sales of our products and services primarily to original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) that serve the industrial, medical, defense and aerospace, automotive, communications networks and cloud solutions industries.
Our operations are managed as two businesses:
1) Integrated Manufacturing Solutions (“IMS”). Our IMS segment consists of printed circuit board assembly and test, high-level assembly and test and direct-order-fulfillment.
2) Components, Products and Services (“CPS”). Components include printed circuit boards, backplanes and backplane assemblies, cable assemblies, fabricated metal parts, precision machined parts, and plastic injected molded parts. Products include optical, radio frequency (“RF”) and microelectronic design and manufacturing services from our Advanced Microsystems Technologies division; multi-chip package memory solutions from our Viking Technology division; high-performance storage platforms for hyperscale and enterprise solutions from our Viking Enterprise Solutions division; defense and aerospace product, design, manufacturing, repair and refurbishment services from our SCI Technology Inc. (“SCI”) subsidiary; and cloud-based smart manufacturing execution software from our 42Q division. Services include design, engineering, and logistics and repair.
Our only reportable segment for financial reporting purposes is IMS, which represented approximately 80% of our total revenue in 2023. Our CPS business consists of multiple operating segments which do not individually meet the quantitative thresholds for being presented as reportable segments. Therefore, financial information for these operating segments is combined and presented in a single category entitled “Components, Products and Services”.
Our strategy is to leverage our comprehensive product and service offerings, advanced technologies and global capabilities to further penetrate diverse end markets that we believe offer significant growth opportunities and have complex products that require higher value-added services. We believe this strategy differentiates us from our competitors and will help drive more sustainable revenue growth and provide opportunities for us to achieve operating margins that exceed industry standards.
A core component of our business strategy is to establish long-term customer partnerships with companies. Historically, we have had substantial recurring sales to existing customers. Sales to our ten largest customers typically represent approximately 50% of our net sales in any given year. Nokia represented 10% or more of our net sales in 2023, 2022 and 2021. Motorola represented 10% or more of our net sales in 2022.
We typically enter into supply agreements with our major OEM customers. These agreements generally have terms ranging from three to five years and cover the manufacture of a range of products. Under these agreements, a customer typically purchases its requirements for specific products in particular geographic areas from us. However, these agreements generally do not obligate the customer to purchase minimum quantities of products. In addition, some customer contracts contain cost reduction objectives, which can have the effect of reducing revenue from such customers.
We typically generate about 80% of our net sales from products manufactured in our foreign operations. The concentration of foreign operations has resulted primarily from a desire on the part of many of our customers to manufacture in lower-cost locations in regions such as Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe and we plan to expand our presence as appropriate to meet the needs of our customers. We also intend to continue to invest in factory automation, process improvements, robotics and artificial intelligence, keeping up with the trends in technology to further enhance our efficiency output.
We believe our end-to-end manufacturing solutions combined with our global supply chain management expertise differentiates us from our competitors and enables us to better serve the needs of OEMs. However, our business faces many challenges. For example, we compete with a number of companies in each of our key end markets. This includes companies that are much larger than we are and smaller companies that focus on a particular niche product, service or end market. Although we believe we are well-positioned in each of our key end markets and offer many advantages compared to our competitors, competition remains intense and profitably growing our revenues has been challenging. Additionally, we are impacted by macroeconomic challenges such as inflation, market volatility, fluctuations in currency exchange rates, supply chain issues, and actual or threatened wars or conflicts. These challenges can increase the prices and reduce the availability of components we acquire, as well as increase our labor and operating costs. We have been able to partially mitigate the impact of rising prices through our contractual pricing rights with customers. However, further pricing increases may result in a decline in our future profitability and we expect the macroeconomic challenges to continue in the future.
Over the past several years, the U.S., China, the E.U. and several other countries imposed tariffs impacting certain imported products. Although our customers are generally liable to us for reimbursement of tariffs we pay on components imported for the manufacture of their products, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in recovering all of the tariffs that are owed to us. Unrecovered tariffs paid on behalf of our customers reduce our gross margins. Also, although we are required to pay tariffs upon importation of components, we may not recover these amounts from customers until sometime later, which adversely impacts our operating cash flow in a given period. However, the net impact of tariffs, after recovery from customers, has not been, and is not expected to be, material to us.
Overall, we strive to manage the challenges posed by the economy and competition, by focusing on improving our operations, building flexibility and efficiencies in our processes and adjusting our business models to changing circumstances. Given that maintaining low costs is the cornerstone of our success and growth, we are proactively handling cost impacts through a combination of well-calibrated pricing actions and targeted cost-saving measures to enhance overall stockholder value.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Management's discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). We review the accounting policies used in reporting our financial results on a regular basis. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, net sales and expenses and related disclosure of contingent liabilities. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate the process used to develop estimates related to accounts receivable, inventories, income taxes, environmental matters, litigation and other contingencies, as well as estimates related to costs expected to be incurred to satisfy performance obligations under long-term contracts and variable consideration related to such contracts. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. We have considered information available to us as of the date of issuance of these financial statements and are not aware of any specific events or circumstances that would require an update to our estimates or judgments, or a revision to the carrying value of our assets or liabilities. Our estimates may change as new events occur and additional information becomes available. Our actual results may differ materially from these estimates.
We believe the following critical accounting policies reflect the more significant judgments and estimates used by us in preparing our consolidated financial statements:
Revenue Recognition. We derive revenue principally from sales of integrated manufacturing solutions, components and Company-proprietary products. Other sources of revenue include logistic and repair services; design, development and engineering services; defense and aerospace programs; and sales of raw materials to customers whose requirements change after we have procured inventory to fulfill the customer’s forecasted demand.
For purposes of determining when to recognize revenue, and in what amount, we apply a 5-step model: (1) identify the contract with a customer; (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determine the transaction price; (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (5) recognize revenue when (or as) we satisfy a performance obligation. Each of these steps may involve the use of significant judgments.
We recognize revenue for the majority of our contracts on an over time basis. This is primarily due to the fact that we do not have an alternative use for the end products we manufacture for our customers and have an enforceable right to payment, including a reasonable profit, for work-in-progress upon a customer's cancellation of a contract for convenience. In certain circumstances, we recognize over time because our customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by our services or, our customer controls the end product as we perform manufacturing services (continuous transfer of control). For these contracts, revenue is recognized on an over time basis using the cost-to-cost method (ratio of costs incurred to date to total estimated costs at completion) which we believe best depicts the transfer of control to the customer. Revenue streams for which revenue is recognized on an over time basis include sales of vertically integrated manufacturing solutions (integrated manufacturing solutions and components); logistics and repair services; design, development and engineering services; and defense and aerospace programs.
Application of the cost-to-cost method for government contracts in our Defense and Aerospace division requires the use of significant judgments with respect to estimated materials, labor and subcontractor costs included in the total estimated costs at completion. Additionally, we evaluate whether contract modifications for claims have been approved and, if so, estimate the amount, if any, of variable consideration that can be included in the transaction price of the contract. This division is an operating segment whose results are combined with thirteen other operating segments and reported under CPS. In 2023, CPS revenue and gross profit were $1.6 billion and $202 million, respectively.
Estimates of materials, labor and subcontractor costs expected to be incurred to satisfy a performance obligation are updated on a quarterly basis. These estimates consider costs incurred to date and estimated costs to be incurred over the remaining expected period of performance to satisfy a performance obligation. Such estimates are reviewed each quarter by a group of employees that includes representatives from numerous functions such as engineering, materials, contracts, manufacturing, program management, finance and senior management. If a change in estimate is deemed necessary, the impact of the change is recognized in the period of change. Additionally, contract modifications for claims are assessed each quarter to determine whether the claims have been approved. If it is determined that a claim has been approved, the amount of the claim, if any, that can be included in transaction price is estimated considering a number of factors such as the length of time expected to lapse until uncertainty about the claim has been resolved and the extent to which our experience with claims for similar contracts has predictive value.
For contracts for which revenue is required to be recognized at a point-in-time, we recognize revenue when we have transferred control of the related goods, which generally occurs upon shipment or delivery of the goods to the customer. Revenue streams for which revenue is recognized at a point-in-time include our proprietary products and sales of raw materials.
Inventories— We state inventories at the lower of cost (based on standard cost, which approximates first-in, first-out method) and net realizable value. Cost includes raw materials, labor and manufacturing overhead. We regularly evaluate the carrying value of our inventories and make provisions to reduce excess and obsolete inventories to their estimated net realizable values. The ultimate realization of inventory carrying amounts is affected by changes in customer demand for inventory that customers are not contractually obligated to purchase and inventory held for specific customers who are experiencing financial difficulties. Inventory write-downs are recorded based on forecasted demand, past experience with specific customers, the ability to redistribute inventory to other programs or return inventories to our suppliers, and whether customers are contractually obligated and have the ability to pay for the related inventory. Certain payments received from customers for inventories that have not been shipped to customers or otherwise disposed of are netted against inventory.
We generally procure inventory based on specific customer orders and forecasts. Customers generally have limited rights of modification (for example, rescheduling or cancellations) with respect to specific orders. Customer modifications of orders affecting inventory previously procured by us and our purchases of inventory beyond customer needs may result in excess and obsolete inventory. Although we may be able to use some excess inventory for other products we manufacture, a portion of this excess inventory may not be returnable to vendors or recoverable from customers. Write-offs or write-downs of inventory could be caused by:
•changes in customer demand for inventory, such as cancellation of orders, and our purchases of inventory beyond customer needs that result in excess quantities on hand that we are not able to return to the vendor, use to fulfill orders from other customers or charge back to the customer;
•financial difficulties experienced by specific customers for whom we hold inventory; and
•declines in the market value of inventory.
Long-lived Assets— We review property, plant and equipment for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. An asset group is the unit of accounting that represents the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets. An asset or asset group is considered impaired if its carrying amount exceeds the undiscounted future net cash flows the asset or asset group is expected to generate. If an asset or asset group is considered impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset or asset group exceeds its fair value. For asset groups for which a building is the primary asset, we estimate fair value primarily based on data provided by commercial real estate brokers. For other assets, we estimate fair value based on projected discounted future net cash flows, which requires significant judgment.
Consolidation— In accordance with ASC Topic 810, Consolidation (“ASC 810”), we consolidate entities in which we have a controlling financial interest. In fiscal 2023, we completed a joint venture transaction with Reliance Strategic Business Ventures Limited (“RSBVL”) to establish Sanmina SCI India Private Limited (“SIPL”), our existing Indian manufacturing entity, as a joint venture. As a result of the transaction, RSBVL holds 50.1% of the outstanding shares of SIPL and we hold the remaining 49.9% of the outstanding shares of SIPL. In connection with RSBVL’s investment, we entered into a management services contract pursuant to which we have the unilateral ability to make the significant financial and operating decisions made in the ordinary course of SIPL’s business. We determined the voting interest model was applicable under ASC 810 and concluded that, despite not having a majority ownership interest, we have a controlling financial interest in SIPL through the management services contract. Therefore, we have, by contract, the unilateral ability to control the significant decisions made in the ordinary course of SIPL’s business and, as such, we consolidate SIPL. However, we periodically assess whether any changes in facts and circumstances have occurred that could require us to deconsolidate SIPL.
Income Taxes— We estimate our income tax provision or benefit in each of the jurisdictions in which we operate, including estimating exposures related to examinations by taxing authorities. We believe our accruals for tax liabilities are adequate for all open years based on our assessment of many factors, including past experience and interpretations of tax law applied to the facts of each matter. Although we believe our accruals for tax liabilities are adequate, tax regulations are subject to interpretation and the tax controversy process is inherently lengthy and uncertain; therefore, our assessments can involve a series of complex judgments about future events and rely heavily on estimates and assumptions. To the extent the probable tax outcome of these matters changes, such changes in estimate will impact our income tax provision in the period in which such determination is made. We only recognize or continue to recognize tax positions that meet a “more likely than not” threshold of being upheld. Interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits are recognized as a component of income tax expense.
We must also make judgments regarding the realizability of deferred tax assets. The carrying value of our net deferred tax assets is based on our belief that it is more likely than not that we will generate sufficient future taxable income in certain jurisdictions to realize these deferred tax assets. We evaluate positive and negative evidence each reporting period when assessing the need for a valuation allowance. A valuation allowance is established for deferred tax assets if we believe realization of such assets is not more likely than not. Our judgments regarding future taxable income may change due to changes in market conditions, new or modified tax laws, tax planning strategies or other factors. If our assumptions, and consequently our estimates, change in the future, the valuation allowances we have established may be increased or decreased, resulting in a respective increase or decrease in income tax expense.
Our effective tax rate is highly dependent upon the amount and geographic distribution of our worldwide income or losses, the tax regulations, rates and holidays in each geographic region, the utilization of net operating losses, the availability of tax credits and carryforwards, and the effectiveness of our tax planning strategies.
Results of Operations
Refer to Item 7. "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" contained in Amendment No. 1 on Form 10-K/A to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended October 1, 2022 filed with the SEC on May 22, 2023 for discussion of our results of operations for the fiscal year ended October 1, 2022 compared to the fiscal year ended October 2, 2021.
The following table presents our key operating results.
|Net sales||$||8,935,048 ||$||7,919,622 ||$||6,738,356 |
|Gross profit||$||743,211 ||$||622,206 ||$||526,441 |
|Gross margin||8.3 ||%||7.9 ||%||7.8 ||%|
|Operating expenses||$||287,553 ||$||272,727 ||$||270,505 |
|Operating income||$||455,658 ||$||349,479 ||$||255,936 |
|Operating margin||5.1 ||%||4.4 ||%||3.8 ||%|
|Net income attributable to common shareholders||$||309,970 ||$||240,384 ||$||249,546 |
Net sales increased from $7.9 billion for 2022 to $8.9 billion for 2023, an increase of 12.8%. Net sales increased from $6.7 billion for 2021 to $7.9 billion for 2022, an increase of 17.5%. Sales by end market were as follows:
2023 vs. 2022
2022 vs. 2021
|(Dollars in thousands)|
|Industrial, Medical, Defense and Aerospace, and Automotive||$||5,388,877 ||$||4,744,088 ||$||3,871,754 ||$||644,789 ||13.6 ||%||$||872,334 ||22.5 ||%|
|Communications Networks and Cloud Infrastructure||3,546,171 ||3,175,534 ||2,866,602 ||370,637 ||11.7 ||%||308,932 ||10.8 ||%|
|Total||$||8,935,048 ||$||7,919,622 ||$||6,738,356 ||$||1,015,426 ||12.8 ||%||$||1,181,266 ||17.5 ||%|
Comparison of 2023 to 2022 by End Market
Sales in both our industrial, medical, defense and automotive end market, as well as our communications networks and cloud infrastructure end market, increased primarily as a result of stronger overall demand, particularly in the first half of the year, improved material availability resulting from easing of supply chain challenges and a ramp up of certain new customer programs.
Gross margin was 8.3%, 7.9% and 7.8% in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. IMS gross margin increased to 7.7% in 2023 from 7.2% in 2022, primarily due to increased operating efficiencies from higher volume. CPS gross margin increased to 11.6% in 2023 from 10.6% in 2022, primarily due to improved operating efficiencies and a favorable mix of products, the effects of which were partially offset by losses on certain fixed-price customer contracts.
We have experienced fluctuations in gross margin in the past and may continue to do so in the future. Fluctuations in our gross margin may be caused by a number of factors, including:
•the impacts of supply chain constraints on our operations, the operations of our suppliers and on our customers’ businesses;
•capacity utilization which, if lower, results in lower margins due to fixed costs being absorbed by lower volumes;
•changes in the mix of high and low margin products demanded by our customers;
•competition in the EMS industry and pricing pressures from OEMs due to greater focus on cost reduction;
•the amount of our provisions for excess and obsolete inventory, including those associated with distressed customers;
•levels of operational efficiency and production yields;
•our performance on long-term contracts, including our ability to recover claims for cost overruns; and
•our ability to transition the location of and ramp up manufacturing and assembly operations when requested by a customer in a timely and cost-effective manner.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses were $255 million, $245 million and $235 million in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As a percentage of net sales, selling, general and administrative expenses were 2.9%, 3.1% and 3.5% for 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The increase in absolute dollars in 2023 from 2022 was primarily due to an increase in our deferred compensation liability resulting from an increase in the market value of participant investment accounts and higher professional fees.
Research and Development
Research and Development expenses were $26 million, $21 million and $21 million in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. As a percentage of net sales, Research and Development expenses were 0.3% for 2023, 2022 and 2021. The increase in absolute dollars in 2023 from 2022 was primarily due to higher expense for additional design support on projects and higher material costs as we continue to focus on supporting customer requirements.
Restructuring and Other
Restructuring costs were $6 million, $11 million, and $15 million in 2023, 2022, and 2021, respectively. The decrease in restructuring cost in 2023 compared to 2022 was primarily due to an increase in 2022 in our environmental remediation liability for a former site.
Interest income was $14 million, $2 million and $1 million in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Interest income increased $12 million in 2023 primarily due to interest earned on investments purchased with a portion of the cash proceeds received from the sale of an equity interest related to a joint venture transaction that closed on October 3, 2022 as well as higher interest earned on cash deposits.
Interest expense was $36 million, $22 million and $20 million in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Interest expense increased $14 million in 2023 due to higher interest rates and increased utilization of our revolving credit facility.
Other Income (Expense), net
Other income (expense), net was $(20) million in 2023, $(26) million in 2022 and a $44 million in 2021. Other income (expense), net, decreased $6 million in 2023 due primarily to a gain of $5 million in the market value of participant investment accounts in our deferred compensation plan in 2023 compared to a loss of $6 million in 2022, a $7 million allowance in 2022 that was provided for a note receivable compared to none in 2023, partially offset by a $13 million increase in fees in 2023 for accounts receivable factoring.
Provision for Income Taxes
We recorded income tax expense of $85 million, $62 million and $32 million in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Our effective tax rate was 21%, 20% and 11% for 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The increase in tax in absolute dollars for 2023 was primarily due to increased profit before tax.
We are currently being audited by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) for fiscal years 2008 through 2010. On
September 26, 2023, we received a final Notice of Proposed Adjustment from the IRS related to a worthless stock deduction and disallowance of the resulting net operating loss carryforward in the 2009 fiscal year. We disagree with the IRS’s proposed adjustment and intend to vigorously contest this matter through the applicable IRS administrative and judicial procedures, as appropriate. In the future, we expect to receive a Revenue Agent Report including the IRS’s calculation of the tax assessment related to this matter. Although the final resolution of this proposed adjustment remains uncertain, we continue to believe that it is more likely than not that our tax position will be sustained. An unfavorable resolution of this matter could have a material, adverse impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Net Income Attributable to Noncontrolling Interest
On October 3, 2022 (“Transaction Date”), we completed a joint venture transaction pursuant to a Share Subscription and Purchase Agreement (the “SSPA”) and a Joint Venture and Shareholders’ Agreement (the “Shareholders’ Agreement”) previously entered into with Reliance Strategic Business Ventures Limited (“RSBVL”), a wholly owned subsidiary of Reliance Industries Limited. Pursuant to the SSPA and the Shareholders’ Agreement, the parties established Sanmina SCI India Private Limited (“SIPL”), our existing Indian manufacturing entity, as a joint venture to engage in manufacturing in India of telecommunications equipment, data center and internet equipment, medical equipment, clean technology equipment and other high-tech equipment. This partnership leverages our advanced manufacturing experience and RSBVL’s expertise and leadership in the Indian business ecosystem. In addition to supporting our current customer base, the joint venture will create a state-of-the-art “Manufacturing Technology Center of Excellence" that will serve as an incubation center to support the product development and hardware start-up ecosystem in India, as well as promote research and innovation of leading-edge technologies.
As a result of the transaction, RSBVL acquired shares of SIPL for approximately $216 million of cash such that RSBVL holds 50.1% of the outstanding shares of SIPL and we hold the remaining 49.9% of the outstanding shares of SIPL. In connection with RSBVL’s investment, we and RSBVL entered into a management services contract pursuant to which we have the unilateral ability to make the significant financial and operating decisions made in the ordinary course of SIPL’s business.
In accordance with ASC Topic 810, Consolidation (“ASC 810”), we are required to consolidate entities in which we have a controlling financial interest. We determined the voting interest model was applicable under ASC 810 and concluded that, despite not having a majority ownership interest, we have a controlling financial interest in SIPL through the management services contract. Therefore, we have, by contract, the unilateral ability to control the significant decisions made in the ordinary course of SIPL’s business. Because we have a controlling financial interest in SIPL, we consolidate SIPL.
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest was $18 million in 2023.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
| ||Year Ended|
|Net cash provided by (used in):|
|Operating activities||$||235,168 ||$||330,854 ||$||338,342 |
|Financing activities||94,505 ||(314,299)||(77,318)|
|Effect of exchange rate changes||498 ||(4,510)||(199)|
|Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents||$||137,713 ||$||(120,169)||$||169,500 |
Key Working Capital Management Measures
| ||As of|
| ||September 30,|
| ||October 1,|
|Days sales outstanding (1)||55||48|
|Contract asset days (2)||20||19|
|Inventory turns (3)||5.1||5.0|
|Days inventory on hand (4)||72||73|
|Accounts payable days (5)||81||90|
|Cash cycle days (6)||66||50|
(1)Days sales outstanding (a measure of how quickly we collect our accounts receivable), or “DSO”, is calculated as the ratio of average accounts receivable, net, to average daily net sales for the quarter.
(2)Contract asset days (a measure of how quickly we transfer contract assets to accounts receivable) are calculated as the ratio of average contract assets to average daily net sales for the quarter.
(3)Inventory turns (annualized) (a measure of how quickly we sell inventory) are calculated as the ratio of four times our cost of sales for the quarter to average inventory.
(4)Days inventory on hand (a measure of how quickly we turn inventory into sales) is calculated as the ratio of average inventory for the quarter to average daily cost of sales for the quarter.
(5)Accounts payable days (a measure of how quickly we pay our suppliers), or “DPO”, is calculated as the ratio of 365 days to accounts payable turns, in which accounts payable turns is calculated as the ratio of four times our cost of sales for the quarter to average accounts payable.
(6)Cash cycle days (a measure of how quickly we convert investments in inventory to cash) is calculated as days inventory on hand plus days sales outstanding minus accounts payable days.
Cash and cash equivalents were $668 million at September 30, 2023 and $530 million at October 1, 2022. This increase was driven largely by our receipt of approximately $216 million from the sale of shares of SIPL to RSBVL in fiscal 2023. Our cash levels vary during any given period depending on the timing of collections from customers and payments to suppliers, borrowings under credit facilities, sales of accounts receivable under numerous programs we utilize, repurchases of capital stock and other factors. Our working capital was approximately $1.8 billion and $1.4 billion as of September 30, 2023 and October 1, 2022, respectively.
Net cash provided by operating activities was $235 million, $331 million and $338 million for 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Our working capital metrics tend to fluctuate from quarter-to-quarter based on factors such as the linearity of our shipments to customers and purchases from suppliers, customer and supplier mix, and payment terms with customers and suppliers. These fluctuations can significantly affect our cash flows from operating activities.
During 2023, we generated $527 million of cash from earnings, excluding non-cash items, and used $292 million of cash primarily because of a decrease in accounts payable of $414 million and an increase in accounts receivable of $89 million, partially offset by a decrease in inventories of $210 million. The decrease in accounts payable is primarily attributable to lower inventory receipts and an unfavorable mix of supplier payment terms, resulting in DPO decreasing from 90 days in 2022 to 81 days in 2023. The decrease in inventories is primarily due to lower business volume and our efforts to reduce inventory to more appropriate levels by working with customers to ensure their demand forecasts are reasonable and incorporate appropriate lead times to secure materials. The increase in accounts receivable is primarily attributable to lower business volume as well as an unfavorable customer payment terms mix.
Net cash used in investing activities was $192 million, $132 million and $91 million for 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. In 2023 and 2022, we used $191 million and $139 million of cash for capital expenditures respectively.
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities was $95 million, $(314) million and $(77) million for 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. In 2023, we repurchased $107 million of common stock (including $23 million in settlement of employee tax withholding obligations), repaid an aggregate of $18 million of long-term debt, paid a final payment of $9 million
in connection with a previous business combination, received $216 million from sale of shares of SIPL to RSBVL, received $8 million proceeds from short-term borrowing and received $3 million of proceeds from issuances of common stock pursuant to stock option exercises. In 2022, we repurchased $331 million of common stock (including $14 million in settlement of employee tax withholding obligations), repaid an aggregate of $333 million of long-term debt, using $350 million of proceeds from issuances of a term loan, incurred $3 million of costs in connection with the amendment to the term loan and received $2 million of proceeds from issuances of common stock pursuant to stock option exercises.
Revolving Credit Facility. Our Credit Agreement provides for an $800 million revolving credit facility and a $350 million secured term loan (the “Term Loan Due 2027”), together with an accordion feature by which we can obtain, subject to the satisfaction of specified conditions and commitment of the lenders, additional revolving commitments in an aggregate amount of up to $200 million.
As of September 30, 2023, no borrowings and $13 million of letters of credit were outstanding under the Credit Agreement, under which $787 million was available to borrow. There were no borrowings outstanding under the Credit Agreement as of October 1, 2022.
Short-term Borrowing Facilities. We had $8 million of short-term borrowings outstanding as of September 30, 2023. Additionally, certain of our foreign subsidiaries had a total of $72 million of short-term borrowing facilities available, under which no borrowings were outstanding as of September 30, 2023. These facilities expire at various dates through the first quarter of 2025.
Other Liquidity Matters
During 2023 and 2022 we repurchased 1.6 million shares and 8.0 million shares of our common stock for $84 million and $317 million (including commissions), respectively, under stock repurchase programs authorized by the Board of Directors. These programs have no expiration dates and the timing of repurchases will depend upon capital needs to support the growth of our business, market conditions and other factors. Although stock repurchases are intended to increase stockholder value, purchases of shares reduce our liquidity. As a result, the timing of future repurchases depends upon our future capital needs, market conditions and other factors. As of September 30, 2023, an aggregate of $279 million remains available under these programs.
We are party to a Receivables Purchase Agreement (the “RPA”) with certain third-party banking institutions for the sale of trade receivables generated from sales to certain customers. The amount available under the RPA is uncommitted and, as such, is available at the discretion of our third-party banking institutions. Under the Credit Agreement, the percentage of our total accounts receivable that can be sold and outstanding at any time is 50%. Therefore, as of September 30, 2023, a maximum of $450 million of sold receivables could be outstanding at any point in time under this program, as amended, as required by our Credit Agreement. Trade receivables sold pursuant to the RPA are serviced by us.
In addition to the RPA, we participate in trade receivables sales programs that have been implemented by certain of our customers, as in effect from time to time. We do not service trade receivables sold under these other programs.
The sale of receivables under all of these programs is subject to the approval of the banks or customers involved and there can be no assurance that we will be able to sell the maximum amount of receivables permitted by these programs when desired.
Under each of the programs noted above, we sell our entire interest in a trade receivable for 100% of face value, less a discount. For the years ended September 30, 2023 and October 1, 2022, we sold approximately $3 billion and $2 billion, respectively, of accounts receivable under these programs. As of September 30, 2023 and October 1, 2022, $162 million and $194 million, respectively, of accounts receivable sold under the RPA and subject to servicing by us remained outstanding and had not yet been collected. Our sole risk with respect to receivables we service is with respect to commercial disputes regarding such receivables. Commercial disputes include billing errors, returns and similar matters. To date, we have not been required to repurchase any receivable we have sold due to a commercial dispute. Additionally, we are required to remit amounts collected as servicer on a weekly basis to the financial institutions that purchased the receivables. As of September 30, 2023 and October 1, 2022, $33 million and $49 million, respectively, had been collected but not yet remitted. This amount is classified in accrued liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.
We enter into forward interest rate swap agreements with independent counterparties to partially hedge the variability in cash flows due to changes in the benchmark interest rate (Term SOFR) associated with anticipated variable rate borrowings. See Note 5, “Financial Instruments” of the notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in this report for details.
In the ordinary course of business, we are or may become party to legal proceedings, claims and other contingencies, including environmental, warranty and employee matters and examinations by government agencies. As of September 30, 2023, we had accrued liabilities of $34 million related to such matters. We cannot accurately predict the outcome of these matters or the amount or timing of cash flows that may be required to defend ourselves or to settle such matters or that these reserves will be sufficient to fully satisfy our contingent liabilities.
As of September 30, 2023, we had a liability of $53 million for uncertain tax positions. Our estimate of liabilities for uncertain tax positions is based on a number of subjective assessments, including the likelihood of a tax obligation being assessed, the amount of taxes (including interest and penalties) that would ultimately be payable, and our ability to settle any such obligations on favorable terms. Therefore, the amount of future cash flows associated with uncertain tax positions may be significantly higher or lower than our recorded liability and we are unable to reliably estimate when cash settlement may occur.
Our liquidity is largely dependent on changes in our working capital, including sales of accounts receivable under our receivables sales programs and the extension of trade credit by our suppliers, investments in manufacturing inventory, facilities and equipment, repayments of obligations under outstanding indebtedness and repurchases of common stock. In 2023, we generated $235 million of cash from operations. Our primary sources of liquidity as of September 30, 2023 consisted of (1) cash and cash equivalents of $668 million; (2) our Credit Agreement, under which $787 million, net of outstanding borrowings and letters of credit, was available; (3) our foreign short-term borrowing facilities of $72 million, all of which was available; (4) proceeds from the sale of accounts receivable under our receivables sales programs and (5) cash generated from operations. Subject to satisfaction of certain conditions, including obtaining additional commitments from existing and/or new lenders, we may increase the revolver commitments under the Credit Agreement by an additional $200 million.
We believe our existing cash resources and other sources of liquidity, together with cash generated from operations, will be sufficient to meet our working capital requirements through at least the next 12 months. However, should demand for our services decrease significantly over the next 12 months, should we be unable to recover on inventory obligations owed to us by our customers or should we experience significant increases in delinquent or uncollectible accounts receivable for any reason, our cash provided by operations could decrease significantly and we could be required to seek additional sources of liquidity to continue our operations at their current level.
We invest our cash in numerous financial institutions that we believe to be of high quality. However, there can be no assurance that one or more of such institutions will not become insolvent in the future, in which case all or a portion of our uninsured funds on deposit with such institutions could be lost.
As of September 30, 2023, approximately 41% of our cash balance was held in the United States. Should we choose or need to remit cash to the United States from our foreign locations, we may incur tax obligations which would reduce the amount of cash ultimately available to the United States. We believe that cash held in the United States, together with liquidity available under our Credit Agreement and cash from foreign subsidiaries that could be remitted to the United States without tax consequences, will be sufficient to meet our United States liquidity needs for at least the next twelve months. SIPL’s cash and cash equivalents balance of $186 million as of September 30, 2023 is not available for general corporate purposes and must be retained in SIPL to fund its operations.
As part of our ongoing operations, we enter into contractual arrangements that obligate us to make future cash payments. These obligations impact our liquidity and capital resource needs. Our estimated future obligations consist of leases, the Term Loan Due 2027, pension plan funding obligations and unrecognized tax benefits as of September 30, 2023.
A summary of our operating lease obligations as of September 30, 2023 can be found in Note 8, “Leases” of the notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in this report.
A summary of our long-term debt obligations as of September 30, 2023 can be found in Note 7, “Debt” of the notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in this report.
We have defined benefit pension plans with an underfunded amount of $35 million as of September 30, 2023. We will be required to provide additional funding to these plans in the future if our returns on plan assets are not sufficient to meet our funding obligations. See Note 17, “Employee Benefit Plans” of the notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in this report.
As of September 30, 2023, we were unable to reliably estimate when cash settlements or closure of audits with taxing authorities may occur with respect to our long-term liabilities arising from unrecognized tax benefits of $53 million. The statutes of limitations for these matters range up to 10 years, and unsettled liabilities are released upon expiration of the statutes.
We also have outstanding firm purchase orders with certain suppliers for the purchase of inventory which are generally short-term in nature. Orders for standard, or catalog, items can typically be canceled with little or no financial penalty. Our policy regarding non-standard or customized items dictates that such items are only ordered specifically for customers who have contractually assumed liability for the inventory, although exceptions are made to this policy in certain situations. Accordingly, our liability from purchase obligations under these purchase orders is not expected to be significant. Lastly, pursuant to arrangements under which vendors consign inventory to us, we may be required to purchase such inventory after a certain period of time. To date, we have not been required to purchase a significant amount of inventory pursuant to these time limitations.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
As of September 30, 2023, we did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements, as defined in Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of Regulation S-K promulgated by the SEC, that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in our financial condition, revenues, or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures, or capital resources that is material to investors.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
Interest Rate Risk
Our primary exposure to market risk for changes in interest rates relates to our Term Loan Due 2027, under which $333 million is currently outstanding, and borrowings under our revolving credit facility, for which the interest rate we pay is based on a floating index. As of September 30, 2023, we had interest rate swaps with an aggregate notional amount of $650 million that effectively convert our floating rate Term Loan Due 2027 to a fixed rate term loan. An immediate 10 percent change in interest rates would not have a significant impact on our results of operations. For more information about our debt and derivative instruments, see Note 5 “Financial Instruments” and Note 7 “Debt” of the notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this report.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
We transact business in foreign currencies. Our foreign exchange policy requires that we take certain steps to limit our foreign exchange exposures resulting from certain assets and liabilities and forecasted cash flows. However, our policy does not require us to hedge all foreign exchange exposures. Furthermore, our foreign currency hedges are based on forecasted transactions and estimated balances, the amount of which may differ from that actually incurred. As a result, we can experience foreign exchange gains and losses in our results of operations.
We enter into short-term foreign currency forward contracts to hedge currency exposures associated with certain monetary assets and liabilities denominated in non-functional currencies such as Mexican peso, Chinese renminbi and Indian rupee. These contracts generally have maturities of up to two months and these forward contracts are not designated as part of a hedging relationship for accounting purposes. Accordingly, all outstanding foreign currency forward contracts are marked-to-market at the end of the period with unrealized gains and losses included in other income (expense), net, in the consolidated statements of income. From an economic perspective, the objective of our hedging program is for gains or losses on forward contracts to substantially offset gains and losses on the underlying hedged items. As of September 30, 2023, we had outstanding foreign currency forward contracts to exchange various foreign currencies for U.S. dollars in an aggregate notional amount of $338 million.
We also utilize foreign currency forward contracts to hedge certain operational (“cash flow”) exposures resulting from changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Such exposures result from (1) forecasted non-functional currency sales and (2) forecasted non-functional currency materials, labor, overhead and other expenses. These contracts may be up to twelve months in duration and are designated as cash flow hedges for accounting purposes. The effective portion of changes in the fair value of the contracts is recorded in stockholders' equity as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income and recognized in earnings when the hedged item affects earnings. We had forward contracts related to cash flow hedges in various foreign currencies in an aggregate notional amount of $126 million as of September 30, 2023.
The net impact of an immediate 10 percent change in exchange rates would not be material to our consolidated financial statements, provided we accurately forecast and estimate our foreign currency exposure. If such forecasts are materially inaccurate, we could incur significant gains or losses.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
The information required by this item is included below and incorporated by reference from the financial statement schedule included in “Part IV-Item 15(a)(2)” of this report.
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Sanmina Corporation
Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Sanmina Corporation and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of September 30, 2023 and October 1, 2022, and the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2023, including the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the index appearing under Item 15(a)(2) (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of September 30, 2023 and October 1, 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2023 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company did not maintain, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO because material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting existed as of that date related to (i) inappropriate tone at the top in the control environment at one of the Company’s divisions, specifically division management did not sufficiently promote, monitor or enforce appropriate accounting policies and procedures, thereby resulting in inappropriate and unsupported adjustments to the quarterly contract cost estimate process; (ii) the Company not maintaining a sufficient complement of finance personnel at the division with an appropriate level of expertise, knowledge and training in internal control over financial reporting commensurate with the Company’s financial reporting requirements; and (iii) the division not designing and maintaining effective controls over the quarterly contract estimate review process, which led to the failure to timely and appropriately record adjustments to quarterly estimates.
A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The material weaknesses referred to above are described in Management's Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. We considered these material weaknesses in determining the nature, timing, and extent of audit tests applied in our audit of the 2023 consolidated financial statements, and our opinion regarding the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting does not affect our opinion on those consolidated financial statements.
Basis for Opinions
The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in management's report referred to above. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based
on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
Revenue Recognition using the Cost-to-cost Method for Government Contracts in the Defense and Aerospace Division
As described in Notes 2 and 4 to the consolidated financial statements, revenues for the CPS segment were $1.6 billion for the year ended September 30, 2023, of which the defense and aerospace division represents a portion of the segment. The Company recognizes revenue for defense and aerospace government contracts on an over time basis using the cost-to-cost method (ratio of costs incurred to date to total estimated costs at completion), which management believes best depicts the transfer of control to the customer. Recognition of revenue on government contracts requires the use of significant judgments with respect to estimated materials, labor and subcontractor costs.
The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to revenue recognition using the cost-to-cost method for government contracts in the defense and aerospace division is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management when developing the estimated costs for such contracts and (ii) a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity, and effort in performing procedures and in evaluating the audit evidence related to management’s determination of estimated materials, labor, and subcontractor costs. Also, as described in the “Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting” section, material weaknesses were identified related to this matter.
Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included, among others, (i) testing management’s process for developing the estimation of costs for a sample of defense and aerospace government contracts; (ii) testing the completeness and accuracy of underlying data used in the estimate; and (iii) evaluating the reasonableness of management’s determination of estimated materials, labor, and subcontractor costs. Evaluating the reasonableness of management’s determination of the estimated materials, labor and subcontractor costs used involved (i) assessing management’s ability to reasonably estimate costs for government contracts by assessing the nature and status of government contracts; (ii) performing retrospective reviews of government contract estimates and changes in estimates over time; and (iii) obtaining evidence to support estimated costs.
Consolidation of Sanmina SCI India Private Limited (“SIPL”)
As described in Note 18 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company completed a joint venture transaction with Reliance Strategic Business Ventures Limited (“RSBVL”) to establish SIPL as a joint venture. As a result of the transaction, RSBVL holds 50.1% of the outstanding shares of SIPL and the Company holds the remaining 49.9% of the outstanding shares of SIPL. In connection with RSBVL’s investment, the Company and RSBVL entered into a management services contract
pursuant to which the Company has the unilateral ability to make the significant financial and operating decisions made in the ordinary course of SIPL’s business. Management determined the voting interest model was applicable and concluded that, despite not having a majority ownership interest, the Company has a controlling financial interest in SIPL through the management services contract. Because of this controlling financial interest, the Company consolidated SIPL. In connection with the transaction close on October 3, 2022, the Company recognized a noncontrolling interest of $132 million and an increase in additional paid-in-capital of $84 million.
The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to the consolidation of SIPL is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management in the assessment of whether the Company has a controlling financial interest in SIPL under the voting interest model, despite not having a majority ownership interest; (ii) a high degree of auditor judgment and subjectivity in performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence related to management’s assessment of whether the Company has a controlling financial interest in SIPL based on the Company’s contractual rights under the joint venture and shareholders’ agreement and the management services contract; and (iii) the audit effort involved the use of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge.
Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to management's assessment of whether the Company has a controlling financial interest in SIPL under the voting interest model. These procedures also included, among others, (i) reading the joint venture and shareholders’ agreement and the management services contract; (ii) evaluating whether the contractual terms of the joint venture and shareholders’ agreement and the management service contract are consistent with management’s assessment of whether the Company has a controlling financial interest in SIPL; and (iii) evaluating management’s determination that the Company has the unilateral ability to make the significant financial and operating decisions made in the ordinary course of SIPL’s business. Professionals with specialized skill and knowledge were used to assist in evaluating the appropriateness of management's conclusion that the Company has a controlling financial interest in SIPL.
/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
San Jose, California
November 16, 2023
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2016.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
|(In thousands, except par value)|
|Cash and cash equivalents||$||667,570 ||$||529,857 |
Accounts receivable, net of allowances of approximately $8 million as of September 30, 2023 and October 1, 2022, respectively
|1,230,771 ||1,138,894 |
|Contract assets||445,757 ||475,721 |
|Inventories||1,477,223 ||1,684,099 |
|Prepaid expenses and other current assets||58,249 ||62,044 |
|Total current assets||3,879,570 ||3,890,615 |
|Property, plant and equipment, net||632,836 ||575,170 |
|Deferred income tax assets||177,597 ||209,554 |
|Other||183,965 ||160,192 |
|Total assets||$||4,873,968 ||$||4,835,531 |
|LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY|| || |
|Accounts payable||$||1,612,833 ||$||2,041,434 |
|Accrued liabilities||267,148 ||281,599 |
|Accrued payroll and related benefits||127,406 ||130,892 |
|Short-term debt, including current portion of long-term debt||25,945 ||17,500 |
|Total current liabilities||2,033,332 ||2,471,425 |
|Long-term debt||312,327 ||329,237 |
|Other||209,684 ||215,333 |
|Total long-term liabilities||522,011 ||544,570 |
|Commitments and contingencies|
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value, authorized 5,000 shares, none issued and outstanding
|— ||— |
Common stock, $0.01 par value, authorized 166,667 shares; 111,550 and 110,160 shares issued and 56,833 and 57,394 shares outstanding as of September 30, 2023 and October 1, 2022, respectively
|568 ||574 |
Treasury stock, 54,718 and 52,766 shares as of September 30, 2023 and October 1, 2022, respectively, at cost
|Additional paid-in capital||6,512,763 ||6,380,774 |
|Accumulated other comprehensive income||70,879 ||56,325 |
|Noncontrolling interest||149,675 ||— |
|Total stockholders' equity||2,318,625 ||1,819,536 |
|Total liabilities and stockholders' equity||$||4,873,968 ||$||4,835,531 |
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
|(In thousands, except per share amounts)|
|Net sales||$||8,935,048 ||$||7,919,622 ||$||6,738,356 |
|Cost of sales||8,191,837 ||7,297,416 ||6,211,915 |
|Gross profit||743,211 ||622,206 ||526,441 |
|Selling, general and administrative||255,072 ||244,569 ||234,537 |
|Research and development||26,427 ||21,343 ||20,911 |
|Restructuring and other||6,054 ||6,815 ||15,057 |
|Total operating expenses||287,553 ||272,727 ||270,505 |
|Operating income||455,658 ||349,479 ||255,936 |
|Interest income||13,595 ||1,628 ||925 |
|Other income (expense), net||(20,156)||(26,314)||44,331 |
|Interest and other, net||(42,851)||(47,159)||25,705 |
|Income before income taxes||412,807 ||302,320 ||281,641 |
|Provision for income taxes||85,294 ||61,936 ||32,095 |
|Net income before noncontrolling interest||327,513 ||240,384 ||249,546 |
|Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest||17,543 ||— ||— |
|Net income attributable to common shareholders||$||309,970 ||$||240,384 ||$||249,546 |
|Net income attributable to common shareholders per share:|
|Basic||$||5.36 ||$||3.92 ||$||3.82 |
|Diluted||$||5.18 ||$||3.81 ||$||3.72 |
|Weighted-average shares used in computing per share amounts:|
|Basic||57,847 ||61,310 ||65,318 |
|Diluted||59,815 ||63,117 ||67,084 |
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
| ||Year Ended|
| ||September 30,|
| ||(In thousands)|
|Net income before noncontrolling interest||$||327,513 ||$||240,384 ||$||249,546 |
|Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:|
|Foreign currency translation adjustments||4,376 ||(12,191)||(9,223)|
|Derivative financial instruments:|
|Change in net unrealized amount||19,279 ||8,414 ||3,034 |
|Amount reclassified into net income before noncontrolling interest||(13,964)||10,003 ||4,863 |
|Defined benefit plans:|
|Changes in unrecognized net actuarial losses and unrecognized transition cost||3,996 ||5,884 ||4,713 |
|Amortization of actuarial losses and transition cost||867 ||3,525 ||2,417 |
|Total other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax||14,554 ||15,635 ||5,804 |
|Comprehensive income before noncontrolling interest||342,067 ||256,019 ||255,350 |
|Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest||17,543 ||— ||— |
|Comprehensive income attributable to common shareholders||$||324,524 ||$||256,019 ||$||255,350 |
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
|Common Stock and Additional Paid-in Capital||Treasury Stock|
BALANCE AT OCTOBER 3, 2020
|107,629 ||$||6,301,537 ||(42,630)||$||(983,143)||$||34,886 ||$||(3,729,908)||$||— ||$||1,623,372 |
|Issuances under stock plans||1,105 ||2,993 ||— ||— ||— ||— ||— ||2,993 |
|Stock-based compensation||— ||34,976 ||— ||— ||— ||— ||— ||34,976 |
|Repurchases of treasury stock||— ||— ||(1,797)||(64,059)||— ||— ||— ||(64,059)|
|Other comprehensive income||— ||— ||— ||— ||5,804 ||— ||— ||5,804 |
|Net income||— ||— ||— ||— ||— ||249,546 ||— ||249,546 |
BALANCE AT OCTOBER 2, 2021
|108,734 ||$||6,339,506 ||(44,427)||$||(1,047,202)||$||40,690 ||$||(3,480,362)||$||— ||$||1,852,632 |
|Issuances under stock plans||1,426 ||2,378 ||— ||— ||— ||— ||— ||2,378 |
|Stock-based compensation||— ||39,608 ||— ||— ||— ||— ||— ||39,608 |
|Repurchases of treasury stock||— ||(144)||(8,339)||(330,957)||— ||— ||— ||(331,101)|
|Other comprehensive income||— ||— ||— ||— ||15,635 ||— ||— ||15,635 |
|Net income||— ||— ||— ||— ||— ||240,384 ||— ||240,384 |
BALANCE AT OCTOBER 1, 2022
|110,160 ||$||6,381,348 ||(52,766)||$||(1,378,159)||$||56,325 ||$||(3,239,978)||$||— ||$||1,819,536 |
|Issuances under stock plans||1,390 ||3,412 ||— ||— ||— ||— ||— ||3,412 |
|Stock-based compensation||— ||50,402 ||— ||— ||— ||— ||— ||50,402 |
|Repurchases of treasury stock||— ||— ||(1,952)||(107,093)||— ||— ||— ||(107,093)|
|Other comprehensive income||— ||— ||— ||— ||14,554 ||— ||— ||14,554 |
|Sale of noncontrolling interest||— ||78,169 ||— ||— ||— ||— ||132,132 ||210,301 |
|Net income||— ||— ||— ||— ||— ||309,970 ||17,543 ||327,513 |
BALANCE AT SEPTEMBER 30, 2023
|111,550 ||$||6,513,331 ||(54,718)||$||(1,485,252)||$||70,879 ||$||(2,930,008)||$||149,675 ||$||2,318,625 |
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
|CASH FLOWS PROVIDED BY (USED IN) OPERATING ACTIVITIES:|
|Net income before noncontrolling interest||$||327,513 ||$||240,384 ||$||249,546 |
|Adjustments to reconcile net income before noncontrolling interest to cash provided by operating activities:|
|Depreciation and amortization||118,237 ||108,783 ||109,656 |
|Stock-based compensation expense||50,402 ||39,608 ||34,976 |
|Deferred income taxes||28,753 ||27,910 ||28,375 |
Loss (Gain) on sale of intellectual property
|— ||7,000 ||(15,000)|
Gain on liquidation of foreign entity
|— ||— ||(8,263)|
|Other, net||1,768 ||3,108 ||(1,371)|
|Changes in operating assets and liabilities, net of amounts acquired:|
|Accounts receivable||(89,462)||47,483 ||(145,810)|
|Contract assets||29,964 ||(143,531)||54,479 |
|Prepaid expenses and other assets||(17,753)||(31,700)||(5,780)|
|Accounts payable||(414,490)||558,828 ||243,834 |
|Accrued liabilities||(9,982)||124,099 ||(49,022)|
|Cash provided by operating activities||235,168 ||330,854 ||338,342 |
|CASH FLOWS PROVIDED BY (USED IN) INVESTING ACTIVITIES:|
|Purchases of property, plant and equipment||(191,367)||(138,639)||(73,296)|
|Proceeds from sales of property, plant and equipment||1,409 ||8,425 ||1,084 |
|Purchases of investments||(2,500)||(2,000)||(2,705)|
Cash paid for business acquisition, net of cash acquired
|— ||— ||(21,408)|
|Proceeds from sale of intellectual property||— ||— ||5,000 |
|Cash used in investing activities||(192,458)||(132,214)||(91,325)|
|CASH FLOWS PROVIDED BY (USED IN) FINANCING ACTIVITIES:|
|Proceeds from revolving credit facility borrowings||2,980,800 ||1,874,000 ||399,600 |
|Repayments of revolving credit facility borrowings||(2,980,800)||(1,874,000)||(399,600)|
|Repayments of long-term debt||(17,500)||(332,814)||(18,752)|
|Proceeds from issuance of long-term debt||— ||350,000 ||— |
|Debt issuance costs||— ||(3,263)||— |
|Holdback paid in connection with previous business combination||(8,558)||— ||— |
|Proceeds from short-term borrowing||8,445 ||— ||— |
|Net proceeds from stock issuances||3,412 ||2,379 ||2,993 |
|Repurchases of common stock||(107,093)||(331,101)||(64,059)|
|Proceeds from sale of noncontrolling interest||215,799 ||— ||— |
|Proceeds from collection of notes receivable||— ||500 ||2,500 |
|Cash provided by (used in) financing activities||94,505 ||(314,299)||(77,318)|
|Effect of exchange rate changes||498 ||(4,510)||(199)|
|Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents||137,713 ||(120,169)||169,500 |
|Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of year||529,857 ||650,026 ||480,526 |
|Cash and cash equivalents at end of year||$||667,570 ||$||529,857 ||$||650,026 |
|Cash paid during the year:|
|Interest, net of capitalized interest||$||32,486 ||$||18,243 ||$||15,264 |
|Income taxes, net of refunds||$||57,339 ||$||48,131 ||$||33,358 |
|Unpaid purchases of property, plant and equipment at end of period||$||21,590 ||$||38,570 ||$||20,929 |
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Note 1. Organization of Sanmina
Sanmina Corporation (“Sanmina,” or the “Company”) was incorporated in Delaware in 1989. The Company is a leading global provider of integrated manufacturing solutions, components, products and repair, logistics and after-market services. The Company provides these comprehensive solutions primarily to original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”) that serve the industrial, medical, defense and aerospace, automotive, communications networks and cloud infrastructure industries.
The Company's operations are managed as two businesses:
1)Integrated Manufacturing Solutions (“IMS”). IMS is a single operating segment consisting of printed circuit board assembly and test, high-level assembly and test and direct-order-fulfillment.
2)Components, Products and Services (“CPS”). Components include printed circuit boards, backplanes and backplane assemblies, cable assemblies, fabricated metal parts, precision machined parts, and plastic injected molded parts. Products include optical, radio frequency and microelectronic design and manufacturing services from the Company’s Advanced Microsystems Technologies division; multi-chip package memory solutions from the Company’s Viking Technology division; high-performance storage platforms for hyperscale and enterprise solutions from the Company’s Viking Enterprise Solutions division; defense and aerospace products, design, manufacturing, repair and refurbishment services from the Company’s SCI Technology, Inc. (“SCI”) subsidiary; and cloud-based smart manufacturing execution software from the Company’s 42Q division. Services include design, engineering, and logistics and repair.
The Company's only reportable segment is IMS, which represented approximately 80% of total revenue in 2023. CPS consists of multiple operating segments which do not individually meet the quantitative thresholds for being presented as reportable segments. Therefore, financial information for these operating segments is combined and presented in a single category entitled “Components, Products and Services”. The accounting policies for each segment are the same as those disclosed by the Company for its consolidated financial statements.
Basis of Presentation
Fiscal Year. The Company operates on a 52 or 53 week year ending on the Saturday nearest September 30. Fiscal 2023, 2022 and 2021 were each a 52 week year. All references to years relate to fiscal years unless otherwise noted.
Principles of Consolidation. The consolidated financial statements include all accounts of the Company, its wholly-owned subsidiaries and subsidiaries in which the Company has a controlling financial interest. All intra-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated. Noncontrolling interest represents a noncontrolling investor’s interest in the results of operations of subsidiaries that the Company controls and consolidates.
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Management Estimates and Uncertainties. The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. The Company has considered information available to it as of the date of issuance of these financial statements and is not aware of any specific events or circumstances that would require an update to its estimates or judgments, or a revision to the carrying value of its assets or liabilities. Significant estimates made in preparing the consolidated financial statements relate to allowances for accounts receivable; provisions for excess and obsolete inventories, environmental matters, and legal exposures; determining liabilities for uncertain tax positions; determining the realizability of deferred tax assets; determining fair values of tangible and intangible assets for purposes of impairment tests; and estimating costs expected to be incurred to satisfy performance obligations under long-term contracts and variable consideration related to such contracts. These estimates may change as new events occur and additional information becomes available. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates.
Financial Instruments and Concentration of Credit Risk. Financial instruments consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, foreign currency forward contracts, interest rate swap agreements, accounts payable and debt
obligations. The fair value of these financial instruments approximates their carrying amount as of September 30, 2023 and October 1, 2022 due to the nature or short maturity of these instruments, or because, in some cases, the instruments are recorded at fair value on the consolidated balance sheets.
Cash and Cash Equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and on deposit and investments in highly liquid debt instruments with initial maturities of three months or less.
Accounts Receivable and Other Related Allowances. The Company had allowances of approximately $8 million as of September 30, 2023 and October 1, 2022, respectively, for uncollectible accounts, product returns and other net sales adjustments. To establish the allowance for doubtful accounts, the Company estimates credit risk associated with accounts receivable by considering the creditworthiness of its customers, past experience, specific facts and circumstances, and the overall economic climate in industries that it serves. To establish the allowance for product returns and other adjustments, the Company primarily utilizes historical data.
Accounts Receivable Sales. The Company is a party to a Receivables Purchase Agreement (the “RPA”) with certain third-party banking institutions for the sale of trade receivables generated from sales to certain customers, subject to acceptance by, and a funding commitment from, the banks that are party to the RPA. Trade receivables sold pursuant to the RPA are serviced by the Company.
In addition to the RPA, the Company has the option to participate in trade receivables sales programs that have been implemented by certain of the Company’s customers, as in effect from time to time. The Company does not service trade receivables sold under these other programs. Under each of the programs noted above, the Company sells its entire interest in a trade receivable for 100% of face value, less a discount. Accounts receivable balances sold are removed from the consolidated balance sheets and the related proceeds are reported as cash provided by operating activities in the consolidated statements of cash flows.
Inventories. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (based on standard cost, which approximates first-in, first-out method) and net realizable value. Cost includes labor, materials and manufacturing overhead.
Provisions are made to reduce excess and obsolete inventories to their estimated net realizable values. The ultimate realization of inventory carrying amounts is primarily affected by changes in customer demand. Inventory provisions are established based on forecasted demand, past experience with specific customers, the age and nature of the inventory, the ability to redistribute inventory to other programs or back to suppliers and whether customers are contractually obligated and have the ability to pay for the related inventory. Certain payments received from customers for inventory held by the Company are recorded as a reduction of inventory.
Long-lived Assets. Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost or, in the case of property and equipment acquired through business combinations, at fair value as of the acquisition date. Depreciation is provided on a straight-line basis over 20 to 40 years for buildings and 3 to 15 years for machinery, equipment, furniture and fixtures. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a .
The Company reviews property, plant and equipment for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. An asset group is the unit of accounting which represents the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets. An asset or asset group is considered impaired if its carrying amount exceeds the undiscounted future net cash flows the asset or asset group is expected to generate. If an asset or asset group is considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset or asset group exceeds its fair value. For asset groups for which the primary asset is a building, the Company estimates fair value based on data provided by commercial real estate brokers. For other asset groups, the Company estimates fair value based on projected discounted future net cash flows.
Foreign Currency Translation. For foreign subsidiaries using the local currency as their functional currency, assets and liabilities are translated to U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date and income and expenses are translated at average exchange rates. The effects of these translation adjustments are reported in stockholder’ equity as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”). For all entities, remeasurement adjustments for non-functional currency monetary assets and liabilities are included in other income (expense), net in the accompanying consolidated statements of income. Remeasurement gains and losses arising from long-term intercompany loans denominated in a currency other than an entity’s functional currency are recorded in AOCI if repayment of the loan is not anticipated in the foreseeable future.
Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities. The Company conducts business on a global basis in numerous currencies and certain of the Company’s outstanding debt has a variable interest rate. Therefore, the Company is exposed to movements in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates. The Company uses derivatives, such as foreign currency forward contracts and interest rate swaps, to minimize the volatility of earnings and cash flows associated with changes in foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates.
The Company accounts for derivative instruments and hedging activities in accordance with ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, which requires each derivative instrument to be recorded on the consolidated balance sheets at its fair value as either an asset or a liability. If a derivative is designated as a cash flow hedge, the Company excludes time value from its assessment of hedge effectiveness and recognizes the amount of time value in earnings over the life of the derivative. Gains or losses on the derivative not caused by changes in time value are recorded in AOCI, and reclassified into earnings in the same period or periods during which the hedged transaction affects earnings. If a derivative is designated as a fair value hedge, changes in the fair value of the derivative and of the item being hedged are recognized in earnings in the current period.
Derivative instruments are entered into for periods of time consistent with the related underlying exposures and are not entered into for speculative purposes. At the inception of a hedge, the Company documents all relationships between derivative instruments and related hedged items, as well as its risk-management objectives and strategies for the hedging transaction.
The Company’s foreign currency forward contracts and interest rate swaps potentially expose the Company to credit risk to the extent the counterparties may be unable to meet the terms of the agreement. The Company minimizes such risk by seeking high quality counterparties.
Leases. The Company's leases consist primarily of operating leases for buildings and land and have initial lease terms of up to 44 years. Certain of these leases contain an option to extend the lease term for additional periods or to terminate the lease after an initial non-cancelable term. Renewal options are considered in the measurement of the Company’s initial lease liability and corresponding right-of-use (“ROU”) asset only if it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise such options. Leases with a term of twelve months or less are not recorded on the Company’s balance sheet.
The Company’s lease liability and ROU assets represent the present value of future lease payments which are a combination of lease components and non-lease components such as maintenance and utilities. Operating lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Certain of the Company’s lease payments are variable because such payments adjust periodically based on changes in consumer price and other indexes. Variable payments are expensed as incurred and not included in the measurement of lease liabilities and ROU assets. Since the Company’s leases generally do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses an incremental borrowing rate based on information available at the lease commencement date for purposes of determining the present value of lease payments. The Company’s incremental borrowing rate is based on the term of the lease, the economic environment of the lease and the effect of collateralization, if any.
Revenue Recognition. The Company derives revenue principally from sales of integrated manufacturing solutions, components and Company-proprietary products. Other sources of revenue include logistics and repair services; design, development and engineering services; defense and aerospace programs; and sales of raw materials to customers whose requirements change after the Company has procured inventory to fulfill the customer’s forecasted demand.
The Company determines the appropriate revenue to recognize by applying a 5-step model: (1) identify the contract with a customer; (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determine the transaction price; (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (5) recognize revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies a performance obligation. Each of these steps may involve the use of significant judgments, as discussed below.
Step 1 - Identify the contract with a customer
The Company generally enters into a master supply agreement (“MSA”) with its customers that provides the framework under which business will be conducted, and pursuant to which a customer will issue purchase orders or other binding documents to specify the quantity, price and delivery requirements for products or services the customer wishes to purchase. The Company generally considers its contract with a customer to be a firm commitment, consisting of the combination of an MSA and a purchase order or any other similar binding document.
Step 2 - Identify the performance obligations in the contract
A performance obligation is a promised good or service that is material in the context of the contract and is both capable of being distinct (customer can benefit from the good or service on its own or together with other readily available resources) and distinct within the context of the contract (separately identifiable from other promises). The Company reviews its contracts to identify promised goods or services and then evaluates such items to determine which of those items are performance obligations. The majority of the Company’s contracts have a single performance obligation since the promise to transfer an individual good or service is not separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. The Company’s performance obligations generally have an expected duration of one year or less.
Step 3 - Determine the transaction price
Contracts with customers may include certain forms of variable consideration such as early payment discounts, volume discounts and shared cost savings. The Company includes an estimate of variable consideration when determining the transaction price and the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized. This estimate is limited to an amount which will not result in a significant reversal of revenue in a future period. Factors considered in the Company’s estimate of variable consideration are the potential amount subject to these contract provisions, historical experience and other relevant facts and circumstances.
Step 4 - Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
A contract’s transaction price is allocated to each distinct performance obligation and recognized as revenue when, or as, the performance obligation is satisfied. In the event that more than one performance obligation is identified in a contract, a portion of the transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation. This allocation would generally be based on the relative standalone price of each performance obligation, which most often would represent the price at which the Company would sell similar goods or services separately.
Step 5 - Recognize revenue when (or as) a performance obligation is satisfied
The Company is required to assess whether control of a product or services promised under a contract is transferred to the customer at a point-in-time or over time as the product is being manufactured or the services are being provided. If the criteria in ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”), for recognizing revenue on an over time basis are not met, revenue must be recognized at the point-in-time determined by the Company at which its customer obtains control of a product or service.
The Company has determined that revenue for the majority of its contracts is required to be recognized on an over time basis. This is primarily due to the fact that the Company does not have an alternative use for the end products it manufactures for its customers and has an enforceable right to payment, including a reasonable profit, for work-in-progress upon a customer's cancellation of a contract for convenience. In certain circumstances, the Company recognizes over time because its customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the Company’s services or, the Company’s customer controls the end product as the Company performs manufacturing services (continuous transfer of control). For these contracts, revenue is recognized on an over time basis using the cost-to-cost method (ratio of costs incurred to date to total estimated costs at completion) which the Company believes best depicts the transfer of control to the customer. Revenue streams for which revenue is recognized on an over time basis include sales of vertically integrated manufacturing solutions (integrated manufacturing solutions and components); logistics and repair services; design, development and engineering services; and defense and aerospace programs. At least 95% of the Company’s revenue is recognized on an over time basis, which is as products are manufactured or services are performed. Because of this, and the fact that there is no work-in-process or finished goods inventory associated with contracts for which revenue is recognized on an over-time basis, 99% or more of the Company’s inventory at the end of a given period is in the form of raw materials. For contracts for which revenue is required to be recognized at a point-in-time, the Company recognizes revenue when it has transferred control of the related goods, which generally occurs upon shipment or delivery of the goods to the customer. Revenue streams for which revenue is recognized at a point-in-time include Company-proprietary products and sales of raw materials.
Application of the cost-to-cost method for government contracts in the Company’s Defense and Aerospace division requires the use of significant judgments with respect to estimated materials, labor and subcontractor costs included in the total estimated costs at completion. Additionally, the Company evaluates whether contract modifications for claims have been approved and, if so, estimates the amount, if any, of variable consideration that can be included in the transaction price of the contract. This division is an operating segment whose results are combined with thirteen other operating segments and reported under CPS for segment reporting purposes.
Estimates of materials, labor and subcontractor costs expected to be incurred to satisfy a performance obligation are updated on a quarterly basis. These estimates consider costs incurred to date and estimated costs to be incurred over the remaining expected period of performance to satisfy a performance obligation. Such estimates are reviewed each quarter by a group of employees that includes representatives from numerous functions such as engineering, materials, contracts, manufacturing, program management, finance and senior management. If a change in estimate is deemed necessary, the impact of the change is recognized in the period of change. Additionally, contract modifications for claims are assessed each quarter to determine whether the claims have been approved. If it is determined that a claim has been approved, the amount of the claim, if any, that can be included in transaction price is estimated considering a number of factors such as the length of time expected to lapse until uncertainty about the claim has been resolved and the extent to which our experience with claims for similar contracts has predictive value.
A contract asset is recognized when the Company has recognized revenue, but has not issued an invoice to its customer for payment. Contract assets are classified separately on the consolidated balance sheets and transferred to accounts receivable when rights to payment become unconditional. Because of the Company’s short manufacturing cycle times, the transfer from contract assets to accounts receivable generally occurs within the next fiscal quarter.
Taxes assessed by governmental authorities that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction, and are collected by the Company from a customer, are excluded from revenue. Shipping and handling costs associated with outbound freight after control of a product has transferred to a customer are accounted for as fulfillment costs and are included in cost of sales.
The Company applies the following practical expedients or policy elections under ASC 606:
•The promised amount of consideration under a contract is not adjusted for the effects of a significant financing component because, at inception of a contract, the Company expects the period between when a good or service is transferred to a customer and when the customer pays for that good or service will generally be one year or less.
•The Company has elected to not disclose information about remaining performance obligations that have original expected durations of one year or less, which is substantially all of the Company’s remaining performance obligations.
•Incremental costs of obtaining a contract are not capitalized if the period over which such costs would be amortized to expense is less than one year.
Stock-based Compensation. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense, net of estimated forfeitures, on as straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award, which generally ranges from one year to four years and/or upon achievement of specified performance criteria. The stock-based compensation expense for time-based and performance-based restricted stock awards are valued at the closing market price of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant. During the requisite service period, performance-based restricted stock awards are monitored by management for probability of achievement of performance goals and if become probable, that more or less than the previous estimate of the awarded shares will vest, an adjustment to stock-based compensation expense will be recognized as a change in accounting estimate. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense for market-based restricted stock units measured at fair value on the grant date using a Monte Carlo valuation model. The stock-based compensation expense for awards with market conditions will be recognized over the requisite service periods regardless of whether the market conditions are satisfied.
Income taxes. The Company estimates its income tax provision or benefit in each of the jurisdictions in which it operates, including estimating exposures and making judgments regarding the realizability of deferred tax assets. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The carrying value of the Company’s net deferred tax assets is based on the Company’s belief that it is more likely than not that the Company will generate sufficient future taxable income in certain jurisdictions to realize these deferred tax assets. A valuation allowance has been established for deferred tax assets which do not meet the “more likely than not” criteria discussed above.
The Company’s tax rate is dependent upon the geographic distribution of its worldwide income or losses, the tax regulations and tax holidays in each geographic region, the availability of tax credits and carryforwards, including net operating losses, and the effectiveness of its tax planning strategies.
The Company makes an assessment of whether each income tax position is “more likely than not” of being sustained on audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation, if any. For each income tax position that meets the “more likely than not” recognition threshold, the Company then assesses the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being realized upon effective settlement with the tax authority. Interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits are recognized as a component of income tax expense.
Note 3. Balance Sheet and Income Statement Details
Property, Plant and Equipment, net
Property, plant and equipment consisted of the following:
|Machinery and equipment||$||1,626,129 ||$||1,523,598 |
|Land and buildings||677,478 ||656,839 |
|Leasehold improvements||44,619 ||42,793 |
|Furniture and fixtures||25,845 ||24,805 |
|Construction in progress||124,657 ||91,928 |
| ||2,498,728 ||2,339,963 |
|Less: Accumulated depreciation and amortization||(1,865,892)||(1,764,793)|
|Property, plant and equipment, net||$||632,836 ||$||575,170 |
Depreciation expense was $116 million, $108 million and $109 million for 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Other Income (Expense), net
In 2021, the Company sold intellectual property for $15 million in 2021, of which $8 million has been received in cash. The sale of intellectual property was included in other income (expense), net on the consolidated statements of income. During 2022, the Company expected to incur credit losses with the counterparty for the remaining $7 million due under the arrangement and consequently, recorded a charge of $7 million in other income (expense), net, on the consolidated statements of income to establish an allowance.
A foreign entity of the Company was substantially liquidated in 2021 and the Company reclassified $8 million of cumulative translation adjustments associated with this entity from accumulated other comprehensive income to other income (expense), net on the consolidated statements of income in 2021.
The Company received $16 million of cash in 2021 in connection with settlements of certain anti-trust class action matters and recognized a gain in other income (expense), net on the consolidated statements of income.
Note 4. Revenue
The following table presents revenue disaggregated by segment, market sector and geography.
|Industrial, Medical, Defense and Aerospace, and Automotive||$||5,388,877||$||4,744,088||$||3,871,754|
|Communications Networks and Cloud Infrastructure||$||3,546,171||$||3,175,534||$||2,866,602|
|Percentage of net sales represented by ten largest customers||48 ||%||49 ||%||53 ||%|
|Number of customers representing 10% or more of net sales||1||2||1|
(1) Mexico represents approximately 65% of the Americas revenue and the U.S. represents approximately 30% as of September 30, 2023.
Note 5. Financial Instruments
Fair Value Measurements
Fair Value of Financial Instruments