Company Quick10K Filing
Stifel Financial
Price57.19 EPS5
Shares79 P/E10
MCap4,508 P/FCF135
Net Debt93 EBIT843
TTM 2019-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios
10-K 2020-12-31 Filed 2021-02-19
10-Q 2020-09-30 Filed 2020-11-06
10-Q 2020-06-30 Filed 2020-08-06
10-Q 2020-03-31 Filed 2020-05-07
10-K 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-02-19
10-Q 2019-09-30 Filed 2019-11-06
10-Q 2019-06-30 Filed 2019-08-07
10-Q 2019-03-31 Filed 2019-05-08
10-K 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-02-20
10-Q 2018-09-30 Filed 2018-11-06
10-Q 2018-06-30 Filed 2018-08-07
10-Q 2018-03-31 Filed 2018-05-07
10-K 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-02-26
10-Q 2017-09-30 Filed 2017-11-08
10-Q 2017-06-30 Filed 2017-08-08
10-Q 2017-03-31 Filed 2017-05-05
10-K 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-02-23
10-Q 2016-09-30 Filed 2016-11-09
10-Q 2016-06-30 Filed 2016-08-08
10-Q 2016-03-31 Filed 2016-05-10
10-K 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-03-01
10-Q 2015-09-30 Filed 2015-11-06
10-Q 2015-06-30 Filed 2015-08-10
10-Q 2015-03-31 Filed 2015-05-11
10-K 2014-12-31 Filed 2015-03-02
10-Q 2014-09-30 Filed 2014-11-10
10-Q 2014-06-30 Filed 2014-08-11
10-Q 2014-03-31 Filed 2014-05-12
10-K 2013-12-31 Filed 2014-03-03
10-Q 2013-09-30 Filed 2013-11-12
10-Q 2013-06-30 Filed 2013-08-09
10-Q 2013-03-31 Filed 2013-05-10
10-K 2012-12-31 Filed 2013-03-01
10-Q 2012-09-30 Filed 2012-11-09
10-Q 2012-06-30 Filed 2012-08-09
10-Q 2012-03-31 Filed 2012-05-10
10-K 2011-12-31 Filed 2012-02-28
10-Q 2011-09-30 Filed 2011-11-09
10-Q 2011-06-30 Filed 2011-08-09
10-Q 2011-03-31 Filed 2011-05-10
10-K 2010-12-31 Filed 2011-02-28
10-Q 2010-09-30 Filed 2010-11-10
10-Q 2010-06-30 Filed 2010-08-09
10-Q 2010-03-31 Filed 2010-04-30
10-K 2009-12-31 Filed 2010-02-26
8-K 2020-11-12
8-K 2020-11-11
8-K 2020-10-27
8-K 2020-09-09
8-K 2020-07-29
8-K 2020-05-20
8-K 2020-05-19
8-K 2020-05-15
8-K 2020-05-13
8-K 2020-05-12
8-K 2020-05-05
8-K 2020-04-30
8-K 2020-02-13
8-K 2020-01-30
8-K 2019-11-13
8-K 2019-10-30
8-K 2019-10-17
8-K 2019-09-09
8-K 2019-08-05
8-K 2019-07-30
8-K 2019-06-05
8-K 2019-05-15
8-K 2019-04-30
8-K 2019-03-25
8-K 2019-02-28
8-K 2019-02-21
8-K 2019-02-13
8-K 2019-02-04
8-K 2019-02-01
8-K 2018-11-14
8-K 2018-11-05
8-K 2018-10-30
8-K 2018-09-25
8-K 2018-08-31
8-K 2018-08-07
8-K 2018-08-07
8-K 2018-07-30
8-K 2018-06-18
8-K 2018-06-18
8-K 2018-06-06
8-K 2018-05-22
8-K 2018-05-16
8-K 2018-05-15
8-K 2018-05-14
8-K 2018-05-10
8-K 2018-05-10
8-K 2018-04-30
8-K 2018-01-30
8-K 2017-12-29
8-K 2017-12-22

SF 10K Annual Report

Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Saftey Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Note 1 - Nature of Operations and Basis of Presentation
Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3 - Acquisitions
Note 4 - Receivables From and Payables To Brokers, Dealers, and Clearing Organizations
Note 5 - Fair Value Measurements
Note 6 - Financial Instruments Owned and Financial Instruments Sold, But Not Yet Purchased
Note 7 - Available - for - Sale and Held - To - Maturity Securities
Note 8 - Bank Loans
Note 9 - Fixed Assets
Note 10 - Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Note 11 - Borrowings and Federal Home Loan Bank Advances
Note 12 - Senior Notes
Note 13 - Bank Deposits
Note 14 - Debentures To Stifel Financial Capital Trusts
Note 15 - Disclosures About Offsetting Assets and Liabilities
Note 16 - Commitments, Guarantees, and Contingencies
Note 17 - Legal Proceedings
Note 18 - Regulatory Capital Requirements
Note 19 - Operating Leases
Note 20 - Revenues From Contracts with Customers
Note 21 - Interest Income and Interest Expense
Note 22 - Employee Incentive, Deferred Compensation, and Retirement Plans
Note 23 - Off - Balance Sheet Credit Risk
Note 24 - Income Taxes
Note 25 - Segment Reporting
Note 26 - Earnings per Share ("Eps")
Note 27 - Shareholders' Equity
Note 28 - Variable Interest Entities
Note 29 - Subsequent Events
Note 30 - Quarterly Financial Information (Unaudited)
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
EX-4.7 sf-ex47_424.htm
EX-21 sf-ex21_399.htm
EX-23 sf-ex23_9.htm
EX-31.1 sf-ex311_6.htm
EX-31.2 sf-ex312_8.htm
EX-32.1 sf-ex321_7.htm
EX-32.2 sf-ex322_11.htm

Stifel Financial Earnings 2020-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
Assets, Equity
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
Ops, Inv, Fin

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Washington, D.C. 20549




(Mark One)


For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020



For the transition period from                     to                    

Commission File Number: 001-09305



(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)






(State or other jurisdiction of


(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)


Identification No.)


501 North Broadway, St. Louis, Missouri 63102-2188

(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)

(314) 342-2000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class/ Trading Symbol


Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered


Shares or principal amount outstanding - February 12, 2021


Common Stock, $0.15 par value per share (SF)


New York Stock Exchange




Depository Shares, each representing 1/1,000th interest in a share of 6.25% Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series A (SF-PA)


New York Stock Exchange





Depository Shares, each representing 1/1,000th interest in a share of 6.25% Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series B (SF-PB)


New York Stock Exchange





Depository Shares, each representing 1/1,000th interest in a share of 6.125% Non-Cumulative Preferred Stock, Series C (SF-PC)


New York Stock Exchange





5.20% Senior Notes due 2047 (SFB)


New York Stock Exchange






Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.     Yes      No 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.     Yes     No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“the Exchange Act”) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes     No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes     No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company



Emerging growth company


If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock, $0.15 par value per share, held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of the close of business on June 30, 2020, was $3.4 billion.1


In determining this amount, the registrant assumed that the executive officers and directors of the registrant are affiliates of the registrant. Such assumptions shall not be deemed to be conclusive for any other purposes.


Portions of the Proxy Statement for the annual meeting of shareholders, to be filed within 120 days of our fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, are incorporated by reference in Part III hereof.










Part I





Item 1.




Item 1A.

Risk Factors



Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments



Item 2.




Item 3.

Legal Proceedings



Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures


Part II





Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities



Item 6.

Selected Financial Data



Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations



Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk



Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data



Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure



Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures



Item 9B.

Other Information


Part III





Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance



Item 11.

Executive Compensation



Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters



Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence



Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services


Part IV





Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules











Certain statements in this report may be considered forward-looking. Statements that are not historical or current facts, including statements about beliefs and expectations, are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements cover, among other things, statements made about general economic, political, regulatory, and market conditions, the investment banking and brokerage industries, our objectives and results, and also may include our belief regarding the effect of various legal proceedings, management expectations, our liquidity and funding sources, counterparty credit risk, or other similar matters. Forward-looking statements involve inherent risks and uncertainties, and important factors could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated, including those factors discussed below under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A as well as those discussed in “External Factors Impacting Our Business” included in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of this report.

Because of these and other uncertainties, our actual future results may be materially different from the results indicated by these forward-looking statements. In addition, our past results of operations do not necessarily indicate our future results. We undertake no obligation to publicly release any revisions to the forward-looking statements or reflect events or circumstances after the date of this document.


Stifel Financial Corp. is a Delaware corporation and a financial holding company headquartered in St. Louis. We were organized in 1983. Our principal subsidiary is Stifel, Nicolaus & Company, Incorporated (“Stifel”), a full-service retail and institutional wealth management and investment banking firm. Stifel is the successor to a partnership founded in 1890. Our other subsidiaries include Century Securities Associates, Inc. (“CSA”), an independent contractor broker-dealer firm; Keefe, Bruyette & Woods, Inc. (“KBW”), and Miller Buckfire & Co. LLC (“Miller Buckfire”), broker-dealer firms; Stifel Nicolaus Europe Limited (“SNEL”), our European subsidiary; Stifel Nicolaus Canada Inc. (“SNC”), our Canadian subsidiary; Stifel Bank & Trust and Stifel Bank, retail and commercial banks, Stifel Trust Company, N.A. and Stifel Trust Company Delaware, N.A. (collectively, “Stifel Trust”), our trust companies (collectively “Stifel Bancorp”); and 1919 Investment Counsel, LLC, an asset management firm. Unless the context requires otherwise, the terms “the Company,” “our company,” “we,” and “our,” as used herein, refer to Stifel Financial Corp. and its subsidiaries.

We have a 130-year operating history and have built a diversified business serving private clients, institutional investors, and investment banking clients located across the country. Our principal activities are:


Private client services, including securities transaction and financial planning services;


Institutional equity and fixed income sales, trading and research, and municipal finance;


Investment banking services, including mergers and acquisitions, public offerings, and private placements; and


Retail and commercial banking, including personal and commercial lending programs.

Our core philosophy is based upon a tradition of trust, understanding, and studied advice. We attract and retain experienced professionals by fostering a culture of entrepreneurial, long-term thinking. We provide our private, institutional, and corporate clients quality, personalized service, with the theory that if we place clients’ needs first, both our clients and our company will prosper. Our unwavering client and associate focus have earned us a reputation as one of the nation’s leading wealth management and investment banking firms.

We have grown our business both organically and through opportunistic acquisitions. Over the past several years, we have grown substantially, primarily by completing and successfully integrating a number of acquisitions, including the following acquisitions, which were integrated during 2020:


First Empire Holding Corp. (“First Empire”) On January 2, 2019, we completed the acquisition of First Empire and its subsidiaries, including First Empire Securities, Inc., an institutional broker-dealer specializing in the fixed income markets.


Mooreland Partners (“Mooreland”) – On July 1, 2019, we completed the acquisition of Mooreland, an independent M&A and private capital advisory firm serving the global technology industry.


B&F Capital Markets, Inc. (“B&F”) – On September 3, 2019, we completed the acquisition of B&F, a privately held firm focused on providing regional and community banks throughout the United States with interest rate derivative programs through a combination of experienced professionals and proprietary software.


George K. Baum & Company (“GKB”) – On September 27, 2019, we completed the acquisition of certain assets of GKB, a privately held investment banking firm focused on public finance and taxable fixed income sales and trading.


MainFirst Bank AG (“MainFirst”) – On November 1, 2019, we completed the acquisition of MainFirst, an independent European capital markets firm, specializing in equity brokerage and research, equity capital markets, and asset management. MainFirst operates out of offices in Frankfurt, London, Milan, Munich, New York, Paris, and Zurich. MainFirst was renamed Stifel Bank AG.



GMP Capital Inc. (“GMP”) – On December 6, 2019, we completed the acquisition of substantially all of the capital markets business of GMP, an independent investment banking franchise based in Canada that offers investment banking services, including equity capital-raising, mergers and acquisitions, institutional sales and trading, and research services to corporate clients and institutional investors. GMP operates as Stifel GMP as part of our Stifel Nicolaus Canada, Inc. subsidiary.

Business Segments

We operate in the following segments: Global Wealth Management, Institutional Group, and Other. For a discussion of the financial results of our segments, see Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Segment Analysis.”

Narrative Description of Business

Through our broker-dealer subsidiaries, we provide securities-related financial services to customers from the United States and Europe. Our customers include individuals, corporations, municipalities, and institutions. We have customers throughout the United States, with a growing presence in the United Kingdom, Europe, and Canada. No single client accounts for a material percentage of any segment of our business. Our inventory, which we believe is of modest size and intended to turn over quickly, exists to facilitate order flow and support the investment strategies of our clients. The inventory of securities held to facilitate customer trades and our market-making activities is sensitive to market movements. Furthermore, our balance sheet is highly liquid, without material holdings of securities that are difficult to value or remarket. We believe that our broad platform, fee-based revenues, and strong distribution network position us well to take advantage of current trends within the financial services sector.


We provide securities transaction, brokerage, and investment services to our clients through the consolidated Stifel branch system. We have made significant investments in personnel and technology to grow the Private Client Group over the past twelve years.

Consolidated Stifel Branch System

At December 31, 2020, the Private Client Group had a network of 2,187 financial advisors located in 392 branch offices in 48 states and the District of Columbia. In addition, we have 93 independent contractors.

Our financial advisors provide a broad range of investments and services to our clients, including financial planning services. We offer equity securities; taxable and tax-exempt fixed income securities, including municipal, corporate, and government agency securities; preferred stock; and unit investment trusts. We also offer a broad range of externally managed fee-based products. In addition, we offer insurance and annuity products and investment company shares through agreements with numerous third-party distributors. We encourage our financial advisors to pursue the products and services that best fit their clients’ needs and that they feel most comfortable recommending. Our private clients may choose from a traditional, commission-based structure or fee-based money management programs. In most cases, commissions are charged for sales of investment products to clients based on an established commission schedule. In certain cases, varying discounts may be given based on relevant client or trade factors determined by the financial advisor.

Our independent contractors, who operate in our CSA business, provide the same types of financial products and services to its private clients as does Stifel. Under their contractual arrangements, these independent contractors may also provide accounting services, real estate brokerage, insurance, or other business activities for their own account. Independent contractors are responsible for all of their direct costs and are paid a larger percentage of commissions to compensate them for their added expenses. CSA is an introducing broker-dealer and, as such, clears its transactions through Stifel.

Customer Financing

Client securities transactions are effected on either a cash or margin basis. When securities are purchased on a margin basis, the customer deposits less than the full cost of the security in their account. We make a loan to the customer for the balance of the purchase price. Such loans are collateralized by the purchased securities. The amounts of the loans are subject to the margin requirements of Regulation T of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”) margin requirements, and our internal policies, which usually are more restrictive than Regulation T or FINRA requirements. In permitting customers to purchase securities on margin, we are subject to the risk of a market decline, which could reduce the value of our collateral below the amount of the customers’ indebtedness.

We offer securities-based lending through Stifel Bancorp, which allows clients to borrow money against the value of qualifying securities for any suitable purpose other than purchasing, trading, or carrying marketable securities or refinancing margin debt. The loan requirements are subject to Regulation U of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (“Regulation U”) and our internal policies, which are typically more restrictive than Regulation U. We establish approved lines and advance rates against qualifying securities and monitor limits daily and, pursuant to such guidelines, require customers to deposit additional collateral or reduce debt positions, when necessary. Factors considered in the review of securities-based lending are the amount of the loan, the degree of concentrated or restricted positions, and the overall evaluation of the portfolio to ensure proper diversification, or, in the case of concentrated positions, appropriate liquidity of the underlying collateral or potential hedging strategies. Underlying collateral for securities-based loans is reviewed with respect to the liquidity of the proposed collateral positions, valuation of securities, historic trading range, volatility analysis, and an evaluation of industry concentrations.


Asset Management

Our asset management business offers specialized investment management solutions for institutions, private clients, and investment advisers. Revenues for this segment are primarily generated by the investment advisory fees related to asset management services provided for individual and institutional investment portfolios, along with mutual funds. Investment advisory fees are earned on assets held in managed or non-discretionary asset-based programs. These fees are computed based on balances either at the beginning of the quarter, the end of the quarter, or average daily assets. Fees from private client investment portfolios and institutional fees are typically based on asset values at the end of the prior period. Asset balances are impacted by both the performance of the market and sales and redemptions of client accounts/funds. Rising markets have historically had a positive impact on investment advisory fee revenues as existing accounts increase in value, and individuals and institutions may commit incremental funds in rising markets. No single client accounts for a material percentage of this segment’s total business.

Stifel Bancorp

In April 2007, we completed the acquisition of First Service, a St. Louis-based full-service bank, which now operates as Stifel Bank & Trust. On August 31, 2018, the Company completed the acquisition of BBI and its wholly owned subsidiary, The Business Bank of St. Louis, a full-service banking facility with approximately $600.0 million in assets that operates from a single location. The Business Bank of St. Louis now operates as Stifel Bank. Business Bancshares, Inc., which operates as the holding company for Stifel Bank & Trust, and its wholly owned subsidiaries, and Stifel Bank (collectively “bank subsidiaries”) was renamed “Stifel Bancorp, Inc.” Our bank subsidiaries are reported in the Global Wealth Management segment. We have grown retail and commercial bank assets from $145.6 million on the acquisition date to $18.9 billion at December 31, 2020. Through our bank subsidiaries, we offer retail and commercial banking services to private and corporate clients, including personal loan programs, such as fixed and variable mortgage loans, home equity lines of credit, personal loans, loans secured by CDs or savings, and securities-based loans, as well as commercial lending programs, such as small business loans, commercial real estate loans, lines of credit, credit cards, term loans, and inventory and receivables financing, in addition to other banking products. We believe our bank subsidiaries not only help us serve our private clients more effectively by offering them a broader range of services, but also enable us to better utilize our private client cash balances held which are swept to our bank subsidiaries, which is their primary source of funding.


The Institutional Group segment includes research, equity and fixed income institutional sales and trading, investment banking, public finance, and syndicate.


Our research department publishes research across multiple industry groups and provides our clients with timely, insightful, and actionable research, aimed at improving investment performance.

Institutional Sales and Trading

Our equity sales and trading team distributes our proprietary equity research products and communicates our investment recommendations to our client base of institutional investors, executes equity trades, sells the securities of companies for which we act as an underwriter, and makes a market in securities. In our various sales and trading activities, we take a focused approach to serving our clients by maintaining inventory to facilitate order flow and support the investment strategies of our institutional fixed income clients, as opposed to seeking trading profits through proprietary trading.

The fixed income institutional sales and trading group is comprised of taxable and tax-exempt sales departments. Our institutional sales and trading group executes trades with diversification across municipal, corporate, government agency, and mortgage-backed securities.

Investment Banking

Our investment banking activities include the provision of financial advisory services principally with respect to mergers and acquisitions and the execution of public offerings and private placements of debt and equity securities. The investment banking group focuses on middle-market companies as well as on larger companies in targeted industries where we have particular expertise, which include real estate, financial services, healthcare, aerospace/defense and government services, telecommunications, transportation, energy, business services, consumer services, industrial, technology, and education.

Our syndicate department coordinates marketing, distribution, pricing, and stabilization of our managed equity and debt offerings. In addition, the department coordinates our underwriting participations and selling group opportunities managed by other investment banking firms.

Public Finance

Our public finance group acts as an underwriter and dealer in bonds issued by states, cities, and other political subdivisions and acts as manager or participant in offerings managed by other firms.



The Other segment includes interest income from stock borrow activities, unallocated interest expense, interest income and gains and losses from investments held, amortization of stock-based awards for certain administrative associates, and all unallocated overhead costs associated with the execution of orders; processing of securities transactions; custody of client securities; receipt, identification, and delivery of funds and securities; compliance with regulatory and legal requirements; internal financial accounting and controls; and general administration and acquisition charges.


We are focused on the durability, health, and long-term growth and development of our business, as well as our long-term contribution to our shareholders, our clients, our associates, the communities in which we live and work, and society in general. Instrumental to all of this is our culture, which derives from our associates.

As of December 31, 2020, we had over 8,500 associates, including 2,280 financial advisors, located primarily in the United States, with a growing presence in the United Kingdom, Europe, and Canada.

To compete effectively, we must attract, retain, and motivate qualified professionals, including successful financial advisors, investment bankers, trading professionals, portfolio managers, and other revenue-producing or specialized personnel.

Our ability to develop and retain our clients depends on the reputation, marketing efforts, capabilities, and knowledge of our employees and our firm. Our workforce is predominately composed of employees in roles such as investment bankers, salespeople, trading professionals, research professionals, and other revenue-producing or specialized personnel. In order to compete effectively and continue to provide best-in-class service to our clients, we must attract, retain, and motivate qualified professionals. Turnover in the financial services industry is high. We believe our culture, our effort to maintain a meritocracy in terms of opportunity, and our continued evolution and growth contribute to our success in attracting and retaining strong talent.

We have become a premier middle-market investment bank and wealth management firm. Our long-term success as a company and our ability to generate sustainable value for our shareholders is only possible because of a corporate culture that puts the needs of our clients and our associates first. As a financial services company, we believe it is our responsibility to contribute to the sustainable economic development of the communities in which we live and operate. That concern starts at home and grows more global as Stifel expands and as our lives grow more interconnected. Our culture rewards collaboration, hard work, and empathy. And at the core of that culture is the Golden Rule of treating others as one would wish to be treated. For discussion of the risks relating to our ability to attract, develop, and retain highly skilled and productive employees, see Item 1A, Risk Factors.


We have developed a business continuity plan which is designed to permit continued operation of business-critical functions in the event of disruptions to our St. Louis, Missouri, headquarters facility as well as other critical functional areas of the firm. Several critical business functions are supported by outside vendors who maintain backup and recovery in line with our internal needs and capabilities. We periodically participate in testing of these backup and recovery functions. Likewise, the business functions we support internally can be supported without the St. Louis headquarters through a combination of redundant computer facilities in other east and west coast data centers and from certain branch locations which can connect to our third-party securities processing vendor through its primary or redundant facilities. Systems have been designed so that we can route critical processing activity and functions to alternate locations, which can be staffed with relocated personnel as appropriate.




We believe our strategy for growth will allow us to increase our revenues and to expand our role with clients as a valued partner. In executing our growth strategy, we take advantage of the consolidation among mid-tier firms, which we believe provides us opportunities in our global wealth and institutional group segments. We do not create specific growth or business plans for any particular type of acquisition, focus on specific firms, or geographic expansion, nor do we establish quantitative goals, such as intended numbers of new hires or new office openings; however, our corporate philosophy has always been to be in a position to take advantage of opportunities as they arise, while maintaining sufficient levels of capital. We intend to pursue the following strategies with discipline:

Further expand our private client footprint in the U.S. We have expanded the number of our private client branches from 39 at December 31, 1997 to 392 at December 31, 2020, and our branch-based financial advisors from 262 to 2,187 over the same period. In addition, assets under management have grown from $11.7 billion at December 31, 1997 to $357.4 billion at December 31, 2020. Through organic growth and acquisitions, we have built a strong footprint nationally. Over time, we plan to further expand our domestic private client footprint. We plan on achieving this through recruiting experienced financial advisors with established client relationships and continuing to selectively consider acquisition opportunities as they may arise.

Further expand our institutional business both domestically and internationally. Our institutional equity business is built upon the premise that high-quality fundamental research is not a commodity. The growth of our business has been fueled by the effective partnership of our highly rated research and institutional sales and trading teams. We have identified opportunities to expand our research capabilities by taking advantage of market disruptions. As of December 31, 2020, our research department was ranked the largest research department, as measured by domestic equities under coverage, by StarMine. Our goal is to further monetize our research platform by adding additional institutional sales and trading teams and by placing a greater emphasis on client management.

Grow our investment banking business. By leveraging our industry expertise, our product knowledge, our research platform, our experienced associates, our capital markets strength, our middle-market focus, and our private client network, we intend to grow our investment banking business. The merger with TWPG in 2010, our acquisition of Miller Buckfire in 2012, the merger with KBW in 2013, the acquisitions of De La Rosa, Oriel, and Merchant Capital in 2014, the acquisitions of Eaton Partners and ISM in 2016, and the acquisitions of First Empire, Mooreland, B&F, GKB, MainFirst, and GMP in 2019 have accelerated the growth of our investment banking business through expanded industry, product, and geographic coverage, including capital-raising for start-up companies, particularly from the venture community. We believe our position as a middle-market-focused investment bank with broad-based and respected research will allow us to take advantage of opportunities in the middle market and continue to align our investment banking coverage with our research footprint.

Focus on asset generation within Stifel Bancorp by offering banking services to our clients. We believe the banking services provided through Stifel Bancorp strengthens our existing client relationships and helps us recruit financial advisors seeking to provide a full range of services to their private clients. We intend to continue focusing on the sale of banking products and services to our private and corporate clients.

Approach acquisition opportunities with discipline. Over the course of our operating history, we have demonstrated our ability to identify, effect, and integrate attractive acquisition opportunities. We believe the current environment and market dislocation will continue to provide us with the ability to thoughtfully consider acquisitions on an opportunistic basis.


We compete with other securities firms, some of which offer their customers a broader range of brokerage services, have substantially greater resources, and may have greater operating efficiencies. In addition, we face increasing competition from other financial institutions, such as commercial banks, online service providers, and other companies offering financial services. The Financial Modernization Act, signed into law in late 1999, lifted restrictions on banks and insurance companies, permitting them to provide financial services once dominated by securities firms. In addition, consolidation in the financial services industry may lead to increased competition from larger, more diversified organizations.

As we enter our 131st year in business, we continue to rely on the expertise acquired in our market area, our personnel, and our equity capital to operate in the competitive environment.



The following discussion summarizes the principal elements of the regulatory and supervisory framework applicable to our company as a participant in the financial services industry and, in particular, the banking and securities sectors. The framework includes extensive regulation under U.S. federal and state laws, as well as the applicable laws of the jurisdictions outside the U.S. in which our company does business, and is intended to protect our clients, the integrity of the financial markets, our depositors, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Fund and is not intended to protect our creditors or shareholders. These rules and regulations limit our ability to engage in certain activities, as well as our ability to fund our company from its regulated subsidiaries, which include Stifel Bancorp and our broker-dealer subsidiaries. To the extent that the following information describes statutory and regulatory provisions, it is qualified in its entirety by reference to the particular statutory and regulatory provisions that are referenced. A change in applicable statutes or regulations or in regulatory or supervisory policy may have a material effect on our business.

We continue to experience a period of notable change in financial regulation and supervision. These changes could have a significant impact on how we conduct our business. Many regulatory or supervisory policies remain in a state of flux and may be subject to amendment in the near future. As a result, we cannot specifically quantify the impact that such regulatory or supervisory requirements will have on our business and operations. See Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this Form 10-K for further discussion of the potential future impact on our operations.

Financial Holding Company Regulation

We are a bank holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (“BHCA”), that has made an election to be a financial holding company. Consequently, our company and its business activities are subject to the supervision, examination, and regulation of the Federal Reserve Board (the “Fed”). The BHCA and other federal laws subject bank and financial holding companies to particular restrictions on the types of activities in which they may engage and to a range of supervisory requirements and activities, including regulatory enforcement actions for violations of laws and regulations. Supervision and regulation of bank holding companies, financial holding companies, and their subsidiaries are intended primarily for the protection of depositors and other clients of banking subsidiaries, the deposit insurance fund of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”), and the banking system as a whole, but not for the protection of stockholders or other creditors.

Stifel Bank & Trust and Stifel Bank are state-chartered banks regulated, supervised, and examined by the Fed and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”). Stifel Trust, is regulated, supervised and examined by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”). The Fed and the FDIC also regulate and may examine our bank subsidiaries and, with respect to the Fed, Stifel Trust.

Collectively, the rules and regulations of the Fed, the OCC, the FDIC, and the CFPB cover all aspects of the banking business, including, for example, lending practices, the receipt of deposits, capital structure, transactions with affiliates, conduct and qualifications of personnel, and as discussed further in the following sections, capital requirements. This regulatory, supervisory and oversight framework is subject to significant changes that can affect the operating costs and permissible businesses of our company, our bank subsidiaries, Stifel Trust, and all of our other subsidiaries. As a part of their supervisory functions, the Fed, the OCC, the FDIC, and the CFPB also have the power to bring enforcement actions for violations of law and, in the case of the Fed, the OCC, and the FDIC, for unsafe or unsound practices.

Basel III and U.S. Capital Rules

Our company, as a bank and financial holding company, and our bank subsidiaries are subject to regulation, including capital requirements, by the Federal Reserve. Our bank subsidiaries are subject to various regulatory capital requirements administered by the Fed and the Missouri Division of Finance. Failure to meet minimum capital requirements can initiate certain mandatory and possibly additional discretionary actions by regulators that, if undertaken, could have a direct material effect on our company’s and our bank subsidiaries’ financial statements.

The OCC, the Fed, and the FDIC published final U.S. rules implementing the Basel III capital framework developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and certain Dodd-Frank Act and other capital provisions and updated the prompt corrective action framework to reflect the new regulatory capital minimums (the “U.S. Basel III Rules”). The U.S. Basel III Rules: (i) increased the quantity and quality of regulatory capital; (ii) established a capital conservation buffer; and (iii) made changes to the calculation of risk-weighted assets. The U.S. Basel III Rules became effective for our company and its bank subsidiaries on January 1, 2015, subject to applicable phase-in periods. The rules governing the capital conservation buffer became effective for our company and its bank subsidiaries on January 1, 2016. The capital requirements could restrict our ability to grow during favorable market conditions and to return capital to our shareholders, or require us to raise additional capital. As a result, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects could be adversely affected. See Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” within this Form 10-K for more information.

Failure to meet minimum capital requirements can trigger discretionary, and in certain cases, mandatory actions by regulators that could have a direct material effect on the financial results of our bank subsidiaries. Under capital adequacy guidelines, our bank subsidiaries must meet specific capital guidelines that involve quantitative measures of assets, liabilities, and certain off-balance sheet items as calculated under regulatory accounting practices. The capital amounts and classification for our bank subsidiaries are also subject to the qualitative judgments of U.S. regulators based on components of capital, risk-weightings of assets, off-balance sheet


transactions, and other factors. Quantitative measures established by federal banking regulations to ensure capital adequacy require that our bank subsidiaries maintain minimum amounts and ratios of: (i) Common Equity Tier 1, Tier 1, and Total capital to risk-weighted assets; (ii) Tier 1 capital to average total consolidated assets; and (iii) capital conservation buffers.

In July 2019, the Fed issued a final rule to simplify and clarify a number of existing regulatory capital rules for certain banking organizations. Specifically, the rule simplifies the capital treatment for mortgage servicing assets, certain deferred tax assets, investments in the capital instruments of unconsolidated financial institutions, and minority interest. This rule would also allow bank holding companies to repurchase common stock without prior approval from the Fed to the extent that the bank holding company is not subject to a separate legal or regulatory requirement to obtain prior approval. Our company, its bank subsidiaries, and Stifel Trust would continue to need to obtain prior approval from the Fed if they were not “well-capitalized” or “well-managed” or if they were subject to any unresolved supervisory issues. Guidance from the Fed also indicates that our company would need to inform the Fed in advance of repurchasing common stock if it was experiencing, or at risk of experiencing, financial weaknesses or considering expansion, either through acquisitions or other new activities. The rule became effective on April 1, 2020, for the amendments to simplify capital rules, and was effective on October 1, 2019, for revisions to the pre-approval requirements for the repurchase of common stock. See Note 18 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for further information.

Stress Testing

On May 24, 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act was signed into law, making certain limited amendments to the Dodd-Frank Act, as well as certain targeted modifications to other post-financial crisis regulations. Among other things, the law raises the asset thresholds for Dodd-Frank Act company-run stress testing, liquidity coverage, and living will requirements for bank holding companies to $250 billion, subject to the ability of the Fed to apply such requirements to institutions with assets of $100 billion or more to address financial stability risks or safety and soundness concerns. The Fed, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”), and the FDIC have since issued related guidance and regulations. As a result of these changes, our bank subsidiaries are currently no longer subject to Dodd-Frank Act company-run stress testing requirements.

Holding company support

Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the Fed must require that bank holding companies, such as our company, serve as a source of financial strength for any subsidiary depository institution. The term “source of financial strength” is defined as the ability of a company to provide financial assistance to its insured depository institution subsidiaries in the event of financial distress at such subsidiaries. Under this requirement, we in the future could be required to provide financial assistance to our bank subsidiaries should they experience financial distress.

Deposit insurance

Since our bank subsidiaries provide deposits covered by FDIC insurance, generally up to $250,000 per account ownership type, our bank subsidiaries are subject to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act. For banks with greater than $10 billion in assets, which includes Stifel Bancorp, the FDIC’s current assessment rate calculation relies on a scorecard designed to measure financial performance and ability to withstand stress, in addition to measuring the FDIC’s exposure should the bank fail.

Prompt corrective action

The U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (“FDICIA”) requires the U.S. federal bank regulatory agencies to take “prompt corrective action” with respect to depository institutions that do not meet specified capital requirements. FDICIA establishes five capital categories for FDIC-insured banks, such as our bank subsidiaries: well-capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized, and critically undercapitalized.

An institution may be downgraded to, or deemed to be in, a capital category that is lower than is indicated by its capital ratios if it is determined to be in an unsafe or unsound condition or if it receives an unsatisfactory examination rating with respect to certain matters. FDICIA imposes progressively more restrictive constraints on operations, management, and capital distributions as the capital category of an institution declines. Failure to meet the capital requirements could also require a depository institution to raise capital. Ultimately, critically undercapitalized institutions are subject to the appointment of a receiver or conservator.

The prompt corrective action regulations do not apply to bank holding companies, such as our company. However, the Fed is authorized to take appropriate action at the bank holding company level, based upon the undercapitalized status of the bank holding company’s depository institution subsidiaries. In certain instances related to an undercapitalized depository institution subsidiary, the bank holding company would be required to guarantee the performance of the undercapitalized subsidiary’s capital restoration plan and might be liable for civil money damages for failure to fulfill its commitments on that guarantee. Furthermore, in the event of the bankruptcy of the bank holding company, this guarantee would take priority over the bank holding company’s general unsecured creditors.



The Volcker Rule

We are subject to the Volcker Rule, which generally prohibits bank holding companies and their affiliates (together, “banking entities”) from engaging in proprietary trading or acquiring or retaining an ownership interest, sponsoring, or having certain relationships with hedge funds and private equity funds (“covered funds”), subject to certain exceptions.

We have private equity investments, some of which meet the definition of covered funds under the Volcker Rule. The conformance period for compliance with the rule with respect to investments in covered funds was July 2017; however, banking entities were able to apply for an extension to provide up to an additional five years to conform investments in certain illiquid funds. The majority of our covered fund investments meet the criteria to be considered an illiquid fund under the Volcker Rule, and we received approval from the Fed to continue to hold such investments until July 2022. The extension of the conformance deadline provides us with additional time to attempt to realize the value of these investments in due course and to execute appropriate strategies to comply with the Volcker Rule at such time. However, our current focus is on the divestiture of our existing portfolio.

The Fed, OCC, FDIC, SEC, and Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) finalized amendments to the Volcker Rule in 2019, which relate primarily to the Volcker Rule’s proprietary trading and compliance program requirements. The amendments do not change the Volcker Rule’s general prohibitions, but they offer certain clarifications and a simplified approach to compliance. While the agencies adopted certain limited changes to the Volcker Rule’s covered fund-related provisions, the agencies noted that they continue to consider other aspects of the covered fund provisions, and intend to issue a separate proposed rulemaking that specifically addresses those areas.

Broker-Dealer and Securities Regulation

The SEC is the federal agency charged with administration of the federal securities laws in the U.S. Our broker-dealer subsidiaries are subject to SEC regulations relating to their business operations, including sales and trading practices, public offerings, publication of research reports, use and safekeeping of client funds and securities, capital structure, record-keeping, privacy requirements, and the conduct of directors, officers and employees. Financial services firms are also subject to regulation by state securities commissions in those states in which they conduct business.

Broker-dealers are required to maintain the minimum net capital deemed necessary to meet their continuing commitments to customers and others, and are required to keep their assets in relatively liquid form. These rules also limit the ability of broker-dealers to transfer capital to parent companies and other affiliates. The SEC has adopted amendments to its financial stability rules, many of which became effective as of October 2013 and are applicable to our broker-dealer subsidiaries, including changes to the: (i) net capital rule; (ii) customer protection rule; (iii) record-keeping rules; and (iv) notification rules.

Financial services firms are subject to regulation by various foreign governments, securities exchanges, central banks and regulatory bodies, particularly in those countries where they have established offices. Outside of the U.S., we have additional offices primarily in Canada and Europe and are subject to regulations in those areas. Much of the regulation of broker-dealers in the U.S. and Canada, however, has been delegated to self-regulatory organizations (“SROs”) (i.e., FINRA, the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (“IIROC”), and securities exchanges). These SROs adopt and amend rules for regulating the industry, subject to the approval of government agencies. These SROs also conduct periodic examinations of member broker-dealers.

The SEC, SROs and state securities regulators may conduct administrative proceedings that can result in censure, fine, suspension or expulsion of a broker-dealer, its officers or employees. Such administrative proceedings, whether or not resulting in adverse findings, can require substantial expenditures and may adversely impact the reputation of a broker-dealer.

Our U.S. broker-dealer subsidiaries are subject to the Securities Investor Protection Act (“SIPA”) and are required by federal law to be members of the Securities Investors Protection Corporation (“SIPC”). The SIPC was established under SIPA, and oversees the liquidation of broker-dealers during liquidation or financial distress. The SIPC fund provides protection for cash and securities held in client accounts up to $500,000 per client, with a limitation of $250,000 on claims for cash balances. For further discussion of our net capital requirements, see Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

U.S. broker-dealer capital

Broker-dealers are required to maintain the minimum net capital deemed necessary to meet their continuing commitments to customers and others, and are required to keep their assets in relatively liquid form. These rules also limit the ability of broker-dealers to transfer capital to parent companies and other affiliates. The SEC has adopted amendments to its financial stability rules, many of which are applicable to our broker-dealer subsidiaries, including changes to the: (i) net capital rule; (ii) customer protection rule; (iii) record-keeping rules; and (iv) notification rules.



Money market reform

The SEC adopted amendments to the rules that govern money market mutual funds. The amendments make structural and operational reforms to address risks of excessive withdrawals over relatively short time frames by investors from money market funds, while preserving the benefits of the funds. We do not sponsor any money market funds. We utilize funds sponsored by third parties in limited circumstances for our own investment purposes as well as to offer our clients as one of several cash sweep alternatives.

Fiduciary duty standard

SEC Regulation Best Interest requires that a broker-dealer and its associated persons act in a retail customer’s best interest and not place their own financial or other interests ahead of a retail customer’s interests when recommending securities transactions or investment strategies, including recommendations of types of accounts. To meet this best interest standard, a broker-dealer must satisfy four component obligations, including a disclosure obligation, a care obligation, a conflict of interest obligation, and a compliance obligation, and both broker-dealers and investment advisers are required to provide disclosures about their standard of conduct and conflicts of interest.

In addition to the SEC, various states have proposed or adopted laws and regulations seeking to impose new standards of conduct on broker-dealers that, as written, differ from the SEC’s new regulations and may lead to additional implementation costs if adopted. The SEC did not indicate an intent to preempt state regulation in this area, and some of the state proposals would allow for a private right of action.

Investment Management Regulation

Our investment advisory operations, including the mutual funds that we sponsor, are also subject to extensive regulation in the U.S. Our U.S. asset managers are registered as investment advisers with the SEC under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 as amended, and are also required to make notice filings in certain states. Virtually all aspects of our asset management business are subject to various federal and state laws and regulations. These laws and regulations are primarily intended to benefit the asset management clients.

Other Non-U.S. Regulation

Our non-U.S. subsidiaries are subject to applicable laws and regulations of the jurisdictions in which they operate.

SNC is required by IIROC to belong to the Canadian Investors Protection Fund (“CIPF”), whose primary role is investor protection. This fund provides protection for securities and cash held in client accounts up to 1 million Canadian dollars (“CAD”) per client, with separate coverage of CAD 1 million for certain types of accounts.

Certain of our subsidiaries are registered in, and operate from, the U.K. which has a highly developed and comprehensive regulatory regime. Certain of these subsidiaries operate in the retail sector, providing investment and financial planning services to high-net-worth individuals, while others provide brokerage and investment banking services to institutional clients. These subsidiaries are authorized and regulated by the U.K. conduct regulator, the Financial Conduct Authority (“FCA”), and have permission to carry out business in other European Union (“E.U.”) countries as part of treaty arrangements.

In Europe, the Markets in Financial Instruments Regulation and a revision of the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (together, “MiFID II”), generally took effect on January 3, 2018, and introduced comprehensive, new trading and market infrastructure reforms in the European Union, including new trading venues, enhancements to pre- and post-trading transparency, and additional investor protection requirements, among others. We have made changes to our European operations, including systems and controls, in order to be in compliance with MiFID II.

Bank Secrecy Act and USA PATRIOT Act of 2001

The U.S. Bank Secrecy Act (“BSA”), as amended by the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (“PATRIOT Act”), contains anti-money laundering and financial transparency laws and mandates the implementation of various regulations applicable to all financial institutions, including standards for verifying client identification at account opening, and obligations to monitor client transactions and report suspicious activities. Through these and other provisions, the BSA and the PATRIOT Act seek to promote the identification of parties that may be involved in terrorism, money laundering, or other suspicious activities. Anti-money laundering laws outside the U.S. contain some similar provisions.

Our company and its affiliates have been required to implement and continuously maintain internal policies, procedures, and controls to meet the compliance obligations imposed by such U.S. and non-U.S. laws and regulations concerning anti-money laundering. Failure to meet the requirements of these regulations can result in supervisory action, including fines.



Privacy and Data Protection

A variety of data privacy laws, which aspire to protect personal information, have long obligated our company to provide notice about its data handling practices, to offer certain opt-outs, and to implement reasonable security measures to deter unauthorized access. But, as technology has caused serious shifts among business practices and consumer habits at large, policymakers around the world have significantly reformed such laws, granting new rights upon individuals and imposing correspondingly new requirements upon businesses. The new laws obligate businesses to also establish appropriate measures to prevent the unauthorized collection, processing, storing, and sharing of personal information even by authorized parties. Most prominent among such laws are the E.U.’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) and the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”). These laws allow regulators to impose significant fines for non-compliance and increase the incentives of individuals to file lawsuits, thus magnifying the risks for businesses. While subject to both laws, our company has assessed its overall risks to be relatively low, due to the nature of its business and data processing activities. We have taken the necessary steps to mitigate the risks associated with data privacy. We monitor regulatory developments in relevant jurisdictions and proactively adjust our strategy to comply with changing regulations.

Public Company Regulations

As a public company whose common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) and the Chicago Stock Exchange (“CHX”), we are subject to corporate governance requirements established by the SEC, NYSE, and CHX, as well as federal and state law. Under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Act”), we are required to meet certain requirements regarding business dealings with members of the Board of Directors, the structure of our Audit and Compensation Committees, ethical standards for our senior financial officers, implementation of an internal control structure and procedures for financial reporting, and additional responsibilities regarding financial statements for our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer and their assessment of our internal controls over financial reporting. Compliance with all aspects of the Act, particularly the provisions related to management's assessment of internal controls, has imposed additional costs on our company, reflecting internal staff and management time, as well as additional audit fees since the Act went into effect.


Executive Officers

Information regarding our executive officers and their ages as of February 12, 2021, is as follows: 







Ronald J. Kruszewski






Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer

Thomas W. Weisel






Senior Managing Director and Director

James M. Zemlyak







Thomas B. Michaud






Senior Vice President

Victor J. Nesi






President and Director of Institutional Group

Mark P. Fisher






Senior Vice President and General Counsel

James M. Marischen






Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer

David D. Sliney






Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer

Christopher K. Reichert






Chief Executive Officer of Stifel Bank & Trust

Ronald J. Kruszewski has been Chief Executive Officer and Director of our company and Stifel since September 1997 and Chairman of the Board of Directors of our company and Stifel since April 2001. Prior thereto, Mr. Kruszewski served as Managing Director and Chief Financial Officer of Baird Financial Corporation and Managing Director of Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated, a securities broker-dealer firm, from 1993 to September 1997.

Thomas W. Weisel has been Senior Managing Director of our company since August 2010, after the completion of the merger between our company and Thomas Weisel Partners Group, Inc. Prior thereto, Mr. Weisel served as Chairman and CEO of Thomas Weisel Partners Group, Inc., a firm he founded, from 1998 to June 2010. Prior to founding Thomas Weisel Partners, Mr. Weisel was a founder, in 1971, of Robertson, Coleman, Siebel & Weisel that became Montgomery Securities in 1978, where he was Chairman and CEO until September 1998. Mr. Weisel served as a director on the NASDAQ Stock Market board of directors from 2002 to 2006.

James M. Zemlyak was named to the Office of the President in June 2014. Mr. Zemlyak served as Chief Financial Officer of our company and Stifel from February 1999 to August 2018. Mr. Zemlyak served as Director of our company from February 1999 to June 2017. Mr. Zemlyak served as our company’s Treasurer from February 1999 to January 2012. Mr. Zemlyak has been Chief Operating Officer of Stifel since August 2002 and Executive Vice President of Stifel since December 1, 2005. Mr. Zemlyak also served as Chief Financial Officer of Stifel from February 1999 to October 2006. Prior to joining our company, Mr. Zemlyak served as Managing Director and Chief Financial Officer of Baird Financial Corporation from 1997 to 1999 and Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated from 1994 to 1999.

Thomas B. Michaud has served as Senior Vice President of our company and Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, and President of Keefe, Bruyette & Woods, Inc., one of our broker-dealer subsidiaries, since February 15, 2013, the completion of the merger between our company and KBW, Inc. Mr. Michaud served as Director of our company from February 2013 to June 2017. Prior thereto, Mr. Michaud served as the Chief Executive Officer and President of KBW, Inc. since October 2011 and as Vice Chairman and director since its formation in August 2005. He previously served as Chief Operating Officer from August 2005 until October 2011.

Victor J. Nesi was named to the Office of the President in June 2014. Mr. Nesi has served as Director of Investment Banking and Director of our Institutional Group since July 2009. Mr. Nesi served as Director of our company from August 2009 to June 2017. Mr. Nesi has more than 20 years of banking and private equity experience, most recently with Merrill Lynch, where he headed the global private equity business for the telecommunications and media industry. From 2005 to 2007, he directed Merrill Lynch’s investment banking group for the Americas region. Prior to joining Merrill Lynch in 1996, Mr. Nesi spent seven years as an investment banker at Salomon Brothers and Goldman Sachs.

Mark P. Fisher has served as Senior Vice President since July 2010 and General Counsel since May 2014. Mr. Fisher served as General Counsel of Thomas Weisel Partners Group, Inc. from May 2005 until the merger between our company and Thomas Weisel Partners Group, Inc. in July 2010. From January 1998 until May 2005, Mr. Fisher practiced corporate and securities law at Sullivan & Cromwell LLP.

James M. Marischen was appointed Chief Financial Officer of our company and Stifel in August 2018. Prior thereto, Mr. Marischen served as Senior Vice President and Chief Risk Officer of our company from January 2014 to August 2018. During 2015, Mr. Marischen was named our Chief Accounting Officer. Mr. Marischen served as Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Stifel Bank & Trust from February 2008 to January 2014. Prior to joining our company in 2008, Mr. Marischen worked in public accounting at KPMG LLP.

David D. Sliney was appointed to Chief Operating Officer of our company in August 2018. Mr. Sliney has been a Senior Vice President of our company since May 2003. In 1997, Mr. Sliney began a Strategic Planning and Finance role with Stifel and has served as a Director of Stifel since May 2003. Mr. Sliney is also responsible for our company’s Operations and Technology departments. Mr. Sliney joined Stifel in 1992, and between 1992 and 1995, Mr. Sliney worked as a fixed income trader and later assumed responsibility for the firm’s Equity Syndicate Department.


Christopher K. Reichert has served as Chief Executive Officer of Stifel Bank & Trust since January 2008. Prior thereto, Mr. Reichert served as President of Stifel Bank & Trust from October 2007 to January 2008. Prior to joining the company in 2007, Mr. Reichert served as Executive Vice President of Pulaski Bank and was a member of the Pulaski Bank and Pulaski Financial Corp. Board of Directors.


Our internet address is We make available, free of charge, through a link to the SEC web site, annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as well as proxy statements, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

Additionally, we make available on our web site under “Investor Relations – Corporate Governance,” and in print upon request of any shareholder, a number of our corporate governance documents. These include: Audit Committee charter, Compensation Committee charter, Risk Management/Corporate Governance Committee charter, Corporate Governance Guidelines, Complaint Reporting Process, and the Code of Ethics for Employees. Within the time period required by the SEC and the NYSE, we will post on our web site any modifications to any of the available documents. The information on our web site is not incorporated by reference into this report.


Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including those described below, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and the trading price of our common stock. The list of risk factors provided in the following sections is not exhaustive; there may be factors not discussed in the following sections or in this Form 10-K that adversely impact our results of operations, harm our reputation or inhibit our ability to generate new business prospects. We may amend or supplement these risk factors from time to time in other reports we file with the SEC.


Lack of liquidity or access to capital could impair our business and financial condition. Our inability to maintain adequate liquidity or to easily access credit and capital markets could have a significant negative effect on our financial condition. If liquidity from our brokerage or banking operations is inadequate or unavailable, we may be required to scale back or curtail our operations, such as limiting our recruiting of additional financial advisors, limiting lending, selling assets at unfavorable prices, and cutting or eliminating dividend payments. Our liquidity could be negatively affected by the inability of our subsidiaries to generate cash in the form of dividends from earnings, liquidity or capital requirements applicable to our subsidiaries that may prevent us from upstreaming cash to the parent company, limited or no accessibility to credit markets for secured and unsecured borrowings by our subsidiaries, diminished access to the capital markets for our company, and other commitments or restrictions on capital as a result of adverse legal settlements, judgments, or regulatory sanctions. Furthermore, as a bank holding company, we may become subject to prohibitions or limitations on our ability to pay dividends and/or repurchase our stock. Certain of our regulators have the authority, and under certain circumstances, the duty, to prohibit or to limit dividend payments by regulated subsidiaries to their parent.

The availability of financing, including access to the credit and capital markets, depends on various factors, such as conditions in the debt and equity markets, the general availability of credit, the volume of securities trading activity, the overall availability of credit to the financial services sector and our credit ratings. Our cost of capital and the availability of funding may be adversely affected by illiquid credit markets and wider credit spreads. Additionally, lenders may from time to time curtail, or even cease to provide, funding to borrowers as a result of future concerns over the strength of specific counterparties, as well as the stability of markets generally. See Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources,” in this Form 10-K for additional information on liquidity and how we manage our liquidity risk.

A downgrade in our credit ratings could have a material adverse effect on our operations, earnings, and financial condition. If our credit ratings were downgraded, or if rating agencies indicate that a downgrade may occur, our business, financial position, and results of operations could be adversely affected, perceptions of our financial strength could be damaged, and as a result, adversely affect our client relationships. Such a change in our credit ratings could also adversely affect our liquidity and competitive position, increase our borrowing costs, limit our access to the capital markets, trigger obligations under certain financial agreements, or decrease the number of investors, clients and counterparties willing or permitted to do business with or lend to us, thereby curtailing our business operations and reducing profitability.

We may not be able to obtain additional outside financing to fund our operations on favorable terms, or at all. The impact of a credit rating downgrade to a level below investment grade would result in our breaching provisions in our credit agreements, and may result in decreased levels of available credit or a request for immediate payment.

A credit rating downgrade would also result in the Company incurring a higher commitment fee on any unused balance on its revolving credit facilities, in addition to triggering a higher interest rate applicable to any borrowings outstanding on the line as of and subsequent to such downgrade (see Note 11 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for information on the Company’s credit facilities).


We are exposed to market risk. We are, directly and indirectly, affected by changes in market conditions. Market risk generally represents the risk that values of assets and liabilities or revenues will be adversely affected by changes in market conditions. For example, interest rate changes could adversely affect our net interest spread, the difference between the yield we earn on our assets and the interest rate we pay for deposits and other sources of funding, which in turn impacts our net interest income and earnings. Interest rate changes could affect the interest earned on assets differently than interest paid on liabilities. In our brokerage operations, a rising interest rate environment generally results in our earning a larger net interest spread and an increase in fees received on our multi-bank deposit sweep program. Conversely, in those operations, a falling interest rate environment generally results in our earning a smaller net interest spread. If we are unable to effectively manage our interest rate risk, changes in interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our profitability.

Market risk is inherent in the financial instruments associated with our operations and activities, including loans, deposits, securities, short-term borrowings, long-term debt, trading account assets and liabilities, derivatives and private equity investments. Market conditions that change from time to time, thereby exposing us to market risk, include fluctuations in interest rates, equity prices, foreign exchange rates, and price deterioration or changes in value due to changes in market perception or actual credit quality of an issuer.

In addition, disruptions in the liquidity or transparency of the financial markets may result in our inability to sell, syndicate, or realize the value of security positions, thereby leading to increased concentrations. The inability to reduce our positions in specific securities may not only increase the market and credit risks associated with such positions, but also increase the level of risk-weighted assets on our balance sheet, thereby increasing our capital requirements, which could have an adverse effect on our business results, financial condition and liquidity. See Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk,” in this Form 10-K for additional information regarding our exposure to and approaches to managing market risk.

We are exposed to credit risk. We are generally exposed to the risk that third parties that owe us money, securities, or other assets will fail to meet their obligations to us due to numerous causes, including bankruptcy, lack of liquidity, or operational failure, among others. We actively buy and sell securities from and to clients and counterparties in the normal course of our broker-dealers’ market-making and underwriting businesses, which exposes us to credit risk. Although generally collateralized by the underlying security to the transaction, we still face risk associated with changes in the market value of collateral through settlement date. Our credit risk and credit losses may increase to the extent our loans or investments are to borrowers or issuers who, as a group, may be uniquely or disproportionately affected by declining economic or market conditions The deterioration of an individually large exposure could lead to additional loan loss provisions and/or charges-offs, or credit impairment of our investments, and subsequently have a material impact on our results of operations, financial condition, regulatory capital, and liquidity.

We also hold certain securities, loans and derivatives as part of our trading inventory. Deterioration in the actual or perceived credit quality of the underlying issuers of securities or loans, or the non-performance of issuers and counterparties to certain derivative contracts could result in losses.

We borrow securities from, and lend securities to, other broker-dealers, and may also enter into agreements to repurchase and/or resell securities as part of investing and financing activities. A sharp change in the security market values utilized in these transactions may result in losses if counterparties to these transactions fail to honor their commitments.

We manage the risk associated with these transactions by establishing and monitoring credit limits, as well as by evaluating collateral and transaction levels on a recurring basis. Significant deterioration in the credit quality of one of our counterparties could lead to widespread concerns about the credit quality of other counterparties in the same industry, thereby exacerbating our credit risk exposure.

We permit our clients to purchase securities on margin. During periods of steep declines in securities prices, the value of the collateral securing client margin loans may fall below the amount of the purchaser’s indebtedness. If clients are unable to provide additional collateral for these margin loans, we may incur losses on those margin transactions. This may cause us to incur additional expenses defending or pursuing claims or litigation related to counterparty or client defaults.

We deposit our cash in depository institutions as a means of maintaining the liquidity necessary to meet our operating needs, and we also facilitate the deposit of cash awaiting investment in depository institutions on behalf of our clients. A failure of a depository institution to return these deposits could severely impact our operating liquidity, result in significant reputational damage, and adversely impact our financial performance.

We also incur credit risk by lending to businesses and individuals through the offering of loans, including commercial and industrial loans, commercial and residential mortgage loans, tax-exempt loans, home equity lines of credit, and other loans generally collateralized by securities. We also incur credit risk through our investments. Our credit risk and credit losses can increase if our loans or investments are concentrated among borrowers or issuers engaged in the same or similar activities, industries, or geographies, or to borrowers or issuers who as a group may be uniquely or disproportionately affected by economic or market conditions. The deterioration of an individually large exposure, for example due to natural disasters, health emergencies or pandemics, acts of terrorism, severe weather events or other adverse economic events, could lead to additional loan loss provisions and/or charges-offs, or credit impairment of our investments, and subsequently have a material impact on our net income and regulatory capital.


Declines in the real estate market or sustained economic downturns may cause us to write down the value of some of the loans in Stifel Bancorp’s portfolio, foreclose on certain real estate properties, or write down the value of some of our securities. Credit quality generally may also be affected by adverse changes in the financial performance or condition of our debtors or deterioration in the strength of the U.S. economy.

See Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk,” in this Form 10-K for additional information regarding our exposure to and approaches to managing credit risk.

The expected phase-out of LIBOR could negatively impact our net interest income and require significant operational work. The FCA, which regulates the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), has announced that it will not compel panel banks to contribute to LIBOR after 2021. It is likely that banks will not continue to provide submissions for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021 and possibly prior to then. It is expected that a transition away from the widespread use of LIBOR to alternative rates will occur over the course of the next few years. Although the full impact of transition remains unclear, this change may have an adverse impact on the value of, return on, and trading markets for a broad array of financial products, including any LIBOR-based securities, loans, and derivatives that are included in our financial assets and liabilities. If LIBOR is discontinued after 2021 as expected, there will be uncertainty or differences in the calculation of the applicable interest rate or payment amount depending on the terms of the governing instruments. There will be significant work required to transition to using the new benchmark rates and implement necessary changes to our systems, processes, and models. This may impact our existing transaction data, products, systems, operations, and valuation processes. The calculation of interest rates under the replacement benchmarks could also impact our net interest income and account and service fees. In addition, LIBOR may perform differently during the phase-out period than in the past, which could result in lower interest payments and a reduction in the value of certain assets. We are assessing the impact of the transition; however, we cannot reasonably estimate the impact of the transition at this time.


Our results of operations have been, and will likely continue to be, adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has and will likely continue to severely impact global economic conditions, resulting in substantial ongoing volatility in the global financial markets, prolonged levels of relatively high unemployment, and operational challenges, such as the implementation of, or reinstitution of, measures to temporarily close businesses, sheltering-in-place directives, and continuing remote work protocols. Governments and central banks around the world reacted to the economic crisis caused by the pandemic by implementing stimulus and liquidity programs and cutting interest rates, though it is unclear whether these or future actions will be successful in countering the economic disruption or whether additional measures will be taken. If the pandemic continues as expected well in to 2021, or if the actions of governments and central banks are unsuccessful or are not extended or maintained, the adverse impact on the global economy could be prolonged or further deepen, and our results of operations and financial condition in future quarters will be adversely affected.

The pandemic impacted each of our business segments during 2020, and such impact will likely persist or increase in the future if current conditions persist or worsen (e.g., decline and volatility of asset prices, reduction in interest rates, widening of credit spreads, credit deterioration, market volatility, and reduced investment banking advisory activity).

This resulted in significant decreases, in the first half of 2020, in the valuation of loans and commitments, investments, and certain classes of trading assets, an increase in the allowance for credit losses, reduced net interest income, and reduced investment banking advisory fees. At the same time, increased revenues that we have realized for certain products related to high levels of client trading activity may not be replicated in future quarters.

Until the impact of the pandemic subsides, we could experience reduced client activity and demand for our products and services and higher credit and valuation losses in our loan, commitment, and investment portfolios. Although we have had none to date, we could also experience impairments of other financial assets and other negative impacts on our financial position, including possible constraints on capital and liquidity and possible reductions in our regulatory capital and liquidity ratios, as well as a higher cost of capital, and possible changes or downgrades to our credit ratings. In addition, the sharp decline in interest rates has further decreased, and we expect will continue to decrease, interest margins in our lending businesses. A continued slowdown of commercial activity would cause overall investment banking revenues to decline, and the decline in assets under management and client balances will also further reduce asset management and service revenues.

Operationally, although we have initiated a remote working protocol and restricted business travel of our workforce, if significant portions of our associates, including key personnel, are unable to work effectively because of illness, government actions, or other restrictions in connection with the pandemic, the impact of the pandemic on our businesses could be exacerbated. In addition, cybersecurity and operational risks may be heightened as a result of work-from-home arrangements.

Our business is dependent on the willingness and ability of our customers to conduct financial transactions. The continued spread of COVID-19, or another highly infectious or contagious disease, has caused and may continue to cause severe disruptions in such activities, as well as other aspects of conducting our business. These effects include restrictions on our employees’ ability to travel, as well as temporary closures of our facilities or the facilities of our customers, suppliers, or other vendors. We often recruit skilled professionals and new clients by visiting their offices or having them visit our offices. Although we have successfully implemented a


virtual recruiting strategy, travel restrictions or other disruptions that prevent us from meeting with professional prospects or potential new clients may adversely impact our ability to recruit such professional prospects or engage potential new clients over the long term.

We are taking necessary and recommended precautions to protect the safety and well-being of our employees and customers, including by means of conducting certain business activities and operations remotely. However, no assurance can be given that the steps being taken will be deemed to be adequate or appropriate, nor can we predict the level of disruption which will occur to our employees’ ability to provide customer support and service.

Although the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in meaningfully lower stock prices for many companies, as well as the trading prices for our own securities, the markets have not only stabilized but returned to near pre-COVID-19 levels. However, the further spread of the COVID-19 outbreak may materially negatively impact stock and other securities prices and materially disrupt banking and other financial activity generally and in the areas in which we operate. This would likely result in a decline in demand for our products and services, which would negatively impact our liquidity position and our growth strategy. Any one or more of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our and our consolidated subsidiaries’ business, operations, consolidated financial condition, and consolidated results of operations.

Abrupt changes in market and general economic conditions have in the past adversely affected, and may in the future adversely affect, our business and profitability and cause volatility in our results of operations. Economic and market conditions have had, and will continue to have, a direct and material impact on our results of operations and financial condition because performance in the financial services industry is heavily influenced by the overall strength of general economic conditions and financial market activity.

Our investment banking revenue, in the form of advisory services and underwriting, is directly related to general economic conditions and corresponding financial market activity. When the outlook for such economic conditions is uncertain or negative, financial market activity generally tends to decrease, which reduces our investment banking revenues. Reduced expectations for, or further declines in, the U.S. and global economic outlook could cause financial market activity to decrease and negatively affect our investment banking revenues.

In addition to the business risks set forth in the previous risk factor, global economic conditions and global financial markets remain vulnerable to the potential risks posed by certain events, including, among other things, challenges to global trade or travel due to the continued spread of COVID-19 and any widening of the effect of the pandemic associated therewith, political and financial uncertainty in the United States and the European Union, renewed concern about the U.S. and other major economies, domestic and international political or social unrest (including related protests or disturbances), the reduction in business activity leading to a decrease in global demand for oil and natural gas and the resulting historically low prices for these commodities, and complications involving terrorism and armed conflicts around the world. In particular, as it relates to COVID-19 and the associated pandemic, the extent of such effects will depend on future developments which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including the geographic spread of the virus, the overall severity of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, the measures that may be taken by various governmental authorities in response to the outbreak (such as quarantines and travel restrictions) and the possible further impacts on the global economy. More generally, because our business is closely correlated to the general economic outlook, a significant deterioration in that outlook or realization of certain events would likely have an immediate and significant negative impact on our business and overall results of operations.

We are affected by domestic and international macroeconomic conditions that impact the global financial markets. We are engaged in various financial services businesses. As such, we are affected by domestic and international macroeconomic and political conditions, including economic output levels, interest and inflation rates, employment levels, prices of commodities, consumer confidence levels, international trade policy, and fiscal and monetary policy. For example, Fed policies determine, in large part, the cost of funds for lending and investing and the return earned on those loans and investments. The market impact from such policies also can decrease materially the value of certain of our financial assets, most notably debt securities. Changes in Fed policies are beyond our control, and consequently, the impact of these changes on our activities and results of our operations are difficult to predict. Macroeconomic conditions also may directly and indirectly impact a number of factors in the global financial markets that may be detrimental to our operating results, including trading levels, investing, and origination activity in the securities markets, security valuations, the absolute and relative level and volatility of interest and currency rates, real estate values, the actual and perceived quality of issuers and borrowers, and the supply of and demand for loans and deposits.

While we have experienced an operating environment that has been favorable for many of our businesses in recent years, if we were to experience a period of sustained downturn in the securities markets, a return to very low levels of short-term interest rates, credit market dislocations, reductions in the value of real estate, an increase in mortgage and other loan delinquencies, and other negative market factors, our revenues could be significantly impaired.

We could experience a decline in commission revenue from a lower volume of trades we execute for our clients, a decline in fees from reduced portfolio values of securities managed on behalf of our clients, a reduction in revenue from capital markets and advisory transactions due to lower activity, increased credit provisions and charge-offs, losses sustained from our customers’ and market participants’ failure to fulfill their settlement obligations, reduced net interest earnings, and other losses. Periods of reduced revenue and other losses could lead to reduced profitability because certain of our expenses, including, but not limited to, our interest expense on debt, rent, facilities, and salary expenses are fixed and our ability to reduce them over short time periods is limited.


U.S. markets may also be impacted by political and civil unrest occurring in other parts of the world. Concerns about the E.U., including the U.K.’s exit from the E.U. (“Brexit”) and the stability of the E.U.’s sovereign debt, have caused uncertainty and disruption for financial markets globally. The potential impacts related to the delivery of Brexit or the terms of the new economic and security relationship between the U.K. and the E.U. on the movement of goods, services, people, and capital between the U.K. and the E.U., customer behavior, economic conditions, interest rates, currency exchange rates, availability of capital, or other matters are unclear and could adversely affect our businesses, including our revenues from trading and investment banking activities, particularly in Europe, and our results of operations and financial condition. We have made certain changes to our European operations in an effort to ensure that we can continue to provide cross-border services in E.U. member states without the need for separate regulatory authorizations in each member state. It is possible that other E.U. member states may experience financial troubles in the future, or may choose to follow the U.K.’s lead and leave the E.U. Any negative impact on economic conditions and global markets from these developments could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and liquidity.

We may be impacted by budget pressures affecting U.S. state and local governments, as well as negative trends in the housing and labor markets. Investor concerns regarding these trends could potentially reduce the number and size of transactions in which we participate and, in turn, reduce our fixed income investment banking revenues. In addition, such factors could potentially have an adverse effect on the value of the municipal securities we hold in our trading securities portfolio.

We are affected primarily by economic conditions in the North America. Market conditions in the U.S. and Canada can be assessed through the following metrics: the level and volatility of interest rates; unemployment and under-employment rates; real estate prices; consumer confidence levels and changes in consumer spending; and the number of personal bankruptcies, among others. Deterioration of market conditions can diminish loan demand, lead to an increase in mortgage and other loan delinquencies, affect loan repayment performance, and result in higher reserves and net charge-offs, which can adversely affect our earnings.

We are exposed to risks from international markets. We do business in other parts of the world and, as a result, are exposed to risks, including market, litigation, and regulatory compliance risks. Our businesses and revenues derived from non-U.S. operations are subject to risk of loss from currency fluctuations, social or political instability, less established regulatory regimes, changes in governmental or central bank policies, downgrades in the credit ratings of sovereign countries, expropriation, nationalization, confiscation of assets, and unfavorable legislative, economic, and political developments. Action or inaction in any of these operations, including failure to follow proper practices with respect to regulatory compliance and/or corporate governance, could harm our operations and our reputation. We also invest or trade in the securities of corporations located in non-U.S. jurisdictions. Revenues from trading non-U.S. securities also may be subject to negative fluctuations as a result of the previously mentioned factors.


Damage to our reputation could damage our businesses. Maintaining our reputation is critical to attracting and maintaining clients, investors, financial advisors, and other associates. If we fail to address, or appear to fail to address, issues that may give rise to reputational risk, we could significantly harm our business prospects. These issues may include, but are not limited to, any of the risks discussed in this Item 1A, including appropriately dealing with potential conflicts of interest, legal and regulatory requirements, ethical issues, money laundering, cybersecurity and privacy, record keeping, and sales and trading practices. In addition, the failure to sell securities we have underwritten at anticipated price levels, and the proper identification of the legal, credit, liquidity, and market risks inherent in our products, could also give rise to reputational risk. Failure to maintain appropriate service and quality standards, or a failure or perceived failure to treat clients fairly, can result in client dissatisfaction, litigation, and heightened regulatory scrutiny, all of which can lead to lost revenue, higher operating costs, and reputational harm. Negative publicity about us, whether or not true, may also harm our reputation.

Our ability to attract and retain senior professionals, qualified financial advisors, and other associates is critical to the continued success of our business. Our ability to develop and retain our clients depends on the reputation, judgment, business generation capabilities, and skills of our senior professionals, members of our executive committees, as well as associates and financial advisors. To compete effectively, we must attract, retain, and motivate qualified professionals, including successful financial advisors, investment bankers, trading professionals, portfolio managers, and other revenue-producing or specialized personnel. Competitive pressures we experience could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.

Turnover in the financial services industry is high. The cost of recruiting and retaining skilled professionals in the financial services industry has escalated considerably. Financial industry employers are increasingly offering guaranteed contracts, upfront payments, and increased compensation. These can be important factors in a current associate’s decision to leave us as well as in a prospective associate’s decision to join us. As competition for skilled professionals in the industry remains intense, we may have to devote significant resources to attract and retain qualified personnel. In particular, our financial results may be adversely affected by the costs we incur in connection with any upfront loans or other incentives we may offer to newly recruited financial advisors and other key personnel.

To the extent we have compensation targets, we may not be able to retain our associates, which could result in increased recruiting expense or result in our recruiting additional associates at compensation levels that are not within our target range. In particular, our financial results may be adversely affected by the costs we incur in connection with any upfront loans or other incentives we may offer to newly recruited financial advisors and other key personnel. If we were to lose the services of any of our investment bankers, senior


equity research, sales and trading professionals, asset managers, or executive officers to a competitor or otherwise, we may not be able to retain valuable relationships and some of our clients could choose to use the services of a competitor instead of our services. If we are unable to retain our senior professionals or recruit additional professionals, our reputation, business, results of operations, and financial condition will be adversely affected. Further, new business initiatives and efforts to expand existing businesses generally require that we incur compensation and benefits expense before generating additional revenues.

Moreover, companies in our industry whose employees accept positions with competitors frequently claim that those competitors have engaged in unfair hiring practices. We have been subject to several such claims and may be subject to additional claims in the future as we seek to hire qualified personnel, some of whom may work for our competitors. Some of these claims may result in material litigation. We could incur substantial costs in defending against these claims, regardless of their merits. Such claims could also discourage potential employees who work for our competitors from joining us. Certain of our competitors have withdrawn from the Protocol for Broker Recruiting (“Protocol”), a voluntary agreement among over 1,800 firms that governs, among other things, the client information that financial advisors may take with them when they affiliate with a new firm. The ability to bring such customer data to a new broker-dealer generally means that the financial advisor is better able to move client account balances to his or her new firm. It is possible that other competitors will similarly withdraw from the Protocol. If the broker-dealers from whom we recruit new financial advisors prevent, or significantly limit, the transfer of client data, our recruiting efforts may be adversely affected and we could continue to experience claims against us relating to our recruiting efforts.

Our business depends on fees earned from the management of client accounts and asset management fees. We have grown our asset management business in recent years, which has increased the risks associated with this business relative to our overall operations. The asset management fees we are paid are dependent upon the value of client assets in fee-based accounts in our Private Client Group segment, as well as AUM in our asset management business. The value of our fee-based assets and AUM is impacted by market fluctuations and inflows or outflows of assets. As a result of a shift by our Private Client Group clients to fee-based accounts from traditional transaction-based accounts, a larger portion of our client assets are more directly impacted by market movements. Therefore, in periods of declining market values, the values of fee-based accounts and AUM may resultantly decline, which would negatively impact our revenues. In addition, below-market investment performance by our funds, portfolio managers, or financial advisors could result in reputational damage that might cause outflows or make it more difficult to attract new investors into our asset management products and thus further impact our business and financial condition.

Our asset management fees may also decline over time due to factors such as increased competition and the renegotiation of contracts. In addition, the market environment in recent years has resulted in a shift to passive investment products, which generate lower fees than actively managed products. A continued trend toward passive investments or changes in market values or in the fee structure of asset management accounts would affect our revenues, business, and financial condition.

Our underwriting, market-making, trading, and other business activities place our capital at risk. We may incur losses and be subject to reputational harm to the extent that, for any reason, we are unable to sell securities we have underwritten at the anticipated price levels. As an underwriter, we also are subject to heightened standards regarding liability for material misstatements or omissions in prospectuses and other offering documents relating to offerings in which we are involved. While it is not typical, from time to time and as part of our underwriting processes, we may carry significant positions in securities of a single issuer or issuers engaged in a specific industry. Sudden changes in the value of these positions could impact our financial results.

As a market-maker, we may own positions in specific securities, and these undiversified holdings concentrate the risk of market fluctuations and may result in greater losses than would be the case if our holdings were more diversified. Despite risk mitigation policies, we may incur losses as a result of positions we hold in connection with our market-making.

We have made, and to the limited extent permitted by applicable regulations, may continue to make principal investments in private equity funds and other illiquid investments; however, our current focus is on the divestiture of our existing portfolio. We may be unable to realize our investment objectives if we cannot sell or otherwise dispose of our interests at attractive prices or complete a desirable exit strategy. In particular, these risks could arise from changes in the financial condition or prospects of the portfolio companies in which investments are made, changes in economic conditions or changes in laws, regulations, fiscal policies or political conditions. It could take a substantial period of time to identify attractive investment opportunities and then to realize the cash value of such investments. In addition, even if a private equity investment proves to be profitable, it may be several years or longer before any profits can be realized in cash.

The soundness of other financial institutions and intermediaries affects us. We face the risk of operational failure, termination, or capacity constraints of any of the clearing agents, exchanges, clearing houses, or other financial intermediaries that we use to facilitate our securities transactions. As a result of regulatory changes and the consolidation over the years among clearing agents, exchanges, and clearing houses, our exposure to certain financial intermediaries has increased and could affect our ability to find adequate and cost-effective alternatives should the need arise. Any failure, termination, or constraint of these intermediaries could adversely affect our ability to execute transactions, service our clients, and manage our exposure to risk.

Our ability to engage in routine trading and funding transactions could be affected adversely by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, funding, counterparty, or other relationships. We have exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and we routinely execute transactions with


counterparties in the financial industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, mutual and hedge funds, and other institutional clients. Defaults by, or even rumors or questions about the financial condition of, one or more financial services institutions, or the financial services industry generally, have historically led to market-wide liquidity problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of default of our counterparty or client. In addition, our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral held by us cannot be realized or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or derivative exposure due us. Losses arising in connection with counterparty defaults may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

We continue to experience pricing pressures in areas of our business, which may impair our future revenue and profitability. We continue to experience pricing pressures on trading margins and commissions in fixed income and equity trading. In the fixed income market, regulatory requirements have resulted in greater price transparency, leading to price competition and decreased trading margins. In the equity market, we experience pricing pressure from institutional clients to reduce commissions, partially due to the industry trend toward the separate payment for research and execution services. Our trading margins have been further compressed by the use of electronic and direct market access trading, which has created additional competitive pressure. We believe that price competition and pricing pressures in these and other areas will continue as institutional investors continue to reduce the amounts they are willing to pay, including by reducing the number of brokerage firms they use, and some of our competitors seek to obtain market share by reducing fees, commissions, or margins.

The growth of our bank subsidiaries may expose us to increased credit risk, operational risk, regulatory risk, and sensitivity to market interest rates along with increased regulation, examinations, and supervision by regulators. We have experienced growth in the loan portfolio and the investment portfolio, which includes available-for-sale and held-to-maturity securities, of Stifel Bancorp, which is funded by affiliated customer deposits. Although our stock-secured loans are collateralized by assets held in our clients’ brokerage accounts, we are exposed to some credit and operational risk associated with these loans. With the increase in deposits and resulting liquidity, we have been able to expand our investment portfolio. In addition, Stifel Bancorp has significantly grown its mortgage and commercial lending businesses. Although we believe we have conservative underwriting policies in place, there are inherent risks associated with the mortgage banking business.

As a result of the high percentage of our assets and liabilities that are in the form of interest-bearing or interest-related instruments, we are more sensitive to changes in interest rates, in the shape of the yield curve, or in relative spreads between market interest rates.

The monetary, tax, and other policies of the government and its agencies, including the Federal Reserve, have a significant impact on interest rates and overall financial market performance. An important function of the Federal Reserve is to regulate the national supply of bank credit and market interest rates. The actions of the Fed influence the rates of interest that we charge on loans and that we pay on borrowings and interest-bearing deposits, which may also affect the value of our on-balance sheet and off-balance sheet financial instruments. We cannot predict the nature or timing of future changes in monetary, tax, and other policies or the effect that they may have on our activities and results of operations.

Decreases in short-term interest rates, such as those announced by the Federal Reserve late in our 2019 fiscal year and during the first fiscal quarter of 2020, have had a negative impact on our results, in particular on our net interest income, the difference between the interest earned on interest-earning assets and interest paid on funding sources. The Federal Reserve significantly further lowered interest rates in response to COVID-19 pandemic concerns. These market interest rate declines will negatively affect our results of operations.

In addition, our bank subsidiaries are heavily regulated at the state and federal level. This regulation is to protect depositors, federal deposit insurance funds, consumers, and the banking system as a whole, but not our shareholders. Federal and state regulations can significantly restrict our businesses, and we are subject to various regulatory actions, which could include fines, penalties, or other sanctions for violations of laws and regulatory rules if we are ultimately found to be out of compliance.

We face intense competition. We are engaged in intensely competitive businesses. We compete on the basis of a number of factors, including the quality of our financial advisors and associates, our products and services, pricing (such as execution pricing and fee levels), location, and reputation in relevant markets. Over time, there has been substantial consolidation and convergence among companies in the financial services industry, which has significantly increased the capital base and geographic reach of our competitors. See the section titled “Competition” of Item 1 of this Form 10-K for additional information about our competitors.

We compete directly with national full-service broker-dealers, investment banking firms, and commercial banks, and to a lesser extent, with discount brokers and dealers and investment advisers. In addition, we face competition from more recent entrants into the market and increased use of alternative sales channels by other firms. We also compete indirectly for investment assets with insurance companies, real estate firms, and hedge funds, among others. This competition could cause our business to suffer.

To remain competitive, our future success also depends, in part, on our ability to develop and enhance our products and services. The inability to develop new products and services, or enhance existing offerings, could have a material adverse effect on our profitability. In addition, we may incur substantial expenditures to keep pace with the constant changes and enhancements being made in technology.


We are exposed to operational risk. Our diverse operations expose us to risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people, and systems external events, including technological or connectivity failures either at the exchanges in which we do business or between our data centers, operations processing sites, or our branches. Our businesses depend on our ability to process and monitor, on a daily basis, a large number of complex transactions across numerous and diverse markets. The inability of our systems to accommodate an increasing volume of transactions could also constrain our ability to expand our businesses. Our financial, accounting, data processing, or other operating systems and facilities may fail to operate properly or become disabled as a result of events that are wholly or partially beyond our control, adversely affecting our ability to process these transactions or provide these services. Operational risk exists in every activity, function, or unit of our business, and can take the form of internal or external fraud, employment and hiring practices, an error in meeting a professional obligation, or failure to meet corporate fiduciary standards. Operational risk also exists in the event of business disruption, system failures, or failed transaction processing. Third parties with which we do business could also be a source of operational risk, including with respect to breakdowns or failures of the systems or misconduct by the employees of such parties. In addition, as we change processes or introduce new products and services, we may not fully appreciate or identify new operational risks that may arise from such changes. Increasing use of automated technology has the potential to amplify risks from manual or system processing errors, including outsourced operations.

Our business contingency plan in place is intended to ensure we have the ability to recover our critical business functions and supporting assets, including staff and technology, in the event of a business interruption. Despite the diligence we have applied to the development and testing of our plans, due to unforeseen factors, our ability to conduct business may, in any case, be adversely affected by a disruption involving physical site access, catastrophic events, including weather-related events, events involving electrical, environmental, or communications malfunctions, as well as events impacting services provided by others that we rely upon which could impact our associates or third parties with whom we conduct business.

See Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk,” in this Form 10-K for additional information regarding our exposure to and approaches to managing operational risk.

A continued interruption to our telecommunications or data processing systems, or the failure to effectively update the technology we utilize, could be materially adverse to our business. Our businesses rely extensively on data processing and communications systems. In addition to better serving clients, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables us to reduce costs. Adapting or developing our technology systems to meet new regulatory requirements, client needs, and competitive demands is critical for our business. Introduction of new technology presents challenges on a regular basis. There are significant technical and financial costs and risks in the development of new or enhanced applications, including the risk that we might be unable to effectively use new technologies or adapt our applications to emerging industry standards.

Our continued success depends, in part, upon our ability to: (i) successfully maintain and upgrade the capability of our technology systems on a regular basis; (ii) maintain the quality of the information contained in our data processing and communications systems; (iii) address the needs of our clients by using technology to provide products and services that satisfy their demands; and (iv) retain skilled information technology associates. Failure of our technology systems, which could result from events beyond our control, including a systems malfunction or cyber attack, or an inability to effectively upgrade those systems or implement new technology-driven products or services, could result in financial losses, liability to clients, violations of applicable privacy and other applicable laws, and regulatory sanctions. See Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Risk Management” in this Form 10-K for additional information regarding our exposure to and approaches for managing operational risks.

Any cyber attack or other security breach of our technology systems, or those of our clients or other third-party vendors we rely on, could subject us to significant liability and harm our reputation. Our operations rely heavily on the secure processing, storage, and transmission of sensitive and confidential financial, personal, and other information in our computer systems and networks. There have been several highly publicized cases involving financial services companies reporting the unauthorized disclosure of client or other confidential information in recent years, as well as cyber attacks involving the theft, dissemination, and destruction of corporate information or other assets, in some cases as a result of failure to follow procedures by employees or contractors or as a result of actions by third parties. Like other financial services firms, we experience malicious cyber activity directed at our computer systems, software, networks, and its users on a daily basis. This malicious activity includes attempts at unauthorized access, implantation of computer viruses or malware, and denial-of-service attacks. We also experience large volumes of phishing and other forms of social engineering attempted for the purpose of perpetrating fraud against our company, our associates, our advisors, or our clients. We seek to continuously monitor for and nimbly react to any and all such activity, and we develop our systems to protect our technology infrastructure and data from misuse, misappropriation, or corruption.

Cyber attacks can originate from a variety of sources, including third parties affiliated with foreign governments, organized crime, or terrorist organizations. Third parties may also attempt to place individuals within our company or induce associates, clients, or other users of our systems to disclose sensitive information or provide access to our data, and these types of risks may be difficult to detect or prevent. Although cybersecurity incidents among financial services firms are on the rise, we have not experienced any material losses relating to cyber attacks or other information security breaches. However, the techniques used in these attacks are increasingly sophisticated, change frequently and are often not recognized until launched. Although we seek to maintain a robust suite of authentication and layered information security controls, including our cyber threat analytics, data encryption and tokenization


technologies, anti-malware defenses and vulnerability management program, any one or combination of these controls could fail to detect, mitigate or remediate these risks in a timely manner. Despite our implementation of protective measures and endeavoring to modify them as circumstances warrant, our computer systems, software and networks may be vulnerable to human error, natural disasters, power loss, spam attacks, unauthorized access, distributed denial of service attacks, computer viruses and other malicious code, and other events that could result in significant liability and damage to our reputation, and have an ongoing impact on the security and stability of our operations.

We also rely on numerous third party service providers to conduct other aspects of our business operations, and we face similar risks relating to them. While we regularly conduct security assessments on these third party vendors, we cannot be certain that their information security protocols are sufficient to withstand a cyber attack or other security breach. In addition, in order to access our products and services, our customers may use computers and other devices that are beyond our security control systems.

Notwithstanding the precautions we take, if a cyber attack or other information security breach were to occur, this could jeopardize the information we confidentially maintain, or otherwise cause interruptions in our operations or those of our clients and counterparties, exposing us to liability. As attempted attacks continue to evolve in scope and sophistication, we may be required to expend substantial additional resources to modify or enhance our protective measures, to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures or to communicate about cyber attacks to our customers. Though we have insurance against some cyber risks and attacks, we may be subject to litigation and financial losses that exceed our policy limits or are not covered under any of our current insurance policies. A technological breakdown could also interfere with our ability to comply with financial reporting and other regulatory requirements, exposing us to potential disciplinary action by regulators. Additionally, the SEC issued guidance in February 2018 stating that, as a public company, we are expected to have controls and procedures that relate to cybersecurity disclosure, and are required to disclose information relating to certain cyber attacks or other information security breaches in disclosures required to be made under the federal securities laws. Further, successful cyber attacks at other large financial institutions or other market participants, whether or not we are affected, could lead to a general loss of customer confidence in financial institutions that could negatively affect us, including harming the market perception of the effectiveness of our security measures or the financial system in general, which could result in reduced use of our financial products and services.

Further, in light of the high volume of transactions we process, the large number of our clients, partners and counterparties, and the increasing sophistication of malicious actors, a cyber attack could occur and persist for an extended period of time without detection. We expect that any investigation of a cyber attack would take substantial amounts of time, and that there may be extensive delays before we obtain full and reliable information. During such time we would not necessarily know the extent of the harm or how best to remediate it, and certain errors or actions could be repeated or compounded before they are discovered and remediated, all of which would further increase the costs and consequences of such an attack.

We may also be subject to liability under various data protection laws. In providing services to clients, we manage, utilize, and store sensitive or confidential client or associate data, including personal data. As a result, we are subject to numerous laws and regulations designed to protect this information, such as U.S. federal, state, and international laws governing the protection of personally identifiable information. These laws and regulations are increasing in complexity and number. If any person, including any of our associates, negligently disregards or intentionally breaches our established controls with respect to client or associate data, or otherwise mismanages or misappropriates such data, we could be subject to significant monetary damages, regulatory enforcement actions, fines, and/or criminal prosecution. In addition, unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential client or associate data, whether through system failure, associate negligence, fraud, or misappropriation, could damage our reputation and cause us to lose clients and related revenue. Potential liability in the event of a security breach of client data could be significant. Depending on the circumstances giving rise to the breach, this liability may not be subject to a contractual limit or an exclusion of consequential or indirect damages.

See Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk,” in this Form 10-K for additional information regarding our exposure to and approaches to managing these types of operational risk.

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires the use of estimates that may vary from actual results, and new accounting standards could adversely affect future reported results. The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Such estimates and assumptions may require management to make difficult, and subjective, judgments. One of our most critical estimates is Stifel Bancorp’s allowance for loan losses. At any given point in time, conditions in real estate and credit markets may increase the complexity and uncertainty involved in estimating the losses inherent in Stifel Bancorp’s loan portfolio. If management’s underlying assumptions and judgments prove to be inaccurate, the allowance for loan losses could be insufficient to cover actual losses. Our financial condition, including our liquidity and capital, and results of operations could be materially and adversely impacted.

Our financial instruments, including certain trading assets and liabilities, available-for-sale securities, investments, and certain loans, among other items, require management to make a determination of their fair value in order to prepare our consolidated financial statements. Where quoted market prices are not available, we may make fair value determinations based on internally developed


models or other means, which ultimately rely to some degree on our subjective judgment. Some of these instruments and other assets and liabilities may have no directly observable inputs, making their valuation particularly subjective, and consequently, based on estimation and judgment. In addition, sudden illiquidity in markets or declines in prices of certain securities may make it more difficult to value certain items, which may lead to the possibility that such valuations will be subject to further change or adjustment, as well as declines in our earnings in subsequent periods.

Our accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) and the SEC have at times revised the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of our financial statements. In addition, accounting standard setters and those who interpret the accounting standards may change or even reverse their previous interpretations or positions on how these standards should be applied. These changes can be hard to predict and can materially impact how we record and report our financial condition and results of operations. In some cases, we could be required to apply a new or revised standard retroactively, resulting in our restating prior period financial statements.

The FASB has issued several new accounting standards in recent years, including on the topics of credit losses and leases, and the federal banking regulators have released implementation guidance and proposed implementation rules for some of these new standards. In particular, the new credit losses standard will replace multiple existing impairment models, including the replacement of the “incurred loss” model for loans with an “expected loss” model. The adoption of the new credit losses standard will not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements. We are evaluating the potential impact that the proposed regulatory implementation rules will have on our regulatory capital.

For a further discussion of some of our significant accounting estimates, policies, and standards, see Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Critical Accounting Estimates” and Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Form 10-K.

Our risk management and conflict of interest policies and procedures may leave us exposed to unidentified or unanticipated risk. We seek to manage, monitor, and control our market, credit, operational, liquidity, and legal and regulatory compliance risk, through operational and compliance reporting systems, internal controls, management review processes, and other mechanisms; however, there can be no assurance that our procedures will be effective. While we use limits and other risk mitigation techniques, those techniques and the judgments that accompany their application cannot always anticipate unforeseen economic and financial outcomes or the specifics and timing of such outcomes. Our risk management methods may not predict future risk exposures effectively. In addition, some of our risk management methods are based on an evaluation of information regarding markets, clients and other matters that are based on assumptions that may no longer be accurate or may have limited predictive value. A failure to manage our growth adequately, including growth in the products or services we offer, or to manage our risk effectively, could materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Financial services firms are subject to numerous actual or perceived conflicts of interest, which are routinely examined by U.S. federal and state regulators and SROs such as FINRA. Our risk management processes include addressing potential conflicts of interest that arise in our business. Management of potential conflicts of interest has become increasingly complex as we expand our business activities. A perceived or actual failure to address conflicts of interest adequately could affect our reputation, the willingness of clients to transact business with us or give rise to litigation or regulatory actions. Therefore, there can be no assurance that conflicts of interest will not arise in the future that could cause result in material harm to our business and financial condition.

For more information on how we monitor and manage market and certain other risks, see Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk,” in this Form 10-K.

Associate misconduct, which is difficult to detect and deter, could harm us by impairing our ability to attract and retain clients and subject us to significant legal liability and reputational harm. There is a risk that our associates could engage in misconduct that adversely affects our business. For example, our banking business often requires that we deal with confidential matters of great significance to our clients. Our associates interact with clients, customers, and counterparties on an ongoing basis. All associates are expected to exhibit the behaviors and ethics that are reflected in our framework of principles, policies, and technology to protect both our own information as well as that of our clients. It is not possible to deter or prevent every instance of associate misconduct, and the precautions we take to prevent and detect this activity will likely not be effective in all cases. If our associates improperly use or disclose confidential information provided by our clients, we could be subject to future regulatory sanctions and suffer serious harm to our reputation, financial position, current client relationships, and ability to attract future clients. We are also subject to a number of obligations and standards arising from our asset management business and our authority over our assets under management. In addition, our financial advisors may act in a fiduciary capacity, providing financial planning, investment advice, and discretionary asset management. The violation of these obligations and standards by any of our associates would adversely affect our clients and us. It is not always possible to deter associate misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective. If our associates engage in misconduct, our business would be adversely affected.

A significant decline in our domestic client cash balances could negatively impact our net revenues and/or our ability to fund Stifel Bancorp’s growth. We rely heavily on bank deposits as a low-cost source of funding for Stifel Bancorp to extend loans to clients and purchase investment securities. Our bank deposits are primarily driven by our multi-bank sweep program in which clients’ cash


deposits in their brokerage accounts are swept into FDIC-insured interest-bearing accounts at our bank subsidiaries and various third-party banks. A significant reduction in our domestic clients’ cash balances, a change in the allocation of that cash between our bank subsidiaries and third-party banks, or a transfer of cash away from our company, could significantly impact our ability to continue growing interest-earning assets and/or require us to use higher-cost deposit sources to grow interest-earning assets.

Growth of our business could increase costs and regulatory and integration risks. We continue to grow, including through acquisitions and through our recruiting efforts. Integrating acquired businesses, providing a platform for new businesses, and partnering with other firms involve risks and present financial, managerial, and operational challenges. We may incur significant expense in connection with expanding our existing businesses, recruiting financial advisors, or making strategic acquisitions or investments. Our overall profitability would be negatively affected if investments and expenses associated with such growth are not matched or exceeded by the revenues derived from such investments or growth.

Expansion may also create a need for additional compliance, documentation, risk management, and internal control procedures, and often involves hiring additional personnel to address these procedures. To the extent such procedures are not adequate or not adhered to with respect to our expanded business or any new business, we could be exposed to a material loss or regulatory sanction.

Moreover, to the extent we pursue acquisitions, we may be unable to complete such acquisitions on acceptable terms. We may be unable to integrate any acquired business into our existing business successfully. Difficulties we may encounter in integrating an acquired business could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, we may need to raise capital or borrow funds in order to finance an acquisition, which could result in dilution or increased leverage. We may not be able to obtain financing on favorable terms or perhaps at all.


Financial services firms are highly regulated, and the increased regulatory scrutiny over the last several years may increase the risk of financial liability and reputational harm resulting from adverse regulatory actions. Over the last several years, financial services firms have been operating in an evolving regulatory environment. The industry has experienced an extended period of significant change in laws and regulations governing the financial services industry, as well as increased scrutiny from various regulators, including the SEC, the Fed, the OCC, and the CFPB, in addition to stock exchanges, FINRA, and state attorneys general. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act resulted in sweeping changes to the regulatory regime, including a significant increase in the supervision and regulation of the financial services industry. Penalties and fines imposed by regulatory authorities have increased substantially in recent years. We may be adversely affected by changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws, rules, and regulations.

Existing and new laws and regulations could affect our revenue, limit our ability to pursue business opportunities, impact the value of our assets, require us to alter at least some of our business practices, impose additional compliance costs, and otherwise adversely affect our businesses.

There is also increased regulatory scrutiny (and related compliance costs) as we continue to grow and surpass certain consolidated asset thresholds established under the Dodd-Frank Act, which have the effect of imposing enhanced standards and requirements on larger institutions. These include, but are not limited to, our bank subsidiaries’ oversight by the CFPB. Any action taken by the CFPB could result in requirements to alter or cease offering affected products and services, make such products and services less attractive, impose additional compliance measures, or result in fines, penalties, or required remediation.

We are also required to comply with the Volcker Rule’s provisions. Although we have not historically engaged in significant levels of proprietary trading, due to our underwriting and market-making activities and our investments in covered funds, we have experienced and expect to continue to experience increased operational and compliance costs and changes to our private equity investments. Any changes to regulations or changes to the supervisory approach may also result in increased compliance costs to the extent we are required to modify our existing compliance policies, procedures and practices.

Broker-dealers and investment advisers are subject to regulations covering all aspects of the securities business, including, but not limited to: sales and trading methods; trade practices among broker-dealers; use and safekeeping of clients’ funds and securities; capital structure of securities firms; anti-money laundering efforts; recordkeeping; and the conduct of directors, officers and employees. Any violation of these laws or regulations could subject us to the following events, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and prospects: civil and criminal liability; sanctions, which could include the revocation of our subsidiaries’ registrations as investment advisers or broker-dealers; the revocation of the licenses of our financial advisors; censures; fines; or a temporary suspension or permanent bar from conducting business.

Regulatory actions brought against us may result in judgments, settlements, fines, penalties or other results, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. There is no assurance that regulators will be satisfied with the policies and procedures implemented by our company and its subsidiaries. In addition, from time to time, the Company and its affiliates may become subject to additional findings with respect to supervisory, compliance or other regulatory deficiencies, which could subject us to additional liability, including penalties, and restrictions on our business activities. Among other things, these restrictions could limit our ability to make investments, complete acquisitions, expand into new business lines, pay dividends and/or engage in share repurchases. See Item 1, “Regulation,” of this report for additional information regarding our


regulatory environment and Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Risk Management,” in this report regarding our approaches to managing regulatory risk.

We are exposed to risks of legal proceedings, which may result in significant losses to us that we cannot recover. Claimants in these proceedings may be customers, associates, or regulatory agencies, among others, seeking damages for mistakes, errors, negligence, or acts of fraud by our associates. Many aspects of our business involve substantial risk of liability, arising in the normal course of business. Participants in the financial services industry face an increasing amount of litigation and arbitration proceedings. Dissatisfied clients regularly make claims against broker-dealers and their employees for, among others, negligence, fraud, unauthorized trading, suitability, churning, failure to supervise, breach of fiduciary duty, employee errors, intentional misconduct, unauthorized transactions by financial advisors or traders, improper recruiting activity, and failures in the processing of securities transactions. The risks associated with potential litigation often may be difficult to assess or quantify, and the existence and magnitude of potential claims often remain unknown for substantial periods of time.

These types of claims expose us to the risk of significant loss. Acts of fraud are difficult to detect and deter, and while we believe our supervisory procedures are reasonably designed to detect and prevent violations of applicable laws, rules, and regulations, we cannot assure investors that our risk management procedures and controls will prevent losses from fraudulent activity. In our role as underwriter and selling agent, we may be liable if there are material misstatements or omissions of material information in prospectuses and other communications regarding underwritten offerings of securities. At any point in time, the aggregate amount of existing claims against us could be material. While we do not expect the outcome of any existing claims against us to have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, or results of operations, we cannot assure you that these types of proceedings will not materially and adversely affect our company. We do not carry insurance that would cover payments regarding these liabilities, except for insurance against certain fraudulent acts of our associates. In addition, our bylaws provide for the indemnification of our officers, directors, and associates to the maximum extent permitted under Delaware law. In the future, we may be the subject of indemnification assertions under these documents by our officers, directors, or associates who have or may become defendants in litigation. These claims for indemnification may subject us to substantial risks of potential liability.

In challenging market conditions, the volume of claims and amount of damages sought in litigation and regulatory proceedings against financial institutions has historically increased. Litigation risks include potential liability under securities laws or other laws for alleged materially false or misleading statements made in connection with securities offerings and other transactions, issues related to the suitability of our investment advice based on our clients’ investment objectives (including auction rate securities), the inability to sell or redeem securities in a timely manner during adverse market conditions, contractual issues, employment claims, and potential liability for other advice we provide to participants in strategic transactions. Substantial legal liability could have a material adverse financial impact or cause us significant reputational harm, which, in turn, could seriously harm our business and future business prospects.

In addition to the foregoing financial costs and risks associated with potential liability, the costs of defending individual litigation and claims continue to increase over time. The amount of outside attorneys’ fees incurred in connection with the defense of litigation and claims could be substantial and might materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

See Item 3, “Legal Proceedings,” in this Form 10-K for a discussion of our legal matters and Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk,” in this Form 10-K for a discussion regarding our approach to managing legal risk.

The Basel III regulatory capital standards impose additional capital and other requirements on us that could decrease our profitability. The Fed, the OCC, and the FDIC have implemented the global regulatory capital reforms of Basel III and certain changes required by the Dodd-Frank Act. The U.S. Basel III Rules increase the quantity and quality of regulatory capital, establish a capital conservation buffer, and make selected changes to the calculation of risk-weighted assets. We became subject to the requirements under the final U.S. Basel III Rules as of January 1, 2015, subject to a phase-in period for several of its provisions, including the new minimum capital ratio requirements, the capital conservation buffer, and the regulatory capital adjustments and deductions. The increased capital requirements stipulated under the U.S. Basel III Rules could restrict our ability to grow during favorable market conditions or require us to raise additional capital. As a result, our business, results of operations, financial condition, and prospects could be adversely affected.

Failure to comply with regulatory capital requirements primarily applicable to our company, our bank subsidiaries, or our broker-dealer subsidiaries would significantly harm our business. Our company and it bank subsidiaries are subject to various regulatory and capital requirements administered by various federal regulators in the U.S. and,  accordingly, must meet specific capital guidelines that involve quantitative measures of our company’s and our bank subsidiaries’ assets, liabilities, and certain off-balance sheet items as calculated under regulatory guidelines. The capital amounts and classifications for both our company and its bank subsidiaries are also subject to qualitative judgments by U.S. federal regulators based on components of our capital, risk weightings of assets, off-balance sheet transactions, and other factors. Quantitative measures established by regulation to ensure capital adequacy require our company and its bank subsidiaries to maintain minimum amounts and ratios of Common Equity Tier 1, Tier 1, and Total capital to risk-weighted assets, Tier 1 capital to average assets, and capital conservation buffers (as defined in the regulations). Failure to meet minimum capital requirements can trigger certain mandatory (and potentially additional discretionary) actions by regulators that, if undertaken, could harm either our company or our bank subsidiaries’ operations and financial condition.


We are subject to the SEC’s uniform net capital rule (Rule 15c3-1) and FINRA’s net capital rule, which may limit our ability to make withdrawals of capital from our broker-dealer subsidiaries. The uniform net capital rule sets the minimum level of net capital that a broker-dealer must maintain and also requires that a portion of its assets be relatively liquid. FINRA may prohibit a member firm from expanding its business or paying cash dividends if resulting net capital falls below certain thresholds. In addition, our Canada-based broker-dealer subsidiary is subject to similar limitations under applicable regulation in that jurisdiction by IIROC. Regulatory capital requirements applicable to some of our significant subsidiaries may impede access to funds our company needs to make payments on any such obligations.

See Note 18 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K for further information on regulations and capital requirements.

Changes in requirements relating to the standard of conduct for broker-dealers applicable under federal and state law may adversely affect our businesses. In June 2019, the SEC adopted a package of rulemakings and interpretations related to the provision of advice by broker-dealers and investment advisers, including Regulation Best Interest. Among other things, Regulation Best Interest requires a broker-dealer to act in the best interest of a retail customer when making a recommendation to that customer of any securities transaction or investment strategy involving securities. The regulation will impose heightened standards on broker-dealers, and we anticipate incurring additional costs in order to review and modify our policies and procedures, as well as associated supervisory and compliance controls.  

In addition to the SEC, various states have proposed, or are considering adopting, laws and regulations seeking to impose new standards of conduct on broker-dealers that, as written, differ from the SEC’s new regulations and may lead to additional implementation costs if adopted.

Implementation of the new SEC regulations, as well as any new state rules that are adopted addressing similar matters, may negatively impact our results, including the impact of increased costs related to compliance, legal, operations, and information technology.

Numerous regulatory changes and enhanced regulatory and enforcement activity relating to the asset management business may increase our compliance and legal costs and otherwise adversely affect our business. Investment management businesses have been affected by a number of highly publicized regulatory matters, which have resulted in increased scrutiny within the industry and new rules and regulations for mutual funds, investment advisers, and broker-dealers. As broker-dealers review and potentially make changes to the availability of mutual funds and mutual fund share classes available on their distribution platforms, such changes could affect our profitability.

Asset management businesses have experienced a number of highly publicized regulatory inquiries, which have resulted in increased scrutiny within the industry and new rules and regulations for mutual funds, investment advisers, and broker-dealers. As some of our wholly owned subsidiaries are registered as investment advisers with the SEC, increased regulatory scrutiny and rulemaking initiatives may result in additional operational and compliance costs or the assessment of significant fines or penalties against our asset management business, and may otherwise limit our ability to engage in certain activities. It is not possible to determine the extent of the impact of any new laws, regulations or initiatives that have been or may be proposed, or whether any of the proposals will become law. Conformance with any new laws or regulations could make compliance more difficult and expensive and affect the manner in which we conduct business, including our product and service offerings.

In addition, U.S. and foreign governments have taken regulatory actions impacting the investment management industry, and may continue to do so including expanding current (or enacting new) standards, requirements and rules that may be applicable to us and our subsidiaries. For example, several states and municipalities in the U.S. have adopted “pay-to-play” rules, which could limit our ability to charge advisory fees. Such “pay-to-play” rules could affect the profitability of that portion of our business.

The use of “soft dollars,” where a portion of commissions paid to broker-dealers in connection with the execution of trades also pays for research and other services provided to advisors, is periodically reexamined, and may be limited or modified in the future. The research relied on in our investment management activities in the investment decision-making process is typically generated internally by our investment analysts or external research, including external research paid for with soft dollars. This external research is generally used for information gathering or verification purposes and includes broker-provided research as well as third-party provided databases and research services. If the use of soft dollars is limited, we may have to bear some of these additional costs.

New regulations regarding the management of hedge funds and the use of certain investment products, including additional recordkeeping and disclosure requirements, may impact our asset management business and result in increased costs.

As a financial holding company, our company’s liquidity depends on payments from its subsidiaries, which may be subject to regulatory restrictions. We are a financial holding company and therefore depend on dividends, distributions, and other payments from our subsidiaries in order to meet our obligations, including debt service obligations. Our subsidiaries are subject to laws and regulations that restrict dividend payments or authorize regulatory bodies to prevent or reduce the flow of funds from those subsidiaries to our company. Our broker-dealers and bank subsidiaries are limited in their ability to lend or transact with affiliates and are subject to minimum regulatory capital and other requirements, as well as limitations on their ability to use funds deposited with them in brokerage or bank accounts to fund their businesses. These requirements may hinder our company’s ability to access funds from its subsidiaries. We may also become subject to a prohibition or limitations on our ability to pay dividends or repurchase our


common stock. The federal banking regulators, including the OCC, the Federal Reserve, and the FDIC, as well as the SEC (through FINRA) have the authority and under certain circumstances, the obligation, to limit or prohibit dividend payments and stock repurchases by the banking organizations they supervise, including our company and its bank subsidiaries. See Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources” of this report for additional information on liquidity and how we manage our liquidity risk.





The following table sets forth the location, approximate square footage, and use of each of the principal properties used by our company during the year ended December 31, 2020. We own our executive offices in St. Louis, Missouri. We lease or sublease a majority of these properties under operating leases. Such leases expire at various times through 2036.



Approximate Square Footage




St. Louis, Missouri






Headquarters and administrative offices of Stifel,

   Global Wealth Management operations (including CSA),

   and Institutional Group operations

New York, New York






Global Wealth Management and Institutional Group operations

Baltimore, Maryland






Institutional Group operations and Administrative offices

San Francisco, California






Global Wealth Management and Institutional Group operations

Chicago, Illinois