10-Q 1 semr-20240331.htm 10-Q semr-20240331
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
            
    QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
OR
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission file number: 001-40276
Semrush Holdings, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware84-4053265
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
800 Boylston Street, Suite 2475
Boston, MA 02199
(Address of principal executive offices including zip code)

(800) 851-9959
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:        
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, $0.00001 par value per shareSEMRThe New York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☒ Yes or ☐ No.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). ☒ Yes or ☐ No.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
                                    
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). ☐ Yes or No
As of April 30, 2024, there were 121,774,749 shares of the registrant’s Class A Common Stock and 23,482,057 shares of the registrant’s Class B Common Stock, $0.00001 par value per share, outstanding.




TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Part I. Financial Information
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Part II. Other Information
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 5.
Item 6.








SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements about us and our industry that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including statements regarding our future results of operations, financial condition, business strategy, plans and objectives of management for future operations, our market opportunity and the potential growth of that market, our liquidity and capital needs and other similar matters, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “will,” or “would,” or the negative of these words or other similar terms or expressions. These forward-looking statements are based on management’s current expectations and assumptions about future events, which are inherently subject to uncertainties, risks, and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict. Forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:
•    our future financial performance, including our revenue, annual recurring revenue (“ARR”), dollar-based net revenue retention rate, costs of revenue, gross profit or gross margin and operating expenses;
•    the sufficiency of our cash and cash equivalents to meet our liquidity needs;
•    anticipated trends and growth rates in our business and in the markets in which we operate;
•    our ability to maintain the security and availability of our internal networks and platform;
•    our ability to attract new paying customers and convert free customers into paying customers;
•    our ability to retain and expand sales to our existing paying customers, including upgrades to premium subscriptions and purchases of add-on offerings;
•    our ability to access, collect, and analyze data;
•    our ability to successfully expand in our existing markets and into new markets;
•    our ability to effectively manage our growth and future expenses;
•    our ability to continue to innovate and develop new products and features, improve our data assets, and enhance our technological capabilities;
•    our ability to maintain, protect, and enhance our intellectual property;
•    our ability to build, maintain, and enhance our brand, including through informational resources, advertisements, and referrals;
•    our ability to comply with modified or new laws and regulations applying to our business, including in any new jurisdictions in which we operate;
•    the attraction and retention of qualified employees and key personnel;
•    our anticipated investments in sales and marketing, and research and development;




•    our ability to successfully defend litigation brought against us;
•    our expectations regarding identifying, evaluating, executing, and integrating strategic acquisitions; and
•    the impact of global financial, economic, and political events on our business, industry and supply chain, including health epidemics, rising inflation, fluctuating interest rates, and market uncertainty and volatility.
You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We have based the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q primarily on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. The outcome of the events described in these forward-looking statements is subject to risks, uncertainties and other factors described in the section titled “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict all risks and uncertainties that could have an impact on the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The results, events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur, and actual results, events, or circumstances could differ materially from those described in the forward-looking statements.
The forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q relate only to events as of the date on which the statements are made. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements made in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or to reflect new information or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as required by law. We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures, or investments we may make.
In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. Unless stated otherwise, these statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. While we believe such information provides a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain and you are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.




PART 1 - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
SEMRUSH HOLDINGS, INC.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except per share data)

As of
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Assets
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents$41,388 $58,848 
Short-term investments201,756 179,721 
Accounts receivable7,115 7,897 
Deferred contract costs, current portion9,613 9,074 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets16,914 10,014 
Total current assets276,786 265,554 
Property and equipment, net5,999 6,686 
Operating lease right-of-use assets12,225 14,069 
Intangible assets, net16,936 16,083 
Goodwill24,757 24,879 
Deferred contract costs, net of current portion3,485 3,586 
Other long-term assets1,542 633 
Total assets$341,730 $331,490 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities
Accounts payable$10,159 $9,187 
Accrued expenses19,597 19,891 
Deferred revenue63,985 58,310 
Current portion of operating lease liabilities4,143 4,274 
Other current liabilities2,642 2,817 
Total current liabilities100,526 94,479 
Deferred revenue, net of current portion306 331 
Deferred tax liability633 839 
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion9,150 10,331 
Other long-term liabilities67 1,195 
Total liabilities110,682 107,175 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 15)
Stockholders' equity
Class A common stock, $0.00001 par value - 1,000,000 shares authorized, and 121,245 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2024; 120,629 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2023
1 1 
Class B common stock, $0.00001 par value - 160,000 shares authorized, and 23,482 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2024; 23,482 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2023
  
Additional paid-in capital 297,857 291,898 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(1,981)(752)
Accumulated deficit(69,860)(71,998)
Total stockholders' equity attributable to Semrush Holdings, Inc.226,017 219,149 
Noncontrolling interest in consolidated subsidiary5,031 5,166 
Total stockholders’ equity231,048 224,315 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity$341,730 $331,490 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
1


SEMRUSH HOLDINGS, INC.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(in thousands, except per share data)

Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Revenue$85,812 $70,870 
Cost of revenue14,645 12,639 
Gross profit71,167 58,231 
Operating expenses
Sales and marketing33,921 35,496 
Research and development17,304 13,880 
General and administrative18,474 18,640 
Exit costs 983 
Total operating expenses69,699 68,999 
Income (loss) from operations1,468 (10,768)
Other income, net3,639 1,705 
Income (loss) before income taxes5,107 (9,063)
Provision for income taxes3,104 797 
Net income (loss)2,003 (9,860)
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest in consolidated subsidiary(135) 
Net income (loss) attributable to Semrush Holdings, Inc.$2,138 $(9,860)
Net income (loss) attributable to Semrush Holdings, Inc. per share attributable to common stockholders—basic:$0.01 $(0.07)
Net income (loss) attributable to Semrush Holdings, Inc. per share attributable to common stockholders—diluted:$0.01 $(0.07)
Weighted-average number of shares of common stock used in computing net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders—basic:144,566 141,650 
Weighted-average number of shares of common stock used in computing net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders—diluted:147,698 141,650 
Net income (loss)$2,003 $(9,860)
Other comprehensive income (loss)
Foreign currency translation adjustments(485)365 
Unrealized loss on investments(744)(83)
Comprehensive income (loss)$774 $(9,578)
Comprehensive loss attributable to noncontrolling interest in consolidated subsidiary(135) 
Comprehensive income (loss) attributable to Semrush Holdings, Inc.$909 $(9,578)
    
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
2


SEMRUSH HOLDINGS, INC.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands, except share data)
Class A Common StockClass B Common Stock
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
Accumulated
Deficit
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balances at December 31, 202243,743,174 $ 97,843,570 $1 $274,057 $(1,206)$(72,948)$199,904 
Conversion of Class B Common Stock to Class A Common Stock74,239,844 1 (74,239,844)(1)— — —  
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options88,957 — — — 67 — — 67 
Issuance of common stock in connection with employee stock purchase plan38,879 — — — 264 — — 264 
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock units71,557 — — — — — — — 
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 2,796 — — 2,796 
Cumulative translation adjustment— — — — — 365 — 365 
Unrealized loss on investments— — — — — (83)— (83)
Net loss— — — — — — (9,860)(9,860)
Balances at March 31, 2023118,182,411 $1 23,603,726 $ $277,184 $(924)$(82,808)$193,453 

Class A Common StockClass B Common Stock
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
Accumulated
Deficit
Total Stockholders’ Equity Attributable to Semrush Holdings, Inc.Noncontrolling InterestTotal Stockholders’ Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balances at December 31, 2023120,629,147 $1 23,482,057 $ $291,898 $(752)$(71,998)$219,149 $5,166 $224,315 
Issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options469,879 — — — 844 — — 844 — 844 
Issuance of common stock upon vesting of restricted stock units145,844 — — — — — — — — — 
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 5,115 — — 5,115 — 5,115 
Cumulative translation adjustment— — — — — (485)— (485)— (485)
Unrealized loss on investments— — — — — (744)— (744)— (744)
Net income— — — — — — 2,138 2,138 — 2,138 
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest— — — — — — — — (135)(135)
Balances at March 31, 2024121,244,870 $1 23,482,057 $ $297,857 $(1,981)$(69,860)$226,017 $5,031 231,048 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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SEMRUSH HOLDINGS, INC.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(in thousands)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Operating Activities
Net income (loss)$2,003 $(9,860)
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
Depreciation and amortization expense2,183 1,487 
Amortization of deferred contract costs3,016 2,397 
Amortization (accretion) of premiums and discounts on investments(1,071)(1,716)
Non-cash lease expense1,164 895 
Stock-based compensation expense5,115 2,796 
Non-cash interest expense 53 
Change in fair value of convertible debt securities (134)
Deferred taxes(100)4 
Other non-cash items844 568 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities
Accounts receivable782 (1,104)
Deferred contract costs(3,455)(2,587)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(2,275)(651)
Accounts payable1,012 (4,226)
Accrued expenses1,414 2,469 
Other current liabilities(390)4 
Deferred revenue5,658 7,005 
Other long-term liabilities  
Change in operating lease liability(1,121)(1,009)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities14,779 (3,609)
Investing Activities
Purchases of property and equipment(759)(268)
Purchases of short-term investments(46,706)(103,751)
Proceeds from sales and maturities of short-term investments25,000 87,741 
Purchases of convertible debt securities (323)
Funding of investment loan receivable(7,000) 
Capitalization of internal-use software costs(2,015)(1,056)
Cash paid for acquisition of businesses, net of cash acquired(501)(1,082)
Purchases of other investments (150)
Net cash used in investing activities(31,981)(18,889)
Financing Activities
Proceeds from exercise of stock options844 67 
Proceeds from issuance of shares in connection with employee stock purchase plan 264 
Payment of finance leases(410)(782)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities434 (451)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents(507)73 
Decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(17,275)(22,876)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, beginning of period58,848 79,765 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash, end of period$41,573 $56,889 
Supplemental cash flow disclosures
Cash paid for interest$ $56 
Cash paid for income taxes$199 $53 
Property and equipment purchases not paid$9 $46 
Unrealized loss on short-term investments$744 $83 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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SEMRUSH HOLDINGS, INC.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 and 2023
(in thousands, except share and per share data, unless otherwise noted)
1.Overview and Basis of Presentation
Description of Business
Semrush Holdings, Inc. (“Semrush Holdings”) and its subsidiaries (together the “Company”, or “Semrush”) provide an online visibility management software-as-a-service (“SaaS”) platform. The Company’s platform enables its subscribers to improve their online visibility and drive traffic, including on their websites and social media pages, and distribute highly relevant content to their customers on a targeted basis across various channels to drive high-quality traffic and measure the effectiveness of their digital marketing campaigns. The Company is headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts, and has wholly owned subsidiaries in the United States, Spain, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Cyprus, Serbia, Poland, Germany, Armenia, Canada, and France.
The Company is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties common to companies in similar industries and stages of development that could affect future operations and financial performance. These risks include, but are not limited to, rapid technological change, competitive pressure from substitute products or larger companies, protection of proprietary technology, management of international activities, the need to obtain additional financing to support growth, and dependence on third parties and key individuals.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) regarding interim financial reporting. Accordingly, certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to the authoritative United States generally accepted accounting principles as found in the Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) and Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”).
The unaudited condensed consolidated interim financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited annual consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2023, and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair presentation of the Company’s financial position as of March 31, 2024, and for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. The consolidated balance sheet as of December 31, 2023 included herein was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements as of that date.
The results for the three months ended March 31, 2024 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2024, any other interim periods, or any future year or period.
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, filed with the SEC on March 7, 2024.
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The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect the application of certain significant accounting policies as described below and elsewhere in these notes to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. As of March 31, 2024, there have been no material changes in the Company's significant accounting policies from those that were disclosed in the Annual Report on Form 10-K, except as discussed below.
2.Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company, its wholly owned subsidiaries, and subsidiaries in which it holds a controlling interest. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. Ownership interests in subsidiaries represented by other parties that do not control the entity are presented in the consolidated financial statements as activities and balances attributable to noncontrolling interests.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates relied upon in preparing these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include, but are not limited to, revenue recognition, expected future cash flows used to evaluate the recoverability of long-lived assets, contingent liabilities, expensing and capitalization of research and development costs for internal-use software, the average period of benefit associated with costs capitalized to obtain revenue contracts, the determination of the fair value of stock-based awards issued, stock-based compensation expense, the determination of the estimated fair value of loan receivables and convertible notes held by the Company, the valuations of the intangible assets acquired through acquisitions, the estimation of the Company’s incremental borrowing rate, and the recoverability of the Company’s net deferred tax assets and related valuation allowance.
Although the Company regularly assesses these estimates, actual results could differ materially from these estimates. Changes in estimates are recorded in the period in which they become known. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and various other assumptions that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from management’s estimates if these results differ from historical experience, or other assumptions do not turn out to be substantially accurate, even if such assumptions are reasonable when made.
Subsequent Events Considerations
The Company considers events or transactions that occur after the balance sheet date but prior to the issuance of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements to provide additional evidence for certain estimates or to identify matters that require additional disclosure. Subsequent events have been evaluated as required. See Note 19 for additional information regarding the Company’s subsequent events.
Emerging Growth Company Status
The Company is an "emerging growth company" (“EGC”), as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”), and may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not "emerging growth companies." The Company may take advantage of these exemptions until the Company is no longer an "emerging growth company." Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that an "emerging growth company" can take
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advantage of the extended transition period afforded by the JOBS Act for the implementation of new or revised accounting standards. The Company has elected to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards and, as a result of this election, its condensed consolidated financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with public company effective dates. The Company may take advantage of these exemptions up until the last day of the year following the fifth anniversary of an offering or such earlier time that it is no longer an emerging growth company. The Company would cease to be an emerging growth company if it has more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue, has more than $700.0 million in market value of its stock held by non-affiliates, or it issues more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt securities over a three-year period.
Revenue Recognition
The Company primarily derives revenue from subscriptions to the Company’s SaaS services and related customer support. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, subscription revenue accounted for nearly all of the Company’s revenue. Revenue related to other revenue was not material for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
The Company offers subscriptions to its platform primarily on a monthly or annual basis. The Company sells its products and services primarily through a self-service model and also directly through its sales force. The Company’s subscription arrangements provide customers the right to access the Company’s hosted software applications. Customers do not have the right to take possession of the Company’s software during the hosting arrangement. Subscriptions are generally non-cancellable during the contractual subscription term; however, subscription contracts contain a right to a refund if requested within seven days of purchase.
The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASC 606”). Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to receive in exchange for those products or services. There were no changes to the Company’s revenue recognition policies since the filing of its Annual Report on Form 10-K with the SEC on March 7, 2024.
Amounts that have been invoiced are recorded in accounts receivable and in deferred revenue or revenue, depending on whether the revenue recognition criteria have been met. The Company primarily invoices and collects payments from customers for its services in advance on a monthly or annual basis.
Deferred revenue represents amounts billed for which revenue has not yet been recognized. Deferred revenue that will be recognized during the succeeding 12-month period is recorded as deferred revenue, and the remaining portion is recorded as deferred revenue, net of current portion. Deferred revenue increased by $5,650 as of March 31, 2024 compared to December 31, 2023. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, $30,351 and $25,513 of revenue was recognized that was included in deferred revenue as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
The Company has elected to exclude amounts charged to customers for sales tax from the transaction price. Accordingly, revenue is presented net of any sales tax collected from customers.
Transaction Price Allocated to Future Performance Obligations
ASC 606 requires that the Company disclose the aggregate amount of the transaction price that is allocated to performance obligations that have not yet been satisfied as of the balance sheet dates reported.
For contracts with an original expected duration greater than one year, the aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to the performance obligations that were unsatisfied as of March 31, 2024 was $1,386, of which the Company expects to recognize $1,080 over the next 12 months.
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For contracts with an original expected duration of one year or less, the Company has applied the practical expedient available under ASC 606 to not disclose the amount of transaction price allocated to unsatisfied performance obligations as of March 31, 2024. For performance obligations not satisfied as of March 31, 2024, and to which this expedient applies, the nature of the performance obligations is consistent with performance obligations satisfied as of December 31, 2023.
Costs to Obtain a Contract
The incremental direct costs of obtaining a contract, which primarily consist of sales commissions paid for new subscription contracts, are deferred and recorded as deferred contract costs in the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets and are amortized over a period of approximately 24 months on a systematic basis, consistent with the pattern of transfer of the goods or services to which the asset relates. The 24-month period represents the estimated benefit period of the customer relationship and has been determined by taking into consideration the type of product sold, the commitment term of the customer contract, the nature of the Company’s technology development life-cycle, and an estimated customer relationship period based on historical experience and future expectations. Deferred contract costs that will be recorded as expense during the succeeding 12-month period are recorded as deferred contract costs, current portion, and the remaining portion is recorded as deferred contract costs, net of current portion. Amortization of deferred contract costs is included in sales and marketing expense in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).
Concentrations of Credit Risk and Significant Customers
The Company has no off-balance sheet risk, such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts, or other hedging arrangements. Credit losses historically have not been significant and the Company generally has not experienced any material losses related to receivables from individual customers, or groups of customers. Due to these factors, no additional credit risk beyond amounts provided for collection losses is believed by management to be probable in the Company's accounts receivable.
Credit risk with respect to accounts receivable is dispersed due to the large number of customers of the Company. The Company routinely assesses the creditworthiness of its customers and generally does not require its customers to provide collateral or other security to support accounts receivable. Credit losses historically have not been significant and the Company generally has not experienced any material losses related to receivables from individual customers, or groups of customers. Due to these factors, no additional credit risk beyond amounts provided for collection losses is believed by management to be probable in the Company's accounts receivable.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, no individual customer represented more than 10% of the Company’s accounts receivable. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, no individual customer represented more than 10% of the Company’s revenue.
Disclosure of Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments include cash, cash equivalents, investments, accounts receivable, loan receivables, accounts payable, and accrued expenses. The Company’s investments are classified as available-for-sale and reported at fair value in accordance with the market approach utilizing quoted prices that were directly or indirectly observable. The Company has elected the fair value option in respect to the accounting for its loan receivable investment, resulting in increases and decreases in the fair value of such investments being recorded to other income, net for each reporting period. The carrying amount of the remainder of the Company’s financial instruments approximated their fair values as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
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The Company has evaluated the estimated fair value of financial instruments using available market information. The use of different market assumptions and/or estimation methodologies could have a significant effect on the estimated fair value amounts. See below for further discussion.
Foreign Currency Translation
The Company operates in a multi-currency environment having transactions in such currencies as the U.S. dollar, zloty, Czech koruna, euro, and others. The reporting currency of the Company is the U.S. dollar.
The foreign currency exchange gain (loss) included in other income, net for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was $445 and $(638), respectively.
Comprehensive income (loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is comprised of two components: net income (loss) and other comprehensive income (loss), which includes other changes in stockholders’ equity that result from transactions and economic events other than those with stockholders. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, comprehensive income (loss) consists of net income (loss), the change in the cumulative foreign currency translation adjustment, and unrealized loss on investments. The tax effect of the cumulative foreign currency translation adjustment and unrealized loss on investments was not significant for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In November 2023, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures (“ASU 2023-07”). ASU 2023-07 expands public entities’ segment disclosures by requiring disclosure of significant segment expenses that are regularly provided to the chief operating decision maker and included within each reported measure of segment profit or loss, an amount and description of its composition for other segment items, and interim disclosures of a reportable segment’s profit or loss and assets. ASU 2023-07 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023 and for interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption permitted. The Company is evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2023-07 on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topic 740)-Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures (“ASU 2023-09”). ASU 2023-09 requires that an entity disclose specific categories in the effective tax rate reconciliation as well as provide additional information for reconciling items that meet a quantitative threshold. Further, ASU 2023-09 requires certain disclosures of state versus federal income tax expense and taxes paid. The amendments in ASU 2023-09 are required to be adopted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, with early adoption permitted. The amendments should be applied on a prospective basis although retrospective application is permitted. The Company is evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2023-09 on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
3.    Cash, Cash Equivalents, Restricted Cash, and Investments
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments purchased with an original maturity date of 90 days or less from the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on deposit with banks and amounts held in interest-bearing money market funds. Cash equivalents are carried at cost, which approximates their fair market value. Short‑term investments consist of investments with original maturities greater than 90 days, as of the date of purchase. The Company considers its investment portfolio available-for-sale. The Company adjusts the cost of investments for amortization of
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premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity. The Company includes such amortization and accretion in interest income in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations.
When the Company holds debt investments classified as available-for-sale pursuant to ASC 320, Investments — Debt Securities, it records available-for-sale securities at fair value, with unrealized gains and losses included in accumulated other comprehensive loss in stockholders’ equity. The Company has classified its investments with maturities beyond one year as short term, based on their highly liquid nature and because such marketable securities represent the investment of cash that is available for current operations. The Company includes interest and dividends on securities classified as available-for-sale in interest income in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). Realized gains and losses are recorded in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) based on the specific-identification method. There was no material realized gains or losses on investments for the three months ended March 31, 2024 or 2023. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the aggregate fair value of investments held by the Company in an unrealized loss position for less than twelve months was $143,186 and $89,381, respectively. As of March 31, 2024, the aggregate fair value of investments held by the Company in a continuous unrealized loss position for greater than twelve months was $43,850. The Company did not hold any investments in an unrealized loss position for greater than twelve months as of December 31, 2023.
On January 1, 2023, the Company adopted ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326) and ASU 2019-04, Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses, Topic 815 Derivatives and Hedging and Topic 825, Financial Instruments. Under these standards, the Company reviews available-for-sale securities for impairment whenever the fair value of the security is less than its amortized cost. If impairment exists and the Company intends to sell the security or it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the security before recovery of the amortized cost basis, the Company will write down the amortized cost basis to its fair value at the reporting date, recognizing the difference as a loss within other income, net in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations. If the Company does not intend to sell the security nor is it more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the security before recovery of the amortized cost basis, the Company will determine if any portion of the unrealized loss on the security is due to credit loss. If the impairment is entirely or partially due to credit loss, the Company will measure the credit loss up to the amount of the difference between fair value and amortized cost, and recognize an allowance for credit losses along with the related charge against earnings as a loss within other income, net in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations. The remaining impairment amount due to all other factors is recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets. Subsequent changes to the Company’s estimate of credit losses will be recorded as adjustments to the allowance for credit losses and net income (loss). For the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company determined that no impairments were required to be recognized in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations.
The following is a summary of cash, cash equivalents, and investments as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023:
Amortized
 Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Estimated
Fair Value
March 31, 2024
Cash and cash equivalents$41,388 $— $— $41,388 
Investments:
     U.S. treasury securities202,619  (863)201,756 
           Total investments202,619  (863)201,756 
                Total cash, cash equivalents, and investments$244,007 $ $(863)$243,144 
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Amortized
 Cost
Gross
Unrealized
Gains
Gross
Unrealized
Losses
Estimated
Fair Value
December 31, 2023
Cash and cash equivalents$58,848 $— $— $58,848 
Investments:
     U.S. treasury securities due in one year or less179,843 265 (387)179,721 
           Total investments179,843 265 (387)179,721 
                Total cash, cash equivalents and investments$238,691 $265 $(387)$238,569 
The Company considered the extent to which any unrealized losses on its marketable securities were driven by credit risk and other factors, including market risk, and if it is more-likely-than-not that the Company would have to sell the security before the recovery of the amortized cost basis. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the unrealized losses related to its marketable securities were due to rising market interest rates compared to when the investments were initiated. The Company does not believe the unrealized losses represent credit risk, and the Company does not intend to sell any of the securities in an unrealized loss position and it is not likely that the Company would be required to sell these securities before recovery of their amortized cost basis, which may be at maturity. Thus, no credit loss was recognized for the Company's marketable securities for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.
As of March 31, 2024, the Company held $76,444 in U.S. treasury securities with maturities within one year and $125,312 in U.S. treasury securities with maturities after one year and within three years.
Restricted Cash
As of March 31, 2024, restricted cash totaled $185 and related to cash held as collateral for a letter of credit related to the contractual provisions for one of the Company’s office leases.
The following table is a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash included in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets that sum to the total cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash included in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of cash flows:
As of March 31,
20242023
Cash and cash equivalents$41,388 $56,889 
Restricted cash included in "other long-term assets"185  
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$41,573 $56,889 

4.    Leases
The components of lease expense were as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Operating lease cost$1,352 $783 
Short-term lease cost228 368 
Variable lease cost1,196 1,542 
Total lease cost$2,776 $2,693 
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Three Months Ended
March 31,
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Amortization of lease assets$571 $571 
Interest on lease liabilities9 28 
Total finance lease cost$580 $599 
Weighted-average remaining lease term and discount rate were as follows:
As of March 31,
2024
Weighted-average remaining lease term (in years)
     Operating leases3.5
     Finance leases1.4
Weighted-average discount rate
     Operating leases5.4 %
     Finance leases6.5 %
Future minimum amounts payable as of March 31, 2024 were as follows:
As of March 31, 2024
Operating LeasesFinance
Leases
Remainder of 2024$3,393 $268 
20254,270 194 
20263,698  
20272,071  
2028980  
Thereafter  
Total lease payments14,412 462 
Less: imputed interest(1,119)(8)
Total lease liabilities$13,293 $454 
As of March 31, 2024, the Company had no finance or operating leases that had not yet commenced.
Rent expense related to the Company’s office facilities was $1,579 and $1,151 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.

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5.    Fair Value Measurement
The following tables summarize financial assets and liabilities measured and recorded at fair value on a recurring basis in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, segregated by the level of the valuation inputs within the fair value hierarchy utilized to measure fair value:
March 31, 2024
Quoted Prices in Active Markets for Identical Assets (Level 1 Inputs)Significant Other Observable Inputs (Level 2 Inputs)Significant Unobservable Inputs
(Level 3 Inputs)
Total
Assets:
     Money market funds$16,450 $ $ $16,450 
     U.S. treasury securities 201,756  201,756 
     Commercial paper 3,486  3,486 
     Investment loan receivable (See Note 7)  7,000 7,000 
Total assets$16,450 $205,242 $7,000 $228,692 
Liabilities:
Contingent consideration$ $ $618 $618 
Total liabilities$ $ $618 $618 
December 31, 2023
Quoted Prices in Active Markets for Identical Assets (Level 1 Inputs)Significant Other Observable Inputs (Level 2 Inputs)Significant Unobservable Inputs
(Level 3 Inputs)
Total
Assets:
     Money market funds$54,269 $ $ $54,269 
     U.S. treasury securities 179,721  179,721 
Total assets$54,269 $179,721 $ $233,990 
Liabilities:
     Contingent consideration$ $ $597 $597 
Total liabilities$ $ $597 $597 

Cash equivalents include money market funds with original maturities of 90 days or less from the date of purchase. The fair value measurement of these assets is based on quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets and, therefore, these assets are recorded at fair value on a recurring basis and classified as Level 1 in the fair value hierarchy. The Company’s investments primarily consist of U.S. treasury securities. The fair value measurement of these assets is based on significant other observable inputs and, therefore, these assets are recorded at fair value on a recurring basis and classified as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy.
As of March 31, 2024, the Company measured its investment loan receivables (see Note 7) and its contingent consideration associated with the acquisition of Datos Inc. on a recurring basis using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3). As of December 31, 2023, the Company measured its contingent consideration associated with the acquisition of Datos Inc. on a recurring basis using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3).
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Contingent consideration
The Company records contingent consideration resulting from a business combination at its fair value on the acquisition date. The Company generally determines the fair value of the contingent consideration using the Monte Carlo simulation model. Each reporting period thereafter, these obligations are revalued and increases or decreases in their fair values are recorded as an adjustment to other income, net within the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). Changes in the fair value of the contingent consideration can result from changes in assumed discount periods and rates, and from changes pertaining to the estimated or actual achievement of the defined milestones. Significant judgment is employed in determining the appropriateness of these assumptions as of the acquisition date and for each subsequent period. Accordingly, future business and economic conditions, as well as changes in any of the assumptions described above, can materially impact the amount of contingent consideration expense the Company records in any given period.
The total estimated fair value of the contingent consideration payable was $618 and $597 as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. The following table represents the key inputs used in the fair value calculations:
March 31, 2024
December 31, 2023
Risk free interest rate5.00 %4.80 %
Projected year of payment20252025
Revenue volatility10.0 %11.0 %
Discount rate7.60 %7.70 %

Changes in the estimated fair value of the Datos contingent consideration payable will be recognized in other income, net. A rollforward of the fair value measurements of the contingent consideration liability for the three months ended March 31, 2024 is as follows:
Balance as of December 31, 2023
$597 
Change in fair value and expense recognized for service period rendered21 
Balance as of March 31, 2024618 

6.    Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment consists of the following:
As of
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Computer equipment$11,163 $11,084 
Furniture and office equipment1,904 1,965 
Leasehold improvements2,681 2,469 
Total property and equipment15,748 15,518 
Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization(9,749)(8,832)
Property and equipment, net$5,999 $6,686 
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Depreciation and amortization expense related to property and equipment was $1,039 and $838 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
7.    Other Assets
Investment Loan Receivable
In March 2024, the Company entered into a loan agreement in which it has loaned $7,000 to the borrower with a repayment date in March 2025. In addition to the loan facility, the Company entered into an option agreement with the borrower in which the Company has the right, but not the obligation, to acquire a majority of the outstanding common stock of the borrower during the period beginning July 1, 2024 and ending August 31, 2024. The Company recorded the investment loan receivable and the call option at their fair value of $7,000 on the agreement date. The carrying value of the investment loan receivable, which approximates its fair value, is recorded in prepaid expenses and other current assets in the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2024.
With respect to its investment loan receivable, the Company held a variable interest in the borrower, which is a variable interest entity. After evaluation of the relationship between the Company and this variable interest entity, the Company determined not to consolidate this variable interest entity’s results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2024. Significant judgments included the determination that the Company was not the primary beneficiary of the variable interest entity given the Company’s variable interests did not constitute a controlling financial interest.
The Company elected to account for this investment by utilizing the fair value option. The Company records investment loan receivables at their fair value on the agreement date. Each reporting period thereafter, these receivables are revalued and increases or decreases in their fair values are recorded as an adjustment to other income, net within the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). The Company generally determines the fair value using the discounted cash flow method. The significant assumptions used to estimate the fair value include the interest rate, risk-free rate, expected repayment date, equity value, equity volatility, expected timing of exercise, and the credit spread assumption specific to the investment loan. Significant judgment is employed in determining the appropriateness of these assumptions as of the acquisition date and for each subsequent period.
8.    Net Income (Loss) Per Share
For the three months ended March 31, 2024, diluted net income per share was calculated by dividing net income attributable to Semrush Holdings, Inc. by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period, including the dilutive impact of stock options and shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting of Restricted Stock Units (“RSUs”).
For the three months ended March 31, 2023, the net loss attributable to common stockholders is divided by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period to calculate both basic and diluted earnings per share. The dilutive effect of common stock equivalents has been excluded from the calculation of diluted net loss per share for these periods as its effect would have been anti-dilutive due to the net losses incurred for the periods.
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The following table presents a reconciliation of weighted-average shares outstanding used in the calculation of basic and diluted net income (loss) per share:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Weighted-average shares outstanding:
Weighted-average number of shares of common stock used in computing net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders—basic144,565,578 141,650,459 
Dilutive effect of share equivalents resulting from stock options2,193,289  
Dilutive effect of share equivalents resulting from restricted stock units938,634  
Weighted-average number of shares of common stock used in computing net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders—diluted147,697,501 141,650,459 
The following potentially dilutive common stock equivalents, including stock options and restricted stock units, have been excluded from the calculation of diluted weighted-average shares outstanding for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 because to do so would have been anti-dilutive for the periods presented:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Stock options outstanding3,515,132 7,502,992 
Unvested RSUs539,969 1,770,736 
Unvested Performance stock units (“PSUs”)319,976  
4,375,077 9,273,728 
For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, 1,198,606 and 1,328,021 shares of Class A common stock potentially issuable under PSU awards were excluded from the table above, respectively. The performance-based conditions had not been met and were deemed improbable of achievement as of the reporting period end date. See Note 14 for additional information regarding the Company’s PSU awards.
9.    Acquisitions, Intangible Assets, and Goodwill
Acquisitions
Datos
On December 1, 2023, the Company completed a stock purchase agreement to acquire approximately 60% of the voting equity interests in Datos Inc. (“Datos”). The Company has accounted for this transaction as a business combination under the acquisition method. The primary purpose of this business combination is to acquire Datos’ valuable clickstream data software. The Company performed acquisition accounting as of December 1, 2023. The acquisition date fair value of the consideration transferred consisted of the following:
Acquisition Date
Consideration transferredFair Value
Fair value of the January 2021 and February 2022 Convertible Notes$7,530 
Cash paid at close4,255 
Other consideration2,070 
Total purchase consideration$13,855 

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The Company determined that the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed was $19,021, including the fair value of the noncontrolling interest in Datos of $5,166. The fair value of the noncontrolling interest is inclusive of the fair value of the acquired call option, which gives the Company the right, but not the obligation, to purchase the remaining shares in Datos during the period beginning January 1, 2026 and ending on January 1, 2027 (the “Call Option”). The Company estimated the fair value of the noncontrolling interest, inclusive of the Call Option, using an option pricing method (a special case of the income approach), considering the initial transaction price and based on Level 3 significant unobservable inputs such as the total equity value of Datos, forecasted revenues, volatility, and risk-adjusted discount rates. Other consideration includes the deferred purchase payments, the contingent payment, and additional consideration due to the seller. A payment of $501 was made during March 2024 related to other consideration. The remaining fair value of other consideration has been recorded to other current liabilities in the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2024.

The table below summarizes the Company’s preliminary purchase price allocation. The allocation of the purchase price is preliminary as of March 31, 2024 as the Company continues to gather information supporting the acquired assets and liabilities to finalize the purchase price allocation.
Purchase Price
Assets acquiredAllocation
Fair value of tangible assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$549 
Accounts receivable518 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets320 
Property and equipment, net8 
Other long-term assets3 
Identifiable intangible assets2,780 
Goodwill16,791 
Total assets acquired$20,969 
Liabilities assumed
Accounts payable342 
Deferred revenue367 
Accrued expenses213 
Other current liabilities609 
Other long-term liabilities417 
Total Liabilities Assumed$1,948 
Fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, net$19,021 
Fair value of noncontrolling interest, including call option$5,166 
Fair value of controlling interest acquired$13,855 
The Company recorded $100 in transaction costs related to the transaction during the three months ended March 31, 2024, which are included in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) in its income from continuing operations under the line item, General and administrative.
As of December 1, 2023, the results of Datos’ operations are included within the Company’s consolidated financial statements. This business combination did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements. Therefore, actual results of operations subsequent to the acquisition date and pro forma results of operations have not been presented.
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Traffic Think Tank
On February 23, 2023, the Company completed a purchase agreement with Rank, LLC (“Traffic Think Tank”), acquiring certain intangible assets of Traffic Think Tank for total cash consideration of $1,800, of which $360 will be paid in 12 months (the “12-month holdback amount”) and $360 will be paid in 18 months (the “18-month holdback amount”). The remaining consideration was paid upon closing. The 12-month holdback amount and 18-month holdback amount are recorded in other current liabilities in the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2024. The primary purpose of the acquisition was to acquire valuable brand and content related to Traffic Think Tank’s SEO community and courses.

This business combination did not have a material impact on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. Therefore, actual results of operations subsequent to the acquisition date and pro forma results of operations have not been presented.

Intangible Assets
Intangible assets consist of intangible assets resulting from the Company’s acquisitions and its capitalized internal-use software development costs. Intangible assets consist of the following:

As of March 31, 2024
Weighted Average Remaining Useful Life (years)Gross Carrying AmountAccumulated AmortizationNet Carrying Amount
Developed technology3.9$5,595 $(1,760)$3,835 
Trade name3.54,450 (1,605)2,845 
Content2.02,387 (1,170)1,217 
Customer relationships4.11,694 (490)1,204 
Capitalized internal-use software2.810,449 (2,614)7,835 
Total as of March 31, 2024
$24,575 $(7,639)$16,936 

As of December 31, 2023
Weighted Average Remaining Useful Life (years)Gross Carrying AmountAccumulated AmortizationNet Carrying Amount
Developed technology4.1$5,604 $(1,518)$4,086 
Trade name3.74,451 (1,404)3,047 
Content2.32,387 (1,021)1,366 
Customer relationships4.41,694 (396)1,298 
Capitalized internal-use software2.88,460 (2,174)6,286 
Total as of December 31, 2023
$22,596 $(6,513)$16,083 

During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company capitalized $2,015 and $1,056 of software development costs, respectively. These capitalized costs are classified as intangible assets on the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company recorded amortization expense associated with its capitalized software development costs of $448 and $127, respectively.
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Amortization expense for acquired intangible assets was $692 and $522 for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
As of March 31, 2024, future amortization expense is expected to be as follows:
Amount
Remainder of 2024$3,241 
20254,075 
20263,127 
20271,471 
2028695 
Thereafter4,327 
Total$16,936 

Goodwill
The changes in the carrying value of goodwill during the three months ended March 31, 2024 were as follows:
Amount
Balance as of January 1, 2024$24,879 
Datos purchase price allocation adjustment(104)
Foreign currency translation adjustment(18)
Balance as of March 31, 2024
$24,757 
10.    Exit Costs
Commencing in March 2022, the Company began to exit its operations in Russia and relocate employees. As of June 30, 2023, the Company had substantially completed its relocation efforts. All costs associated with the Company’s exit activities are included in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations in its income from continuing operations under the line item, Exit Costs.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company did not incur exit costs. During the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company incurred exit costs of $983 related to relocation efforts.
11.    Accrued expenses
Accrued expenses consist of the following:
As of
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Employee compensation$4,687 $7,742 
Income taxes payable4,719 1,810 
Other taxes payable9,262 9,695 
Vacation reserves802 549 
Other127 95 
Total accrued expenses$19,597 $19,891 
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12.    Income Taxes
The Company is subject to income taxes in U.S. federal, state, and foreign jurisdictions. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company recorded provisions for income taxes of $3,104 and $797, respectively. The Company’s effective tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2024 differs from the U.S. statutory rate due primarily to the impact of earnings in foreign jurisdictions and the impact of the requirement to capitalize and amortize certain research and development costs which results in a current U.S. tax provision but no deferred tax benefit as a result of the valuation allowance maintained against our net deferred tax assets. The Company’s income tax expense for the three months ended March 31, 2023 primarily relates to income earned in certain foreign jurisdictions.
The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities. These differences are measured using the enacted statutory tax rates that are expected to be in effect for the years in which differences are expected to reverse. On a periodic basis, the Company reassesses any valuation allowances it maintains on its deferred tax assets, weighing positive and negative evidence to assess the recoverability of the deferred tax assets. The Company maintains a valuation allowance on its net deferred tax assets.
13.    Stockholders’ Equity
Common Stock Reserved for Future Issuance
As of March 31, 2024, the Company had reserved the following shares of common stock for future issuance:
Options outstanding6,456,261 
Common stock reserved for future issuance13,435,520 
Restricted stock units and performance stock units outstanding5,935,849 
Total authorized shares of common stock reserved for future issuance25,827,630 
14.    Stock-Based Compensation
The Company recorded stock-based compensation expense of $5,115 and $2,796 during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. The following table shows stock-based compensation expense by where the stock-based compensation expense is recorded in the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated statement of operations:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Cost of revenue$39 $17 
Sales and marketing770 528 
Research and development636 343 
General and administrative3,670 1,908 
Total stock-based compensation$5,115 $2,796 
As of March 31, 2024, there was $15,790 of unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested common stock option arrangements, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.66 years. As of March 31, 2024, there was $33,975 of unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested restricted stock unit awards, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.76 years. As of March 31, 2024, there was $11,463 of unrecognized compensation cost
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related to unvested performance stock unit awards, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average period of 2.92 years.
The fair value of each option award was estimated on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. As there was no public market for its common stock prior to March 25, 2021, which was the first day of trading, and as the trading history of the Company’s common stock is limited, the Company determined the expected volatility for options granted based on an analysis of reported data for a peer group of companies that issued options with substantially similar terms. The expected volatility of options granted has been determined using an average of the historical volatility measures of this peer group of companies. The expected life of options granted to employees was calculated using the simplified method, which represents the average of the contractual term of the option and the weighted-average vesting period of the option. The Company uses the simplified method because it does not have sufficient historical option exercise data to provide a reasonable basis upon which to estimate expected term. The risk-free interest rate is based on a treasury instrument whose term is consistent with the expected life of the share option. The Company has not paid, nor anticipates paying, cash dividends on its ordinary shares; therefore, the expected dividend yield is assumed to be zero.
The weighted-average assumptions utilized to determine the fair value of options granted to employees are presented in the following table:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Expected volatility61.8 %63.6 %
Weighted-average risk-free interest rate4.28 %4.22 %
Expected dividend yield  
Expected life – in years66
A summary of the Company’s option activity as of March 31, 2024, and changes during the three months then ended are as follows:
Number of OptionsWeighted-Average Exercise Price (per share)Weighted-Average Remaining Contractual Term (in years)
Outstanding at January 1, 20247,175,494 $7.02 7.78
Granted15,888 12.62 
Exercised(469,879)1.80 
Forfeited(265,242)8.47 
Outstanding at March 31, 2024
6,456,261 7.36 7.60
Options exercisable at March 31, 2024
3,183,237 4.606.41
The weighted-average grant-date fair value of options granted during the three months ended March 31, 2024 was $7.71 per share. The weighted-average grant-date fair value of options granted during the three months ended March 31, 2023 was $4.93 per share. No tax benefits were realized from options during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
The aggregate intrinsic value of options outstanding as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 was $39,769 and $49,221, respectively.
The aggregate intrinsic value for options exercised during the three months ended March 31, 2024 was $5,035. The aggregate intrinsic value for options exercised during the three months ended March 31, 2023 was $708.
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The aggregate intrinsic value for options exercisable as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 was $28,574 and $34,471, respectively.
The aggregate intrinsic value was calculated based on the positive difference, if any, between the estimated fair value of the Company’s common stock on March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively, or the date of exercise, as appropriate, and the exercise price of the underlying options.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company granted to employees RSUs for 1,439,963 and 523,294 shares of Class A common stock, respectively. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company recorded stock-based compensation expense related to the RSUs of $3,007 and $1,191, respectively.
A summary of RSU activity for the three months ended March 31, 2024 is as follows:
Number of SharesWeighted-Average Grant Date Fair ValueAggregate Fair Value
Unvested balance at January 1, 20242,571,318$9.88 $25,405 
Granted1,439,96312.5418,057
Vested(145,844)10.351,509 
Forfeited(153,805)8.381,289 
Unvested balance as of March 31, 2024
3,711,632$10.95 $40,642 
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company granted to employees Performance Stock Unit (“PSU”) awards for 1,146,491 shares of Class A common stock. During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, $435 and $24 of stock-based compensation expense has been recognized in connection with PSU awards. respectively. The Company did not grant PSU awards during the three months ended March 31, 2023. The fair value of PSUs with a market component was estimated on the grant date using a Monte Carlo simulation model.
A summary of PSU activity for the three months ended March 31, 2024 is as follows:
Number of SharesWeighted-Average Grant Date Fair ValueAggregate Fair Value
Unvested balance at January 1, 20241,077,726$11.61 $12,512 
Granted1,146,49112.5614,400
Vested  
Forfeited  
Unvested balance at March 31, 2024
2,224,217$12.10 $26,913 
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15.    Commitments and Contingencies
Data Providers
The Company has multi-year commitments with certain data providers through March 31, 2026. As of March 31, 2024, future commitments for data services are as follows:
As of March 31, 2024
Remainder of 20249,118 
202514,388 
20263,266 
2027 and thereafter 
      Total$26,772 
Litigation
From time to time the Company may become involved in legal proceedings or be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of its business. Although the results of litigation and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, the Company currently believes that the final outcome of these ordinary course matters will not have a material adverse effect on its business, operating results, financial condition or cash flows. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on the Company because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.
Indemnification
The Company typically enters into indemnification agreements with customers in the ordinary course of business. Pursuant to these agreements, the Company indemnifies and agrees to reimburse the indemnified party for losses suffered or incurred as a result of claims of intellectual property infringement. These indemnification agreements are provisions of the applicable customer agreement. Based on when clients first sign an agreement for the Company’s service, the maximum potential amount of future payments the Company could be required to make under certain of these indemnification agreements is unlimited. Based on historical experience and information known as of March 31, 2024, the Company has not incurred any costs for the above guarantees and indemnities.
In certain circumstances, the Company warrants that its services will perform in all material respects in accordance with its standard published specification documentation in effect at the time of delivery of the services to the customer for the term of the agreement. To date, the Company has not incurred significant expense under its warranties and, as a result, the Company believes the estimated fair value of these agreements is immaterial.
16.    Components of Other Income, Net
The components of other income, net, for the three months ended three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 are as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Foreign currency exchange gain (loss)$445 $(638)
Interest income, net2,732 2,189 
Other income, net462 154 
Total other income, net$3,639 $1,705 
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17.    Employee Benefit Plan
The Company maintains a defined contribution savings plan under Section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code (the “401(k) Plan”) covering all U.S. employees who satisfy certain eligibility requirements. The 401(k) Plan allows each participant to defer a percentage of their eligible compensation subject to applicable annual limits pursuant to the limits established by the Internal Revenue Service. The Company may, at the discretion of the Board, make contributions in the form of matching contributions or profit-sharing contributions. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company made matching contributions of $447 and $308 to the 401(k) Plan, respectively.
18.    Segment and Geographic Information
Disclosure requirements about segments of an enterprise and related information establishes standards for reporting information regarding operating segments in annual financial statements and requires selected information of those segments to be presented in interim financial reports issued to shareholders. Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker, or decision-making group, in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company’s chief operating decision maker is the chief executive officer. The Company and the chief executive officer view the Company’s operations and manage its business as one operating segment.
Geographic Data
The Company allocates, for the purpose of geographic data reporting, its revenue based upon the location of the customer. Total revenue by geographic area was as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Revenue:
United States$40,646 $34,747 
United Kingdom8,324 7,007 
Other36,842 29,116 
Total revenue$85,812 $70,870 
Property and equipment, net by geographic location consists of the following:
As of
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Property and equipment, net:
United States$2,387 $3,231 
Netherlands2,015 1,781 
Spain790 807 
Czech Republic246 278 
Other561 589 
Total assets$5,999 $6,686 

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19.     Subsequent Events
In April 2024, the Company acquired approximately 58% of the outstanding shares of Brand24 S.A. ("Brand24"), a leading SaaS platform providing metrics measuring brand awareness, sentiment analysis, and collecting customer insights located and based in Poland. The purchase price for the Brand24 acquisition totaled $13.7 million. The acquisition will be accounted for as a business combination under ASC 805, Business Combinations. The Company is in the process of finalizing the accounting for this transaction and will complete the preliminary allocation of the purchase consideration to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed by the end of the second quarter of 2024. In connection with this transaction, the Company plans to commence a tender offer in May 2024 to acquire additional outstanding shares of Brand24.


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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, and related notes that are included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, along with the financial information included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on March 7, 2024. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis, including information with respect to our planned investments in our research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative functions, contains forward-looking statements based upon current plans, beliefs, and expectations that involve risks, uncertainties, and assumptions. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under the section titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and Item 1A. Risk Factors in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any period in the future.
Company Overview
We are a leading online visibility management SaaS platform, enabling companies globally to identify and reach the right audience in the right context and through the right channels. Online visibility represents how effectively companies connect with consumers across a variety of digital channels, including search, social and digital media, digital public relations, and review websites. Our proprietary SaaS platform enables us to aggregate and enrich trillions of data points collected from hundreds of millions of unique domains, social media platforms, online ads, and web traffic. This allows our customers to understand trends, derive unique and actionable insights to improve their websites and social media pages, and distribute highly relevant content to their targeted customers across channels to drive high quality traffic.
We generate substantially all of our revenue from monthly and annual subscriptions to our online visibility management platform under a SaaS model. Subscription revenue is recognized ratably over the contract term beginning on the date the product is made available to customers.
We currently operate subsidiaries in the United States, Spain, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Cyprus, Serbia, Poland, Germany, Armenia, Canada, and France.
Our revenue is primarily generated through sales of our products around the globe. The largest portion of our revenue continues to be driven by customers based in the U.S. and UK, generating combined revenues of $49.0 million and $41.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
We have one reportable segment. See Note 18 to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for more information.
Key Factors Affecting Our Performance
We regularly review a number of factors that have impacted, and we believe will continue to impact, our results of operations and growth. These factors include:
Acquiring New Paying Customers
We expect increasing demand for third-party online visibility software to accelerate adoption of our platform. Our recurring subscription model provides significant visibility into our future results and we believe Annual Recurring Revenue (“ARR”) is the best indicator of the scale of our platform, while
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mitigating fluctuations due to seasonality and contract term. We define ARR as of a given date as the monthly recurring revenue that we expect to contractually receive from all paid subscription agreements that are actively generating revenue as of that date multiplied by 12. We include both monthly recurring paid subscriptions, which renew automatically unless canceled, as well as annual recurring paid subscriptions so long as we do not have any indication that a customer has canceled or intends to cancel its subscription and we continue to generate revenue from them. As of March 31, 2024, we had nearly 112,000 paying customers, accounting for $354.2 million in ARR, an increase from 100,000 paying customers accounting for $293.0 million in ARR as of March 31, 2023.
Retaining and Expanding Sales to Our Existing Customers
We serve a diverse customer base across a variety of sizes and industries that is focused on maximizing their online visibility. We believe there is significant opportunity to expand within our existing customer base as customers often initially purchase our entry-level subscription, which offers lower usage limits and limited user licenses, as well as fewer features. We have demonstrated the ability to expand contract values with our existing customers as they use our products and recognize the critical nature of our platform and often seek premium offerings through incremental usage, features, add-ons, and additional user licenses.
Our dollar-based net revenue retention rate enables us to evaluate our ability to retain and expand subscription revenue generated from our existing customers. Our dollar-based net revenue retention rate as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 was approximately 107%.
We calculate our dollar-based net revenue retention rate as of the end of a period by using (a) the revenue from our customers during the twelve month period ending one year prior to such period as the denominator and (b) the revenue from those same customers during the twelve months ending as of the end of such period as the numerator. This calculation excludes revenue from new customers and any non-recurring revenue.
We have successfully increased ARR per paying customer over time and believe this metric is an indicator of our ability to grow the long-term value of our platform. We expect ARR per paying customer to continue to increase as customers adopt our premium offerings and we continue to introduce new products and functionality. Our ARR per paying customer as of March 31, 2024 and March 31, 2023 was $3,163 and $2,881, respectively, in absolute unrounded amounts. We define ARR per paying customer as of a given date as ARR from our paying customers as of that date divided by the number of paying customers as of that date. We define the number of paying customers as the number of unique business and individual customers as of a given date. We define a business customer as all accounts that contain a common non-individual business email domain (e.g., all subscriptions with an email domain of @XYZ.com will be considered to be one customer), and an individual customer as an account that uses an individual non-business email domain.
Sustaining Product and Technology Innovation
We have a strong track record of developing new products that have high adoption rates among our paying customers. Our product development organization plays a critical role in continuing to enhance the effectiveness and differentiation of our technology in an evolving landscape and maximizing retention of our existing customers. We intend to continue investing in product development to improve our data assets, expand our products and enhance our technological capabilities.
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Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In addition to our financial results determined in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), we believe that non-GAAP income (loss) from operations, non-GAAP income (loss) from operations margin, free cash flow and free cash flow margin, each a non-GAAP financial measure, are useful in evaluating the performance of our business.
Non-GAAP income (loss) from operations, non-GAAP income (loss) from operations margin, free cash flow and free cash flow margin
We define non-GAAP income (loss) from operations as GAAP income (loss) from operations, excluding stock based compensation, amortization of acquired intangible assets, acquisition related costs, restructuring costs and other one-time expenses outside the ordinary course of business (for example, our Exit Costs incurred primarily in 2022). We define non-GAAP operating margin as non-GAAP income (loss) from operations divided by GAAP revenue. We believe investors may want to consider our results with and without the effects of these items in order to compare our financial performance with that of other companies that exclude such items and to compare our results to prior periods. We monitor non-GAAP income (loss) from operations and non-GAAP income (loss) from operations margin as two measures of our overall business performance, which enables us to analyze our future performance and allows us to better understand the operating results of our business. We define free cash flow, a non-GAAP financial measure, as net cash provided by (used in) operating activities less purchases of property and equipment and capitalized software development costs. We define free cash flow margin as free cash flow divided by GAAP revenue. We monitor free cash flow and free cash flow margin as two measures of our overall business performance, which enables us to analyze our future performance without the effects of non-cash items and allows us to better understand the cash needs of our business. While we believe that non-GAAP income (loss) from operations, non-GAAP income (loss) from operations margin, free cash flow and free cash flow margin are useful in evaluating our business, non-GAAP income (loss) from operations and non-GAAP income (loss) from operations margin, free cash flow and free cash flow margin are each non-GAAP financial measures that have limitations as an analytical tool, and non-GAAP income (loss) from operations and non-GAAP income (loss) from operations margin should not be considered as an alternative to, or substitute for, income (loss) from operations in accordance with GAAP and free cash flow and free cash flow margin should not be considered as an alternative to, or substitute for, net cash provided by (used in) operating activities in accordance with GAAP. The utility of free cash flow and free cash flow margin as a measure of our liquidity is further limited as each measure does not represent the total increase or decrease in our cash balance for any given period. In addition, other companies, including companies in our industry, may calculate free cash flow and free cash flow margin differently or not at all, which reduces the usefulness of free cash flow and free cash flow margin as a tool for comparison. A summary of our cash flows from operating, investing, and financing activities is provided below. We recommend that you review the reconciliation of GAAP income (loss) from operations to non-GAAP income (loss) from operations, the reconciliation of GAAP income (loss) from operations margin to non-GAAP income (loss) from operations margin, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, provided below, the reconciliation of free cash flow to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, and the reconciliation of free cash flow margin to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities (as a percentage of revenue), the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, and that you not rely on non-GAAP income (loss) from operations,
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non-GAAP income (loss) from operations margin, free cash flow, free cash flow margin or any single financial measure to evaluate our business.
Three Months Ended March 31,
2024
2023
(in thousands)
Income (loss) from operations$1,468 $(10,768)
Stock-based compensation expense5,115 2,796 
Amortization of acquired intangibles692 522 
Restructuring and other costs2,124 983 
Acquisition-related costs, net338 — 
Non-GAAP income (loss) from operations
$9,737 $(6,467)
Three Months Ended March 31,
2024
2023
Income (loss) from operations (as a percentage of revenue)1.7 %(15.2)%
Stock-based compensation expense (as a percentage of revenue)6.0 %3.9 %
Amortization of acquired intangibles (as a percentage of revenue)0.8 %0.7 %
Restructuring and other costs (as a percentage of revenue)2.5 %1.4 %
Acquisition-related costs, net (as a percentage of revenue)0.4 %— %
Non-GAAP income (loss) from operations margin
11.4 %(9.2)%
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)
20242023
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$14,779 $(3,609)
Net cash used in investing activities(31,981)(18,889)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities434 (451)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents(507)73 
Net decrease in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$(17,275)$(22,876)
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in thousands)
20242023
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$14,779 $(3,609)
Purchases of property and equipment(759)(268)
Capitalization of internal-use software costs(2,015)(1,056)
Free cash flow$12,005 $(4,933)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities (as a percentage of revenue)17.2 %(5.1)%
Purchases of property and equipment (as a percentage of revenue)(0.9)%(0.4)%
Capitalization of internal-use software costs (as a percentage of revenue)(2.3)%(1.5)%
Free cash flow margin14.0 %(7.0)%
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Components of our Results of Operations
Revenue
We generate nearly all of our revenue from subscriptions to our online visibility management platform under a SaaS model. Subscription revenue is recognized ratably over the contract term beginning on the date on which we provide the customer access to our platform. Our customers do not have the right to take possession of our software. Our subscriptions are generally non-cancellable during the contractual subscription term, however our subscription contracts contain a right to a refund if requested within seven days of purchase.
We offer our paid products to customers via monthly or annual subscription plans, as well as one-time and ongoing add-ons. Our subscription-based model enables customers to select a plan based on their needs and license our platform on a per user per month basis.
As of March 31, 2024, we served nearly 112,000 paying customers in various industries, and our revenue is not concentrated with any single customer or industry. For the three months ended March 31, 2024, no single customer accounted for more than 10% of our revenue.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue primarily consists of expenses related to hosting our platform, acquiring data, merchant account fees, and providing support to our customers. These expenses are comprised of personnel and related costs, including salaries, benefits, incentive compensation, and stock-based compensation expenses related to the management of our data centers, our customer support team, and our customer success team. In addition to these expenses, we incur third-party service provider costs, such as data center and networking expenses, data acquisition costs, allocated overhead costs, depreciation and amortization expense associated with our property and equipment, and amortization of capitalized software development costs and intangible assets acquired through business combinations and asset acquisitions. We allocate overhead costs, such as rent and facility costs, certain information technology and data analytics costs, and employee benefit costs to all departments based primarily on headcount. As such, general overhead expenses are reflected in cost of revenue and each operating expense category.
We expect our cost of revenue to increase in absolute dollars due to expenditures related to the purchase of hardware, data, expansion, and support of our data center operations and customer support/success teams. We have seen improvement in our cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue, and expect it to remain near current levels. It may fluctuate from period to period depending on the timing of significant expenditures. To the extent that our customer base grows, we intend to continue to invest additional resources in expanding the delivery capability of our products and other services. The timing of these additional expenses could affect our cost of revenue, both in terms of absolute dollars and as a percentage of revenue in any particular quarterly or annual period.
Operating Expenses
Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses primarily consist of personnel and related costs directly associated with our sales and marketing department, including salaries, benefits, incentive compensation, and stock-based compensation, online advertising expenses, and marketing and promotional expenses, as well as allocated overhead costs. We expense all costs as they are incurred, excluding sales commissions identified as incremental costs to obtain a contract, which are capitalized and amortized on a straight-line basis over the average period of benefit, which we estimate to be two years. We expect that our sales and marketing expenses will fluctuate as a percentage of revenue based on the timing of related costs.
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New sales personnel require training and may take several months or more to achieve productivity; as such, the costs we incur in connection with the hiring of new sales personnel in a given period are not typically offset by increased revenue in that period and may not result in new revenue if these sales personnel fail to become productive.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses primarily consist of personnel and related costs, including salaries, benefits, incentive compensation, stock-based compensation, and allocated overhead costs. Research and development expenses also include depreciation expense and other expenses associated with product development. Other than internal-use software costs that qualify for capitalization, research and development costs are expensed as incurred. We plan to increase the dollar amount of our investment in research and development for the foreseeable future as we focus on developing new products, features, and enhancements to our platform. We believe that investing in the development of new products, features, and enhancements improves customer experience, makes our platform more attractive to new paying customers, and provides us with opportunities to expand sales to existing paying customers and convert free customers to paying customers.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses primarily consist of personnel and related expenses, including salaries, benefits, incentive compensation, and stock-based compensation, associated with our finance, legal, human resources, IT, and other administrative employees. Our general and administrative expenses also include professional fees for external legal, accounting, and other consulting services, insurance, depreciation and amortization expense, as well as allocated overhead. We expect to increase the size of our general and administrative functions to support the growth of our business. We expect to continue to incur additional expenses as a result of operating as a public company, including costs to comply with rules and regulations applicable to companies listed on a U.S. securities exchange, costs related to compliance and reporting obligations pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC, increases in insurance premiums, investor relations and professional services. We expect our general and administrative expenses to decrease as a percentage of revenue over time.
Exit Costs
All costs associated with our relocation efforts are included in the unaudited condensed consolidated statement of operations in our income from continuing operations under the line item, Exit Costs. Exit costs in connection with our relocation efforts include employee severance and fringe benefit costs and other associated relocation costs. We do not expect to incur exit costs associated with our relocation efforts in future periods.
Other Income, Net
Included in other income, net are foreign currency transaction gains and losses. In accordance with ASC 830, Foreign Currency Matters, we redetermined our functional currencies of our international locations as of January 1, 2022, when it was determined the local currencies for these regions were most appropriate. For the three months ended March 31, 2024, the functional currencies of our international locations were the local currencies for these regions. Any differences resulting from the re-measurement of assets and liabilities denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are recorded within other income, net. We expect our foreign currency exchange gains and losses to continue to fluctuate in the future as foreign currency exchange rates change.
Other income, net also includes amounts for interest income and expense, other miscellaneous income and expense, and gains and losses unrelated to our core operations. We have elected the fair value option in respect to the accounting for our convertible note investments, allowing for increases and
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decreases in the fair value of such investments to be recorded to other income, net for each reporting period. Interest expense is related to our finance leases.
Income Tax Provision
We operate in several tax jurisdictions and are subject to taxes in each country or jurisdiction in which we conduct business. We account for income taxes in accordance with the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized based on temporary differences between the financial reporting and income tax bases of assets and liabilities using statutory rates. In addition, this method requires a valuation allowance against net deferred tax assets if, based upon the available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. To date, we have incurred cumulative net losses and maintain a full valuation allowance on our net deferred tax assets. Our tax expense for the three months ended March 31, 2024 primarily relates to the tax provision recorded on the earnings of our profitable foreign subsidiaries and the requirement to capitalize and amortize certain research and development costs which results in a current U.S. tax provision but no deferred tax benefit as a result of the valuation allowance maintained against our net deferred tax assets. Our tax expense for the three months ended March 31, 2023 primarily relates to income earned in certain foreign jurisdictions.
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Results of Operations
The following tables set forth information comparing our results of operations in dollars and as a percentage of total revenue for the periods presented. The period-to-period comparison of results is not necessarily indicative of results for future periods.
Three Months Ended
March 31,
(in thousands)
20242023
Revenue$85,812 $70,870 
Cost of revenue (1)14,645 12,639 
Gross profit71,167 58,231 
Operating expenses
Sales and marketing (1)33,921 35,496 
Research and development (1)17,304 13,880 
General and administrative (1)18,474 18,640 
Exit costs— 983 
Total operating expenses69,699 68,999 
Income (loss) from operations1,468 (10,768)
Other income, net3,639 1,705 
Income (loss) before income taxes5,107 (9,063)
Provision for income taxes3,104 797 
Net income (loss)$2,003 $(9,860)
__________________
(1)Includes stock-based compensation expense as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue$39 $17 
Sales and marketing770 528 
Research and development636 343 
General and administrative3,670 1,908 
Total stock-based compensation$5,115 $2,796 

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The following table sets forth our unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations data expressed as a percentage of revenue for the periods indicated (amounts may not sum due to rounding):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
(as a percentage of total revenue)
Revenue100 %100 %
Cost of revenue17 %18 %
Gross profit83 %82 %
Operating expenses
Sales and marketing40 %50 %
Research and development20 %20 %
General and administrative22 %26 %
Exit costs— %%
Total operating expenses82 %97 %
Income (loss) from operations%(15)%
Other income, net%%
Income (loss) before income taxes%(13)%
Provision for income taxes%%
Net income (loss)%(14)%

Comparison of the Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 and 2023
Revenue
Our revenue during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
Change
20242023Amount%
(dollars in thousands)
Revenue$85,812 $70,870 $14,942 21 %

Revenue increased in all regions. The majority of this increase was driven by an increase in the number of paying customers from over 100,000 as of March 31, 2023 to nearly 112,000 as of March 31, 2024. The increases in revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2024 were also driven by growth in user licenses per customer, attach rates, and increased revenue per customer related to larger customers. We define attach rates as the ratio of the number of paying customers who purchase specific add-ons to the number of total paying customers.
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Revenue based upon the locations of our paying customers during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was as follows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
(in