10-K 1 site-20231231.htm 10-K site-20231231
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 UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549 
__________________________
FORM 10-K
__________________________
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the Transition Period From __________ to ___________

Commission file number: 001-37760
SiteOne_logo_w_tag_2C.jpg
SiteOne Landscape Supply, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
__________________________
Delaware46-4056061
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
    
 300 Colonial Center Parkway, Suite 600, Roswell, Georgia 30076
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

(470) 277-7000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12 (b) of the Act:

Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per shareSITENew York Stock Exchange


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12 (g) of the Act:

None
(Title of class)



Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes    No   
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes    No   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes    No  ☐ 
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes     No   
As of July 2, 2023, there were 45,041,897 shares of common stock of SiteOne Landscape Supply, Inc. outstanding, and the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity of SiteOne Landscape Supply, Inc. held by non-affiliates (assuming only for purposes of this computation that directors and officers may be affiliates) was approximately $7,435,730,157 based on the closing price of SiteOne Landscape Supply, Inc.’s common stock on The New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) on June 30, 2023 (the last trading day of our most recently completed fiscal second quarter).
As of February 16, 2024, the number of shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding were 45,139,896, par value $0.01 per share.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s proxy statement to be filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with the registrant’s 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “Proxy Statement”) are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof. Such Proxy Statement will be filed within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page number

1

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements and Information
    This Annual Report on Form 10-K, other periodic reports filed by us under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and other written or oral statements made from time to time by our management contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Terms such as “may,” “intend,” “might,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expect,” “believe,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “predict,” “project,” “potential,” or the negative of these terms, and similar expressions often signify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that are beyond our control, and because they also relate to the future, they are likewise subject to inherent uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from the views, beliefs, and projections expressed in such statements. Further, any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which it is made or to reflect the occurrence of anticipated or unanticipated events or circumstances. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, the following:
cyclicality in residential and commercial construction markets;
general business, financial market, and economic conditions;
seasonality of our business and its impact on demand for our products;
weather and climate conditions;
prices for the products we purchase may fluctuate;
market variables, including inflation and elevated interest rates for prolonged periods;
increases in operating costs;
public perceptions that our products and services are not environmentally friendly or that our practices are not sustainable;
climate, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations;
hazardous materials and related materials;
laws and government regulations applicable to our business that could negatively impact demand for our products;
competitive industry pressures, including competition for our talent base;
supply chain disruptions, product or labor shortages, and the loss of key suppliers;
inventory management risks;
ability to implement our business strategies and achieve our growth objectives;
acquisition and integration risks, including increased competition for acquisitions;
risks associated with our large labor force and our customers’ labor force and labor market disruptions;
retention of key personnel;
construction defect and product liability claims;
impairment of goodwill;
adverse credit and financial markets events and conditions;
inefficient or ineffective allocation of capital;
credit sale risks;
performance of individual branches;
cybersecurity incidents involving our systems or third-party systems;
failure or malfunctions in our information technology systems;
security of personal information about our customers;
intellectual property and other proprietary rights;
unanticipated changes in our tax provisions;
threats from terrorism, violence, uncertain political conditions, and geopolitical conflicts such as the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the conflict in the Gaza Strip, and unrest in the Middle East;
risks related to our current indebtedness and our ability to obtain financing in the future;
financial institution disruptions;
risks related to our common stock; and
risks related to other factors discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

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    You should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date made. Factors or events that could cause our actual results to differ may emerge from time to time, and it is not possible to predict all of them. We assume no obligation and do not intend to update or revise any forward-looking statements that are made from time to time, either as a result of future developments, new information or otherwise, except as may be required by law.
    Comparisons of results for current and any prior periods are not intended to express any future trends, or indications of future performance, unless expressed as such, and should only be viewed as historical data.
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PART I

    As used in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, references to: “we,” “us,” “our,” “SiteOne,” or the “Company” refer to SiteOne Landscape Supply, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. The term “Holdings” refers to SiteOne Landscape Supply, Inc. individually without its subsidiaries. References to the “2023 Fiscal Year,” the “2022 Fiscal Year,” and the “2021 Fiscal Year” refer to the fiscal years ended December 31, 2023, January 1, 2023, and January 2, 2022, respectively.

Item 1. Business
    The following discussion of our business contains “forward-looking statements,” as discussed in “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements and Information” above. Our business, operations, and financial condition are subject to various risks as set forth in Part I, Item 1A., ‘‘Risk Factors’’ below. The following information should be read in conjunction with the Risk Factors, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Company Overview
    We are the largest and only national full product line wholesale distributor of landscape supplies in the United States and have a growing presence in Canada. Our customers are primarily residential and commercial landscape professionals who specialize in the design, installation, and maintenance of lawns, gardens, golf courses, and other outdoor spaces. As of December 31, 2023, we had over 690 branch locations in 45 U.S. states and six Canadian provinces. Through our expansive North American network, we offer a comprehensive selection of approximately 160,000 stock keeping units (“SKUs”) including irrigation supplies, fertilizer and control products (e.g., herbicides), hardscapes (including pavers, natural stone, and blocks), landscape accessories, nursery goods, outdoor lighting, and ice melt products to green industry professionals. We also provide value-added consultative services to complement our product offerings and to help our customers operate and grow their businesses. Our consultative services include assistance with irrigation project take-offs, commercial project planning, generation of sales leads, business operations, and product support services, as well as a series of technical and business management seminars that we call SiteOne University.
    Our typical customer is a private landscape contractor that operates in a single market. We interact regularly with our customers because of the recurring nature of landscape services and because most contractors buy products on an as-needed basis. We believe our high-touch customer service model strengthens relationships, builds loyalty, and drives repeat business. In addition, our broad product portfolio, convenient branch locations, and nationwide fleet of over 2,600 delivery vehicles position us well to meet the needs of our customers and ensure timely delivery of products. We source our products from approximately 5,500 suppliers, including the major irrigation equipment manufacturers, turf and ornamental fertilizer/chemical companies, and a variety of suppliers who specialize in nursery goods, outdoor lighting, hardscapes, and other landscape products.
    We have a balanced mix of sales across product categories, construction sectors, and end markets. We derived approximately 61% of our 2023 Fiscal Year Net sales from the residential construction sector, 31% from the commercial (including institutional) construction sector, and 8% from the recreational and other construction sector. By end market, we derived approximately 35% of our 2023 Fiscal Year Net sales from the sale of products relating to new construction of homes, commercial buildings and facilities, and recreational spaces. These products primarily include irrigation, hardscapes, landscape accessories, nursery, and outdoor lighting. The sale of products relating to maintenance of existing residential, commercial, and recreational properties accounted for approximately 34% of our 2023 Fiscal Year Net sales. The recurring nature of landscape maintenance demand helps to provide stability in our financial performance across economic cycles. Fertilizer and control products are the primary products used in maintenance. Approximately 31% of our 2023 Fiscal Year Net sales were derived from sales of products for the repair and upgrade of existing landscapes. These sales benefit from increasing existing home sales and rising consumer spending.
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Net Sales for the 2023 Fiscal Year
FY23 Pie Chart_final_v2.jpg
Our History
    Our company was established after Deere & Company (“Deere”) entered the wholesale landscape distribution market through the acquisitions of McGinnis Farms and Century Rain Aid in 2001, United Green Mark in 2005, and LESCO Inc. (“LESCO”) in 2007, each of which significantly expanded our geographic footprint and broadened our product portfolio. In December 2013, an affiliate of Clayton, Dubilier & Rice, LLC (“CD&R”) purchased a 60% interest in our company from Deere (“CD&R Acquisition”). On May 17, 2016, we completed the initial public offering of our common stock.
Our Industry
    Based on management’s estimates, we believe that our addressable market in North America for the wholesale distribution of landscape supplies represented approximately $25 billion in revenue in 2023. Growth in our industry is driven by a broad array of factors, including consumer spending, housing starts, existing home sales, home prices, mortgage interest rates, commercial, recreational, and residential construction, repair and remodeling spending, and demographic trends. Within the wholesale landscape supply industry, products sold for residential applications represent the largest construction sector, followed by the commercial, and recreational and other sectors. Based on management estimates, we believe that nursery products represent the largest product category in the industry, with sales accounting for more than one-third of industry sales, followed by landscape accessories with approximately one-fifth of industry sales, and each of control products, hardscapes, irrigation and outdoor lighting, and fertilizer and other products accounting for approximately one-tenth of industry sales.
    The wholesale landscape supply industry is highly fragmented, consisting primarily of regional private businesses that typically have a small geographic footprint, a limited product offering, and limited supplier relationships. Wholesale landscape supply distributors primarily sell to landscape service firms, ranging from sole proprietorships to national enterprises. Landscape service firms include general landscape contractors and specialty landscape firms, who provide services such as lawn care and tree and foliage maintenance. Over the past decade, professional landscape contractors have increasingly offered additional products and services to meet their customers’ needs. These firms historically needed to make numerous trips to branches in various locations to source their products. Consequently, landscape professionals have come to value distribution partners who offer a larger variety of product categories and services, particularly given the recurring nature of landscape maintenance services.
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Our Strategies
    Key elements of our strategy are as follows:
Build Upon Strong Customer and Supplier Relationships to Expand Organically
    Our national footprint and broad supplier relationships, combined with our regular interaction with a large and diverse customer base, make us an important link in the supply chain for landscape products. Our suppliers benefit from access to our more than 370,000 customers, a single point of contact for improved production planning and efficiency, and our ability to bring new product launches quickly to market on a national scale. We intend to keep increasing our size and scale in customer, geographic, and product reach, which we believe will continue to benefit our supplier base. We will continue to work with new and existing suppliers to maintain the most comprehensive product offering for our customers at competitive prices and enhance our role as a critical player in the supply chain.
Grow at the Local Level
    The vast majority of our customers operate at a local level. We believe we can grow market share in our existing markets with limited capital investment by systematically executing local strategies to expand our customer base, increase the amount of our customers’ total spending with us, optimize our network of locations, coordinate multi-site deliveries, partner with strategic local suppliers, introduce new products and services, increase our share of underrepresented products in particular markets, and improve sales force performance. We currently offer our full product line in only approximately 30% of the metropolitan statistical areas (“MSAs”) in the U.S. where we have a branch, and therefore believe we have the capacity to offer significantly more product lines and services in our geographic markets.
Pursue Value-Enhancing Strategic Acquisitions
    Through acquisitions, we have added new markets in the U.S. and Canada, new product lines, talented associates, and operational best practices. In addition, we increased our sales by introducing products from our existing portfolio to customers of newly acquired companies. We intend to continue pursuing strategic acquisitions to better serve our customers, grow our market share, and enhance our local market leadership positions by taking advantage of our scale, operational experience, and acquisition know-how. We currently have branches in approximately 50% of the 387 U.S. MSAs and are focused on identifying and reviewing attractive new geographic markets for expansion through acquisitions. We will continue to apply a selective and disciplined acquisition strategy to maximize synergies obtained from enhanced sales and lower procurement and administrative costs.
Execute on Identified Operational Initiatives
    We continue to undertake operational initiatives, utilizing our scale to improve our profitability, enhance supply chain efficiency, strengthen our category management capabilities, streamline and refine our marketing process, and invest in more sophisticated information technology systems and data analytics. Additionally, we have continued to advance our digital initiative, to include the enhancement of our website and business-to-business (“B2B”) e-Commerce platform. Although we are still in the early stages of these initiatives, they have already enhanced our customer service, contributed to improvement in our profitability, and we believe we will continue to benefit from these and other operational improvements.
Be the Employer of Choice
    We believe our associates are the key drivers of our success, and we aim to recruit, train, promote, and retain the most talented and success-driven personnel in the industry. Our size and scale enable us to offer structured training and career path opportunities for our associates. We have built a vibrant and entrepreneurial culture that rewards performance at the area and branch levels. We promote ongoing, open, and honest communication with our associates, including periodic engagement surveys, to ensure mutual trust, engagement, and performance improvement. We believe that high-performing local leaders coupled with creative, adaptable, and engaged associates are critical to our success and to maintaining our competitive position, and we are committed to being the employer of choice in our industry.
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Our Products and Services
    Our comprehensive portfolio of landscape products consists of approximately 160,000 SKUs from approximately 5,500 suppliers. Our product portfolio includes irrigation supplies, fertilizer and control products, hardscapes, landscape accessories, nursery goods, and outdoor lighting products. Our customers value our product breadth and geographic reach, as well as our on-site expertise and consultative services. While pricing is important to our customers, availability, convenience, and expertise are also important factors in their purchase decisions. In addition to other capabilities, our ability to offer the significant yard space and special equipment required by items such as hardscapes and nursery goods provides us with a competitive advantage over many competitors who offer a more limited selection of product categories.
    Refer to “Note 2. Revenue from Contracts with Customers” to our audited financial statements for information on our Net sales of landscaping products (irrigation supplies, hardscapes, landscape accessories, nursery goods, and outdoor lighting) and agronomic and other products (fertilizer, control products, ice melt, equipment, and other products).
Irrigation Supplies
    Our irrigation products include controllers, valves, sprinkler heads, irrigation pipe, and micro-irrigation or drip products. The market for irrigation products has historically provided stable growth and is driven primarily by new home and commercial construction and maintenance of existing irrigation systems.
Fertilizer and Other
    Our fertilizer and other products include fertilizer, grass seed, and ice melt products. Fertilizer products are sold to the maintenance end market and accordingly are relatively stable through economic cycles.
Control Products
    Our control products are specialty products that include herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, and other pesticides. Similar to fertilizer products, control products sales are strongly tied to the maintenance end market and accordingly are relatively stable through economic cycles.
Hardscapes
    Our Hardscapes include pavers, natural stone, blocks, and other durable materials.
Landscape Accessories
    Our landscape accessories products include mulches, soil amendments, drainage pipe, tools, and sod. Landscape accessories are typically sold in combination with other landscape supply products. As a result, sales of these accessories are often tied to sales of fertilizers and control products, as well as sales of nursery goods and hardscapes.
Nursery Goods
    Our nursery goods include deciduous and evergreen shrubs, ornamental, shade, and evergreen trees, both field-grown and container-grown nursery stock, roses, perennials, annuals, bulbs, and thousands of plant species and cultivars that are available in a number of container sizes, heights, forms, and bloom colors.
Outdoor Lighting
    Our outdoor lighting products include lighting fixtures (path, area, accent, up, down, well, hardscape, deck, underwater, bistro, and holiday), LED lamps, wire, transformers, and accessories.
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Proprietary Branded Products
    In addition to distributing branded products of third parties, we offer products under our proprietary brands. Sales of LESCO®, SiteOne Green Tech®, and Pro-Trade® together accounted for approximately 14% of our 2023 Fiscal Year Net sales, the large majority of which is attributable to LESCO®.
LESCO®
    LESCO® is a premium brand and maintains strong brand awareness with golf and professional landscape contractors. Under the LESCO® brand, we offer formulations of fertilizer (liquid and granular), combination products (pesticides on a fertilizer carrier), control products (liquid and granular pesticides), specialty chemicals, turf seed, application equipment (engine powered and walk behind or other non-engine powered), paint, maintenance products like engine oil, windshield washer fluid, ice melt, trimmer line, and soil tests. LESCO® products are sold through our branches and retail outlets such as The Home Depot and Lowe’s.
SiteOne Green Tech®
    We offer pre-packaged landscape and irrigation management solutions that are designed to help customers manage and conserve water under the SiteOne Green Tech® brand. The core SiteOne Green Tech® product lines include central irrigation control systems, solar assemblies, fertilizer injection systems, irrigation pumps, and hand-held remote control equipment.
Pro-Trade®
    In 2017, we launched a line of professional-grade landscape lighting fixtures, LED lamps, and transformers under our Pro-Trade® brand. The Pro-Trade® line of products is sold exclusively through our branches and website, and has expanded to include irrigation supplies, outdoor lighting, and landscape accessories. During the 2023 Fiscal Year, we expanded our Pro-Trade® offering in products such as drip tubing, centrifugal pumps, long handle tools, and safety gloves. We plan to continue expanding our Pro-Trade® line of products in the 2024 Fiscal Year.
Services
    We offer a variety of complementary, value-added services to support the sale of our products. We do not derive separate revenue for these services, but we believe they are an important differentiator in establishing our value proposition to our customers.
Product Knowledge and Technical Expertise
    Consultative services provided by our local staff, many of whom are former landscape contractors or golf course superintendents, include product selection and support, assistance with design and implementation of landscape projects, and potential sales leads for new business opportunities. Our SiteOne University program provides customers with access to substantive training and informational seminars that directly support the growth of their businesses. The program includes technical training, licensing, certifications, and business management seminars. In addition, our product category experts provide technical knowledge on the features and benefits of our products as well as installation techniques.
Project Services
    We partner with our customers by providing consultative services to help them save time, money, and effort in bidding for new projects and for new landscape installations. Our regionally based project services teams specialize in quoting, estimating, and completing sales for customers who compete in the commercial construction sector. Other services provided by our project services teams include assistance with specifications and irrigation project take-offs.
Partners Program
    We offer a loyalty rewards program, our Partners Program, which had approximately 37,000 enrolled customers as of December 31, 2023 and provides business and personal rewards, access to business services at preferred rates, and technical training and support. Reward points may be utilized, for example, for on-account credits, trips and special events, gift cards to major retailers, and SiteOne University courses and educational events. Access is also provided to preferred rate business services and includes, for example, payroll and select human resource services, cell phone services, office supplies, and fuel rebates. For the 2023 Fiscal Year, Partners Program participants accounted for approximately 55% of our Net sales.
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Operational Structure
    Our operational philosophy is to create local area teams and branch networks specifically designed to best meet our customers’ needs at the local market level, while supporting these teams with the resources of a large company delivered through regional and divisional management, including company-wide support functions.
    At the local market level, we organize our over 690 branches and approximately 630 outside sales representatives into 39 designated “areas” that each typically serve a defined geography, a large MSA, or a combination of MSAs in close proximity. Area Managers are responsible for organization and talent planning, branch operations, sales strategy, and product delivery strategy. Area Managers are supported by Area Business Managers and Area Sales Managers who are responsible for executing the local market and operating strategies as well as key initiatives to grow sales and profitability.
    We support our over 690 branches and 39 areas with regional management and company-wide support functions by providing: management of business performance, development and execution of local strategies, sharing of best practices, execution and integration of acquisitions, finance and accounting expertise (including financial planning and analysis, credit/collections, payables, and other shared services), category management and procurement, supply chain (e.g., planners and buyers), pricing strategies, marketing, and information technology. Our integrated branches utilize a single technology platform, allowing us to leverage our full operational scale for procurement, inventory management, financial support, data analytics, and performance reporting.
    Our outside sales force is organized by geographic area. Each area maintains a number of outside sales representatives who drive sales growth on behalf of several branches across a variety of accounts from landscape contractors to municipal agencies. We also maintain a sales force of agronomic sales representatives who are focused on growing sales with customers in the golf industry. Our agronomic sellers also focus on contractors in the lawn care operations, maintenance and development, and sports turf verticals.
    
    We have a national account sales organization that leads sales strategy and execution for our largest national and regional customers. The national sales team is organized around nine different market verticals: facility management, golf, international, lawn care operators, maintenance and development, pest control, retail, sod, and tree service accounts. Each national account manager is responsible for a group of large accounts and coordinates our business with these customers both nationally and locally through our local sales representatives. National account managers negotiate national programs with our largest customers in order to increase our share of their business.
Distribution Network
    We use two distribution models to offer a comprehensive selection of products and meet the needs of each local market.
Branches
    Our branch network is the core of our operations and creates a valuable connection between our suppliers and our customers. Of our approximately 5,500 suppliers, few are set up to serve the shipping needs of our customers as their supply chains are typically focused on bulk quantity shipments. In contrast, many of our customers often require comparatively small quantities of products from numerous suppliers to complete a typical project, making it difficult to source directly from those suppliers. Our branch network provides significant value to our suppliers by maintaining local availability of core and complementary products in quantities our customers need.
    The majority of our branches carry multiple product categories, but do not carry all. Branches that carry our full product lines combine our regular branch facilities with large 5-to-30 acre yards suitable for nursery goods and hardscape products. Yards are well-equipped to manage truckload-purchased landscape, nursery, and hardscape products and can maintain a diverse variety of greenhouse and nursery plants. All locations offering nursery goods have water distribution systems to maintain inventories, and many of these locations have access to municipal water supplies, wells, or ponds. Branches are strategically located near residential areas with convenient highway access. In-store merchandising displays are utilized to emphasize product features and seasonal promotions. We primarily lease 5,000 to 15,000 square foot facilities in both freestanding and multi-tenant buildings with secured outside storage yards averaging from 10,000 to 20,000 square feet.
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Direct Distribution
    Our direct distribution business provides point-to-point logistics for bulk quantities of landscape products between suppliers and customers, providing customers with sourcing and logistics support services for inventory management and delivery, and in many cases, these services are more economical than the producers might otherwise provide. We believe that producers view us not as competitors, but as providers of a valuable service, brokering these large orders through the use of our network. We typically do not maintain inventory for direct distribution, but rather use our existing supplier relationships, marketing expertise, and ordering and logistics infrastructure to serve this demand, requiring less working capital investment for these sales. Approximately 5% of our 2023 Fiscal Year Net sales were from direct distribution.
    Direct distribution is preferred for contractors with large projects, typically designed by professional landscape architects. Contractors work hand-in-hand with our outside sales and inside sales teams, including project planning support with material take-offs, product sourcing, and bid preparation. Using our large supplier network, our associates arrange convenient direct shipments to jobs, which are coordinated and staged according to each phase of the construction. This distribution channel primarily handles bulk nursery, agronomic, landscape, and hardscape products.
Customers
    Our customers are primarily residential and commercial landscape professionals who specialize in the design, installation, and maintenance of lawns, gardens, golf courses, and other outdoor spaces. Our customer base consists of more than 370,000 firms and individuals, with our top 10 customers collectively accounting for less than 4% of our 2023 Fiscal Year Net sales, with no single customer accounting for more than 2% of Net sales. Small customers, with annual purchases of up to $25,000, made up 22% of our 2023 Fiscal Year Net sales. Medium customers, with annual purchases from $25,000 up to $150,000, made up 32% of our 2023 Fiscal Year Net sales. Large customers, with annual purchases over $150,000, made up 46% of our 2023 Fiscal Year Net sales. Some of our largest customers include BrightView, Weed Man, Yellowstone Landscape, The Home Depot, Heartland, and Davey Tree. Distribution of our LESCO® proprietary branded products on a wholesale basis to retailers represented less than 1% of our 2023 Fiscal Year Net sales.
Suppliers
    We source our products from approximately 5,500 suppliers, including the major irrigation equipment manufacturers, turf and ornamental fertilizer/chemical companies, and a variety of suppliers who specialize in nursery goods, outdoor lighting, hardscapes, and other landscape products. Some of our largest suppliers include Hunter Industries, Rain Bird, Oldcastle, Cresline, Turf Care Supply, NDS, Envu, Spears Manufacturing, Toro, and Syngenta. Purchases from our top 10 suppliers accounted for approximately 32% of total purchases for the 2023 Fiscal Year.
    We generally procure our products through purchase orders rather than under long-term contracts with firm commitments. We work to develop strong relationships with a select group of suppliers that we target based on a number of factors, including brand and market recognition, price, quality, product support, service levels, delivery terms, and their strategic positioning. We typically have annual supplier agreements, and while they generally do not provide for specific product pricing, many include volume-based financial incentives that we earn by meeting or exceeding purchase volume targets. Our ability to earn these volume-based incentives is an important factor in our financial results. In certain cases, we enter into supply contracts with terms that exceed one year for the manufacture of our LESCO® branded fertilizer, some nursery goods, grass seed, and landscape supply products, which may require us to purchase products in the future.
Competition
    The majority of our competition comes from other wholesale landscape supply distributors. Among wholesale distributors, we primarily compete against a small number of regional distributors and many small, local, privately-owned distributors. Some of our competitors carry several product categories, while others mainly focus on one product category such as irrigation, fertilizer and control products, nursery goods, or hardscapes. We are the only national wholesale distributor to carry a full product line of landscape supplies.
    We believe our top nine largest competitors include Heritage Landscape Supply Group (a subsidiary of SRS Distribution), Ewing, Horizon Distributors (a subsidiary of Pool Corporation), Harrell’s, BWI, Target Specialty Products, Outdoor Living Supply, Central Turf and Irrigation Supply, and Howard Fertilizer and Chemical.
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    We believe regional or local competitors comprise approximately 83% of the landscape supply industry based on 2023 Net sales. The principal competitive factors in our business include, but are not limited to, location, availability of materials and supplies, technical product knowledge and expertise, advisory or other service capabilities, delivery capabilities, pricing of products, and availability of credit.
Human Capital Management and Sustainability
    At SiteOne, we believe our associates are our greatest asset and the safety, health, and wellness of our associates and their families is a top priority. The support we offer to our associates is an important part of our vision to be a great place to work and the employer of choice in the green industry.
    As of December 31, 2023, we employed approximately 7,800 associates, none of whom were affiliated with labor unions. We periodically administer a company-wide associate engagement survey, the most recent of which occurred in November 2023, and we believe that we have good relations with our associates. Approximately 92% of our associates are employed on a full-time, year-round basis. Our associate count currently includes approximately 430 seasonal associates, who are temporarily employed due to the weather-dependent nature of our business. An associate is anyone employed by the Company.
Safety
    The first element of our SiteOne DNA is “Always Safe,” which means that we take personal responsibility for our own safety and for the safety of others. Our leadership team is focused on creating a culture of safety and evaluating ways to improve our operations that reduce the most common forms of on-the-job injuries. Our safety initiatives include:
Our Environmental, Health, and Safety team, which further enhances our safety efforts by establishing and monitoring safe work practices to prevent customer and associate injuries. As a result, we invest in safety equipment and practices at all branches with the goal of eliminating workplace injuries.
A designated Safety Champion in each of our branches. Our Safety Champions are high potential, well-respected associates who help demonstrate and influence our culture of safety. Our goal is a robust culture of safety with all associates committed to working safely, every task, every day, 100% of the time.
Diversity and Inclusion
    We believe in the power of teamwork and in creating a great place to work for all our associates, no matter their race, age, gender, sexual orientation, or military status. At SiteOne, a culture in which all of our associates are respected and valued is critical. Our diversity and inclusion efforts focus on creating a work environment that is respectful and supportive of each of our associates and which places the team first. Our initiatives and actions include the following:
Metrics in certain field and field support associates’ short-term incentive bonus plans intended to increase the Company’s diversity.
Associate Resource Groups (“ARGs”), which are voluntary, associate-led groups tied to an aspect of diversity. Membership in each ARG is open to all SiteOne associates and diverse representation is encouraged. ARGs support business objectives, create diversity awareness, and offer an avenue of development for associates. Our ARGs include the following:
Black Resource Inclusion and Diversity Group for Excellence – BR1DGE provides a network for Black associates to be connected and supported, and to process and discuss life experiences in a safe space.
INSP1RE – INSP1RE fosters an inclusive culture with a focus on our extended Asian community – South Asia, South-East Asia, East Asia, Asian Pacific Islander, Asian American, and beyond, creating a platform for our teams to feel inspired, empowered, celebrated, and supported.
UN1DOS – UN1DOS attracts and retains engaged and diverse associates while enhancing SiteOne’s understanding of and relationships with Hispanic communities and customers.
VETS1 – VETS1 fosters an environment of diverse and engaged associates while developing SiteOne’s understanding of and relationships with veteran associates, customers, and communities.
Women in the Green Growing – W1GG promotes an environment of diverse and engaged associates while advocating female growth within SiteOne and the green industry.
The creation of a Diversity & Inclusion Council during 2020 that consists of ARG leaders, select operational and functional leaders, our Executive Vice President of Human Resources, and our Chief Executive Officer. The Diversity & Inclusion Council assists executive leadership in the creation and execution of the Company’s inclusion strategy, including key action items and milestones.
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Increasing our Spanish-speaking capabilities in our branches to better meet the needs of our growing customer base.
Partnering with Sigma Alpha, a professional agricultural sorority, to develop a pipeline of female talent. For the past five years, female associates of SiteOne have mentored over 100 students across the country, leading to hiring Sigma Alpha sisters in both our internship and entry level roles in both field operations and field support.
Other diversity and inclusion partnerships and initiatives, including Minorities in Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Related Sciences (“MANRRS”) sponsorship, high school recruiting programs, particularly with JR MANRRS, Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Hispanic Serving Institutions recruiting strategies, and veteran programs like Hiring Our Heroes, which has resulted in 100% conversion from fellowships to full-time hires.
Benefits
    We offer a competitive benefits package with the goal of enabling our associates to get the most out of work and life. Among our benefits, we offer a paid military leave benefit that provides additional resources to our full-time associates as they continue to serve our country. In addition, given the difficulties our associates experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic, we adjusted our PTO carry-over rule for the 2021 Fiscal Year and the 2022 Fiscal Year to allow associates to carry over additional hours into the following year. We also offer a paid parental leave benefit for our full-time associates to help parents during the early days of parenthood. The parental leave benefit provides time away from work within the first year of the birth or adoption of a child with 100% of base pay.
    In the 2022 Fiscal Year, we launched SiteOne CARES, a grant assistance program designed to help our associates cope with unexpected financial challenges arising from personal hardships. We made an initial contribution of $75,000 to the SiteOne Cares fund and matched 100% of every associate contribution up to the first $25,000 of associate donations. As of December 31, 2023, we reached over $40,000 in associate donations to the fund and assisted 34 associates in need. In 2024, we made another contribution of $75,000 to the SiteOne Cares fund, with a commitment to match the next $25,000 in associate donations.
    In the 2022 Fiscal Year, we created a new bonus program for our hourly associates. In the 2023 and 2022 Fiscal Years, approximately 2,340 and 2,750 associates, respectively, received the bonus with payments totaling approximately $1.4 million and $2.2 million, respectively. This program made all of our previously ineligible associates eligible to receive a bonus. We continue to review our compensation and benefits program to ensure we offer a competitive total rewards package.
Training and Development    
    We believe the training provided through our development programs and our entrepreneurial, performance-based culture delivers significant benefits to our associates. Targeted skills training is designed around an associate’s development and career interests. We offer certification programs that include instructor-led training, online learning, in-field work, and exit exams. We also facilitate leadership training to develop an understanding of leadership style, our values, and key coaching techniques.
Engagement
    We administer associate engagement surveys to determine how we are doing in our mission to be the employer of choice in the green industry. We review the survey results with all of our associates and seek their involvement in developing and executing action plans to continue our workplace improvements. We monitor associate satisfaction and aim to strengthen our pipeline of top talent by conducting talent reviews and succession planning for all critical roles in the organization. We identify, communicate, and utilize career development paths for key roles. This includes not only an upward path for associates, but exposure to parallel roles across the organization.
Sustainability
    We also believe it is important to provide our stockholders with important information about our sustainability-related performance. As part of this commitment, we published our annual IMPACT Report in October 2023, which details our programs and progress across a number of important sustainability topics. Our IMPACT Report follows the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (“SASB”) and Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (“TCFD”) frameworks and includes the disclosure of quantitative metrics relevant to our business and industry. Among other examples of such commitment, we have identified certain short-, medium-, and long-term climate-related risks and opportunities for the Company’s business, strategy, and financial planning. We have also engaged a leading sustainability consultant to review our greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions inventory, develop a management plan, and oversee data collection and gap analysis, as well as have made several investments in technology and processes that will allow us to gather data and track our usage, including with respect to our fleet management services and our utility expense management services. We anticipate that our engagement with a leading sustainability consultant and our investment in our utility expense management services will allow us to disclose water usage data in the future.
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Service Marks, Trademarks and Trade Names
    We hold various trademark registrations, including SiteOne®, LESCO®, SiteOne Green Tech®, and Pro-Trade®, which we consider important to our marketing activities. Generally, trademark rights have a perpetual life, provided they are renewed on a timely basis and continue to be used properly as trademarks. We intend to maintain these trademark registrations and the other trademarks associated with our business so long as they remain valuable to our business. In addition, other than commercially available software licenses, we do not believe that any of our licenses for third-party intellectual property are material to our business, taken as a whole.
Weather Conditions and Seasonality
    For a discussion regarding seasonality and weather, refer to Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Weather Conditions and Seasonality” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Regulatory Compliance
Government Regulations
    We are subject to various federal, state, provincial, and local laws and regulations, compliance with which increases our operating costs, limits or restricts the products and services we provide or the methods by which we offer and sell those products and services or conduct our business, and subjects us to the possibility of regulatory actions or proceedings. Noncompliance with these laws and regulations can subject us to fines or various forms of civil or criminal prosecution, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
    These federal, state, provincial, and local laws and regulations include laws relating to consumer protection, wage and hour, deceptive trade practices, permitting and licensing, state contractor laws, workers’ safety, tax, healthcare reforms, collective bargaining and other labor matters, environmental, cybersecurity, and employee benefits.
Environmental, Health and Safety Matters
    We are subject to numerous federal, state, provincial, and local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including laws that regulate the emission or discharge of materials into the environment, govern the use, handling, treatment, storage, disposal, and management of hazardous substances and wastes, protect the health and safety of our associates and users of our products, and impose liability for investigating and remediating, and damages resulting from, present and past releases of hazardous substances at sites we have ever owned, leased or operated, or used as a disposal site.
    In the United States, we are regulated under many environmental, health and safety laws, including the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Occupational Safety and Health Act, each as amended. Certain laws, such as those requiring the registration of herbicides and pesticides, and regulating their use, also involve the oversight of regulatory authorities and public health agencies. Although we strive to comply with such laws and have processes in place designed to achieve compliance, we may be unable to prevent violations of these or other laws from occurring. We could also incur significant investigation and clean-up costs for contamination at any currently or formerly owned or operated facilities, including LESCO’s manufacturing and blending facilities. Refer to “Note 10. Commitments and Contingencies” to our audited consolidated financial statements for additional information.
    In addition, we cannot predict the effect of possible future environmental, health, or safety laws on our operations. Changes in, or new interpretations of, existing laws, regulations or enforcement policies, the discovery of previously unknown contamination, or the imposition of other environmental liabilities or obligations in the future, including obligations with respect to any potential health hazards of our products, may lead to additional compliance or other costs.
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Available Information
    We make available free of charge on the “Investor Relations” page of our website, www.siteone.com, our filed and furnished reports on Forms 10-K, 10-Q, and 8-K, and all amendments thereto, as soon as reasonably practicable after the reports are filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). We also use our website as a means of disclosing additional information, including for complying with our disclosure obligations under the SEC’s Regulation FD (“Fair Disclosure”).
    Our annual corporate responsibility report (“IMPACT Report”), Corporate Governance Guidelines, Board of Directors Communication Policy, Business Code of Conduct and Ethics, Financial Code of Ethics, and the Charters of the Audit Committee, the Human Resources and Compensation Committee, and the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee of the Board of Directors are also available on the “Investor Relations” page of our website. In addition, we include a Stakeholder Impact section on the “Investor Relations” page of our website. The information contained on our website is not incorporated herein by reference. Copies of these documents (without exhibits, when applicable) are also available free of charge upon request to us at 300 Colonial Center Parkway, Suite 600, Roswell, Georgia 30076, Attention: Investor Relations or by telephone at (404) 277-7000. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy, and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, including us, that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov. We are required to disclose any change to, or waiver from, our Business Code of Conduct and Ethics for our executive officers and members of our Board of Directors. We use our website to disseminate this disclosure as permitted by applicable SEC rules.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
You should carefully consider the factors described below, in addition to the other information set forth in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These risk factors are important to understanding the contents of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and of other reports. Our reputation, business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows are subject to various risks. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones relevant to us. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also adversely impact our reputation, business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
Risk Factor Summary

The following is a summary of the principal risks that could adversely affect our business, operations, and financial results:

Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry
Cyclicality in our business could result in lower Net sales and reduced cash flows and profitability.
Our business is affected by general business, financial market, and economic conditions.
Seasonality affects the demand for our products and services and our results of operations and cash flows.
Our operations are substantially dependent on weather and climate conditions.
The prices and costs of the products we purchase may be subject to large and significant price fluctuations.
Market variables and other events outside of our control could cause our Cost of goods sold and operating costs to grow more rapidly than Net sales.
Inflation and increases in operating costs have adversely impacted, and may in the future continue to adversely impact, our business.
Public perceptions that the products we use and the services we deliver are not environmentally friendly or safe or that our practices are not sustainable may result in significant costs and adversely impact the demand for our products or services.
Compliance with, or liabilities under, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including laws and regulations pertaining to the use and application of our products and climate change legislation, could result in significant costs.
Our business exposes us to risks associated with hazardous materials and related activities, not all of which are covered by insurance.
Laws and government regulations applicable to our business could increase our legal and regulatory expenses, and impact our business.
Increased competitive pressures could reduce our market share.
We may face supply chain delays or interruptions, product shortages, or the loss of key suppliers or fail to develop relationships with qualified suppliers.
We are subject to inventory management risks.
We may not successfully implement our business strategies, including achieving our growth objectives.
We may be unable to successfully acquire and integrate other businesses or increased competition for those businesses may result in less favorable acquisition terms.
We face risks associated with our labor force and our customers’ labor force.
We may not be able to attract or retain key executives.
We are exposed to construction defect and product liability claims as well as other legal proceedings.
An impairment of goodwill and/or other intangible assets could reduce Net income.
We may face adverse credit and financial market events and conditions.
We may be inefficient or ineffective in capital allocation.
We may fail to collect monies owed by our credit sale customers.
The operating results of individual branches may vary.
We could experience operational interruptions, incur substantial additional costs, become subject to legal or regulatory proceedings or suffer damage to our reputation in the event of a cybersecurity incident.
A large-scale malfunction or failure in our information technology systems could disrupt our business, create potential liabilities for us, or limit our ability to effectively monitor, operate, and control our operations.
We may fail to protect the security of personal information about our customers.
We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights that are material to our business.
We may be subject to unanticipated changes in our tax provisions.
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We may face acts or threats of terrorism, public health emergencies, violence, or unfavorable or uncertain political conditions.

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
We have outstanding indebtedness and may incur substantial additional indebtedness, which could adversely affect our financial health and our ability to obtain financing in the future, react to changes in our business, or satisfy our obligations.
Significant or prolonged periods of higher interest rates would increase the costs of servicing our indebtedness and could reduce our profitability.
The agreements and instruments governing our indebtedness contain restrictions and limitations that could significantly impact our ability to operate our business.
Our ability to generate the significant amount of cash needed to pay interest and principal on our indebtedness and our ability to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness or obtain additional financing depends on many factors beyond our control.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock
The market price of our common stock may be volatile.
Holdings is a holding company with no operations of its own, and it depends on its subsidiaries for cash to fund all of its operations and expenses, including to make future dividend payments, if any.
Our organizational documents contain certain provisions that may discourage, delay, or prevent a change of control of our Company and may limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain favorable judicial forum for certain disputes.

Risks Related to Our Business and Our Industry

Cyclicality in our business could result in lower Net sales and reduced cash flows and profitability. We have been, and in the future may be, adversely impacted by declines in the new residential and commercial construction sectors, as well as in spending on repair and upgrade activities.

We sell a significant portion of our products for landscaping activities associated with new residential and commercial construction sectors, which have experienced cyclical downturns in the past and may experience cyclical downturns in the future, some of which have been, or could in the future be, severe. The strength of these markets depends on, among other things, housing starts, consumer spending, non-residential construction spending activity and business investment, which are a function of many factors beyond our control, including interest rates, employment levels, changes in the tax laws, availability of credit, geopolitics, consumer confidence, and capital spending. Weakness or downturns in residential and commercial construction markets could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, or financial condition.

Sales of landscape supplies to contractors serving the residential construction sector represent a significant portion of our business, and demand for our products is highly correlated with residential construction, including repairs and upgrades. Housing starts are dependent upon a number of factors, including housing demand, housing inventory levels, housing affordability and mortgage rates, foreclosure rates, demographic changes, the availability of land, local zoning and permitting processes, the availability of construction financing, and the overall health of the economy. Unfavorable changes in any of these factors could adversely affect consumer spending, result in decreased demand for homes, and adversely affect our business. In the 2023 Fiscal Year, we experienced a softening of the residential construction sector, including as a result of home price inflation and higher mortgage rates, which we anticipate may continue in the 2024 Fiscal Year. If the softening of the residential construction sector continues, the timing and extent of any such reduction in homebuilding activity and the resulting impact on demand for landscape supplies are uncertain.

Our Net sales also depend, in significant part, on commercial construction, which is cyclical in nature and subject to downturns, which can be severe. Previously, downturns in the commercial construction market have typically lasted about two to three years, resulting in market declines of approximately 20% to 40%, while the “Great Recession” downturn in the commercial construction market lasted over four years, resulting in a market decline of approximately 60%. We cannot predict the duration of the current market conditions, including the impacts that, among others, inflation and rising interest rates may have or the timing or strength of any future recovery of commercial construction activity in our markets.

We also rely, in part, on repair and upgrade of existing landscapes. High unemployment levels, high mortgage delinquency and foreclosure rates, lower home prices, limited availability of mortgage and home improvement financing, and significantly lower housing turnover, may restrict consumer spending, particularly on discretionary items such as landscape projects, and adversely affect consumer confidence levels and result in reduced spending on repair and upgrade activities.

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Our business is affected by general business, financial market, and economic conditions, which could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our business and results of operations are significantly affected by general business, financial market, and economic conditions. General business, financial market, and economic conditions that could impact the level of activity in the wholesale landscape supply industry include the level of new home sales and construction activity, interest rate fluctuations, inflation, unemployment levels, geopolitics, tax rates, capital spending, bankruptcies, volatility in both the debt and equity capital markets, liquidity of the global financial markets, the availability and cost of credit, investor and consumer confidence, global economic growth, local, state and federal government regulation, and the strength of regional and local economies in which we operate. With respect to the residential construction sector in particular, spending on landscape projects is largely discretionary and lower levels of consumer spending or the decision by homeowners to perform landscape upgrades or maintenance themselves rather than outsource to contractors, or to focus less on outdoor projects may adversely affect our business. For example, in the 2023 Fiscal Year and the 2022 Fiscal Year, we experienced historic levels of inflation, resulting in the Federal Reserve raising benchmark interest rates multiple times. While the rate of inflation has slowed, we cannot predict whether these and adverse economic conditions will continue, the impact that future economic developments will have on consumers, or the manner in which these economic trends will impact consumer demand or preferences over the long term.

Seasonality affects the demand for our products and services and our results of operations and cash flows.

The demand for our products and services and our results of operations are affected by the seasonal nature of our irrigation, outdoor lighting, nursery, landscape accessories, fertilizers, turf protection products, grass seed, turf care equipment, and golf course maintenance supplies. Such seasonality causes our results of operations to vary considerably from quarter to quarter. Typically, our Net sales and Net income are higher in the second and third quarters of each fiscal year due to favorable weather and longer daylight conditions during these quarters. Our Net sales and Net income are typically significantly lower in the first and fourth quarters due to lower landscaping, irrigation, and turf maintenance activities in these quarters. Accordingly, results for any quarter are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be achieved for the full fiscal year.

Our operations are substantially dependent on weather and climate conditions.

We supply landscape, irrigation, and turf maintenance products, the demand for each of which is affected by weather conditions, including, without limitation, potential impacts, if any, from climate change. In particular, droughts could cause shortages in the water supply, which may have an adverse effect on our business. For instance, our supply of plants could decrease, or prices could rise, due to such water shortages, and customer demand for certain types of plants may change in ways in which we are unable to predict. Such water shortages may also make irrigation or the maintenance of turf uneconomical. Governments may implement limitations on water usage, such as those enacted in California, that make effective irrigation or turf maintenance unsustainable, which could negatively impact the demand for our products. There is a risk that demand for landscaping products will decrease overall due to persistent or severe drought conditions in some of the geographic markets we serve, or that demand will change in ways that we are unable to predict.

Furthermore, natural disasters, adverse weather conditions and/or climate change-related events, such as droughts, severe storms, wildfires, hurricanes, and significant rain or snowfall, can adversely impact the demand for our products, availability of products, timing of product delivery, or our ability to deliver products at all. For example, demand for our products in the first quarter of the 2023 Fiscal Year was limited by unusually cold and rainy weather in our western and northern markets, including unprecedented precipitation in California. Other types of unexpected severe weather conditions, such as excessive heat or cold, may result in certain applications in the maintenance product cycle being omitted for a season or damage to or loss of nursery goods, sod, and other green products in our inventory, which could result in losses requiring write-downs. In addition, our business and operating results could be impacted to a greater degree than we previously experienced to the extent that unfavorable weather conditions are exacerbated by global climate change or otherwise.
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The prices and costs of the products we purchase may be subject to large and significant price fluctuations. We might not be able to pass cost increases through to our customers, and we may experience losses in a rising price environment. In addition, we might have to lower our prices in a declining price environment, which could also lead to losses.

We purchase and sell a wide variety of products, the price and availability of which may fluctuate, and may be subject to large and significant price increases, especially in periods of high inflation. For example, certain of our contracts with suppliers include prices for commodities such as grass seed and chemicals used in fertilizer that are not fixed or tied to an index, which allows our suppliers to change the prices of their products as the input prices fluctuate. Conversely, we may experience lower Net sales in a deflationary environment. Our business is exposed to these fluctuations, as well as to fluctuations in our costs for transportation and distribution. Changes in prices for the products that we purchase affect our Net sales and Cost of goods sold, as well as our working capital requirements, levels of debt, and financing costs. We might not always be able to reflect increases in our costs in our own pricing, especially in times of extreme price volatility. Any inability to pass cost increases on to customers may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, if market prices for the products that we sell decline, we may realize reduced profitability levels from selling such products and lower revenues from sales of existing inventory of such products.

Market variables and other events outside of our control could cause our Cost of goods sold and operating costs to grow more rapidly than Net sales, which could result in lower Gross profit and gross margin as well as lower Net income.

Market variables, such as inflation of product costs, labor and fuel rates, and freight and energy costs, as well as other events outside of our control, such as supply shortages, geopolitical conflicts, trade disputes, or public health emergencies, could adversely impact the management of our Cost of goods sold and operating costs in a manner that would prevent us from leveraging our Net sales growth into higher Net income. For example, the ongoing conflicts between Russia and Ukraine, the conflict in the Gaza Strip, and unrest in the Middle East, as well as the international response related thereto (e.g., sanctions, export controls, etc.), has and may continue to create economic instability, including, among other things, inflationary pressures causing increases in fuel and other energy costs. In addition, our inability to pass on such increases in costs to customers in a timely manner, or at all, could cause our Cost of goods sold and operating costs to grow, which could result in lower Gross profit and gross margin as well as lower Net income.

Inflation and increases in operating costs have adversely impacted, and may in the future continue to adversely impact, our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our financial performance is affected by the level of our operating expenses, such as occupancy costs associated with the leases for our branch locations and costs of fuel, vehicle maintenance, equipment, parts, wages and salaries, employee benefits, health care, self-insurance costs and other insurance premiums, as well as various regulatory compliance costs, all of which may be subject to inflationary pressures. In particular, our financial performance is adversely affected by increases in these operating costs. Given the inflation rates over the past few years, we experienced elevated product and logistics costs as well as increased commodity costs.

Most of our facilities are located in leased premises. Many of our current leases are non-cancelable and typically have terms ranging from three to five years, with options to renew for specified periods of time. We believe that leases we enter into in the future will likely be long-term and non-cancelable and have similar renewal options. However, we may be unable to renew our current or future leases on favorable terms or at all, which could have an adverse effect on our operations and costs. In addition, if we close a location, we generally remain committed to perform our obligations under the applicable lease, which include, among other things, payment of the base rent for the balance of the lease term.

We deliver a substantial volume of products to our customers by truck. Petroleum prices have continued to fluctuate significantly in recent years. Prices and availability of petroleum products are subject to political, economic, and market factors that are outside our control. Political and military events in petroleum-producing regions, including the Middle East, U.S. energy policy, and hurricanes and other weather-related events may cause the price of fuel to increase. Our operating profit will be adversely affected if we are unable to obtain the fuel we require or to fully offset the anticipated impact of higher fuel prices through increased prices or fuel surcharges to our customers. We have not entered into any hedging arrangements that protect against fuel price increases and we do not have any long-term fuel purchase contracts. If shortages occur in the supply of necessary petroleum products and we are not able to pass along the full impact of increased petroleum prices to our customers, our results of operations would be adversely affected.
We cannot predict the extent to which we may experience future increases in costs of occupancy, fuel, vehicle maintenance, equipment, parts, wages and salaries, employee benefits, health care, self-insurance costs and other insurance premiums, as well as various regulatory compliance costs and other operating costs. To the extent such costs increase as a result of inflation or otherwise, we may be prevented, in whole or in part, from passing these cost increases through to our existing and prospective customers, and the rates we pay to our suppliers may increase, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
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Public perceptions that the products we use and the services we deliver are not environmentally friendly or safe or that our practices are not sustainable may result in significant costs and adversely impact the demand for our products or services.

We sell, among other things, fertilizers, herbicides, fungicides, pesticides, rodenticides, and other chemicals. Public perception that the products we use and the services we deliver are not environmentally friendly or safe or are harmful to humans or animals, whether justified or not, or the improper application of these chemicals, could reduce demand for our products and services, increase regulation or government restrictions or actions, result in fines or penalties, impair our reputation, involve us in litigation that may result in significant costs, damage our brand names, and otherwise have a material adverse impact on our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. Customers are also using social media to provide feedback and information about our Company and products and services in a manner that can be quickly and broadly disseminated. To the extent a customer has a negative experience with, or view of, our Company and shares it over social media, it may adversely impact our brand and reputation.

In addition, companies across many industries are facing increasing interest from stakeholders related to their environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) practices, particularly as it relates to perceived effects of climate change. Investor advocacy groups, certain institutional investors, investment funds and other influential investors are also increasingly focused on ESG practices and have placed increasing importance on the implications and social cost of their investments. While we believe that we currently hold a favorable view from stakeholders related to our ESG practices, there can be no assurance that we will be able to meet the future expectations of our stakeholders, which are evolving rapidly. As a result, we may suffer from reputational damage and our business or financial condition could be adversely affected.

Compliance with, or liabilities under, environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including laws and regulations pertaining to the use and application of our products as well as climate change legislation, could result in significant costs that adversely impact our reputation, business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

We are subject to federal, state, provincial, and local environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including laws that regulate the emission or discharge of materials into the environment, govern the use, packaging, labeling, transportation, handling, treatment, storage, disposal, and management of chemicals and hazardous substances and waste, and protect the health and safety of our associates and users of our products. Such laws also impose liability for investigation and remediation failures, and damages resulting from, present and past releases of hazardous substances, including releases at sites we have ever owned, leased or operated, or used as a disposal site. We could be subject to fines, penalties, civil or criminal sanctions, personal injury, property damage, or other third-party claims as a result of violations of, or liabilities under, these laws and regulations. We could also incur significant investigation and cleanup costs for contamination at any currently or formerly owned or operated facilities, including LESCO’s manufacturing and blending facilities. In addition, changes in, or new interpretations of, existing laws, regulations, or enforcement policies as a result of the current presidential administration or otherwise, the discovery of previously unknown contamination, or the imposition of other environmental liabilities or obligations in the future, including obligations with respect to any potential health hazards of our products, may lead to additional compliance or other costs that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

In addition, in the United States, products containing herbicides and pesticides generally must be registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and similar state agencies before they can be sold or distributed. The failure to obtain or the cancellation of any such registration, or the withdrawal from the marketplace of such products, could have an adverse effect on our business, the severity of which would depend in part on the products involved, whether other products could be substituted, and whether our competitors were similarly affected. The herbicides and pesticides we use are manufactured by independent third parties and are evaluated by the EPA as part of its ongoing exposure risk assessment. The EPA may decide that a herbicide or pesticide we use will be limited or will not be re-registered for use in the United States. We cannot predict the outcome or the severity of the effect of the EPA’s continuing evaluations.

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The use of certain herbicide and pesticide products is also regulated by various federal, state, provincial, and local environmental and public health agencies. We may be unable to prevent violations of these or other regulations from occurring. Even if we are able to comply with all such regulations and obtain all necessary registrations and licenses, the herbicides and pesticides or other products we supply could be alleged to cause injury to the environment, to people or to animals, or such products could be banned in certain circumstances. We are subject to such allegations from time to time. The regulations may also apply to customers who may fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and subject us to liabilities. Costs to comply with environmental, health and safety laws, or to address liabilities or obligations thereunder, could have a material adverse impact on our reputation, business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

Further, new legislation or regulatory change in response to the perceived effects of climate change has been, or is expected to be, adopted at both the state and federal level. These changes in environmental and climate change laws or regulations, including laws relating to greenhouse gas emissions, could lead to additional operational and compliance burdens, and collecting, measuring, and analyzing information relating to such matters can be costly, time-consuming, dependent on third-party cooperation, and unreliable. Such changes in climate change laws or regulations could further subject us to additional costs and restrictions, including additional investment in product designs and increased energy and raw material costs, as well as increased risk of litigation concerning our disclosures related thereto. We cannot predict how managing our climate change-related reporting obligations, as well as the consumer and retail impacts of climate change, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

Our business exposes us to risks associated with hazardous materials and related activities, not all of which are covered by insurance.

Because our business includes the managing, handling, storing, selling and transporting, and disposing of certain hazardous materials, such as fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, fungicides, and rodenticides, we are exposed to environmental, health, safety, and other risks. We carry insurance to protect us against many accident-related risks involved in the conduct of our business and we maintain insurance coverage in accordance with our assessment of the risks involved, the ability to bear those risks, and the cost and availability of insurance. Each of these insurance policies is subject to exclusions, deductibles, and coverage limits. We do not insure against all risks and may not be able to insure adequately against certain risks and may not have insurance coverage that will pay any particular claim. We also may be unable to obtain adequate insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates in the future for the risks we currently insure against, and certain risks are or could become completely uninsurable or eligible for coverage only to a reduced extent. Our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially impaired by environmental, health, safety, and other risks that reduce our revenues, increase our costs, or subject us to other liabilities in excess of available insurance.

Laws and government regulations applicable to our business could increase our legal and regulatory expenses, and impact our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our business is subject to significant federal, state, provincial, and local laws and regulations. These laws and regulations include laws relating to consumer protection, wage and hour requirements, the employment of immigrants, labor relations, permitting and licensing, building code requirements, workers’ safety, the environment, employee benefits, marketing and advertising, and the application and use of herbicides, pesticides, and other chemicals. In particular, we anticipate that various federal, state, provincial, and local governing bodies may propose additional legislation and regulation that may be detrimental to our business, may decrease demand for the products we supply, or may substantially increase our operating costs, including proposed legislation, such as environmental regulations related to chemical or nutrient use, water use, climate change, equipment efficiency standards, and other environmental matters; other consumer protection laws or regulations; or health care coverage. It is difficult to predict the future impact of the broad and expanding legislative and regulatory requirements affecting our businesses and changes to such requirements may adversely affect our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. In addition, if we were to fail to comply with any applicable law or regulation, we could be subject to substantial fines or damages, be involved in litigation, suffer losses to our reputation, or suffer the loss of licenses, or incur penalties that may affect how our business is operated, which, in turn, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
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Our industry and the markets in which we operate are highly competitive and fragmented, and increased competitive pressures could reduce our share of the markets we serve and adversely affect our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

We operate in markets with relatively few large competitors, but barriers to entry in the landscape supply industry are generally low, and we may have several competitors within a local market area. Competition varies depending on product line, type of customer, and geographic area. Some local competitors may be able to offer higher levels of service, lower prices, or a broader selection of inventory than we can in particular local markets. As a result, we may not be able to continue to compete effectively with our competitors. Any of our competitors may foresee the course of market development more accurately than we do, provide superior service, sell or distribute superior products, have the ability to supply or deliver similar products and services at a lower cost, or on more favorable credit terms, develop stronger relationships with our customers and other consumers in the landscape supply industry, adapt more quickly to evolving customer requirements than we do, develop a superior network of distribution centers in our markets, or access financing on more favorable terms than we can obtain. As a result, we may not be able to compete successfully with our competitors.

In addition, we may face increased competition from new market entrants or companies in adjacent industries expanding into the landscape supply industry. Such competition may result in the diminution of our market share or the loss of one or more of our major customers, either of which would adversely affect our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. Further, existing and future competitors, and private equity firms, increasingly compete with us for acquisitions, which can increase prices and reduce the number of suitable opportunities available to us; the acquisitions they make may also adversely impact our market position.

Competition can also reduce demand for our products and services, negatively affect our product sales and services or cause us to lower prices. Consolidation of professional landscape service firms may result in increased competition for their business. Certain product manufacturers that sell and distribute their products directly to landscapers may increase the volume of such direct sales. Our suppliers may also elect to enter into exclusive supplier arrangements with other distributors.

We also face increased competition for our talent base from other employers, particularly competitors. If we are unable to retain our talent or lose talent to a competitor, our ability to achieve our strategic objectives may be adversely affected. In addition, former associates may start landscape supply businesses similar to ours, in competition with us. Given the low barriers to entry in our industry, the possibility of former associates starting similar businesses may be more likely. Increased competition from businesses started by former associates may reduce our market share and adversely affect our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our customers consider the performance of the products we distribute, our customer service, and price when deciding whether to use our services or purchase the products we distribute. Excess industry capacity for certain products in several geographic markets could lead to increased price competition. We may be unable to maintain our operating costs or product prices at a level that is sufficiently low for us to compete effectively. If we are unable to compete effectively with our existing competitors or new competitors enter the markets in which we operate, our financial condition, operating results, and cash flows may be adversely affected.

Supply chain delays or interruptions, product shortages, loss of key suppliers, failure to develop relationships with qualified suppliers or dependence on third-party suppliers and manufacturers could affect our financial health.

Our ability to offer a wide variety of products to our customers is dependent upon our ability to obtain adequate product supply from manufacturers and other suppliers. Any disruption in our sources of supply, particularly of the most commonly sold items, could result in a loss of revenues, reduced margins, and damage to our relationships with customers. Supply shortages may occur as a result of unanticipated increases in demand or difficulties in production or delivery. In addition, we may be materially adversely impacted by disruptions within our supply chain network. Such disruptions may result from weather-related events, natural disasters, international trade disputes or trade policy changes or restrictions, tariffs or import-related taxes, third-party strikes, lock-outs, work stoppages or slowdowns, shortages of supply chain labor and truck drivers, shipping capacity constraints, military conflicts, acts of terrorism, public health issues (including public health emergencies and related shut-downs, re-openings, or other actions by the government), civil unrest, or other factors beyond our control. For example, in the 2022 Fiscal Year, our supply chains were negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, especially with respect to freight and labor availability. Although our supply chains stabilized in the 2023 Fiscal Year, when shortages occur, our suppliers often allocate products among distributors. The loss of, or a substantial decrease in the availability of, products from our suppliers or the loss of key supplier arrangements could adversely impact our financial condition, operating results, and cash flows, as well as our ability to benefit from ongoing supply chain initiatives.

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Our ability to continue to identify and develop relationships with qualified suppliers who can comply with our Supplier Code of Conduct and satisfy our high standards for quality and our need to be supplied with products in a timely and efficient manner is a challenge. Our suppliers’ ability to provide us with products can also be adversely affected in the event they become financially unstable, fail to comply with applicable laws, encounter supply disruptions, shipping interruptions, trade restrictions, tariffs or increased costs, or face other factors beyond our control, including, for example, as a result of the conflicts between Russia and Ukraine, the conflict in the Gaza Strip, and unrest in the Middle East.

Our agreements with suppliers are generally terminable by either party on limited notice, and in some cases we do not have written agreements with our suppliers. If market conditions change or worsen, suppliers may stop offering us favorable terms, including volume-based incentive terms. Our suppliers may increase prices or reduce discounts on the products we distribute and we may be unable to pass on any cost increase to our customers, thereby resulting in reduced margins and profits. Failure by our suppliers to continue to supply us with products on favorable terms, commercially reasonable terms, or at all, could put pressure on our operating margins or have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We are subject to inventory management risks; insufficient inventory may result in lost sales opportunities or delayed revenue, while excess inventory may harm our gross margins.

We balance the need to maintain inventory levels that are sufficient to ensure competitive lead times against the risk of inventory obsolescence because of changing customer requirements, fluctuating commodity prices, or the life-cycle of nursery goods, sod, and other green products. For example, while we increased our inventory levels in the 2022 Fiscal Year to mitigate the adverse impact of supply chain disruptions, we were able to normalize inventory levels in the 2023 Fiscal Year. In order to successfully manage our inventories, including grass seed, chemicals used in fertilizers, and nursery goods, sod, and other green products, we must estimate demand from our customers and purchase products that substantially correspond to that demand. If we overestimate demand and purchase too much of a particular product, we face a risk that the price of that product will fall, leaving us with inventory that we cannot sell profitably. In addition, we may have to write down such inventory if we are unable to sell it for its recorded value. Contracts with certain suppliers require us to take on additional inventory or pay a penalty, even in circumstances where we have excess inventory. By contrast, if we underestimate demand and purchase insufficient quantities of a product and the price of that product were to rise, we could be forced to purchase that product at a higher price and forego profitability in order to meet customer demand. Insufficient inventory levels may lead to shortages that result in delayed revenue or loss of sales opportunities altogether as potential end-customers turn to competitors’ products that are readily available. Our business, financial condition, and results of operations could suffer a material adverse effect if either or both of these situations occur frequently or in large volumes.

Many factors, such as weather conditions, agricultural limitations and restrictions relating to the management of pests and disease, affect the supply of nursery goods, grass seed, sod, and other green products. If the supply of these products available is limited, prices could rise, which could cause customer demand to be reduced and our revenues and gross margins to decline. For example, nursery goods, sod, and grass seed are perishable and have a limited shelf life. Should we be unable to sell our inventory of nursery goods, grass seed, sod, and other green products within a certain time frame, we may face losses requiring write-downs. In contrast, we may not be able to obtain high-quality nursery goods and other green products in an amount sufficient to meet customer demand. Even if available, nursery goods from alternate sources may be of lesser quality or may be more expensive than those currently grown or purchased by us. If we are unable to effectively manage our inventory and that of our distribution partners, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We may not successfully implement our business strategies, including achieving our growth objectives.

We may not be able to fully implement our business strategies or realize, in whole or in part within the expected time frames, the anticipated benefits of our various growth, or other initiatives, such as our procurement and supply chain management initiatives, as well as our transportation and customer relationship management systems. Our various business strategies and initiatives, including our growth, operational, and management initiatives, are subject to significant business, economic, and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control. The execution of our business strategy and our financial performance will continue to depend in significant part on our executive management team and other key management personnel, and our executive management team’s ability to execute the operational initiatives that they are undertaking. In addition, we may incur certain costs as we pursue our growth, operational, and management initiatives, and we may not meet anticipated implementation timetables or stay within budgeted costs. As these initiatives are undertaken, we may not fully achieve our expected efficiency improvements or growth rates, or these initiatives could adversely impact our customer retention, supplier relationships, or operations. Also, our business strategies may change from time to time in light of our ability to implement our business initiatives, competitive pressures, economic uncertainties or developments, or other factors.

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We may be unable to successfully acquire and integrate other businesses.

Our historical growth has been driven in part by acquisitions, and future acquisitions are an important element of our business strategy. We may be unable to continue to grow our business through acquisitions. We may not be able to continue to identify suitable acquisition targets and may face increased competition for these acquisition targets by both existing competitors as well as new market entrants. In addition, acquired businesses may not perform in accordance with expectations, and our business judgments concerning the value, strengths, and weaknesses of acquired businesses may not prove to be correct. We may also be unable to achieve expected improvements or achievements in businesses that we acquire. At any given time, we may be evaluating or in discussions with one or more acquisition targets, including entering into non-binding letters of intent. Future acquisitions may result in the incurrence of debt and contingent liabilities, legal liabilities, goodwill impairments, increased interest and amortization expense, and significant integration costs.

Acquisitions involve a number of special risks, including:
our inability to manage acquired businesses or control integration costs and other costs relating to acquisitions;
potential adverse short-term effects on operating results from increased costs or otherwise;
diversion of management’s attention;
failure to retain existing customers or key personnel of the acquired business and recruit qualified new associates at the location;
failure to successfully implement infrastructure, logistics, and systems integrations which could, among other things, increase the risk of a cybersecurity incident;
potential impairment of goodwill;
our inability to obtain financing necessary to complete acquisitions on attractive terms or at all;
risks associated with the internal controls of acquired companies;
exposure to legal claims for activities of the acquired business prior to acquisition and inability to realize on any indemnification claims, including with respect to environmental and immigration claims; and
the risks inherent in the systems of the acquired business and risks associated with unanticipated events or liabilities.

Our strategy could be impeded if we do not identify, or face increased competition for, suitable acquisition targets, and such increased competition could result in higher purchase price multiples we have to pay for acquisition targets or reduce the number of suitable targets. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be adversely affected if any of the foregoing factors were to occur.

Risks associated with our labor force and our customers’ labor force could have a significant adverse effect on our business.

We have an employee base of approximately 7,800 associates. Various federal and state labor laws govern our relationships with our associates and affect our operating costs. These laws include employee classifications as exempt or non-exempt, minimum wage requirements, unemployment tax rates, workers’ compensation rates, overtime, family leave, anti-discrimination laws, safety standards, payroll taxes, citizenship requirements, and other wage and benefit requirements for employees classified as non-exempt. As our associates may be paid at rates that relate to the applicable minimum wage, further increases in the minimum wage could increase our labor costs. Associates may make claims against us under federal or state laws, which could result in significant costs. Significant additional government regulations, including the Employee Free Choice Act, the Paycheck Fairness Act, and the Arbitration Fairness Act, could materially affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, we compete with other companies for many of our associates in hourly positions, and we invest significant resources to train and motivate our associates to maintain a high level of job satisfaction. Like many companies in our industry, our hourly employment positions have historically had high turnover rates, which can lead to increased spending on training and retention and, as a result, increased labor costs. If we are unable to effectively retain highly qualified associates in our key positions to deliver the customer experience, particularly our transportation and supply chain associates, it could adversely impact our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

None of our associates are currently covered by collective bargaining or other similar labor agreements. However, if a larger number of our associates were to unionize, including as a result of any future legislation that makes it easier for associates to unionize, our business could be negatively affected. Any inability by us to negotiate collective bargaining arrangements could cause strikes or other work stoppages, and new contracts could result in increased operating costs. If any such strikes or other work stoppages occur, or if other associates become represented by a union, we could experience a disruption of our operations and higher labor costs.

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In addition, certain of our suppliers have unionized work forces and certain of our products are transported by unionized truckers. Strikes, work stoppages, or slowdowns could result in slowdowns or closures of facilities where the products that we sell are manufactured or could affect the ability of our suppliers to deliver such products to us. Any interruption in the production or delivery of these products could delay or reduce availability of these products and increase our costs.

Further, a large portion of our customers are in the landscape services industry, which is labor intensive. Demand for our products may be impacted by our customers’ ability to attract, train, and retain workers. Restrictive immigration policies, trends in labor migration, and increases in our customers’ personnel costs or the inability of our customers to hire sufficient personnel, which may be amplified in tight labor market conditions, could adversely impact our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

We depend on a limited number of key personnel. We may not be able to attract or retain key executives, which could adversely impact our business and inhibit our ability to operate and grow successfully.

We depend upon the ability and experience of a number of our executive management and other key personnel who have substantial experience with our operations and within our industry, including Doug Black, our Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer. The loss of the services of one or a combination of our senior executives or key employees could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Our business may also be negatively impacted if one of our senior executives or key employees is hired or recruited by a competitor. Our success also depends on our ability to continue to identify, attract, manage, motivate, and retain other qualified management personnel as we grow. We may not be able to continue to attract or retain such personnel in the future.

The nature of our business exposes us to construction defect and product liability claims as well as other legal proceedings.

We rely on manufacturers and other suppliers to provide us with the products we sell and distribute. As we do not have direct control over the quality of the products manufactured or supplied by such third-party suppliers, we are exposed to risks relating to the quality of the products we distribute. It is possible that inventory from a manufacturer or supplier could be sold to our customers and later be alleged to have quality problems or to have caused personal injury, subjecting us to potential claims from customers or third parties. We are subject to such claims from time to time.

We operate a large fleet of trucks and other vehicles. From time to time, the drivers of these vehicles are involved in accidents which could result in material personal injuries and property damage claims and in which goods carried by these drivers may be lost or damaged. We cannot make assurances that we will be able to obtain insurance coverage to address a portion of these types of liabilities on acceptable terms in the future, if at all, or that any such insurance will provide adequate coverage against potential claims. Further, while we seek indemnification against potential liability for products liability claims from relevant parties, including but not limited to manufacturers and suppliers, we do not have written indemnification agreements from all of our suppliers and we may be unable to recover under such indemnification agreements that exist. An unsuccessful product liability defense could be highly costly and accordingly result in a decline in revenues and profitability. Finally, even if we are successful in defending any claim relating to the products we distribute, claims of this nature could negatively impact customer confidence in our products and our company.

Due to the highly regulated nature of certain of our products, from time to time, we may be involved in government inquiries and investigations, as well as tort proceedings, including toxic tort and product liability actions, and employment and other litigation. We cannot predict with certainty the outcomes of these legal proceedings and other contingencies, including environmental investigation, remediation, and other proceedings commenced by government authorities. The outcome of some of these legal proceedings and other contingencies could require us to take, or refrain from taking, actions which could adversely affect our operations or could require us to pay substantial amounts of money. Additionally, defending against lawsuits and proceedings may involve significant expense and diversion of management’s attention and resources from other matters regardless of the ultimate outcome.
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An impairment of goodwill and/or other intangible assets could reduce Net income.

Acquisitions frequently result in the recording of goodwill and other intangible assets. As of December 31, 2023, goodwill represented approximately 17% of our total assets. Goodwill is currently not amortized for financial reporting purposes and is subject to impairment testing at least annually using a fair-value based approach. The identification and measurement of goodwill impairment involves the estimation of the fair value of our reporting units. Our accounting for impairment contains uncertainty because management must use its judgment in determining appropriate assumptions to be used in the measurement of fair value. We determine the fair values of our reporting units by using both a market and income approach.

We evaluate the recoverability of goodwill for impairment in between our annual tests when events or changes in circumstances, including a sustained decline in our market capitalization, indicate that the carrying amount of goodwill may not be recoverable. Any impairment of goodwill or other intangible assets, including as a result of market dynamics beyond our control, will reduce Net income in the period in which the impairment is recognized.

Adverse credit and financial market events and conditions could, among other things, impede access to, or increase the cost of, financing or cause our customers to incur liquidity issues that could lead to some of our products not being purchased or orders being canceled, or result in reduced operating revenue and Net income, any of which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

Disruptions in credit or financial markets could, among other things, lead to impairment charges, make it more difficult for us to obtain, or increase our cost of obtaining, financing for our operations or investments or to refinance our indebtedness, cause our lenders to depart from prior credit industry practice and not give technical or other waivers under the Credit Facilities (as defined under “—Risks Related to Our Current Indebtedness” below), to the extent we may seek them in the future, thereby causing us to be in default under one or more of the Credit Facilities. These disruptions could also cause our customers to encounter liquidity issues that could lead to a reduction in the amount of our products purchased or services used, could result in an increase in the time it takes our customers to pay us, or could lead to a decrease in pricing for our products, any of which could adversely affect our accounts receivable, among other things, and, in turn, increase our working capital needs. In addition, adverse developments at federal, state, and local levels associated with budget deficits resulting from economic conditions could result in federal, state, and local governments increasing taxes or other fees on businesses, including us, to generate more tax revenues, which could negatively impact spending by customers on our products.

Inefficient or ineffective allocation of capital could adversely affect our operating results and/or stockholder value.

We strive to allocate capital in a manner that enhances stockholder value, lowers our cost of capital, or demonstrates our commitment to return excess capital to stockholders, while maintaining our ability to invest in strategic acquisition opportunities. In October 2022, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase authorization for up to $400.0 million of the Company’s common stock. The Company has, and intends to continue to, purchase shares under the repurchase authorization from time to time on the open market at the discretion of management, subject to strategic considerations, market conditions, and other factors. Repurchases under our share repurchase program will reduce the market liquidity for our stock, potentially affecting its trading volatility and price. Future share repurchases will also diminish our cash reserves, which may impact our ability to pursue attractive strategic opportunities. Therefore, if we do not properly allocate our capital, including with respect to returning value to our stockholders through this share repurchase authorization, we may fail to produce optimal financial results and experience a reduction in stockholder value.
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The majority of our Net sales are derived from credit sales, which are made primarily to customers whose ability to pay is dependent, in part, upon the economic strength of the geographic areas in which they operate, and the failure to collect monies owed from customers could adversely affect our working capital and financial condition.

The majority of our Net sales in our 2023 Fiscal Year were derived from the extension of credit to our customers whose ability to pay is dependent, in part, upon the economic strength of the areas where they operate. We offer credit to customers, generally on a short-term basis, either through unsecured credit that is based solely upon the creditworthiness of the customer, or secured credit for materials sold for a specific project where we establish a security interest in the material used in the project. The type of credit we offer depends on the customer’s financial strength. If any of our customers are unable to repay credit that we have extended in a timely manner, or at all, our working capital, financial condition, operating results, and cash flows would be adversely affected. Further, our collections efforts with respect to non-paying or slow-paying customers could negatively impact our customer relations going forward.

Because we depend on certain of our customers to repay extensions of credit, if the financial condition of our customers declines, our credit risk could increase as a result. Significant contraction in the residential and non-residential construction markets, coupled with limited credit availability and stricter financial institution underwriting standards, could adversely affect the operations and financial stability of certain of our customers. Should one or more of our larger customers declare bankruptcy, it could adversely affect the collectability of our accounts receivable, bad debt reserves, and Net income.

Because we operate our business through highly dispersed locations across the United States and Canada, our operations may be materially adversely affected by inconsistent practices and the operating results of individual branches may vary.

We operate our business through a network of highly dispersed locations throughout the United States and Canada, supported by executives and services from our headquarters, with local area and branch management retaining responsibility for day-to-day operations and adherence to applicable local laws. Our operating structure could make it difficult for us to coordinate procedures across our operations in a timely manner or at all. We may have difficulty attracting and retaining local personnel. In addition, our branches may require significant oversight and coordination from headquarters to support their growth. Inconsistent implementation of corporate strategy and policies at the local level could materially and adversely affect our overall profitability, prospects, business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows. In addition, the operating results of an individual branch may differ from that of another branch for a variety of reasons, including market size, management practices, competitive landscape, regulatory requirements, and local economic conditions. As a result, certain of our branches may experience higher or lower levels of growth and profitability than other branches.

In the event of a cybersecurity incident, we could experience operational interruptions, incur substantial additional costs, become subject to legal or regulatory proceedings, or suffer damage to our reputation.

In addition to the disruptions that may occur from interruptions in our information technology systems, cybersecurity threats and sophisticated and targeted cyberattacks pose a risk to our information technology systems, as well as those of our third-party service providers and other third parties with whom we do business and communicate. In connection with the increase in work-from-home arrangements, there has been a spike in cybersecurity attacks as work-from-home measures have led businesses to increase reliance on virtual environments and communications systems, which have been subject to increasing third-party vulnerabilities and security risks. In addition, the technology systems of businesses that we have acquired or may acquire, as well as their practices related to the collection, use, maintenance, and disclosure of data, could present issues that we were not able to identify prior the acquisition or other issues that continue to pose risk to use, such as cybersecurity vulnerabilities or past cybersecurity or privacy incidents. We have established security policies, processes, and defenses designed to help identify and protect against intentional and unintentional misappropriation or corruption of our information technology systems and information and disruption of our operations. Despite these efforts, and especially in light of increasingly sophisticated techniques used in cybersecurity attacks, our information technology systems and those of third parties with whom we do business or communicate may be damaged, disrupted, or shut down due to attacks by unauthorized access, malicious software, computer viruses, undetected intrusion, hardware failures, or other events, and in these circumstances where we cannot fully anticipate, detect, repel, or implement fully effective preventative measures, our disaster recovery plans may be ineffective or inadequate. These breaches or intrusions could lead to business interruption, exposure of proprietary or confidential information, data corruption, damage to our reputation, exposure to legal and regulatory proceedings, and other costs. A security breach might also lead to violations of privacy laws, regulations, trade guidelines or practices related to our customers and associates, and could result in potential claims from customers, associates, shareholders, or regulatory agencies. Such events could adversely impact our reputation, business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. In addition, we could be adversely affected if any of our significant customers or suppliers experiences any similar events that disrupt their business operations or damage their reputation. Furthermore, our increased use of mobile and cloud technologies, including as a result of changes in working environments such as work-from-home arrangements, has heighted these cybersecurity and privacy risks, including risks from cyber-attacks such as phishing, spam emails, hacking, social engineering, and malicious software.
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Additionally, to the extent artificial intelligence capabilities improve and are increasingly adopted, they may be used to identify vulnerabilities and craft increasingly sophisticated cybersecurity attacks. Attachments crafted with artificial intelligence tools could directly attack information systems with greater speed and/or efficiency than a human threat actor or create more effective phishing emails. Vulnerabilities may also be introduced from the use of artificial intelligence by us, our customers, suppliers, and other business partners and third-party providers. Use of artificial intelligence by us or such third parties, whether authorized or unauthorized, increases the risk that our intellectual property and other proprietary information will be unintentionally disclosed.

While we maintain monitoring practices and protections of our information technology to reduce these risks and test our systems on an ongoing basis for potential threats, there can be no assurance that these efforts will prevent a cyber-attack or other security breach. We have not always been able in the past and may be unable in the future to anticipate or prevent techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to compromise our systems because the techniques used change frequently and are generally not detected until after an incident has occurred.

In July 2020, we experienced a ransomware attack on our information technology systems. There can be no guarantees that the attack will not lead to the disclosure of customer data, our trade secrets, or other intellectual property, or personal information of our employees. There can be no guarantee that the release of any of this information will not have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, the July 2020 ransomware attack could result in potential claims from customers, associates, stockholders, or regulatory agencies, which could result in significant judgements against us, penalties, and fines. The cost of investigating, mitigating, and responding to potential data security breaches and complying with applicable breach notification obligations to individuals, regulators, partners, and others could be significant.

We carry cybersecurity insurance to help mitigate the financial exposure and related notification procedures in the event of intentional intrusion, including the July 2020 ransomware attack; however, there can be no assurance that our insurance will adequately protect against potential losses that could adversely affect our business.

We rely on our computer and data processing systems, and a large-scale malfunction or failure in our information technology systems could disrupt our business, create potential liabilities for us, or limit our ability to effectively monitor, operate, and control our operations and adversely impact our reputation, business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our ability to keep our business operating effectively depends on the functional and efficient operation of our enterprise resource planning, telecommunications, inventory tracking, billing, and other information systems. We rely on these systems and the systems of certain third-party vendors to track transactions, billings, payments, and inventory, as well as to make a variety of day-to-day business decisions. We may experience system malfunctions, interruptions, or security breaches from time to time. Some of our systems run older generations of software that may be unable to perform as efficiently as, and fail to communicate well with, newer systems. As we implement or develop new systems in the future, we may elect to modify, replace, or discontinue certain technology initiatives. Changes or modifications to our information technology systems could cause disruptions to our operations or cause challenges with respect to our compliance with laws, regulations, or other applicable standards.

A significant or large-scale malfunction or interruption of our systems or the systems of third-party vendors could adversely affect our ability to manage and keep our operations running efficiently and damage our reputation. A malfunction that results in a wider or sustained disruption to our business could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations, as well as on the ability of management to align and optimize technology to implement business strategies. If our disaster recovery plans do not work as anticipated, or if any third-party vendors to which we have outsourced certain information technology or other services fail to fulfill their obligations to us, our operations may be adversely impacted and any of these circumstances could adversely impact our reputation, business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
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If we fail to protect the security of personal information about our customers, we could be subject to interruption of our business operations, private litigation, reputational damage, and costly penalties.

We rely on, among other things, commercially available systems, software, tokenization, tools, and monitoring to provide security for collecting, processing, transmitting, and storing confidential customer information, such as payment card and personally identifiable information. The systems we currently use for payment card transactions, and the technology utilized in payment cards themselves, all of which can put payment card data at risk, are central to meeting standards set by the payment card industry, or PCI. We continue to evaluate and modify our systems and protocols for PCI compliance purposes; however, PCI data security standards may change from time to time. Activities by third parties, advances in computer and software capabilities and encryption technology, new tools and discoveries, and other events or developments may facilitate or result in a compromise or breach of our systems. Any compromises, breaches, or errors in applications related to our systems or failures to comply with data security standards set by the PCI, could cause damage to our reputation and interruptions in our operations, including our customers’ ability to pay for our products and services by credit card or their willingness to purchase our products and services, and could further result in a violation of applicable laws, regulations, orders, industry standards, or agreements and subject us to costs, penalties, litigation, and liabilities which could have a material adverse impact on our reputation, business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights that are material to our business.

Our ability to compete effectively depends in part on our rights to service marks, trademarks, trade names, and other intellectual property rights we own or license, particularly our registered trademarks SiteOne®, LESCO®, SiteOne Green Tech®, and Pro-Trade®. We have not sought to register or protect every one of our marks or brand names either in the United States or in every country in which they are or may be used. Furthermore, because of the differences in foreign trademark, patent, and other intellectual property or proprietary rights laws, we may not receive the same protection in other countries as we would in the United States. If we are unable to protect our proprietary information and brand names, we could suffer a material adverse impact on our reputation, business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. Litigation may be necessary to enforce our intellectual property rights and protect our proprietary information, or to defend against claims by third parties that our products, services, or activities infringe their intellectual property rights.

We may be subject to unanticipated changes in our tax provisions, including further changes to applicable U.S. tax laws.

We are subject to income and other taxes in U.S. federal and state jurisdictions, as well as Canada. Changes in applicable U.S. or Canadian tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation and application, including the possibility of retroactive effect, could impact our tax expense and profitability. There may also be technical corrections or superseding legislation proposed with respect to tax laws, the risk of which may be elevated due to the current presidential administration, and the effect and timing cannot be predicted and may be adverse to us or our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. For example, on August 16, 2022, President Biden signed into law the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (“IRA”), which contains a number of tax-related provisions, including, among others, a 15% corporate alternative minimum tax on book income of certain large corporations effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2022, and a 1% excise tax on corporate stock repurchases. The 1% excise tax on share repurchases applies to shares repurchased after December 31, 2022, subject to certain exceptions. We are unable to predict the full extent to which the IRA or other potential changes in the tax laws or changes in their interpretation could have a material adverse impact on our operating results. We have filed our tax returns in prior years based upon certain filing positions we believe are appropriate. If the Internal Revenue Service or state taxing authorities disagree with these filing positions, we may owe additional taxes.

Acts or threats of terrorism, public health emergencies, violence, or unfavorable or uncertain political conditions could harm our business.

Acts of terrorism or war, public health emergencies, political or civil unrest and uncertainty, public health emergencies, and other catastrophes may disrupt commerce and undermine consumer confidence, which could negatively affect our sales by causing consumer spending to decline. Also, an act of terrorism or war, or the threat thereof, political or civil unrest or uncertainty, public health emergencies (such as the COVID-19 pandemic), and other catastrophes, could negatively affect our business by interfering with our ability to obtain products from our suppliers or distribute products to our customers.

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Risks Related to Our Current Indebtedness

We have outstanding indebtedness and may incur substantial additional indebtedness, which could adversely affect our financial health and our ability to obtain financing in the future, react to changes in our business, or satisfy our obligations.

As of December 31, 2023, we had $379.0 million of total long-term consolidated indebtedness outstanding and $91.6 million of finance lease obligations excluding interest.

SiteOne Landscape Supply Holding, LLC (“Landscape Holding”) and SiteOne Landscape Supply, LLC (“Landscape”) are parties to (i) a credit agreement dated December 23, 2013, providing for an asset-based loan facility in the amount of up to $600.0 million, subject to availability under a borrowing base (as so amended, the “ABL Facility”) and (ii) an amended and restated credit agreement dated April 29, 2016, providing for a syndicated senior secured term loan facility, which had an outstanding balance of $369.6 million as of December 31, 2023 (as so amended, “the New Term Loans” and, together with the ABL Facility, the “Credit Facilities”).

Our current indebtedness could have important consequences. Because of our current indebtedness:
our ability to engage in acquisitions without raising additional equity or obtaining additional debt financing is limited;
our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, debt service requirements, or general corporate purposes, and our ability to satisfy our obligations with respect to our indebtedness may be impaired in the future;
a large portion of our cash flow from operations must be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the funds available to us for other purposes;
although we enter into interest rate hedging transactions periodically, we are exposed to the risk of increased interest rates because borrowings under the Credit Facilities and certain floating rate operating and finance leases are at variable rates of interest;
it may be more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations to our creditors, resulting in possible defaults on, and acceleration of, such indebtedness;
we may be more vulnerable to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
we may be at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors with proportionately less indebtedness or with comparable indebtedness on more favorable terms and, as a result, they may be better positioned to withstand economic downturns;
our ability to refinance indebtedness may be limited or the associated costs may increase;
our flexibility to adjust to changing market conditions and ability to withstand competitive pressures could be limited; and
we may be prevented from carrying out capital spending and restructurings that are necessary or important to our growth strategy and efforts to improve operating margins of our businesses.

Although the Credit Facilities contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions, and additional indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions may be significant. If additional indebtedness is added to our current debt levels, the risks to our financial health, our ability to react to changes in our business, or satisfy our obligations may intensify.

Significant or prolonged periods of higher interest rates would increase the cost of servicing our indebtedness and could reduce our profitability.

Our indebtedness under the Credit Facilities bears interest at variable rates, and as a result, significant or prolonged periods of higher interest rates would increase the cost of servicing our indebtedness and could materially reduce our profitability and cash flows. The impact of significant or prolonged periods of higher interest rates could be more significant for us than it would be for some other companies because of our current indebtedness. As of December 31, 2023, an increase of one percentage point in interest rates would result in an increase of approximately $1.9 million in projected interest payments for the 2024 Fiscal Year based on the amounts outstanding under the ABL Facility and the New Term Loans that were not covered by our interest rate swap contracts.

We may use interest rate risk management techniques in an effort to limit our exposure to interest rate fluctuations. Such techniques may include various interest rate hedging activities to the extent permitted by the Investment Company Act of 1940. Additionally, we cannot assure you that financing will be available on acceptable terms, if at all. Deterioration in the credit markets, which could delay our ability to sell certain of our loan investments in a timely manner, could also negatively impact our cash flows.

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The agreements and instruments governing our indebtedness contain restrictions and limitations that could significantly impact our ability to operate our business.

Our Credit Facilities contain customary representations and warranties and customary affirmative and negative covenants that restrict some of our activities. The negative covenants limit the ability of Landscape Holding and Landscape to: incur additional indebtedness; pay dividends, redeem stock, or make other distributions; repurchase, prepay or redeem subordinated indebtedness; make investments; create restrictions on the ability of Landscape Holding’s restricted subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other intercompany transfers; create liens; transfer or sell assets; make negative pledges; consolidate, merge, sell, or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of Landscape Holding’s assets; enter into certain transactions with affiliates; and designate subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries.

In addition, the ABL Facility is subject to various covenants requiring minimum financial ratios, and our additional borrowings may be limited by these financial ratios. Our ability to comply with the covenants and restrictions contained in the Credit Facilities, may be affected by economic, financial, and industry conditions beyond our control including credit or capital market disruptions. The breach of any of these covenants or restrictions could result in a default that would permit the applicable lenders to declare all amounts outstanding thereunder to be due and payable, together with accrued and unpaid interest. If we are unable to repay indebtedness, lenders having secured obligations, such as the lenders under the Credit Facilities, could proceed against the collateral securing the indebtedness. In any such case, we may be unable to borrow under the Credit Facilities and may not be able to repay the amounts due under such facilities. This could have serious consequences to our financial position and results of operations and could cause us to become bankrupt or insolvent.

Our ability to generate the significant amount of cash needed to pay interest and principal on our indebtedness and our ability to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness or obtain additional financing depends on many factors beyond our control.

Our ability to make scheduled payments on, or to refinance our obligations under, our indebtedness depends on the financial and operating performance of our subsidiaries, which, in turn, depends on their results of operations, cash flows, cash requirements, financial position, and general business conditions, and any legal and regulatory restrictions on the payment of dividends to which they may be subject, many of which may be beyond our control.

We may be unable to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal and interest on our indebtedness. If our cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets, seek to obtain additional equity capital, or restructure our indebtedness. In the future, our cash flow and capital resources may not be sufficient for payments of interest on and principal of our indebtedness, and such alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations.

The final maturity date of the ABL Facility is July 22, 2027. The final maturity date of the New Term Loans is March 23, 2028. We may be unable to refinance any of our indebtedness or obtain additional financing, particularly because of our high levels of indebtedness. Market disruptions, such as those experienced in 2008 and 2020, as well as our significant indebtedness levels, may increase our cost of borrowing or adversely affect our ability to refinance our obligations as they become due. If we are unable to refinance our indebtedness or access additional credit, or if short-term or long-term borrowing costs dramatically increase, our ability to finance current operations and meet our short-term and long-term obligations could be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

The market price of our common stock may be volatile.

The stock market in general and our common stock in particular have recently experienced significant volatility and the market price of our common stock may continue to fluctuate significantly. Among the factors that could affect our stock price are:
industry or general market conditions;
domestic and international economic and political factors unrelated to our performance;
changes in our customers’ or their end-users’ preferences;
new regulatory pronouncements and changes in regulatory guidelines;
lawsuits, enforcement actions, and other claims by third parties or governmental authorities;
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly operating results;
changes in securities analysts’ estimates of our financial performance;
action by institutional stockholders or other large stockholders, including future sales;
comments by public figures or other third parties, including blogs, articles, message boards, and social and other media;
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failure to meet any guidance given by us or any change in any guidance given by us, or changes by us in our guidance practices;
announcements by us of significant impairment charges;
speculation in the press or investment community;
investor perception of us and our industry;
changes in market valuations or earnings of similar companies;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant contracts, acquisitions, dispositions, or strategic partnerships;
novel and unforeseen trading strategies adopted by retail investors or other market participants;
war, civil unrest, terrorist acts, and epidemic disease, including the ongoing conflicts between Russia and Ukraine, the conflict in the Gaza Strip, and unrest in the Middle East;
any future repurchases or sales of our common stock or other securities; and
additions or departures of key personnel.

In particular, we cannot assure that you will be able to resell your shares at or above your purchase price. The stock markets have experienced significant volatility in recent years that has been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, class action litigation has often been instituted against the affected company. Any litigation of this type brought against us could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources, which would harm our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.

Holdings is a holding company with no operations of its own, and it depends on its subsidiaries for cash to fund all of its operations and expenses, including to make future dividend payments, if any.

Our operations are conducted entirely through our subsidiaries, and our ability to generate cash to fund operations and expenses, to pay dividends, or to meet debt service obligations is highly dependent on the earnings, and the receipt of funds from our subsidiaries through dividends or intercompany loans. Deterioration in the financial condition, earnings, or cash flow of Landscape and its subsidiaries for any reason could limit or impair their ability to pay such distributions. Additionally, to the extent that Holdings needs funds, and its subsidiaries are restricted from providing funding or capital under applicable law or regulation or under the terms of our Credit Facilities, or are otherwise unable to provide such funds, it could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We do not currently expect to declare or pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. Payments of dividends, if any, will be at the sole discretion of our Board of Directors after taking into account various factors, including general and economic conditions, our financial condition and operating results, our available cash and current and anticipated cash needs, capital requirements, our ability and plans to fund future share repurchases, contractual, legal, tax, and regulatory restrictions, and implications of the payment of dividends by us to our stockholders or by our subsidiaries (including Landscape) to us, and such other factors as our Board of Directors may deem relevant. In addition, Delaware law may impose requirements that may restrict our ability to pay dividends to holders of our common stock. To the extent that we determine in the future to pay dividends on our common stock, none of our subsidiaries will be obligated to make funds available to us for the payment of dividends.

Our organizational documents contain certain provisions that may discourage, delay, or prevent a change of control of our Company and may limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for certain disputes.

Our third amended and restated certificate of incorporation (“Charter”) and third amended and restated by-laws (“By-laws”) include a number of provisions that may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control over us that stockholders may consider favorable. For example, our Charter and By-laws, collectively:
authorize the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that could be issued by our Board of Directors to thwart a takeover attempt;
provide for a classified board of directors, which divides our Board of Directors into three classes, with members of each class serving staggered three-year terms, which prevents stockholders from electing an entirely new board of directors at an annual meeting;
limit the ability of stockholders to remove directors;
provide that vacancies on our Board of Directors, including vacancies resulting from an enlargement of our Board of Directors, may be filled only by a majority vote of directors then in office;
prohibit stockholders from calling special meetings of stockholders;
prohibit stockholder action by written consent, thereby requiring all actions to be taken at a meeting of the stockholders; and
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establish advance notice requirements for nominations of candidates for election as directors or to bring other business before an annual meeting of our stockholders.

These provisions may prevent our stockholders from receiving the benefit from any premium to the market price of our common stock offered by a bidder in a takeover context. Even in the absence of a takeover attempt, the existence of these provisions may limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock and/or adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock if the provisions are viewed as discouraging takeover attempts in the future.

In addition, our Charter provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed to us or our stockholders by any of our directors, officers, other employees, agents, or stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim arising out of or under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”), or as to which the DGCL confers jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (including, without limitation, any action asserting a claim arising out of or pursuant to our Charter or By-laws), or (iv) any action asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. By becoming a stockholder in our company, you will be deemed to have notice of and have consented to the provisions of our Charter related to choice of forum. The choice of forum provision in our Charter may limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or any of our directors, officers, other employees, agents, or stockholders, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our Charter to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.


Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.
Item 1C. Cybersecurity

Risk Management and Strategy
    We maintain an information security program designed to detect, identify, manage, and protect against cybersecurity and other data security threats to our information technology systems. This information security program is based in-part on, and is periodically measured against, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) framework. Risks identified by our information security program are monitored and analyzed to determine the severity and likelihood of occurrence. IT risks are incorporated into our annual Enterprise Risk Management process and are presented to the Audit Committee annually.
    Additionally, in furtherance of detecting, identifying, managing, and protecting against cybersecurity and other data security threats, we also:
utilize Geo-IP blocking to restrict access from outside North America to our external networks, systems, and websites;
maintain established information security policies and processes;
provide regular security and privacy workforce training to instruct all associates on identifying and safeguarding against cybersecurity concerns;
deploy regular network and endpoint software updates on all company-managed systems and workstations to detect and prevent, among others, viruses, malicious code, unauthorized access, and phishing attempts;
maintain a disaster recovery plan, and perform at least two disaster recovery exercises annually to validate and optimize our recovery efforts in event of a cybersecurity incident;
conduct quarterly phishing exercises for all associates and, if necessary, additional training or remedial action is taken;
regularly engage third-party cybersecurity experts to conduct vulnerability assessments and penetration testing on our information networks, systems, and applications; and
maintain cybersecurity liability insurance.
    We also have an incident response plan that includes procedures to notify, triage, contain, and investigate material cybersecurity incidents. In connection with such plan, we retain a leading cybersecurity incident response firm to provide immediate support in the event of a material cybersecurity incident.
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    Cybersecurity risks related to third-party IT providers and solutions are managed as part of our vendor security protocol that includes vendors, software, and cloud-based service providers. We partner with our vendors to minimize the customer data needed to provide services and ensure compliance with regulations. Vendors are reviewed annually to identify any changes to services, data requirements, and associated security and protections. Where applicable, vendors are contractually bound to protect customer data and support enforcement of all regulatory requirements. We proactively evaluate the cybersecurity risk of third-party IT providers and solutions by utilizing a repository of risk assessments and an external monitoring solution that includes threat intelligence to better inform us during contracting and vendor selection processes. When third party risks are identified, we require those third parties to agree by contract to implement appropriate security controls or refrain from doing business with them. Security issues are documented, tracked, and periodic monitoring is conducted for third parties in order to mitigate risk.
    Like other companies that process a wide variety of information, our information technology systems, networks, and infrastructure have been, and may in the future be, vulnerable to cybersecurity attacks and other data security threats. These types of attacks are constantly evolving, may be difficult to detect quickly, and often are not recognized until after they have been launched against a target. For example, and as previously disclosed, in July 2020, we experienced a ransomware attack on our information technology systems. While there has been no material impact to our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition as a result of the ransomware attack, this incident, as well as any other breach of our systems may result in cybersecurity-related risks that could have a material impact. Refer to “Risk Factors – Risks Relating to Our Business and Our Industry” for additional information regarding the cybersecurity risks faced by the Company.
Governance
    The Company’s Board of Directors has ultimate oversight responsibility for risks relating to our information security program. In addition, the Company’s Board of Directors has delegated primary responsibility to its Audit Committee for reviewing and discussing with management the Company’s compliance with its information security program, as well as monitoring and controlling material risks relating to cybersecurity.
    We also have a dedicated security team overseeing our information security program, which is led by our Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”), who has over 30 years of experience working in cyber and information security roles with large companies, including senior executive positions. Members of the security team hold a variety of professional security and network credentials and certifications, including, among others, Certified Information Systems Security Professional (“CISSP”) credentials, Information Systems Security Management Professional (“ISSMP”) credentials, Certified in Risk and Information Systems Control (“CRISC”) certifications, and Certified Information Security Manager (“CISM”) certifications. The security team is responsible for leading our company-wide cybersecurity architecture, policies, procedures, strategies, and standards. In addition to our internal security team, we partner with various third-party information security providers to augment our staffing, expertise, monitoring, and response to ensure 24x7x365 coverage. Our CISO provides regular updates to our Chief Information Officer as well as to the Audit Committee, and more frequently as needed, regarding information security matters and risks, including, cybersecurity threats.
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Item 2. Properties
    Our corporate headquarters is located on leased premises at 300 Colonial Center Parkway, Suite 600, Roswell, Georgia 30076. Our corporate headquarters is approximately 55,000 square feet and the lease will expire in April 2026.
    We own and lease a variety of facilities in 45 U.S. states and six Canadian provinces for our branch operations, offices, and storage. We primarily lease 5,000 to 15,000 square foot facilities in both freestanding and multi-tenant buildings with secured outside storage yards averaging from 10,000 to 20,000 square feet. As of December 31, 2023, we leased four distribution center facilities across the United States. Our West distribution center operations transitioned from Colton, California (approximately 179,000 square feet) to Goodyear, Arizona (approximately 392,000 square feet) in April 2023. The Hutchins, Texas distribution center is approximately 338,000 square feet and the Palmetto, Georgia distribution center is approximately 335,000 square feet, both of which commenced operations in the fourth quarter of 2021. The Carlisle, Pennsylvania distribution center is approximately 201,000 square feet and commenced operations in the first quarter of 2018. The significant majority of our facilities are subject to operating leases, and we own 16 properties. As of December 31, 2023, we operated 699 branches in the following locations:

State /ProvinceNumber of LocationsState /ProvinceNumber of Locations
California73Idaho5
Florida69Louisiana5
Texas57Nevada5
North Carolina39Oklahoma5
Virginia38New Hampshire4
Arizona33Oregon4
Massachusetts31Kentucky3
Colorado26Nebraska3
New York26Rhode Island3
Georgia24Utah3
New Jersey20Arkansas2
Michigan19Delaware2
South Carolina18Iowa2
Illinois16Hawaii1
Ohio16Maine1
Connecticut14Mississippi1
Tennessee14New Mexico1
Maryland13North Dakota1
Missouri13South Dakota1
Washington13Alberta9
Pennsylvania10British Columbia7
Alabama9Ontario7
Indiana9Saskatchewan1
Minnesota9Manitoba1
Kansas6Québec1
Wisconsin6

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Item 3. Legal Proceedings
    We are not currently involved in any material litigation or arbitration. We anticipate that we will be subject to litigation and arbitration from time to time in the ordinary course of business. At this time, we do not expect any of these proceedings to have a material effect on our reputation, business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows. However, we can give no assurance that the results of any such proceedings will not materially affect our reputation, business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
    Not applicable.
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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Common Stock
    Shares of our common stock trade on the NYSE under the symbol “SITE”. As of February 16, 2024, there was one registered holder of our common stock (this excludes stockholders whose shares are held of record by brokers, banks, or other nominees).
Dividends
    We do not expect to declare or pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future. Instead, we intend to retain future earnings, if any, to service our debt, finance the growth and development of our business, fund acquisitions and share repurchases, and for working capital and general corporate purposes. Our ability to pay dividends to holders of our common stock in the future will be limited as a practical matter by the Credit Facilities, insofar as we may seek to pay dividends out of funds made available to us by Landscape or its subsidiaries, because Landscape’s debt instruments directly or indirectly restrict Landscape’s ability to pay dividends or make loans to us. Any future determination to pay dividends on our common stock is subject to the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon various factors, including our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity requirements, capital requirements, level of indebtedness, contractual restrictions with respect to payment of dividends, restrictions imposed by applicable law, general business conditions, and other factors that our Board of Directors may deem relevant. Refer to Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources – Limitations on Distributions and Dividends by Subsidiaries” for a description of the restrictions on our ability to pay dividends.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
    Refer to Item 12. “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which information will be set forth in SiteOne’s Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
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Stock Performance Graph
    This performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act), or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
    The graph and table below present our cumulative total stockholder returns relative to the performance of the NYSE Composite Index, Standard & Poor’s MidCap 400 Index, and Dow Jones US Industrial Supplier Index for the five most recent fiscal years. All values assume a $100 initial investment at the closing price of our common stock on the NYSE and in each index on the last trading day of fiscal year 2018. The data for the NYSE Composite Index, Standard & Poor’s MidCap 400 Index, and Dow Jones US Industrial Supplier Index assumes all dividends were reinvested on the date paid. The points on the graph represent fiscal year-end values based on the last trading day of each fiscal year. The comparisons are based on historical data and are not indicative of, nor intended to forecast, the future performance of our common stock.
Stock Performance Graph.jpg


Fiscal Year Ended
Company / IndexDecember 30, 2018December 29, 2019January 3, 2021January 2, 2022January 1, 2023December 31, 2023
SiteOne Landscape Supply, Inc.$100.00 $162.73 $285.36 $435.83 $211.05 $292.32 
NYSE Composite$100.00 $126.69 $135.29 $163.26 $147.99 $168.38 
S&P 400 MidCap$100.00 $127.42 $144.91 $180.79 $157.18 $183.01 
Dow Jones US Industrial Suppliers Index$100.00 $132.87 $168.02 $224.50 $194.87 $289.13 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
    None.
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Purchases of Equity Securities by Issuer and Affiliates Purchasers
    The following table provides information about the purchases of our common stock made during the three months ended December 31, 2023:
PeriodsTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid Per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
(in millions)(a)
October 2, 2023 to November 5, 2023— $— — $375.0 
November 6, 2023 to December 3, 202390,000 $126.21 90,000 $363.6 
December 4, 2023 to December 31, 2023— $— — $363.6 
Total90,000 $126.21 90,000 $363.6 
______________
(a) In October 2022, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase authorization for up to $400.0 million of our common stock. The share repurchase authorization, which was announced on November 2, 2022, does not have an expiration date and may be amended, suspended, or terminated by our Board of Directors at any time.

Item 6. [Reserved]


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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
    The following information should be read in conjunction with the accompanying consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
    For the discussion of the financial condition and results of operations for the year ended January 1, 2023 compared to the year ended January 2, 2022, refer to “Part II – Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Results of Operations” and “Liquidity and Capital Resources” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 1, 2023 filed with the SEC on February 23, 2023, which discussion is incorporated herein by reference.
    The following discussion may contain forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates, and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those factors discussed below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, particularly in “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements and Information” and “Risk Factors”.
Overview
    SiteOne Landscape Supply, Inc. (collectively with all of its subsidiaries referred to in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as “SiteOne,” the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” or individually as “Holdings”) indirectly owns 100% of the membership interest in SiteOne Landscape Supply Holding, LLC (“Landscape Holding”). Landscape Holding is the parent and sole owner of SiteOne Landscape Supply, LLC (“Landscape”).
    We are the largest and only national full product line wholesale distributor of landscape supplies in the United States and have a growing presence in Canada. Our customers are primarily residential and commercial landscape professionals who specialize in the design, installation, and maintenance of lawns, gardens, golf courses, and other outdoor spaces. As of December 31, 2023, we had over 690 branch locations in 45 U.S. states and six Canadian provinces. Through our expansive North American network, we offer a comprehensive selection of approximately 160,000 SKUs, including irrigation supplies, fertilizer and control products (e.g., herbicides), hardscapes (including pavers, natural stone, and blocks), landscape accessories, nursery goods, outdoor lighting, and ice melt products to green industry professionals. We also provide value-added consultative services to complement our product offerings and to help our customers operate and grow their businesses.
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Business Environment and Trends
    Economic headwinds, including softer markets, commodity price deflation, and operating cost inflation, were a challenge during the 2023 Fiscal Year. We expect the current macroeconomic trends of elevated interest rates, tighter financial markets, reduced consumer spending, residual inflation, and deflation in select commodity products will continue to put pressure on Net sales growth and Net income in 2024. Organic Daily Sales were flat for the 2023 Fiscal Year, compared to 11% growth for the 2022 Fiscal Year. Organic Daily Sales benefitted from higher prices in the first half of the 2023 Fiscal Year, but were negatively impacted by lower prices for commodity products such as PVC pipe, grass seed, and fertilizer in the second half of the 2023 Fiscal Year. Overall, price deflation reduced Organic Daily Sales by less than 1% for the 2023 Fiscal Year but the negative price trend from the second half of the 2023 Fiscal Year is expected to continue before moderating in the first half of 2024. We expect prices to be down 1% to 2% for the 2024 Fiscal Year. For the 2023 Fiscal Year, we achieved Net sales growth of 7%, driven by contributions from acquisitions. Gross margin decreased 70 basis points for the 2023 Fiscal Year, primarily due to the absence of the price realization benefit that was achieved in the 2022 Fiscal Year, partially offset by acquisitions with higher gross margins as well as lower freight costs. Selling, general and administrative expenses (“SG&A”) increased 15% for the 2023 Fiscal Year, primarily due to the impact of acquisitions and cost inflation. Net income decreased 29% for the 2023 Fiscal Year, primarily due to higher SG&A and lower gross margins, partially offset by Net sales growth.
    Looking forward, the trend of consumers spending more time at home and investing in their outdoor living spaces is expected to continue, although at lower levels compared to the three-year pandemic peak. Increases in home values, lack of affordable new homes, and elevated mortgage interest rates for prolonged periods have resulted in homeowners staying in their homes longer. The long-term outlook for the landscape supply industry remains strong however, driven by favorable population trends, housing demand, and increased interest in outdoor living. We are confident in the landscape supply industry growth opportunities and our ability to continue providing our customers, suppliers, and shareholders exceptional value. We are the only national full product line wholesale distributor of landscape supplies in the United States. With a robust acquisition pipeline and a flexible business model, we remain committed to our strategic and operational initiatives and will continue to focus on driving growth organically and through acquisitions while gaining market share and delivering margin expansion by leveraging our scale, resources, and capabilities. We are operational in four distribution center facilities across the United States that expanded our supply chain capacity in 2023. Our West distribution center operations transitioned from Colton, California (179,000 square feet) to Goodyear, Arizona (392,000 square feet) in April 2023. We operate three other distribution centers that are located in Hutchins, Texas (338,000 square feet), Palmetto, Georgia (335,000 square feet), and Carlisle, Pennsylvania (201,000 square feet). In addition, we achieved strong operating cash flows in the 2023 Fiscal Year through effective working capital management due primarily to our progress in reducing inventory levels which were elevated in response to supply chain uncertainty in the prior year.
    As we continue to navigate through the current uncertainty presented by market and economic conditions, we believe that we are prepared to meet the challenges ahead due to our balanced business, strong financial condition, dedicated and experienced teams, and focused business strategy. We continue to closely monitor the impact on our business and the related uncertainties and risks of moderating prices and demand weakness resulting from the challenging market conditions described above as well as the potential effects of uncertain political conditions and geopolitical conflicts, such as the ongoing war in Ukraine, the conflict in the Gaza Strip, and unrest in the Middle East. These conditions are beyond our control, and we cannot estimate with certainty the full extent of their impact on our business, results of operations, cash flows, and/or financial condition. To mitigate the effects of these conditions, we may take actions that alter our business operations if required or that we determine are in the best interests of our associates, customers, suppliers, and shareholders. The forward-looking statements in this Business Environment and Trends section are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. See Part I, Item 1A. - “Risk Factors”, for a discussion of the various risks that could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
Presentation
    Our financial statements included in this report have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“GAAP”). Our fiscal year is a 52- or 53-week period ending on the Sunday nearest to December 31 in each year. Our fiscal quarters end on the Sunday nearest to March 31, June 30, and September 30, respectively.
    The discussion of our financial condition is presented for the 2023 Fiscal Year, which ended on December 31, 2023, and the 2022 Fiscal Year, which ended on January 1, 2023, both of which included 52 weeks and 252 Selling Days. “Selling Days” are defined below within the “Key Business and Performance Metrics” section.
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    We manage our business as a single reportable segment. Within our organizational framework, the same operational resources support multiple geographic regions, and performance is evaluated at a consolidated level. We also evaluate performance based on discrete financial information on a regional basis. Since all of our regions have similar operations and share similar economic characteristics, we aggregate regions into a single operating and reportable segment. These similarities include (i) long-term financial performance, (ii) the nature of products and services, (iii) the types of customers we sell to, and (iv) the distribution methods utilized. Further, all of our product categories have similar supply chain processes and classes of customers.

 
Key Business and Performance Metrics
    We focus on a variety of indicators and key operating and financial metrics to monitor the financial condition and performance of our business. These metrics include:
    Net sales. We generate Net sales primarily through the sale of landscape supplies, including irrigation supplies, fertilizer and control products, hardscapes, landscape accessories, nursery goods, outdoor lighting, and ice melt products to our customers who are primarily landscape contractors serving the residential and commercial construction sectors. Our Net sales include billings for freight and handling charges, and commissions on the sale of control products that we sell as an agent. Net sales are presented net of any discounts, returns, customer rebates, and sales or other revenue-based taxes.
    Non-GAAP Organic Sales. In managing our business, we consider all growth, including the opening of new greenfield branches, to be organic growth unless it results from an acquisition. When we refer to Organic Sales growth, we include increases in growth from newly-opened greenfield branches and decreases in growth from closing existing branches but exclude increases in growth from acquired branches until they have been under our ownership for at least four full fiscal quarters at the start of the fiscal reporting period.
    Non-GAAP Selling Days. Selling Days are defined as business days, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays, that our branches are open during the year. Depending upon the location and the season, our branches may be open on Saturdays and Sundays; however, for consistency, those days have been excluded from the calculation of Selling Days.
    Non-GAAP Organic Daily Sales. We define Organic Daily Sales as Organic Sales divided by the number of Selling Days in the relevant reporting period. We believe Organic Sales growth and Organic Daily Sales growth are useful measures for evaluating our performance as we may choose to open or close branches in any given market depending upon the needs of our customers or our strategic growth opportunities. Refer to “Results of Operations – Quarterly Results of Operations Data” for a reconciliation of Organic Daily Sales to Net sales.
    Cost of goods sold. Our Cost of goods sold includes all inventory costs, such as the purchase price paid to suppliers, net of any volume-based incentives, as well as inbound freight and handling, and other costs associated with inventory. Cost of goods sold also includes salaries, wages, employee benefits, payroll taxes, bonuses, depreciation, and amortization related to inventory production activities. Our Cost of goods sold excludes the cost to deliver the products to our customers through our branches, which is included in Selling, general and administrative expenses. Cost of goods sold is recognized primarily using the first-in, first-out method of accounting for the inventory sold.
    Gross profit and gross margin. We believe that Gross profit and gross margin are useful for evaluating our operating performance. We define Gross profit as Net sales less Cost of goods sold. We define gross margin as Gross profit divided by Net sales.
    Selling, general and administrative expenses (operating expenses). Our operating expenses are primarily comprised of Selling, general and administrative costs, which include personnel expenses (salaries, wages, employee benefits, payroll taxes, stock-based compensation, and bonuses), rent, fuel, vehicle maintenance costs, insurance, utilities, repairs and maintenance, and professional fees. Operating expenses also include depreciation and amortization.
    Non-GAAP Adjusted EBITDA. In addition to the metrics discussed above, we believe that Adjusted EBITDA is useful for evaluating the operating performance and efficiency of our business. EBITDA represents our Net income (loss) plus the sum of income tax (benefit) expense, interest expense, net of interest income, and depreciation and amortization. Adjusted EBITDA represents EBITDA as further adjusted for items such as stock-based compensation expense, (gain) loss on sale of assets and termination of finance leases not in the ordinary course of business, financing fees, as well as other fees and expenses related to acquisitions, and other non-recurring (income) loss. Refer to “Results of Operations – Quarterly Results of Operations Data” for more information regarding how we calculate EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA and the limitations of those metrics.
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Key Factors Affecting Our Operating Results
    In addition to the metrics described above, a number of other important factors may affect our results of operations in any given period.
 
Weather Conditions and Seasonality
    In a typical year, our operating results are impacted by seasonality. Our Net sales and Net income have been higher in the second and third quarters of each fiscal year due to favorable weather and longer daylight conditions during these quarters. Our Net sales have been significantly lower in the first and fourth quarters due to lower landscaping, irrigation, and turf maintenance activities in these quarters, and historically, we have incurred net losses in these quarters. Seasonal variations in operating results may also be significantly impacted by inclement weather conditions, such as snow and ice storms, wet weather, and hurricanes, which not only impact the demand for certain products like fertilizer and ice melt, but also may delay construction projects where our products are used.
Industry and Key Economic Conditions
    Our business depends on demand from customers for landscape products and services. The landscape supply industry includes a significant amount of landscape products, such as irrigation systems, outdoor lighting, lawn care supplies, nursery goods, and landscape accessories, for use in the construction of newly built homes, commercial buildings and facilities, and recreational spaces. The landscape supply industry has historically grown in line with rates of growth in residential housing and commercial building. The industry is also affected by trends in home prices, mortgage interest rates, home sales, and consumer spending. As general economic conditions improve or deteriorate, consumption of these products and services also tends to fluctuate. The landscape supply industry also includes a significant amount of agronomic products such as fertilizer, herbicides, and ice melt for use in maintaining existing landscapes or facilities. The use of these products is also tied to general economic activity, but levels of sales are not as closely correlated to construction markets.
Popular Consumer Trends
    Preferences in housing, lifestyle, and environmental awareness can also impact the overall level of demand and mix for the products we offer. Examples of current trends we believe are important to our business include an ongoing interest in professional landscape services inspired by the popularity of home and garden television shows, magazines, and social media, the increasingly popular concept of “outdoor living,” which has been a key driver of sales growth for our hardscapes and outdoor lighting products, and the social focus on eco-friendly products that promote water conservation, energy efficiency, and the adoption of “green” standards.
Acquisitions
    In addition to our organic growth, we continue to grow our business through acquisitions in an effort to better service our existing customers and to attract new customers. These acquisitions have allowed us to further broaden our product lines and extend our geographic reach and leadership positions in local markets. In accordance with GAAP, the results of the acquisitions are reflected in our financial statements from the date of acquisition forward. Additionally, we incur transaction costs in connection with identifying and completing acquisitions as well as ongoing costs as we integrate acquired companies and seek to achieve synergies. As of December 31, 2023, we have invested $444.4 million in 27 acquisitions since the start of the 2022 Fiscal Year. The following is a summary of the acquisitions completed during the 2023 Fiscal Year and the 2022 Fiscal Year:
In December 2023, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Newsom Seed, Inc. (“Newsom Seed”). With two locations in Fulton, Maryland, Newsom Seed is a wholesale distributor of seed and agronomic products to landscape professionals.
In August 2023, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of JMJ Organics LTD (“JMJ Organics”). With five locations in Houston, Texas, JMJ Organics is a wholesale distributor of landscape supplies, nursery products, and hardscapes to landscape professionals.
In August 2023, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Regal Chemical Company and Monarch Scientific, LLC (collectively, “Regal”). With one location in Alpharetta, Georgia, Regal is a wholesale distributor of agronomic products to landscape professionals.
In August 2023, we acquired all of the outstanding stock of Pioneer Landscape Centers, Inc. and JLL Pioneer LLC (collectively, “Pioneer”). With 18 locations in Colorado and 16 locations in Arizona, Pioneer is a wholesale distributor of hardscapes and landscape supply products, including decorative rock, pavers, bulk materials, artificial turf, and supporting products to landscape professionals.
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In August 2023, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Timothy’s Center for Gardening, LLC (“Timothy’s”). With one location in Robbinsville, New Jersey, Timothy’s is a wholesale distributor of hardscapes, nursery products, and bulk materials to landscape professionals.
In August 2023, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of New England Silica, Inc. (“New England Silica”). With one location in South Windsor, Connecticut, New England Silica is a wholesale distributor of hardscapes to landscape professionals.
In July 2023, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Hickory Hill Farm & Garden, LLC (“Hickory Hill”). With one location in Eatonton, Georgia, Hickory Hill is a wholesale distributor of irrigation, nursery, and landscape supplies to landscape professionals.
In May 2023, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Link Inc., doing business as Link Outdoor Lighting Distributors (“Link”). With four locations in Altamonte Springs and Naples, Florida, Nashville, Tennessee, and Houston, Texas, Link is a wholesale distributor of landscape lighting products to landscape professionals.
In May 2023, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Adams Wholesale Supply, Inc. (“Adams Wholesale Supply”). With three locations in the San Antonio, Houston, and Dallas, Texas markets, Adams Wholesale Supply is a wholesale distributor of landscape supplies and agronomic products to landscape professionals.
In March 2023, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Triangle Landscape Supplies, Inc., Triangle Landscape Supplies of J.C., LLC, and Triangle Landscape Supplies of Apex, Inc. (collectively, “Triangle”). With four locations in the Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina market, Triangle is a wholesale distributor of hardscapes and landscape supplies to landscape professionals.
In March 2023, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of J&J Materials Corp. (“J&J Materials”). With five locations in Rhode Island and Southeastern Massachusetts, J&J Materials is a wholesale distributor of hardscapes to landscape professionals.
In December 2022, we acquired all of the outstanding stock of Whittlesey Landscape Supplies and Recycling, Inc. (“Whittlesey”). With seven locations in the greater Austin, Texas market, Whittlesey is a producer and wholesale distributor of bulk landscape supplies and hardscapes to landscape professionals.
In December 2022, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Telluride Natural Stone, Inc. (“Telluride Natural Stone”). With one location in Phoenix, Arizona, Telluride Natural Stone is a wholesale distributor of hardscape products and landscape supplies to landscape professionals.
In October 2022, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Madison Block & Stone, LLC (“Madison Block & Stone”). With one location in Madison, Wisconsin, Madison Block & Stone is a wholesale distributor of natural stone, pavers, bulk materials, and landscape supplies to landscape professionals.
In August 2022, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Kaknes Landscape Supply, Inc. (“Kaknes”). With one location in Naperville, Illinois, Kaknes is a wholesale distributor of nursery products to landscape professionals.
In August 2022, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Stone Plus, LLC (“Stone Plus”). With three locations in Northeast Florida, Stone Plus is a wholesale distributor of landscape supplies and hardscapes to landscape professionals.
In August 2022, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of JimStone Co. of Louisiana, LLC (“Jim Stone”). With three locations in Southern Louisiana, Jim Stone is a wholesale distributor of natural stone and other hardscapes to landscape professionals.
In August 2022, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Linzel Distributing Inc. (“Linzel”). With one location in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Linzel is a wholesale distributor of outdoor lighting and landscape supplies to landscape professionals.
In August 2022, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Cape Cod Stone & Masonry Supply, Inc. (“Cape Cod Stone”). With one location in Orleans, Massachusetts, Cape Cod Stone is a wholesale distributor of hardscapes to landscape professionals.
In July 2022, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of River Valley Horticultural Products, Inc. and River Valley Equipment Rental and Sales, LLC (collectively, “River Valley”). With one location in Little Rock, Arkansas, River Valley is a wholesale distributor of nursery products, hardscapes, and landscape supplies to landscape professionals.
In July 2022, we acquired all of the outstanding stock of A&A Stepping Stone Manufacturing, Inc. (“A&A Stepping Stone”). With four locations in Sacramento, California, A&A Stepping Stone is a wholesale distributor of hardscapes and landscape supplies to landscape professionals.
In June 2022, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Prescott Dirt, LLC (“Prescott Dirt”). With two locations in Prescott and Prescott Valley, Arizona, Prescott Dirt is a wholesale distributor of landscape supplies to landscape professionals.
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In June 2022, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Yard Works, LLC (“Yard Works”). With 13 locations in Central Virginia, Yard Works is a wholesale distributor of bulk landscape supplies to landscape professionals.
In June 2022, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Across the Pond, Inc. (“Across the Pond”). With one location in Huntsville, Alabama, Across the Pond is a wholesale distributor of hardscapes and bulk landscape supplies to landscape professionals.
In April 2022, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of Preferred Seed Company, Inc. (“Preferred Seed”). With one location in Buffalo, New York, Preferred Seed is a wholesale distributor of seed and agronomic products to landscape professionals.
In April 2022, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities of RTSB Enterprises, Inc., doing business as Bellstone Masonry Supply (“Bellstone”). With one location in Fort Worth, Texas, Bellstone is a wholesale distributor of hardscapes and landscape supplies to landscape professionals.
In March 2022, we acquired all of the outstanding stock of J K Enterprise, Inc., Culpeper Recycling Hauling LLC, Culpeper Recycling Transport LLC, Gateway Home & Garden Center, LLC, JK Enterprise Landscape Supply, Limited Liability Company, Madera Farm Transport, LLC, Saunders LS, LLC, and Tilden Farm Nursery, LLC, and also acquired the assets of Metro Landscape Supply, Limited and Culpeper Recycling, LLC (collectively, “JK Enterprise”). With six locations in Northern Virginia and one location in Maryland, JK Enterprise is a wholesale distributor of bulk and bagged mulches and soil, hardscapes, and nursery products to landscape professionals.
    We expect the execution of synergistic acquisitions to continue to be an integral part of our growth strategy, and we intend to continue expanding our product line, geographic reach, market share, and operational capabilities through future acquisitions.
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Volume-Based Pricing
    We generally procure our products through purchase orders rather than under long-term contracts with firm commitments. We work to develop strong relationships with select suppliers that we target based on a number of factors, including brand and market recognition, price, quality, product support, service levels, delivery terms, and strategic positioning. We typically have annual supplier agreements, and while they generally do not provide for specific product pricing, many include volume-based financial incentives that we earn by meeting or exceeding purchase volume targets. Our ability to earn these volume-based incentives is an important factor in our financial results. In certain cases, we enter into supply contracts with terms that exceed one year for the manufacture of our LESCO® branded fertilizer, some nursery goods, grass seed, and landscape supply products, which may require us to purchase products in the future.
Strategic Initiatives
    We continue to undertake initiatives, utilizing our scale to improve our profitability, enhance supply chain efficiency, strengthen our pricing and category management capabilities, streamline and refine our marketing process, and invest in more sophisticated information technology systems and data analytics. We are focusing on our procurement and supply chain management initiatives to better serve our customers and reduce sourcing costs. We are also implementing new inventory planning and stocking system functionalities and new transportation management systems in an effort to reduce costs as well as improve our reliability and level of service. In addition, we continue to enhance our website and B2B e-Commerce platform. We also work closely with our local branches to improve sales, delivery, and branch productivity. We believe we will continue to benefit from the following initiatives, among others:
Category management initiatives, including the implementation of organic growth strategies, assortment planning, private label expansion, line of business training, and supplier management.
Supply chain initiatives, including the implementation of new inventory planning and stocking systems and functionalities, the continued expansion of our distribution network footprint and capabilities, local hubs in large markets, inbound freight optimization, and local fleet utilization and cost improvements.
Sales force initiatives, including optimizing our commercial sales strategies, leads, and opportunities, while improving the skills and performance of the team.
Marketing initiatives, including customer analytics and lifecycle marketing, product marketing, Hispanic customer engagement, optimization of our digital marketing strategy, and a continued focus on the new Partners Program.
Digital initiatives, including increasing customer demand as well as adoption of our website, mobile application, and overall B2B e-Commerce platform, SiteOne.com, which provides the convenience of an online sales channel, enhanced account management functionality, and industry specific productivity tools for our customers.
Operational excellence initiatives, including the implementation of best practices in branch operations which encompasses safety, merchandising, stocking and assortment, customer engagement, delivery, labor management, as well as the additional automation and enhancement of branch systems, including the rollout of improved associate mobile capabilities.
Working Capital
    Our business is characterized by a relatively high level of reported working capital, the effects of which can be compounded by changes in prices. In addition to affecting our Net sales, fluctuations in prices of supplies tend to result in changes in our reported inventories, trade receivables, and trade payables, even when our sales volumes and our rate of turnover of these working capital items remain relatively constant. Our working capital needs are exposed to these price fluctuations, as well as to fluctuations in our cost for transportation and distribution. We may not always be able to reflect these changes in our pricing. The strategic initiatives described above are designed to reduce our exposure to these fluctuations and maintain and improve our efficiency.

 
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Results of Operations
    In the following discussion of our results of operations, we make comparisons between the 2023 Fiscal Year and the 2022 Fiscal Year (in millions, except percentages).
Consolidated Statements of Operations
January 2, 2023 to December 31, 2023January 3, 2022 to January 1, 2023
Net sales$4,301.2 100.0 %$4,014.5 100.0 %
Cost of goods sold2,810.0 65.3 %2,593.0 64.6 %
Gross profit1,491.2 34.7 %1,421.5 35.4 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses1,256.6 29.2 %1,097.0 27.3 %
Other income15.7 0.4 %8.6 0.2 %
Operating income 250.3 5.8 %333.1 8.3 %
Interest and other non-operating expenses, net27.1 0.6 %20.0 0.5 %
Income tax expense49.8 1.2 %67.7 1.7 %
Net income$173.4 4.0 %$245.4 6.1 %

Comparison of the 2023 Fiscal Year to the 2022 Fiscal Year

Net sales

    Net sales for the 2023 Fiscal Year increased 7% to $4,301.2 million as compared to $4,014.5 million for the 2022 Fiscal Year primarily due to contributions from acquisitions. Organic Daily Sales for the 2023 Fiscal Year were flat compared to the 2022 Fiscal Year due to moderating economic conditions in our end markets. Based upon year-over-year price changes in our highest selling SKUs, we estimate price deflation reduced Organic Daily Sales by less than 1% in the 2023 Fiscal Year. Organic Daily Sales for agronomic products (fertilizer, control products, ice melt, equipment, and other products) decreased 4% due primarily to lower prices for fertilizer and grass seed, partially offset by increased volume for those products. Organic Daily Sales for landscaping products (irrigation supplies, hardscapes, landscape accessories, nursery goods, and outdoor lighting) grew 1% reflecting modest end market demand and slightly higher prices. Acquisitions contributed $278.7 million, or 7%, to Net sales growth for the 2023 Fiscal Year.

Cost of goods sold

    Cost of goods sold for the 2023 Fiscal Year increased 8% to $2,810.0 million from $2,593.0 million for the 2022 Fiscal Year. The increase in Cost of goods sold was primarily attributable to acquisitions.

Gross profit and gross margin

    Gross profit for the 2023 Fiscal Year increased 5% to $1,491.2 million as compared to $1,421.5 million for the 2022 Fiscal Year. Gross profit growth was driven by Net sales growth, including acquisitions. Gross margin decreased 70 basis points to 34.7% for the 2023 Fiscal Year as compared to 35.4% for the 2022 Fiscal Year. The decrease in gross margin primarily reflects the absence of the price realization benefit recognized in the 2022 Fiscal Year, partially offset by contributions from acquisitions with higher gross margins as well as lower freight costs.

Selling, general and administrative expenses

    Selling, general and administrative expenses (“SG&A”) for the 2023 Fiscal Year increased 15% to $1,256.6 million from $1,097.0 million for the 2022 Fiscal Year. SG&A as a percentage of Net sales increased 190 basis points to 29.2% for the 2023 Fiscal Year compared to 27.3% for the 2022 Fiscal Year. This increase was primarily due to the impact of acquisitions and operating cost inflation. Depreciation and amortization increased $23.9 million to $127.7 million due to our acquisitions.

Interest and other non-operating expense, net

    Interest and other non-operating expense, net increased 36% to $27.1 million in the 2023 Fiscal Year from $20.0 million in the 2022 Fiscal Year. The increase in interest expense was primarily due to increased borrowings and a higher average interest rate during the 2023 Fiscal Year as compared to the 2022 Fiscal Year.
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Income tax expense

    Income tax expense was $49.8 million for the 2023 Fiscal Year as compared to $67.7 million for the 2022 Fiscal Year. The effective tax rate was 22.3% for the 2023 Fiscal Year as compared to 21.6% for the 2022 Fiscal Year. The increase in the effective tax rate was due primarily to a decrease in the amount of excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation recognized as a component of Income tax expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Excess tax benefits of $5.9 million were recognized for the 2023 Fiscal Year as compared to $10.4 million for the 2022 Fiscal Year.

 Net income

    Net income for the 2023 Fiscal Year decreased 29% to $173.4 million as compared to $245.4 million for the 2022 Fiscal Year. The decrease in Net income was primarily due to lower gross margin and higher SG&A, partially offset by an increase in Net sales.

Quarterly Results of Operations Data
    The following tables set forth certain financial data for each of the most recent eight fiscal quarters including our unaudited Net sales, Cost of goods sold, Gross profit, Selling, general and administrative expenses, Net income (loss), and Adjusted EBITDA data (including a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to Net income (loss)). We have prepared the quarterly data on a basis that is consistent with the financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In the opinion of management, the financial information reflects all necessary adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair presentation of this data. This information is not a complete set of financial statements and should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and related notes included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The results of historical periods are not necessarily indicative of the results of operations for a full year or any future period.
(In millions except per share information and percentages, unaudited)
2023 Fiscal Year2022 Fiscal Year
YearQtr 4Qtr 3Qtr 2Qtr 1YearQtr 4Qtr 3Qtr 2Qtr 1
Net sales$4,301.2 $965.0 $1,145.1 $1,353.7 $837.4 $4,014.5 $890.0 $1,102.6 $1,216.6 $805.3 
Cost of goods sold2,810.0 638.4 757.0 864.3 550.3 2,593.0 587.4 714.0 755.5 536.1 
Gross profit1,491.2 326.6 388.1 489.4 287.1 1,421.5 302.6 388.6 461.1 269.2 
Selling, general and administrative expenses1,256.6 332.8 311.8 320.6 291.4 1,097.0 304.6 289.2 272.7 230.5 
Other income, net(15.7)(4.3)(4.9)(2.5)(4.0)(8.6)(2.0)(2.4)(1.7)(2.5)
Operating income (loss)250.3 (1.9)81.2 171.3 (0.3)333.1 — 101.8 190.1 41.2 
Interest and other non-operating expenses, net27.1 6.5 6.4 7.3 6.9 20.0 5.5 5.6 4.6 4.3 
Income tax expense (benefit)49.8 (5.0)17.5 40.0 (2.7)67.7 (4.6)22.9 44.8 4.6 
Net income (loss)$173.4 $(3.4)$57.3 $124.0 $(4.5)$245.4 $(0.9)$73.3 $140.7 $32.3 
Net income (loss) per common share:
Basic$3.84 $(0.08)$1.27 $2.75 $(0.10)$5.45 $(0.02)$1.63 $3.12 $0.72 
Diluted$3.80 $(0.08)$1.25 $2.71 $(0.10)$5.36 $(0.02)$1.60 $3.07 $0.70 
Adjusted EBITDA(a)
$410.7 $39.9 $119.8 $211.2 $39.8 $464.3 $38.9 $135.6 $222.0 $67.8 
Net sales as a percentage of annual Net sales100.0 %22.4 %26.6 %31.5 %19.5 %100.0 %22.2 %27.5 %30.3 %20.0 %
Gross profit as a percentage of annual Gross profit100.0 %21.9 %26.0 %32.8 %19.3 %100.0 %21.3 %27.3 %32.4 %19.0 %
Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of annual Adjusted EBITDA100.0 %9.7 %29.2 %51.4 %9.7 %100.0 %8.4 %29.2 %47.8 %14.6 %
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(a)    In addition to our Net income (loss) determined in accordance with GAAP, we present Adjusted EBITDA in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to evaluate the operating performance and efficiency of our business. EBITDA represents our Net income (loss) plus the sum of Income tax expense (benefit), interest expense, net of interest income, and depreciation and amortization. Adjusted EBITDA is further adjusted for stock-based compensation expense, (gain) loss on sale of assets and termination of finance leases not in the ordinary course of business, financing fees, as well as other fees and expenses related to acquisitions, and other non-recurring (income) loss. We believe that Adjusted EBITDA is an important supplemental measure of operating performance because:
Adjusted EBITDA is used to test compliance with certain covenants under our long-term debt agreements;
Adjusted EBITDA is frequently used by securities analysts, investors, and other interested parties in their evaluation of companies, many of which present an Adjusted EBITDA measure when reporting their results;
Adjusted EBITDA is helpful in highlighting operating trends because it excludes the results of decisions that are outside the control of operating management and that can differ significantly from company to company depending on long-term strategic decisions regarding capital structure, the tax jurisdictions in which companies operate, age and book depreciation of facilities, and capital investments;
we consider (gains) losses on the acquisition, disposal, and impairment of assets as resulting from investing decisions rather than ongoing operations; and
other significant non-recurring items, while periodically affecting our results, may vary significantly from period to period and have a disproportionate effect in a given period, which affects comparability of our results.

Adjusted EBITDA is not a measure of our liquidity or financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered as an alternative to Net income, Operating income, or any other performance measures derived in accordance with GAAP, or as an alternative to cash flow from operating activities as a measure of our liquidity. The use of Adjusted EBITDA instead of Net income has limitations as an analytical tool. For example, this measure:
does not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, our working capital needs;
does not reflect our interest expense, net, or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments, on our debt;
does not reflect our Income tax expense (benefit) or the cash requirements to pay our income taxes;
does not reflect historical cash expenditures or future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments; and
although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized will often have to be replaced in the future and does not reflect any cash requirements for such replacements.

 
Management compensates for these limitations by relying primarily on the GAAP results and by using Adjusted EBITDA only as a supplement to provide a more complete understanding of the factors and trends affecting the business than GAAP results alone. Because not all companies use identical calculations, our presentation of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies limiting their usefulness as a comparative measure.

    
    
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The following table presents a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to Net income (loss) (in millions, unaudited):
2023 Fiscal Year2022 Fiscal Year
YearQtr 4Qtr 3Qtr 2Qtr 1YearQtr 4Qtr 3Qtr 2Qtr 1
Reported Net income (loss)$173.4 $(3.4)$57.3 $124.0 $(4.5)$245.4 $(0.9)$73.3 $140.7 $32.3 
Income tax expense (benefit)49.8 (5.0)17.5 40.0 (2.7)67.7 (4.6)22.9 44.8 4.6 
Interest expense, net27.1 6.5 6.4 7.3 6.9 20.0 5.5 5.6 4.6 4.3 
Depreciation & amortization127.7 34.6 31.3 31.0 30.8 103.8 31.6 27.4 23.1 21.7 
EBITDA378.0 32.7 112.5 202.3 30.5 436.9 31.6 129.2 213.2 62.9 
Stock-based compensation(a)
25.7 5.0 5.0 7.1 8.6 18.3 4.3 4.5 5.8 3.7 
(Gain) loss on sale of assets(b)
(0.5)(0.1)(0.2)0.2 (0.4)(0.8)0.2 (0.7)(0.2)(0.1)
Financing fees(c)
0.5 — 0.4 0.1 — 0.3 — 0.1 0.2 — 
Acquisitions and other adjustments(d)
7.0 2.3 2.1 1.5 1.1 9.6 2.8 2.5 3.0 1.3 
Adjusted EBITDA(e)
$410.7 $39.9 $119.8 $211.2 $39.8 $464.3 $38.9 $135.6 $222.0 $67.8 
_____________________________________

(a)    Represents stock-based compensation expense recorded during the period.
(b)    Represents any gain or loss associated with the sale of assets and termination of finance leases not in the ordinary course of business.
(c)    Represents fees associated with our debt refinancing and debt amendments.
(d)    Represents professional fees, retention and severance payments, and performance bonuses related to historical acquisitions. Although we have incurred professional fees, retention and severance payments, and performance bonuses related to acquisitions in several historical periods and expect to incur such fees and payments for any future acquisitions, we cannot predict the timing or amount of any such fees or payments. These amounts are recorded in Selling, general and administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
(e)    Adjusted EBITDA excludes any earnings or loss of acquisitions prior to their respective acquisition dates for all periods presented.
    The following table presents a reconciliation of Organic Daily Sales to Net sales (in millions, except Selling Days; unaudited):
2023 Fiscal Year2022 Fiscal Year
YearQtr 4Qtr 3Qtr 2Qtr 1YearQtr 4Qtr 3Qtr 2Qtr 1
Reported Net sales$4,301.2 $965.0 $1,145.1 $1,353.7 $837.4 $4,014.5 $890.0 $1,102.6 $1,216.6 $805.3 
Organic sales(a)
3,937.3 860.6 1,046.7 1,252.4 777.6 3,929.3 857.0 1,068.9 1,201.4 802.0 
Acquisition contribution(b)
363.9 104.4 98.4 101.3 59.8 85.2 33.0 33.7 15.2 3.3 
Selling Days252 61 63 64 64 252 60 63 64 65 
Organic Daily Sales$15.6 $14.1 $16.6 $19.6 $12.2 $15.6 $14.3 $17.0 $18.8 $12.3 
_____________________________________

(a)    Organic sales equal Net sales less Net sales from branches acquired in 2023 and 2022.
(b)    Represents Net sales from acquired branches that have not been under our ownership for at least four full fiscal quarters at the start of the 2023 Fiscal Year. Includes Net sales from branches acquired in 2023 and 2022.



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Liquidity and Capital Resources
    We assess our liquidity in terms of our cash and cash equivalents on hand and the ability to generate cash to fund our operating and investing activities, repurchase shares, and service our debt, taking into consideration available borrowings and the seasonal nature of our business. We expect that cash and cash equivalents on hand, cash provided from operations, and available capacity under the ABL Facility will provide sufficient funds to operate our business, make capital expenditures, complete acquisitions and share repurchases, and meet all of our liquidity requirements for the next 12 months, including payment of interest and principal on our debt. Longer-term projects or significant investments in acquisitions may be financed through borrowings under our credit facilities or other forms of financing and will depend on then-existing conditions.
    In October 2022, our Board of Directors approved a share repurchase authorization for up to $400.0 million of our common stock. We intend to purchase shares under the repurchase authorization from time to time on the open market at the discretion of management, subject to strategic considerations, market conditions, and other factors. The share repurchase authorization does not have an expiration date and may be amended, suspended, or terminated by our Board of Directors at any time. During the 2023 Fiscal Year, we repurchased 90,000 shares of our common stock at an average price per share of $126.21. As of December 31, 2023, the dollar value of shares that may yet be purchased under the share repurchase authorization was $363.6 million.
    Our borrowing base capacity under the ABL Facility was $578.2 million as of December 31, 2023, after giving effect to $7.5 million of revolving credit loans under the ABL Facility and outstanding letters of credit of $14.3 million. Our borrowing base capacity under the ABL Facility was $487.4 million as of January 1, 2023, after giving effect to $100.0 million of revolving credit loans under the ABL Facility and outstanding letters of credit of $11.5 million. As of December 31, 2023, we had total cash and cash equivalents of $82.5 million, total gross long-term debt of $379.0 million, and total finance lease obligations (excluding interest) of $91.6 million.
    Working capital was $827.0 million as of December 31, 2023, an increase of $67.5 million as compared to $759.5 million as of January 1, 2023. The change in working capital was primarily attributable to an increase in cash and cash equivalents and higher receivables supporting our sales growth.
    Capital expenditures of $32.1 million for the 2023 Fiscal Year were 0.7% of Net sales for the year. Capital expenditures have averaged $30.6 million annually from the 2021 Fiscal Year to the 2023 Fiscal Year representing an average of 0.8% of Net sales over this time period. We expect capital expenditures to be in a range of 0.8% to 1.4% as a percentage of Net sales for the 2024 Fiscal Year.
    The following table summarizes current and long-term material cash requirements for our aggregate contractual obligations and other commercial commitments as of December 31, 2023 (in millions):
TotalNext 12 MonthsBeyond 12 Months
Long-term debt, including current maturities$379.0 $5.3 $373.7 
Interest on long-term debt$112.4 $20.4 $92.0 
Finance leases, including interest$104.9 $26.6 $78.3 
Operating leases, including interest$471.9 $93.6 $378.3 
Purchase obligations$162.4 $87.8 $74.6 
    Our gross long-term debt balance increased $22.9 million since January 1, 2023 to $379.0 million. This increase was primarily attributable to higher working capital as described above and our acquisition investments. We have current maturities on our long-term debt of $5.3 million, which includes $3.8 million related to the term loan facility and $1.5 million related to the hybrid debt instruments. The projected interest payments on our debt only pertain to obligations and agreements outstanding as of December 31, 2023 and expected payments for agent administration fees. The projected interest payments are calculated for future periods through maturity dates of our long-term debt using interest rates in effect as of December 31, 2023. Certain of these projected interest payments may differ in the future based on changes in floating interest rates or other factors and events, including our entry into amendments of the term loan facility and the ABL Facility. The total amount of interest on long-term debt increased $14.5 million since January 1, 2023 to $112.4 million, primarily due to the increase in borrowings under the term loans and rising interest rates. Refer to “Note 8. Long-Term Debt” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for further information regarding our debt instruments.
    Our finance leases consist primarily of leases for our vehicle fleet. Our operating leases consist primarily of leases for equipment and real estate, which includes office space, branch locations, and distribution centers. The table above provides our expected payments of finance lease obligations including interest and the undiscounted rental payment obligations under operating lease agreements for the amounts due in the next 12 months and beyond 12 months. Refer to “Note 6. Leases” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding our lease arrangements.
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    Our purchase obligations include various commitments with vendors to purchase goods and services, primarily inventory. The largest purchase obligations include contracts with various farmers that run through the 2026 Fiscal Year and obligate us to make payments for grass seeds for approximately $76.1 million, which includes expected payments of $44.5 million for the 2024 Fiscal Year. There are also other supplier and service arrangements with vendors totaling $86.3 million, of which $43.3 million of payments are expected to be made in the 2024 Fiscal Year. These purchase obligations are generally cancelable, but we have no intent to cancel and incur a penalty for not meeting the minimum required purchases. We have excluded purchase orders and agreements made in the ordinary course of business that are cancelable without penalty. Any amounts for which we are liable under purchase orders for goods received are reflected in Accounts payable on our Consolidated Balance Sheets and are excluded from the table above. Refer to “Note 10. Commitments and Contingencies” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for additional information regarding our purchase commitments.
Cash Flow Summary
    Information about our cash flows, by category, is presented in our statements of cash flows and is summarized below (in millions):
For the year
Net cash provided by (used in):January 2, 2023 to December 31, 2023January 3, 2022 to January 1, 2023
Operating activities$297.5 $217.2 
Investing activities$(226.0)$(284.4)
Financing activities$(18.3)$43.4 
Cash flow provided by operating activities

    Net cash provided by operating activities for the 2023 Fiscal Year was $297.5 million compared to $217.2 million for the 2022 Fiscal Year. The increase reflected improved working capital management due primarily to our progress in reducing inventory levels.

Cash flow used in investing activities

    Net cash used in investing activities for the 2023 Fiscal Year was $226.0 million compared to $284.4 million for the 2022 Fiscal Year. The decrease reflects lower acquisition investments in the 2023 Fiscal Year compared to the 2022 Fiscal Year. Capital expenditures of $32.1 million were $5.0 million higher in the 2023 Fiscal Year compared to $27.1 million in the 2022 Fiscal Year due to increased investment in branch improvements including relocations.

Cash flow (used in) provided by financing activities

    Net cash used in financing activities was $(18.3) million for the 2023 Fiscal Year compared to net cash provided by financing activities of $43.4 million in the 2022 Fiscal Year. The increase in net cash used in financing activities primarily reflects higher net repayments under the ABL Facility, partially offset by increased borrowings under the term loan facility, as a result of lower investments in working capital and acquisitions during the 2023 Fiscal Year compared to the 2022 Fiscal Year.

External Financing
Term Loans
    Landscape Holding and Landscape, as borrowers (collectively, the “Borrowers”), entered into the Fifth Amendment to the Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, the (“Fifth Amendment”), dated as of March 23, 2021, with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. (the “New Agent”), as administrative agent and collateral agent, the several banks and other financial institutions party thereto and certain other parties party thereto from time to time. The Fifth Amendment amended and restated the Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of April 29, 2016, among the Borrowers, the lenders from time to time party thereto and UBS AG, Stamford Branch (the “Existing Agent”) as administrative agent and collateral agent (as amended prior to March 23, 2021, the “Existing Credit Agreement” and, as so amended and restated pursuant to the Fifth Amendment, the “Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement”) in order to, among other things, incur $325.0 million of term loans (the “New Term Loans”). The New Term Loans mature on March 23, 2028.
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    On March 27, 2023, Landscape Holding, as representative for the Borrowers, entered into the First Amendment to the Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement (the “Sixth Amendment”) to implement a forward-looking interest rate based on SOFR in lieu of LIBOR.
    On July 12, 2023, Landscape Holding, as representative for the Borrowers, entered into the Increase Supplement (the “Increase Supplement”) to the Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement to provide for an additional $120.0 million of New Term Loans.
    Subject to certain conditions, without the consent of the then existing lenders (but subject to the receipt of commitments), the New Term Loans may be increased (or a new term loan facility, revolving credit facility, or letter of credit facility added) by up to (i) the greater of (a) $275.0 million and (b) 100% of Consolidated EBITDA (as defined in the Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement) for the trailing 12-month period plus (ii) an additional amount that will not cause the net secured leverage ratio after giving effect to the incurrence of such additional amount and any use of proceeds thereof to exceed 4.00 to 1.00.
    The New Term Loans are subject to mandatory prepayment provisions, covenants, and events of default. Failure to comply with these covenants and other provisions could result in an event of default under the Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement. If an event of default occurs, the lenders could elect to declare all amounts outstanding under the New Term Loans to be immediately due and payable and enforce their interest in collateral pledged under the agreement.
Amendments of Term Loans
    On July 12, 2023, Landscape Holding, as representative for the Borrowers, entered into the Increase Supplement, which provided for an additional $120.0 million of New Term Loans and made such other changes to the Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement as agreed between Landscape Holding and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A. Proceeds of the term loans borrowed pursuant to the Increase Supplement were used, among other things, to (i) repay certain loans outstanding under the ABL Facility and (ii) pay fees and expenses related to the Increase Supplement. The maturity date of the New Term Loans of March 23, 2028 did not change as a result of the Increase Supplement.
    On March 27, 2023, Landscape Holding entered into Sixth Amendment, which amended the Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement to implement a forward-looking interest rate based on SOFR in lieu of LIBOR. The New Term Loans bear interest, at Landscape Holding’s option, at either (i) an adjusted Term SOFR rate plus an applicable margin equal to 2.00% (with a Term SOFR floor of 0.50% on initial term loans and 0.00% on all other term loans) or (ii) an alternative base rate plus an applicable margin equal to 1.00%. Voluntary prepayments of the New Term Loans are permitted at any time, in minimum principal amounts, without premium or penalty, unless in connection with certain repricing transactions that occurred within the first 12 months after the date of the initial funding of the New Term Loans. The interest rate on the outstanding balance of the New Terms Loans was 7.47044% as of December 31, 2023.
    On March 23, 2021, the Borrowers entered into the Fifth Amendment in order to, among other things, (i) incur $325.0 million of term loans, (ii) replace the Existing Agent as administrative and collateral agent with the New Agent, and (iii) make such other changes in the Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement as agreed among the Borrowers and the lenders. Proceeds of the New Term Loans were used to, among other things, (i) to repay in full the term loans outstanding under the Existing Credit Agreement immediately prior to effectiveness of the Fifth Amendment (the “Tranche E Term Loans”), (ii) to pay fees and expenses related to the Fifth Amendment and the Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, and (iii) for working capital and other general corporate purposes.
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    The Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement contains customary representations and warranties and customary affirmative and negative covenants. The negative covenants limit the ability of Landscape Holding and Landscape to:
incur additional indebtedness;
pay dividends, redeem stock, or make other distributions;
repurchase, prepay, or redeem subordinated indebtedness;
make investments;
create restrictions on the ability of Landscape Holding’s restricted subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other intercompany transfers;
create liens;
transfer or sell assets;
make negative pledges;
consolidate, merge, sell, or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of Landscape Holding’s assets;
change lines of business; and
enter into certain transactions with affiliates.
ABL Facility
    Landscape Holding and Landscape (collectively, the “ABL Borrowers”) are parties to the credit agreement dated December 23, 2013 (as amended by the First Amendment to the Credit Agreement, dated June 13, 2014, the Second Amendment to the Credit Agreement, dated January 26, 2015, the Third Amendment to the Credit Agreement, dated February 13, 2015, the Fourth Amendment to the Credit Agreement, dated October 20, 2015, the Omnibus Amendment to the Credit Agreement, dated May 24, 2017, the Sixth Amendment to the Credit Agreement, dated February 1, 2019, and the Seventh Amendment to the Credit Agreement, dated July 22, 2022, the “ABL Credit Agreement”) providing for an asset-based credit facility (the “ABL Facility”) of up to $600.0 million, subject to borrowing base availability, with a maturity date of July 22, 2027. The ABL Facility is secured by a first lien on the inventory and receivables of the ABL Borrowers. The ABL Facility is guaranteed by SiteOne Landscape Supply Bidco, Inc. (“Bidco”), an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, and each direct and indirect wholly-owned U.S. restricted subsidiary of Landscape. Availability is determined using borrowing base calculations of eligible inventory and receivable balances less the current outstanding ABL Facility and letters of credit balances.
    On July 22, 2022, the ABL Borrowers, entered into the Seventh Amendment to the ABL Credit Agreement (the “Seventh Amendment”). The Seventh Amendment amended and restated the ABL Credit Agreement in order to, among other things, (i) increase the aggregate principal amount of the commitments to $600.0 million, (ii) extend the final scheduled maturity of the revolving credit facility to July 22, 2027, (iii) establish an alternate rate of interest to the LIBOR rate, (iv) replace the administrative and collateral agent, and (v) make such other changes as agreed among the ABL Borrowers and the lenders. Proceeds of the initial borrowings under the ABL Credit Agreement on the closing date of the Seventh Amendment were used, among other things, (i) to repay in full the loans outstanding under the ABL Credit Agreement immediately prior to the effectiveness of the Seventh Amendment, (ii) to pay fees and expenses related to the Seventh Amendment and the ABL Credit Agreement, and (iii) for working capital and other general corporate purposes.
    Loans under the ABL Credit Agreement bear interest, at Landscape Holding’s option, at either (i) an adjusted term SOFR rate equal to term SOFR plus 0.10% (subject to a floor of 0.00%) plus an applicable margin of 1.25% or 1.50% or (ii) an alternate base rate plus an applicable margin of 0.25% or 0.50%, in each case depending on the average daily excess availability under the ABL Credit Agreement, and in each case subject to a 0.125% reduction when the Consolidated First Lien Leverage Ratio (as defined in the ABL Credit Agreement) is less than 1.50:1.00. Additionally, undrawn commitments under the ABL Credit Agreement bear a commitment fee of 0.20% or 0.25%, depending on the average daily undrawn portion of the commitments under the ABL Credit Agreement.
    The interest rate on outstanding balances under the ABL Facility was 6.69508% as of December 31, 2023 and ranged from 5.68561% to 5.77336% as of January 1, 2023. The commitment fee paid on unfunded amounts was 0.25% and 0.20% as of December 31, 2023 and January 1, 2023, respectively.
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    The ABL Facility is subject to mandatory prepayments if the outstanding loans and letters of credit exceed either the aggregate revolving commitments or the current borrowing base, in an amount equal to such excess. Additionally, the ABL Facility is subject to various covenants, including incurrence covenants that require the Company to meet minimum financial ratios, and additional borrowings and other corporate transactions may be limited by failure to meet these financial ratios. Failure to meet any of these covenants could result in an event of default under these agreements. If an event of default occurs, the lenders could elect to declare all amounts outstanding under these agreements to be immediately due and payable, enforce their interest in collateral pledged under the agreement, or restrict the ABL Borrowers’ ability to obtain additional borrowings under these agreements. The ABL Facility is secured by a first lien security interest over inventory and receivables and a second lien security interest over all other assets pledged as collateral.
    The ABL Facility contains customary representations and warranties and customary affirmative and negative covenants. The negative covenants are limited to the following: financial condition, fundamental changes, dividends and distributions, acquisitions, dispositions of collateral, payments and modifications of restricted indebtedness, negative pledge clauses, changes in line of business, currency, commodity and other hedging transactions, transactions with affiliates, investments, indebtedness, and liens. The negative covenants are subject to customary exceptions and also permit the payment of dividends and distributions, investments, permitted acquisitions, payments or redemptions of indebtedness under the Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, asset sales and mergers, consolidations, and sales of all or substantially all assets involving subsidiaries upon satisfaction of a “payment condition.” The payment condition is deemed satisfied upon 30-day specified excess availability and specified availability exceeding agreed upon thresholds and, in certain cases, the absence of specified events of default or known events of default and pro forma compliance with a consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio of 1.00 to 1.00.
    Subject to certain conditions and subject to the receipt of commitments, the ABL Facility may be increased (or a new term loan facility added) by up to (i) the greater of (a) $450.0 million and (b) 100% of Consolidated EBITDA (as defined in the ABL Credit Agreement) for the period of the most recent four consecutive fiscal quarters ending prior to the date of such determination plus (ii) an additional amount that will not cause the Consolidated First Lien Leverage Ratio after giving effect to the incurrence of such additional amount and any use of proceeds thereof to exceed 5.00 to 1.00.
    There are no financial covenants included in the ABL Credit Agreement, other than a springing minimum consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio of at least 1.00 to 1.00, which is tested only when specified availability is less than 10.0% of the lesser of (x) the then applicable borrowing base and (y) the then aggregate effective commitments under the ABL Facility, and continuing until such time as specified availability has been in excess of such threshold for a period of 20 consecutive calendar days.
    Failure to comply with the covenants and other provisions included in the ABL Credit Agreement could result in an event of default under the ABL Facility. If an event of default occurs, the lenders could elect to declare all amounts outstanding under the ABL Facility to be immediately due and payable, enforce their interest in collateral pledged under the agreement, or restrict the ABL Borrowers’ ability to obtain additional borrowings thereunder.
Limitations on Distributions and Dividends by Subsidiaries
    The ability of our subsidiaries to make distributions and dividends to us depends on their operating results, cash requirements, financial condition, and general business conditions, as well as restrictions under the laws of our subsidiaries’ jurisdictions.
    The agreements governing the Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement and the ABL Facility restrict the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends, make loans, or otherwise transfer assets to us. Further, our subsidiaries are permitted under the terms of the Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement and the ABL Facility and other indebtedness to incur additional indebtedness that may restrict or prohibit the making of distributions, the payment of dividends, or the making of loans to us.
Interest Rate Swaps
    We are subject to interest rate risk with regard to existing and future issuances of debt. We utilize interest rate swap contracts to reduce our exposure to fluctuations in variable interest rates for future interest payments on existing debt. We are party to interest rate swap contracts to convert the variable interest rate to a fixed interest rate on portions of the borrowings under the term loans.
    On March 31, 2023, we amended the terms of our interest rate swaps to implement a forward-looking interest rate based on SOFR in place of LIBOR. Since the interest rate swaps were affected by reference rate reform, we applied the expedients and exceptions provided in Topic 848 to preserve the past presentation of our derivatives without de-designating the existing hedging relationships. All interest rate swap amendments were executed with the existing counterparties and did not change the notional amounts, maturity dates, or other critical terms of the hedging relationships. The interest rate swaps will continue to be net settled on a quarterly basis with the counterparties for the difference between the fixed rates and the variable rates based upon three-month Term SOFR (subject to a floor) as applied to the notional amounts of each interest rate swap.
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    During the first quarter of 2021, we amended and restructured certain of our interest rate swap contracts using a strategy referred to as a “blend and extend”. In a blend and extend arrangement, the liability position of the existing interest rate swap arrangement is blended into the amended or new interest rate swap arrangement and the term to maturity of the hedged position is extended. We reclassified $5.9 million from Accrued liabilities and Other long-term liabilities to long-term debt with $1.5 million classified as Long-term debt, current portion and $4.4 million classified as Long-term debt, less current portion on our Consolidated Balance Sheets since the interest rate swap arrangements executed during the first quarter of 2021 were determined to be hybrid debt instruments containing embedded at-market swap derivatives. As of December 31, 2023, approximately $1.5 million was classified as Long-term debt, current portion and approximately $0.4 million was classified as Long-term debt, less current portion on our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
    We recognize any differences between the variable interest rate payments and the fixed interest rate settlements from the swap counterparties as an adjustment to interest expense over the life of the swaps. We have designated these swaps as cash flow hedges and record the changes in the estimated fair value of the swaps to Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) (“AOCI”) on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. If it becomes probable that the forecasted transaction will not occur, the hedge relationship will be de-designated and amounts accumulated in AOCI will be reclassified to Interest and other non-operating expenses, net in the current period. To the extent the interest rate swaps are determined to be ineffective, we recognize the changes in the estimated fair value of the swaps in earnings.
    Failure of the swap counterparties to make payments would result in the loss of any potential benefit to us under the swap agreements. In this case, we would still be obligated to pay the variable interest payments underlying the debt agreements. Additionally, failure of the swap counterparties would not eliminate our obligation to continue to make payments under the existing swap agreements if they were in a net pay position.
    For additional information, refer to “Note 1. Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies” and “Note 8. Long-Term Debt” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
 Critical Accounting Estimates
    In order to prepare our financial statements in accordance with GAAP, we make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in our financial statements and accompanying notes. Such estimates are based upon management’s current judgments, which are normally based on knowledge and experience with regard to past and current events and assumptions about future events. Certain estimates are particularly sensitive due to their significance to the financial statements and the possibility that future events may be significantly different from our expectations.
    While there are a number of accounting policies and estimates affecting our financial statements, we have identified the following critical accounting estimates that require us to make the most subjective or complex judgments in order to fairly present our consolidated financial statements.
Inventory Valuation
Summary:
    Product inventories represent our largest asset and are recorded at the lower of actual cost or estimated net realizable value. Our goal is to manage our inventory so that we minimize out of stock positions. To do this, we maintain an adequate inventory of approximately 160,000 SKUs and manage inventory at each branch based on sales history. At the same time, we continuously strive to better manage our slower moving classes of inventory.
    During the year, we perform periodic cycle counts and write off excess or obsolete inventory as needed. Prior to year-end, we conduct a physical inventory at each branch and record any necessary additional write-offs to dispose of excess or obsolete products. Our inventories are generally not susceptible to technological obsolescence.
Judgments and Uncertainties:
    Judgment is required to estimate the net realizable value of our inventory as it requires assumptions and projections to be made based off the historical recovery rates for our slower moving inventory. We monitor our inventory levels by branch and record provisions for excess inventories. The assumptions we make to record adjustments for excess or obsolete inventory are based on these historical recovery rates, such as recent history of usage of our products, expected future demand for our products, current market conditions, and other factors, including liquidation value.
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Sensitivity of Estimates to Change:
    Changes to the relevant assumptions and projections would impact our consolidated financial results in periods subsequent to recording these estimates. If we anticipate a change in assumptions such as future demand or market conditions to be less favorable than our previous estimates, additional inventory write-downs may be required. Conversely, if we are able to sell inventories that had been written down to a level below the ultimate realized selling price in a previous period, sales would be recorded with a lower or no offsetting charge to cost of sales. A 10% change to our current reserve for excess and obsolete inventory would not result in a material change to our consolidated financial statements; however, given the value of inventory on hand, a significant change in demand or market conditions could result in a material adjustment to our reserve in future periods. We have not recorded any material net adjustments or such changes to our inventory reserves during the 2023 Fiscal Year or the 2022 Fiscal Year.
Acquisitions
Summary:
    From time to time, we enter into strategic acquisitions in an effort to better service existing customers and to attract new customers. When we acquire a controlling financial interest in an entity or group of assets that are determined to meet the definition of a business, we apply the acquisition method described in Accounting Standards Codification Topic 805, Business Combinations. In accordance with GAAP, the results of the acquisitions we have completed are reflected in our financial statements from the date of acquisition forward.

    We allocate the purchase consideration paid to acquire the business to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on estimated fair values at the acquisition date, with the excess of purchase price over the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired recorded as goodwill. The value of residual goodwill is not amortized but is tested at least annually for impairment as described below in “Goodwill”. If during the measurement period (a period not to exceed 12 months from the acquisition date) we receive additional information that existed as of the acquisition date but at the time of the original allocation described above was unknown to us, we make the appropriate adjustments to the purchase price allocation in the reporting period the amounts are determined.
Judgments and Uncertainties:
    Judgment is required to estimate the fair value of intangible assets and in assigning their respective useful lives. Accordingly, we typically engage third-party valuation specialists, who work under the direction of management, for the more significant acquired tangible and intangible assets. The fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed is determined through established valuation techniques, such as the income, cost, or market approach, and estimates are based on available historical information and on future expectations and assumptions deemed reasonable by management but are inherently uncertain.
    We use the multi-period excess earnings method to estimate the fair value of customer relationship intangible assets, which is based on forecasts of the expected future cash flows attributable to the respective assets and includes the selection of discount rates. Estimates and assumptions inherent in the valuations reflect a consideration of other marketplace participants and include the amount and timing of future cash flows (including expected growth rates and profitability), a brand’s relative market position, and the appropriate discount rate applied to the cash flows. Changes in the underlying assumptions and estimates, including the selected discount rates, could have a material impact on the fair value of intangible assets. Further, unanticipated market or macroeconomic events and circumstances may occur, which could affect the accuracy or validity of the estimates and assumptions.
    Determining the useful life of an intangible asset also requires judgment. All of our acquired intangible assets (e.g., customer relationships, trademarks, and non-compete arrangements) are expected to have finite useful lives. Our assessment as to whether trademarks have an indefinite life or a finite life is based on a number of factors including competitive environment, market share, brand history, underlying product life cycles, operating plans, and the macroeconomic environment of the regions in which the brands are sold. Our estimates of the useful lives of finite-lived intangible assets are primarily based on these same factors. We consider the period of expected cash flows and the underlying data used to measure the fair value of the intangible assets when selecting a useful life. Customer relationship intangible assets are amortized on an accelerated method.
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Sensitivity of Estimates to Change:
    We completed 11 acquisitions during the 2023 Fiscal Year for an aggregate purchase price of $195.7 million and the preliminary valuations of the assets acquired included customer relationship intangible assets of $58.4 million and trademarks and other intangible assets of $7.4 million. Key assumptions used in determining the fair values of customer relationships included future earnings projections, customer attrition rates, and discount rates, among others. Additionally, assumptions used to calculate the fair values of trademarks and other intangible assets included relief-from-royalty models and revenue projections, royalty rates, future earnings projections, discount rates, and probabilities of competition and successful competition, among others. Estimates associated with the accounting for acquisitions may change as additional information becomes available regarding the assets acquired. We believe the estimates applied to be based on reasonable assumptions, but which are inherently uncertain. As a result, actual results may differ from the assumptions and judgments used to determine the fair values of the assets acquired, which could result in impairment losses in the future. Changes in business conditions may also require future adjustments to the useful lives of the assets acquired. If we determine that the useful lives of the assets acquired are shorter than we had originally estimated, the rate of amortization would be accelerated over the assets’ new, shorter useful lives. Changes in key assumptions resulting in a 10% revision of the estimated fair values of the finite-lived intangible assets acquired during the 2023 Fiscal Year would impact amortization of acquisition intangible assets by $6.6 million over a weighted-average amortization period of 18.2 years primarily on an accelerated basis. No material adjustments to the valuation of such assets, impairment loss, or accelerated amortization of intangible assets due to revised useful lives was recorded in the 2023 Fiscal Year or the 2022 Fiscal Year.
Goodwill
Summary:

    Goodwill represents the acquired fair value of a business in excess of the fair values of tangible and identified intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed. We test goodwill on an annual basis as of July fiscal month end and additionally if an event occurs or circumstances change that would indicate the carrying amount may be impaired.
    The goodwill impairment test requires us to estimate and compare the fair value of a reporting unit to its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value exceeds the carrying amount, the goodwill is not considered impaired. To the extent a reporting unit’s carrying amount exceeds its fair value, the reporting unit’s goodwill is deemed impaired, and an impairment charge is recognized based on the excess of a reporting unit’s carrying amount over its fair value.
Judgments and Uncertainties:
    Judgment is required to determine whether impairment indicators exist and to estimate the fair value of our reporting units. Estimating the fair value of reporting units using the discounted cash flow model requires us to make assumptions and projections of revenue growth rates, gross margins, SG&A, capital expenditures, working capital, depreciation, terminal values, and weighted average cost of capital, among other factors.
    The assumptions used to estimate fair value consider historical trends, macroeconomic conditions, and projections consistent with our operating strategy. Changes in these estimates could have a significant effect on whether or not an impairment charge is recorded and the magnitude of such a charge. Adverse market or economic events could result in impairment charges in future periods.
Sensitivity of Estimates to Change:
    During the third quarter of the 2023 Fiscal Year, we performed our annual quantitative assessment of goodwill. No goodwill impairment charge was recorded as a result of the testing and the estimated fair value of each of our reporting units significantly exceeded its carrying value. In addition, a 10% decline in the projected cash flows or a 10% increase in the discount rate assumption utilized in our annual quantitative testing would not result in an impairment of any of our reporting units.
Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
    Refer to “Note 1. Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies” to our audited consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for a description of recently issued and adopted accounting pronouncements.
Accounting Pronouncements Issued But Not Yet Adopted
    Refer to “Note 1. Nature of Business and Significant Accounting Policies” to our audited consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for a description of accounting pronouncements that have been issued but not yet adopted.
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Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
    The economy and its impact on discretionary consumer spending, labor wages, fuel, fertilizer, and other material costs, home sales, unemployment rates, insurance costs, foreign exchange, and medical costs could have a material adverse impact on future results of operations. We are exposed to market risk in the ordinary course of our business, primarily in the form of commodity risk, product price risk, interest rate risk, and credit risk. To mitigate these risks, we utilize various financial instruments in the ordinary course of business, which are not held for any speculative or trading purposes.
    Inflationary pressures may also cause potentially unfavorable effects through higher asset replacement costs and related depreciation, higher interest rates, and higher material costs.
Commodity Risk
    Our operating performance may be affected by price fluctuations in commodity-based products like PVC pipe, grass seed, and fertilizer that we purchase and sell. We are also exposed to fluctuations in fuel costs as we deliver a substantial portion of the products we sell by truck. We seek to minimize the effects of inflation and changing prices through economies of purchasing and inventory management, resulting in cost reductions and productivity improvements as well as price adjustments to maintain gross margins.
Product Price Risk
    Our business model is to buy and sell at current market prices in quantities approximately equal to estimated customer demand. We do not take significant “long” or “short” positions in the products we sell in an attempt to speculate on changes in product prices. Because we maintain inventories in order to serve the needs of our customers, we are subject to the risk of reductions in market prices for the products we hold in inventory; however, we actively manage this risk by adjusting prices and managing our inventory levels.
Interest Rate Risk
    We are subject to interest rate risk associated with our debt. While changes in interest rates do not affect the fair value of our variable-rate debt, they do affect future earnings and cash flows through higher interest expense. Interest rate swaps are entered into with the objective of converting variable to fixed rate debt, thereby reducing volatility in borrowing costs.
Loans under the ABL Credit Agreement bear interest, at Landscape Holding’s option, at either (i) an adjusted term SOFR rate equal to term SOFR plus 0.10% (subject to a floor of 0.00%) plus an applicable margin of 1.25% or 1.50% or (ii) an alternate base rate plus an applicable margin of 0.25% or 0.50%, in each case depending on the average daily excess availability under the ABL Credit Agreement, and in each case subject to a 0.125% reduction when the Consolidated First Lien Leverage Ratio (as defined in the ABL Credit Agreement) is less than 1.50:1.00.
The New Term Loans bear interest, at Landscape Holding’s option, at either (i) an adjusted Term SOFR rate plus an applicable margin equal to 2.00% (with a Term SOFR floor of 0.50% on initial term loans and 0.00% on all other term loans) or (ii) an alternative base rate plus an applicable margin equal to 1.00%.
    The portions of our outstanding balance under the New Term Loans that are not covered by interest rate swap contracts and outstanding balances under the ABL Credit Agreement are subject to variable interest rates. We performed a sensitivity analysis and determined that an increase of one percentage point in interest rates on our variable-rate debt outstanding at December 31, 2023 would increase our projected interest payments by approximately $1.9 million for the 2024 Fiscal Year. Actual interest payments may differ in the future based on additional changes in floating interest rates or other factors and events, including our entry into amendments of the ABL Facility and the New Term Loans.
Credit Risk
    We have a credit policy in place and monitor exposure to credit risk on an ongoing basis. We perform credit evaluations on all customers requesting credit above a specified exposure level. In the normal course of business, we provide credit to our customers, perform ongoing credit evaluations of these customers, and maintain reserves for potential credit losses. Our typical credit terms extend 30 days from the date of purchase, but terms of up to 60 days are not uncommon. We typically have limited risk from a concentration of credit risk as no individual customer represents greater than 5% of the outstanding accounts receivable balance. Bad debt reserves, which we use as a proxy for our bad debt exposure, were approximately 5% of gross receivables as of December 31, 2023.
    Investments, if any, are only in liquid securities and only with counterparties with appropriate credit ratings. Transactions involving derivative financial instruments are with counterparties with which we have a signed netting agreement and which have appropriate credit ratings. We do not expect any counterparty to fail to meet its obligations.
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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data


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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the stockholders and the Board of Directors of SiteOne Landscape Supply, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of SiteOne Landscape Supply, Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2023 and January 1, 2023, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, equity, and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes and the schedule listed in the Index at Item 15 (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and January 1, 2023, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 22, 2024, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Acquisitions – Customer Relationship Intangible Assets – Refer to Note 1 (Intangible Assets) and Note 5 to the financial statements
Critical Audit Matter Description
The Company completed various acquisitions during the year ended December 31, 2023. The Company accounted for the acquisitions under the acquisition method of accounting for business combinations. Accordingly, the purchase price was allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their respective fair values, including customer relationship intangible assets of $58.4 million. Management estimated the fair value of the customer relationship intangible assets using the multi-period excess earnings method, which is a specific discounted cash flow method. The fair value determination of customer relationship intangible assets required management to make estimates and assumptions, including the selection of the discount rates. Significant changes in the discount rates could have a material impact on the fair value of customer relationship intangible assets.
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We identified the initial valuation of customer relationship intangible assets as a critical audit matter because of the judgment associated with the determination of the discount rates. This required a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort, including the need to involve our fair value specialists, when performing audit procedures to evaluate the reasonableness of management’s selection of the discount rates used in the determination of the initial fair value of the customer relationship intangible assets.
How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit
Our audit procedures related to the selection of the discount rates for the determination of fair value of customer relationship intangible assets included the following, among others:
We tested the effectiveness of controls over the fair value of the customer relationship intangible assets, including management’s controls over the selection of the discount rates.
For a sample of acquisitions, with the assistance of our fair value specialists, we evaluated the reasonableness of the discount rates by:
1)Testing the source information underlying the determination of the discount rates and testing the mathematical accuracy of the calculation.
2)Developing a range of independent estimates and comparing those to the discount rates selected by management.



/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

Atlanta, Georgia
February 22, 2024

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2014.

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SiteOne Landscape Supply, Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In millions, except share and per share data)
AssetsDecember 31, 2023January 1, 2023
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$82.5 $29.1 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $27.3 and $21.7, respectively
490.6 455.5 
Inventory, net771.2 767.7 
Income tax receivable 10.9 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets61.0 56.1 
Total current assets1,405.3 1,319.3 
Property and equipment, net (Note 4)
249.4 188.8 
Operating lease right-of-use assets, net (Note 6)
388.9 321.6 
Goodwill (Note 5)
485.5 411.9 
Intangible assets, net (Note 5)
280.8 276.0 
Deferred tax assets (Note 1 and Note 9)
5.3 3.7 
Other assets13.7 12.6 
Total assets$2,828.9 $2,533.9 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$270.8 $279.7 
Current portion of finance leases (Note 6)
21.8 14.8 
Current portion of operating leases (Note 6)
83.6 70.1 
Accrued compensation74.2 81.2 
Long-term debt, current portion (Note 8)
5.3 4.0 
Income tax payable8.0  
Accrued liabilities114.6 110.0 
Total current liabilities578.3 559.8 
Other long-term liabilities11.5 12.8 
Finance leases, less current portion (Note 6)
69.8 43.9 
Operating leases, less current portion (Note 6)
313.3 260.1 
Deferred tax liabilities (Note 1 and Note 9)
2.3 7.8 
Long-term debt, less current portion (Note 1 and Note 8)
367.6 346.6 
Total liabilities1,342.8 1,231.0 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 10)
Stockholders’ equity (Note 1):
Common stock, par value $0.01; 1,000,000,000 shares authorized; 45,404,091 and 45,148,312 shares issued, and 45,082,070 and 44,916,291 shares outstanding at December 31, 2023 and January 1, 2023, respectively
0.5 0.5 
Additional paid-in capital601.8 577.1 
Retained earnings916.3 742.9 
Accumulated other comprehensive income4.2