Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Sirius XM
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$5.96 4,737 $28,230
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-09-30 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-06-30 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-03-31 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2014-12-31 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-09-30 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-06-30 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-03-31 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2013-12-31 Annual: 2013-12-31
8-K 2019-03-14 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-14 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-01 Enter Agreement, M&A, Off-BS Arrangement, Shareholder Rights, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-31 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-31 Enter Agreement, Shareholder Rights, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-30 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-30 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-25 Enter Agreement, Shareholder Rights, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-25 Enter Agreement, Shareholder Rights, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-18 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-01-08 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-21 Officers, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-19 Other Events
8-K 2018-10-24 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-24 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-23 Enter Agreement, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-16 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-25 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-18 Officers
8-K 2018-06-29 Enter Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-11 Other Events
8-K 2018-06-05 Officers, Shareholder Vote, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-17 Officers
8-K 2018-01-23 Officers
8-K 2018-01-11 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-10 Earnings, Exhibits
EBR Brazilian Electric Power 11,190
MMS Maximus 4,510
VRNS Varonis Systems 1,860
ATRA Atara Biotherapeutics 1,650
HAFC Hanmi Financial 696
BH Biglari 309
FTK Flotek Industries 188
TRTC Terra Tech 0
LBAO Luboa Group 0
INNO Innocap 0
SIRI 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
EX-21.1 exhibit211-20181231.htm
EX-23.1 exhibit231-20181231.htm
EX-31.1 exhibit311-20181231.htm
EX-31.2 exhibit312-20181231.htm
EX-32.1 exhibit321-20181231.htm
EX-32.2 exhibit322-20181231.htm

Sirius XM Earnings 2018-12-31

SIRI 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 siri-20181231x10k.htm 10-K Document
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
þ
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018
OR
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM __________ TO ________
COMMISSION FILE NUMBER 001-34295
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Delaware
 
38-3916511
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
 
 
 
1290 Avenue of the Americas, 11th Floor
 
 
New York, New York
 
10104
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (212) 584-5100
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class:
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered:
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
 
The Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of class)
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  þ        No  o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  o        No  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  þ        No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  þ        No  o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§ 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer þ
 
Accelerated filer o
 
Non-accelerated filer o
 
 
 
 
Smaller reporting company o
 
Emerging growth company o
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes  o        No  þ
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates as of June 30, 2018 was $8,907,120,420.  All executive officers and directors of the registrant have been deemed, solely for the purpose of the foregoing calculation, to be “affiliates” of the registrant.
The number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding as of January 28, 2019 was 4,345,777,230.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Information included in our definitive proxy statement for our 2019 annual meeting of stockholders scheduled to be held on Wednesday, June 5, 2019 is incorporated by reference in Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III of this report.
 



SIRIUS XM HOLDINGS INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
2018 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item No.
 
Description
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 




PART I
ITEM 1.
BUSINESS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K presents information for Sirius XM Holdings Inc. (“Holdings”).  The terms “Holdings,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and “our company” as used herein and unless otherwise stated or indicated by context, refer to Sirius XM Holdings Inc. and its subsidiaries, and “Sirius XM” refers to our wholly-owned subsidiary Sirius XM Radio Inc.
Sirius XM Holdings Inc.
Holdings was incorporated in the State of Delaware on May 21, 2013.  Holdings has no operations independent of its wholly-owned subsidiary, Sirius XM.
Relationship with Liberty Media
As of December 31, 2018, Liberty Media Corporation (“Liberty Media”) beneficially owned, directly and indirectly, approximately 73% of the outstanding shares of Holdings’ common stock.  Liberty Media owns interests in a range of media, communications and entertainment businesses.
Sirius XM Radio Inc.
Sirius XM is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Holdings.  We transmit music, sports, entertainment, comedy, talk, news, traffic and weather channels, as well as infotainment services, in the United States on a subscription fee basis through our two proprietary satellite radio systems. We also transmit a larger set of music and other channels and video programming through our streaming service. Our streaming service is available online and through applications for mobile devices, home devices and other consumer electronic equipment.  We also provide connected vehicle services. Our connected vehicle services are designed to enhance the safety, security and driving experience for vehicle operators while providing marketing and operational benefits to automakers and their dealers.
As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately 34.0 million subscribers.  Our subscribers include:
subscribers under our regular and discounted pricing plans;
subscribers that have prepaid, including payments made or due from automakers for subscriptions included in the sale or lease price of a vehicle;
subscribers to our streaming services who do not also have satellite radio subscriptions; and
certain subscribers to our weather, traffic and data services who do not also have satellite radio subscriptions.
Our primary source of revenue is subscription fees, with most of our customers subscribing to monthly, quarterly, semi-annual or annual plans.  We offer discounts for prepaid subscription plans, as well as a multiple subscription discount.  We also derive revenue from certain fees, the sale of advertising on select non-music channels, the direct sale of satellite radios and accessories, and other ancillary services, such as our weather, traffic and data services. We provide traffic services to approximately 8.6 million vehicles.
Our satellite radios are primarily distributed through automakers; our website; and retailers.  We have agreements with every major automaker to offer satellite radios in their vehicles, through which we acquire the majority of our subscribers.  We also acquire subscribers through marketing to owners and lessees of previously-owned vehicles that include factory-installed satellite radios that are not currently subscribing to our services. Satellite radio services are also offered to customers of certain rental car companies.
Programming
We offer a dynamic programming lineup of commercial-free music plus sports, entertainment, comedy, talk, and news, including:
an extensive selection of music genres, ranging from rock, pop and hip-hop to country, dance, jazz, Latin and classical;
live play-by-play sports from major leagues and colleges;

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a multitude of talk and entertainment channels for a variety of audiences;
a wide range of national, international and financial news; and
exclusive limited run channels.
Our diverse programming, including our lineup of exclusive content, is a significant differentiator from terrestrial radio and other audio entertainment providers.  We make changes to our programming lineup from time to time as we strive to attract new subscribers and offer content which appeals to a broad range of audiences and to our existing subscribers.  The channel lineups for our services are available at siriusxm.com.
Streaming Service
We stream select music and non-music channels over the Internet.  Our streaming service includes channels that are not available on our satellite radio service.  Access to our streaming service is currently offered to subscribers for a fee.  We also offer applications to allow consumers to access our streaming service on smartphones, tablets, computers, home devices and other consumer electronic equipment.
SiriusXM Internet Radio offers listeners enhanced programming discovery and the ability to connect with content currently playing across our commercial-free music, sports, comedy, news, talk and entertainment channels or available through SiriusXM On Demand. SiriusXM On Demand offers our streaming subscribers the ability to choose their favorite episodes from a catalog of content whenever they want. 

In 2018, we launched a new platform and redesigned our mobile app to deliver an enhanced streaming experience. That experience includes expanded programming, greater discovery, more intuitive recommendations, the introduction of video programming and other features designed to increase consumer engagement with our streaming product. Our internet-based video offering currently features Howard Stern, arranged and presented in an easy-to-view manner, with highlights from Howard Stern’s interviews with celebrity guests, musical performances in the Howard Stern studio, show clips, and show specials.  We expect to expand our video offering in 2019 with, among other items, live segments of Howard Stern's show and video generated by our other hosts and guests.
360L
In 2018, we introduced a user interface, which we call “360L,” that combines our satellite and streaming services into a single, cohesive in-vehicle entertainment experience. Our 360L interface has been deployed in Dodge Ram trucks and is in the process of being introduced by several other automakers. 360L allows us to take advantage of advanced in-dash infotainment systems.  360L is intended to leverage the ubiquitous signal coverage of our satellite infrastructure and low delivery costs with the two-way communication capability of a wireless streaming service to provide consumers seamless access to our content, including our live channels, on demand service and even more personalized music services.  The wireless streaming connection included in 360L enables enhanced search and recommendations functions, making discovery of our content in the vehicle easier.  360L also allows consumers to manage aspects of their subscriptions directly through their vehicles’ equipment and provides us important data to better enable us to understand how our subscribers use our service and how we can more effectively market our service to consumers.
Distribution of Radios
Automakers
We distribute satellite radios through the sale and lease of new vehicles.  We have agreements with every major automaker to offer satellite radios in their vehicles.  Satellite radios are available as a factory or dealer-installed option in substantially all vehicle makes sold in the United States.
Most automakers include a subscription to our service in the sale or lease of their new vehicles.  In certain cases, we receive subscription payments from automakers in advance of the activation of our service.  We share with certain automakers a portion of the revenues we derive from subscribers using vehicles equipped to receive our service.  We also reimburse various automakers for certain costs associated with the satellite radios installed in new vehicles, including in certain cases hardware costs, engineering expenses and promotional and advertising expenses.

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Previously Owned Vehicles
We acquire subscribers through the sale and lease of previously owned vehicles with factory-installed satellite radios.  We have entered into agreements with many automakers to market subscriptions to purchasers and lessees of vehicles which include satellite radios sold through their certified pre-owned programs.  We also work directly with franchise and independent dealers on programs for non-certified used vehicles.
We have developed systems and methods to identify purchasers and lessees of previously owned vehicles which include satellite radios and have established marketing plans to promote our services to these potential subscribers.
Retail
We sell satellite radios directly to consumers through our website.  Satellite radios are also marketed and distributed through national, regional and internet retailers, such as amazon.com.
Our Satellite Radio Systems
Our satellite radio systems are designed to provide clear reception in most areas of the continental United States despite variations in terrain, buildings and other obstructions.  We continually monitor our infrastructure and regularly evaluate improvements in technology.
Our satellite radio systems have three principal components:
satellites, terrestrial repeaters and other satellite facilities;
studios; and
radios.
Satellites, Terrestrial Repeaters and Other Satellite Facilities
Satellites.  We provide our service through a fleet of five orbiting geostationary satellites, two in the Sirius system, FM-5 and FM-6, and three in the XM system, XM-3, XM-4 and XM-5.  Our XM-5 satellite serves as a spare for both the XM and Sirius systems.
We have entered into agreements for the design, construction and launch of two new satellites, SXM-7 and SXM-8, which we plan to launch into geostationary orbits in 2019 and 2020, respectively, as replacements for XM-3 and XM-4.
Satellite Insurance.  We have procured insurance for SXM-7 and SXM-8 to cover the risks associated with each satellite's launch and first year in orbit. We do not have insurance policies covering our in-orbit satellites, as we consider the premium costs to be uneconomical relative to the risk of satellite failure.
Terrestrial Repeaters.  In some areas with high concentrations of tall buildings, such as urban centers, signals from our satellites may be blocked and reception of satellite signals can be adversely affected.  In other areas with a high density of next generation wireless systems our service may experience interference. In many of these areas, we have deployed terrestrial repeaters to supplement and enhance our signal coverage and, in many other areas, we are planning to deploy additional repeaters to reduce interference.  We operate over 1,000 terrestrial repeaters across the United States as part of our systems.
Other Satellite Facilities.  We control and communicate with our satellites from facilities in North America. Our satellites are monitored, tracked and controlled by a third party satellite operator.
Studios
Our programming originates from studios in New York City and Washington D.C. and, to a lesser extent, from smaller studios in Los Angeles, Nashville and a variety of venues across the country.  Our corporate headquarters is based in New York City.
Radios
We do not manufacture radios.  We have authorized manufacturers and distributors to produce and distribute radios, and have licensed our technology to various electronics manufacturers to develop, manufacture and distribute radios under certain

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brands.  We do manage various aspects of the production of satellite radios.  To facilitate the sale of radios, we may subsidize a portion of the radio manufacturing costs to reduce the hardware price to consumers.
Connected Vehicle Services
We provide connected vehicle services to several automakers and directly to consumers through aftermarket devices. Our connected vehicle services are designed to enhance the safety, security and driving experience for vehicle operators while providing marketing and operational benefits to automakers and their dealers.  We offer a portfolio of location-based services through two-way wireless connectivity, including safety, security, convenience, maintenance and data services, remote vehicles diagnostics, and stolen or parked vehicle locator services.
In 2017, Sirius XM purchased Automatic Labs Inc. ("Automatic"), a connected vehicle device and mobile application company. Automatic offers a subscription service for consumers and auto dealers. By pairing Automatic's install-it-yourself adapter and mobile application, most vehicles model year 1996 or later can be transformed into connected vehicles. Using the Automatic service, drivers have access to important services, such as crash alerts, roadside assistance, vehicle location monitoring and sharing, vehicle health and performance monitoring, and recall notifications and service reminders. Auto dealers can also employ the Automatic service to, among other things, assist in managing vehicle inventory, monitoring the status of vehicles and delivering notifications and reminders to purchasers and lessees of vehicles. The Automatic adapter collects detailed information about each vehicle's geolocation, use, operation, performance and maintenance status in order to operate, maintain, and provide the features and functionality of the Automatic service.
Subscribers to our connected vehicle services are not included in our subscriber count or subscriber-based operating metrics.
Other Services
Commercial Accounts.  Our programming is available for commercial establishments.  Commercial subscription accounts are available through providers of in-store entertainment solutions and directly from us.
Satellite Television Service.  Certain of our music channels are offered as part of select programming packages on the DISH Network satellite television service.
Travel Link.  We offer Travel Link, a suite of data services that includes graphical weather, fuel prices, sports schedules and scores and movie listings.
Real-Time Traffic Services.  We offer services that provide graphic information as to road closings, traffic flow and incident data to consumers with compatible in-vehicle navigation systems.
Real-Time Weather Services.  We offer several real-time weather services designed for improving situational awareness in vehicles, boats and planes.
Commercial subscribers are included in our subscriber count, and subscribers to the DISH Network satellite television service are not included in our subscriber count. Subscribers to our Travel Link, real-time traffic services and real-time weather services are not included in our subscriber count, unless the applicable service is purchased by the subscriber separately and not as part of a radio subscription to our service.
Sirius XM Canada
Sirius XM holds a 70% equity interest and 33% voting interest in Sirius XM Canada Holdings Inc. (“Sirius XM Canada”), with the remainder of Sirius XM Canada's voting and equity interests held by two shareholders.
Sirius XM has entered into a Services Agreement and an Advisory Services Agreement with Sirius XM Canada. Each agreement has a thirty year term. Pursuant to the Services Agreement, Sirius XM Canada pays Sirius XM 25% of its gross revenues on a monthly basis through December 31, 2021 and 30% of its gross revenues on a monthly basis thereafter. Pursuant to the Advisory Services Agreement, Sirius XM Canada pays Sirius XM 5% of its gross revenues on a monthly basis.
As of December 31, 2018, Sirius XM Canada had approximately 2.6 million subscribers. Sirius XM Canada's subscribers are not included in our subscriber count or subscriber-based operating metrics.

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Pandora Media, Inc.
In 2018, we entered into an agreement to acquire Pandora Media, Inc. ("Pandora"), in which Sirius XM had previously made an investment in 2017. Pandora operates an internet-based music discovery platform, offering a personalized experience for listeners. As of December 31, 2018, Sirius XM's investment in Pandora represented an approximately 18% interest in Pandora's outstanding common stock, and an approximately 15% interest on an as-converted basis. A description of Sirius XM's existing investment in Pandora and our agreement to acquire Pandora is set forth below.
About our Existing Pandora Investment
Pursuant to an Investment Agreement with Pandora, in 2017, Sirius XM purchased 480,000 shares of Pandora’s Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Series A Preferred Stock”), for an aggregate purchase price of $480 million.
The Series A Preferred Stock is convertible at the option of the holders at any time into Pandora common stock, par value $0.0001 per share ("Pandora Common Stock"), at an initial conversion price of $10.50 per share of Pandora Common Stock and an initial conversion rate of 95.2381 shares of Pandora Common Stock per share of Series A Preferred Stock, subject to certain customary anti-dilution adjustments. Holders of the Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to a cumulative dividend at the rate of 6.0% per annum, payable quarterly in arrears, if and when declared. Any conversion of Series A Preferred Stock may be settled by Pandora, at its option, in shares of Pandora Common Stock, cash or any combination thereof. However, unless and until Pandora’s stockholders have approved the issuance of greater than 19.99% of the outstanding Pandora Common Stock, the Series A Preferred Stock may not be converted into more than 19.99% of Pandora’s outstanding Pandora Common Stock as of June 9, 2017.
The investment includes a mandatory redemption feature on any date from and after September 22, 2022 whereby Sirius XM, at its option, may require Pandora to purchase the Series A Preferred Stock at a price equal to 100% of the liquidation preference plus accrued but unpaid dividends for, at the election of Pandora, cash, shares of Pandora Common Stock or a combination thereof.
We have appointed James E. Meyer, our Chief Executive Officer, David J. Frear, our Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, and Gregory B. Maffei, the Chairman of our Board of Directors, to Pandora's Board of Directors pursuant to our designation rights under the Investment Agreement. Mr. Maffei also serves as the Chairman of Pandora's Board of Directors.
Our right to designate directors will fall away once we and our affiliates fail to beneficially own shares of Series A Preferred Stock and/or Pandora Common Stock issued upon conversion thereof equal to (on an as-converted basis) at least 50% of the number of shares of Pandora Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock purchased under the Investment Agreement. Following the earlier to occur of (i) September 22, 2019 and (ii) the date on which we and our affiliates fail to beneficially own shares of Series A Preferred Stock and/or Pandora Common Stock that were issued upon conversion thereof equal to (on an as-converted basis) at least 75% of the number of shares of Pandora Common Stock issuable upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock purchased under the Investment Agreement, we have the right to designate only two directors.
We are entitled to vote as a single class with the holders of Pandora Common Stock on an as-converted basis (up to a maximum of 19.99% of the Pandora Common Stock outstanding on June 9, 2017, unless stockholder approval has been received). We are also entitled to a separate class vote with respect to certain amendments to Pandora’s organizational documents, issuances by Pandora of securities that are senior to, or equal in priority with, the Series A Preferred Stock and the incurrence of certain indebtedness by Pandora.
Upon certain change of control events involving Pandora, Pandora is required to repurchase all of the Series A Preferred Stock at a price equal to the greater of (1) an amount in cash equal to 100% of the liquidation preference thereof plus all accrued but unpaid dividends through June 9, 2022 (assuming such shares of Series A Preferred Stock remain outstanding through such date) and (2) the consideration the holders would have received if they had converted their shares of Series A Preferred Stock into Pandora Common Stock immediately prior to the change of control event (disregarding the 19.99% cap).
Beginning on September 22, 2020, if the volume weighted average price per share of Pandora Common Stock exceeds $18.375, as may be adjusted, for at least 20 trading days in any period of 30 consecutive trading days, Pandora may redeem all of the outstanding Series A Preferred Stock at a price equal to 100% of the liquidation preference thereof plus all accrued but unpaid dividends for, at the election of Pandora, cash, shares of Pandora Common Stock or a combination thereof, provided

6


that, unless stockholder approval has been received, Pandora may not settle the redemption for shares of Pandora Common Stock to the extent the 19.99% cap would be exceeded.
Pursuant to a registration rights agreement entered into with Pandora, we have certain customary registration rights with respect to the Series A Preferred Stock and Pandora Common Stock issued upon conversion thereof.
Agreement to Acquire Pandora

On September 23, 2018, Holdings entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization (the “Merger Agreement”), by and among Holdings, Pandora, Billboard Holding Company, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pandora, Billboard Acquisition Sub, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Billboard Holding Company, Inc., Sirius XM and White Oaks Acquisition Corp., pursuant to which, subject to the terms and conditions of the Merger Agreement, Holdings agreed to acquire Pandora (such transaction, the “Merger”). Pursuant to the Merger, each outstanding share of Pandora Common Stock, will be converted into the right to receive 1.44 shares (the “Exchange Ratio”) of Holdings common stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Holdings Common Stock”). In connection with the Merger, the Series A Preferred Stock will be canceled for no consideration.

Further, pursuant to the Merger:
 
each option granted by Pandora under its stock incentive plans to purchase shares of Pandora Common Stock, whether vested or unvested will be assumed and converted into an option to purchase shares of Holdings Common Stock, with appropriate adjustments (based on the Exchange Ratio) to the exercise price and number of shares of Holdings Common Stock subject to such option, and will have the same vesting schedule and exercise conditions as in effect as of immediately prior to the closing of the Merger;
 
each unvested restricted stock unit granted by Pandora under its stock incentive plans will be assumed and converted into an unvested restricted stock unit of Holdings, with appropriate adjustments (based on the Exchange Ratio) to the number of shares of Holdings Common Stock to be received, and will have the same vesting schedule and settlement date as in effect as of immediately prior to the closing of the Merger; and
 
each unvested performance award granted by Pandora under its stock incentive plans shall be canceled and forfeited if the per share value of merger consideration at the closing of the transactions as determined pursuant to the Merger Agreement is less than $20.00, and otherwise each such award will be assumed and converted into a time vesting award to receive a number of shares of Holdings Common Stock based on the Exchange Ratio, and will have the same vesting schedule as in effect as of immediately prior to the closing of the Merger.

The Merger Agreement contains customary representations and warranties from both Holdings and Pandora, and each party has agreed to customary covenants, including covenants relating to the conduct of Holdings’ and Pandora’s businesses during the period between the execution of the Merger Agreement and the closing of the Merger. In the case of Pandora, such obligations include its agreement to call a meeting of its stockholders to adopt the Merger Agreement, and, subject to certain exceptions, to recommend that its stockholders adopt the Merger Agreement.

The Pandora stockholders voted to adopt the Merger Agreement at a special stockholder meeting on January 29, 2019.

The completion of the Merger is subject to customary conditions, including, among others, the absence of any law or order that prohibits or makes illegal the Merger and, subject to certain exceptions, the accuracy of the representations and warranties of each party and compliance by the parties with their respective covenants.

It is intended that the Merger qualifies as a "reorganization" within the meaning of Section 368(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 for Federal income tax purposes. However, if either Pandora or Holdings are unable to receive an opinion of counsel to that effect, the parties have agreed to restructure the Merger so that the Merger will be treated as a taxable stock sale.
Competition
Satellite Radio
We face significant competition for both listeners and advertisers in our satellite radio business, including from providers of radio and other audio services.

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Traditional AM/FM Radio.  Our services compete with traditional AM/FM radio.  Traditional AM/FM radio has a well-established demand for its services and offers free broadcasts paid for by commercial advertising rather than by subscription fees.  Many radio stations offer information programming of a local nature, such as local news and sports.  The availability of traditional free AM/FM radio may reduce the likelihood that customers would be willing to pay for our subscription services and, by offering free broadcasts, it may impose limits on what we can charge for our services. Several traditional radio companies own large numbers of radio stations or other media properties.
Internet-Based Competitors.  Internet radio services often have no geographic limitations and provide listeners with radio programming from across the country and around the world.  Major online providers make high fidelity digital streams available through the Internet for free or, in some cases, for less than the cost of a satellite radio subscription.  Certain of these services include advanced functionality, such as personalization, and allow the user to access large libraries of content.  For some consumers, these services may compete with our services, at home, in vehicles, and wherever audio entertainment is consumed.
Advanced In-Dash Infotainment Systems.  Nearly all automakers have deployed integrated multimedia systems in their vehicles, including in many cases Apple CarPlay and Android Auto.  These systems combine control of audio entertainment from a variety of sources, including AM/FM/HD radio broadcasts, satellite radio, Internet radio, smartphone applications and stored audio, with navigation and other advanced applications.  Internet radio and other data are typically connected to the system through an Internet-enabled smartphone or wireless modem installed in the vehicle, and the entire system may be controlled by touchscreen or voice recognition.  These systems may enhance the attractiveness of Internet-based competitors by making such applications more prominent, easier to access, and safer to use in vehicles.
Direct Broadcast Satellite and Cable Audio.  A number of providers offer specialized audio services through either direct broadcast satellite or cable audio systems.  These services are targeted to fixed locations, mostly in-home.  The radio service offered by direct broadcast satellite and cable audio is often included as part of a package of digital services with video service, and video customers generally do not pay an additional monthly charge for the audio service.
Other Digital Media Services.  The audio entertainment marketplace continues to evolve rapidly, with a steady emergence of new media platforms that compete with our services now or that could compete with those services in the future.
Traffic Services
A number of providers compete with our traffic services.  In-dash navigation is threatened by smartphones that provide data services through a direct vehicle interface.  Most of these smartphones offer GPS mapping with sophisticated data-based turn-by-turn navigation.
Connected Vehicle Services
Our connected vehicle services business operates in a highly competitive environment and competes with several providers, including Verizon Telematics as well as products being developed by automakers for their vehicles.  OnStar, a division of General Motors, also offers connected vehicle services in GM vehicles.  We also compete with wireless devices such as mobile phones.  We compete against other connected vehicle service providers for automaker arrangements on the basis of innovation, service quality and reliability, technical capabilities and systems customization, scope of service, industry experience, past performance and price.
Government Regulation
As operators of a privately-owned satellite system, we are regulated by the FCC under the Communications Act of 1934, principally with respect to:
the licensing of our satellite systems;
preventing interference with or to other users of radio frequencies; and
compliance with FCC rules established specifically for U.S. satellites and satellite radio services.
Any assignment or transfer of control of our FCC licenses must be approved by the FCC.  The FCC's order approving the merger of our wholly-owned subsidiary, Vernon Merger Corporation, with and into XM Satellite Radio Holdings Inc. in July 2008 requires us to comply with certain voluntary commitments we made as part of the FCC merger proceeding.  We believe we comply with those commitments.

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In 1997, we were the winning bidders for FCC licenses to operate a satellite digital audio radio service and provide other ancillary services.  Our FCC licenses for our Sirius satellites expire in 2022 and 2025.  Our FCC licenses for our XM satellites expire in 2021, 2022 and 2026.  The FCC has also granted us licenses to construct, deploy and operate SXM-7 and SXM-8 as replacement satellites. We anticipate that, absent significant misconduct on our part, the FCC will renew our licenses to permit operation of our satellites for their useful lives, and grant licenses for any replacement satellites.
In some areas, we have installed terrestrial repeaters to supplement our satellite signal coverage.  The FCC has established rules governing terrestrial repeaters and has granted us a license through 2027 to operate our repeater network.
In certain cases, we obtain FCC certifications for satellite radios, including satellite radios that include FM modulators.  We believe our radios that are in production comply with all applicable FCC rules.
We are required to obtain export licenses or other approvals from the United States government to export certain equipment, services and technical data related to our satellites and their operations.  The transfer of such equipment, services and technical data outside the United States or to foreign persons is subject to strict export control and prior approval requirements from the United States government (including prohibitions on the sharing of certain satellite-related goods and services with China).
Changes in law or regulations relating to communications policy or to matters affecting our services could adversely affect our ability to retain our FCC licenses or the manner in which we operate.
Copyrights to Programming
In connection with our music programming, we must negotiate and enter into royalty arrangements with two sets of rights holders:  holders of copyrights in musical works (that is, the music and lyrics) and holders of copyrights in sound recordings (that is, the actual recording of a work).
Musical Works
Musical works rights holders, generally songwriters and music publishers, have been traditionally represented by performing rights organizations, such as the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (“ASCAP”), Broadcast Music, Inc. (“BMI”) and SESAC, Inc. (“SESAC”).  The market for rights relating to musical works is changing rapidly. Songwriters and music publishers have withdrawn from the traditional performing rights organizations, particularly ASCAP and BMI, and new entities, such as Global Music Rights LLC (“GMR”), have been formed to represent rights holders. These organizations negotiate fees with copyright users, collect royalties and distribute them to the rights holders.  We have arrangements with ASCAP, SESAC and GMR, and are in negotiations with BMI for a new agreement. If we are unable to reach an agreement with BMI, a court will determine the royalty we will be required to pay BMI.  The changing market for musical works may have an adverse effect on us, including increasing our costs or limiting the musical works available to us.
Sound Recordings
Sound recording rights holders, typically large record companies, are primarily represented by SoundExchange, Inc., an organization which negotiates licenses, and collects and distributes royalties on behalf of record companies and performing artists.  We may negotiate royalty arrangements with the owners of sound recordings, or, if negotiation is unsuccessful, the royalty rate is established by the Copyright Royalty Board (the “CRB”) of the Library of Congress.
In December 2017, the CRB issued its determination regarding the royalty rate payable by us under the statutory license covering the performance of sound recordings fixed after February 15, 1972 over our satellite radio service, and the making of ephemeral (server) copies in support of such performances, for the five-year period starting January 1, 2018 and ending on December 31, 2022. Under the terms of the CRB’s decision, we are required to pay a royalty of 15.5% of gross revenues, subject to exclusions and adjustments.
The rates and terms contained in the CRB’s December 2017 determination permit us to reduce the payment due each month by the percentage of our transmissions of recordings that are directly licensed from copyright owners and the percentage of transmissions that comprise recordings fixed before February 15, 1972 that we have licensed. The revenue subject to royalty includes subscription revenue from our U.S. satellite digital audio radio subscribers, and advertising revenue from channels other than those channels that make only incidental performances of sound recordings. Exclusions from revenue subject to the statutory license fee include, among other things:

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monies or other consideration attributable to the sale and/or license of equipment and/or other technology, including but not limited to bandwidth, sales of devices that receive our satellite radio services and any shipping and handling fees therefor;
royalties paid to us for intellectual property rights;
sales and use taxes;
credit card, invoice, activation, swap and early termination fees charged to subscribers and reasonably related to the expenses to which they pertain;
bad debt expense; and
revenues attributable to our current and future: data services offered for a separate charge (such as weather, traffic, destination information, messaging, sports scores, stock ticker information, extended program associated data, video and photographic images, and such other telematics and/or data services as may exist from time to time); channels, programming, products and/or other services offered for a separate charge where such channels use only incidental performances of sound recordings; channels, programming, products and/or other services provided outside of the United States; and channels, programming, products and/or other services for which the performance of the recordings is exempt from any license requirement or is separately licensed, including by a statutory license.
In 2018, the Copyright Act was amended by The Orrin G. Hatch-Bob Goodlatte Music Modernization Act (the “Music Modernization Act”). Under the Music Modernization Act, the use of sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972 is now subject to a royalty at the existing rate set by the CRB; the existing sound recording royalty rate was extended for five years, through December 31, 2027; and the law foreclosed our ability to appeal the December 2017 determination of the CRB. Sound recordings that were fixed before February 15, 1972 were previously governed by state law. During 2015 and 2016, we settled suits with copyright owners for almost all of the pre-1972 sound recordings we use and entered into direct licenses for their use.
The licensing of sound recordings for use on the Internet is also subject to the United States Copyright Act on terms established by the CRB.  In 2018, we paid a per performance rate for the streaming of certain sound recordings on the Internet of $0.0023.  In accordance with the CRB’s decision, this royalty rate may increase through 2020 based on changes in the consumer price index.
Trademarks
We have registered, and intend to maintain, the trademarks “Sirius”, “XM”, “SiriusXM” and “SXM” with the United States Patent and Trademark Office in connection with the services we offer. We are not aware of any material claims of infringement or other challenges to our right to use the “Sirius”, “XM”, “SiriusXM” or “SXM” trademarks in the United States.  We also have registered, and intend to maintain, trademarks for the names of certain of our channels.  We have also registered the trademarks “Sirius”, “XM” and “SiriusXM” in Canada. We have granted a license to use certain of our trademarks in Canada to Sirius XM Canada.
Personnel
As of December 31, 2018, we had 2,699 full-time employees.  In addition, we rely upon a number of part-time employees, consultants, other advisors and outsourced relationships. None of our employees are represented by a labor union, and we believe that our employee relations are good.
Corporate Information and Available Information
Our executive offices are located at 1290 Avenue of the Americas, 11th floor, New York, New York 10104 and our telephone number is (212) 584-5100.  Our internet address is www.siriusxm.com. Our annual, quarterly and current reports, and any amendments to those reports, filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), may be accessed free of charge through our website after we have electronically filed or furnished such material with the SEC.  The SEC maintains an Internet site (http://www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. Siriusxm.com (including any other reference to such address in this Annual Report) is an inactive textual reference only, meaning that the information contained on or accessible from the website is not part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and is not incorporated in this report by reference. We may use our website as a distribution channel of material company information. Financial and other important information regarding us is routinely posted on and accessible through our website at https://www.siriusxm.com. In

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addition, you may automatically receive email alerts and other information about us when you enroll your email address by visiting the "Email Alerts" section under the "Shareholder Services" heading at http://investor.siriusxm.com/investor-overview.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
Certain information regarding our executive officers as of January 28, 2019 is provided below:
Name
Age
Position
James E. Meyer
64
Chief Executive Officer
Scott A. Greenstein
59
President and Chief Content Officer
David J. Frear
62
Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Dara F. Altman
60
Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer
James A. Cady
58
Executive Vice President, Operations, Products and Connected Vehicle
Stephen Cook
63
Executive Vice President, Sales and Automotive
Patrick L. Donnelly
57
Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
Joseph A. Verbrugge
49
Executive Vice President & General Manager, Emerging Business
Jennifer C. Witz
50
Executive Vice President, Chief Marketing Officer
James E. Meyer has served as our Chief Executive Officer since December 2012.  From May 2004 to December 2012, Mr. Meyer was our President, Operations and Sales.  Prior to May 2004, Mr. Meyer was President of Aegis Ventures Incorporated, a consulting firm that provided general management services.  From December 2001 until 2002, Mr. Meyer served as special advisor to the Chairman of Thomson S.A., a leading consumer electronics company. From January 1997 until December 2001, Mr. Meyer served as the Senior Executive Vice President for Thomson as well as a member of its executive committee.  From 1992 until 1996, Mr. Meyer served as Thomson's Senior Vice President of Product Management.  Mr. Meyer is a director of Charter Communications, Inc. and Pandora Media, Inc. and Chairman of the Board of Directors and a director of TiVo Corporation.
Scott A. Greenstein has served as our President and Chief Content Officer since May 2004.  Prior to May 2004, Mr. Greenstein was Chief Executive Officer of The Greenstein Group, a media and entertainment consulting firm.  From 1999 until 2002, he was Chairman of USA Films, a motion picture production, marketing and distribution company.  From 1997 until 1999, Mr. Greenstein was Co-President of October Films, a motion picture production, marketing and distribution company.  Prior to joining October Films, Mr. Greenstein was Senior Vice President of Motion Pictures, Music, New Media and Publishing at Miramax Films, and held senior positions at Viacom Inc.
David J. Frear has served as our Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since June 2015. From June 2003 to June 2015, he served as our Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer.  From 1999 to 2003, Mr. Frear was Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Savvis Communications Corporation, a global managed service provider, delivering internet protocol applications for business customers. Mr. Frear also served as a director of Savvis.  From 1993 to 1998, Mr. Frear was Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Orion Network Systems Inc., an international satellite communications company that was acquired by Loral Space & Communications Ltd. in 1998.  From 1990 to 1993, Mr. Frear was Chief Financial Officer of Millicom Incorporated, a cellular, paging and cable television company.  Prior to joining Millicom, he was an investment banker at Bear, Stearns & Co., Inc. and Credit Suisse. Mr. Frear is a member of the board of directors of The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC, NASDAQ PHLX LLC, and NASDAQ BX, Inc., subsidiaries of Nasdaq, Inc., a leading provider of trading, clearing, exchange technology, listing, information and public company services, and Pandora Media, Inc.
Dara F. Altman has served as our Executive Vice President and Chief Administrative Officer since September 2008.  From January 2006 until September 2008, Ms. Altman served as Executive Vice President, Business and Legal Affairs, of XM.  Ms. Altman was Executive Vice President of Business Affairs for Discovery Communications from 1997 to 2005.  From 1993 to 1997, Ms. Altman served as Senior Vice President and General Counsel of Reiss Media Enterprises, which owned Request TV, a national pay-per-view service. Before Request TV, Ms. Altman served as counsel for Home Box Office.  Ms. Altman started her career as an attorney at the law firm of Willkie Farr & Gallagher LLP.
James A. Cady has served as our Executive Vice President, Operations, Products and Connected Vehicle, since July 2015 and, prior to July 2015, served as Senior Vice President and General Manager of our Connected Services Platform since February 2014. Mr. Cady was the Chief Executive Officer and President of Slacker, Inc., an internet music service provider,

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from August 2009 until February 2014. He was the President and Chief Operating Officer of Slacker, Inc. from May 2006 until August 2009. From September 2004 until May 2006, he served as the Chief Executive Officer and President of LightPointe Communications, Inc., a manufacturer of wireless data transmission equipment. Prior to that time, Mr. Cady served in a variety of roles at an assortment of technology companies, including WatchGuard Technologies Inc., a manufacturer of computer security solutions; Rio, a division of SONICblue, Incorporated; Diamond Multimedia Systems, a manufacturer of various multimedia components; Supra Corp., a producer of hardware for computers; Moore Company, a wholesale distributor of consumer electronics; and Atari Corp., a manufacturer of computer and video games.
Stephen Cook has served as our Executive Vice President, Sales and Automotive, since January 2013.  Mr. Cook served as our Group Vice President and General Manager, Automotive Division, from July 2008 until January 2013.  Mr. Cook served as Executive Vice President, Automotive, of XM from July 2006 to July 2008.  He also served as XM's Executive Vice President, Sales and Marketing, from January 2002 until July 2006, and as XM's Senior Vice President, Sales and Marketing, from February 1999 until January 2002.  Prior to joining XM, Mr. Cook was Chief Operating Officer for Conxus Communications.  From 1990 to 1997, Mr. Cook held management positions with GTE's cellular operations.  Prior to that time, Mr. Cook worked in brand management for Procter & Gamble.
Patrick L. Donnelly has served as our Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary, since May 1998.  From June 1997 to May 1998, he was Vice President and Deputy General Counsel of ITT Corporation, a hotel, gaming and entertainment company that was acquired by Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. in February 1998.  From October 1995 to June 1997, he was assistant general counsel of ITT Corporation. Prior to October 1995, Mr. Donnelly was an attorney at the law firm of Simpson Thacher & Bartlett LLP.
Joseph A. Verbrugge has served as our Executive Vice President & General Manager, Emerging Business, since April 2017. From December 2015 until April 2017, he was our Executive Vice President, Sales and Development.  Mr. Verbrugge previously served as our Senior Vice President and General Manager, Automotive Remarketing and Retail Sales, from April 2012 until December 2015; as our Senior Vice President, Automotive Remarketing, from February 2010 until April 2012; and as our Senior Vice President, Automotive Partnerships, from September 2008 until February 2010.  From January 2007 through September 2008, he was Senior Vice President, Automotive Accounts/Partnerships and International Operations, of XM; from May 2006 until January 2007, Mr. Verbrugge served as Senior Vice President, Administration and International Operations of XM; from January 2005 until May 2006, he was Vice President, International Operations, of XM; and from September 2004 until January 2005 he served as Vice President, Special Projects, of XM.  Prior to joining XM, Mr. Verbrugge was a consultant with The Dealy Strategy Group LLC, a management consulting firm specializing in international satellite communications and information services companies, from 1999 until 2004.  From 1992 until 1995, Mr. Verbrugge was a bond representative with Aetna Life and Casualty Company, an insurance company.
Jennifer C. Witz has served as our Executive Vice President, Chief Marketing Officer, since August 2017. Ms. Witz joined us in March 2002 and, prior to her appointment as Executive Vice President, Chief Marketing Officer, served in a variety of senior financial and operating roles. From September 2005 to August 2017, she was our Senior Vice President, Finance, from May 2003 to September 2005, she was our Vice President, Finance, and from March 2002 to May 2003, she was our Senior Director, Finance. Before joining Sirius XM, Ms. Witz was Vice President, Planning and Development, at Viacom Inc., a global media company, and prior to that she was Vice President, Finance and Corporate Development, at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc., an entertainment company focused on the production and global distribution of film and television content. Ms. Witz began her career in the Investment Banking Department at Kidder, Peabody & Co Inc.
ITEM 1A.
RISK FACTORS
In addition to the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the information under the caption Item 1. Business “Competition,” the following risk factors should be considered carefully in evaluating us and our business.  This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those projected in forward-looking statements due to a number of factors, including those set forth below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.  See “Special Note About Forward-Looking Statements” following this Item 1A. Risk Factors.
We face substantial competition and that competition is likely to increase over time.
We face substantial competition from other providers of radio and audio services.  Our ability to attract and retain subscribers depends on our success in creating and providing popular or unique music, entertainment, news and sports programming.  Our subscribers can obtain certain similar content for free through terrestrial radio stations, Internet radio services and Internet streaming services.  Audio content delivered via the Internet, including through mobile devices that are

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easily integrated in vehicles, is increasingly competitive with our services.  A summary of various services that compete with us is contained in the section entitled “Item 1. Business - Competition” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Competition could result in lower subscription, advertising or other revenue and an increase in our marketing, promotion or other expenses and, consequently, lower our earnings and free cash flow.  We cannot assure you we will be able to compete successfully with our existing or future competitors or that competition will not have a material adverse impact on our operations and financial condition.
Our ability to retain subscribers or increase the number of subscribers is uncertain.
Our ability to retain our subscribers, or increase the number of subscribers to our service, is uncertain and subject to many factors, including:
the price of our service;
the health of the economy;
the sale or lease rate of new vehicles in the United States;
the rate at which our self-pay subscribers buy and sell new and used vehicles in the United States;
our ability to convince owners and lessees of new and used vehicles that include satellite radios to purchase subscriptions to our service;
the effectiveness of our marketing programs;
the entertainment value of our programming and the packages we offer;
our ability to respond to evolving consumer tastes; and
actions by our competitors, such as other audio entertainment and information providers.
As part of our business, we experience, and expect to experience in the future, subscriber turnover (i.e., churn).
If we are unable to retain current subscribers at expected rates, or the costs of retaining subscribers are higher than expected, our financial performance and operating results could be adversely affected.  We cannot predict how successful we will be at retaining customers who purchase or lease vehicles that include a subscription to our satellite radio service.  A substantial portion of our subscribers are on discounted pricing plans and our ability to retain these subscribers or migrate them to higher priced plans is uncertain. A substantial number of those subscribers periodically cancel their subscriptions when offered a subscription at a higher price.
Our profitability could be adversely affected if we are unable to consistently attract new subscribers and retain our current subscribers at prices and margins consistent with our past performance.
Our ability to profitably attract and retain subscribers as our marketing efforts reach more price-sensitive consumers is uncertain.
Our efforts to acquire subscribers purchasing or leasing used vehicles may attract subscribers of more limited economic means. For example, consumers purchasing or leasing used vehicles may be more price sensitive than consumers purchasing or leasing new vehicles, may convert from trial subscribers to self-paying subscribers at a lower rate, and may cancel their subscriptions more frequently than consumers purchasing or leasing new vehicles. Some of our marketing efforts may also attract more price sensitive subscribers; and our efforts to increase the penetration of satellite radios in new, lower-priced vehicle lines may result in the growth of more economy-minded subscribers. In addition, over time the changing demographics of our subscriber base, such as the expected increase in customers from the “millennial generation,” may increase the number of subscribers accustomed to consuming entertainment through free products.
If we fail to protect the security of personal information about our customers, we could be subject to costly government enforcement actions and private litigation and our reputation could suffer.
The nature of our business involves the receipt and storage of personal information about our subscribers including, in many cases, credit and debit card information.  If we fail to protect the security of personal information about our customers or if we experience a significant data security breach, we could be exposed to costly government enforcement actions and private litigation and our reputation could suffer.  In addition, our subscribers and potential customers could lose confidence in our

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ability to protect their personal information, which could cause them to discontinue usage of our services.  Such events could lead to lost future sales and adversely affect our results of operations.
We have a program in place to detect and respond to data security incidents.  However, because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventive measures.  In addition, hardware, software, or applications we develop or procure from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could unexpectedly compromise information security.  Unauthorized parties may also attempt to gain access to our systems or facilities, or those of third parties with whom we do business, through fraud, trickery, or other forms of deceiving our employees, contractors or other agents.
If hackers were able to circumvent our security measures, a release of proprietary information or personal information could occur or we could experience significant disruptions. If our systems become unavailable or suffer a security breach, we may be required to expend significant resources to address these problems, including notification under various data privacy regulations, and our reputation and operating results could suffer. To our knowledge, we have not suffered a release of any proprietary information or personal information that is material to our operations or brand.
Our service may experience harmful interference from new wireless operations.
The development of new applications and services in spectrum adjacent to the frequencies licensed to us, as well as the combination of signals in other frequencies, may cause harmful interference to our satellite radio service in certain areas of the United States.  Certain operations or combination of operations permitted by the FCC in spectrum, other than our licensed frequencies, results in the loss of signal to our service, and the reception of our satellite radio service can be adversely affected in certain areas.  Elimination of this interference may not be possible in all cases. In other cases, our efforts to reduce this interference may require extensive engineering efforts and additions to our terrestrial infrastructure. These mitigation efforts may be costly and take several years to implement and may not be entirely effective. In certain cases, we are dependent on the FCC to assist us in preventing harmful interference to our service.
We engage in extensive marketing efforts and the continued effectiveness of those efforts are an important part of our business.
We engage in extensive marketing efforts across a broad range of media to attract and retain subscribers to our services. We employ a wide variety of communications tools as part of our marketing campaigns, including telemarketing efforts and email solicitations.  The effectiveness of our marketing efforts is affected by a broad range of factors, including creative and execution factors. Our ability to reach consumers with radio and television advertising, direct mail materials, email solicitations and telephone calls is an important part of our efforts and a significant factor in the effectiveness of our marketing. If we are unable to reach consumers through email solicitations or telemarketing, including as a result of “spam” and email filters or call blocking technologies, our marketing efforts will be adversely affected. A decline in the effectiveness of our marketing efforts could have a material adverse impact on our operations and financial condition.
Consumer protection laws and their enforcement could damage our business.
Consumer protection laws cover nearly all aspects of our marketing efforts, including the content of our advertising, the terms of consumer offers and the manner in which we communicate with subscribers and prospective subscribers.  The nature of our business requires us to expend significant resources to try to ensure that our marketing activities comply with federal and state laws, rules and regulations relating to consumer protection, including laws relating to telemarketing activities and privacy.  There can be no assurance that these efforts will be successful or that we will not have to expend even greater resources in our compliance efforts.
Modifications to federal and state laws, rules and regulations concerning consumer protection, including decisions by federal and state courts and agencies interpreting these laws, could have an adverse impact on our ability to attract and retain subscribers to our services.  There can be no assurance that new laws or regulations will not be enacted or adopted, preexisting laws or regulations will not be more strictly enforced or that our varied operations will comply with all applicable laws, which could have a material adverse impact on our operations and financial condition.

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We may not realize the benefits of acquisitions or other strategic investments and initiatives, including the acquisition of Pandora.
Our business strategy includes selective acquisitions, other strategic investments and initiatives that allow us to expand our business. The success of any acquisition, including the acquisition of Pandora, depends upon effective integration and management of acquired businesses and assets into our operations, which is subject to risks and uncertainties, including realizing the growth potential, the anticipated synergies and cost savings, the ability to retain and attract personnel, the diversion of management’s attention for other business concerns, and undisclosed or potential legal liabilities of the acquired business or assets.
The acquisition of Pandora involves the combination of two entities which currently operate as independent companies. We will be required to devote significant management attention and resources to integrate the businesses and operations of Pandora. Potential difficulties we may encounter in the integration process includes:
the inability to successfully combine our business and the business of Pandora in a manner that permits us to offer cross-promotion opportunities, audio packages that integrate our content and programming with Pandora’s ad-supported and subscription services and achieve other benefits anticipated to result from the acquisition, in the time frame currently anticipated or at all;
the complexities associated with integrating personnel from the two companies and of combining two companies with different histories, cultures and customer bases;
our failure to retain key employees;
potential unknown liabilities and unforeseen increased expenses associated with the acquisition; and
performance shortfalls at one or both of the two companies as a result of the diversion of management’s attention in connection with completing the acquisition and integrating the companies’ operations.
It is possible that the integration process could result in the distraction of our management, the disruption of our ongoing business or inconsistencies in our services, standards, controls, procedures and policies, any of which could adversely affect our ability to maintain relationships with customers, vendors and employees or to achieve the anticipated benefits of the transactions, or could otherwise adversely affect our business and financial results following the closing of the acquisition.
The unfavorable outcome of pending or future litigation could have a material adverse impact on our operations and financial condition.
We are parties to several legal proceedings arising out of various aspects of our business, including class actions arising out of our marketing practices. The outcome of these proceedings may not be favorable, and one or more unfavorable outcomes could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition.  See “Item 3. Legal Proceedings” below.
The market for music rights is changing and is subject to significant uncertainties.
We must maintain music programming royalty arrangements with, and pay license fees to, owners of rights in musical works.  Traditionally, BMI, ASCAP and SESAC have negotiated for these copyright users, collected royalties and distributed them to songwriters and music publishers.  These traditional arrangements are changing.  Owners of rights in musical works have withdrawn from BMI, ASCAP and SESAC and new entities, such as GMR, have been formed to represent owners of musical works. The fracturing of the traditional system for licensing rights in musical works may have significant consequences to our business, including increasing licensing costs and reducing the availability of certain pieces for use on our services.
Under the United States Copyright Act, we also must pay royalties to copyright owners of sound recordings.  Those royalty rates may be established through negotiation or, if negotiation is unsuccessful, by the CRB. Owners of copyrights in sound recordings have created SoundExchange, a collective organization, to collect and distribute royalties.  SoundExchange is exempt by statute from certain U.S. antitrust laws and exercises significant market power in the licensing of sound recordings.  Under the terms of the CRB's December 2017 decision governing sound recording royalties for satellite radio, we are required to pay a royalty based on our gross revenues, subject to certain exclusions, of 15.5% per year for each of the next nine years. This is a substantial increase over the royalty rate of 11% of our gross revenues that we paid in 2017.
Our business depends in large part upon the auto industry.
A substantial portion of our subscription growth has come from purchasers and lessees of new and used automobiles in the United States.  The sale and lease of vehicles with satellite radios is an important source of subscribers for our satellite radio

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service. We have agreements with every major automaker to include satellite radios in new vehicles, although these agreements do not require automakers to install specific or minimum quantities of radios in any given period.
Automotive production and sales are dependent on many factors, including the availability of consumer credit, general economic conditions, consumer confidence and fuel costs.  To the extent vehicle sales by automakers decline, or the penetration of factory-installed satellite radios in those vehicles is reduced, subscriber growth for our satellite radio services may be adversely impacted.
Sales of used vehicles represent a significant source of new subscribers for us. We have agreements with auto dealers and companies operating in the used vehicle market to provide us with data on sales of used satellite radio enabled vehicles. The continuing availability of this information is important to our future growth.
General economic conditions can affect our business.
The purchase of a satellite radio subscription is discretionary, and our business and our financial condition can be negatively affected by general economic conditions. Poor general economic conditions could adversely affect subscriber churn, conversion rates and vehicle sales.
Existing or future laws and regulations could harm our business.
We are subject to many laws, including federal, state, local and foreign laws.  These laws and regulations cover issues such as user privacy, behavioral advertising, automatic renewal of agreements, pricing, fraud, electronic waste, mobile and electronic device communications, quality of products and services, taxation, advertising, intellectual property rights and information security.  The expansion of these laws, both in terms of their number and their applicability, could harm our business.  
Failure of our satellites would significantly damage our business.
The lives of our satellites vary depending on a number of factors, including:
degradation and durability of solar panels;
quality of construction;
random failure of satellite components, which could result in significant damage to or loss of a satellite;
amount of fuel the satellite consumes; and
damage or destruction as a result of electrostatic storms, terrorist attacks, collisions with other objects in space or other events, such as nuclear detonations, occurring in space.
In the ordinary course of operation, satellites experience failures of component parts and operational and performance anomalies. Components on our in-orbit satellites have failed; and from time to time we have experienced anomalies in the operation and performance of these satellites. These failures and anomalies are expected to continue in the ordinary course, and we cannot predict if any of these possible future events will have a material adverse effect on our operations or the life of our existing in-orbit satellites. In addition, our Sirius network of terrestrial repeaters communicates with a single third-party satellite. Our XM network of terrestrial repeaters communicates with a single XM satellite. If the satellites communicating with the applicable repeater network fail unexpectedly, the services would be disrupted for several hours or longer.
Any material failure of our satellites could cause us to lose customers and could materially harm our reputation and our operating results. We hold no in-orbit insurance for our existing in-orbit satellites.  Additional information regarding our fleet of satellites is contained in the section entitled “Item 1. Business - Satellites, Terrestrial Repeaters and Other Satellite Facilities” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Interruption or failure of our information technology and communications systems could negatively impact our results and our brand.
We operate a complex and growing business.  We offer a wide variety of subscription packages at different price points.  Our business is dependent on the operation and availability of our information technology and communication systems and those of certain third party service providers.  Any degradation in the quality, or any failure, of our systems could reduce our revenues, cause us to lose customers and damage our brand.  Although we have implemented practices designed to maintain

16


the availability of the information technology systems we rely on and mitigate the harm of any unplanned interruptions, we cannot anticipate all eventualities. We occasionally experience unplanned outages or technical difficulties. We could also experience loss of data or processing capabilities, which could cause us to lose customers and could materially harm our reputation and operating results.
We rely on internal systems and external systems maintained by manufacturers, distributors and service providers to take, fulfill and handle customer service requests and host certain online activities.  Any interruption or failure of our internal or external systems could prevent us from servicing customers or cause data to be unintentionally disclosed.
Our data centers and our information technology and communications systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption from natural disasters, malicious attacks, fire, power loss, telecommunications failures, computer viruses or other attempts to harm our systems.
Damage or interruption to our data centers and information technology and communications centers could expose us to data loss or manipulation, disruption of service, monetary and reputational damages, competitive disadvantage and significant increases in compliance costs and costs to improve the security and resiliency of our computer systems. The compromise of personal, confidential or proprietary information could also subject us to legal liability or regulatory action under evolving cyber-security, data protection and privacy laws and regulations enacted by the U.S. federal and state governments or other foreign jurisdictions or by various regulatory organizations. As a result, our ability to conduct our business and our results of operations might be materially and adversely affected.
Rapid technological and industry changes and new entrants could adversely impact our services.
The audio entertainment industry is characterized by rapid technological change, frequent product innovations, changes in customer requirements and expectations, evolving standards and new entrants offering products and services. If we are unable to keep pace with these changes, our business may not succeed. Products using new technologies could make our technologies less competitive in the marketplace.
Failure of third parties to perform could adversely affect our business.
Our business depends, in part, on various third parties, including:
manufacturers that build and distribute satellite radios;
companies that manufacture and sell integrated circuits for satellite radios;
programming providers and on-air talent;
vendors that operate our call centers; and
vendors that have designed or built, and vendors that support or operate, other important elements of our systems, including our satellites.
If one or more of these third parties do not perform in a satisfactory or timely manner, including complying with our standards and practices relating to business integrity, personnel, cybersecurity and other values, our business could be adversely affected. For example, Space Systems/Loral has announced that it expects to cease manufacturing large geostationary communications satellites following completion of its existing orders. Space Systems/Loral is currently building two satellites for our service (our SXM-7 and SXM-8 satellites). The discontinuance of this business by Space Systems/Loral could adversely affect the delivery schedules of these satellites and the on-going technical support for our existing in-orbit satellites.
In addition, a number of third parties on which we depend have experienced, and may in the future experience, financial difficulties or file for bankruptcy protection. Such third parties may not be able to perform their obligations to us in a timely manner, if at all, as a result of their financial condition or may be relieved of their obligations to us as part of seeking bankruptcy protection.
We design, establish specifications, source or specify parts and components, and manage various aspects of the logistics of the production of satellite radios. As a result of these activities, we may be exposed to liabilities associated with the design, manufacture and distribution of radios that the providers of an entertainment service would not customarily be subject to, such as liabilities for design defects, patent infringement and compliance with applicable laws, as well as the costs of returned product.

17


Failure to comply with FCC requirements could damage our business.
We hold FCC licenses and authorizations to operate commercial satellite radio services in the United States, including satellites, terrestrial repeaters and related authorizations. The FCC generally grants licenses and authorizations for a fixed term. Although we expect our licenses and authorizations to be renewed in the ordinary course upon their expiration, there can be no assurance that this will be the case. Any assignment or transfer of control of any of our FCC licenses or authorizations must be approved in advance by the FCC.
The operation of our satellite radio systems is subject to significant regulation by the FCC under authority granted through the Communications Act of 1934 and related federal law. We are required, among other things, to operate only within specified frequencies; to meet certain conditions regarding the interoperability of our satellite radios with those of other licensed satellite radio systems; to coordinate our satellite radio services with radio systems operating in the same range of frequencies in neighboring countries; and to coordinate our communications links to our satellites with other systems that operate in the same frequency band. Noncompliance by us with these requirements or other conditions or with other applicable FCC rules and regulations could result in fines, additional license conditions, license revocation or other detrimental FCC actions. There is no guarantee that Congress will not modify the statutory framework governing our services, or that the FCC will not modify its rules and regulations in a manner that would have a material impact on our operations.
We may from time to time modify our business plan, and these changes could adversely affect us and our financial condition.
We regularly evaluate our plans and strategy. These evaluations often result in changes to our plans and strategy, some of which may be material. These changes in our plans or strategy may include: the acquisition or termination of unique or compelling programming; the introduction of new features or services; significant new or enhanced distribution arrangements; investments in infrastructure, such as satellites, equipment or radio spectrum; and investments in, and/or acquisitions of, other businesses, including acquisitions that are not directly related to our satellite radio business.
We have a significant amount of indebtedness, and our debt contains certain covenants that restrict our operations.
As of December 31, 2018, we had an aggregate principal amount of approximately $6.9 billion of indebtedness outstanding, $439.0 million of which was outstanding under a $1.75 billion Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility.
Our indebtedness increases our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions; requires us to dedicate a portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on indebtedness, reducing the availability of cash flow to fund capital expenditures, marketing and other general corporate activities; limits our ability to borrow additional funds; and may limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the audio entertainment industry.
Our studios, terrestrial repeater networks, satellite uplink facilities or other ground facilities could be damaged by natural catastrophes or terrorist activities.
An earthquake, hurricane, tornado, flood, terrorist attack or other catastrophic event could damage our studios, terrestrial repeater networks or satellite uplink facilities, interrupt our service and harm our business.
Any damage to the satellites that transmit to our terrestrial repeater networks would likely result in degradation of the affected service for some subscribers and could result in complete loss of service in certain or all areas.  Damage to our satellite uplink facilities could result in a complete loss of our services until we could transfer operations to suitable back-up facilities.
Our principal stockholder has significant influence, including over actions requiring stockholder approval, and its interests may differ from the interests of other holders of our common stock.
As of December 31, 2018, Liberty Media beneficially owned approximately 73% of Holdings’ common stock and has the ability to influence our affairs, policies and operations.  Two Liberty Media executives and one other member of the board of directors of Liberty Media are members of our board of directors.  Our board of directors currently has thirteen members. Gregory B. Maffei, the President and Chief Executive Officer of Liberty Media, is the Chairman of Holdings’ board of directors.  Our board of directors is responsible for, among other things, the appointment of executive management, future issuances of common stock or other securities, the payment of dividends, if any, the incurrence of debt, and the approval of various transactions.  

18


Liberty Media can also determine the outcome of all matters requiring general stockholder approval, including the election of the board of directors and changes to our certificate of incorporation or by-laws.  Liberty Media can also cause or prevent a change of control of Holdings and could preclude any unsolicited acquisition of our company.  The concentration of ownership could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of our company and might ultimately affect the market price of our common stock.  In certain cases, the interests of Liberty Media may not be aligned with the interests of other stockholders of Holdings.
We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the NASDAQ listing rules and, as a result, qualify for, and rely on, exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements.
We are a “controlled company” for the purposes of the NASDAQ Stock Market listing rules. As such, we have elected not to comply with certain NASDAQ corporate governance requirements. Although a majority of our board of directors consists of independent directors, we do not have a compensation committee and nominating and corporate governance committee that consist entirely of independent directors. Accordingly, you may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the corporate governance requirements of NASDAQ.
Our business may be impaired by third-party intellectual property rights.
Development of our systems has depended upon the intellectual property that we have developed, as well as intellectual property licensed from third parties. If the intellectual property that we have developed or use is not adequately protected, others will be permitted to and may duplicate portions of our systems or services without liability. In addition, others may challenge, invalidate, render unenforceable or circumvent our intellectual property rights, patents or existing licenses or we may face significant legal costs in connection with defending and enforcing those intellectual property rights. Some of the know-how and technology we have developed, and plan to develop, is not now, nor will it be, covered by U.S. patents or trade secret protections. Trade secret protection and contractual agreements may not provide adequate protection if there is any unauthorized use or disclosure. The loss of necessary technologies could require us to substitute technologies of lower quality performance standards, at greater cost or on a delayed basis, which could harm us.
Other parties may have patents or pending patent applications, which will later mature into patents or inventions that may block or put limits on our ability to operate our system or license technologies. We may have to resort to litigation to enforce our rights under license agreements or to determine the scope and validity of other parties’ proprietary rights in the subject matter of those licenses. This may be expensive and we may not succeed in any such litigation.
Third parties may assert claims or bring suit against us for patent, trademark or copyright infringement, or for other infringement or misappropriation of intellectual property rights. Any such litigation could result in substantial cost, and diversion of effort and adverse findings in any proceeding could subject us to significant liabilities to third parties; require us to seek licenses from third parties; block our ability to operate our systems or license our technology; or otherwise adversely affect our ability to successfully develop and market our satellite radio systems.
While we currently pay a quarterly cash dividend to holders of our common stock, we may change our dividend policy at any time.
We currently pay a quarterly cash dividend to holders of our common stock, although we have no obligation to do so, and our dividend policy may change at any time without notice to our stockholders. The declaration and payment of dividends is at the discretion of our board of directors in accordance with applicable law after taking into account various factors, including our financial condition, operating results, current and anticipated cash needs, limitations imposed by our indebtedness, legal requirements and other factors that our board of directors deems relevant.
Special Note About Forward-Looking Statements
We have made various statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K that may constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements may also be made in our other reports filed with or furnished to the SEC, in our press releases and in other documents. In addition, from time to time, we, through our management, may make oral forward-looking statements. For example, these forward-looking statements may include, among other things, our statements about our outlook and our future results of operations and financial condition; share repurchase plans; the impact of economic and market conditions; and the impact of our acquisition of Pandora. The words “will likely result,” “are expected to,” “will continue,” “is anticipated,” “estimated,” “believe,” “intend,” “plan,” “may,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “likely,” “projection,” “outlook” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, including those identified above, which

19


could cause actual results to differ materially from such statements. We caution you that the risk factors described above are not exclusive. There may also be other risks that we are unable to predict at this time that may cause actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking statements. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which will arise or to assess with any precision the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.  Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date on which they are made. We undertake no obligation to update publicly or revise any forward-looking statements, except as required by law.
ITEM 1B.
UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2.
PROPERTIES
Below is a list of the principal properties that we own or lease:
Location
 
Purpose
 
Own/Lease
New York, NY
 
Corporate headquarters, office facilities and studio/production facilities
 
Lease
Washington, DC
 
Office, studio/production facilities and data center
 
Own
Lawrenceville, NJ
 
Office and technical/engineering facilities
 
Lease
Deerfield Beach, FL
 
Office and technical/engineering facilities
 
Lease
Farmington Hills, MI
 
Office and technical/engineering facilities
 
Lease
Nashville, TN
 
Studio/production facilities
 
Lease
Vernon, NJ
 
Technical/engineering facilities
 
Own
Ellenwood, GA
 
Technical/engineering facilities
 
Lease
Fredericksburg, VA
 
Warehouse and technical/engineering facilities
 
Lease
Los Angeles, CA
 
Office and studio/production facilities
 
Lease
Irving, TX
 
Office and engineering facilities/call center
 
Lease
San Francisco, CA
 
Office and engineering facilities
 
Lease
We also lease other small facilities that we use as offices for our advertising sales personnel, studios and warehouse and maintenance space.  These facilities are not material to our business or operations.
In addition, we lease or license space at approximately 540 locations for use in connection with the terrestrial repeater networks that support our satellite radio services.  In general, these leases and licenses are for space on building rooftops and communications towers.  None of these individual locations are material to our business or operations.
ITEM 3.
LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
In the ordinary course of business, we are a defendant or party to various claims and lawsuits, including those discussed below.

Telephone Consumer Protection Act Suits. On March 13, 2017, Thomas Buchanan, individually and on behalf of all others similarly situated, filed a class action complaint against us in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas, Dallas Division. The plaintiff in this action alleges that we violated the Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 (the “TCPA”) by, among other things, making telephone solicitations to persons on the National Do-Not-Call registry, a database established to allow consumers to exclude themselves from telemarketing calls unless they consent to receive the calls in a signed, written agreement, and making calls to consumers in violation of our internal Do-Not-Call registry. The plaintiff is seeking various forms of relief, including statutory damages of $500 for each violation of the TCPA or, in the alternative, treble damages of up to $1,500 for each knowing and willful violation of the TCPA and a permanent injunction prohibiting us from making, or having made, any calls to land lines that are listed on the National Do-Not-Call registry or our internal Do-Not-Call registry. The plaintiff has filed a motion seeking class certification, and that motion is pending. We believe we have substantial defenses to the claims asserted in this action, and we intend to defend this action vigorously.


20


Other Matters.  In the ordinary course of business, we are a defendant in various other lawsuits and arbitration proceedings, including derivative actions; actions filed by subscribers, both on behalf of themselves and on a class action basis; former employees; parties to contracts or leases; and owners of patents, trademarks, copyrights or other intellectual property.  None of these other matters, in our opinion, is likely to have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

ITEM 4.
MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.



21


PART II

ITEM 5.
MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “SIRI.” On January 28, 2019, there were approximately 7,879 record holders of our common stock.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On January 29, 2019, our board of directors approved an additional $2.0 billion for repurchase of our common stock. The new approval increases the amount of common stock that we have been authorized to repurchase to an aggregate of $14.0 billion. Our board of directors did not establish an end date for this stock repurchase program.  Shares of common stock may be purchased from time to time on the open market, pursuant to pre-set trading plans meeting the requirements of Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act, in privately negotiated transactions, including transactions with Liberty Media and its affiliates, or otherwise.  As of December 31, 2018, our cumulative repurchases since December 2012 under our stock repurchase program totaled 2.7 billion shares for approximately $10.7 billion, and approximately $1.3 billion remained available under our existing $12.0 billion stock repurchase program.  The size and timing of our repurchases will be based on a number of factors, including price and business and market conditions.
The following table provides information about our purchases of equity securities registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act during the quarter ended December 31, 2018:
Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid Per Share (a)
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
 
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (a)
October 1, 2018 - October 31, 2018
 
21,390,182

 
$
5.95

 
21,390,182

 
$
1,844,729,159

November 1, 2018 - November 30, 2018
 
51,750,000

 
$
6.17

 
51,750,000

 
$
1,525,513,359

December 1, 2018 - December 31, 2018
 
32,116,082

 
$
6.22

 
32,116,082

 
$
1,325,748,492

Total
 
105,256,264

 
$
6.14

 
105,256,264

 
 
(a)
These amounts include fees and commissions associated with the shares repurchased.  All of these repurchases were made pursuant to our share repurchase program.  

22


COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURNS
Set forth below is a graph comparing the cumulative performance of our common stock with the Standard & Poor's Composite-500 Stock Index, or the S&P 500, and the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index from December 31, 2013 to December 31, 2018. The graph assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2013 in each of our common stock, the S&P 500 and the NASDAQ Telecommunications Index. In November 2016 we paid our first quarterly dividend. Our board of directors expects to declare regular quarterly dividends.
chart-c0564eef20a85cd7a09.jpg
Stockholder Return Performance Table
 
NASDAQ
Telecommunications Index
 
S&P 500 Index
 
Sirius XM Holdings Inc.
December 31, 2013
$
100.00

 
$
100.00

 
$
100.00

December 31, 2014
$
108.91

 
$
111.39

 
$
100.29

December 31, 2015
$
100.74

 
$
110.58

 
$
116.62

December 31, 2016
$
115.72

 
$
121.13

 
$
127.51

December 31, 2017
$
135.90

 
$
144.65

 
$
153.58

December 31, 2018
$
140.02

 
$
135.63

 
$
163.61


23


Equity Compensation Plan Information
Plan Category (shares in thousands)
 
Column (a) Number of Securities to be Issued upon Exercise of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights(1)
 
Column (b) Weighted-Average Exercise Price of Outstanding Options, Warrants and Rights(2)
 
Column (c) Number of Securities Remaining Available for Future Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans (excluding Securities Reflected in Column (a))
Equity compensation plans approved by security holders
 
278,010

 
$
4.22

 
154,973

Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders
 

 

 

Total
 
278,010

 
$
4.22

 
154,973

__________
(1)
In addition to shares issuable upon exercise of stock options, amount also includes approximately 34,608 shares underlying restricted stock units, including performance-based restricted stock units (“PRSUs”) and dividend equivalents thereon. The number of shares to be issued in respect of PRSUs and dividend equivalents thereon have been calculated based on the assumption that the maximum levels of performance applicable to the PRSUs will be achieved.
(2)
The weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options, warrants and rights relates solely to stock options, which are the only currently outstanding exercisable security.
ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The operating and balance sheet data included in the following selected financial data has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements.  This selected financial data should be read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes thereto included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
As of and for the Years Ended December 31,
(in thousands, except per share data)
2018
 
2017
 
2016 (1)
 
2015
 
2014
Statements of Comprehensive Income Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total revenue
$
5,770,692

 
$
5,425,129

 
$
5,017,220

 
$
4,570,058

 
$
4,181,095

Net income
$
1,175,893

 
$
647,908

 
$
745,933

 
$
509,724

 
$
493,241

Net income per share - basic (2)
$
0.26

 
$
0.14

 
$
0.15

 
$
0.09

 
$
0.09

Net income per share - diluted (2)
$
0.26

 
$
0.14

 
$
0.15

 
$
0.09

 
$
0.08

Weighted average common shares outstanding - basic
4,461,827

 
4,637,553

 
4,917,050

 
5,375,707

 
5,788,944

Weighted average common shares outstanding - diluted
4,560,720

 
4,723,535

 
4,964,728

 
5,435,166

 
5,862,020

Cash dividends declared per share
$
0.0451

 
$
0.0410

 
$
0.0100

 
$

 
$

Balance Sheet Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
54,431

 
$
69,022

 
$
213,939

 
$
111,838

 
$
147,724

Restricted investments
$
10,939

 
$
10,352

 
$
9,889

 
$
9,889

 
$
5,922

Total assets (3)
$
8,172,736

 
$
8,329,374

 
$
8,003,595

 
$
8,046,662

 
$
8,369,065

Long-term debt, net of current portion (3)
$
6,884,536

 
$
6,741,243

 
$
5,842,764

 
$
5,443,614

 
$
4,487,419

Stockholders' (deficit) equity
$
(1,816,921
)
 
$
(1,523,874
)
 
$
(792,015
)
 
$
(166,491
)
 
$
1,309,837

_______________________
(1)
For the year ended December 31, 2016, we recorded $293,896 as an increase to our Deferred tax assets and decrease to our Accumulated deficit as a result of the adoption of Accounting Standards Update 2016-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718).
(2)
The 2017 net income per basic and diluted share includes the impact of $184,599 in income tax expense, or a decrease of approximately $0.04 per share due to the reduction in our net deferred tax asset balance as a result of the Tax Cut and Jobs Act signed into law on December 22, 2017. For additional information refer to Note 16 to our consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(3)
The 2014 – 2015 balances reflect the adoption of Accounting Standards Update 2015-03, Interest-Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs, and Accounting Standards Update 2015-15,

24


Presentation and Subsequent Measurement of Debt Issuance Costs Associated with Line-of-Credit Agreements.  As a result of our adoption of these ASUs, Total Assets was reduced by $7,155 and $6,444 for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and Long-term debt, net of current portion, was reduced by $7,155 and $6,444 for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

25


ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS 
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those projected in forward-looking statements due to a number of factors, including those described under “Item 1A - Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. See “Special Note About Forward-Looking Statements.”
All amounts referenced in this Item 7 are in thousands, except per subscriber and per installation amounts, unless otherwise stated.
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Executive Summary
We transmit music, sports, entertainment, comedy, talk, news, traffic and weather channels, as well as infotainment services, in the United States on a subscription fee basis through our two proprietary satellite radio systems, and a larger set of music and other channels through our streaming service. Our streaming service is available online and through applications for mobile devices, home devices and other consumer electronic equipment.  We also provide connected vehicle services.  Our connected vehicle services are designed to enhance the safety, security and driving experience for vehicle operators while providing marketing and operational benefits to automakers and their dealers.  
We have agreements with every major automaker (“OEMs”) to offer satellite radio in their vehicles, through which we acquire the majority of our subscribers.  We also acquire subscribers through marketing to owners and lessees of previously owned vehicles that include factory-installed satellite radios that are not currently subscribing to our services.  Our satellite radios are primarily distributed through automakers, retailers, and our website. Satellite radio services are also offered to customers of certain rental car companies.
As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately 34.0 million subscribers of which approximately 28.9 million were self-pay subscribers and approximately 5.1 million were paid promotional subscribers. Our subscriber totals include subscribers under our regular pricing plans; discounted pricing plans; subscribers that have prepaid, including payments either made or due from automakers for subscriptions included in the sale or lease price of a vehicle; subscribers to our streaming services who do not also have satellite radio subscriptions; and certain subscribers to our weather, traffic, and data services who do not also have satellite radio subscriptions.  Subscribers and subscription related revenues and expenses associated with the Sirius XM Canada service, which had approximately 2.6 million subscribers as of December 31, 2018, and our connected vehicle services are not included in our subscriber count or subscriber-based operating metrics.
Our primary source of revenue is subscription fees, with most of our customers subscribing to monthly, quarterly, semi-annual or annual plans.  We offer discounts for prepaid subscription plans, as well as a multiple subscription discount.  We also derive revenue from certain fees, the sale of advertising on select non-music channels, the direct sale of satellite radios and accessories, and other ancillary services, such as our weather, traffic and data services. We provide traffic services to approximately 8.6 million vehicles.
In many cases, a subscription to our radio service is included with the purchase or lease of new or previously owned vehicles. The length of these subscriptions varies but is typically three to twelve months.  We receive payments for these subscriptions from certain automakers.  We also reimburse various automakers for certain costs associated with satellite radios installed in new vehicles and pay revenue share to various automakers.
As of December 31, 2018, Liberty Media beneficially owned, directly and indirectly, approximately 73% of the outstanding shares of our common stock.  As a result, we are a “controlled company” for the purposes of the NASDAQ corporate governance requirements.
Sirius XM holds an equity method investment in Sirius XM Canada Holdings Inc. (“Sirius XM Canada”), which offers satellite radio services in Canada. As of December 31, 2018, Sirius XM owned an approximate 70% equity interest and 33% voting interest in Sirius XM Canada.
Sirius XM holds an investment in Pandora Media, Inc. (“Pandora”), which operates an internet-based music discovery platform, offering a personalized experience for listeners. As of December 31, 2018, Sirius XM's interest in Pandora

26


represented an approximately 18% interest in Pandora's outstanding common stock, and an approximately 15% interest on an as-converted basis.
Recent Developments; Agreement to Acquire Pandora Media, Inc.

On September 23, 2018, Holdings entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization (the “Merger
Agreement”), by and among Holdings, Pandora Billboard Holding Company, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pandora, Billboard Acquisition Sub, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Billboard Holding Company, Inc., Sirius XM and White Oaks Acquisition Corp., pursuant to which, subject to the terms and conditions of the Merger Agreement, Holdings agreed to acquire Pandora (such transaction, the “Merger”). Pursuant to the Merger, each outstanding share of Pandora common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (“Pandora Common Stock”), will be converted into the right to receive 1.44 shares (the “Exchange Ratio”) of Holdings common stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Holdings Common Stock”). In connection with the Merger, the Series A Preferred Stock will be canceled for no consideration.

Further, pursuant to the Merger:
 
each option granted by Pandora under its stock incentive plans to purchase shares of Pandora Common Stock, whether vested or unvested will be assumed and converted into an option to purchase shares of Holdings Common Stock, with appropriate adjustments (based on the Exchange Ratio) to the exercise price and number of shares of Holdings Common Stock subject to such option, and will have the same vesting schedule and exercise conditions as in effect as of immediately prior to the closing of the Merger;
 
each unvested restricted stock unit granted by Pandora under its stock incentive plans will be assumed and converted into an unvested restricted stock unit of Holdings, with appropriate adjustments (based on the Exchange Ratio) to the number of shares of Holdings Common Stock to be received, and will have the same vesting schedule and settlement date as in effect as of immediately prior to the closing of the Merger; and
 
each unvested performance award granted by Pandora under its stock incentive plans shall be canceled and forfeited if the per share value of merger consideration at the closing of the transactions as determined pursuant to the Merger Agreement is less than $20.00, and otherwise each such award will be assumed and converted into a time vesting award to receive a number of shares of Holdings Common Stock based on the Exchange Ratio, and will have the same vesting schedule as in effect as of immediately prior to the closing of the Merger.

The Merger Agreement contains customary representations and warranties from both Holdings and Pandora, and each party has agreed to customary covenants, including covenants relating to the conduct of Holdings’ and Pandora’s businesses during the period between the execution of the Merger Agreement and the closing of the Merger. In the case of Pandora, such obligations include its agreement to call a meeting of its stockholders to adopt the Merger Agreement, and, subject to certain exceptions, to recommend that its stockholders adopt the Merger Agreement.

The Pandora stockholders voted to adopt the Merger Agreement at a special stockholder meeting on January 29, 2019.

The completion of the Merger is subject to customary conditions, including, among others,  the absence of any law or order that prohibits or makes illegal the Merger and subject to certain exceptions, the accuracy of the representations and warranties of each party and compliance by the parties with their respective covenants.

It is intended that the Merger qualifies as a "reorganization" within the meaning of Section 368(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 for Federal income tax purposes. However, if either Pandora or Holdings are unable to receive an opinion of counsel to that effect, the parties have agreed to restructure the Merger so that the Merger will be treated as a taxable stock sale.


27


Results of Operations
Set forth below are our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared with the year ended December 31, 2017 and the year ended December 31, 2017 compared with the year ended December 31, 2016.
Our forward-looking statements below regarding our expectations for our revenues and expenses do not reflect the impact of our proposed acquisition of Pandora.
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2018 vs 2017 Change
 
2017 vs 2016 Change
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
Amount
 
%
 
Amount
 
%
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Subscriber revenue
$
4,593,803


$
4,472,522

 
$
4,196,852

 
$
121,281

 
3
 %
 
$
275,670

 
7
 %
Advertising revenue
187,569


160,347

 
138,231

 
27,222

 
17
 %
 
22,116

 
16
 %
Equipment revenue
154,878


131,586

 
118,947

 
23,292

 
18
 %
 
12,639

 
11
 %
Music royalty fee and other revenue
834,442


660,674

 
563,190

 
173,768

 
26
 %
 
97,484

 
17
 %
Total revenue
5,770,692


5,425,129

 
5,017,220

 
345,563

 
6
 %
 
407,909

 
8
 %
Operating expenses:



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of services:



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue share and royalties
1,393,842


1,210,323

 
1,108,515

 
183,519

 
15
 %
 
101,808

 
9
 %
Programming and content
405,686


388,033

 
353,779

 
17,653

 
5
 %
 
34,254

 
10
 %
Customer service and billing
382,537


385,431

 
387,131

 
(2,894
)
 
(1
)%
 
(1,700
)
 
 %
Satellite and transmission
95,773


82,747

 
103,020

 
13,026

 
16
 %
 
(20,273
)
 
(20
)%
Cost of equipment
30,768


35,448

 
40,882

 
(4,680
)
 
(13
)%
 
(5,434
)
 
(13
)%
Subscriber acquisition costs
470,336


499,492

 
512,809

 
(29,156
)
 
(6
)%
 
(13,317
)
 
(3
)%
Sales and marketing
484,044


437,739

 
386,724

 
46,305

 
11
 %
 
51,015

 
13
 %
Engineering, design and development
123,219


112,427

 
82,146

 
10,792

 
10
 %
 
30,281

 
37
 %
General and administrative
356,819


334,023

 
341,106

 
22,796

 
7
 %
 
(7,083
)
 
(2
)%
Depreciation and amortization
300,720


298,602

 
268,979

 
2,118

 
1
 %
 
29,623

 
11
 %
Total operating expenses
4,043,744


3,784,265

 
3,585,091

 
259,479

 
7
 %
 
199,174

 
6
 %
Income from operations
1,726,948


1,640,864

 
1,432,129

 
86,084

 
5
 %
 
208,735

 
15
 %
Other income (expense):



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense
(350,073
)

(345,820
)
 
(331,225
)
 
(4,253
)
 
(1
)%
 
(14,595
)
 
(4
)%
Loss on extinguishment of debt

 
(43,679
)
 
(24,229
)
 
43,679

 
100
 %
 
(19,450
)
 
(80
)%
Other income (expense)
43,699


12,844

 
14,985

 
30,855

 
240
 %
 
(2,141
)
 
(14
)%
Total other income (expense)
(306,374
)

(376,655
)
 
(340,469
)
 
70,281

 
19
 %
 
(36,186
)
 
(11
)%
Income before income taxes
1,420,574


1,264,209

 
1,091,660

 
156,365

 
12
 %
 
172,549

 
16
 %
Income tax expense
(244,681
)

(616,301
)
 
(345,727
)
 
371,620

 
60
 %
 
(270,574
)
 
(78
)%
Net income
$
1,175,893


$
647,908

 
$
745,933

 
$
527,985

 
81
 %
 
$
(98,025
)
 
(13
)%
Total Revenue
Subscriber Revenue includes subscription, activation and other fees.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, subscriber revenue was $4,593,803 and $4,472,522, respectively, an increase of 3%, or $121,281.  The increase was primarily attributable to a 5% increase in the daily weighted average number of subscribers. Subscriber revenue was negatively impacted by $94,767 for the year ended December 31, 2018 due to the adoption of Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2014-09, effective January 1, 2018.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, subscriber revenue was $4,472,522 and $4,196,852, respectively, an increase of 7%, or $275,670.  The increase was primarily attributable to a 4% increase in the daily weighted average number of subscribers as well as a 3% increase in average monthly revenue per subscriber resulting from certain rate increases. 

28


We expect subscriber revenues to increase based on the growth of our subscriber base, increases in certain of our subscription rates and the sale of additional services to subscribers.
Advertising Revenue includes the sale of advertising on certain non-music channels.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, advertising revenue was $187,569 and $160,347, respectively, an increase of 17%, or $27,222.  The increase was primarily due to a greater number of advertising spots sold and transmitted as well as increases in rates charged per spot.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, advertising revenue was $160,347 and $138,231, respectively, an increase of 16%, or $22,116.  The increase was primarily due to a greater number of advertising spots sold and transmitted as well as increases in rates charged per spot.
We expect our advertising revenue to continue to grow as more advertisers are attracted to our national platform and our growing subscriber base, and as we expand our inventory by launching additional non-music channels.
Equipment Revenue includes revenue and royalties from the sale of satellite radios, components and accessories.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, equipment revenue was $154,878 and $131,586, respectively, an increase of 18%, or $23,292.  The increase was driven by an increase in royalty revenue due to our transition to a new generation of chipsets.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, equipment revenue was $131,586 and $118,947, respectively, an increase of 11%, or $12,639.  The increase was driven by royalty revenue on certain satellite radio components starting in the second quarter of 2016 due to our transition to a new generation of chipsets and revenue from the sales of connected vehicle devices since the acquisition of Automatic, partially offset by lower revenue generated through satellite radio sales to distributors and consumers and lower OEM production.
We expect equipment revenue to increase as royalty revenues associated with certain new chipsets increases.
Music Royalty Fee and Other Revenue includes amounts earned from subscribers for the U.S. Music Royalty Fee, revenue from our connected vehicle services, our Canadian affiliate and ancillary revenues.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, music royalty fee and other revenue was $834,442 and $660,674, respectively, an increase of 26%, or $173,768.  The increase was primarily driven by higher U.S. Music Royalty Fee revenue due to a higher rate and an increase in the number of subscribers, higher revenue generated from our connected vehicle services and from Sirius XM Canada.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, music royalty fee and other revenue was $660,674 and $563,190, respectively, an increase of 17%, or $97,484.  The increase was primarily driven by higher revenue from Sirius XM Canada due to the new Services Agreement and Advisory Services Agreement entered into in the second quarter of 2017, additional revenues from the U.S. Music Royalty Fee due to an increase in the number of subscribers and subscribers paying at a higher rate and higher revenue generated from our connected vehicle services.
We expect music royalty fee and other revenue to increase due to an increase in U.S. Music Royalty Fees as current subscribers migrate to the new increased rate and as our subscriber base grows.
Operating Expenses
Revenue Share and Royalties include distribution and content provider revenue share, royalties for transmitting content and web streaming, and advertising revenue share.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, revenue share and royalties were $1,393,842 and $1,210,323, respectively, an increase of 15%, or $183,519, and increased as a percentage of total revenue.  The increase was driven by an increase in the statutory royalty rate applicable to our use of post-1972 recordings, which increased from 11% in 2017 to 15.5% in 2018, and overall greater revenues subject to revenue share with the automakers. Included in the increase was a $69,144 charge related to the legal settlement that resolved outstanding claims, including ongoing audits, under our statutory license for sound recordings for the period January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2017. In 2017, we recorded $45,100 of expense related to music royalty legal settlements and related reserves. The increase was

29


partially offset by approximately $88,122, for the year ended December 31, 2018, related to the adoption of the new revenue standard effective as of January 1, 2018.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, revenue share and royalties were $1,210,323 and $1,108,515, respectively, an increase of 9%, or $101,808, and increased as a percentage of total revenue.  The increase was due to overall greater revenues subject to music royalties and revenue share to automakers and an increase in the statutory royalty rate applicable to our use of post-1972 recordings, which increased from 10.5% in 2016 to 11% in 2017. We recorded $45,100 and $45,900 of expense related to music royalty legal settlements and related reserves in 2017 and 2016, respectively. 
We expect our revenue share and royalty costs to increase as our revenues grow.
Programming and Content includes costs to acquire, create, promote and produce content. We have entered into various agreements with third parties for music and non-music programming that require us to pay license fees and other amounts.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, programming and content expenses were $405,686 and $388,033, respectively, an increase of 5%, or $17,653, and decreased as a percentage of total revenue.  The increase was driven primarily by personnel-related costs, and higher music licensing costs.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, programming and content expenses were $388,033 and $353,779, respectively, an increase of 10%, or $34,254, and increased as a percentage of total revenue.  The increase was primarily due to the addition of video content rights, payment for which started during the third quarter of 2016, as well as talent and personnel-related costs.
We expect our programming and content expenses to increase as we offer additional programming, and renew or replace expiring agreements.
Customer Service and Billing includes costs associated with the operation and management of internal and third party customer service centers, and our subscriber management systems as well as billing and collection costs, transaction fees and bad debt expense.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, customer service and billing expenses were $382,537 and $385,431, respectively, a decrease of less than 1%, or $2,894, and decreased as a percentage of total revenue.  The decrease was primarily driven by lower call center costs due to lower agent rates, increased customer self-service resulting in lower contact rates and improved non-pay processes driving lower bad debt expense, partially offset by increased transaction fees from a larger subscriber base and personnel-related costs.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, customer service and billing expenses were $385,431 and $387,131, respectively, a decrease of less than 1%, or $1,700, and decreased as a percentage of total revenue.  The decrease was primarily due to a decline in call center agent rates and contact rates, partially offset by increased transaction fees based on a higher subscriber base.
We expect our customer service and billing expenses to increase as our subscriber base grows.
Satellite and Transmission consists of costs associated with the operation and maintenance of our terrestrial repeater networks; satellites; satellite telemetry, tracking and control systems; satellite uplink facilities; studios; and delivery of our streaming service and connected vehicle services.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, satellite and transmission expenses were $95,773 and $82,747, respectively, an increase of 16%, or $13,026, and increased as a percentage of total revenue.  The increase was primarily driven by higher wireless costs associated with our connected vehicle services and higher streaming costs.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, satellite and transmission expenses were $82,747 and $103,020, respectively, a decrease of 20%, or $20,273, and decreased as a percentage of total revenue.  The decrease was driven by lower wireless costs associated with our connected vehicle services, and a reduction in terrestrial repeater costs as a result of the elimination of duplicative repeater sites; partially offset by increased streaming costs. Satellite and transmission costs in 2016 included a loss on disposal of certain obsolete satellite parts of $12,912.

30


We expect satellite and transmission expenses to grow as costs associated with our investment in streaming services increase.
Cost of Equipment includes costs from the sale of satellite radios, components and accessories and provisions for inventory allowance attributable to products purchased for resale in our direct to consumer distribution channels.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, cost of equipment was $30,768 and $35,448, respectively, a decrease of 13%, or $4,680, and decreased as a percentage of equipment revenue.  The decrease was primarily due to lower direct satellite radio sales to consumers.  
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, cost of equipment was $35,448 and $40,882, respectively, a decrease of 13%, or $5,434, and decreased as a percentage of equipment revenue.  The decrease was primarily due to lower direct satellite radio sales to distributors and consumers, partially offset by the incremental costs associated with the sale of connected vehicle devices since the acquisition of Automatic.
We expect cost of equipment to increase as device sales from our connected vehicle services increase.
Subscriber Acquisition Costs include hardware subsidies paid to radio manufacturers, distributors and automakers; subsidies paid for chipsets and certain other components used in manufacturing radios; device royalties for certain radios and chipsets; product warranty obligations; and freight. The majority of subscriber acquisition costs are incurred and expensed in advance of, or concurrent with, acquiring a subscriber. Subscriber acquisition costs do not include advertising costs, marketing, loyalty payments to distributors and dealers of satellite radios or revenue share payments to automakers and retailers of satellite radios.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, subscriber acquisition costs were $470,336 and $499,492, respectively, a decrease of 6%, or $29,156, and decreased as a percentage of total revenue.  The decrease was driven by reductions to OEM hardware subsidy rates, lower subsidized costs related to the transition of chipsets, and a decrease in satellite radio installations.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, subscriber acquisition costs were $499,492 and $512,809, respectively, a decrease of 3%, or $13,317, and decreased as a percentage of total revenue.  The decrease was driven by reductions to OEM hardware subsidy rates, lower subsidized costs related to the transition of chipsets, and a decrease in satellite radio installations.
We expect subscriber acquisition costs to increase as we increase OEM installations and increase OEM hardware subsidy rates.  We intend to continue to offer subsidies and other incentives to induce OEMs to include our technology in their vehicles.
Sales and Marketing includes costs for marketing, advertising, media and production, including promotional events and sponsorships; cooperative marketing; and personnel. Marketing costs include expenses related to direct mail, outbound telemarketing and email communications.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, sales and marketing expenses were $484,044 and $437,739, respectively, an increase of 11%, or $46,305, and increased as a percentage of total revenue.  The increase was primarily due to additional subscriber communications, retention programs and acquisition campaigns, as well as higher personnel-related costs.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, sales and marketing expenses were $437,739 and $386,724, respectively, an increase of 13%, or $51,015, and increased as a percentage of total revenue. The increase was primarily due to additional subscriber communications, retention programs and acquisition campaigns as well as higher personnel-related costs; partially offset by the timing of certain OEM marketing campaigns.
We anticipate that sales and marketing expenses will increase as we expand programs to retain our existing subscribers, win back former subscribers, and attract new subscribers.
Engineering, Design and Development consists primarily of compensation and related costs to develop chipsets and new products and services, including streaming and connected vehicle services, research and development for broadcast information systems and costs associated with the incorporation of our radios into new vehicles manufactured by automakers.

31


2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, engineering, design and development expenses were $123,219 and $112,427, respectively, an increase of 10%, or $10,792, and increased as a percentage of total revenue.  The increase was driven by the continued development of our streaming product and connected vehicle services.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, engineering, design and development expenses were $112,427 and $82,146, respectively, an increase of 37%, or $30,281, and increased as a percentage of total revenue.  The increase was driven by development of our connected vehicle services and additional costs associated with the development of our audio and video streaming products.
We expect engineering, design and development expenses to increase in future periods as we continue to develop our infrastructure, products and services.
General and Administrative primarily consists of compensation and related costs for personnel and facilities, and include costs related to our finance, legal, human resources and information technologies departments.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, general and administrative expenses were $356,819 and $334,023, respectively, an increase of 7%, or $22,796, and increased as a percentage of total revenue.  The increase was primarily driven by higher personnel-related costs, information technology costs, a one-time charge for sales and use taxes, and expenses associated with the pending Pandora acquisition; partially offset by lower legal costs.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, general and administrative expenses were $334,023 and $341,106, respectively, a decrease of 2%, or $7,083, and decreased as a percentage of total revenue.  The decrease was primarily driven by lower legal costs, litigation reserves and consulting costs. The decrease was partially offset by higher personnel-related costs.
We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase to support the growth of our business.
Depreciation and Amortization represents the recognition in earnings of the acquisition cost of assets used in operations, including our satellite constellations, property, equipment and intangible assets, over their estimated service lives.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, depreciation and amortization expense was $300,720 and $298,602, respectively, an increase of 1%, or $2,118, and decreased as a percentage of total revenue.  The depreciation increase was driven by additional assets placed in-service, partially offset by acceleration of amortization related to a shorter useful life of certain software during 2017.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, depreciation and amortization expense was $298,602 and $268,979, respectively, an increase of 11%, or $29,623, and increased as a percentage of total revenue. Depreciation increased as a result of the acceleration of amortization related to a shorter useful life of certain software as well as additional assets placed in-service.
Other Income (Expense)
Interest Expense includes interest on outstanding debt.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, interest expense was $350,073 and $345,820, respectively, an increase of 1%, or $4,253.  The increase was primarily due to higher average debt outstanding, partially offset by an increase in capitalized interest associated with the construction of new satellites.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, interest expense was $345,820 and $331,225, respectively, an increase of 4%, or $14,595. The increase was primarily due to higher average debt during the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to the year ended December 31, 2016. 
Loss on Extinguishment of Debt includes losses incurred as a result of the retirement of certain debt.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, loss on extinguishment of debt was $0 and $43,679, respectively.  During the year ended December 31, 2017, we recorded losses due to the redemption of our 4.25% Senior Notes due 2020, 5.75% Senior Notes due 2021, and 5.25% Senior Secured Notes due 2022.

32


2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, loss on extinguishment of debt, net, was $43,679 and $24,229, respectively.  During the year ended December 31, 2017, we recorded losses on extinguishment of debt due to the redemption of our 4.25% Senior Notes due 2020, 5.75% Senior Notes due 2021, and 5.25% Senior Secured Notes due 2022. During the year ended December 31, 2016, a loss was recorded on the redemption of our then outstanding 5.875% Senior Notes due 2020.
Other Income primarily includes realized and unrealized gains and losses, interest income, and our share of the income or loss of Sirius XM Canada.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, other income was $43,699 and $12,844, respectively.  Other income for the year ended December 31, 2018 was driven by unrealized gains of $42,617 from a fair value adjustment of our investment in Pandora, and interest earned on our loan to Sirius XM Canada of $10,302, partially offset by losses on other investments of $9,675. Other income for the year ended December 31, 2017, included interest earned on our loan to Sirius XM Canada, and our share of Sirius XM Canada's net income, partially offset by transaction costs associated with our investment in Pandora.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, other income was $12,844 and $14,985, respectively.  Other income for the year ended December 31, 2017 included interest earned on our loan to Sirius XM Canada, and our share of Sirius XM Canada's net income, partially offset by transaction costs associated with our investment in Pandora. Other income for the year ended December 31, 2016 was primarily driven by our share of Sirius XM Canada’s net income and dividends received from Sirius XM Canada in excess of our investment.
Income Taxes
Income Tax Expense includes the change in our deferred tax assets, foreign withholding taxes and current federal and state tax expenses.
2018 vs. 2017:  For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, income tax expense was $244,681 and $616,301, respectively, and our effective tax rate was 17.2% and 48.7%, respectively. On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cut and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”). The Tax Act made broad and complex changes to the U.S. tax code, including, accelerated depreciation that will allow for full expensing of qualified property. The Tax Act also reduced the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%.
The effective tax rate of 17.2% for the year ended December 31, 2018 was primarily impacted by the reduced federal tax rate to 21%, the recognition of excess tax benefits related to share based compensation and a benefit related to state and federal research and development credits.  The effective tax rate of 48.7% for the year ended December 31, 2017 was negatively impacted by the revaluation of our net deferred tax assets, excluding after tax credits as of December 31, 2017 as a result of the reduction of the federal corporate income tax rate. This was offset by the recognition of excess tax benefits related to share based compensation and a benefit related to federal research and development credits, under the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015.  Based on this revaluation, we recorded an additional tax expense of $184,599 to reduce our net deferred tax asset balance for the year ended December 31, 2017.
2017 vs. 2016:  For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, income tax expense was $616,301 and $345,727, respectively, and our effective tax rate was 48.7% and 31.7%, respectively. As a result of the reduction of the federal corporate income tax rate, we revalued our net deferred tax asset, excluding after tax credits, as of December 31, 2017.  Based on this revaluation, we recorded a net tax expense of $184,599 to reduce our net deferred tax asset balance, which was recorded as additional income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2017. Our effective tax rate increased by 14.6% to 48.7% primarily as a result of the revaluation of our net deferred tax asset. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, we recorded a $21,700 and a $66,326 tax credit, respectively, under the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015 related to research and development activities, which reduced our effective tax rate by 1.7% and 6.1%, respectively. 
As a result of the Tax Act and our tax planning strategies, we estimate our effective tax rate beginning in 2019 will be approximately 24.6%.


33


Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue - Revenue from Contracts with Customers.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842).
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other—Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract.
For additional information regarding “Recent Accounting Pronouncements,” refer to Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


Key Financial and Operating Performance Metrics
In this section, we present certain financial performance measures some of which are not calculated and presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“Non-GAAP”), which include free cash flow and adjusted EBITDA. We also present certain operating performance measures, which include average monthly revenue per subscriber, or ARPU; customer service and billing expenses, per average subscriber; and subscriber acquisition cost, or SAC, per installation. Our adjusted EBITDA excludes the impact of share-based payment expense and certain purchase price accounting adjustments related to the merger of Sirius and XM (the "XM Merger").  Additionally, when applicable, our adjusted EBITDA metric excludes the effect of significant items that do not relate to the on-going performance of our business.  We use these Non-GAAP financial and operating performance measures to manage our business, to set operational goals and as a basis for determining performance-based compensation for our employees. See the accompanying glossary on pages 41 through 45 for more details and for the reconciliation to the most directly comparable GAAP measure (where applicable).
We believe these Non-GAAP financial and operating performance measures provide useful information to investors regarding our financial condition and results of operations. We believe these Non-GAAP financial and operating performance measures may be useful to investors in evaluating our core trends because they provide a more direct view of our underlying costs. We believe investors may use our adjusted EBITDA to estimate our current enterprise value and to make investment decisions. We believe free cash flow provides useful supplemental information to investors regarding our cash available for future subscriber acquisitions and capital expenditures, to repurchase or retire debt, to acquire other companies and our ability to return capital to stockholders. By providing these Non-GAAP financial and operating performance measures, together with the reconciliations to the most directly comparable GAAP measure (where applicable), we believe we are enhancing investors' understanding of our business and our results of operations.
Our Non-GAAP financial measures should be viewed in addition to, and not as an alternative for or superior to, our reported results prepared in accordance with GAAP.  In addition, our Non-GAAP financial measures may not be comparable to similarly-titled measures by other companies.  Please refer to the glossary (pages 41 through 45) for a further discussion of such Non-GAAP financial and operating performance measures and reconciliations to the most directly comparable GAAP measure (where applicable).  Subscribers and subscription related revenues and expenses associated with our connected vehicle services and Sirius XM Canada are not included in our subscriber count or subscriber-based operating metrics.

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Set forth below are our subscriber balances as of December 31, 2018 compared to December 31, 2017 and as of December 31, 2017 compared to December 31, 2016.

As of December 31,
 
2018 vs 2017 Change
 
2017 vs 2016 Change

2018
 
2017

2016
 
Amount
 
%
 
Amount
 
%
Self-pay subscribers
28,915

 
27,513


25,951

 
1,402

 
5
 %
 
1,562

 
6
 %
Paid promotional subscribers
5,124

 
5,223


5,395

 
(99
)
 
(2
)%
 
(172
)
 
(3
)%
Ending subscribers
34,039

 
32,736


31,346

 
1,303

 
4
 %
 
1,390

 
4
 %

The following table contains our Non-GAAP financial and operating performance measures which are based on our adjusted results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016. The ARPU and SAC, per installation, metrics for the year ended December 31, 2018 have been reduced due to the adoption of the new revenue standard ASU 2014-09 as of January 1, 2018 by $0.24 and $0.26, respectively. For more information regarding the impact of the adoption of ASU 2014-09 on these metrics, refer to the glossary (pages 41 through 45). For more information regarding the adoption of the new revenue standard, refer to Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2018 vs 2017 Change

2017 vs 2016 Change
 
2018

2017
 
2016
 
Amount
 
%
 
Amount

%
Self-pay subscribers
1,402


1,562

 
1,663

 
(160
)
 
(10
)%
 
(101
)
 
(6
)%
Paid promotional subscribers
(99
)

(172
)
 
89

 
73

 
42
 %
 
(261
)
 
(293
)%
Net additions
1,303


1,390

 
1,752

 
(87
)
 
(6
)%
 
(362
)
 
(21
)%
Daily weighted average number of subscribers
33,345


31,866

 
30,494

 
1,479

 
5
 %
 
1,372

 
4
 %
Average self-pay monthly churn
1.7
%

1.8
%
 
1.9
%
 
(0.1
)%
 
(6
)%
 
(0.1
)%
 
(5
)%
New vehicle consumer conversion rate
39
%

40
%
 
39
%
 
(1
)%
 
(3
)%
 
1
 %
 
3
 %
 



 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

ARPU
$
13.34


$
13.25

 
$
12.91

 
$
0.09

 
1
 %
 
$
0.34

 
3
 %
SAC, per installation
$
25.66


$
29.53

 
$
30.61

 
$
(3.87
)
 
(13
)%
 
$
(1.08
)
 
(4
)%
Customer service and billing expenses, per average subscriber
$
0.88


$
0.94

 
$
1.00

 
$
(0.06
)
 
(6
)%
 
$
(0.06
)
 
(6
)%
Adjusted EBITDA
$
2,240,396


$
2,115,886

 
$
1,875,775

 
$
124,510

 
6
 %
 
$
240,111

 
13
 %
Free cash flow
$
1,517,110


$
1,559,772

 
$
1,509,113

 
$
(42,662
)
 
(3
)%
 
$
50,659

 
3
 %
Diluted weighted average common shares outstanding (GAAP)
4,560,720

 
4,723,535

 
4,964,728

 
(162,815
)
 
(3
)%
 
(241,193
)
 
(5
)%

Subscribers. At December 31, 2018, we had approximately 34.0 million subscribers, an increase of approximately 1.3 million subscribers, or 4%, from the approximately 32.7 million subscribers as of December 31, 2017. The increase in total subscribers was primarily due to growth in our self-pay subscriber base, which increased by approximately 1.4 million. The increase in self-pay subscribers was primarily driven by trial conversions by owners and lessees of new and used vehicles as well as subscriber win back programs, partially offset by deactivations.
2018 vs. 2017: For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, net additions were 1.3 million and 1.4 million, respectively, a decrease of 6%, or 0.1 million. Self-pay net additions primarily decreased due to decreased growth in trial conversions and gross add win-backs, partially offset by improvements in average self-pay monthly churn. The reduction of paid promotional subscribers improved due to higher shipments out-pacing declines in trial starts from automakers offering paid promotional subscriptions.
2017 vs. 2016: For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, net additions were 1.4 million and 1.8 million, respectively, a decrease of 21%, or 0.4 million. The decline of paid promotional net additions was due to paid promotional subscription ends out-pacing paid promotional subscription starts as starts from automakers offering paid promotional subscriptions remained relatively flat. Self-pay net additions declined due to higher vehicle turnover of our subscriber base mitigated by growth in gross additions.

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Average Self-pay Monthly Churn is derived by dividing the monthly average of self-pay deactivations for the period by the average number of self-pay subscribers for the period. (See accompanying glossary on pages 41 through 45 for more details.)
2018 vs. 2017: For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, our average self-pay monthly churn rate was 1.7% and 1.8%, respectively. The decrease was due to improvements in non-pay and voluntary churn.
2017 vs. 2016: For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, our average self-pay monthly churn rate was 1.8% and 1.9%, respectively. The decrease was due to improvements in non-pay and voluntary churn.
New Vehicle Consumer Conversion Rate is the percentage of owners and lessees of new vehicles that receive our service and convert to become self-paying subscribers after an initial promotional period. The metric excludes rental and fleet vehicles. (See accompanying glossary on pages 41 through 45 for more details).
2018 vs. 2017: For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, our new vehicle consumer conversion rate was 39% and 40%, respectively. The decrease was driven primarily by a decline in conversion of first time trial subscribers.
2017 vs. 2016: For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, our new vehicle consumer conversion rate was 40% and 39%, respectively. The increase was driven by improvements in the conversion of promotional subscribers who were also existing self-pay subscribers.
ARPU is derived from total earned subscriber revenue (excluding revenue derived from our connected vehicle services), net advertising revenue and other subscription-related revenue, divided by the number of months in the period, divided by the daily weighted average number of subscribers for the period. (See the accompanying glossary on pages 41 through 45 for more details.)
2018 vs. 2017: For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, ARPU was $13.34 and $13.25, respectively. The increase in certain of our subscription rates, including the U. S. Music Royalty Fee, and higher advertising revenue was negatively impacted by the adoption of the new revenue standard, effective as of January 1, 2018 of $0.24, and the growth in subscription discounts offered through customer acquisition and retention programs.
2017 vs. 2016: For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, ARPU was $13.25 and $12.91, respectively. The increase was driven primarily by increases in certain of our subscription rates in 2016, partially offset by growth in subscription discounts offered through customer acquisition and retention programs.
SAC, Per Installation, is derived from subscriber acquisition costs and margins from the sale of radios, components and accessories (excluding connected vehicle services), divided by the number of satellite radio installations in new vehicles and shipments of aftermarket radios for the period. (See the accompanying glossary on pages 41 through 45 for more details.)
2018 vs. 2017: For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, SAC, per installation, was $25.66 and $29.53, respectively. The decrease was driven by reductions to OEM hardware subsidy rates, our transition to a new generation of chipsets as well as the impact of the adoption of the new revenue standard, effective as of January 1, 2018, of $0.26.
2017 vs. 2016: For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, SAC, per installation, was $29.53 and $30.61, respectively. The decrease was driven by reductions to OEM hardware subsidy rates as well as lower subsidized costs related to the transition of chipsets.
Customer Service and Billing Expenses, Per Average Subscriber, is derived from total customer service and billing expenses, excluding connected vehicle customer service and billing expenses and share-based payment expense, divided by the number of months in the period, divided by the daily weighted average number of subscribers for the period. (See the accompanying glossary on pages 41 through 45 for more details.)
2018 vs. 2017: For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, customer service and billing expenses, per average subscriber, were $0.88 and $0.94, respectively. The decrease was primarily driven by lower call center costs due to lower agent rates, increased customer self-service resulting in lower contact rates and improved non-pay processes driving lower bad debt expense.
2017 vs. 2016: For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, customer service and billing expenses, per average subscriber, were $0.94 and $1.00, respectively. The decrease was primarily related to lower call center costs due to lower contact rates and lower agent rates, partially offset by higher transaction fees.

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Adjusted EBITDA. EBITDA is defined as net income before interest expense, income tax expense and depreciation and amortization.  Adjusted EBITDA excludes the impact of other income, loss on extinguishment of debt, acquisition related costs, other non-cash charges, such as certain purchase price accounting adjustments, share-based payment expense, loss on disposal of assets, and legal settlements and reserves related to the historical use of sound recordings. (See the accompanying glossary on pages 41 through 45 for a reconciliation to GAAP and for more details.)
2018 vs. 2017: For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, adjusted EBITDA was $2,240,396 and $2,115,886, respectively, an increase of 6%, or $124,510. The increase was due to: growth of 6% in total revenue which was primarily a result of the increase in our subscriber base; additional revenues from the U.S. Music Royalty Fee; an increase in advertising revenue; and lower subscriber acquisition costs. The increases were partially offset by higher revenue share and royalty, sales and marketing, programming and content, satellite and transmission, and general and administrative costs.
2017 vs. 2016: For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, adjusted EBITDA was $2,115,886 and $1,875,775, respectively, an increase of 13%, or $240,111. The increase was due to: a growth in revenues resulting from an increase in our subscriber base; an increase in certain of our subscription prices; an increase in Other revenue from higher revenue from Sirius XM Canada under the new Services Agreement and Advisory Services Agreement; additional amounts produced by the U.S. Music Royalty Fee; and lower general and administrative costs and subscriber acquisition costs. These favorable variances were partially offset by higher revenue share and royalty costs due to growth in our revenues and royalty rates, programming and content, sales and marketing and engineering, design and development costs.
Free Cash Flow includes cash provided by operations, net of additions to property and equipment, restricted and other investment activity and the return of capital from an investment in an unconsolidated entity. (See the accompanying glossary on pages 41 through 45 for a reconciliation to GAAP and for more details.)
2018 vs. 2017: For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, free cash flow was $1,517,110 and $1,559,772, respectively, a decrease of $42,662, or 3%. The decrease was driven by the one-time lump sum payment of $150,000 to resolve all outstanding claims under our statutory license for sound recordings for the period January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2017, an increase in additions to property and equipment due to the timing of payments for new satellite construction, and the timing of payments to vendors; partially offset by higher net cash provided by operating activities resulting from improved operating performance.
2017 vs. 2016: For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, free cash flow was $1,559,772 and $1,509,113, respectively, an increase of $50,659, or 3%. The increase was driven by higher net cash provided by operating activities resulting from improved operating performance, partially offset by an increase in additions to property and equipment resulting from new satellite construction.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
Cash Flows for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared with the year ended December 31, 2017 and the year ended December 31, 2017 compared with the year ended December 31, 2016
The following table presents a summary of our cash flow activity for the periods set forth below:
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 

 
 
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2018 vs 2017
 
2017 vs 2016
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
1,880,418

 
$
1,855,589

 
$
1,719,237

 
$
24,829

 
$
136,352

Net cash used in investing activities
(379,276
)
 
(1,146,349
)
 
(210,124
)
 
767,073

 
(936,225
)
Net cash used in financing activities
(1,515,146
)
 
(853,694
)
 
(1,407,012
)
 
(661,452
)
 
553,318

Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
(14,004
)
 
(144,454
)
 
102,101

 
130,450

 
(246,555
)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period
79,374

 
223,828

 
121,727

 
(144,454
)
 
102,101

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period
$
65,370

 
$
79,374

 
$
223,828

 
$
(14,004
)
 
$
(144,454
)

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Cash Flows Provided by Operating Activities
Cash flows provided by operating activities increased by $24,829 to $1,880,418 for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $1,855,589 for the year ended December 31, 2017. Cash flows provided by operating activities increased by $136,352 to $1,855,589 for the year ended December 31, 2017 from $1,719,237 for the year ended December 31, 2016.
Our largest source of cash provided by operating activities is cash generated by subscription and subscription-related revenues.  We also generate cash from the sale of advertising on certain non-music channels and the sale of satellite radios, components and accessories.  Our primary uses of cash from operating activities include revenue share and royalty payments to distributors, programming and content providers, and payments to radio manufacturers, distributors and automakers. In addition, uses of cash from operating activities include payments to vendors to service, maintain and acquire subscribers, general corporate expenditures, and compensation and related costs.
Cash Flows Used in Investing Activities
Cash flows used in investing activities in the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 were primarily due to additional spending to construct replacement satellites, improve our terrestrial repeater network, for capitalized software and hardware, deferred compensation and invest in other equity investees. We spent $166,632 and $139,937 on capitalized software and hardware as well as $132,317 and $99,980 to construct replacement satellites during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. In addition, cash flows used in investing activities in the year ended December 31, 2017 were primarily due to our investment in Pandora of $480,000, loans to related parties of $132,465, payments to acquire additional ownership in related parties (inclusive of transaction costs) of $132,205 and the acquisition of Automatic for $107,273 (net of cash and restricted cash acquired). In 2016, our cash flows used in investing activities were primarily due to additional spending of $43,300 to construct replacement satellites, improve our terrestrial repeater network and for capitalized software.
Cash Flows Used in Financing Activities
Cash flows used in financing activities consists of the issuance and repayment of long-term debt, the purchase of common stock under our share repurchase program, the payment of cash dividends and taxes paid in lieu of shares issued for stock-based compensation.  Proceeds from long-term debt have been used to fund our operations, construct and launch new satellites, invest in other infrastructure improvements and purchase shares of our common stock.
Cash flows used in financing activities in the year ended December 31, 2018 were primarily due to the purchase and retirement of shares of our common stock under our repurchase program for $1,314,286, the payment of cash dividends of $201,434, and payment of $119,625 for taxes paid in lieu of shares issued for share-based compensation, partially offset by net borrowings under the Credit Facility of $136,190. Cash flows used in financing activities in the year ended December 31, 2017 were primarily due to the redemption of $1,500,000 aggregate principal amount of then-outstanding notes, the purchase and retirement for $1,409,035 of shares of our common stock under our repurchase program, the payment of cash dividends of $190,242, and net repayments of $90,000 under the Credit Facility, partially offset by the issuance of $1,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 3.875% Senior Notes due 2022 and $1,500,000 aggregate principal amount of 5.00% Senior Notes due 2027. Cash flows used in financing activities in the year ended December 31, 2016 were primarily due to the purchase and retirement of shares of our common stock under our repurchase program for $1,673,518, the redemption of $650,000 of our then-outstanding 5.875% Senior Notes due 2020 and the payment of a cash dividend of $48,079, partially offset by the issuance of $1,000,000 aggregate principal amount of 5.375% Senior Notes due 2026 and $50,000 in net borrowings under the Credit Facility.
Future Liquidity and Capital Resource Requirements
Based upon our current business plans, we expect to fund operating expenses, capital expenditures, including the construction of replacement satellites, working capital requirements, interest payments, taxes and scheduled maturities of our debt with existing cash, cash flow from operations and borrowings under our Credit Facility.  As of December 31, 2018, $1,311,000 was available for future borrowing under our Credit Facility.  We believe that we have sufficient cash and cash equivalents, as well as debt capacity, to cover our estimated short-term and long-term funding needs, including amounts to construct, launch and insure replacement satellites, as well as fund stock repurchases, future dividend payments and strategic opportunities.
Our ability to meet our debt and other obligations depends on our future operating performance and on economic, financial, competitive and other factors. We continually review our operations for opportunities to adjust the timing of expenditures to ensure that sufficient resources are maintained.

38


We regularly evaluate our business plans and strategy. These evaluations often result in changes to our business plans and strategy, some of which may be material and significantly change our cash requirements. These changes in our business plans or strategy may include: the acquisition of unique or compelling programming; the development and introduction of new features or services; significant new or enhanced distribution arrangements; investments in infrastructure, such as satellites, equipment or radio spectrum; and acquisitions and investments, including acquisitions and investments that are not directly related to our satellite radio business.
Capital Return Program
As of December 31, 2018, our board of directors had authorized for repurchase an aggregate of $12,000,000 of our common stock.  As of December 31, 2018, our cumulative repurchases since December 2012 under our stock repurchase program totaled 2,683,109 shares for $10,674,252, and $1,325,748 remained available for additional repurchases under our existing stock repurchase program authorization.
On January 29, 2019, our board of directors approved an additional $2,000,000 for repurchase of our common stock. The new approval increases the amount of common stock that we have been authorized to repurchase to an aggregate of $14,000,000. Shares of common stock may be purchased from time to time on the open market and in privately negotiated transactions, including in accelerated stock repurchase transactions and transactions with Liberty Media and its affiliates. We intend to fund the additional repurchases through a combination of cash on hand, cash generated by operations and future borrowings.
On January 29, 2019, our board of directors declared a quarterly dividend in the amount of $0.0121 per share of common stock payable on February 28, 2019 to stockholders of record as of the close of business on February 11, 2019. Our board of directors expects to declare regular quarterly dividends, in an aggregate annual amount of $0.0484 per share of common stock.
Debt Covenants
The indentures governing Sirius XM's senior notes and the agreement governing the Credit Facility include restrictive covenants.  As of December 31, 2018, we were in compliance with such covenants.  For a discussion of our “Debt Covenants,” refer to Note 12 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
We do not have any significant off-balance sheet arrangements other than those disclosed in Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K that are reasonably likely to have a material effect on our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources.
Contractual Cash Commitments
For a discussion of our “Contractual Cash Commitments,” refer to Note 15 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Related Party Transactions
For a discussion of “Related Party Transactions,” refer to Note 11 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
We adopted the new revenue standard using the modified retrospective method by recognizing the cumulative effect of initially applying the new revenue standard to all non-completed contracts as of January 1, 2018 as an adjustment to opening Accumulated deficit in the period of adoption. For more information regarding the adoption of the new revenue standard, refer to Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP, which requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the periods. Accounting estimates require the use of significant management assumptions and judgments as to future events, and the effect of those events cannot be predicted with certainty. The

39


accounting estimates will change as new events occur, more experience is acquired and more information is obtained. We evaluate and update our assumptions and estimates on an ongoing basis and use outside experts to assist in that evaluation when we deem necessary. We have identified all significant accounting policies in Note 3 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Intangible Assets. Our intangible assets include goodwill, other indefinite-lived assets (our FCC licenses and trademarks) and definite-lived assets. Our annual impairment assessment of our goodwill and our indefinite-lived assets is performed as of the fourth quarter of each year. We also review our intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset is not recoverable. If an impairment exists, the impairment is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of an intangible asset exceeds its implied fair value.
Goodwill: ASC 350, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other, states that an entity should perform its annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. Under the updated guidance, the requirements for any reporting unit with a zero or negative carrying amount to perform a qualitative assessment is eliminated.
Indefinite-lived Assets: ASC 350-30-35, Intangibles - General Intangibles Other than Goodwill, provides for an option to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that an asset is impaired. If the qualitative assessment supports that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the asset exceeds its carrying value, a company is not required to perform a quantitative impairment test. If the qualitative assessment does not support that the fair value of the asset exceeds its carrying value, then a quantitative assessment is performed.
Definite-lived: We carry our definite-lived assets at cost less accumulated amortization.
Useful Life of Broadcast/Transmission System. Our satellite system includes the costs of our satellite construction, launch vehicles, launch insurance, capitalized interest, spare satellites, terrestrial repeater network and satellite uplink facilities. We monitor our satellites for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset is not recoverable.
We operate two in-orbit Sirius satellites, FM-5 and FM-6, which launched in 2009 and 2013, respectively, and estimate they will operate effectively through the end of their depreciable lives in 2024 and 2028, respectively.
We operate three in-orbit XM satellites, XM-3, XM-4 and XM-5. We estimate that our XM-3 and XM-4 satellites launched in 2005 and 2006, respectively, will reach the end of their depreciable lives in 2020 and 2021, respectively. Our XM-5 satellite was launched in 2010, is used as an in-orbit spare for the Sirius and XM systems and is expected to reach the end of its depreciable life in 2025.
Our satellites have been designed to last fifteen-years. Our in-orbit satellites may experience component failures which could adversely affect their useful lives. We monitor the operating condition of our in-orbit satellites and if events or circumstances indicate that the depreciable lives of our in-orbit satellites have changed, we will modify the depreciable life accordingly. If we were to revise our estimates, our depreciation expense would change.
Income Taxes. Deferred income taxes are recognized for the tax consequences related to temporary differences between the carrying amount of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for tax purposes, based on enacted tax laws and statutory tax rates applicable to the periods in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income.
We assess the recoverability of deferred tax assets at each reporting date and, where applicable, a valuation allowance is recognized when, based on the weight of all available evidence, it is considered more likely than not that all, or some portion, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Our assessment includes an analysis of whether deferred tax assets will be realized in the ordinary course of operations based on the available positive and negative evidence, including the scheduling of deferred tax liabilities and forecasted income from operations. The underlying assumptions we use in forecasting future taxable income require significant judgment. In the event that actual income from operations differs from forecasted amounts, or if we change our estimates of forecasted income from operations, we could record additional charges or reduce allowances in order to adjust the carrying value of deferred tax assets to their realizable amount. Such adjustments could be material to our consolidated financial statements.
As of December 31, 2018, we had a valuation allowance of $66,229 relating to deferred tax assets that are not more likely than not to be realized due to timing of certain state net operating loss limitations and acquired net operating losses that were not likely to be utilized.
ASC 740, Income Taxes, requires a company to first determine whether it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained based on its technical merits as of the reporting date, assuming that taxing authorities will examine the position and have full knowledge of all relevant information. A tax position that meets this more likely than not threshold is then measured and recognized at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than fifty percent likely to be realized upon effective

40


settlement with a taxing authority. If the tax position is not more likely than not to be sustained, the gross amount of the unrecognized tax position will not be recorded in the financial statements but will be shown in tabular format within the uncertain income tax positions. Changes in recognition or measurement are reflected in the period in which the change in judgment occurs due to the following conditions: (1) the tax position is “more likely than not” to be sustained, (2) the tax position, amount, and/or timing is ultimately settled through negotiation or litigation, or (3) the statute of limitations for the tax position has expired. A number of years may elapse before an uncertain tax position is effectively settled or until there is a lapse in the applicable statute of limitations. We record interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in Income tax expense in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income. As of December 31, 2018, the gross liability for income taxes associated with uncertain tax positions was $387,149.
Glossary
Adjusted EBITDA - EBITDA is defined as net income before interest expense, income tax expense and depreciation and amortization. We adjust EBITDA to exclude the impact of other income as well as certain other charges discussed below. Adjusted EBITDA is a Non-GAAP financial measure that excludes (if applicable): (i) certain adjustments as a result of the purchase price accounting for the XM Merger, (ii) share-based payment expense and (iii) other significant operating expense (income) that do not relate to the on-going performance of our business. We believe adjusted EBITDA is a useful measure of the underlying trend of our operating performance, which provides useful information about our business apart from the costs associated with our capital structure and purchase price accounting. We believe investors find this Non-GAAP financial measure useful when analyzing our past operating performance with our current performance and comparing our operating performance to the performance of other communications, entertainment and media companies. We believe investors use adjusted EBITDA to estimate our current enterprise value and to make investment decisions. As a result of large capital investments in our satellite radio system, our results of operations reflect significant charges for depreciation expense. We believe the exclusion of share-based payment expense is useful as it is not directly related to the operational conditions of our business. We also believe the exclusion of the legal settlements and reserves related to the historical use of sound recordings, acquisition related costs, loss on extinguishment of debt and loss on disposal of assets, to the extent they occur during the period, is useful as they are significant expenses not incurred as part of our normal operations for the period.

41


Adjusted EBITDA has certain limitations in that it does not take into account the impact to our statements of comprehensive income of certain expenses, including share-based payment expense and certain purchase price accounting for the XM Merger. We endeavor to compensate for the limitations of the Non-GAAP measure presented by also providing the comparable GAAP measure with equal or greater prominence and descriptions of the reconciling items, including quantifying such items, to derive the Non-GAAP measure.  Investors that wish to compare and evaluate our operating results after giving effect for these costs, should refer to net income as disclosed in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income. Since adjusted EBITDA is a Non-GAAP financial performance measure, our calculation of adjusted EBITDA may be susceptible to varying calculations; may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies; and should not be considered in isolation, as a substitute for, or superior to measures of financial performance prepared in accordance with GAAP. The reconciliation of net income to the adjusted EBITDA is calculated as follows:

For the Years Ended December 31,

2018
 
2017
 
2016
Net income:
$
1,175,893

 
$
647,908

 
$
745,933

Add back items excluded from Adjusted EBITDA:


 


 
 
Purchase price accounting adjustments:


 


 


Revenues
7,251

 
7,251

 
7,251

Sound recording legal settlements and reserves
69,144

 
45,100


45,900

Acquisition related costs
3,158

 

 

Loss on disposal of assets

 

 
12,912

Share-based payment expense
133,175

 
124,069

 
108,604

Depreciation and amortization
300,720

 
298,602

 
268,979

Interest expense
350,073

 
345,820

 
331,225

Loss on extinguishment of debt

 
43,679

 
24,229

Other (income) expense
(43,699
)
 
(12,844
)
 
(14,985
)
Income tax expense
244,681

 
616,301

 
345,727

Adjusted EBITDA
$
2,240,396

 
$
2,115,886

 
$
1,875,775

ARPU - is derived from total earned subscriber revenue (excluding revenue associated with our connected vehicle services), advertising revenue and other subscription-related revenue, divided by the number of months in the period, divided by the daily weighted average number of subscribers for the period. Other subscription-related revenue includes the U.S. Music Royalty Fee.  The ARPU for the year ended December 31, 2018 reflects adjustments as a result of adopting the new revenue standard as of January 1, 2018. ARPU is calculated as follows:
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Subscriber revenue, excluding connected vehicle services
$
4,482,382

 
$
4,388,676

 
$
4,108,547

Add: advertising revenue
187,569

 
160,347

 
138,231

Add: other subscription-related revenue
669,563

 
518,457

 
478,063

 
$
5,339,514

 
$
5,067,480

 
$
4,724,841

Daily weighted average number of subscribers
33,345

 
31,866

 
30,494

ARPU
$
13.34

 
$
13.25

 
$
12.91


42


The table below illustrates the impact that the adoption of the new revenue standard had on ARPU for the year ended December 31, 2018.
 
For the Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
As Reported
 
Impact of Adopting ASU 2014-09
 
Balances Without Adoption of ASU 2014-09
Subscriber revenue, excluding connected vehicle services
$
4,482,382

 
$
94,767

 
$
4,577,149

Add: advertising revenue
187,569

 

 
187,569

Add: other subscription-related revenue
669,563

 

 
669,563

 
$
5,339,514

 
$
94,767

 
$
5,434,281

Daily weighted average number of subscribers
33,345

 
33,345

 
33,345

ARPU
$
13.34

 
$
0.24

 
$
13.58


Average self-pay monthly churn - is defined as the monthly average of self-pay deactivations for the period divided by the average number of self-pay subscribers for the period.
Customer service and billing expenses, per average subscriber - is derived from total customer service and billing expenses, excluding connected vehicle customer service and billing expenses and share-based payment expense, divided by the number of months in the period, divided by the daily weighted average number of subscribers for the period. We believe the exclusion of share-based payment expense in our calculation of customer service and billing expenses, per average subscriber, is useful as share-based payment expense is not directly related to the operational conditions that give rise to variations in the components of our customer service and billing expenses. Customer service and billing expenses, per average subscriber, is calculated as follows:
 
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
Customer service and billing expenses, excluding connected vehicle services
$
357,997

 
$
365,005

 
$
367,978

Less: share-based payment expense
(4,558
)
 
(4,229
)
 
(3,735
)

$
353,439

 
$
360,776

 
$
364,243

Daily weighted average number of subscribers
33,345

 
31,866

 
30,494

Customer service and billing expenses, per average subscriber
$
0.88

 
$
0.94

 
$
1.00


43


Free cash flow - is derived from cash flow provided by operating activities, net of additions to property and equipment and purchases of other investments. Free cash flow is a metric that our management and board of directors use to evaluate the cash generated by our operations, net of capital expenditures and other investment activity. In a capital intensive business, with significant investments in satellites, we look at our operating cash flow, net of these investing cash outflows, to determine cash available for future subscriber acquisition and capital expenditures, to repurchase or retire debt, to acquire other companies and to evaluate our ability to return capital to stockholders. We exclude from free cash flow certain items that do not relate to the on-going performance of our business, such as cash outflows for acquisitions, strategic investments, and net loan activity with related parties and other equity investees. We believe free cash flow is an indicator of the long-term financial stability of our business.  Free cash flow, which is reconciled to “Net cash provided by operating activities,” is a Non-GAAP financial measure.  This measure can be calculated by deducting amounts under the captions “Additions to property and equipment” and deducting or adding Restricted and other investment activity from “Net cash provided by operating activities” from the consolidated statements of cash flows. Free cash flow should be used in conjunction with other GAAP financial performance measures and may not be comparable to free cash flow measures presented by other companies.  Free cash flow should be viewed as a supplemental measure rather than an alternative measure of cash flows from operating activities, as determined in accordance with GAAP.  Free cash flow is limited and does not represent remaining cash flows available for discretionary expenditures due to the fact that the measure does not deduct the payments required for debt maturities. We believe free cash flow provides useful supplemental information to investors regarding our current cash flow, along with other GAAP measures (such as cash flows from operating and investing activities), to determine our financial condition, and to compare our operating performance to other communications, entertainment and media companies. Free cash flow is calculated as follows:

For the Years Ended December 31,

2018
 
2017
 
2016
Cash Flow information
 
 
 
 


Net cash provided by operating activities
$
1,880,418

 
$
1,855,589

 
$
1,719,237

Net cash used in investing activities
$
(379,276
)
 
$
(1,146,349
)
 
$
(210,124
)
Net cash used in financing activities
$
(1,515,146
)
 
$
(853,694
)
 
$
(1,407,012
)
Free Cash Flow
 
 
 
 


Net cash provided by operating activities
$
1,880,418

 
$
1,855,589

 
$
1,719,237

Additions to property and equipment
(355,703
)
 
(287,970
)
 
(205,829
)
Purchases of other investments
(7,605
)
 
(7,847
)
 
(4,295
)
Free cash flow
$
1,517,110

 
$
1,559,772

 
$
1,509,113

New vehicle consumer conversion rate - is defined as the percentage of owners and lessees of new vehicles that receive our satellite radio service and convert to become self-paying subscribers after the initial promotion period. At the time satellite radio enabled vehicles are sold or leased, the owners or lessees generally receive trial subscriptions ranging from three to twelve months. We measure conversion rate three months after the period in which the promotional period ends. The metric excludes rental and fleet vehicles.
Subscriber acquisition cost, per installation - or SAC, per installation, is derived from subscriber acquisition costs and margins from the sale of radios, components and accessories (excluding connected vehicle services), divided by the number of satellite radio installations in new vehicles and shipments of aftermarket radios for the period.  The SAC, per installation, for the year ended December 31, 2018 reflects adjustments as a result of adopting the new revenue standard as of January 1, 2018. SAC, per installation, is calculated as follows:

For the Years Ended December 31,

2018
 
2017
 
2016
Subscriber acquisition costs, excluding connected vehicle services
$
470,336

 
$
499,492

 
$
512,809

Less: margin from sales of radios and accessories, excluding connected vehicle services
(122,347
)
 
(96,110
)
 
(78,065
)

$
347,989

 
$
403,382

 
$
434,744

Installations
13,563

 
13,662

 
14,203

SAC, per installation
$
25.66

 
$
29.53

 
$
30.61



44


The table below illustrates the impact that the adoption of the new revenue standard has had on SAC, per installation, for the year ended December 31, 2018.
 
For the Year Ended December 31, 2018
 
As Reported
 
Impact of Adopting ASU 2014-09
 
Balances Without Adoption of ASU 2014-09
Subscriber acquisition costs, excluding connected vehicle services
$
470,336

 
$
3,540

 
$
473,876

Less: margin from sales of radios and accessories, excluding connected vehicle services
(122,347
)
 

 
(122,347
)
 
$
347,989

 
$
3,540

 
$
351,529

Installations
13,563

 
13,563

 
13,563

SAC, per installation
$
25.66

 
$
0.26

 
$
25.92


ITEM 7A.
QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURE ABOUT MARKET RISK
As of December 31, 2018, we did not hold or issue any derivatives.  We hold investments in money market funds and certificates of deposit.  These securities are consistent with the objectives contained within our investment policy.  The basic objectives of our investment policy are the preservation of capital, maintaining sufficient liquidity to meet operating requirements and maximizing yield.
As of December 31, 2018, we also held the following investments:

Pandora Series A Preferred Stock, which we have elected to account for under the fair value option. As of December 31, 2018, the fair value of this investment was $523.1 million which was based on a Black-Scholes option pricing model and an income approach - discounted cash flow analysis. Had the market price of Pandora's common stock been 10% lower as of December 31, 2018, the value of this investment would have been approximately $2.1 million lower.

In connection with the recapitalization of Sirius XM Canada on May 25, 2017, we loaned Sirius XM Canada $130.8 million. The loan is considered a long-term investment with any unrealized gains or losses reported within Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income. The loan has a term of fifteen years, bears interest at a rate of 7.62% per annum and includes customary covenants and events of default, including an event of default relating to Sirius XM Canada’s failure to maintain specified leverage ratios. The carrying value of the loan as of December 31, 2018 was $126.0 million and approximated its fair value. The loan is denominated in Canadian dollars and it is subject to changes in foreign currency. Had the Canadian to U.S. dollar exchange rate been 10% lower as of December 31, 2018, the value of this loan would have been approximately $12.6 million lower.

Our debt includes fixed rate instruments and the fair market value of our debt is sensitive to changes in interest rates. Sirius XM's borrowings under the Credit Facility carry a variable interest rate based on LIBOR plus an applicable rate based on its debt to operating cash flow ratio.  We currently do not use interest rate derivative instruments to manage our exposure to interest rate fluctuations.
ITEM 8.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
See the Index to Consolidated Financial Statements and financial statements and financial statement schedule contained in Part IV, Item 15, herein, which are incorporated herein by reference.
ITEM 9.
CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
None.

45


ITEM 9A.
CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Controls and Procedures
We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our reports under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Securities and Exchange Commission's rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosures. Any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. An evaluation was performed under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including James E. Meyer, our Chief Executive Officer, and David J. Frear, our Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures (as that term is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act) as of December 31, 2018. Based on that evaluation, our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of December 31, 2018 at the reasonable assurance level.
There has been no change in our internal control over financial reporting (as that term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act) during the quarter ended December 31, 2018 that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Management's Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act. We have performed an evaluation under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management used the Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission to perform this evaluation. Based on that evaluation, our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of December 31, 2018.
KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, which has audited and reported on the consolidated financial statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, has issued its report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.
Audit Report of the Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
The effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 has been audited by KPMG LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their audit report appearing on page F-3 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

ITEM 9B.
OTHER INFORMATION
None.
PART III

ITEM 10.
DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
Information about our executive officers is contained in the discussion entitled “Executive Officers of the Registrant” in Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The additional information required by this Item 10 is incorporated in this report by reference to the applicable information in our definitive proxy statement for the 2019 annual meeting of stockholders set forth under the captions Stock Ownership, Governance of the Company, Item 1. Election of Directors and Item 2. Ratification of Independent Registered Public Accountants, which we expect to file with the Securities and Exchange Commission prior to April 30, 2019.
Code of Ethics
We have adopted a code of ethics that applies to all employees, including executive officers, and to directors.  The Code of Ethics is available on the Corporate Governance page of our website at www.siriusxm.com.  If we ever were to amend or

46


waive any provision of our Code of Ethics that applies to our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or any person performing similar functions, we intend to satisfy our disclosure obligations with respect to any such waiver or amendment by posting such information on our internet website set forth above rather than filing a Form 8-K.
ITEM 11.
EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
The information required by this Item 11 is incorporated in this report by reference to the applicable information in our definitive proxy statement for the 2019 annual meeting of stockholders set forth under the captions Item 1. Election of Directors and Executive Compensation, which we expect to file with the Securities and Exchange Commission prior to April 30, 2019.
ITEM 12.
SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
Certain information required by this Item 12 is set forth under the heading “Equity Compensation Plan Information” in Part II, Item 5, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
The additional information required by this Item 12 is incorporated in this report by reference to the applicable information in our definitive proxy statement for the 2019 annual meeting of stockholders set forth under the caption Stock Ownership, which we expect to file with the Securities and Exchange Commission