|Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers|
|Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable|
|Item 3. Key Information|
|Item 4. Information on The Company|
|Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments|
|Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects|
|Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees|
|Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions|
|Item 8. Financial Information|
|Item 9. The Offer and Listing|
|Item 10. Additional Information|
|Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Credit, Market and Other Risk|
|Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities|
|Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies|
|Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds|
|Item 15. Controls and Procedures|
|Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert|
|Item 16B. Code of Ethics|
|Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services|
|Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards for The Audit Committee|
|Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers|
|Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant|
|Item 16G. Corporate Governance|
|Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure|
|Item 17. Financial Statements|
|Item 18. Financial Statements|
|Item 19. Exhibits|
|Balance Sheet||Income Statement||Cash Flow|
UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
Commission file number: 001-34919
Kabushiki Kaisha Mitsui Sumitomo Financial Group
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
SUMITOMO MITSUI FINANCIAL GROUP, INC.
(Translation of registrants name into English)
|Japan||1-2, Marunouchi 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0005, Japan|
|(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)||(Address of principal executive offices)|
1-2, Marunouchi 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0005, Japan
Telephone: +81-3-3282-8111 Facsimile: +81-3-4333-9954
(Name, telephone, e-mail and/or facsimile number and address of company contact person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act
Title of Each Class
Name of Each Exchange on which registered
American Depositary Shares
|SMFG||The New York Stock Exchange|
Common stock, without par value*
Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing of the American Depositary Shares, each American Depositary Share representing 1/5 of one share of the registrants common stock.
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuers classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
At March 31, 2020, the following shares of capital stock were outstanding: 1,373,171,556 shares of common stock (including 3,645,043 shares of common stock held by the registrant and its consolidated subsidiaries and equity-method associates as treasury stock).
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of large accelerated filer, accelerated filer, and emerging growth company in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large Accelerated Filer ☒||Accelerated Filer ☐||Non-accelerated Filer ☐||Emerging Growth Company ☐|
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
The term new or revised financial accounting standard refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its managements assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
|U.S. GAAP ☐||International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ☒||Other ☐|
If Other has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 ☐ Item 18 ☐
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
|Item 1.||Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers||3|
|Item 2.||Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable||3|
|Item 3.||Key Information||3|
|3.A.||Selected Financial Data||3|
|3.B.||Capitalization and Indebtedness||4|
|3.C.||Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds||4|
|Item 4.||Information on the Company||21|
|4.A.||History and Development of the Company||21|
|4.D.||Property, Plant and Equipment||58|
|Item 4A.||Unresolved Staff Comments||59|
|Item 5.||Operating and Financial Review and Prospects||59|
|5.B.||Liquidity and Capital Resources||101|
|5.C.||Research, Development, Patents and Licenses||106|
|5.E.||Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements||106|
|5.F.||Tabular Disclosure of Contractual Obligations||107|
|Item 6.||Directors, Senior Management and Employees||108|
|6.A.||Directors and Senior Management||108|
|Item 7.||Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions||128|
|7.B.||Related Party Transactions||128|
|7.C.||Interests of Experts and Counsel||129|
|Item 8.||Financial Information||129|
|8.A.||Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information||129|
|Item 9.||The Offer and Listing||130|
|9.A.||Offer and Listing Details||130|
|9.B.||Plan of Distribution||130|
|9.F.||Expenses of the Issue||130|
|Item 10.||Additional Information||131|
|10.B.||Memorandum and Articles of Incorporation||131|
|10.F.||Dividends and Paying Agents||149|
|10.G.||Statement by Experts||149|
|10.H.||Documents on Display||149|
|Item 11.||Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Credit, Market and Other Risk||150|
|Item 12.||Description of Securities other than Equity Securities||164|
|12.B.||Warrants and Rights||164|
|12.D.||American Depositary Shares||164|
|Item 13.||Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies||166|
|Item 14.||Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds||166|
|Item 15.||Controls and Procedures||166|
|Item 16A.||Audit Committee Financial Expert||167|
|Item 16B.||Code of Ethics||167|
|Item 16C.||Principal Accountant Fees and Services||167|
|Item 16D.||Exemptions from the Listing Standards for the Audit Committee||168|
|Item 16E.||Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers||168|
|Item 16F.||Change in Registrants Certifying Accountant||169|
|Item 16G.||Corporate Governance||169|
|Item 16H.||Mine Safety Disclosure||170|
|Item 17.||Financial Statements||171|
|Item 18.||Financial Statements||171|
PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION
As used in this annual report, unless the context otherwise requires, we, us, our, the Company, SMFG and similar terms refer to Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group, Inc. as well as to its subsidiaries, as the context requires. SMBC refers to Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, which is one of our commercial banking subsidiaries, or to Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, depending on the context. References to the SMBC Group are to us and our subsidiaries and affiliates taken as a whole.
In this annual report, all of our financial information is presented on a consolidated basis, unless we state otherwise. As used in this annual report, IFRS means International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Boards (IASB) and Japanese GAAP means accounting principles generally accepted in Japan. Our consolidated financial information in this annual report has been prepared in accordance with IFRS, except for the risk-weighted capital ratios, the segment results of operation and some other specifically identified information, which are prepared in accordance with Japanese banking regulations or Japanese GAAP. Unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, all financial information contained in this annual report is expressed in Japanese yen.
Our fiscal year ends on March 31.
Unless otherwise specified or required by the context: references to days are to calendar days; references to years are to calendar years and to fiscal years are to our fiscal years ending on March 31; references to $, dollars and U.S. dollars are to United States dollars; references to euros and are to the currency of those member states of the European Union which are participating in the European Economic and Monetary Union pursuant to the Treaty on European Union; references to £ and British pounds sterling are to the currency of the United Kingdom; and references to yen and ¥ are to Japanese yen. Unless otherwise specified, when converting currencies into yen we use our median exchange rates for buying and selling spot dollars, or other currencies, by telegraphic transfer against yen as determined at the end of the relevant fiscal period.
Unless otherwise indicated, in this annual report, where information is presented in millions, billions or trillions of yen or thousands, millions or billions of dollars, amounts of less than one thousand, one million, one billion or one trillion, as the case may be, have been rounded. Accordingly, the total of figures presented in columns or otherwise may not equal the total of the individual items. Except for capital ratios, which have been truncated, percentage data, unless we state otherwise have been subjected to rounding adjustments for the convenience of the reader.
This annual report contains statements that constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21E of the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Securities Exchange Act of 1934). When included in this annual report, the words anticipate, believe, estimate, expect, intend, may, plan, probability, risk, project, should, seek, target, will and similar expressions, among others, identify forward-looking statements. You can also identify forward-looking statements in the discussions of strategy, plans or intentions. Such statements, which include, but are not limited to, statements contained in Item 3. Key InformationRisk Factors, Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects and Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Credit, Market and Other Risk, reflect our current views with respect to future events and are inherently subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including the risk factors described in this annual report. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those described here as anticipated, believed, estimated, expected or intended.
The U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a safe harbor for forward-looking information to encourage companies to provide prospective information about themselves. We rely on this safe harbor in making these forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, and actual results may differ from those in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, and the differences may be material. Potential risks and uncertainties include, without limitation, the following:
the lasting effects of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and collateral events;
deterioration of Japanese and global economic conditions and financial markets;
declines in the value of our securities portfolio;
changes in the level or volatility of market rates or prices;
constraints on our operations due to capital adequacy requirements;
problems of other financial institutions;
adverse regulatory developments or changes in government policies;
incurrence of significant credit-related costs;
a significant downgrade of our credit ratings;
exposure to new risks as we expand the scope of our business;
our ability to successfully implement our business strategy through our subsidiaries, affiliates and alliance partners;
the industry specific risks of the consumer finance industry;
the recoverability of deferred tax assets;
insufficient liquidity; and
litigation and regulatory proceedings.
Given these and other risks and uncertainties, you should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of the filing of this annual report. We expressly disclaim any obligation to update or to announce publicly any revision to any of the forward-looking statements contained in this annual report to reflect any changes in events, conditions, circumstances or other developments upon which any such statement is based. The information contained in this annual report identifies important factors in addition to those referred to above that could cause differences in our actual results.
|Item 1.|| |
Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
|Item 2.|| |
Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
|Item 3.|| |
Selected Financial Data
The following selected financial data at and for each of the five fiscal years ended March 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017 and 2016 have been derived from our consolidated financial statements. You should read this data together with Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects and our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.
|For the fiscal year ended and at March 31,|
|(In millions, except per share data)|
Consolidated income statement data:
Net interest income
Fee and commission income
Fee and commission expense
Net fee and commission income
Net trading income
Net income (loss) from financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
Net investment income
Total operating income
Impairment charges on financial assets
Net operating income
General and administrative expenses
Share of post-tax profit of associates and joint ventures
Profit before tax
Income tax expense
|For the fiscal year ended and at March 31,|
|(In millions, except per share data)|
Profit attributable to:
Shareholders of Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group, Inc.
Other equity instruments holders
Earnings per share:
Weighted average number of common shares in issue (in thousands of shares)
Dividends per share in respect of each fiscal year:
Consolidated statement of financial position data:
Loans and advances
Debt securities in issue
On April 1, 2019, we adopted IFRS 16 Leases retrospectively by adjusting the consolidated statement of financial position at the date of initial application, and have not restated comparatives as permitted by IFRS 16. See Note 2 Summary of Significant Accounting PoliciesNew and Amended Accounting Standards Adopted by the Group to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report.
Investing in our securities involves risks. You should carefully consider the risks described below as well as all the other information in this annual report, including, but not limited to, our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this annual report and Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Credit, Market and Other Risk. Our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected by any factors, including, but not limited to, those discussed below. The trading prices of our securities could also decline due to any of these factors including, but not limited to, those discussed below. Moreover, this annual report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could also differ from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various
factors, including, but not limited to, the risks faced by us described below and elsewhere in this annual report. See Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements. Forward-looking statements in this section are made only as of the filing date of this annual report.
Risks Related to the Economic and Financial Environment
Our operations have been, and may continue to be, adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and collateral events.
Since December 2019, COVID-19 has spread rapidly throughout the world. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted many countries resulting in the implementation of numerous measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19, such as restrictions on movement, including travel bans, quarantines, and shelter-in-place orders as well as non-binding voluntary restraint measures urging residents to stay at home, and closures of schools, businesses, factories and other public and private facilities. These measures have significantly affected peoples lives and business activities, and have contributed to declines in consumer spending and stagnant business operations. Coupled with these measures, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a severe impact on both Japanese and global economic conditions including the rapid deterioration of corporate performance and significant disruption and volatility in financial and commodity markets. Even if the number of new COVID-19 cases significantly decreases in many countries including Japan, this global pandemic and its negative effects on global economic conditions may persist into the future. Even in countries that succeed in significantly reducing the number of the cases from the current outbreak, the level of economic activity may not fully recover in the short term or at all due to concerns of future waves of COVID-19 or changes in lifestyle and business practices. Therefore, the Japanese and global economy may remain volatile or continue to deteriorate.
If the Japanese and global economy remain volatile or continue to deteriorate due to the COVID-19 pandemic and collateral events, the balance of our impaired loans and credit-related costs may further increase due to deterioration in the financial condition of our customers. Additionally, disruption and volatility in financial markets may have an adverse effect on our funding activities and could subject our holdings of securities to impairment or valuation losses. Also, a decline in overall economic activity may cause us to miss business opportunities and this may adversely affect the execution of our operating strategy and our results of operations. Furthermore, since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have been continuing to provide services such as financing and settlement to fulfill our responsibility as a financial institution, which is a part of the social infrastructure. In carrying out that responsibility, we may be requested to provide new and additional financing to customers, and these may increase our risk assets and lead to a lower capital adequacy ratio and to additional credit-related losses. From a business operational standpoint, if our efforts to prevent the spread of COVID-19 within our workforce, such as by enabling telework for employees and separating staff into two or more teams on alternating shifts, are ineffective or lead to decreased productivity and many of our employees contract the virus, such circumstances could adversely affect the operation of our businesses or force us to temporarily suspend operations. Furthermore, cyberattacks and financial crimes may increase under the new working arrangements such as expanded telework for employees.
The extent of the continuing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operational and financial performance remains uncertain and will depend on many factors beyond our control, including the duration of the pandemic and further spread of the virus. To the extent that the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business, results of operations and financial condition, it may also have the effect of increasing the likelihood and magnitude of the other risks described in Item 3.D. Risk Factors.
For detailed information on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the operating environment, our results of operations and our financial condition, see Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.
We may be adversely affected if Japanese and global economic conditions and financial markets deteriorate.
Our financial condition and results of operations are materially affected by general economic conditions and financial markets in Japan and foreign countries, which would be influenced by the changes of various factors such as fiscal and monetary policies, policies on financial markets, as well as related laws, regulations and agreements. One example is the increase in the Japanese consumption tax rate from 8% to 10% in October 2019. Other examples include changes in the trade policies of countries including the U.S, which could contribute to increases in production costs and supply chain disruptions across the broader economy. Furthermore, geopolitical instability in various parts of the world, including North Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Eastern Europe, and material changes in regional economic or political unions or associations between countries, such as the United Kingdoms exit from the European Union, which took place on January 31, 2020, could contribute to economic instability in those and other regions. Such regional economic instability could adversely affect Japanese and global economic conditions.
The deterioration of Japanese and global economic conditions, or financial market turmoil, could result in a worsening of our liquidity and capital conditions, an increase in our credit costs, and a decrease in the fair values of our investment securities and, as a result, adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Future declines in securities prices on Japanese stock markets or other global markets could cause us to experience realized and unrealized losses on our equity securities portfolio, which could negatively affect our financial condition, results of operations and regulatory capital position.
The value of a listed equity security is measured at its market price. Declines in the Japanese stock markets or other global markets could result in realized and unrealized losses on the securities in our equity securities portfolio, adversely affecting our results of operations and financial condition.
Our regulatory capital position and that of SMBC depend in part on the fair value of our equity securities portfolio. Substantial declines in the Japanese stock markets or other global markets would negatively affect our and SMBCs capital positions, and limit SMBCs ability to make distributions to us.
Our equity securities portfolio mainly consists of equity instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income. The reported value of our equity instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income accounted for 1.6% of our total assets at March 31, 2020, approximately 86.7% of which were Japanese equity securities. This value depends mainly on prices of the instruments in the stock market. In addition, the reported value, and gross unrealized gains and losses of those equity instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income at March 31, 2020 are described in Item 5.A. Operating ResultsFinancial ConditionInvestment Securities.
In recent years, we have been reducing our strategic shareholding investments in order to mitigate the impact of share price fluctuations on our financial base. Any further disposal by us of equity holdings of our customers shares could in turn cause our customers to dispose of their equity holdings of our shares, which could adversely affect the market price of our shares.
Changes in the levels or volatility of market rates or prices could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We engage in trading and investing activities dealing with various kinds of financial instruments such as bonds, equities, currencies, derivatives and funds. For example, we have substantial investments in debt securities. At March 31, 2020, we had ¥7 trillion of Japanese government bonds classified as debt instruments at fair value through other comprehensive income, which accounted for approximately 3.2% of our total assets.
Our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected by actual changes or volatility in interest rates, foreign exchange rates and market prices of investment securities. Increases in interest rates could substantially decrease the value of our fixed income portfolio, and any unexpected changes in yield curves could adversely affect the value of our bond and interest rate derivative positions, resulting in lower-than-expected revenues from trading and investment activities. Market volatility may also result in significant realized and unrealized losses on such instruments. Furthermore, the downgrading of investment securities by credit rating agencies may also cause declines in the value of our securities portfolio.
Risks Related to Our Business
Failure to satisfy capital adequacy requirements could constrain our and SMBCs operations.
We and SMBC are subject to capital adequacy requirements established by the Financial Services Agency of Japan (FSA). The current requirements reflect the principal risk-weighted capital measures of the Basel III rules text published by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) in December 2010 and were phased in from March 2013 to March 2019. Compared to the previous requirements, the current requirements increase both the quality and quantity of the risk-weighted capital base.
With respect to the quality of the capital base, certain capital instruments, including existing preferred securities and subordinated debt, are eligible for inclusion as Tier 1 capital or Tier 2 capital only for the prescribed 10-year phase-out period. Preferred stocks convertible into common stocks no longer qualify as Common Equity Tier 1 capital but would qualify as Additional Tier 1 capital if they satisfy certain requirements including the requirement of loss absorbency at the point of non-viability under the Basel III rules. In addition, securities with step-up clauses will no longer qualify as Additional Tier 1 capital, and if the relevant security is classified as a liability for accounting purposes, it must satisfy the requirement of loss absorbency at a pre-specified trigger point, which must be 5.125% or more of Common Equity Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio as well as the aforementioned requirement of loss absorbency at the point of non-viability to qualify as Additional Tier 1 capital. With respect to Tier 2 capital, under the Basel III rules, the relevant security must satisfy the requirement of loss absorbency at the point of non-viability to qualify as Tier 2 capital, and subordinated debt securities callable at the initiative of the issuer within five years or with step-up clauses can no longer qualify as Tier 2 capital.
With respect to the quantity of the capital base, the minimum Common Equity Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio and minimum risk-weighted capital ratio applicable to us and SMBC have been 4.5% and 8% respectively since March 2015. Moreover, we are required to hold a capital conservation buffer to withstand future periods of stress and a countercyclical buffer as additional capital to reduce the buildup of systemic risk in periods and locations of excessive credit growth. The capital conservation buffer has been 2.5% since March 2019. As a result, taking the capital conservation buffer into account at March 2020, the total minimum Common Equity Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio has been 7%, and the total minimum risk-weighted capital ratio has been 10.5%. The countercyclical buffer is calculated as the weighted average of the buffers in effect in the jurisdictions to which we have credit exposure, with a maximum of 2.5% from March 2019.
In addition, the requirements for additional capital, in the form of a capital surcharge above the Basel III minimum requirement, have been applied from 2016 to those financial institutions identified by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) as Global Systemically Important Banks (G-SIBs), including us. This requirement is commonly referred to as the G-SIB capital surcharge. The FSB updates its list of G-SIBs on an annual basis. Based on the list, we have been required to maintain an additional 1% of Common Equity Tier 1 capital as a percentage of risk-weighted assets from 2019.
In March, 2019, the FSA published its guidelines for the leverage ratio applicable to banks and bank holding companies with international operations, which have been applied from March 31, 2019. Under the FSAs guidelines for the leverage ratio, banks and bank holding companies with international operations must maintain a leverage ratio of at least 3% on both a consolidated basis and a nonconsolidated basis from March 31, 2019.
G-SIBs are also subject to a global standard for Total Loss-Absorbing Capacity (TLAC), which defines certain minimum requirements for total loss-absorbing capacity so that if G-SIBs fail, they will have sufficient loss absorbing and recapitalization capacity available in resolution. In November 2015, the FSB published the final TLAC standards (FSBs TLAC Standards) and, in March 2019, the FSA published its regulatory guidelines and related documents for the implementation of the TLAC standards in Japan (Japanese TLAC Standards) to which we are subject as a G-SIB.
At March 31, 2020, on a consolidated basis, our total risk-weighted capital ratio, Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio and Common Equity Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio were 18.75%, 16.63% and 15.55 %, compared to the minimum required ratios of 11.52%, 9.52% and 8.02%, respectively. Such minimum required ratios include the capital conservation buffer of 2.5%, the G-SIB capital surcharge of 1.0% and the countercyclical buffer of 0.02%.
Our and SMBCs capital ratios could decline as a result of decreases in Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital or increases in risk-weighted assets. The following circumstances, among others, could reduce our risk-weighted capital ratio and that of SMBC:
declines in the value of securities;
inability to refinance existing subordinated debt obligations or preferred securities eligible for inclusion as Tier 1 capital or Tier 2 capital only for the prescribed 10-year phase-out period with those qualified as regulatory capital under the new capital adequacy requirements which phased in from March 2013; and
increases in risk-weighted assets resulting from business growth, strategic investments, borrower downgrades, changes in parameters such as probability of default (PD) or regulatory reforms.
We and SMBC have adopted the advanced internal rating-based (IRB) approach for measuring exposure to credit risk and the advanced measurement approach (AMA) to measure exposure to operational risk. If the FSA revokes its approval of such implementation or otherwise changes its approach to measure capital adequacy ratios, our and SMBCs ability to maintain capital at the required levels may be adversely affected.
In December 2017, the Group of Central Bank Governors and Heads of Supervision (the GHOS) endorsed the outstanding Basel III regulatory reforms. The endorsed reforms include the following elements:
a revised standardized approach for credit risk;
revisions to the internal ratings-based approach for credit risk;
revisions to the credit valuation adjustment framework;
a revised standardized approach for operational risk;
revisions to the measurement of the leverage ratio and a leverage ratio buffer for G-SIBs; and
revisions to the capital floor.
We will be subject to the final Basel III reform, as implemented in Japan.
If our or SMBCs capital ratios fall below required levels, the FSA may require us or SMBC to take a variety of corrective actions, including withdrawal from all international operations or suspension of all or part of our operations, which may indirectly affect our ability to fulfill our contractual obligations or may result in restrictions on our businesses. Failure to maintain capital levels under the capital buffer requirements under Basel III and the requirement for the G-SIB capital surcharge will result in restrictions on capital distributions, such as dividends, share buybacks, discretionary payments on other Tier 1 capital instruments and bonuses. In addition, some of our and SMBCs domestic and overseas subsidiaries are also subject to local capital ratio requirements. Failure of those subsidiaries to meet local requirements may result in administrative actions or sanctions imposed by local regulatory authorities.
We may incur losses as a result of financial difficulties of counterparties and other financial institutions.
We regularly execute transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry. Many of these transactions expose us to credit risk in the event of deterioration of creditworthiness of a counterparty or client. With respect to secured transactions, our credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral cannot be foreclosed on or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the loan or other exposures due to us. Losses from our investments in and loans to other financial institutions could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may also be requested to participate in providing assistance to distressed financial institutions that are not our subsidiaries. In addition, if the funds collected by the Deposit Insurance Corporation of Japan (DIC) are insufficient to insure the deposits of failed Japanese banks, the insurance premiums that we pay to the DIC will likely be increased, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Adverse regulatory developments or changes in government policies could have a negative impact on our results of operations.
Our businesses are subject to extensive regulation and associated regulatory risks, including the effects of changes in the laws, regulations, policies, voluntary codes of practice and interpretations in Japan and the other jurisdictions in which we operate. Those changes and their effects on us are unpredictable and beyond our control.
Changes in the regulatory environment may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In particular, the financial crisis in 2008 has led to calls for significant financial reform measures, and various governments are at different stages of enacting or implementing legislation that affects financial institutions.
In response to the turmoil following the financial crisis, regulatory authorities reviewed and revised capital adequacy guidelines, particularly in relation to quality of capital and accounting standards; such revisions could adversely affect our capital ratios. In December 2010, the BCBS published the Basel III rules text, setting out certain changes to capital requirements which include raising the quality of banks capital bases, enhancing risk coverage, inhibiting leverage, reducing pro-cyclicality and introducing liquidity regulation, many of which have been fully applied or phased-in in Japan based on the Basel III implementation schedule.
The FSAs inspection of banks was previously based on guidelines set forth in the FSAs Financial Inspection Manual and related guidelines, which were revised or amended from time to time. In June 2018, the FSA published a report on its supervisory approaches and transformation. Based on the report, the FSA introduced its new supervisory approaches, which led to the FSAs repeal of the Financial Inspection Manual on December 18, 2019. Our compliance with changes in the FSAs inspection process under the new supervisory approaches could result in an increase in our administrative expenses, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
The FSA and regulatory authorities in the United States and other jurisdictions, along with the United Nations and the Financial Action Task Force, have in recent years made the prevention of money laundering and terrorism financing a focus of governmental policy relating to financial institutions. In April 2019, SMBC and its New York branch entered into a written agreement with the Federal Reserve Bank of New York requiring SMBC and its New York branch to address certain deficiencies relating to the New York branchs anti-money laundering and economic sanctions compliance program. SMBC and its New York branch are required, among other things, to implement corrective measures and submit periodic progress reports to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. If we fail to comply with the terms of the written agreement, we may become subject to monetary penalties and other regulatory sanctions, which could have a material adverse effect on us. Further, as a result of the deficiencies identified in the written agreement, we no longer meet the requirements to be treated as a financial holding company, and, pending completion of a remediation plan designed to meet these requirements,
we are currently subject to restrictions in our ability to engage in certain new categories of financial activities in the United States and to make acquisitions of companies engaged in activities in the United States. If we fail to correct the conditions giving rise to such restrictions within the prescribed period of time, we may be required to divest or terminate certain business activities in the United States, which could adversely affect our operations and impair our ability to implement our business plans. Although we are committed to improving compliance with laws and regulations relating to anti-money laundering and economic sanctions, we will continue to be subject to ongoing inspection by the regulatory authorities in the United States and other jurisdictions. Any adverse regulatory action or change in regulatory focus, whether as a result of inspections or regulatory developments, may negatively affect our banking operations, cause harm to our reputation, and result in expensive remediation, monetary penalties and other regulatory sanctions.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (the Dodd-Frank Act) provides a broad framework for significant regulatory changes across most areas of U.S. financial regulations. The Dodd-Frank Act addresses, among other issues, systemic risk oversight, bank capital standards, the resolution of failing systemically significant financial institutions, over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives, the ability of banking entities to engage in proprietary trading activities and invest in hedge funds and private equity funds, consumer and investor protection, and securitization. The Dodd-Frank Act as well as other post-financial crisis regulatory reforms in the United States have increased costs, imposed limitations on activities and resulted in an increased intensity in regulatory enforcement and fines across the banking and financial services sector. The current U.S. Presidential administration has expressed different policy goals with respect to regulation of the U.S. financial system, but the impact that the U.S. Presidential administrations policy goals or any new or proposed legislation could have on the regulatory requirements currently imposed on us remains uncertain.
Significant regulatory developments could adversely affect our capital ratios and results of operations. For further details, see Item 4.B. Business OverviewRegulations in Japan, Regulations in the United States, and Regulations in Other Jurisdictions. Since changes in regulation or fiscal or other policies and their effects are unpredictable and beyond our control, we may not be able to comply with those changes at all times, despite our efforts, or may have to incur increased costs or make changes to our operations in order to do so. Any such failures to comply with those changes could result in administrative or judicial proceedings against us, including suspension of our business and financial penalties, which could materially and adversely affect our business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.
The transition away from and discontinuation of LIBOR and other interest rate benchmarks could have a negative impact on our results of operations.
For several years, global regulators and central banks have been pursuing international efforts to reform interest rate benchmarks, such as the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR). In July 2017, the UK Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), which regulates LIBOR, announced that the FCA will no longer persuade or compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. Accordingly, it appears highly likely that LIBOR will be discontinued as early as January 1, 2021. We have identified a significant number of assets and liabilities linked to LIBOR and other interest rate benchmarks, across businesses that require transition to alternative reference rates.
The transition away from and discontinuation of LIBOR and other interest rate benchmarks, uncertainty as to the availability and/or suitability of alternative reference rates, and differences between LIBOR, and other interest rate benchmarks and alternative reference rates may have a material adverse effect on financial markets and market participants, including us. Accordingly, we have taken, and are continuing to take, necessary steps to proactively address the transition, including developing internal systems and infrastructure to transition to alternative reference rates.
However, we face the risks that our actions to address the transition, including developing internal systems and infrastructure, may be delayed or may not be successful. Even if our actions are undertaken successfully,
they may not be sufficient to address the transition and may lead to a negative impact on our customers. For example, our customers may consider that the advice and information that we prepare and provide is inadequate and/or inaccurate. Moreover, the valuation of certain of our financial assets and liabilities may change, and the inability of existing hedged and hedging transactions to meet the hedge relationship designation requirements could lead to an increase in profit and loss volatility. All of these could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. For further details, see Note 2 Summary of Significant Accounting PoliciesNew and Amended Accounting Standards Adopted by the GroupInterest Rate Benchmark Reform (Amendments to IFRS 9, IAS 39 and IFRS 7) and Note 7 Derivative Financial Instruments and Hedge AccountingHedge accountingInterest Rate Benchmark Reform to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report.
Changes in the competitive and financial environment and financial systems could have a negative effect on the financial services industry and us.
Deregulation of the financial system, consolidation among financial institutions, diversification within the financial services industry, and the expanded presence of foreign financial institutions and investors have made the Japanese financial services market highly competitive. Moreover, competition in overseas markets has intensified due to global consolidation, convergence and alliances among financial institutions. In addition, the development of new technologies in the Fintech and other sectors, along with the corresponding rise of new entrants from these sectors into the financial services industry, may further intensify competition in the business environments in which we operate. We compete with various types of financial services companies, including:
banking groups, including Japans other major banking groups;
government-controlled and government-affiliated entities;
regional banking institutions;
major investment banks;
non-bank financial institutions; and
other firms that are engaged in providing similar products and services.
Increased competition in Japan may put downward pressure on prices for our financial services, cause us to lose market share or require us to incur additional expenses in order to remain competitive. Internationally, various forms of financial support provided by foreign governments to foreign banks and other financial institutions may reduce the cost of capital to those institutions and otherwise give them competitive advantages. In addition, with technological advances, new competitors in the financial services industry continue to emerge, and as a result, we may be forced to adapt our business to compete more effectively. There can be no assurance that we will be able to respond effectively to current or future competition.
Changes in the financial environment in Japan may also have a negative effect on the Japanese financial services industry. For example, prolonged monetary easing by the Bank of Japan (BOJ) may continue to lower domestic interest spreads. This may significantly affect the businesses of commercial banks in Japan, including us. For further information on the BOJs monetary policy measures, see Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsOverviewFactors Affecting Results of Operation.
Adverse economic conditions and deterioration of the financial conditions of our customers could increase our credit costs.
Our non-performing loans (NPLs) and credit costs for corporate and individual customers may increase significantly if:
domestic or global economic conditions worsen or do not improve;
our customers do not repay their loans, due to reasons including deterioration of their financial conditions; and
the value of collateral declines.
We have substantial exposure to corporate customers in the following sectors: real estate and goods rental and leasing, manufacturing, transportation, communications and public enterprises, wholesale and retail, and services, including electric utilities, and to individual customers mainly through housing loans. The financial conditions of those customers may be subject to changes in the industry-specific economic conditions, including, for example, fluctuations in the prices of oil, gas and other natural resources, as well as general economic conditions. In addition, adverse region-specific economic conditions or changes in economic conditions due to unexpected incidents such as the spread of COVID-19 and collateral events could worsen our customers financial conditions or could decrease the value of our collateral provided to us in such regions. As a result, we may be required to record increases in our allowance for loan losses.
Moreover, for certain borrowers, we may choose to engage in debt-for-equity swaps or provide partial debt write-offs, additional financing or other forms of assistance as an alternative to exercising our full legal rights as a creditor if we believe that doing so may increase our ultimate recoverable amount of the loan. We may be required to, or choose to, provide new or additional financing to customers who may incur unexpected liabilities, have difficulty in the future in continuing operations, encounter difficulties or need to devote significant resources to repair their infrastructures, as a result of natural disasters or other calamities.
In addition, changes in laws or government policies may have an adverse impact on the rights of creditors. For example, the Government of Japan has provided or may provide in the future government guarantees and other government support measures in response to the financial crisis or other unexpected incidents such as widespread pandemics such as COVID-19, large-scale natural disasters and any subsequent collateral events. Even if our current or future loans to borrowers have received or will receive any government support measures, it is unclear to what extent those loans will benefit, directly or indirectly, from the current or any future government guarantees or support measures.
In addition, our NPLs may increase and there may be additional credit costs if we fail to accurately estimate the expected losses in our loan portfolio. These estimates require difficult, subjective and complex judgments such as credit evaluation of our borrowers, valuation of collateral and forecasts of economic conditions.
The ratio of impaired loans and advances to the total loans and advances, both net of allowance for loan losses, were 0.5%, 0.6% and 0.6% at March 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. For further information, see Item 5.A. Operating Results Financial ConditionLoans and Advances.
A significant downgrade of our credit ratings could have a negative effect on us.
At the date of this annual report, the Company has the issuer ratings of A1/P-1 from Moodys Japan K.K., (Moodys), the issuer credit rating of A- from S&P Global Ratings Japan Inc. (S&P) and the foreign and local currency issuer default ratings of A/F1 from Fitch Ratings Japan Limited (Fitch). There can be no assurance that these ratings will be maintained.
A material downgrade of our credit ratings may have various effects including, but not limited to, the following:
we may have to accept less favorable terms in our transactions with counterparties, including capital raising activities, or may be unable to enter into certain transactions;
foreign regulatory bodies may impose restrictions on our overseas operations;
existing agreements or transactions may be cancelled; and
we may be required to provide additional collateral in connection with derivatives transactions.
Any of these or other effects of a downgrade of our credit ratings could have a negative impact on the profitability of our treasury and other operations, and could adversely affect our regulatory capital position, liquidity position, financial condition and results of operations. For more information about our credit ratings, see Item 5.B. Liquidity and Capital Resources.
We face significant challenges in achieving the goals of our business strategy, and our business may not be successful.
In May 2020, we announced our medium-term management plan through March 2023. We believe that we have targeted appropriate business areas. However, our initiatives to offer new products and services and to increase sales of our existing products and services may not succeed if market conditions do not stabilize, market opportunities develop more slowly than expected, our initiatives have less potential than we envisioned originally or the profitability of these products and services is undermined by competitive pressures. Consequently, we may be unable to achieve or maintain profitability in our targeted business areas.
In order to implement our business strategy successfully, we need to hire and train qualified personnel continuously and in a proactive manner, as well as to attract and retain employees with professional experience and specialized product knowledge. However, we face competition from other commercial banks, investment banks, consumer finance companies and other financial services providers in hiring highly competent employees. There can be no assurance that we will succeed in attracting, integrating and retaining appropriately qualified personnel.
We are exposed to new risks as we expand our businesses, the range of our products and services, and geographic scope of our businesses overseas.
As part of our business strategies we have expanded and may continue to expand our businesses or our range of products and services beyond our core business, commercial banking. This could expose us to new risks, such as adverse regulatory changes, more competition or deterioration in the operating environments that affect those businesses, products and services. Some of those risks could be types with which we have no or only limited experience. As a result, our risk management systems may prove to be insufficient and may not be effective in all cases or to the degree required.
In accordance with our strategy to further increase our presence in the international financial markets, we may continue to expand the scale of our overseas businesses, especially in emerging economies, notably Asian countries and regions. The expansion of our overseas businesses may further increase our exposure to risks of adverse developments in foreign economies and markets, including interest rate and foreign exchange rate risk, regulatory risk and political risk. Our overseas expansion also exposes us to the compliance risks and the credit and market risks specific to the countries and regions in which we operate, including the risk of deteriorating conditions in the credit profile of overseas borrowers.
Failure of our business strategies through our subsidiaries, affiliates and other business alliance partners could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations, including impairment losses on goodwill or investments.
Aligned with our business strategies, we have made and may undertake acquisition of a subsidiary, investments in affiliates and other business alliance partners, and reorganization within SMBC Group companies. It is uncertain whether we will receive the expected benefits from those business strategies, due to any adverse regulatory changes, worsening of economic conditions, increased competition or other factors that may negatively affect the related business activities. Furthermore, unanticipated costs and liabilities may be incurred in connection with those business strategies, including liabilities from the claims related to the businesses prior to our business alliances, and cost from actions by regulatory authorities.
When we acquire a subsidiary, we may recognize goodwill and intangible assets. Impairment losses on goodwill or intangible assets in connection with acquisitions must be recognized when the recoverable amount of goodwill or intangible assets of the business is lower than the carrying amount at the time of impairment testing, which is performed annually or whenever there is an indication that the goodwill or intangible assets may be impaired.
We account for some of our investments in affiliates under the equity method. Therefore, net losses incurred by equity method investees may cause us to record our share of the net losses. Furthermore, we may lose the capital which we have invested in business alliances or may incur impairment losses on securities acquired in such alliances. We may also be required under contractual or other arrangements to provide financial support, including credit support and equity investments, to business alliance partners in the future. Additionally, we may also incur credit costs from our credit exposure to such partners.
We are exposed to the industry specific risks of the consumer finance industry.
Changes in the legal environment have severely and adversely affected the business performance of consumer lending and credit card companies. We have exposures to the risks specific to the consumer finance industry through our subsidiaries, including Cedyna Financial Corporation (Cedyna) and SMBC Consumer Finance Co., Ltd. (SMBC Consumer Finance).
Consumer lending and credit card companies had offered unsecured personal loans, which included loans with so-called gray zone interest in excess of the maximum rate prescribed by the Interest Rate Restriction Act (ranging from 15% to 20%) up to the 29.2% maximum rate permitted under the Act Regulating the Receipt of Contributions, Receipt of Deposits and Interest Rates (Contributions Act). However, amendments to laws regulating moneylenders, which increased the authority of government regulators, prohibited gray zone interest and introduced an upper limit on aggregate credit extensions to an individual by moneylenders at one-third of the borrowers annual income, were promulgated in 2006 and became fully effective in June 2010. After the promulgation of such amendments, Cedyna, SMBC Consumer Finance and other companies engaged in related business reduced their interest rates on loans in preparation for the prohibition of gray zone interest. As a consequence, margins earned by those companies, as well as the amounts of loans extended, decreased.
In addition, as a result of court decisions unfavorable to those companies, claims for refunds of amounts paid in excess of the applicable maximum allowed rate by the Interest Rate Restriction Act have increased substantially. Although Cedyna, SMBC Consumer Finance and other subsidiaries have each recorded a provision for claims for refunds of gray zone interest on loans, we may be required to recognize additional losses if such provisions are determined to be insufficient, and the additional losses could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Inability to generate sufficient future taxable profits or adverse changes to tax laws, regulatory requirements or accounting standards could have a negative impact on the recoverability of certain deferred tax assets.
We recognize deferred tax assets relating to tax losses carried forward and deductible temporary differences only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the tax losses carried forward and the temporary differences can be utilized. The deferred tax assets are quantified on the basis of currently enacted tax rates and accounting standards and are subject to change as a result of future changes to tax laws or the rules for computing taxable profits and allowable losses. Failure to generate sufficient future taxable profits or changes in tax laws or accounting standards may reduce our estimated recoverable amount of net deferred tax assets. Such a reduction could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Declines in returns on our plan assets or revised actuarial assumptions for retirement benefits may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
SMBC and some of our other subsidiaries have various defined benefit plans. We have experienced in the past, and may experience in the future, declines in returns on plan assets and changes in the discount rates and other actuarial assumptions. If returns on plan assets decrease, or if we revise the discount rates and other assumptions, the deficit of the impacted defined benefit plan may increase and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Because approximately half of our plan assets are composed of equity instruments, the plan assets are greatly affected by volatility in the prices of equity securities. Substantial declines in the prices for publicly traded Japanese stocks would negatively affect our plan assets. For further information, see Note 23 Retirement Benefits to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.
Our liquidity could be adversely affected by actual or perceived weaknesses in our businesses and by factors we cannot control, such as a general decline in the level of business activity in the financial services sector.
We need liquidity to maintain our lending activities, meet deposit withdrawals, pay our operating expenses and pay interest on and principal of debt and dividends on capital stock. Adverse market and economic conditions in the domestic and global economies may limit or adversely affect our access to liquidity required to operate our business. If our counterparties or the markets are reluctant to finance our operations due to factors including actual or perceived weaknesses in our businesses as a result of large losses, changes in our credit ratings, or a general decline in the level of business activity in the financial services sector, we may be unable to meet our payment obligations when they become due or only be able to meet them with funding obtained on unfavorable terms. Circumstances unrelated to our businesses and outside of our control, such as, but not limited to, adverse economic conditions, disruptions in the financial markets or negative developments concerning other financial institutions perceived to be comparable to us, may also limit or adversely affect our ability to replace maturing liabilities in a timely manner. Without sufficient liquidity, we will be forced to curtail our operations, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Sales of our shares by us may have an adverse effect on the market price of our shares and may dilute existing shareholders.
We may issue shares from the unissued portion of our authorized share capital and sell shares held as treasury stock, generally without a shareholder vote. Sales of shares in the future may be at prices below prevailing market prices and may be dilutive.
Our business relies on our information technology systems, which are at risk of being damaged or failing as a result of various incidents including cyberattacks, and their failure could harm our relationships with customers or adversely affect our provision of services to customers.
In all aspects of our business, we use information technology systems to deliver services to and execute transactions on behalf of our customers as well as for back-office operations. We therefore depend on the capacity and reliability of the electronic and information technology systems supporting our operations. We may encounter service disruptions in the future, owing to failures of these information technology systems. Our information technology systems are at risk of being damaged or failing as a result of quality problems, human errors, natural disasters, power losses, sabotage, acts of terrorism, cyberattacks and similar events.
In particular, cybersecurity risks for financial institutions have significantly increased in recent years. This is partly because of the continuous introduction of new technologies and the use of the internet and telecommunications technologies as well as the elaboration of the cyberattacks, which include computer viruses, malicious code, phishing attacks or other security breaches. As we rely on information technology systems in our business and our receipt and handling of confidential personal information from our customers, any impairment,
compromise or destruction of such systems may interfere with, or temporarily prevent us from, continuing our operations. In addition, we also face indirect cybersecurity risks relating to our customers and other third parties, including counterparties in the financial services industry. As a result of increasing consolidation, interdependence and complexity of financial entities and technology systems, a technology failure or cyberattack could have a material impact on counterparties or other market participants, including us. Any third-party technology failure or cyberattack could adversely affect our ability to execute transactions or deliver services to our clients effectively. For example, vulnerabilities in third-party technology systems may be exploited in ways that increase the risk our information technology systems are exposed to cyberattacks.
Accordingly, we have taken steps to protect information technology systems from these risks, including by establishing data recovery capability and functionality, and to address all contingencies that could arise in the event of a major disruption of services. Particularly, we have adopted our Declaration of Cyber Security Management in order to further strengthen our cybersecurity capabilities. In this declaration, our management recognizes cybersecurity as a major management issue and takes a leadership role in implementing measures such as allocating appropriate resources based on discussions at the meetings of the Management Committee and the board of directors, establishing a special department and manual for emergencies and enhancing security measures for our services including internet banking services.
However, these measures may not be sufficient, especially considering the increasing frequency and sophistication of recent cyberattacks. In addition, we may not be prepared to address all contingencies that could arise in the event of a major disruption of services. The failure to address such contingencies could harm our relationships with customers or adversely affect our provision of services to customers.
We handle personal information obtained from our individual and corporate customers in relation to our banking, securities, consumer lending, credit card, asset management and other businesses. The systems we have implemented to protect the confidentiality of personal information, including those designed to meet the strict requirements of the Act on the Protection of Personal Information, may not be effective in preventing disclosure of personal information by unauthorized access from a third party. Leakage of personal information could expose us to demands for compensation or lawsuits for ensuing economic losses or emotional distress, administrative actions or sanctions, additional expenses associated with making necessary changes to our systems and reputational harm. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Fraud, misconduct or other unlawful behavior by directors, officers and employees or third parties could subject us to losses and regulatory sanctions.
We are exposed to potential losses resulting from fraud, misconduct and other unlawful behavior by directors, officers and employees. Directors, officers and employees may bind us to transactions that exceed authorized limits or present unacceptable risks, hide from us and from our customers unauthorized activities, improperly use confidential information or otherwise abuse customer confidences. Third parties may engage in fraudulent activities, including fraudulent use of bank accounts or the use of false identities to open accounts for money laundering, tax evasion or other illegal purposes. Third parties could also use stolen or forged ATM cards, engage in credit card fraud or transfer funds illegally through online banking fraud, and we may be required to indemnify victims of such fraud for related losses. In the broad range of businesses in which we engage, fraud, misconduct and other unlawful behavior are difficult to prevent or detect. In addition, with or without actual fraud, misconduct and other unlawful behavior by directors, officers and employees, investigations, administrative actions or litigation could commence in relation to them. Furthermore, we may not be able to recover the losses caused by these activities, including possible deterioration of our reputation.
Transactions involving Iran and other countries and targets that are subject to U.S. or other financial sanctions may lead some potential customers and investors to avoid doing business with us or investing in our securities or may limit our business operations.
U.S. law generally prohibits or substantially restricts U.S. persons from doing business with countries, a region and persons that are the subject of sanctions administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasurys Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) or other agencies (Restricted Targets which include Iran, North Korea, Syria, Cuba and the Crimea region of Ukraine). Other applicable financial sanctions are administered by the Ministry of Finance of Japan and authorities in other countries.
We maintain a SMBC Group-wide policy designed to ensure compliance with U.S. and other applicable sanctions laws and regulations. Our non-U.S. offices engage in transactions relating to the Restricted Targets in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. These activities include or have included remittance of Japanese yen with respect to our customers export or import transactions, maintenance of correspondent banking accounts with Iranian banks, including the Central Bank of Iran, and the payment of fees in Japanese yen to certain Iranian banks in connection with performance bonds issued in the past by SMBC through these Iranian banks related to our customers projects in Iran. All such transactions were permissible and not subject to secondary sanctions under applicable laws and regulations at the times they were engaged in. SMBC has discontinued activities that have become impermissible or subject to secondary sanctions as a result of changes in applicable laws and regulations. See Item 4.B. Business OverviewRegulation in the United StatesLaws Prohibiting Money Laundering and Terrorist FinancingU.S. Sanctions Targeting Iran Related Activities. The performance bonds expired and have not been renewed, but SMBC continues to be obligated to pay certain fees to the Iranian banks. In addition, we maintain a representative office in Iran that mainly performs an information-collecting function and liaising with non-designated Iranian financial institutions and non-SDN Iranian parties on behalf of our non-U.S. offices.
We do not believe that our operations relating to the Restricted Targets materially affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. A limited number of potential violations of U.S. economic sanctions by SMBC have been identified and voluntarily disclosed to OFAC. These transactions resulted from the inherent limitation on information about underlying transactions that can be obtained in the course of normal banking operations, inadvertent operational errors, or from the lack of familiarity of some personnel of SMBC with the requirements of the relevant regulations in the past. We have continuously strengthened our SMBC Group-wide OFAC and other financial sanctions compliance program in an effort to prevent the recurrence of such potential violations. We settled some of the voluntarily disclosed potential violations with OFAC and the others were closed without a penalty. However, in light of the inadvertent nature of such potential violations and the degree to which our strengthened compliance program aims to mitigate the risk of potential violations, we do not believe that our settlement with OFAC, or any possible penalties that OFAC may impose with respect to the other potential violations that remain unsettled, will have a material impact on our reputation, financial condition or results of operations, or on the prices of our securities.
We are aware of initiatives by U.S. states and U.S. institutional investors, such as pension funds, to adopt laws, regulations or policies prohibiting transactions with or investment in, or requiring divestment from, entities engaged in certain business with Iran and other Restricted Targets. It is possible that such laws and initiatives may result in our inability to enter into transactions with those entities that are subject to such prohibitions or to retain or acquire such entities as customers or investors in our securities.
In recent years, the U.S. government implemented a number of sanctions targeting non-U.S. persons for activities undertaken outside the United States (secondary sanctions) that involve specific sanctions targets or certain activities including, among other things, certain transactions related to Irans energy, petrochemical, shipping or shipbuilding sectors. Pursuant to the July 14, 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) agreed to by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council plus Germany and Iran, with the European Union, on January 16, 2016 (Implementation Day), the United States lifted U.S. nuclear-related
secondary sanctions targeting Iran. Even after Implementation Day, certain secondary sanctions remained in effect, including those targeting significant transactions involving Iranian or Iran-related Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons (SDNs). However, in 2018, the United States terminated its participation in the JCPOA. At November 5, 2018, following the conclusion of certain wind-down periods, all U.S. sanctions (both primary and secondary) that had been waived or lifted under the JCPOA have been re-imposed and are fully effective. In accordance with applicable laws and regulations, SMBC intends to provide certain services, including settlement services in connection with customers trade transactions between Japan and Iran, to the extent that such activities are not targeted by U.S. secondary sanctions. For more details of relevant laws and regulations, see Item 4.B. Business OverviewRegulations in the United StatesLaws Prohibiting Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing.
In addition, the U.S. government and authorities in other countries have enacted a series of Ukraine-related sanctions, including those under the U.S. Ukraine-Related Sanctions Regulations, the U.S. Ukraine Freedom Support Act of 2014 and sectoral sanctions on the financial, energy and defense sectors of the Russian economy.
The laws, regulations and sanctions referenced above or similar legislative or regulatory developments in the U.S., Japan or other jurisdictions where applicable, may further limit our business operations. If we were determined to have engaged in activities targeted by certain U.S. statutes, Executive Orders or regulations, we could lose our ability to open or maintain correspondent or payable-through accounts with U.S. financial institutions, among other potential sanctions. In addition, depending on sociopolitical developments, even though we take measures designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, our reputation may suffer due to our association with the Restricted Targets. The above circumstances could have a significant adverse effect on our business or the prices of our securities.
Our business operations are exposed to risks of natural disasters, terrorism, pandemics and other calamities.
Our business operations are subject to the risks of natural disasters, terrorism, pandemics, blackouts, geopolitical incidents and other calamities, any of which could impair our business operations. Despite our preparation of operation manuals and other backup measures and procedures, such calamities could cause us to suspend operations and could adversely affect our businesses, financial condition and results of operations. Large-scale natural disasters such as the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011 and any subsequent collateral events, may adversely affect economic conditions in general, the financial conditions of our corporate and individual customers and stock market prices, or cause other negative effects, any or all of which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations owing to, for example, an increase in the amount of credit-related costs or an increase in losses related to our holdings of securities.
We are exposed to risks associated with climate change, including the physical risk of climate change and risk from the transition to a low-carbon society.
Risks associated with climate change are subject to increasing societal, regulatory and political focus in Japan and globally. These risks include the physical risk of climate change and risk from the transition to a low-carbon society. In order to address these risks, we have begun efforts to strengthen our climate change scenario analysis and consider countermeasures at the management level. These proposed countermeasures are reported to the Management Committee and Risk Committee, and reviewed by outside directors on the board of directors. However, these efforts may not be successful, and even if they are undertaken successfully, they may not be sufficient. In such a case, they may lead to an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Physical risks of climate change arise from a number of factors and relate to specific weather events including large-scale typhoons. Despite our preparation of operation manuals and other backup measures and
procedures, a large-scale disaster due to extreme weather conditions damages our employees and branches, interfering with our business continuity. Large-scale disasters could also adversely affect the financial conditions of our customers or the value of properties pledged as collateral, resulting in an increase in our credit costs. In addition, our operating income and values of assets held may decrease due to instability in financial markets, which could also adversely affect our ability to raise financing.
There are also risks from the transition to a low-carbon society. For example, due to changes in climate change policies, tightening of environmental regulations and technological innovation to address climate change, our customers in sectors that are deemed to contribute significantly to climate change may experience declines in the value of their assets (i.e., asset stranding). In addition, our customers financial condition and performance could suffer from increasing costs associated with climate change response measures, which could result in an increase in our credit costs.
Moreover, amid growing interest in initiatives related to the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosure (TCFD) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), if our efforts and disclosure regarding corporate social responsibility are viewed as insufficient, we could suffer from increased social criticism, which could adversely affect the market price of our shares and/or the environment for our capital raising activities. For further information, seeItem 4.B. Business OverviewSustainability Management.
Our risk management policies and procedures may not adequately address unidentified or unanticipated risks.
We are exposed to a variety of operational, legal and regulatory risks throughout our organization. Management of these risks requires, among other things, policies and procedures to properly record and verify large numbers of transactions and events. However, these policies and procedures may not be fully effective or sufficient. We have devoted significant resources to strengthening our risk management policies and procedures and expect to continue doing so in the future. Nevertheless, particularly in light of the continuing evolution of our operations and expansion into new areas, our policies and procedures designed to identify, monitor and manage risks may not be fully effective. Some of our methods of managing risks are based upon our use of observed historical market behavior and thus may not accurately predict future risks. Violations of laws including the Japanese antitrust and fair trade laws by us or by SMBC may result in administrative sanctions. Furthermore, investigations, administrative actions or litigation could commence in relation to violations, which may involve costs and may result in deterioration of our reputation.
Our business could be adversely affected by litigation and regulatory proceedings globally.
We conduct business in many locations in and outside of Japan. We face the risk of litigation and regulatory proceedings in connection with our operations. For example, if we engage in activities targeted by certain U.S. sanctions, this could result in the imposition of monetary penalties or other restrictions by the U.S. government against us. Lawsuits and regulatory actions may result in penalties or settlements of very large indeterminate amounts or limit our operations, and costs to defend either could be substantial. Moreover, SMBC and one of its subsidiaries contribute to financial benchmarks such as the Tokyo Interbank Offered Rate (TIBOR) and the LIBOR for certain specific currencies. These benchmarks are widely referenced in jurisdictions in which we operate and do not operate. We face or may face some investigations, litigation and regulatory proceedings, and an adverse regulatory decision, judgment or ruling, including in jurisdictions we do not operate in, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Damage to our reputation may have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Maintaining our reputation is vital to our ability to attract and maintain customers, investors and employees. Our reputation could be damaged through a variety of circumstances, including, among others, fraud or other misconduct or unlawful behavior by directors, officers or employees, systems failures, compliance failures,
investigations, adverse litigation judgments or regulatory decisions, or unfavorable outcomes of governmental inspections. Adverse publicity or negative information regarding Japans financial services industry or us that may be published or broadcast by the media or posted on social media, non-mainstream news services or other parts of the internet, even if inaccurate or not applicable to us, may have a materially adverse effect on our brand image and undermine depositor confidence, thereby affecting our businesses and results of operations. For example, actual or rumored investigations of us or our directors, officers or employees, or actual or rumored litigation or regulatory proceedings, or media coverage of the same, may have a material adverse effect on our reputation and could negatively affect the prices of our securities. Actions by the financial services industry generally or by certain members in the industry can also adversely affect customers confidence on the financial services industry. Such reputational harm could also lead to a decreased customer base, reduced revenues and higher operating costs.
Our failure to establish, maintain and apply adequate internal controls over financial reporting could negatively impact investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements.
In order to operate as a global financial institution, it is essential for us to have effective internal controls, corporate compliance functions, and accounting systems to manage our assets and operations.
As a New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)-listed company and a registrant with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), under section 404 of the U.S. Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 our management is required to assess the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and disclose whether such internal controls are effective. Our independent registered public accounting firm has to conduct an audit to evaluate and then render an opinion on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. The Financial Instruments and Exchange Act of Japan (FIEA) also requires companies listed on a Japanese stock exchange, such as us, to file, together with their annual securities reports required by the FIEA, audited internal control reports assessing the effectiveness of their internal controls over financial reporting.
We have established internal controls over financial reporting, as well as rules for evaluating those controls, in order to provide reasonable assurance of the reliability of our financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements. However, these controls may not prevent or detect errors. Any evaluation of effectiveness of future periods is subject to the risks that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. To the extent any issues are identified through the foregoing processes, there can be no assurance that we will be able to resolve them in a timely manner or at all. If this occurs, our reputation may be damaged, which could lead to a decline in investor confidence in us.
It may not be possible for investors to effect service of process within the United States upon us or our directors or senior management, or to enforce against us or those persons judgments obtained in U.S. courts predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal or state securities laws.
We are a joint stock corporation incorporated under the laws of Japan. Almost all of our directors and senior management reside outside the United States. Many of our assets and the assets of these persons are located in Japan and elsewhere outside the United States. It may not be possible, therefore, for U.S. investors to effect service of process within the United States upon us or these persons or to enforce, against us or these persons, judgments obtained in U.S. courts predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal or state securities laws. We believe that there is doubt as to the enforceability in Japan, in original actions or in actions to enforce judgments of U.S. courts, of claims predicated solely upon the U.S. federal or state securities laws mainly because the Civil Execution Act of Japan requires Japanese courts to deny requests for the enforcement of judgments of foreign courts if foreign judgments fail to satisfy the requirements prescribed by the Civil Execution Act, including requirements that:
the jurisdiction of the foreign court be recognized under laws, regulations, treaties or conventions;
proper service of process be made on relevant defendants, or relevant defendants be given appropriate protection if such service is not received;
the judgment and proceedings of the foreign court not be repugnant to public policy as applied in Japan; and
there exist reciprocity as to the recognition by a court of the relevant foreign jurisdiction of a final judgment of a Japanese court.
Judgments obtained in U.S. courts, predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal or state securities laws, may not satisfy these requirements.
As a holder of our American Depositary Shares (ADSs), you have fewer rights than a shareholder of record in our shareholder register because you must act through the depositary to exercise these rights.
The rights of our shareholders under Japanese law to take actions such as voting their shares, receiving dividends and distributions, bringing derivative actions, examining our accounting books and records and exercising appraisal rights are available only to our shareholders of record. Because the depositary, through its custodian, is the record holder of the shares underlying the ADSs, only the depositary can exercise shareholder rights relating to the deposited shares. ADS holders will not be able to directly bring a derivative action, examine our accounting books and records or exercise appraisal rights.
Pursuant to the deposit agreement among us, the depositary and the holders and beneficial owners of ADSs, the depositary will endeavor to exercise voting and other rights associated with shares underlying ADSs in accordance with instructions given by ADS holders, and the depositary will also pay to ADS holders dividends and distributions collected from us. However, the depositary is permitted under the deposit agreement to exercise reasonable discretion in carrying out those instructions or in making distributions, and is not liable for failure to carry out instructions or make distributions as long as it acts in good faith. Therefore, ADS holders may not be able to exercise voting or other rights associated with the shares underlying ADSs in the manner that they intend, or may lose some or all of the value of dividends or distributions collected from us. Moreover, the deposit agreement may be amended or terminated by us and the depositary without any reason, or consent from or notice to ADS holders. As a result, ADS holders may not be able to exercise rights in connection with the deposited shares exercised in the way they wish or at all.
ADS holders are dependent on the depositary for certain communications from us. We send to the depositary most of our communications to ADS holders in Japanese. ADS holders may not receive all of our communications in the same manner as or on an equal basis with shareholders of record in our shareholder register.
|Item 4.|| |
Information on the Company
Legal and Commercial Name
Our legal name is Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group, Inc. Our commercial name is Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group.
Date of Incorporation
We were established in December 2002.
Domicile and Legal Form
We are a joint stock corporation incorporated with limited liability under the laws of Japan. Our address is: Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group, Inc., 1-2, Marunouchi 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0005, Japan. Our telephone number is: +81-3-3282-8111.
History and Development
We were established in December 2002 as a holding company for the SMBC Group through a statutory share transfer (kabushiki-iten) of all of the outstanding equity securities of the former SMBC in exchange for our newly issued securities. Upon our formation and completion of the statutory share transfer, the former SMBC became our direct, wholly owned subsidiary. SMBC was established in March 2003 through the merger of the former SMBC with Wakashio Bank, which was established in 1996 as a subsidiary of Sakura Bank. The former SMBC was established in April 2001 through the merger of Sumitomo Bank and Sakura Bank, which was established through the merger of Taiyo Kobe Bank and Mitsui Bank in 1990. Mitsui and Sumitomo started their banking businesses in 1876 and 1895, respectively. The origins of both banking businesses can be traced back to the seventeenth century.
Information Concerning the Principal Capital Expenditures and Divestitures
In November 2018, based on the agreement concerning the reorganization of our joint leasing partnership announced in March 2018, we transferred a portion of our shares of Sumitomo Mitsui Finance and Leasing Company, Limited (SMFL), a company jointly owned by us and Sumitomo Corporation (Sumitomo Corp), to SMFL. Upon the share transfer, our equity interest in SMFL decreased from 60% to 50% while Sumitomo Corps equity interest increased from 40% to 50%. As a result, SMFL ceased to be our consolidated subsidiary and became our joint venture, and its consolidated subsidiaries SMBC Aviation Capital Limited and SMFL Capital Company, Limited (SMFL Capital Company) became the SMBC Groups equity-method investees. Subsequently, in January 2019, SMFL Capital Company was merged into SMFL.
Public Takeover Offers
The SEC maintains a website at https://www.sec.gov that contains reports and proxy information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. Some of the information may also be found on our website at https://www.smfg.co.jp/english/.
We are the holding company for the SMBC Group. The SMBC Group is comprised of SMBC, SMBC Trust Bank Ltd. (SMBC Trust Bank), SMFL, SMBC Nikko Securities Inc. (SMBC Nikko Securities), Sumitomo Mitsui Card Company, Limited (Sumitomo Mitsui Card), Cedyna Financial Corporation (Cedyna), SMBC Consumer Finance Co., Ltd. (SMBC Consumer Finance), The Japan Research Institute, Limited (The Japan Research Institute), Sumitomo Mitsui DS Asset Management Company, Limited (SMDAM) and other subsidiaries and affiliates. We are one of the three largest financial groups in Japan and offer a diverse range of financial services, including commercial banking, leasing, securities, consumer finance and other services. See Item 4.C. Organizational Structure.
In March 2018, with the aim of enhancing our corporate groups brand value, we announced that SMBC would be designated as our corporate groups master brand from April 2018. In line with this change, our corporate group, which was formerly referred to as the Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group or its acronym SMFG, is now referred to as the SMBC Group. Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group continues to be used as the holding companys name.
Our Mission, Vision and Values
Our Mission is a universal guide for our group management and positioned as the anchor for our corporate action. We also set forth our Vision of the mid to long term goals and Five Values as the core values to be shared by all executives and employees.
On April 1, 2020, we made a revision of our Mission to add We contribute to a sustainable society by addressing environmental and social issues so that it reflects our commitment to fulfilling our social responsibilities by further enhancing our various initiatives, not only limited to financial services.
After the revision, our Mission, Vision and Five Values are as follows.
We grow and prosper together with our customers, by providing services of greater value to them.
We aim to maximize our shareholders value through the continuous growth of our business.
We create a work environment that encourages and rewards diligent and highly-motivated employees.
We contribute to a sustainable society by addressing environmental and social issues.
A trusted global solution provider committed to the growth of our customers and advancement of society.
Integrity: As a professional, always act with sincerity and a high ethical standard.
Customer First: Always look at it from the customers point of view, and provide value based on their individual needs.
Proactive & Innovative: Embrace new ideas and perspectives, dont be deterred by failure.
Speed & Quality: Differentiate ourselves through the speed and quality of our decision-making and service delivery.
Team SMBC Group: Respect and leverage the knowledge and diverse talent of our global organization, as a team.
The world is currently facing a range of social issues. In particular, environmental challenges such as addressing climate change have become priority issues globally. In response to these social and environmental challenges, the public and private sectors have implemented various initiatives aimed at realizing a sustainable society, with growing interest in the SDGs set by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015 and environment, social, and governance (ESG) investing.
Given this backdrop, in September 2019, we signed the Principles for Responsible Banking, which were proposed by the United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative as a framework for the sustainable banking system of the future.
In April 2020, we defined sustainability as creating a society in which todays generation can enjoy economic prosperity and well-being, and pass it on to future generations and established the SMBC Group
Statement on Sustainability, as the basic principles upon which our efforts to realize a sustainable society will be based. To realize sustainability as well as to accelerate sustainability management, we also established SMBC Group GREEN×GLOBE 2030, a ten-year plan toward 2030. It includes our external and internal initiatives such as promotion of green finance and enhancement of employees awareness of sustainability.
Based on the statement and plan, we are dedicated to our priority issues, focusing especially on the Environment as a corporate citizen that protects the green earth, as well as on the Community and the Next generation as a member of society.
We seek to promote environmental business to address environmental risks and reduce environment impacts. For example, we help promote the spread of renewable energy by providing green finance to solar and wind power generation projects.
In December 2017, we announced our support for the TCFD, and in April 2019, disclosed our approach to climate change for each of the four basic disclosure items recommended by the TCFD, namely Governance, Strategy, Risk Management and Metrics and Targets. We are strengthening our climate change risk management framework, and enhancing our climate change scenario analysis and disclosures in response to the TCFD recommendation.
We introduced and disclosed policies for businesses in the sectors listed below, which are regarded as having significant impacts on the environment and society. We proactively monitor and reassess them in consideration of the external environment.
Coal-fired power generation
Hydroelectric power generation
Oil and gas
Nature conservation areas
Palm oil plantation development
Manufacturing of cluster bombs and other weapons of destruction
We provide support in areas such as finance, where we can take advantage of our business operations in order to build our society, in which people can live with a sense of assurance and make our cities and towns safe. For example, we have launched SDGs social loan. These loans are meant to provide funding to projects that help resolve social issues. We work together with our customers to resolve social issues through a scheme entailing impact reports that measure impacts on society and third-party evaluations.
We offer financial and economic education for all generations, from children to adults, as part of our efforts in order to support the growth of the next generation for the development of a sustainable society. For example, we provide financial and career education to enhance the life skills of children, and hold finance and economics education seminars on topics such as managing household finances and loans and credit as a way to provide accurate knowledge about financial matters.
Description of Operations and Principal Activities
Wholesale Business Unit
The Wholesale Business Unit provides financing, investment management, risk hedging and settlement services as well as financial solutions that respond to wide-ranging client needs in relation to M&A and other advisory services and leasing, primarily for large-and mid-sized corporate clients in Japan. This business unit mainly consists of the wholesale businesses of SMBC, SMBC Trust Bank, SMFL and SMBC Nikko Securities.
Financing and Investment Management
The Wholesale Business Unit provides financing services that include bilateral loans, syndicated loans, commitment lines, structured finance, project finance, nonrecourse loans to and investments in corporate customers directly or through private equity funds, securitization, debt and equity underwriting and corporate bond trustee and registrar services.
The Wholesale Business Unit also provides investment management services such as deposits and investment trusts. In addition, this business unit offers a wide range of securities products including structured bonds and subordinated bonds to corporate clients through SMBC and SMBC Nikko Securities.
The Wholesale Business Unit provides various risk hedging services including forward exchange contracts and derivatives to meet our customers demand for hedging risks such as interest rate risk or foreign exchange rate risk in their transactions. This business unit also provides guarantee services including stand-by credit, performance bond and credit guarantee services.
The Wholesale Business Unit offers a variety of products and services including remittance, cash management, trade finance for export and import activities and supply chain finance to optimize customers cash flows and business flows.
M&A and Other Advisory Services
The Wholesale Business Unit responds to customers diversifying business strategies and management issues by providing solutions custom-tailored to their business characteristics and growth stage.
The Wholesale Business Unit caters to large corporate clients in their global business activities by leveraging the collective strength of SMBC Group companies. For example, SMBC and SMBC Nikko Securities support the entire deal process of cross-border M&A projects on a collaborative basis.
For mid-sized companies, the Wholesale Business Unit provides a wide range of financial services including direct investment, LBO financing, debt restructuring, support for initial public offering and M&A advisory to enhance our customers corporate value, working in conjunction with private equity funds as necessary. In real estate and related businesses, this business unit provides a full lineup of services including brokerage and asset management by SMBC Trust Bank and funding support mainly by SMBC.
For start-up companies, the Wholesale Business Unit offers support in accordance with clients stage of growth such as management consulting, venture investment, financing and support for initial public offerings.
For clients considering business overseas, the Wholesale Business Unit provides tailored information on local laws and regulations and on Japanese companies already present in target countries. For clients who already have business overseas, each SMBC Group company collaborates to provide high quality solutions in areas such as business expansion and reorganization.
The Wholesale Business Unit provides a wide range of leasing services including equipment, operating and leveraged leasing mainly through SMFL, one of the major leasing companies in Japan. We have a 50% equity interest in SMFL while the remaining 50% is held by Sumitomo Corp, a non-affiliate, which makes SMFL our joint venture with Sumitomo Corp.
SMFL had previously been our subsidiary, in which we held a 60% equity interest. In November 2018, based on the agreement concerning the reorganization of our joint leasing partnership announced in March 2018, we transferred a portion of our shares of SMFL, a company jointly owned by us and Sumitomo Corp, to SMFL. Upon the share transfer, our equity interest in SMFL decreased from 60% to 50% while Sumitomo Corps equity interest increased from 40% to 50%. As a result, SMFL ceased to be our consolidated subsidiary and became our joint venture, and its consolidated subsidiaries SMBC Aviation Capital Limited, which belongs to the International Business Unit, and SMFL Capital Company became our equity-method investees. Subsequently, in January 2019, SMFL Capital Company was merged into SMFL.
Retail Business Unit
The Retail Business Unit provides financial services to both consumers residing in Japan and domestic small-sized companies and mainly consists of the retail businesses of SMBC, SMBC Trust Bank and SMBC Nikko Securities, together with three consumer finance companies, Sumitomo Mitsui Card, Cedyna and SMBC Consumer Finance.
This business unit offers a wide range of products and services for consumers, including wealth management, settlement services, consumer finance and housing loans, in order to address the financial needs of all individual customers.
The Retail Business Unit offers a variety of financial services including personal bank accounts, deposit products such as ordinary deposits, time deposits and foreign currency deposits, investment trust, equity, bond and insurance products.
In addition, SMBC and SMBC Nikko Securities are promoting greater collaboration in order to meet customers diverse needs for asset management by leveraging their respective strengths of a broad client base and a high advisory capability.
In January 2018, SMBC Nikko Securities merged with SMBC Friend Securities Co., Ltd., which had been our wholly owned subsidiary. This merger was made for the purpose of strengthening our securities business by reinforcing consulting-type sales, enhancing productivity through the optimization of sales personnel staffing and achieving cost saving synergies through the consolidation of overlapping management infrastructure.
In addition, the Retail Business Unit, through SMBC Trust Bank, offers foreign currency investment products, global services and extensive trust services tailored to the needs of customers, such as wealth management solutions.
The Retail Business Unit conducts credit card, installment and solution businesses and provides customers with secure and convenient payment methods.
In the credit card business, Sumitomo Mitsui Card and Cedyna conduct a comprehensive credit card business with a strong brand, and offer a variety of settlement and finance services to meet diverse customer needs.
Sumitomo Mitsui Card is a leading company in Japans credit card industry, having introduced the Visa brand into the Japanese market, and issues a variety of affiliated credit cards in cooperation with partners including, but not limited to, railway companies, airline companies, department stores and online retailers to satisfy both these partners and cardholders needs.
Cedyna conducts credit card, installment (such as shopping credit and automobile loan) and solution (such as collection outsourcing and factoring) businesses.
We, Sumitomo Mitsui Card, SMBC and NTT DoCoMo, Inc. (NTT DoCoMo) formed a strategic business and capital alliance in credit payment services in 2005. In September 2018, we entered into an agreement for new business cooperation with NTT DoCoMo to further expand credit payment services and explore new ways of collaboration in areas such as FinTech. Based on this agreement, we acquired an additional 34% of the outstanding shares of Sumitomo Mitsui Card from NTT DoCoMo and, as a result, our equity interest in Sumitomo Mitsui Card increased from 66% to 100% on April 1, 2019. Simultaneously, we made Cedyna a subsidiary of Sumitomo Mitsui Card in order to provide comprehensive solutions that benefit both the business operators and end-users. SMBC, Sumitomo Mitsui Card and Cedyna are leveraging their strengths to address cashless payment needs and integrate marketing and business operations.
Sumitomo Mitsui Card, together with GMO Payment Gateway, Inc. and Visa Worldwide Japan, Co., Ltd., has built a next-generation payment platform for business operators, and commenced full operations in October 2019. It provides a one-stop solution combining payment systems of real and online stores, and also integrates the payment center that processes the payment data and the network that delivers the processed payment data to each business operator.
The Retail Business Unit offers a variety of consumer loan products including unsecured card loan products mainly through SMBC and SMBC Consumer Finance to meet the wide range of individual customers demand for funds. Also, SMBC Consumer Finance guarantees certain consumer loans made by SMBC and other financial institutions.
In addition, SMBC and SMBC Mobit Co., LTD., (SMBC Mobit) which is a wholly owned subsidiary of SMBC Consumer Finance engaged in the card loan business, are strengthening their partnership. For example, a loan card from SMBC Mobit can be applied for or received through automated contract machines in SMBC branch offices.
Furthermore, SMM Auto Finance, Inc. (SMMAF), which became a subsidiary of SMBC in April 2008, is a provider of automobile sales financing services. However, in July 2019, SMBC sold its shares of SMMAF and as a result, SMMAF is no longer our subsidiary.
The Retail Business Unit provides housing loans with a variety of terms and interest rates, including fixed-rate loans with 2- to 35-year terms, to meet diversified customer needs. As an example of a product addressing a specific customer need, this business unit offers a housing loan combined with an insurance policy that covers the repayment of the outstanding loan balance in the event the borrower is diagnosed with certain diseases. Housing loans are principally secured by collateral or supported by guarantees.
The Retail Business Unit operations are mainly conducted through a large and well developed branch network. We had a domestic network consisting of 447 SMBC branch offices, 25 SMBC Trust Bank branch offices, 141 SMBC Nikko Securities branch offices and 929 SMBC Consumer Finance staffed and unstaffed branch offices at March 31, 2020. Some SMBC branches provide financial consulting services for asset management and housing loans during extended hours, including weekday evenings, weekends and national holidays, for the convenience of individual customers.
The Retail Business Unit also operates an extensive network of ATMs in Japan. At March 31, 2020, SMBC offers its customers access to 56,176 ATMs, some of which are SMBCs ATMs and the majority of which are ATMs made available through arrangements with other ATM providers such as convenience store chains. SMBC Consumer Finance offers its customers access to 1,908 automatic contract machines and ATMs at March 31, 2020.
This business unit also offers internet banking services for consumers. At March 31, 2020, SMBCs internet banking services had approximately 17 million registered users. The users are able to transfer funds, perform balance inquiries, make time deposits and foreign currency deposits, and buy and sell investment trusts over the internet with smartphones and computers.
Moreover, in credit card business, there are approximately 50 million card holders of Sumitomo Mitsui Card and Cedyna at March 31, 2020.
The Retail Business Unit is implementing an initiative to supply customers with convenient and easy-to-use services by utilizing digital technologies and expand consulting space for individual clients at SMBC branches, while pushing ahead with digitalization of administrative processes and the transfer of administrative functions of branches to administration centers. These reforms will enable us to reduce costs while providing customers with convenient and high quality services.
The Retail Business Unit promotes digitalization in a variety of areas, including promotion of use of debit cards and credit cards that address cashless payment needs, a smartphone application that allows our customers to easily and seamlessly view information on transactions with SMBC and Sumitomo Mitsui Card, an automated chat service utilizing artificial intelligence and a biometric authentication platform.
This business unit also provides private banking and asset succession consulting for high-net-worth individuals.
For small-sized companies, this business unit provides a wide array of financial products and services to comprehensively address business owners needs as both corporate managers and individuals such as business and asset succession.
International Business Unit
The International Business Unit supports the global businesses of a diverse range of clients, such as Japanese companies operating overseas, non-Japanese companies, financial institutions, and government agencies and public corporations of various countries. This business unit mainly consists of the international businesses of SMBC, SMBC Trust Bank, SMFL, SMBC Nikko Securities and their foreign subsidiaries. At March 31, 2020, we have global network of 137 overseas offices.
The International Business Unit provides a variety of tailored products and services to meet customer and market requirements, including loans, deposits, clearing services, trade finance, project finance, loan syndication, derivatives and global cash management services.
In January 2019, PT Bank Tabungan Pensiunan Nasional Tbk, previously an associate bank of SMBC in Indonesia, became our consolidated subsidiary upon the purchase of additional shares by SMBC. Subsequently, in February 2019, PT Bank Tabungan Pensiunan Nasional Tbk merged with PT Bank Sumitomo Mitsui Indonesia, a consolidated subsidiary of SMBC also in Indonesia, and the merged company changed its corporate name to PT Bank BTPN Tbk. This merger was made for the purpose of operating a full-fledged commercial banking business in Indonesia that serves both the wholesale and retail segments and further developing our franchise to offer broader financial services to our customers.
On April 1, 2019, we commenced full operations of SMBC Bank EU AG, a banking subsidiary established in Germany, to retain our ability to respond flexibly to changes in the political and economic environment in Europe, including the United Kingdoms exit from the European Union. Through SMBC Bank EU AG and our other existing networks, we continue to provide clients with sustained and stable financial services while expanding the range of our services.
SMBC seeks to meet customers needs globally, together with the network of SMBCs foreign banking subsidiaries such as Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation Europe Limited, SMBC Bank EU AG, Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation (China) Limited, PT Bank BTPN Tbk and foreign banking associates, including The Bank of East Asia, Limited, ACLEDA Bank Plc. and Vietnam Export Import Commercial Joint Stock Bank.
In overseas markets, the International Business Unit provides services such as underwriting activities, Japanese stockbroking and M&A advisory through SMBC Nikko Capital Markets Limited and SMBC Nikko Securities America, Inc., which are subsidiaries of SMBC in the United Kingdom and the United States respectively. In addition, this business unit provides Japanese stockbroking and M&A advisory services through SMBC Nikko Securities (Hong Kong) Limited and SMBC Nikko Securities (Singapore) Pte. Ltd., and M&A advisory related services through SMBC Nikko Investment Consulting (Shanghai) Limited. Together with other SMBC Nikko Securities subsidiaries and affiliates, this business unit offers high quality financial services to clients on a global basis.
The International Business Unit provides a variety of leasing services related to the construction machinery, transportation equipment, industrial machinery, medical equipment and other categories mainly through SMFLs offices overseas. This business unit also offers aircraft leasing services through SMBC Aviation Capital Limited, a subsidiary of SMFL, and railcar leasing services through SMBC Rail Services LLC, which is a railcar operating leasing company and a subsidiary of SMBC Leasing and Finance, Inc.
For detailed information on the reorganization of our joint leasing partnership, see Wholesale Business UnitLeasing in this section.
In June 2017, we, through SMBC Rail Services LLC, acquired all membership interests of American Railcar Leasing LLC, one of the leading railcar leasing companies in the United States. This acquisition was made for the purpose of expanding our railcar leasing business and services by further enhancing our fleet portfolio to appropriately meet diverse needs of clients in a wide range of industries.
Global Markets Business Unit
The Global Markets Business Unit offers solutions through foreign exchange products, derivatives, bonds, stocks and other marketable financial products and also undertakes asset liability management operations, which help comprehensively control balance sheet liquidity risks and interest rate risks. This business unit consists of the Treasury Unit of SMBC and the global markets businesses of SMBC Nikko Securities.
Asset Liability Management and Portfolio Management
The Global Markets Business Unit maintains high profitability and stability by establishing a portfolio with highly liquid products and focusing on products for which investment appetite is high, and by carrying out portfolio rebalancing in a nimble and dynamic manner in response to changes in market conditions.
Foreign Currency Funding
To support our overseas businesses, this business unit strives to improve the stability of our foreign currency funding by diversifying funding methods and expanding the scope of investors we target. At the same time, this business unit keeps appropriate control of the balance sheet in response to international financial regulations.
Sales and Trading
The Global Markets Business Unit provides detailed information on market conditions and economic trends to address customers hedging and asset management needs, expands its product lineup in foreign exchange, derivative, bond, stock and other products and supplies timely solutions to increase customer satisfaction and SMBC Group earnings.
In addition, this business unit encourages the use of electronic transactions such as its electronic foreign exchange execution platform available via the internet to respond to the needs of a wider range of customers.
Other Major Business
System Development, Data Processing, Management Consulting and Economic Research
We provide financial consultation services relating to management reforms, IT, the planning and development of strategic information systems and outsourcing. We also conduct diverse activities including domestic and international economic research and analysis, policy recommendations and business incubation. We offer these services mainly through The Japan Research Institute.
We engage in the investment advisory and investment trust management businesses.
On April 1, 2019, Sumitomo Mitsui Asset Management (SMAM), our subsidiary, merged with Daiwa SB Investments Ltd. (DSBI), previously our associate, to form SMDAM. Our equity interest in SMDAM resulting from the merger is 50.1%, and as such, SMDAM is our subsidiary. Through the merger, we aim to establish an asset management company that combines the strengths and expertise of SMAM and DSBI, and offers high quality investment management performance and services in order to properly address client needs.
Our associate Kansai Mirai Financial Group, Inc. (Kansai Mirai Financial Group) engages in commercial banking business in Kansai area.
In March 2017, we announced our plan to integrate Kansai Urban Banking Corporation (KUBC), THE MINATO BANK, LTD. (The Minato Bank), previously our subsidiaries, and The Kinki Osaka Bank, Ltd. (The Kinki Osaka Bank), which is a regional financial institution based in Kansai area and a wholly owned subsidiary of Resona Holdings, Inc. (Resona Holdings), a financial holding company head quartered in Japan. As part of this business integration, KUBC and The Minato Bank ceased to be our subsidiaries and became our equity-method associates. In addition, in April 2018, the three banks became wholly owned subsidiaries of Kansai Mirai Financial Group, an intermediate holding company established by Resona Holdings, and Kansai Mirai Financial Group became our equity-method associate. On April 1, 2019, KUBC was merged into The Kinki Osaka Bank and the merged company changed its corporate name to Kansai Mirai Bank, Limited.
In May 2017, we announced our medium-term management plan, SMFG Next Stage (currently SMBC Group Next Stage), for the three years through March 2020. Under the medium-term management plan, we
established the three core policies: disciplined business management, focus on our strengths to generate growth and integration across the SMBC Group and globally to achieve sustainable growth in order to achieve sustainable growth and reach the next stage of our journey towards our mid-long term vision of becoming a global financial group that leads the growth of Japan and Asia by earning the highest trust of our customers.
During the fiscal year ended on March 31, 2020, the last year of the medium-term management plan, we set the basic policy as Realize a strong finish to the final year of the current medium-term management plan and undertake initiatives that will deliver sustainable growth, with a view to the next medium-term management plan and carried out various initiatives based on the three core policies above to become the financial group of choice for our customers.
On May 15, 2020, we announced our new medium-term management plan for the three years through March 2023. In the medium-term management plan, we aim to pursue a major reform of our business model and explore new businesses to overcome the dynamic change of the business environment. Thereby, we aim at providing solutions for the problems and challenges of our customers and society and pursue sustainable growth in order to further enhance our corporate value.
Under the medium-term management plan, we have established the following three core policies: Transformation and Growth for business strategy and Quality for management base, in order to make an important step towards the realization of our new Vision of becoming A trusted global solution provider committed to the growth of our customers and advancement of society.
Transformation: Transform existing businesses
We aim to improve profitability and efficiency by engaging in business model transformation and structural cost reform among major business areas while ensuring strategic resource allocation.
Specifically, mainly in the domestic business, we aim to rebuild the business franchise and perform strategic reallocation of resources corresponding to the market potential and pursue the improvement of both our service quality and business productivity through branch reorganization, digitalization, and streamlining of our business administration. Furthermore, in business areas where there is growth potential, we aim to enhance our capability of providing high-quality solutions to our customers and strengthen competitiveness of our products and services by restructuring the business model and organizational structure to maximally leverage our group capability.
Growth: Seek new growth opportunities
We aim to explore new growth opportunities including non-financial business fields and generate new added value by making investments for the future to increase our profit base.
Specifically, we aim to (a) strengthen asset-light businesses such as asset management and payment/transaction in response to the structural change in the financial market, (b) expand our business franchise in Asia where medium- to long term growth is expected, and (c) develop new businesses that provide solutions utilizing data and digital technology to expand our business base for future growth. To pursue such strategy, in addition to organic growth, we aim to actively seek inorganic growth opportunities by leveraging our sufficient capital level.
Under our business strategy of Transformation and Growth, we have identified Seven Key Strategies as shown below:
Pursue sustainable growth of wealth management business;
Improve productivity and strengthen solutions in the domestic wholesale business;
Enhance overseas corporate and investment banking business to improve asset/capital efficiency;
Hold the number one position in payment business;
Enhance asset-light business on a global basis;
Expand franchise in Asia and strengthen digital banking; and
Develop digital solutions for corporate clients.
Quality: Elevate quality in all aspects
We aim to make a consistent effort to enhance our management system and corporate infrastructure as a global financial institution to fulfill the expectations of our stakeholders.
Specifically, as a basic management policy, we continue to ensure our customer-oriented approach and at the same time, we aim to take further actions such as promoting green finance and financial education programs to contribute to a sustainable society. In addition, we aim to continue to sophisticate human resource management and development to have employees perform at their full potential, and we aim to develop flexible and robust IT infrastructure in order to create new added value through digitalization and strengthen the capability of cyber security. Furthermore, in order to enforce sound risk-taking, we strive to sophisticate the risk appetite framework and practice business management in an effective and scientific manner and aim to further enhance our governance system in overseas businesses, including risk management and compliance areas as a foundation of sustainable growth of our global business.
Revenues by Region
The following table sets forth the percentage of our total operating income under IFRS for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, based on the total operating income of our offices in the indicated regions. For each of the periods presented, we earned more than half of our total operating income in Japan, where we compete with other major Japanese banking groups and financial service providers. We earned the remainder in the Americas, Europe and Middle East, and Asia and Oceania, where we mainly compete with global financial institutions.
|For the fiscal year ended March 31,|
Europe and Middle East
Asia and Oceania (excluding Japan)
Our business is not materially affected by seasonality.
Sources and Availability of Raw Materials
We are not reliant on any particular source of raw materials.
See Description of Operations and Principal Activities for a discussion of our marketing channels.
Regulations in Japan
Our businesses are subject to extensive regulation, including the effects of changes in the laws, regulations, policies, voluntary codes of practice and interpretations in Japan. On the other hand, deregulation of banking activities in Japan, and more generally of the Japanese financial system, has proceeded, which has made the Japanese banking industry highly competitive.
Supervisory and regulatory authorities
Pursuant to the Banking Act, the FSA has the authority in Japan to supervise banks, bank holding companies and banks principal shareholders, meaning bank shareholders having 20% (or 15% in some cases) or more of the voting rights of a bank. The BOJ also has supervisory authority over banks in Japan based primarily on its contractual agreements and transactions with Japanese banks. Only companies licensed by the Prime Minister are defined as banks under the Banking Act, and licenses may be granted only to a kabushiki kaisha, a joint stock corporation, with paid-up capital of ¥2 billion or more.
The Financial Services Agency of Japan
The Prime Minister has supervisory authority over banks in Japan, which is generally delegated to the Financial Services Agency of Japan (FSA) except for matters prescribed by cabinet order. The Minister for Financial Services has the power to direct the FSA. Under the Banking Act, the FSA has supervisory control over banks, bank holding companies and banks principal shareholders in Japan, except for matters to which the Prime Minister retains authority.
The FSAs authority includes granting and revoking of operating licenses, and approving business activities such as becoming a principal shareholder, establishment of subsidiaries or overseas offices, mergers, corporate splits or business transfers, and dissolutions or discontinuations of business by existing banks, etc.
The FSA may also instruct a Japanese bank to suspend its business or to remove directors if the bank violates laws, other regulations or their articles of incorporation or commits acts contrary to public policy. The FSA may also direct a Japanese bank in financial difficulty to take certain actions, such as holding certain property in Japan for the protection of depositors. Under the prompt corrective action (PCA) system, the FSA may take corrective actions in the case of capital deterioration of financial institutions.
The Ministry of Finance and the FSA have introduced a number of regulatory measures into the banking sector in Japan to secure sound management of banks, as well as measures to increase the transparency of the regulatory process, such as bank holding company regulations, single customer credit limits, disclosure regulations, regulations regarding reserves for loan losses and inspections.
The Banking Act authorizes the FSA to inspect banks and bank holding companies in Japan at any time and with any frequency. The FSA monitors the financial soundness of banks and the status and performance of their control systems and reviews their compliance with laws and regulations. The FSA had issued guidelines on its inspection of financial institutions called the Financial Inspection Manual. The Financial Inspection Manual itself does not have the force of law, but the FSAs inspections of banks have been based on the Financial Inspection Manual, which emphasized the need for bank self-assessment rather than assessment based on the advice of the government authority and risk management by each bank instead of a mere assessment of its assets. In December, 2017, the FSA published a report on its supervisory approaches and transformation, which was revised in June, 2018. Based on the report, the FSA introduced its new supervisory approaches, which include expanding the scope of its supervisory approaches from a backward-looking, element-by-element compliance check to substantive, forward-looking and holistic analysis and judgment, leading to the FSAs repeal of the Financial Inspection Manual on December 18, 2019. Following an inspection, the FSA may exercise its authority over a bank under the Banking Act to suspend or terminate its banking business.
The Ministry of Finance
The Ministry of Finance conducts examinations of banks in relation to foreign exchange transactions under the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Act.
The Bank of Japan
The Bank of Japan (BOJ) is the central bank of Japan and serves as the principal instrument for the execution of Japans monetary policy. The BOJ implements monetary policy mainly by adjusting its basic loan rate, open market operations and imposing deposit reserve requirements. All banks in Japan maintain deposits with the BOJ and rely substantially upon obtaining borrowings from and rediscounting bills with the BOJ. Moreover, most banks in Japan maintain current accounts under agreements with the BOJ pursuant to which the BOJ can conclude a contract with SMBC concerning on-site examinations. BOJ supervision is intended to support the effective execution of monetary policy, while FSA supervision aims to maintain the sound operations of banks in Japan and promote the security of depositors. Through its examinations, the BOJ seeks to identify problems at an early stage and give corrective guidance where necessary.
Regulations Regarding Capital Adequacy and Liquidity
Capital Adequacy Requirement
In 1988, the BCBS issued the Basel Capital Accord. The Basel Capital Accord sets minimum risk-weighted capital ratios for the purpose of maintaining sound management of banks which have international operations. The minimum risk-weighted capital ratio required was 8% on both a consolidated and nonconsolidated basis. In 2004, the BCBS issued the amended Basel Capital Accord (Basel II), which includes detailed measurement of credit risk, the addition of operational risk, a supervisory review process and market discipline through disclosure. These amendments did not change the minimum risk-weighted capital ratio of 8% applicable to banks with international operations (including SMBC). These rules took effect in Japan in 2007, and since 2008, banks are able to apply the advanced IRB approach for credit risk and the AMA for operational risk.
In July 2009, the BCBS approved a final package of measures to enhance certain elements of the Basel II framework, which includes an increase of the risk weights of resecuritization instruments and revisions of certain trading book rules (referred to as Basel 2.5), and the FSAs capital adequacy guidelines which reflect such framework have been applied in Japan from December 2011.
In September 2009, the GHOS reached an agreement on several key measures to strengthen regulation of the banking sector, and in December 2009 the BCBS published a consultative document entitled Strengthening the resilience of the banking sector containing proposals on these measures centering on several core areas. The BCBS proposals focused on raising the quality, consistency and transparency of the regulatory capital base through measures including a requirement that the predominant form of Tier 1 capital must be common shares and retained earnings; limitations on the use of hybrid instruments with an incentive to redeem; a requirement that regulatory adjustments, including deductions of the amount of net deferred tax assets which rely on the future profitability of a bank, be applied to common equity generally; and a requirement for additional disclosure regarding regulatory capital levels.
The BCBS proposals also cover the following key areas:
strengthening the risk coverage of the capital framework;
introducing a leverage ratio as a supplementary measure to the Basel II risk-based framework with a view to migrating to a Pillar 1 (minimum capital requirement) treatment based on appropriate review and calibration (for further information, see Leverage Ratio below);
introducing measures to promote the build-up of capital buffers in good times that can be drawn upon in periods of stress; and
introducing minimum liquidity standards for internationally active banks that include a 30-day liquidity coverage ratio requirement underpinned by a longer-term structural liquidity ratio (for further information, see Liquidity Requirement below).
In July 2010, the GHOS reached a broad agreement on the overall design of the BCBS capital and liquidity reform package. In addition, in August 2010, the BCBS issued for consultation a proposal to enhance the loss absorbency function of regulatory capital. In September 2010, the GHOS announced a substantial strengthening of existing capital requirements. The framework of the proposed reform was endorsed by the G-20 leaders at their Seoul summit in November 2010.
These capital reforms were phased in from January 2013 to January 2019. The minimum common equity requirement, the minimum Tier 1 capital requirement and the total minimum capital requirement have been 4.5%, 6% and 8% respectively since January 2015. Moreover, banks have been required to hold a capital conservation buffer of 2.5% to withstand future periods of stress since January 2019. As a result, taking the capital conservation buffer into account, the minimum common equity requirement, the minimum Tier 1 capital requirement and the total minimum capital requirement have been 7%, 8.5% and 10.5% respectively since January 2019. In addition, a countercyclical buffer within a range of 0% to 2.5% of Common Equity Tier 1 capital has been implemented according to national circumstances. In December 2010, the BCBS published the new Basel III rules text. To reflect changes made by the BCBS, the FSA changed its capital adequacy guidelines. The FSAs changes have mostly been applied from March 31, 2013, which generally reflect the main measures of the minimum capital requirements of the BCBS that started to be phased in on January 1, 2013 and have been fully applied from March 2019. The FSAs changes which reflect capital buffer requirements under Basel III and the G-SIB capital surcharge described below have been applied from March 2016.
In addition to the above-mentioned minimum capital requirements and capital buffer requirements under Basel III, organizations identified by the FSB as G-SIBs, which includes us, are required to maintain an additional 1% to 2.5% of Common Equity Tier 1 capital as a percentage of risk-weighted assets based on the organizations size, interconnectedness, substitutability, complexity and cross-jurisdictional activity as determined by the FSB. The amount of G-SIB capital surcharge that has applied to us from 2019 based on the FSBs determination is 1% of risk-weighted assets. The FSB updates its list of G-SIBs on an annual basis.
G-SIBs are also subject to a global standard for TLAC, which establishes minimum requirements for loss-absorbing and recapitalization capacity available in resolution at G-SIBs, to ensure that they can be resolved in an orderly manner without putting public funds at risk. In November 2015, as part of its agenda to address risks arising from G-SIBs, the FSB published the FSBs TLAC Standards. The FSBs TLAC Standards define certain minimum requirements for instruments and liabilities so that if a G-SIB fails, it will have sufficient loss-absorbing and recapitalization capacity available to ensure that it can be resolved in an orderly manner which minimizes potential impact on financial stability, maintains the continuity of critical functions and avoids exposing public funds to loss.
In March 2019, the FSA published the Japanese TLAC Standards. The Japanese TLAC Standards apply to Covered SIBs, which includes (i) Japanese G-SIBs, which are designated as G-SIBs by the FSA in accordance with the designation by the FSB, such as us, and (ii) any domestic systemically important bank in Japan (Japanese D-SIB) that has been deemed to be in particular need for a cross-border resolution arrangement and as having particular systemic significance to the Japanese financial system if it fails. The Japanese TLAC Standards were applied to Japanese G-SIBs from March 31, 2019.
Under the FSBs TLAC standards and the Japanese TLAC Standards, entities designated by the FSA as an entity that would enter into domestic resolution proceedings for Japanese G-SIBs, or the Domestic Resolution Entities, are required:
to meet certain minimum external TLAC requirements (being at least 16% of their risk-weighted assets starting from March 2019 and at least 18% of their risk-weighted assets starting from March 2022 as
well as at least 6% of their Basel III leverage ratio denominator starting from March 31, 2019 and at least 6.75% starting from March 31, 2022); and
to cause any material subsidiaries or material sub-groups in Japan designated as systemically important by the FSA, or any foreign subsidiaries that are subject to TLAC or similar requirements by the relevant foreign authorities, to maintain a certain level of capital and debt that is recognized as having loss-absorbing and recapitalization capacity (internal TLAC).
In addition, according to the Japanese TLAC Standards, Japanese G-SIBs are allowed to count Japans deposit insurance fund reserves in an amount equivalent to 2.5% of their risk-weighted assets from March 2019 and 3.5% of their risk-weighted assets from March 2022 as external TLAC.
The FSBs TLAC Standards also prescribe a minimum TLAC requirement of at least 6% of the resolution groups Basel III leverage ratio denominator starting from March 31, 2019, increasing to at least 6.75% starting from March 31, 2022, and according to the Japanese TLAC Standards, the same external TLAC requirements on the leverage ratio basis are required for bank holding companies of Japanese G-SIBs including us.
In our case, the FSA designated SMFG as our Domestic Resolution Entity, which makes SMFG subject to the external TLAC requirements. The FSA also designated SMBC and SMBC Nikko Securities as our material subsidiaries in Japan, for which we are required to maintain a certain level of internal TLAC.
In the FSAs explanatory paper entitled The FSAs Approach to Introduce the TLAC Framework, which was published in April 2016 and revised in April 2018, the FSA has identified Single Point of Entry (SPE) resolution, in which resolution powers are applied to the ultimate holding company of a banking group by a single national resolution authority, as the preferred strategy for resolving currently designated G-SIBs in Japan. Under a possible model for SPE resolution of Japanese G-SIBs described in the Japanese TLAC Standards, if, with respect to a material subsidiary of a Japanese G-SIB that is designated as systemically important by the FSA, the FSA issues to the Domestic Resolution Entity of the Japanese G-SIB an order concerning the restoration of financial soundness, including recapitalization of, and restoration of liquidity to, such material subsidiary, such material subsidiarys internal TLAC instruments will be written off or, if applicable, converted into equity in accordance with the applicable contractual loss-absorption provisions of such internal TLAC instruments. The FSA may issue such an order pursuant to Article 52-33, Paragraph 1 of the Banking Act upon its determination that the material subsidiary is non-viable due to a material deterioration in its financial condition after recognizing that its liabilities exceed or are likely to exceed its assets, or that it has suspended or is likely to suspend payment of its obligations.
Furthermore, as a disincentive for G-SIBs facing the maximum G-SIB capital surcharge to increase materially their global systemic importance in the future, an additional 1% capital surcharge could be applied. So long as we are identified as a G-SIB, we are also subject to stronger supervisory mandates and higher supervisory expectations for risk management functions, data aggregation capabilities, risk governance and internal controls. The substance of this heightened supervision has not yet been fixed, but we anticipate that at a minimum any rules will contain more stringent reporting requirements and impose common frameworks for data aggregation and internal risk management processes on G-SIBs.
Because we have been identified as a G-SIB, we are also subject to, among other things, resolution-related requirements described in the FSBs Key Attributes of Effective Resolution Regimes for Financial Institutions. In particular, the FSB has required the initial group of G-SIBs to have in place a recovery and resolution plan, including a group-level plan, containing various specified elements, to be subject to regular resolvability assessments. Under the Comprehensive Guidelines for Supervision of Financial Instruments Business Operators, etc., issued by the FSA, as part of crisis management, financial institutions identified as G-SIBs must prepare and submit a recovery plan, which includes a description of events that would trigger implementation of the recovery plan and the analysis of the recovery options to the FSA, and the FSA must prepare the resolution plan for each G-SIB.
In December 2017, the GHOS endorsed the outstanding Basel III regulatory reforms. The endorsed reforms include the following elements:
a revised standardized approach for credit risk;
revisions to the internal ratings-based approach for credit risk, where the use of the most advanced internally modeled approaches for low-default portfolios will be limited;
revisions to the credit valuation adjustment framework, including the removal of the internally modeled approach and the introduction of a revised standardized approach;
a revised standardized approach for operational risk, which will replace the existing standardized approaches and the advanced measurement approach;
revisions to the measurement of the leverage ratio and a leverage ratio buffer for G-SIBs; and
revisions to the capital floor, under which banks risk-weighted assets must be no lower than 72.5% of total risk-weighted assets as calculated using only the standardized approaches under the revised Basel III framework, and a requirement that banks disclose their risk-weighted assets based on such standardized approaches.
On March 27, 2020, the GHOS endorsed a set of measures to provide additional operational capacity for banks and supervisors to respond to the immediate financial stability priorities resulting from the impact of COVID-19 on the global banking system. According to the measures, the implementation timeline of the outstanding Basel III standards has been deferred by one year.The revised framework, other than revisions to the capital floor, will take effect from January 1, 2023. The revisions to the capital floor will be phased in from January 1, 2023, with an initial capital floor of 50%, and will reach 72.5% by January 1, 2028. On March 30, 2020, in light of the above changes, the FSA announced its plan to defer the implementation of Basel III standards in Japan by one year, to March 31, 2023.
Our securities subsidiaries in Japan are also subject to capital adequacy requirements under the FIEA. Under the requirements, securities firms must maintain a minimum capital adequacy ratio of 120% on a nonconsolidated basis and must file periodic reports with the Commissioner of the FSA or the Director-General of the appropriate Local Finance Bureau, and also publicly disclose their capital adequacy ratio on a quarterly basis. In addition, securities firms whose total assets exceed ¥1,000 billion are required to maintain this minimum capital adequacy ratio on a consolidated basis. This requirement on a consolidated basis is applied in addition to and in a manner similar to the requirements on a nonconsolidated basis referred to above. Failure to meet the capital adequacy requirements will trigger mandatory regulatory action. For example, in the case of the requirement on a nonconsolidated basis, a securities firm with a capital adequacy ratio of greater than 120%, but less than 140% will be required to file daily reports with the Commissioner of the FSA or the Director-General of the appropriate Local Finance Bureau. A securities firm with a capital adequacy ratio of less than 120% may be ordered to change its business conduct, place its property in trust or be subject to other supervisory orders, as the relevant authorities deem appropriate. A securities firm with a capital adequacy ratio of less than 100% may be subject to temporary suspension of all or part of its business operations or cancellation of its license to act as a securities broker and dealer.
The capital adequacy ratio for securities firms is defined as the ratio of adjusted capital to a quantified total of business risks, which include market risks, counterparty risks and operational risks (e.g., risks in carrying out daily business activities, such as administrative problems with securities transactions and clerical mistakes) quantified in the manner specified by a rule promulgated under the FIEA. Adjusted capital is defined as net worth less illiquid assets, as determined in accordance with Japanese GAAP. Net worth consists mainly of stated capital, additional paid-in capital, retained earnings, reserves for securities transactions, certain allowances for doubtful current accounts, net unrealized gains (losses) in the market value of investment securities, and subordinated debt. Illiquid assets generally include non-current market assets, certain deposits and advances, and prepaid expenses.
In March 2015, the FSA published its leverage ratio guidelines which have been applied from March 31, 2015 to help ensure broad and adequate capture of both on- and off-balance sheet sources of leverage for internationally active banks. The FSAs leverage ratio guidelines are based on the text of the leverage ratio framework and disclosure requirements issued by the BCBS in January 2014. From January 1, 2013 to January 1, 2017, the BCBS monitored banks leverage ratio data to assess whether the design and calibration of its indicated minimum leverage ratio of 3% was appropriate.
In January 2016, the GHOS agreed that the leverage ratio should be based on a Tier 1 definition of capital and should comprise a minimum level of 3%. In December 2017, the definition and requirements of the leverage ratio were revised as part of the revised Basel III reforms. Under the revised Basel III reforms, in addition to meeting the minimum leverage ratio, G-SIBs are required to meet a leverage ratio buffer, which will take the form of a Tier 1 capital buffer set at 50% of the applicable G-SIB capital surcharge. Various refinements were also made to the definition of the leverage ratio exposure measure. The leverage ratio requirements under the definition based on the framework issued by the BCBS in January 2014 were implemented as a Pillar 1 measurement from January 2018, and those under the revised definition and the leverage ratio buffer requirement for G-SIBs will be implemented as a Pillar 1 measurement from January 1, 2023.
In March 2019, the FSA published its guidelines for the leverage ratio applicable to banks and bank holding companies with international operations, which have been applied from March 31, 2019. Under the FSAs guidelines for the leverage ratio, banks and bank holding companies with international operations must maintain a leverage ratio of at least 3% on both a consolidated basis and a nonconsolidated basis from March 31, 2019.
In October 2014, the FSA published its guidelines for liquidity coverage ratio (LCR) applicable to banks and bank holding companies with international operations that have been applied from March 31, 2015. These guidelines are based on the full text of the LCR standard issued by the BCBS in January 2013. LCR is intended to promote resilience to potential liquidity disruptions over a thirty-day horizon and help ensure that global banks have sufficient, unencumbered, high-quality liquid assets to offset the net cash outflows they could encounter under an acute short-term stress scenario. Under the FSAs LCR guidelines, banks and bank holding companies with international operations must maintain LCR of at least 100% on both a consolidated basis and a nonconsolidated basis. The minimum LCR requirements have been 100% since March 31, 2019.
In October 2014, the BCBS issued the final standard for the net stable funding ratio (NSFR), which requires a minimum amount of stable sources of funding at a bank relative to the liquidity profiles of the banks assets, as well as the potential for contingent liquidity needs arising from off-balance sheet commitments, over a one-year horizon. The NSFR was scheduled to be introduced as a minimum standard by January 1, 2018. In June 2018, the FSA published its guidelines for the NSFR applicable to banks with international operations, including us. The FSA at one point announced that the guidelines were to be applicable from March 31, 2019 but the introduction of the NSFR has been postponed.
Self-Assessment, Reserves and Related Disclosure
Financial institutions, including SMBC, are required to establish self-assessment programs to, among other things, analyze their assets giving due consideration to accounting principles and other applicable rules and to classify their assets into categories taking into account the likelihood of repayment and the risk of impairment to the value of the assets. These classifications determine whether an addition to or reduction in reserves or write-offs is necessary.
Pursuant to the Japanese Institute of Certified Public Accountants (JICPA) guidelines, the outcome of each financial institutions self-assessment leads to substantially all of a banks loans and other claims on
customers being analyzed by classifying obligors into five categories: (1) normal borrowers; (2) borrowers requiring caution; (3) potentially bankrupt borrowers; (4) effectively bankrupt borrowers; and (5) bankrupt borrowers. The reserve for possible loan losses is then calculated based on the obligor categories.
FSA guidelines require banks to classify their assets not only by the five categories of obligor but also by four categories of quality. SMBC has adopted its own internal guidelines for self-assessment which conform to guidelines currently in effect and comply with the PCA system requirements.
Based on the results of the self-assessment discussed above, SMBC is required to establish a reserve for its loan portfolio in an amount SMBC considers adequate at a balance sheet date. Three categories of reserves SMBC establishes, for statutory purposes, along with the Accounting Standards for Banks issued by the Japanese Bankers Association, are a general reserve, a specific reserve and a reserve for specific overseas loan losses.
Under the Banking Act, banks and bank holding companies must disclose their non- and under-performing loans (consolidated and nonconsolidated) as risk-monitored loans. Risk-monitored loans are classified into four categories: (1) bankrupt loans, (2) non-accrual loans, (3) past due loans (three months or more) and (4) restructured loans. Banks and bank holding companies are required to submit to the FSA annual reports on their business including the amount of risk-monitored loans. Banks and bank holding companies must disclose their financial statements on an annual basis. The financial statements consist of the balance sheet and income statement, and explanatory documents regarding business and asset conditions, each prepared under the Banking Act both on a nonconsolidated and consolidated basis.
Independent of the Banking Act disclosure regulations, the Act Concerning Emergency Measures for the Revitalization of Financial Functions requires banks to disclose their loans and their other problem assets. Under this law, assets are classified into four categories: (1) bankrupt and quasi-bankrupt assets, (2) doubtful assets, (3) substandard assets and (4) normal assets. Generally, bankrupt and quasi-bankrupt assets correspond to the total of bankrupt loans and the lower tier of the non-accrual loans (the borrowers of which are effectively bankrupt) under the Banking Act disclosure. Doubtful assets generally correspond to the higher tier portion of the non-accrual loans (the borrowers of which are not, but have the potential to become, bankrupt). The substandard assets generally correspond to the total of the restructured loans and past due loans (three months or more). Bankrupt and quasi-bankrupt assets and doubtful assets also include non-loan assets, for example, securities lending, foreign exchange, accrued interest, advanced payments and customers liabilities for acceptances and guarantees.
Prompt Corrective Action System
Under the Prompt Corrective Action (PCA) system, the FSA may take corrective actions depending upon the extent of capital deterioration of a financial institution. The FSA may require a bank to submit and implement a capital reform plan, if;
the total risk-weighted capital ratio of a bank with international operations becomes less than 8% but not less than 4%;
the Common Equity Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio becomes less than 4.5% but not less than 2.25%;
the Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio becomes less than 6% but not less than 3%; or
the leverage ratio becomes less than 3% but not less than 1.5%.
The FSA may order a bank to (1) submit and implement a plan for improving its capital; (2) prohibit or restrict the payment of dividends to shareholders or bonuses to officers; (3) reduce assets or restrict any increase in assets; (4) prohibit or restrict the acceptance of deposits under terms less advantageous than ordinary terms;
(5) reduce the business of some offices; (6) eliminate some offices other than the head office; (7) reduce or prevent the launching of non-banking businesses; or (8) take certain other actions, if;
the total risk-weighted capital ratio of a bank with international operations declines to less than 4% but not less than 2%;
the Common Equity Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio becomes less than 2.25% but not less than 1.13%;
the Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio becomes less than 3% but not less than 1.5%; or
the leverage ratio becomes less than 1.5% but not less than 0.75% (in this case, the FSA may order a bank to take actions described in (1) and (3) to (8) of the paragraph above).
The FSA may order a bank to conduct any one of the following: (1) a capital increase; (2) a substantial reduction in its business; (3) a merger; or (4) abolishment of its banking business, if;
the total risk-weighted capital ratio of a bank with international operations declines to less than 2% but not less than 0%;
the Common Equity Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio becomes less than 1.13% but not less than 0%;
the Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio becomes less than 1.5% but not less than 0%; or
the leverage ratio becomes less than 0.75% but not less than 0%.
The FSA may order the bank to suspend all or part of its business, if
the total risk-weighted capital ratio, the Common Equity Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio or Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio of a bank with international operations declines below 0%; or
the leverage ratio declines below 0%.
The FSA may take actions similar to the actions the FSA may take with respect to a bank, if;
the total risk-weighted capital ratio of a bank holding company that holds a bank with international operations declines to levels below 8%;
the Common Equity Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio declines to levels below 4.5%; or
the Tier 1 risk-weighted capital ratio declines to levels below 6%.
Prompt Warning System
The prompt warning system currently in effect allows the FSA to take precautionary measures to maintain and promote the sound operation of financial institutions before those financial institutions become subject to the PCA system. These measures include requiring a financial institution to reform: (1) profitability, if deemed necessary to improve profitability based upon a fundamental profit index; (2) credit risk management, if deemed necessary to reform management of credit risk based upon the degree of large credit concentration and other circumstances; (3) stability, if deemed necessary to reform management of market and other risks based upon, in particular, the effect of securities price fluctuations; and (4) cash flow management, if deemed necessary to reform management of liquidity risks based upon deposit trends and level of reserve for liquidity.
Restrictions on Capital Distributions
Under the FSAs capital adequacy guidelines and related ordinances, if a bank fails to maintain capital levels under the capital buffer requirements in accordance with Basel III and the G-SIB capital surcharge, the FSA may order a bank to submit and implement a reasonable capital distribution constraint plan to restore the
capital levels. This plan shall include restrictions on capital distributions, such as dividends, share buybacks, discretionary payments on other Tier 1 capital instruments and bonuses, in such amount as determined depending on the degree of insufficiency of such requirements.
Regulations for Stabilizing the Financial System
Deposit Insurance System
The Deposit Insurance Act was enacted to protect depositors when deposit-taking institutions fail to meet their obligations. The Deposit Insurance Corporation of Japan (DIC) implements the law and is supervised by the Prime Minister and the Minister of Finance. Subject to limited exceptions, the Prime Ministers authority is delegated to the FSA Commissioner.
From April 2018 to March 2019, the DIC received annual insurance premiums from member deposit-taking institutions amounting to 0.046% of deposits primarily for payment and settlement purposes and 0.033% of deposits for other deposits, and from April 2019 to March 2020, they amounted to 0.045% and 0.032%, respectively. Furthermore, from April 2020, they amounted to 0.045% and 0.031% respectively.
Premiums held by the DIC may be either deposited at deposit-taking institutions or used to purchase marketable securities. The insurance money may be paid out to depositors in case of a suspension of repayments of deposits, banking license revocation, dissolution or bankruptcy of a bank. Payouts are generally limited to a maximum of ¥10 million of principal amount together with any interest accrued with respect to each depositor. Only non-interest-bearing deposits that are redeemable upon demand and used by depositors primarily for payment and settlement functions are protected in full.
City banks (including SMBC), regional banks (including member banks of the second association of regional banks), trust banks, credit associations, credit cooperatives, labor banks and Japan Post Bank participate in the deposit insurance system on a compulsory basis.
The Deposit Insurance Act also provides a permanent system for resolving failed deposit-taking institutions.
The basic method for resolving a failed deposit-taking institution under the Deposit Insurance Act is cessation of the business by paying insurance money to depositors up to the principal amount of ¥10 million plus accrued interest per depositor, or pay-off or transfer of the business to another deposit-taking institution, with financial assistance provided within the cost of pay-off. Under the Deposit Insurance Act, transfer of business is regarded as the primary method. In order to affect a prompt transfer of business, the following framework has been established:
a Financial Reorganization Administrator is appointed by the FSA Commissioner and takes control of the management and assets of the failed deposit-taking institution. The administrator is expected to diligently search for a deposit-taking institution which will succeed to the business of the failed institution;
if no successor deposit-taking institution can be immediately found, a bridge bank will be established by the DIC for the purpose of temporarily maintaining the operations of the failed deposit-taking institution, and the bridge bank will seek to transfer the failed deposit-taking institutions assets to another deposit-taking institution or dissolve the failed deposit-taking institution; and
in order to facilitate or encourage a deposit-taking institution to succeed to a failed business, financial aid may be provided by the DIC to any successor deposit-taking institution to enhance its capital after succession or to indemnify it for losses incurred as a result of the succession.
Where it is anticipated that the failure of a deposit-taking institution may cause an extremely grave problem in maintaining the financial order in Japan or the region where the deposit-taking institution is operating, the
following exceptional measures may be taken following deliberation by Japans Financial Crisis Response Council:
the DIC may subscribe for shares or other instruments issued by the relevant deposit-taking institution or the holding company thereof and require the institution to submit to the DIC a plan to reestablish sound management (Item 1 measures) (dai ichigo sochi);
once the deposit-taking institution fails, financial aid exceeding the cost of pay-off may be available to the institution (Item 2 measures) (dai nigo sochi); and
if the failed institution is a bank and the problem cannot be avoided by other measures, then the DIC may acquire all of the shares of the bank (Item 3 measures) (dai sango sochi).
In order to fund the above-mentioned activities, the DIC may borrow from financial institutions or issue bonds which may be guaranteed by the Government of Japan.
In addition, on June 12, 2013, a bill to amend the Deposit Insurance Act which includes establishment of a new orderly resolution regime of financial institutions was enacted and became effective on March 6, 2014. Financial institutions including banks, securities companies and insurance companies and their holding companies will be subject to the new resolution regime that includes, among others, the following features.
Under the new resolution regime, where the Prime Minister recognizes that the failure of a financial institution which falls into either of (a) or (b) below may cause significant disruption in the financial markets or other financial systems in Japan if measures described in (a) (specified Item 1 measures) (tokutei dai ichigo sochi) or measures described in (b) (specified Item 2 measures) (tokutei dai nigo sochi) are not taken, the Prime Minister may confirm that any of the following measures need to be applied to the financial institution following deliberation by Japans Financial Crisis Response Council:
(a) if the financial institution is not a financial institution whose liabilities exceed its assets, which means it is unable to fully perform its obligations with its assets, the DIC shall supervise the operation of business and management and disposal of assets of that financial institution, and may provide it with loans or guarantees necessary to avoid the risk of significant disruption in the financial systems in Japan, or subscribe for shares or subordinated bonds of, or lend subordinated loans to, the financial institution, taking into consideration the financial condition of the financial institution;
(b) if the financial institution is a financial institution whose liabilities exceed or are likely to exceed its assets or which has suspended or is likely to suspend payment of its obligations, the DIC shall supervise the operation of business and management and disposal of assets of that financial institution and may provide financial aid necessary to assist a merger, business transfer, corporate split or other reorganization in respect to such failed financial institution; and
if a measure set out in (b) above is determined to be taken with respect to a financial institution, the Prime Minister may order that the financial institutions operations of business and management and disposal of assets be placed under the special control of the DIC. The business or liabilities of the financial institution subject to the special supervision by the DIC as set forth above may also be transferred to a bridge bank established by the DIC for the purpose of the temporary maintenance and continuation of operations of, or repayment of the liabilities of, such financial institution, and the bridge bank will seek to transfer the financial institutions business or liabilities to another financial institution or dissolve the financial institution. The financial aid provided by the DIC to assist a merger, business transfer, corporate split or other reorganization in respect to the financial institution set out in (b) above may take the form of a monetary grant, loan or deposit of funds, purchase of assets, guarantee or assumption of debts, subscription of preferred stock or subordinated bonds, subordinated loan, or loss sharing.
The expenses for implementation of the measures for these crisis management operations will be borne by the financial industry; provided, however, the Government of Japan may provide subsidies to the DIC within the
limit to be specified in the government budget in cases where it is likely to cause extremely serious hindrance to the maintenance of the credit system in Japan or significant turmoil in the financial market or other financial system of Japan if such expenses are to be borne only by the financial industry.
In March 2014, the FSA made an announcement clarifying the requirement of loss absorbency at the point of non-viability for additional Tier 1 instruments and Tier 2 instruments under Basel III issued by banks and bank holding companies. According to the announcement, (i) additional Tier 1 instruments and Tier 2 instruments under Basel III issued by a bank must be written-down or converted into common shares when the Prime Minister of Japan confirms (nintei) that the above-described Item 2 measures (dai nigo sochi), Item 3 measures (dai sango sochi), or specified Item 2 measures (tokutei dai nigo sochi) need to be applied to the bank and (ii) additional Tier 1 instruments and Tier 2 instruments under Basel III issued by a bank holding company must be written-down or converted into common shares when the Prime Minister of Japan confirms (nintei) that the above-described specified Item 2 measures (tokutei dai nigo sochi) need to be applied to the bank holding company. The FSA also stated in the announcement that the trigger event for loss absorbency at the point of non-viability with respect to such instruments should be construed in accordance with the then effective financial crisis response framework for banks and bank holding companies that have failed or are likely to fail, since the purpose of such write-down or conversion required under Basel III is to ensure that all classes of these capital instruments fully absorb losses at the point of non-viability before taxpayers are exposed to loss.
Special Measures Act Concerning Facilitation of Reorganization by Financial Institutions, Etc.
Under the Special Measures Act Concerning Facilitation of Reorganization by Financial Institutions, Etc.: (1) for one year after the merger or transfer of the entire business of a deposit-taking institution, the maximum amount to be covered by the deposit insurance will be ¥10 million multiplied by the number of parties to the merger or business transfer; and (2) the procedures are simplified to a certain extent in connection with the transfer of an entire business or a merger with another deposit-taking institution by a deposit-taking institution that is made in accordance with a management base-strengthening plan that has been approved by the Government of Japan.
Single Customer Credit Limit
The Banking Act restricts the aggregate amount of credit and loans that may be extended to any single customer in order to avoid the excessive concentration of credit risks and promote the fair and extensive use of bank credit. To tighten the restrictions under Japanese law to meet international standards, the amendment to the Banking Act and the related cabinet order were promulgated on October 30, 2019, and this amendment became effective on April 1, 2020. As a result of the amendment, the credit limit of bank holding companies, banks or bank groups for any single customer, is 25% of the Tier 1 capital of the bank holding company, bank or bank group, with certain adjustments.
Restrictions on Activities of a Bank Holding Company
Under the Banking Act, a bank holding company is prohibited from carrying on any business other than management of its subsidiaries and other incidental businesses. A bank holding company may have any of the following as a subsidiary: a bank, a securities company, an insurance company or a foreign subsidiary that engages in the banking, securities or insurance business. In addition, a bank holding company may have as a subsidiary any company that engages in finance-related business, such as a credit card company, a leasing company or an investment advisory company. Certain companies that are designated by ministerial ordinance as those that cultivate new business fields may also become the subsidiary of a bank holding company.
An amendment to the Banking Act was promulgated in June 2016. Among other things, the amendment (1) requires a bank holding company to enhance group management, by measures including establishment of a basic policy of such group, coordination of conflicts of interest among group companies, development of a group
compliance system and others; (2) permits a bank holding company or a group company, with prior approval of the Government of Japan, to manage certain businesses of other group companies that are common and duplicative; and (3) permits a bank or a bank holding company, with prior approval of the government, to hold voting rights of companies conducting businesses that contribute to or are expected to contribute to the sophistication of the banking business or the enhancement of customer convenience by utilizing information technology or other technologies, regardless of the shareholding restriction described below. The amendment became effective from April 2017.
Restriction on Aggregate Shareholdings by a Bank
The Act Concerning Restriction on Shareholdings by Banks requires Japanese banks and their qualified subsidiaries to limit the aggregate market value (excluding unrealized gains, if any) of their equity securities holdings to an amount equal to 100% of their consolidated Tier 1 capital, with adjustments, in order to reduce exposure to stock price fluctuations. Treasury shares, shares issued by subsidiaries, shares not listed on any stock exchange or not registered with any OTC market, shares held as trust assets, and shares acquired through debt-for-equity swaps in restructuring transactions are excluded from this limitation. In order to facilitate the disposition of shares of listed stocks held by banks while preventing adverse effects caused by sales of large amounts of shares in a short period of time, share purchases by the Banks Shareholdings Purchase Corporation of listed shares have been restarted from March 2009.
Shareholding Restrictions Applicable to a Bank Holding Company and a Bank
The provision of the Act on Prohibition of Private Monopolization and Maintenance of Fair Trade which prohibits banks from holding more than 5% of the voting rights of non-financial companies in Japan does not apply to bank holding companies. However, the Banking Act generally prohibits a bank holding company and its subsidiaries, on an aggregated basis, from holding more than 15% of the voting rights of certain types of companies which are not permitted to become subsidiaries of bank holding companies. Also, the Banking Act generally prohibits a bank and its subsidiaries, on an aggregated basis, from holding more than 5% of the voting rights of certain types of companies which are not permitted to become subsidiaries of banks.
Examination and Reporting Applicable to Shareholders of a Bank
The FSA may request the submission of reports or other materials from a bank and/or its bank holding company, or inspect the bank and/or the bank holding company, if necessary, in order to secure the sound and appropriate operation of the business of a bank.
Under the Banking Act, a person who desires to hold 20% (in some exceptional cases, 15%) or more of the voting rights of a bank is required to obtain advance approval of the FSA Commissioner. In addition, the FSA may request the submission of reports or materials from, or may conduct an inspection of, any principal shareholder who holds 20% (in some exceptional cases, 15%) or more of the voting rights of a bank if the FSA deems the action necessary in order to secure the sound and appropriate operation of the business of the bank. Under limited circumstances, the FSA may order the principal shareholder to take such measures as the FSA deems necessary.
Furthermore, any person who becomes a holder of more than 5% of the voting rights of a bank holding company or a bank must report the ownership of the voting rights to the Director General of the relevant local finance bureau within five business days. This requirement is separate from the significant shareholdings report required under the FIEA. In addition, a similar report must be made in respect of any subsequent change of 1% or more in any previously reported holding or in respect of any change in material matters set out in reports previously filed, with some exceptions.
Regulations for Protection of Customers
Protection of Personal Information
The Act on the Protection of Personal Information and related rules, regulations and guidelines impose requirements on businesses that use databases containing personal information, including appropriate custody of personal information and restrictions on information sharing with third parties.
Act on Sales, Etc. of Financial Products
Due to deregulatory measures in the banking and other financial services industries, more financial products, including highly structured and other complicated products, may now be marketed to a broad base of customers. The Act on Sales, Etc. of Financial Products was enacted to better protect customers from incurring unexpected losses as a result of purchasing these financial products. Under this law, sellers of financial products have a duty to their potential customers to explain important matters (i.e., the nature and magnitude of risk involved) regarding the financial products that they sell. If a seller fails to comply with the duty, the loss in value of the purchased investment product due to the failure to explain is refutably presumed to be the amount of the customers loss. An amendment to this law, together with other related laws including the FIEA, became effective in September 2007. The amended law enlarges the scope of the duty of financial services providers to inform customers of important matters related to the financial products that they offer.
On June 12, 2020, certain amendments to the Act on Sales, Etc. of Financial Products were promulgated, and will become effective within one and a half years from the date of promulgation. Per these amendments, the name of the law will be changed to the Act on Provision of Financial Services. The amendments introduce a registration scheme for financial services intermediary businesses. Through a single registration as a financial services intermediary business, registrants will be able to provide intermediary services for each of banking, securities and insurance. The amendments to the law will not require any provider of financial services intermediary business to belong to a specific financial institution, but will impose certain regulations to protect customers, including limitations on the type of services that they may provide and prohibitions on the acceptance of assets of customers and lodging a security deposit.
Act Concerning Protection of Depositors and Relief for Victims of Certain Types of Fraud
The Act Concerning Protection of Depositors from Illegal Withdrawals Made by Forged or Stolen Cards requires financial institutions to establish internal systems to prevent illegal withdrawals of deposits made using forged or stolen bank cards. The law also requires financial institutions to compensate depositors for any amount illegally withdrawn using forged or stolen bankcards, subject to certain conditions.
The Act Concerning Payment of Dividends for Relief of Damages from Funds in Account used in connection with Crimes requires that financial institutions take appropriate measures against various crimes including the closing of accounts used in connection with fraud and other crimes. The law also requires financial institutions to make, in accordance with specified procedures, payments from funds collected from the closed accounts to victims of certain crimes.
Laws Prohibiting Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing
Act on Prevention of Transfer of Criminal Proceeds
Under the Act on Prevention of Transfer of Criminal Proceeds, which addresses money laundering and terrorism concerns, financial institutions and certain other entities, such as credit card companies, are required to perform customer identification, submit suspicious transaction reports and keep records of their transactions.
Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Act of Japan
Under the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Act, SMBC is required to confirm that necessary permission from the relevant authorities is obtained by the customer or obtain necessary permission itself, for
certain transaction involving targets who are designated under the law and the relevant orders thereunder including North Korea or Iran.
Act on Special Measures Concerning International Terrorist Assets-Freezing, etc. Conducted by the Government Taking into Consideration United Nations Security Council Resolution 1267, etc.
Under the Act on Special Measures Concerning International Terrorist Assets-Freezing, etc. Conducted by the Government Taking into Consideration United Nations Security Council Resolution 1267, etc., SMBC is generally prohibited to conduct certain transactions including donating or lending of money, securities or real estates or refunding of deposit with International Terrorist, who are designated under the law.
Other Regulations Related to Our Business
Financial Instruments and Exchange Act of Japan
The Financial Instruments and Exchange Act of Japan (FIEA) regulates the securities industry and most aspects of securities transactions in Japan, including public offerings, private placements and secondary trading of securities, ongoing disclosure by securities issuers, tender offers for securities, organization and operation of securities exchanges and self-regulatory organizations and registration of securities companies. The Prime Minister has the authority to regulate the securities industry and securities companies, which authority is delegated to the FSA Commissioner under the FIEA. The Securities and Exchange Surveillance Commission, an external agency of the FSA, is independent from the Agencys other bureaus and is vested with authority to conduct day-to-day monitoring of the securities markets and to investigate irregular activities that hinder fair trading of securities, including inspection of securities companies as well as banks in connection with their securities business. Furthermore, the FSA Commissioner delegates certain authority to the Director General of the Local Finance Bureau to inspect local securities companies and their branches. A violation of applicable laws and regulations may result in various administrative sanctions, including revocation of registration or authorization, suspension of business or an order to discharge any Director or Executive Officer who has failed to comply with applicable laws and regulations. Securities companies are also subject to the rules and regulations of the Japanese stock exchanges and the Japan Securities Dealers Association, a self-regulatory organization of securities companies.
Regulation of the Consumer Finance Business
In order to resolve the problems of heavily indebted borrowers and to effect proper regulation of the consumer finance business, in June 2010, maximum legal interest rates were reduced to levels prescribed by the Interest Rate Restriction Act, ranging from 15% to 20%, and gray zone interest, which is interest on loans in excess of rates prescribed by the Interest Rate Restriction Act up to the 29.2% maximum rate permitted under the Contributions Act, was abolished. Judicial decisions have strictly interpreted the conditions under which consumer finance companies may retain gray zone interest. As a result, claims for refunds of gray zone interest increased substantially. Amendments to the Money Lending Business Act provide an additional upper limit on aggregate borrowings by an individual from all moneylenders over which moneylenders may not extend further loans, as well as stricter regulation and supervision of moneylender activities.
Installment Sales Act
In order to ensure the fairness of transactions with respect to installment and other sales, prevent damage to consumers and manage credit card numbers, the Installment Sales Act imposes requirements on those who conduct installment sales businesses. In June 2008, revisions to the Installment Sales Act were enacted, most of which became effective in December 2009. The revisions impose more stringent and expanded requirements for credit card companies, including, among other things: (1) wider coverage of installment sales under the regulations; (2) measures to prevent inappropriate extensions of credit for certain credit transactions;
(3) measures to prevent excessive lending for certain credit transactions that include requirements to investigate the payment ability of consumers by use of designated credit information organizations and prohibition of execution of credit agreements that exceed the payment ability of consumers; and (4) measures to protect certain information, such as credit numbers.
Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS)
In July 2013, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) published the Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) in order to prevent exploiting of gaps and mismatches in tax rules and artificial shifting of profits to low or no-tax locations. In October 2015, the OECD published the final package of measures for a comprehensive, coherent and coordinated reform of the international tax rules for 15 key areas. These measures will apply once they are implemented either in domestic laws or in the network of bilateral tax treaties. Some of the deliverables published by the OECD have been partially reflected to Japanese tax regulations by the tax reforms adopted from 2015 through 2020 and to certain several bilateral tax treaties to which Japan is a party through the implementation of the Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting in Japan.
Common Reporting Standard (CRS)
In order to prevent tax evasion and avoidance through offshore financial accounts, the OECD developed the Common Reporting Standards (CRS), which calls on jurisdictions to obtain information on financial accounts of non-residents from their financial institutions and automatically exchange that information with other jurisdictions. From the perspective of implementation of the exchange of information based on CRS, the Act on Special Provisions of the Income Tax Act, the Corporation Tax Act and the Local Tax Act Incidental to Enforcement of Tax Treaties as well as the cabinet and ministerial ordinances thereunder has been amended as part of the tax reform of 2015, which became effective on January 1, 2017, and those who open a financial account with a financial institution located in Japan must submit a self-certification indicating the name of the jurisdiction of residence, etc. From 2018, each financial institution must report information pertaining to financial accounts of specific non-residents and the information is automatically exchanged with tax administrations of each jurisdiction on an annual basis.
The developments toward deregulation of the financial system including those described below have made the Japanese banking industry highly competitive.
Deregulation of Bank Engagement in the Securities Business
The gradual relaxation of the restrictions under the Securities and Exchange Act allowed banks to engage in the following business lines, after taking appropriate registration measures with the FSA:
underwriting and dealing in Japanese government bonds, Japanese municipal bonds, Japanese government guaranteed bonds, commercial paper and certain bonds issued by special purpose companies;
selling beneficiary certificates of investment trusts and securities issued by an investment company; and
dealing in listed or OTC securities or derivatives transactions as well as in the securities intermediary business.
In addition, amendments to the FIEA and the Banking Act relating to firewalls and conflicts of interest between banks, securities companies and insurance companies became effective on June 1, 2009. The
amendment relating to firewalls abolished the ban on certain officers and employees from holding concurrent posts in banks, securities companies and insurance companies, and relaxed restrictions on the transfer of non-public customer information. On the other hand, the amendment relating to conflicts of interest requires those financial institutions, including banks, to implement proper information management procedures and to develop appropriate internal systems to prevent customer interests from being unfairly harmed through trading by the companies or by other companies within their group. For example, the companies may be required to create information barriers between departments and monitor how it executes transactions with customers.
Deregulation of Insurance Products
The gradual deregulation of the financial services industry permitted banks in Japan to offer an increased variety of insurance products, including pension-type insurance to the full range, as an agent.
Privatization of Japan Post Holdings Co., Ltd.s subsidiaries
In December 2014, under the Postal Privatization Act, Japan Post Holdings Co., Ltd. (Japan Post Holdings), a joint stock corporation that holds shares of operating companies, published a plan for the listing of Japan Post Holdings, Japan Post Bank, one of the worlds largest deposit-taking institutions, and Japan Post Insurance Co., Ltd. (Japan Post Insurance) and the gradual disposition of its shares of Japan Post Bank and Japan Post Insurance down to approximately 50% ownership. In November 2015, each of Japan Post Holdings, Japan Post Bank and Japan Post Insurance publicly offered approximately 11% of their outstanding shares, respectively, and they were listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Japan Post Bank is required to receive prior approval of the Government of Japan to expand its business until Japan Post Holdings disposes of at least half of the shares of Japan Post Bank.
Regulations in the United States
As a result of its operations in the United States, the Company and SMBC are subject to extensive federal and state banking and securities supervision and regulation. SMBC engages in U.S. banking activities directly through its branches in Los Angeles, San Francisco and New York and through its representative offices in Houston, Dallas, Silicon Valley and Chicago. SMBC also controls a U.S. banking subsidiary, Manufacturers Bank, and a U.S. broker-dealer subsidiary, SMBC Nikko Securities America, Inc. Through a reorganization of our existing U.S. operations, the Company and SMBC established a new U.S. bank holding company, SMBC Americas Holdings, Inc. (SMBCAH), a wholly-owned direct subsidiary of SMBC at January 1, 2019. SMBCAH is currently the holding company for Manufacturers Bank, SMBC Nikko Securities America, Inc. and certain other U.S. subsidiaries. The establishment of SMBCAH enhanced the Company and SMBCs U.S. corporate governance capabilities by centralizing the supervision and management of its U.S. operations and bring together its primary U.S.-based banking, securities, capital markets and other subsidiaries under the new holding company.
SMBCs New York branch is supervised by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the New York State Department of Financial Services, but its deposits are not insured (or eligible to be insured) by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC). SMBCs Los Angeles and San Francisco branches are supervised by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco and the California Department of Business Oversight, but their deposits are not insured (or eligible to be insured) by the FDIC. SMBCs representative offices in Houston and in Dallas are subject to regulation and examination by the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas and the Texas Department of Banking. SMBCs representative office in Silicon Valley is subject to regulation and examination by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco and the California Department of Business Oversight. SMBCs representative office in Chicago is subject to regulation and examination by the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and the Illinois Department of Financial and Professional Regulation.
Manufacturers Bank is a California state-chartered bank with FDIC-insured deposits that is not a member of the Federal Reserve System. As such, Manufacturers Bank is subject to regulation, supervision and examination by the FDIC and the California Department of Business Oversight.
The Company, SMBC and SMBCAH are bank holding companies by virtue of their ownership of Manufacturers Bank, and as such are subject to the U.S. Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (Bank Holding Company Act), and are subject to regulation, supervision and examination by the Federal Reserve Board as their U.S. umbrella supervisor. The Company, SMBC and SMBCAH are required to serve as sources of financial strength to Manufacturers Bank.
Restrictions on Business Activities
The Bank Holding Company Act imposes restrictions on the Company and SMBCs U.S. non-banking operations. Bank holding companies that elect to be treated as financial holding companies, such as the Company, SMBC and SMBCAH are, however, permitted to engage in a broader range of activities in the United States. Unless otherwise limited by the Federal Reserve Board, financial holding companies generally can engage, directly or indirectly in the U.S. and abroad, in financial activities, either de novo or by acquisition, by providing after-the-fact notice to the Federal Reserve Board. These financial activities include underwriting, dealing and making markets in securities, insurance underwriting and brokerage and making merchant banking investments in non-financial companies for a limited period of time, as long as the financial holding company does not directly or indirectly manage the non-financial companies day-to-day activities, and the financial holding companys banking subsidiaries engage only in permitted cross-marketing with the non-financial companies.
The Company and SMBC elected to be treated as financial holding companies in May 2013, and SMBCAH elected to be treated as a financial holding company upon becoming a U.S. bank holding company in January 2019. The Company, SMBC, SMBCAH and Manufacturers Bank, as our U.S. insured depository institution subsidiary, are required to be well capitalized and well managed, including maintenance of examination ratings that are at least satisfactory, in order for the Company, SMBC, and SMBCAH to continue to be treated as financial holding companies. In April 2019, SMBC and its New York branch entered into a written agreement with the Federal Reserve Bank of New York requiring SMBC and its New York branch to address certain deficiencies relating to the New York branchs anti-money laundering and economic sanctions compliance program. SMBC and its New York branch are required, among other things, to implement corrective measures and submit periodic progress reports to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. In addition, as a result of the deficiencies identified in the written agreement, we no longer meet the requirements to be treated as a financial holding company, and, pending completion of a remediation plan designed to meet these requirements, we are currently subject to restrictions in our ability to engage in certain new categories of financial activities in the United States and to make acquisitions of companies engaged in activities in the United States. Divestiture or termination of certain business activities in the U.S. may also be required as a consequence of failure to correct the conditions giving rise to such restrictions within the prescribed period of time.
Under the Bank Holding Company Act, the Company, SMBC and SMBCAH are also required to obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve Board before directly or indirectly acquiring the ownership or control of more than 5% of any class of voting shares of U.S. banks, certain other depository institutions and bank or depository institution holding companies. In addition, SMBCs U.S. banking operations (including Manufacturers Bank and SMBCs U.S. branches) are also restricted from engaging in certain tying arrangements involving products and services.
Other Prudential Restrictions
SMBCs U.S. branches and Manufacturers Bank are subject to requirements and restrictions under U.S. federal and state law, including requirements to maintain reserves against deposits, restrictions on the types and amounts of loans that may be made and limitations on the types of investments that may be made and the types of services that may be offered. Various consumer laws and regulations also affect the operations of Manufacturers Bank, and to a limited extent, SMBCs New York and California branches.
In addition, under U.S. federal banking laws, state-chartered banks (such as Manufacturers Bank) and state-licensed branches and agencies of foreign banks (such as SMBCs New York branch) may not, as a general matter, engage as a principal in any type of activity not permissible for their federally chartered or licensed counterparts, unless (i) in the case of state-chartered banks, the FDIC determines that the additional activity would pose no significant risk to the FDICs Deposit Insurance Fund and is consistent with sound banking practices and (ii) in the case of state-licensed branches and agencies of foreign banks, the Federal Reserve Board determines that the additional activity is consistent with sound banking practices. The U.S. federal banking laws also subject state branches and agencies of foreign banks to the same single-borrower lending limits that apply to federal branches or agencies, which are substantially similar to the lending limits applicable to national banks. For SMBCs U.S. branches, these single-borrower lending limits are based on the worldwide capital of SMBC.
Under the International Banking Act, the Federal Reserve Board may terminate the activities of any U.S. office of a foreign bank if it determines (i) that the foreign bank is not subject to comprehensive supervision on a consolidated basis in its home country (unless the home country is making demonstrable progress toward establishing such supervision), (ii) that there is reasonable cause to believe that such foreign bank or its affiliate has violated the law or engaged in an unsafe or unsound banking practice in the United States and, as a result of such violation or practice, the continued operation of the U.S. office would be inconsistent with the public interest or with the purposes of federal banking laws, or (iii) for a foreign bank that presents a risk to the stability of the United States financial system, the home country of the foreign bank has not adopted, or made demonstrable progress toward adopting, an appropriate system of financial regulation to mitigate such risk.
There are various qualitative and quantitative restrictions on the extent to which the Company and its subsidiaries can borrow or otherwise obtain credit from Manufacturers Bank or engage in certain other transactions involving that subsidiary. In general, these transactions must be on terms that would ordinarily be offered by Manufacturers Bank to unaffiliated entities, and credit transactions must be secured by designated amounts of specified collateral. In addition, certain transactions, such as certain purchases by Manufacturers Bank from SMBC or its non-bank subsidiaries, are subject to volume limitations. Credit exposure arising from derivative transactions, securities borrowing and lending transactions, and repurchase/reverse repurchase agreements is subject to these collateral and volume transactions limitations.
U.S. Financial Regulatory Reform
Both the scope of the U.S. laws and regulations and the intensity of supervision have increased in recent years, in response to the financial crisis as well as other factors such as technological and market changes. Regulatory enforcement and fines have also increased across the banking and financial services sector. Many of these changes have occurred as a result of the Dodd-Frank Act and its implementing regulations and have resulted in additional costs and impose certain limitations on our and SMBCs business activities. More recently, President Trump issued an executive order in 2017 that sets forth principles for financial regulatory and legislative reform of the federal financial regulatory framework, and there have been several statutory and regulatory initiatives aimed at providing relief for the financial services industry. In May 2018, President Trump signed into law the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (EGRRCPA), which is the first significant legislative reform of the Dodd Frank Act. Among other things and as discussed below, EGRRCPA revised the thresholds for total consolidated assets at which certain enhanced prudential standards apply to bank holding companies and foreign banking organizations.
We are subject to the Volcker Rule, which restricts the ability of banking entities, such as us and SMBC, to engage as principal in proprietary trading activities, or sponsor, invest in, or retain investments in certain private equity, hedge or similar funds, but a number of exclusions and exemptions limit the Volcker Rules extraterritorial reach. In the second half of 2019, rules were adopted amending certain aspects of the Volcker Rule, including the Volcker Rule definition of proprietary trading and certain compliance program requirements. In January 2020, additional amendments were proposed to the covered funds portion of the Volcker Rule and a final rule implementing the proposal was adopted in June 2020.
Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the Federal Reserve Board has imposed greater capital, leverage and liquidity requirements and other heightened prudential standards for bank holding companies and foreign banking organizations that exceed certain thresholds. In imposing heightened prudential standards on foreign banking organizations such as us and SMBC, the Federal Reserve Board is directed to take into account the principle of national treatment and equality of competitive opportunity, and the extent to which the non-U.S. bank holding company is subject to comparable home country standards.
In 2014, the Federal Reserve Board adopted rules that apply enhanced prudential standards to the large foreign banking organizations (EPS Rules), including us. The EPS Rules require certain foreign banking organizations, such as us, to certify that they are subject to home country capital standards that are broadly consistent with the Basel capital framework, including Basel III; conduct home country capital stress tests that are comparable to U.S. standards; comply with a certain liquidity requirements, including, among other things, a U.S. liquidity buffer requirement for its U.S. branches and agencies based on the results of internal liquidity stress testing; and establish a U.S. risk committee that periodically reviews the risk management policies and oversees the risk management framework of its U.S. operations. The EPS Rules also require foreign banking organizations with combined U.S. assets (excluding assets held by its U.S. branches and agencies) of $50 billion or more to establish a separately capitalized top-tier U.S. intermediate holding company. We are not subject to this requirement because we do not meet this threshold, but we have established SMBCAH in consideration of this requirement. The Federal Reserve Board finalized amendments to the EPS Rules in October 2019 implementing EGRRCPAs revisions to the thresholds for total consolidated assets at which the enhanced prudential standards apply (Tailoring Amendments), but the Tailoring Amendments did not significantly change the requirements under the EPS Rules that are applicable to us.
In June 2018, as part of the implementation of the EPS Rules, the Federal Reserve Board published a rule, which was subsequently amended by the Tailoring Amendments, implementing single counterparty credit limits (SCCL) applicable to the U.S. operations of certain foreign banking organizations, such as us. The SCCL rule in general imposes limitations on net credit exposures to individual counterparties (aggregated based on affiliation) as a percentage of Tier 1 capital. We may comply with the SCCL rule by certifying to the Federal Reserve Board that we comply with a home country regime (Home Country SCCL) on a consolidated basis that is consistent with the Large Exposures Framework published by the Basel Committee going forward. New Japanese Home Country SCCL, which was implemented from April 1, 2020, is intended to be consistent with the Large Exposures Framework, and we intend to comply with the Federal Reserve Boards SCCL rule through substituted compliance. Although a proposed rule has been released, a final rule for an early remediation framework applicable to foreign banking organizations has yet to be promulgated.
The Dodd-Frank Act removed a longstanding prohibition on the payment of interest on demand deposits that was applicable to banking entities such as Manufacturers Bank and SMBCs three branches in the United States. In addition, Manufacturers Bank and SMBCs three branches in the United States are subject to federal lending limits that take into account credit exposure arising from derivative transactions and securities lending, securities borrowing, and repurchase agreements and reverse repurchase agreements with counterparties as well as state lending limits.
The Dodd-Frank Act also provides for an extensive framework for the regulation of OTC derivatives, including mandatory clearing, exchange trading and transaction reporting of certain OTC derivatives. In addition, certain entities are required to register with the CFTC as swap dealers or major swap participants or with the SEC as security-based swap dealers or major security-based swap participants. Our subsidiary, SMBC Capital Markets, Inc., is provisionally registered as a swap dealer. There are various mandatory clearing, trade execution and reporting requirements for swaps. We do not currently expect to register any entity with the SEC as a security-based swap dealer or major security-based swap participant.
Furthermore, the Dodd-Frank Act requires the SEC to establish rules requiring issuers with listed securities, which may include non-U.S. private issuers such as us, to establish a clawback policy to recoup previously
awarded compensation in the event of an accounting restatement. The Dodd-Frank Act also expands the extraterritorial jurisdiction of U.S. courts over actions brought by the SEC or the United States with respect to violations of the antifraud provisions in the Securities Act of 1933, the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.
Laws Prohibiting Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing
The Bank Secrecy Act/USA PATRIOT Act of 2001
The Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (PATRIOT Act) contains measures to prevent and detect the financing of terrorism and international money laundering by imposing significant compliance and due diligence obligations, creating crimes, providing for penalties and expanding the extraterritorial jurisdiction of the United States. The Bank Secrecy Act, as amended, imposes anti-money laundering compliance obligations on U.S. financial institutions, including the U.S. offices of foreign banks. The passage of the PATRIOT Act and other events have resulted in heightened scrutiny of compliance with the Bank Secrecy Act and anti-money laundering rules by federal and state regulatory and law enforcement authorities. Certain provisions of the PATRIOT Act expired in June 2015 and were extended in part by the USA FREEDOM Act of 2015, enacted in June 2015.
U.S. Sanctions Targeting Iran Related Activities
Starting in 2010, the U.S. government implemented various sanctions targeting non-U.S. parties that engage in specified Iran-related activities. Various statutes, Executive Orders and regulations, including the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability and Divestment Act of 2010 (which, among other things, amended the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996, Section 1245 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012, the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012, and the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act of 2012, authorize the imposition of sanctions on parties that engage in, among other things, certain activities relating to Irans energy, petroleum, metals, shipping or shipbuilding sectors or that facilitate significant transactions or provide significant financial services for certain Iran-linked individuals or entities or the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
Prior to U.S. withdrawal from the JCPOA the United States along with the European Union provided Iran with certain sanctions relief. On Implementation Day, the U.S. government revoked certain Iran-related Executive Orders, temporarily waived certain statutory provisions and removed various individuals and entities from the Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List (the SDN List) maintained by OFAC. However, certain U.S. secondary sanctions targeting Iran remained in effect, including those targeting significant transactions involving Iranian or Iran-related SDNs or the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.
In August 2018, President Trump issued Executive Order 13846, which reinstated provisions of certain Executive Orders that had been revoked in January 2016 to implement the JCPOA. Executive Order 13846 also added authorities to impose blocking or correspondent account sanctions on foreign financial institutions providing support or services to, or facilitating significant financial transactions on behalf of, certain sanctioned persons and expands the menu of available sanctions for certain significant transactions related to Iran involving petroleum, petroleum products and petrochemical products.
In November 2018, following certain wind-down periods, the United States fully re-imposed sanctions (both primary and secondary) that had been waived or lifted under the JCPOA. On the same day, OFAC added back to the SDN List a number of parties that had been removed on Implementation Day from the list. Persons engaged in targeted activities involving Iran face exposure to secondary sanctions or enforcement actions under U.S. law. It is SMBCs policy not to conduct activities targeted by secondary sanctions.
As part of the reinstatement of full sanctions on Iran, the United States has resumed efforts to reduce Irans crude oil sales, backed by the potential threat of correspondent account sanctions targeting foreign financial
institutions. In November 2018, the U.S. government announced that Japan was one of eight countries determined by the U.S. State Department to have significantly reduced purchases of crude oil from Iran and therefore granted a significant reduction exception authorizing, among other things, financial institutions based in those countries to engage in certain transactions related to the purchase of petroleum or petroleum products from Iran for a period of 180 days, without the risk of sanctions. In May 2019, the significant reduction exceptions granted to these eight countries, including Japan, expired without further extension.
In May 2019, President Trump issued Executive Order 13871, which authorizes the imposition of sanctions with respect to Irans iron, steel, aluminum and copper sectors (collectively, the metals sector). Executive Order 13871 substantially broadens the scope of sanctionable activity relating to Irans metals sector, including adding authority to impose blocking sanctions on persons determined to have knowingly engaged in certain significant transactions, and correspondent or payable-through account sanctions on foreign financial institutions determined to have conducted or facilitated certain significant financial transactions, involving Irans metals sector or metals and metal products from Iran.
On January 10, 2020, President Trump issued Executive Order 13902, which authorizes the imposition of blocking sanctions on persons operating in the construction, mining, manufacturing, or textiles sectors of the Iranian economy, as well as other sectors identified by the Secretary of the Treasury in the future, as well as on persons determined to have knowingly engaged in certain significant transactions involving the specified sectors. The order also authorizes the imposition of correspondent or payable-through account sanctions on foreign financial institutions determined to have conducted or facilitated certain significant financial transactions.
Ukraine Freedom Support Act of 2014, as Amended
In order to deter the Russian government from further destabilizing and invading Ukraine, the U.S. government enacted the Ukraine Freedom Support Act of 2014 (signed into law on December 18, 2014). Among other things, the act, as amended by the Countering Americas Adversaries Through Sanctions Act of 2017 (signed into law in August, 2017), mandates prohibitions or strict limitations on the opening or maintaining of correspondent or payable-through accounts in the United States by non-U.S. financial institutions determined by the U.S. government (i) to have knowingly engaged in on or after December 18, 2014 in significant transactions involving certain activities described in the act, including those involving individuals or entities on whom sanctions are imposed pursuant to the act for making a significant investment in a project for the extraction of deepwater, Arctic offshore or shale formation crude oil in Russia, or (ii) to have knowingly facilitated, on or after June 16, 2015, a significant financial transaction on behalf of any Russian individual or entity included on the SDN List pursuant to Ukraine-related sanction programs.
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act
Provisions of the U.S. tax law commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), which became effective on July 1, 2014, aims to prevent U.S. persons from hiding their financial assets or evading their U.S. federal income tax obligations by the use of offshore accounts. A foreign financial institution that has entered into an agreement with the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) pursuant to which it agrees to comply with FATCA, referred to as a participating foreign financial institution (PFFI), is required to perform specified due diligence, reporting and withholding functions (a PFFI agreement). Specifically, under FATCA, a PFFI is required to ascertain the U.S. status of customers through specified due diligence and report certain information annually to the IRS. In cases where customers are not compliant with FATCA, PFFIs are obligated to carry out specified reporting and withholding procedures as prescribed. The consequences for foreign financial institutions that are not compliant with FATCA include being subjected to a 30% withholding tax on certain withholdable payments from U.S. sources and reporting to the IRS.
The United States entered into intergovernmental agreements or reached agreements in substance with more than 100 countries in furtherance of the objectives of FATCA, which modify the operation of FATCA with
respect to financial institutions located in those countries. The United States and Japan have entered into an intergovernmental agreement to facilitate the implementation of FATCA pursuant to which Japanese financial institutions (such as us and certain of SMBC Group companies) are directed by the Japanese authorities to register with the IRS and fulfill obligations consistent with those required under a PFFI agreement. We are registered with the IRS as a PFFI. We are committed to complying with FATCA as a PFFI and abiding by the terms of our PFFI agreement with the IRS within the jurisdictions in which we operate and in accordance with the time frame set out by the IRS. We closely monitor FATCA developments and evolving industry practices to ensure continued compliance with FATCA.
Other Regulations in the United States
In the United States, SMBCs U.S.-registered broker-dealer subsidiary, SMBC Nikko Securities America, Inc. is regulated by the SEC. Broker-dealers are subject to regulations that cover all aspects of the securities business, including:
trade practices among broker-dealers;
use and safekeeping of customers funds and securities;
the financing of customers purchases; and
the conduct of directors, officers and employees.
In addition, SMBC Nikko Securities America, Inc. is a member of and regulated by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority and is regulated by the individual state securities authorities in the states in which it operates. The U.S. government agencies and self-regulatory organizations, as well as state securities authorities in the United States having jurisdiction over SMBCs U.S. broker-dealer affiliates, are empowered to conduct administrative proceedings that can result in censure, fine, the issuance of cease-and-desist orders or the suspension or expulsion of a broker-dealer or its directors, officers or employees.
Regulations in Other Jurisdictions
Elsewhere in the world, our operations are subject to regulation and control by local central banks and monetary authorities.
Disclosure Pursuant to Section 13(r) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Section 13(r) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, requires an issuer to disclose whether it or any of its affiliates knowingly engaged in certain activities or transactions relating to Iran or with individuals or entities designated by the U.S. government under specified Executive Orders, even if those activities are not prohibited by U.S. law and are conducted outside the United States by non-U.S. affiliates. During the twelve months ended March 31, 2020, one affiliate of SMFG, SMBC, engaged in activities subject to disclosure under Section 13(r). SMBC conducted these activities consistent with its internal policies and procedures, the policies and procedures of SMFG, and applicable laws and regulations, and to the extent they are not sanctionable under U.S. secondary sanctions. SMBC has discontinued activities that have become impermissible or subject to secondary sanctions as a result of changes in applicable laws and regulations.
SMBC provided remittance and other settlement services in connection with customers trade transactions between Japan and Iran. These transactions principally involved the exportation of civilian commercial products
including medical devices from Japan and were conducted with an Iranian bank owned by the Government of Iran. These transactions did not involve entities or other persons on the SDN List and did not involve the settlement of U.S. dollar-denominated payments cleared through U.S. banks. SMBC has informed SMFG that it intends to continue to engage in these types of transactions only to the extent permitted under applicable regulations and to the extent they are not sanctionable under U.S. secondary sanctions. For the twelve months ended March 31, 2020, the gross revenue related to these transactions was ¥1.1 million, representing less than 0.0001% of SMFGs total interest and fee income. SMFG does not allocate direct costs to interest and fee income and therefore does not calculate net profits with respect to these transactions.
SMBC has issued performance bonds and advance payment bonds that supported various projects, including the construction of petroleum plants in Iran. Some of these bonds had counterparties that were entities controlled by the Government of Iran. Some of these bonds have matured, and SMBC has not renewed and will not renew them unless permitted under applicable regulations and to the extent they are not sanctionable under U.S. secondary sanctions, but SMBC continues to have obligations under the matured performance bonds until they are returned or cancelled by the beneficiaries. SMBC has also received fees from its customers on whose behalf it issued the performance bonds. For the twelve months ended March 31, 2020, the gross revenue relating to these transactions was ¥1.6 million, representing less than 0.0001% of SMFGs total interest and fee income. As noted above, SMFG does not allocate direct costs to interest and fee income and therefore does not calculate net profits with respect to these transactions. SMBC has informed SMFG that it intends to continue to accept fee income from its customers for whose account the performance bonds were issued and to pay the relevant fees to the Iranian banks, to the extent authorized by the Ministry of Finance of Japan or otherwise permitted under applicable regulations, until the bonds are returned or cancelled. However, SMBC strongly urges the relevant customers to ask the beneficiaries to agree to return or cancel the matured performance bonds.
SMBC has frozen an account of an Iranian bank designated under Executive Order 13224 pursuant to Japanese foreign exchange laws, and has frozen the U.S. dollar accounts of all Iranian banks. SMBC still maintains Japanese yen accounts of government-owned Iranian banks, including an account for the Central Bank of Iran and certain transactions described in this disclosure were conducted through the use of one of such accounts. These transactions were conducted in accordance with Japanese law, and we do not believe that the transactions were sanctionable under U.S. sanctions that were in effect at the time the transactions occurred. SMBC has discontinued activities that have become impermissible or subject to secondary sanctions as a result of changes in applicable laws and regulations, including transactions involving the Central Bank of Iran whose account has been frozen. In April 2019, prior to the designation of the Central Bank of Iran under Executive Order 13224 and the freezing of its account, SMBC processed two fund transfers involving the account of the Central Bank of Iran, one of which also involved another Iranian government-owned bank. The transfers were conducted in accordance with Japanese law, and we do not believe that they were sanctionable under U.S. sanctions that were in effect at the time the transactions occurred. These transfers did not generate any revenue or profit for SMBC.
The gross revenue attributable to the accounts of government-owned Iranian banks for the twelve months ended March 31, 2020, was ¥3.4 million, representing less than 0.0001% of SMFGs total interest and fee income. SMFG does not allocate direct costs to interest and fee income and therefore does not calculate net profits with respect to these transactions. SMBC has informed SMFG that it intends to continue to maintain the Iranian accounts described above only to the extent permitted under applicable laws and regulations and to the extent the activities are not targeted by secondary sanctions.
As of the date of this annual report, to our knowledge, there is no other activity for the twelve months ended March 31, 2020 that requires disclosure under Section 13(r) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
As the ultimate holding company of the SMBC Group, we are responsible for:
group strategy and management;
group resource allocation;
group financial accounting;
group IT strategy;
HR management for group executives;
group risk management, internal control and compliance;
compensation schemes; and
efficiently harmonizing our operations on a SMBC Group-wide basis.
Our principal subsidiaries at March 31, 2020 are shown in the list below. We consolidate all entities that we control. We control an entity when we are exposed, or have rights, to variable returns from our involvement with the entity and have the ability to affect those returns through our power over the entity.
Principal domestic subsidiaries
Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation
SMBC Trust Bank Ltd.
SMBC Guarantee Co., Ltd.
SMBC Nikko Securities Inc.
Sumitomo Mitsui Card Company, Limited
Cedyna Financial Corporation
|100.0||100.0||Credit card and consumer credit|
SMBC Consumer Finance Co., Ltd.
SMBC Mobit Co., Ltd.
SMBC Finance Service Co., Ltd.
|100.0||100.0||Collecting agent and factoring|
The Japan Research Institute, Limited
|100.0||100.0||System development, data processing, management consulting and economic research|
Sumitomo Mitsui DS Asset Management Company, Limited
Investment advisory and investment trust management
NCore Co., Ltd.
|51.0||51.0||Data processing service and consulting|
SMBC Venture Capital Co., Ltd.
SMBC Consulting Co., Ltd.
|98.3||98.3||Management consulting and information services|
Japan Pension Navigator Co., Ltd.
|69.7||69.7||Operational management of defined contribution pension plans|
Percentages of proportion of ownership interest and proportion of voting rights have been truncated.
This company is accounted for as a subsidiary, despite our holdings of less than 50% of the voting rights, because we are able to govern the financial and operating policies of this company under a statute or an agreement.
Principal foreign subsidiaries
|Country of |
Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation Europe Limited
Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation (China) Limited
PT Bank BTPN Tbk(2)
SMBC Americas Holdings, Inc.
|U.S.A.||100.0||100.0||Bank holding company|
Banco Sumitomo Mitsui Brasileiro S.A.
JSC Sumitomo Mitsui Rus Bank
SMBC Bank EU AG
Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation Malaysia Berhad
SMBC Leasing and Finance, Inc.
SMBC Nikko Securities America, Inc.
SMBC Nikko Capital Markets Limited
SMBC Capital Markets, Inc.
TT International Asset Management Ltd
|U.K.||100.0||100.0||Investment advisory and investment trust management|
Percentages of proportion of ownership interest and proportion of voting rights have been truncated.
During the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, we disposed of 4.9% equity interest in PT Bank BTPN Tbk to a third party investor. The disposal was undertaken to ensure that PT Bank BTPN Tbk is compliant with the free float requirement under the Indonesia Stock Exchanges Rule. We had also entered into a commercial arrangement where the economic exposure resulting from the disposal is being retained. Therefore the disposal has not resulted in a decrease in our ownership interests.
We own or lease the land and buildings in which we conduct our business. Most of the property that we operate in Japan is owned by us to be used by our branches. In contrast, our international operations are conducted out of leased premises. Our head office building in Marunouchi is leased from a third party. Our largest property is SMBCs East Tower in Marunouchi, with a net carrying value of ¥168 billion, including the land and building, at March 31, 2020.
The following table shows the net carrying amount of our tangible fixed assets at March 31, 2020.
|At March 31, 2020|
Assets for rent
Right of use assets
For more information, see Note 12 Property, Plant and Equipment to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.
The total area of land related to our material office and other properties at March 31, 2020 was approximately 652,000 square meters for owned land and approximately 14,000 square meters for leased land.
We are not aware of any material environmental issues that may affect the utilization of our assets.
|Item 4A.|| |
Unresolved Staff Comments
|Item 5.|| |
Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
The discussion below should be read together with Item 3.A. Selected Financial Data and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this annual report. Unless otherwise indicated, we present our information on a consolidated basis.
Our results of operations and financial condition are significantly affected by developments in Japan as well as the global economy.
For the first half of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, the Japanese economy continued to recover gradually, primarily due to the recovery of private consumption reflecting the good employment and improvement trend in the income situations, although exports of goods and services, and industrial production were weak reflecting the slowdown of certain foreign economies, notably China. However, for the second half of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, the Japanese economy turned worse, reflecting the impact of natural disasters such as typhoons, the consumption tax increase in October 2019, and the spread of COVID-19 near the end of the fiscal year.
Japanese gross domestic product (GDP) was flat for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, compared with an increase of 0.3% in the previous fiscal year, based on data published in June 2020 by the Cabinet Office of the Government of Japan. Japans core consumer price index (CPI), which includes oil products but excludes fresh food prices, increased by 0.6% for the same period, compared with an increase of 0.8% in the previous fiscal year, based on data published in April 2020 by the Statistics Bureau in the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications of Japan.
The following table presents quarter-on-quarter growth rates of Japanese GDP during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019 and 2020.
|For the fiscal year ended March 31,|
Japanese GDP increased for the period from April to June 2019, primarily because private consumption increased, supported by the good employment situation, and the steady improvement trend in the income situation. However, the quarter-on-quarter growth rate of Japanese GDP was negative for the period from October to December 2019, primarily due to a decrease in private consumption caused by the consumption tax increase and natural disasters such as typhoons. Furthermore, for the period from January to March 2020, the quarter-on-quarter growth rate of Japanese GDP was also negative, primarily due to decreases in private consumption resulting from the voluntary restraint on social and business activities and exports of goods and services caused by a decline in demand from inbound tourists, affected by the spread of COVID-19.
The employment situation continued to improve until the spread of COVID-19, and it weakened toward the end of the fiscal year. The active job openings-to-applicants ratio remained at a high level until being affected by COVID-19, and it declined toward the end of the fiscal year. The unemployment rate remained low, and it was 2.5% in March 2020, the same as in March 2019, based on data published in April 2020 by the Statistics Bureau in the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications of Japan. Compensation of employees increased by 1.0% for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020. This was the fifth consecutive year that the compensation of employees increased.
Further, according to Teikoku Databank, a research institution in Japan, there were approximately 8,500 corporate bankruptcies in Japan during the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, an increase of 5.3% from the previous fiscal year, involving approximately ¥1.2 trillion in total liabilities, a decrease of 21.6% from the previous fiscal year.
Interest rates in Japanese financial and capital markets are affected by the monetary policy measures of the Bank of Japan (BOJ). In February 2016, in addition to the existing provision of ample funds, the BOJ introduced quantitative and qualitative monetary easing with a negative interest rate. Thereafter, the BOJ announced the introduction of a new policy framework, quantitative and qualitative monetary easing with yield curve control in September 2016. Under this policy framework, the BOJ would keep short-term interest rates down by maintaining its policy of applying a negative interest rate of minus 0.1% to certain excess reserves of financial institutions held at the BOJ. Moreover, the BOJ indicated it would purchase Japanese government bonds so that the yield of the 10-year Japanese government bonds would be close to around 0% to control long-term interest rates. In July 2018, the BOJ decided to introduce forward guidance for policy rates with a view to persistently continuing with powerful monetary easing. Further, on October 31, 2019, the BOJ amended its forward guidance to indicate that it expects short- and long-term interest rates to remain at or below their present levels so long as the BOJ believes it is necessary to pay close attention to the possibility of a loss in momentum toward achieving its 2% price stability target. Thereafter, on March 16, 2020, the BOJ announced enhancement of monetary easing in light of the impact of the outbreak of COVID-19. The BOJ stated in this announcement that it decided to enhance monetary easing with a view to doing its utmost to ensure smooth corporate financing and maintaining stability in financial markets, thereby preventing firms and households sentiment from deteriorating. Under such circumstances, the uncollateralized overnight call rate, which is the benchmark short-term interest rate, remained negative for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020. The yield on newly issued Japanese government bonds with a maturity of 10 years, which is the benchmark long-term interest rate, declined to around minus 0.3% in August 2019, but temporarily increased to the 0.1% level in March 2020 primarily due to an increasing demand for funds caused by the spread of COVID-19. Thereafter, on April 27, 2020 and May 22, 2020, the BOJ decided to further enhance monetary easing taking into account the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Japanese economic conditions.
The yen appreciated against the U.S. dollar from ¥110.75 at March 29, 2019 to ¥108.42 at March 31, 2020, according to the statistical data published by the BOJ.
The Nikkei Stock Average, which is a price-weighted average of 225 stocks listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange First Section, rose from ¥21,205.81 at March 29, 2019 to the ¥24,000 level in January 2020. However, it dropped to ¥16,552.83 at March 19, 2020, reflecting the concerns about the potential deterioration of economies and corporate performance caused by the spread of COVID-19. Thereafter, it recovered to ¥18,917.01 at March 31, 2020.
According to a report published by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan, the average residential land price and the average commercial land price in Japan increased by 0.6% and 2.8%, respectively, in calendar year 2019.
The global economy, as a whole, continued to recover gradually, although European and certain Asian economies were weak for the first half of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020. However, toward the end of the fiscal year, the global economy slowed sharply primarily due to the restraint on economic activity caused by COVID-19.
The U.S. economy gradually expanded for the first half of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, supported by robust private consumption reflecting the strong employment and income situation, although manufacturing was weak. For the second half of the fiscal year, it continued to expand gradually, but it fell sharply toward the end of the fiscal year primarily due to a decrease in private consumption affected by stay-at-home orders in March 2020 in response to the spread of COVID-19. Economic growth in Europe, notably Germany, slowed down for the first half of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020. It continued to slow down for the second half of the fiscal year, and the impact of COVID-19 further worsened the European economy toward the end of the fiscal year. The Chinese economy continued to slow down gradually for the first half of the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020. Supported by policies such as subsidies and tax cuts, for the second half of the fiscal year it showed some signs of bottoming out, but it continued to deteriorate due to the impact of COVID-19, followed by a pick-up toward the end of the fiscal year. The growth momentum in other Asian economies gradually headed toward recovery for the first half of the fiscal year. Then, Asian economies other than China slowed down as a whole, and toward the end of the fiscal year the economic slowdown accelerated, affected by COVID-19.
In addition to economic factors and conditions, we expect that our results of operations and financial condition will be significantly affected by regulatory trends such as Japanese TLAC Standards, the Basel III reforms and the Dodd-Frank Act. For a more detailed description of regulations to which we are subject, risks associated with regulatory development and our management policy under this environment, see Item 3.D. Risk FactorsRisks Related to Our Business, Item 4.B. Business OverviewRegulations in Japan, Regulations in the United States, Regulations in Other Jurisdictions and Description of Operations and Principal ActivitiesManagement Policies.
SMBC Groups response to COVID-19
Since December 2019, COVID-19 has spread rapidly throughout the world. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted many countries resulting in the implementation of numerous measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19, such as restrictions on movement, including travel bans, quarantines, and shelter-in-place orders as well as non-binding voluntary restraint measures urging residents to stay at home, and closures of schools, businesses, factories and other public and private facilities. These measures have significantly affected peoples lives and business activities, and have contributed to declines in consumer spending and stagnant business operations. Coupled with these measures, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a severe impact on both Japanese and global economic conditions including the rapid deterioration of corporate performance and significant disruption and volatility in financial and commodity markets. In Japan, a state of emergency was declared in April 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and economic activity shrank as a result of requests for voluntary restraint on movement and business closure requests to commercial facilities in all prefectures. Under these circumstances, the Japanese government approved Emergency Economic Measures in Response to COVID-19 to protect the lives and lifestyles of the public and move toward economic recovery, with a view to maintaining employment, continuing business and supporting peoples lives. The state of emergency in Japan was lifted in all prefectures in May 2020, and many other countries also have started to resume economic activities. However, it is difficult to predict the evolution of COVID-19 and its impact on the global economy including the effect of various measures made by each government. Therefore, the extent of the continuing impact on our operational and financial performance remains uncertain.
Considering the significant impact on peoples lives and the economy caused by COVID-19, we strive to ensure the health and safety of our customers and employees. Furthermore, the SMBC Group supports our customers through financial services and is committed to contributing to local communities and society including support of the medical industry.
Support for Customers through Financial Services
For our clients, the SMBC Group, as a financial institution which is a part of the social infrastructure, fulfills our responsibility by continuing to provide services such as financing and settlement. We have kept all SMBC branches open and ATMs remain accessible in Japan, and are also working to upgrade our online services so that our customers can complete various transactions without coming to our branches. For individual customers in Japan, in order to respond to urgent financial needs, we have established special loans and introduced flexible credit examination procedures. On the other hand, for corporate customers, we have established special funds to extend credit, and offer flexible responses to requests for new loans and changes in loan terms and conditions, by waiving fees on certain loan services for small-sized companies that offer unsecured and unguaranteed financing, and providing flexibility by reviewing credit processes. In addition to the above, we are planning to launch a new investment fund to support medical-related venture companies in Japan in order to contribute to solving social issues that have become apparent due to the spread of COVID-19.
Prevention of the Spread of Infection and Initiatives for Continuous Business Operation
For employees, in addition to maintaining employment and salary, we promote teleworking capabilities and conduct operations by separating staff into two or more teams on alternating shifts. By thoroughly implementing infection prevention and control measures in branches and offices, we are continuing our operations while preventing infection among employees. We are also giving consideration to the health and mental of our employees by establishing a consultation counter to support employees who have health and mental concerns.
Contributing to Local Communities and Society
In order to contribute to the soundness of the local community and society, we are providing donations to support medical institutions, education and welfare, and cultural & artistic activities. One example that has already been implemented is a donation to the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University (CiRA) to support research activities including the development of drugs to treat new viruses. In addition, SMBC is carrying out a campaign called SMBC at HOME through which SMBC aims to make donations to battle COVID-19 in response to the number of individual and corporate customers using certain of SMBCs internet banking services.
Factors Affecting Results of Operation
We have three principal sources of operating income: net interest income, net fee and commission income, and net income from trading/financial assets at fair value through profit or loss/investment securities.
Net Interest Income. Net interest income, or the difference between interest income and interest expense, is determined by:
the amount of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities;
the interest spread;
the general level of interest rates; and
the proportion of interest-earning assets to interest-bearing liabilities.
Our principal interest-earning assets are loans and advances, investment securities, and deposits with banks. Our principal interest-bearing liabilities are deposits, borrowings and debt securities in issue. The interest income and expense on trading assets and liabilities and financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are not included in net interest income. Our net interest income is earned mainly by SMBC. SMBC controls its exposure to interest rate fluctuations through asset and liability management operations.
SMBC, like other banks in Japan, makes most domestic loans based on a short-term interest rate, the TIBOR, or a short-term prime rate, which are generally intended to reflect its cost of short-term yen funding and significantly affected by the monetary policy of the BOJ.
The BOJ announced in October 2014 the expansion of its quantitative and qualitative monetary easing introduced in April 2013, and in December 2015 the introduction of supplementary measures for quantitative and qualitative monetary easing, in order to achieve the price stability target of 2% in terms of the year-on-year rate of increase in the CPI. In January 2016, the BOJ announced the introduction of quantitative and qualitative monetary easing with a negative interest rate (negative interest rate policy), and began to implement a negative interest rate policy in February 2016. Under the negative interest rate policy, the BOJ has adopted a multi-tier system where the outstanding balance of each financial institutions current account at the BOJ is divided into three tiers, to each of which a positive interest rate, a zero interest rate and a negative interest rate of minus 0.1 percent are applied, respectively. After these policy interest rate changes, SMBC lowered its ordinary deposit rate by 0.019 percentage points from 0.02% to 0.001% in February 2016. Thereafter, in September 2016, the BOJ announced the introduction of quantitative and qualitative monetary easing with yield curve control. Under this policy framework, the BOJ would keep short-term interest rates down by maintaining its policy of applying a negative interest rate of minus 0.1% to certain excess reserves of financial institutions held at the BOJ. Moreover, the BOJ indicated it would purchase Japanese government bonds so that the yield of the 10-year Japanese government bonds would be close to around 0% to control long-term interest rates. In July 2018, the BOJ decided to introduce forward guidance for policy rates with a view to persistently continuing with powerful monetary easing. Further, on October 31, 2019, the BOJ amended its forward guidance to indicate that it expects short- and long-term interest rates to remain at or below their present levels so long as the BOJ believes it is necessary to pay close attention to the possibility of a loss in momentum toward achieving its 2% price stability target. Thereafter, on March 16, 2020, April 27, 2020 and May 22, 2020, taking into account the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Japanese economic conditions, the BOJ decided to further enhance monetary easing, with a view to doing its utmost to ensure smooth corporate financing and maintaining stability in financial markets.
The following table sets forth SMBCs short-term prime rate, three-month TIBOR, ordinary deposit rate, long-term prime rate and ten-year swap rate, at the dates indicated:
|At March 31,|
Short-term prime rate
Ordinary deposit rate
Long-term prime rate
Ten-year swap rate
It is difficult to earn a wide interest spread when interest rates are at a low level, as they currently are in Japan. When interest rates rise from extremely low levels, interest spreads at commercial banks generally increase. However, interest spreads may temporarily decrease immediately after an increase in interest rates because it may take time for banks to increase lending rates correspondingly, in contrast to their funding rates. After an adjustment period, lending rates generally also increase and banks are able to secure a wider interest spread than in a low interest rate environment. Conversely, interest spreads may temporarily increase immediately after a decrease in interest rates because it may take time for banks to decrease lending rates correspondingly, in contrast to their funding rates. After an adjustment period, lending rates generally also decrease and banks generally are not able to maintain a wide interest spread.
Net Fee and Commission Income. We earn fees and commissions from a variety of services. The primary components of SMBCs net fee and commission income are fees and commissions related to money remittances and transfers, investment trusts sales, loans (such as loan commitment fees and loan syndication fees for
arranging loans), securities transactions (such as bond trustee fees and bond recording agency fees), and guarantees and acceptances. Other fees and commissions include fees from investment banking and electronic banking.
In addition, we earn a significant amount of fees on transactions in our credit card businesses, conducted through Sumitomo Mitsui Card and Cedyna, and fees and commissions on transactions in our securities businesses, conducted through SMBC Nikko Securities. The principal components of Sumitomo Mitsui Cards and Cedynas fees are membership fees from retailers and annual cardholders, while those of SMBC Nikko Securities fees and commissions are subscription and agent commissions from investment trusts sales and underwriting fees.
The principal factors affecting fees and commissions are the demand for the services provided, the fees charged for those services and fees charged by competitors for similar services. The volume of services provided also affects profitability, as our fee businesses have significant economies of scale. In order to diversify sources of revenue and enhance return on assets, we are expanding our fees and commissions businesses, including sales of investment trusts and life insurance products, and investment banking businesses.
Net Income from Trading/Financial Assets at Fair Value Through Profit or Loss /Investment Securities. We undertake significant trading activities involving a variety of financial instruments, including derivatives. Our income from these activities is subject to volatility caused by, among other things, changes in interest rates, foreign exchange rates, equity prices or other market variables. Any unexpected change in interest rates could affect the fair value of our interest rate derivative positions and our net income from trading activities. Net trading income consists of margins made on market-making and our customer business as well as changes in fair value of trading assets and liabilities and derivative financial instruments. It also includes net interest and dividend income on these instruments.
We have a variety of financial assets at fair value through profit or loss including investment trusts and hybrid instruments. Net income from financial assets at fair value through profit or loss includes gains and losses arising from sales and changes in the fair value of these financial instruments, and interest and dividend income on these instruments. The fair values of those instruments such as investment trusts and hybrid instruments are subject to volatility caused by changes in equity prices and interest rates.
We have substantial investments in debt instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income. In particular, Japanese government bonds represent a significant part of our bond portfolio. We also own debt securities denominated in foreign currencies, principally the U.S. dollars. We also have investments in equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income, which consist primarily of our strategic shareholding investments in stocks issued by our customers. Net investment income includes the gains and losses arising from the sales or redemptions of debt instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income and the dividend income earned from equity instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income. Increases in interest rates or declines in equity prices could substantially decrease the fair value of those instruments.
Impairment Charges on Financial Assets. We adopted the expected credit losses (ECL) model introduced by IFRS 9 Financial Instruments. The ECL model requires that impairment losses be measured by using reasonable and supportable information including forecasts of future economic conditions and in an unbiased and probability-weighted manner. Our impairment charges are recorded primarily due to impairment on loans and advances.
Impairment charges on loans and advances are affected by the economic environment and financial conditions of borrowers. During periods of economic slowdown, corporate and individual borrowers are generally more likely to suffer credit rating downgrades, or become delinquent or default on their borrowings. The slowdown in the domestic or global economy may increase credit costs relating to a wide range of industries.
General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel expenses (salaries and related expenses), depreciation and amortization expenses, and other expenses (outsourcing expenses, publicity and advertising expenses, and communication expenses).
Unrealized Gains or Losses on Investment Securities Portfolio
Changes in the fair value of domestic and foreign investment securities result in an increase or a decrease in unrealized gains or losses on investment securities measured at fair value through other comprehensive income. Unrealized gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of the debt instruments in these securities are recognized directly in equity, until they are derecognized or impaired. Unrealized gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of the equity instruments in these securities are recognized directly in equity, and amounts presented in equity are not subsequently transferred to profit or loss.
Most of our domestic equity instruments consist of publicly traded Japanese stocks. The Nikkei Stock Average decreased by 1.2% from ¥21,454.30 at March 30, 2018, to ¥21,205.81 at March 29, 2019, and decreased by 10.8% to ¥18,917.01 at March 31, 2020. At March 31, 2020, we had net unrealized gains on domestic equity securities of ¥1,564,351 million, a decrease of ¥564,697 million from ¥2,129,048 million at March 31, 2019. For more information, see Item 5.A. Operating ResultsFinancial ConditionInvestment Securities.
Strengthening of Equity Capital
In response to the imposition of more stringent regulatory capital requirements, we have been taking a proactive approach to managing our risk-weighted capital ratio by focusing on increasing qualifying capital, including by building up our retained earnings, identifying risks, and controlling risk-weighted assets.
Foreign Currency Fluctuations
The average exchange rate used to convert dollars to yen in the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020 was ¥ 108.71 per $1.00, compared to the previous fiscal years average exchange rate of ¥110.92 per $1.00. The percentage of revenue we earned from our foreign operations for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 was 34%. For more information, see Item 4.B. Business OverviewRevenues by Region.
Critical Accounting Estimates and Judgments
Our financial position and results of operations are influenced by estimates and judgments that management employs in the course of preparation of our consolidated financial statements. We identified the following areas of significant accounting policies to be particularly sensitive in terms of estimates and judgments made by management. Estimates and judgments are continually evaluated based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that are believed to be reasonable.
Allowance for Loan Losses
The allowance for loan losses is measured under the ECL model, where the allowance will be recognized as an amount equal to the expected credit losses over the lifetime of a loan, in case it has experienced a significant increase in credit risk since initial recognition. The measurement of the allowance requires a number of significant judgments to be applied, such as:
qualitative assessment in determining obligor grades;
determining criteria for significant increase in credit risk;
measuring ECL by choosing appropriate models and assumptions;
incorporating forward-looking information into the ECL measurement by obligor grading, macroeconomic factors, and additional ECL adjustments if the current circumstances, events or conditions at relevant portfolio level are not fully reflected in the ECL model; and
estimating the expected future cash flows by taking into account factors such as historical loss information, the appropriateness of the borrowers business plan or operational improvement plan, the status of progress of its plan, the overall support from financial institutions, and the realizable value of any collateral held.
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, the obligor grading, macroeconomic factors and additional ECL adjustment used to determine the final ECL reflected the current and forward-looking impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The obligor grades were reviewed based on the most recent information available as appropriate. The estimates of the key macroeconomic drivers for measuring the ECL were updated reflecting the recent economic forecasts. Growth rates of Japanese and global GDP during the calendar year 2019 were 1.3% and 2.9%, respectively, and the Japanese and global economy may have been expected to grow at about the same level if it had not been for the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the outbreak of COVID-19 significantly exacerbated Japanese and global economic conditions towards the end of the fiscal year and, as a result, research institutes and international institutions lowered their forecasts of growth rates of Japanese and global GDP. We also assumed that the Japanese and global economy will decline significantly in the first half of 2020, and the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to remain throughout the fiscal year ending March 31, 2021, although the Japanese and global economy will gradually pick up thereafter and recover from the fiscal year ending March 31, 2022. We understand there is significant uncertainty in predicting the severity and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on world economies. However, based on the above forecasts of economic conditions, the growth rates of Japanese and global GDP for the fiscal year ending March 31, 2021, which are the key macroeconomic drivers impacting on credit risks and losses, are expected to be around minus 2% to minus 3% and those were used in estimating the ECL. Furthermore, we considered the credit risk of some portfolios on which the decline in market prices such as oil prices would have a material adverse impact but where the impact was not fully incorporated in the ECL model. Given the decline in oil prices toward the end of the fiscal year, we evaluated the forward-looking impact on credit risks and losses of the portfolios significantly affected by the decline, and made an additional ECL adjustment. As a result of these evaluations of the forward-looking inputs for the ECL, the provision for loan losses for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020 increased by ¥124.3 billion.
Management estimates and judgments may change from time to time as the economic environment changes or new information becomes available. Changes in these estimates and judgments will result in a different allowance for loan losses and may have a direct impact on impairment charges. Allowance for loan losses amounting to ¥706,405 million and ¥604,988 million were recognized for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Some of our financial instruments are measured at fair value, such as trading assets and liabilities, financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, derivative financial instruments and investment securities at fair value through other comprehensive income.
The fair value of a financial instrument is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Our financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value are mostly valued based on quoted prices in active markets, or using valuation techniques that incorporate inputs, other than quoted market prices, that are observable either directly or indirectly in the market, including dealers quotes. We principally use valuation techniques that are commonly used by market participants to price the instruments. To the extent practical, the valuation models make maximum use of observable data. However, for certain financial assets and liabilities, the fair values are
measured by using valuation techniques with significant unobservable inputs. In such cases, significant management estimates are made, resulting in a less objective measurement of fair value.
The risk management departments in each subsidiary regularly review significant valuation methodologies and recalibrate model parameters and inputs, both observable and unobservable, in an effort to ensure an appropriate estimation of fair value has been made. Where significant management judgments are required in valuation, we establish a valuation control framework to validate the valuation models and fair values calculated based on such valuation models. Under the framework, the accounting department is responsible for ensuring that the accounting policies and procedures to determine the fair values are in compliance with the relevant accounting standards.
If the fair value at the trade date, which is measured using a valuation technique with significant unobservable inputs, differs from the transaction price, any gain or loss on the trade date is adjusted to be deferred. Management judgment is required to determine whether significant unobservable inputs exist in the valuation technique.
The financial assets and liabilities are classified into one of three levels within a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used in the fair value measurement. The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are as follows:
Level 1. Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the entity can access at the measurement date;
Level 2. Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly; and
Level 3. Significant unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.
Management judgment is involved in determining the level of hierarchy to which each financial instrument should be categorized and in periodical assessments of market liquidity for inputs and price transparency.
In addition to the fair value hierarchy disclosure, we provide a sensitivity analysis of the impact on the Level 3 financial instruments carried at fair value by using reasonably possible alternatives for the unobservable parameters in Note 43 Fair Value of Financial Assets and Liabilities to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. The determination of reasonably possible alternatives requires significant management judgment.
Impairment of Goodwill
Goodwill is tested for impairment at least annually and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that it may be impaired. The first step of the impairment test is identifying the cash-generating units (CGUs), which represent the smallest identifiable groups of assets that generate cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets. Goodwill is then allocated to the CGUs, considering how the goodwill is recognized and other relevant factors.
In the impairment test, the carrying amount of the CGU to which goodwill is allocated is compared against its recoverable amount, which is the higher of its fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. Such recoverable amounts are determined based on significant management judgments and assumptions.
We determine the recoverable amount using the estimated future cash flows, pre-tax discount rates, growth rates and other factors. The estimation of future cash flows inherently reflects management judgments, even though such forecasts are prepared taking into account actual past performance and external economic data. The pre-tax discount rates and growth rates may be significantly affected by market interest rates or other market conditions, which are beyond managements control, and therefore significant management judgments are made to determine these assumptions.
These management judgments are made based on the facts and circumstances at the time of the impairment test, and may vary depending on the situation and time. Changes in management judgments may result in different impairment test results and different impairment losses recognized. For the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, impairment losses on goodwill were nil and ¥62,624 million, respectively.
Impairment of Other Intangible Assets
We have other intangible assets, not including goodwill, which consist of software, contractual customer relationships, trademarks and others. These are divided into other amortizing intangible assets and other non-amortizing intangible assets. Other amortizing intangible assets are tested for impairment if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it may not be recoverable at the end of each reporting period. Other non-amortizing intangible assets are tested for impairment on an annual basis or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it may not be recoverable. If any such indication exists, then its recoverable amount is estimated. The process to determine the recoverable amount is inherently uncertain because such recoverable amount is determined based on a number of management estimates and judgments as described in Impairment of Goodwill. Changes in management judgments may result in different impairment test results and different impairment amounts recognized. For the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, impairment losses on other intangible assets were ¥28,689 million and ¥4,041 million, respectively.
Provision for Interest Repayment
Provision for interest repayment represents managements estimate of future claims for the refund of gray zone interest, taking into account historical experience such as the number of customer claims for a refund, the amount of repayments and the characteristics of customers, and the length of the period during which claims are expected to be received in the future.
Management estimates and judgments may change from time to time as the legal environment and market conditions change or new information becomes available. Changes in these estimates and judgments could affect the balance of provision for interest repayment. Provision for interest repayment is recorded in provisions as a liability, and it totaled ¥143,429 million and ¥148,409 million at March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
We have defined benefit plans such as defined benefit pension plans and lump-sum severance indemnity plans. The present value of the defined benefit obligation is calculated based on actuarial valuations that are dependent upon a number of assumptions, including discount rates, mortality rates and future salary (benefit) increases. The discount rates are equivalent to market yields of AA credit-rated corporate bonds that have terms to maturity approximating those of the related obligations. Future mortality rates are based on the official mortality table generally used for actuarial assumptions in Japan. Other assumptions used for the calculation of the defined benefit obligation are based on historical records. Due to the long-term nature of these plans, such estimates are subject to significant uncertainty. While we believe that these assumptions are appropriate, any change in these assumptions will impact actuarial gains and losses, as well as the present value of the defined benefit obligations and the net retirement benefit expense for each period. Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions in the year, and return on plan assets excluding interest income are recognized in other comprehensive income and are never reclassified to profit or loss.
The difference between the fair value of the plan assets and the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the end of the reporting period is recognized as assets and liabilities in the consolidated statement of financial position. When this calculation for each plan results in a benefit to us, the recognized asset is limited to the present value of any economic benefits available in the form of refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan. An economic benefit is available to us, if it is realizable during the life of the plan or on
settlement of the plan obligation. The net total of assets and liabilities in the consolidated statement of financial position amounted to net assets of ¥129,976 million and ¥232,456 million at March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Deferred Tax Assets
We recognize deferred tax assets relating to tax losses carried forward and deductible temporary differences, only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the tax losses carried forward and the deductible temporary differences can be utilized. This assessment requires significant management judgments and assumptions. Future taxable profit is estimated based on, among other relevant factors, forecasted results of operations, which are based on historical financial performance and the business plans that management believes to be prudent and feasible. While we carefully assess the realization of tax losses carried forward and deductible temporary differences, the actual taxable profit in the future may be less than the forecast. The deferred tax assets amounted to ¥102,198 million and ¥37,073 million in the consolidated statement of financial position at March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, while the net total of deferred tax assets and liabilities amounted to net assets of ¥36,015 million at March 31, 2020 and net liabilities of ¥230,292 million at March 31, 2019, respectively.
New and Amended Accounting Standards and Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See New and Amended Accounting Standards Adopted by the Group and Recent Accounting Pronouncements under Note 2 Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report.
For discussion about our operating results for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2018, including certain comparative discussion of the fiscal years ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, please refer to Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospectus5.A. Operating Results in our annual report on Form 20-F filed on June 27, 2019.
On April 1, 2019, we adopted IFRS 16 Leases retrospectively by adjusting the consolidated statement of financial position at the date of initial application, and have not restated comparatives as permitted by IFRS 16. See Note 2 Summary of Significant Accounting PoliciesNew and Amended Accounting Standards Adopted by the Group to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this report.
Under the economic and financial circumstances described in Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and ProspectsOverviewOperating Environment, we made a profit through our commercial banking and other financial services businesses. Our total operating income decreased by ¥463,041 million from ¥3,166,891 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019 to ¥2,703,850 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, primarily due to decreases in net trading income and other income, which were partially offset by an increase in net investment income. Our net profit decreased by ¥416,603 million from ¥647,586 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019 to ¥230,983 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, due to the decrease in total operating income described above and an increase in impairment charges on financial assets, which were partially offset by decreases in operating expenses and income tax expense.
Our total assets increased by ¥16,654,840 million from ¥195,503,623 million at March 31, 2019 to ¥212,158,463 million at March 31, 2020, primarily due to increases in cash and deposits with banks, investment securities and loans and advances.
Our total liabilities increased by ¥17,493,408 million from ¥183,730,177 million at March 31, 2019 to ¥201,223,585 million at March 31, 2020, primarily due to increases in deposits and borrowings.
Our total equity decreased by ¥838,568 million from ¥11,773,446 million at March 31, 2019 to ¥10,934,878 million at March 31, 2020, primarily due to decreases in other reserves and non-controlling interests.
The following table presents information as to our income, expenses and net profit for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019.
|For the fiscal year ended |
(In millions, except per
Net interest income
Fee and commission income
Fee and commission expense
Net fee and commission income
Net trading income
Net income (loss) from financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
Net investment income
Total operating income
Impairment charges on financial assets
Net operating income
General and administrative expenses
Share of post-tax profit of associates and joint ventures
Profit before tax
Income tax expense
Profit attributable to:
Shareholders of Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group, Inc.
Other equity instruments holders
Earnings per share:
Total operating income decreased by ¥463,041 million, or 15%, from ¥3,166,891 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019 to ¥2,703,850 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, primarily due to decreases in net trading income of ¥186,233 million and other income of ¥350,035 million, which were partially offset by an increase in net investment income of ¥82,542 million. In addition, due to an increase in impairment charges on financial assets, net operating income also decreased by ¥603,293 million from ¥3,047,205 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019 to ¥2,443,912 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020.
Net profit decreased by ¥416,603 million from ¥647,586 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2019 to ¥230,983 million for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2020, as a result of the decrease in net operating income described above, which was partially offset by decreases in operating expenses and income tax expense.
Net Interest Income
The following tables show the average balances of our statement of financial position items, related interest income, interest expense, net interest income and average rates for the fiscal years ended March 31, 2020 and 2019.
|For the fiscal year ended March 31,|
|(In millions, except percentages)|
Interest-earning deposits with other banks:
Call loans and bills bought, reverse repurchase agreements and cash collateral on securities borrowed:
Loans and advances(2):
Total interest-earning assets:
|For the fiscal year ended March 31,|
|(In millions, except percentages)|
Call money and bills sold, repurchase agreements and cash collateral on securities lent and other interest- bearing liabilities:
Debt securities in issue: