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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549 
____________________________________
FORM 10-K
____________________________________
(Mark One)
Annual report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended January 28, 2024
or
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from             to             
Commission File Number 001-06395
____________________________________ 
SEMTECH CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 ____________________________________
Delaware 95-2119684
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

200 Flynn Road, Camarillo, California, 93012-8790
(Address of principal executive offices, Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (805498-2111
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock par value $0.01 per shareSMTC The Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
(Title of Class) 
____________________________________
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  o    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer   Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer   Smaller reporting company  
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant (based upon the closing sale price of $28.49 on The Nasdaq Global Select Market) as of July 30, 2023 was approximately $1.3 billion. Stock held by directors, officers and stockholders owning 10% or more of the outstanding common stock (as reported by stockholders on Schedules 13D and 13G) were excluded as they may be deemed affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not a conclusive determination for any other purpose.
Number of shares of our common stock, $0.01 par value per share, outstanding at March 22, 2024: 64,563,181.
____________________________________
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement in connection with registrant’s 2024 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended January 28, 2024 are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.



SEMTECH CORPORATION
INDEX TO FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED JANUARY 28, 2024
 
Item 1
Item 1A
Item 1B
Item 1CCybersecurity
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
Item 5
Item 6[Reserved]
Item 7
Item 7A
Item 8
Item 9
Item 9A
Item 9B
Item 9C
Item 10
Item 11
Item 12
Item 13
Item 14
Item 15
Item 16

2


Unless the context otherwise requires, the use of the terms "Semtech," "the Company," "we," "us" and "our" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K refers to Semtech Corporation and, as applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries. This Annual Report on Form 10-K may contain references to the Company’s trademarks and to trademarks belonging to other entities. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies' trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other company.

Special Note
Regarding Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the "safe harbor" provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended, based on our current expectations, estimates and projections about our operations, industry, financial condition, performance, operating results, and liquidity. Forward-looking statements are statements other than historical information or statements of current condition and relate to matters such as future financial performance, future operational performance, the anticipated impact of specific items on future earnings, and our plans, objectives and expectations. Statements containing words such as "may," "believe," "anticipate," "expect," "intend," "plan," "project," "estimate," "should," "will," "designed to," "projections," or "business outlook," or other similar expressions constitute forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results and events to differ materially from those projected. Potential factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to the Summary Risk Factors listed below and those set forth under "Risk Factors" in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, as such risk factors may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). In light of the significant risks and uncertainties inherent in the forward-looking information included herein that may cause actual performance and results to differ materially from those predicted, any such forward-looking information should not be regarded as representations or guarantees by the Company of future performance or results, or that its objectives or plans will be achieved, or that any of its operating expectations or financial forecasts will be realized. Reported results should not be considered an indication of future performance. Investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking information contained herein, which reflect management's analysis only as of the date hereof. Except as required by law, the Company assumes no obligation to publicly release the results of any update or revision to any forward-looking statement that may be made to reflect new information, events or circumstances after the date hereof or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated or future events, or otherwise.
In addition to regarding forward-looking statements with caution, you should consider that the preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires us to draw conclusions and make interpretations, judgments, assumptions and estimates with respect to certain factual, legal, and accounting matters. Our consolidated financial statements might have been materially impacted if we had reached different conclusions or made different interpretations, judgments, assumptions or estimates.

3


Summary Risk Factors
This risk factor summary contains a high-level summary of risks associated with our business, but does not address all of the risks that we face. Additional discussion of the risks summarized below, and other risks that we face, may be found under "Risk Factors" in Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Risks Relating to Macroeconomic and Industry Conditions
Our future results may fluctuate, fail to match past performance or fail to meet expectations.
The cyclical nature of the industry we operate in may limit our ability to maintain or increase net sales and operating results during industry downturns.
Adverse developments affecting the financial services industry.
The average selling prices of products in our markets have historically decreased rapidly.
Disruptions in U.S. government operations and funding.
Risks Relating to Production Operations and Services
Any interruption or loss of supplies or services from the limited number of suppliers and subcontractors on which we rely could significantly interrupt our business operations and the production of our products.
Our supplier’s manufacturing capacity may constrain our ability to increase product sales and revenue.
Our products may be found to be defective, liability claims may be asserted against us and we may not have sufficient liability insurance.
Obsolete inventories as a result of changes in demand for our products and in the life cycles of our products.
Public health crises could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Business interruptions, such as natural disasters, acts of violence and the outbreak of contagious diseases.
We depend on mobile network operators to promote and offer acceptable wireless data services.
Risks Relating to Research and Development, Engineering, Intellectual Property and New Technologies
We may be unsuccessful in developing and selling new products.
Our customers require our products to undergo a lengthy, expensive qualification process without assurance of sales.
Our products may fail to meet new industry standards or requirements.
Unfavorable or uncertain conditions in the 5G infrastructure market may cause fluctuations in our rate of revenue growth or financial results.
We may be unable to adequately protect our intellectual property rights.
We may be found to infringe on the intellectual property rights of others or be required to enter into intellectual property licenses on unfavorable terms.
We must commit resources to product production prior to receipt of purchase commitments and could lose some or all of the associated investment.
We may be unable to make the substantial investments in research and development that are required to remain competitive in our business.
Certain software we use is from open source code sources, which, may lead to unintended consequences.
We may need to transition to smaller geometry process technologies and achieve higher levels of design integration to remain competitive.
Risks Relating to International Operations
Export restrictions and laws affecting trade and investments may limit our ability to sell to certain customers.
We sell and trade with foreign customers, which subjects our business to increased risks.
Adverse changes to general economic conditions in China could have a material and adverse impact on our sales and financial results.
The benefit of various incentives from Chinese governments may be reduced or eliminated.
Our foreign currency exposures may change over time as the level of activity in foreign markets grows.
4


We may be subject to increased tax liabilities and an increased effective tax rate if we need to remit funds held by our foreign subsidiaries.
Risks Relating to Sales, Marketing and Competition
The loss of any one of our small number of customers or failure to collect a receivable from them.
The volatility of customer demand limits our ability to predict future levels of sales and profitability.
The termination of a distributor could negatively impact our business, including net sales and accounts receivable.
Our inability to effectively control the sales of our products on the gray market.
Competition from new or established IoT (defined below), cloud services and wireless services companies or from those with greater resources.
Risks Relating to Governmental Regulations
Changes in government trade policies.
Certain of our products and services are subject to laws and regulations in the regions in which we operate.
We are subject to government regulations and other standards that impose operational and reporting requirements.
Our failure to comply with any applicable environmental regulations could result in a range of consequences.
The processing of user data could give rise to liabilities or additional costs.
Certain of our customers and suppliers require us to comply with their codes of conduct.
Changes in our effective tax rates, the adoption of new U.S. or foreign tax legislation or exposure to additional tax liabilities, or material differences between our forecasted annual effective tax rates and actual tax rates.
We may be subject to taxation and review of our compliance with income, value-added and other sales-type tax regulations in other jurisdictions.
ESG matters (as defined below) may impose additional costs and expose us to new risks.
.Risks Relating to our Business Strategies, Integration, Personnel and Other Operations
Our business and growth depend on our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel.
We have and may continue to encounter difficulties integrating ours and Sierra Wireless, Inc.'s, businesses and operations and we may not realize the anticipated benefits from the Sierra Wireless Acquisition.
We face risks associated with companies we have acquired in the past and may acquire in the future.
We may be required to recognize additional impairment charges in the future.
A disruption in our information systems could adversely affect our business operations.
The costs associated with our indemnification obligations could be higher in future periods.
Risks Relating to Compliance
If we are unable to remediate material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, discover additional weaknesses, and are unable to achieve and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, our results of operations, our stock price and investor confidence in our Company could be adversely affected.
Risks Relating to our Indebtedness
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Covenants in the Credit Agreement (as defined below) may restrict our ability to pursue our business strategies, and any violation of one or more of the covenants could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The accounting method for the Notes (as defined below) could adversely affect our financial condition and results.
Conversion of the Notes may dilute or otherwise depress the price of our common stock.
Certain provisions governing the Notes may delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover attempt of us.
The Convertible Note Hedge Transactions and Warrants (each as defined below) transactions may affect the trading price of our common stock.
We are subject to counterparty risk with respect to the Convertible Note Hedge Transactions.
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PART I

Item 1.    Business
General
We are a high-performance semiconductor, Internet of Things ("IoT") systems and cloud connectivity service provider and were incorporated in Delaware in 1960. We design, develop, manufacture and market a wide range of products and services for commercial applications, the majority of which are sold into the infrastructure, high-end consumer and industrial end markets.
Infrastructure: data centers, passive optical networks ("PON"), base stations, optical networks, servers, carrier networks, switches and routers, cable modems, wireless local area network ("LAN") and other communication infrastructure equipment.
High-End Consumer: smartphones, tablets, wearables, desktops, notebooks, and other handheld products, wireless charging, set-top boxes, digital televisions, monitors and displays, digital video recorders and other consumer equipment.
Industrial: IoT applications, analog and digital video broadcast equipment, video-over-IP solutions, automated meter reading, smart grid, wireless charging, medical, security systems, automotive, industrial and home automation and other industrial equipment.
Our end customers for our silicon solutions are primarily original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs") that produce and sell technology solutions. Our IoT module, router, gateways and managed connectivity solutions ship to IoT device makers, enterprises and solution providers to provide IoT connectivity to end devices.
Overview of the Semiconductor and IoT Industries
The semiconductor industry is broadly divided into analog and digital semiconductor products. Analog semiconductors condition and regulate "real world" functions such as temperature, speed, sound and electrical current. Digital semiconductors process binary information, such as that used by computers. Mixed-signal devices incorporate both analog and digital functions into a single chip and provide the ability for digital electronics to interface with the outside world.
The market for analog and mixed-signal semiconductors differs from the market for digital semiconductors. The analog and mixed-signal industry is typically characterized by longer product life cycles than the digital industry. In addition, analog semiconductor manufacturers tend to have lower capital investment requirements for manufacturing because their facilities tend to be less dependent than digital producers on state-of-the-art production equipment to manufacture leading edge process technologies. The end-product markets for analog and mixed-signal semiconductors are more varied and more specialized than the relatively standardized digital semiconductor product markets.
Another difference between the analog and digital markets is the amount of available talented labor. The analog industry relies more heavily than the digital industry on design and applications talent to distinguish its products from one another. Digital expertise is extensively taught in universities due to its overall market size, while analog and mixed-signal expertise tends to be learned over time based on experience and hands-on training. Consequently, personnel with analog training are scarcer than digital trained engineers. This difference has historically made it more difficult for new suppliers in the analog market to quickly develop products and gain significant market share.
Advancements in digital signal processing technology typically drive the need for corresponding advancements in analog and mixed-signal solutions. We believe that the diversity of our applications allows us to take advantage of areas of relative market strength and reduces our vulnerability to competitive pressure in any one area.
The IoT industry is rapidly evolving and has seen significant growth in recent years, driven by advancements in connectivity technologies, and the increasing demand for connected devices across a wide range of vertical markets within IoT.
Current key trends in IoT include: (i) the increasing adoption of edge computing, spurred by the need for real-time data processing and the desire to reduce latency and improve access to information; and (ii) the focus on security and data privacy as more devices become connected, the risk of cybersecurity incidents and data breaches increases, resulting in needed implementation of robust security measures across the entire IoT ecosystem. IoT interoperability and standardization are important as the number of connected devices continues to grow, and it is essential that these devices are able to communicate with each other seamlessly, regardless of the underlying technology or platform.
We see substantial potential in the IoT market, particularly in verticals such as metering, connected places and asset tracking. With our extensive portfolio of IoT solutions, including modules, routers, gateways and connected services, we believe we are well positioned to capitalize on the growing demand for connected devices and to help our customers navigate the complex IoT landscape.
Business Strategy
Our objective is to be a high-performance semiconductor, IoT systems and cloud connectivity service provider to the fastest growing segments of our target markets. We intend to leverage our pool of skilled technical personnel to develop new products
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or, where appropriate, use strategic acquisitions or small strategic investments to either accelerate our position in the fastest growing areas or to gain entry into these areas. In order to capitalize on our strengths in design, development and marketing, we intend to pursue the following strategies:
Leverage our rare analog and mixed-signal design expertise
We invest heavily in the human resources needed to define, design and market high-performance analog and mixed-signal platform products. We have built a team of experienced engineers who combine industry expertise with advanced semiconductor design expertise to meet customer requirements and enable our customers to get their products to market rapidly. We intend to leverage this strength to achieve new levels of integration, power reduction and performance, enabling our customers to achieve differentiation in their end systems.
Continue to release new products, achieve new design wins and cross-sell products
We are focused on developing unique products that bring value to our target customers in our target markets. These products are typically differentiated in performance but are priced competitively. We also focus on achieving design wins for our products with current and future customers. Design wins are indications by the customer that they intend to incorporate our products into their end product designs. Although we believe that a design win is an indicator of future potential growth, it does not inevitably result in us being awarded business or receiving a purchase commitment. Our technical talent works closely with our customers in securing design wins, defining new products and in implementing and integrating our products into our customers' systems. We also focus on selling our complete portfolio of products to our existing customers, as we believe the technical expertise of our marketing and sales teams allows us to identify and capitalize on cross-selling opportunities.
Focus on fast-growing market segments and regions
We have chosen to target the analog and mixed-signal sub-segments of some of the most exciting and fastest growing end markets. We participate in these markets by focusing on specific product areas within the analog and mixed-signal market, including products for infrastructure, high-end consumer and industrial end markets. All of these markets are characterized by their need for leading-edge, high-performance analog and mixed-signal semiconductor technologies.
The infrastructure, high-end consumer and industrial end markets we supply are characterized by several trends that we believe drive demand for our products. The key trends that we believe are significant for our future growth include:
Increasing bandwidth over high-speed networks, fueling growth in high speed multimedia transmission, as well as better connectivity;
Demand for smaller, lighter, more highly integrated and feature-rich connected devices; and
Increasing demands for Internet and cloud connectivity to low power sensors, enabling a more connected, intelligent and sustainable planet.
Our products address these market trends by providing solutions that are ultra-low power thereby extending battery life, small form factor enabling smaller more autonomous and connected devices, highly integrated enabling more functionality within devices, and high-performance enabling product differentiation within our customer base. Additionally, as communications functions are increasingly integrated into a range of systems and devices, these products require analog sensing, processing and control capabilities, which increases the number and size of our targeted end markets.
Leverage outsourced manufacturing capacity
We outsource most of our manufacturing in order to focus more of our resources on designing, developing and marketing our products. A significant amount of our third-party subcontractors and suppliers, including third-party foundries that supply silicon wafers, are located in the United States ("U.S."), China, Taiwan and Vietnam. We believe that outsourcing our manufacturing provides us numerous benefits, including capital efficiency, the flexibility to adopt and leverage emerging process technologies without significant investment risk, and a more variable cost of goods, all of which provide us with greater operating flexibility.
Products and Technology
We design, develop and market high-performance analog and mixed-signal semiconductors and advanced algorithms, as well as wireless semiconductors, connectivity modules, gateways, routers and connected services for IoT. We operate and account for results in four reportable segments—Signal Integrity, Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless, IoT Systems, and IoT Connected Services—that represent four separate operating segments (see Note 16, Segment Information, to our Consolidated Financial Statements).
Signal Integrity. We design, develop, manufacture and market a portfolio of optical and copper data communications and video transport products used in a wide variety of infrastructure and industrial applications. Our comprehensive portfolio includes integrated circuits ("ICs") for data centers, enterprise networks, PON, and wireless base station optical transceivers. Our high-speed interfaces range from 100Mbps to 1.6Tbps and support key industry standards such as Fibre Channel, Infiniband,
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Ethernet, PON and synchronous optical networks. Our video products offer advanced solutions for next generation high-definition broadcast applications.
Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless. We design, develop, manufacture and market high-performance protection devices, which are often referred to as transient voltage suppressors ("TVS") and specialized sensing products. TVS devices provide protection for electronic systems where voltage spikes (called transients), such as electrostatic discharge, electrical over stress or secondary lightning surge energy, can permanently damage sensitive ICs. Our portfolio of protection solutions include filter and termination devices that are integrated with the TVS device. Our products provide robust protection while preserving signal integrity in high-speed communications, networking and video interfaces. These products also operate at very low voltage. Our protection products can be found in a broad range of applications including smart phones, LCD and organic light-emitting diode TVs and displays, set-top boxes, monitors and displays, tablets, computers, notebooks, base stations, routers, automobile and industrial systems. Our unique sensing technology enables proximity sensing and advanced user interface solutions for our mobile and consumer products. We also design, develop, manufacture and market a portfolio of specialized radio frequency products used in a wide variety of industrial, medical and communications applications. Our wireless products, which include our LoRa® devices and wireless radio frequency technology ("LoRa Technology"), feature industry leading and longest range industrial, scientific and medical radio, enabling a lower total cost of ownership and increased reliability. These features make these products particularly suitable for machine-to-machine and IoT applications. We also design, develop, and market power product devices that control, alter, regulate, and condition the power within electronic systems focused on the LoRa® and IoT infrastructure segment. The highest volume product types within this category are switching voltage regulators, combination switching and linear regulators, smart regulators, isolated switches, and wireless charging. Our video products offer advanced solutions for highly differentiated audio video-over-IP technology for professional audio video ("Pro AV") applications.
IoT Systems. We design, develop, operate and market a comprehensive product portfolio of IoT solutions that enable businesses to connect and manage their devices, collect and analyze data, and improve decision-making. The portfolio includes a wide range of modules, gateways, routers, and connected services that are designed to meet the specific needs of different industries and applications. Our modules are available in a variety of form factors and connectivity options, including LTE-M, NB-IoT and 5G, and can be integrated into an array of devices and systems. Our gateways and routers are designed to provide reliable and secure connectivity for IoT devices, while our connected services enable businesses to manage devices and connectivity so businesses can navigate the complex IoT landscape and realize the full potential of connected devices.
IoT Connected Services. We design, develop, operate and market a portfolio of connected services used in a wide variety of industrial, medical and communications applications. Our connected services include wireless connectivity and cloud-based services for customers to deploy, connect, and operate their end applications. Our services have been purpose-built for IoT applications and include features such as SIM and subscription management, device and data management, geolocation support, as well as reporting and alerting that can be configured or tailored to a variety of IoT use cases.
Our net sales by operating segment are detailed in the table below. As described in Note 16, Segment Information, to our Consolidated Financial Statements, our segment results reflect changes in our operating segments that went into effect following organizational restructurings in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2024 and the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2023. We currently have four reportable segments. All prior year information in the tables below has been revised retrospectively to reflect the change to the Company's reportable segments:
Fiscal Years
(in thousands)202420232022
Signal Integrity$177,033 $298,290 $286,259 
Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless
260,264 443,239 454,599 
IoT Systems334,904 9,811 — 
IoT Connected Services96,557 5,193 — 
Total$868,758 $756,533 $740,858 
Recent Acquisition and Divestiture
Acquisition of Sierra Wireless, Inc.
On January 12, 2023, we completed the acquisition of all of the issued and outstanding common shares of Sierra Wireless, Inc. ("Sierra Wireless") in an all-cash transaction representing a total purchase consideration of approximately $1.3 billion (the "Sierra Wireless Acquisition"). The transaction was accounted for as a business combination and the purchase price allocation was finalized during fiscal year 2024. For more information, see Note 3, Acquisition and Divestiture, to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Divestiture
On May 3, 2022, we completed the divestiture of our high reliability discrete diodes and assemblies business (the "Disposal Group") to Micross Components, Inc. for $26.2 million, net of cash disposed, in an all-cash transaction. For additional information on the divestiture, see Note 3, Acquisition and Divestiture, to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Semtech End Markets
Our products are sold primarily to customers in the infrastructure, high-end consumer and industrial end markets. Our net sales by major end market as a percentage of total net sales are detailed below:
Fiscal Years
(percentage of net sales)202420232022
Infrastructure19 %38 %35 %
High-End Consumer14 %21 %30 %
Industrial67 %41 %35 %
Total100 %100 %100 %
We believe that our diversity in end markets provides stability to our business and opportunity for growth. The increase in percentage of net sales in our industrial end market is largely attributable to the Sierra Wireless Acquisition, partially offset by lower LoRa-enabled and TVS industrial product sales.
The following table depicts our main product lines and their end market and product applications:
Typical End Product Applications
Product GroupsInfrastructureHigh-End ConsumerIndustrial
Signal Integrity
Optical and copper module ICs supporting up to 1.6Tb/s for Ethernet, Fibre Channel protocols in data center and broadband access applications, and 4G/5G/LTE wireless applications
  Serial Digital Interconnect interface ICs for Broadcast Video
Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless
Servers, workstations, desktop PC/notebooks, ultrabooks, optical modules, printers, copiers, 4G/5G/LTE base stations, 1/10 Gb/s Ethernet  Smartphones, media players, tablets, wearables, cameras, TVs, set top boxes and high end audio  Industrial automation, measurement & instrumentation, automotive, hearing aids, IoT, Industrial Asset Monitoring, Tracking & Logistics, Smart Metering, Smart Home, Smart Building, Smart City, Smart Agriculture, and Power Management, Audio Video over IP for Pro AV applications
IoT SystemsIoT, Industrial Asset Monitoring, Tracking & Logistics, Smart Metering, Smart Home, Smart Building, Smart City, Smart Agriculture, and Power Management
IoT Connected ServicesIoT, Industrial Asset Monitoring and Control, Tracking & Logistics, Smart Metering, Smart Home, Smart Building, Smart City, Smart Agriculture, and Healthcare
Seasonality
Our net sales are subject to some seasonal variation. Our net sales also have been affected by the cyclical nature of the semiconductor industry, and typically the fourth fiscal quarter tends to be softer in demand as compared to our other fiscal
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quarters.
Sales and Marketing
Net sales made through independent distributors during fiscal years 2024, 2023 and 2022 were 66%, 85% and 87%, respectively, and the remainder were made directly to customers. The lower percentage of distributor sales in fiscal year 2024 primarily relates to sales channels associated with the Sierra Wireless business, which we acquired in January 2023.
We have direct sales personnel located throughout North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific who manage the sales activities of independent sales representative firms and independent distributors. We expense our advertising costs as they are incurred.
We are a global business with customers and suppliers around the world. We operate internationally through certain of our wholly-owned direct and indirect subsidiaries and their branch offices. Independent representatives and distributors are also used to serve customers throughout the world. Some of our distributors and sales representatives also offer products from our competitors, as is customary in the industry.
Customers, Sales Data and Backlog
As a result of the breadth of our products and markets, we have a broad and balanced range of customers. Our customers include major OEMs, Solution Providers, and their subcontractors in the infrastructure, high-end consumer and industrial end markets. Our products are typically purchased by these customers for their performance, price and/or technical support, as compared to our competitors.
In fiscal years 2024, 2023 and 2022, net sales in the U.S. represented 24%, 13% and 10% of our net sales. Net sales to customers located in China (including Hong Kong), Japan, Taiwan, Singapore and Australia comprised 32%, 6%, 6%, 5% and 5% of our net sales, respectively, in fiscal year 2024. No other geography outside the U.S. comprised more than 5% of our sales in fiscal year 2024.
Concentration of Net Sales - Significant Customers
The following table sets forth the concentration of sales among the customers that accounted for more than 10% of our net sales in one or more of the periods indicated:
Fiscal Years
(percentage of net sales) (1)
202420232022
Trend-tek Technology Ltd. (and affiliates)*16 %17 %
Frontek Technology Corporation (and affiliates)10 %13 %18 %
CEAC International Ltd. (and affiliates)*11 %11 %
Arrow Electronics (and affiliates)**10 %
(1) In each period with an asterisk, the customer represented less than 10% of the Company's net sales.
Concentration of Accounts Receivable - Significant Customers
The following table shows customers that had an outstanding receivable balance that represented at least 10% of our total net receivables as of one or more of the dates indicated:
(percentage of net receivables) (1)
January 28, 2024January 29, 2023
Frontek Technology Corporation (and affiliates)15 %*
(1) In each period with an asterisk, the customer represented less than 10% of the Company's net receivables.
Backlog
The majority of our backlog is typically requested for delivery within six months and a substantial portion of our backlog is subject to cancellation or rescheduling. Our backlog at any particular date, therefore, is not necessarily indicative of actual sales that may be generated for any succeeding period. In markets where the end system life cycles are relatively short, customers typically request delivery in four to eight weeks. We do not have any significant backlog with deliveries beyond 18 months.
Manufacturing Capabilities
Our strategy is to outsource most of our manufacturing functions to third-party foundries, assembly and test contractors and electronics manufacturing services ("EMS") partners. Third-party foundries fabricate silicon wafers, while assembly and test contractors package and test our products. EMS partners manufacture our IoT Systems products from surface-mount technology ("SMT") assembly to product assembly, which includes product testing and configuration. We believe this outsourcing permits us to take advantage of the best available technology, leverage the capital investment of others and reduce our operating costs associated with manufacturing assets.
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In keeping with our "fabless" business model, we have no wafer fabrication facilities. Our end products were supported with finished silicon wafers purchased from third-party wafer foundries primarily located in the U.S., China and Taiwan.
Though we use third-party wafer foundries for sourcing our silicon needs, we maintain internal process development capabilities. Our process engineers work closely with our third-party foundries on the improvement and development of process capabilities. We use various manufacturing processes, including Bipolar, CMOS, RF-CMOS and Silicon Germanium BiCMOS processes. Our IoT Systems products designs are managed internally. We maintain management of design engineering, software engineering, manufacturing engineering and manufacturing test development.
Although our products are made from basic materials (principally silicon, metals and plastics), all of which are available from a number of suppliers, capacity at wafer foundries sometimes becomes constrained. In addition, the limited availability of certain materials, such as silicon wafer substrates, may impact our suppliers’ ability to meet our demand needs or impact the price we are charged. The prices of certain other basic materials, such as metals, gases and chemicals used in the production of our products, can exhibit price volatility depending on the changes in demand for these basic commodities. In most cases, we do not procure these materials ourselves, but we are nevertheless reliant on these materials for producing our products because our third-party foundry and package and test subcontractors must procure them.
Our development and production facilities in Colorado Springs, Colorado provide assembly and services for a portion of our very small form factor protection devices. These activities accommodate situations in which tight coupling with product design is desirable or where there are unique requirements. We use third-party subcontractors to perform almost all of our other assembly and test operations and a majority of our assembly and test activity is conducted by third-party subcontractors located in China, Malaysia, Mexico, Taiwan and Vietnam. We have operations offices located in Canada, China, Malaysia and Vietnam that support and coordinate some of the worldwide shipment of products. We have installed our own test equipment at some of our packaging and testing subcontractors in order to ensure a certain level of capacity, assuming the subcontractor has ample employees to operate the equipment.
Our arrangements with both third-party wafer foundries and package and test subcontractors are designed to provide some assurance of capacity but are not expected to assure access to all the manufacturing capacity we may need in the future.
While we do have some redundancy of fabrication, assembly and test and EMS processes by using multiple sources, any interruption by one or more of these outsource providers could materially impact us. While we maintain some amount of business interruption insurance to reduce the financial risk associated with supply or service interruption, but we are not fully insured against this risk.
While we monitor general economic conditions, including recessions or inflationary pressures, bank failures and uncertainty in the banking system, geopolitical turmoil and supply chain disruptions, and their potential impact on our suppliers and third-party subcontractors, we may be unable to prevent or mitigate the effect of these conditions on our suppliers or find alternate sources of supply, which may impact our operations and ability to meet the demands of our customers. See "Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Production Operations and Services - We rely on a limited number of suppliers and subcontractors, many of which are based outside the U.S., for many essential components and materials and certain critical manufacturing services and any interruption or loss of supplies or services from these entities could significantly interrupt our business operations and the production of our products." and "Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Production Operations and Services - Our ability to increase product sales and revenue may be constrained by the manufacturing capacity of our suppliers."
Competition
The semiconductor and IoT industries are highly competitive, and we expect competitive pressures to continue. Our ability to compete effectively and to expand our business will depend on our ability to continue to recruit and retain key engineering talent, our ability to execute on new product developments, and, in certain cases, our ability to persuade customers to design these new products into their applications.
Semiconductor Industry
The semiconductor industry is characterized by decreasing average unit selling prices over the life of a product and as volumes increase. However, price decreases can sometimes be quite rapid and faster than the rate of increase of the associated product volumes. We believe we compete effectively based upon our ability to capitalize on efficiencies and economies of scale in production and sales, and our ability to maintain or improve our productivity and product yields to reduce manufacturing costs. The semiconductor industry is also characterized by rapid technological change, and design and other technological obsolescence. We believe we compete effectively based on our success in developing new products that implement new technologies, protection of our trade secrets and know-how and maintaining high product quality and reliability.
We are in direct and active competition, with respect to one or more of our product lines, with numerous manufacturers of varying size, technical capability and financial strength. A number of these competitors are dependent on semiconductor products as their principal source of income, and some are much larger and better resourced than we are. The number of competitors continues to grow due to expansion of the market segments in which we participate. Additionally, there has been a
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trend toward consolidation in the semiconductor industry as companies attempt to strengthen or hold their market positions in an evolving industry. Such consolidations may make it more difficult for us to compete effectively, including on the basis of price, sales and marketing programs, channel coverage, technology or product functionality. We also expect that the trend among large OEMs to seek to develop their own semiconductor solutions will continue and expand. As we move into new markets, we may face competition from larger competitors with longer histories in these markets. Certain of our customers and suppliers also have divisions that produce products competitive with ours, and other customers may seek to vertically integrate competitive solutions in the future.
IoT Industry
The IoT industry, including the market for IoT devices and solutions, is growing and we expect that it will continue to attract significant competition. Some of our competitors are large corporations with manufacturing scale and financial resources at their disposal, while others are small, but emerging enterprises. However, we believe that our innovation, deep expertise in wireless IoT communications, and the ability to provide an integrated end-to-end IoT solution to our customers with security features gives us an opportunity to differentiate ourselves.
Our cloud and connectivity services are a strategic differentiator of our integrated device to cloud IoT solutions offering. We have our own Smart Connectivity pre-integrated into our devices. Depending on the customers served, our competitors include mobile network operators and other companies who operate mobile virtual networks or cloud platforms for the IoT market.
In addition, we have established a strong leadership position by being early to market with leading edge, high performance, high quality products that support the latest wireless technologies. We are a global market leader in wireless cellular embedded modules for IoT with a broad product portfolio, a global footprint, strong relationships with global OEMs and unique software platforms. Our competitors in this line of business are specialized manufacturers of wireless communication modules and solutions.
The market for intelligent wireless routers is quite fragmented depending on the vertical market segment, customer base and level of competition. In the segments where we compete, we believe that our market share is strong, and that competition is intensifying. In order to strengthen our share position, we have launched new next generation products and increased our investments in sales capacity and other go-to-market initiatives. Our competitors in this line of business vary by market segment.
Intellectual Property and Licenses
We have been granted 292 U.S. patents and 493 foreign patents and have numerous patent applications pending with respect to our products and to technologies associated with our business. The expiration dates of issued patents range from 2024 to 2042. Although we consider patents to be helpful in maintaining a competitive advantage, we do not believe they create definitive competitive barriers to entry. There can be no assurance that our patent applications will lead to issued patents, that others will not develop or patent similar or superior products or technologies, or that our patents will not be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented by others. While our various intellectual property ("IP") rights are important to our success, we do not believe any individual patent, group of patents, or the expiration thereof would materially affect our business operations.
We have registered many of our trademarks in the U.S. and in various foreign jurisdictions. Registration generally provides rights in addition to basic trademark protections and is typically renewable upon proof of continued use. We have registered, or are in the process of registering, our SEMTECH and other trademarks in many jurisdictions. In one location the SEMTECH trademark is prohibited, but we are permitted to use our Semtech International trade name. This restriction has not had a material impact on our business to date and we do not anticipate it will have a material impact in the future.
We also have registered certain materials in which we have copyright ownership, which provides additional protection for this intellectual property.
Intellectual Capital and Product Development
The development of IP and the resulting proprietary products is a critical success factor for us. Recruiting and retaining key technical talent is the foundation for designing, developing, and marketing our IP in the form of new proprietary products in the global marketplace. Our ability to recruit and retain our engineering talent is one of the keys to maintaining our competitive advantage. Historically, we have been successful in retaining our key engineering staff and recruiting new talent. One of our strategies to recruit talent is the establishment of multiple design center locations and we have design centers throughout the world.
Circuit design engineers, layout engineers, product and test engineers, application engineers, and field application engineers are key employees. Together they perform the critical tasks of design and layout of ICs and other products, turning these circuits into silicon devices, and conferring with customers about designing these devices into their applications. The majority of our engineers fit into one of these categories. Most of these engineers have many years of experience in the design, development, and layout of circuits targeted for use in protection, advanced communications and power management, multimedia and data communications, and wireless and sensing applications. We also employ a number of software engineers and systems engineers
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that specialize in the development of software and systems architecture, who enable us to develop systems oriented products in select markets.
Our IoT business employs specialized engineering teams skilled in the areas of radio design, hardware design, embedded software design cloud-based application development and cellular network design. The product development teams include leaders with extensive experience in their fields, along with younger graduates from leading universities.
We occasionally enter into agreements with customers that allow us to recover certain costs associated with product design and engineering services. Recovery for these services could potentially lag behind the period in which we recognize the related expense, causing a difference in recognition timing that could potentially create volatility in our reported product development and engineering expenses.
Human Capital
As of January 28, 2024, our year-over-year headcount decreased from 2,248 to 1,917 full-time employees worldwide, of whom 1,457 employees were based outside of the U.S. The decrease in headcount was primarily related to structural reorganization actions to reduce our workforce as a result of cost-saving measures and internal resource alignment including from the realization of synergies of the Sierra Wireless Acquisition.
As of January 28, 2024, we had 952 employees in research and development, 255 employees in operations, and 710 employees in selling, general and administrative, including functions that support operational activities. Our focus on innovation gives us a unique appreciation to the importance of recruitment, retention and the professional development of our employees. Our talent acquisition processes focus on the increasingly complex talent market and building our pipeline for an even more diverse and inclusive workforce. The health and well-being of our employees and their families remains our highest priority, and supporting and improving the local communities in which our employees are located is an important part of our culture. We continue to benchmark and enhance our total compensation and benefits packages across the countries in which our offices are located.
Talent
Our talent strategy involves our efforts to achieve an optimal balance of internal development, supplemented by external hires. This approach contributes to and enhances our employee loyalty and commitment. As of the end of fiscal year 2024, our average employee tenure is 8 years, reflecting the strong engagement of our employees. As new employees continue to join Semtech, we expect their contributions to bring fresh ideas to help drive innovation and continuous improvement.
Our recruiting efforts leverage both internal and external resources to recruit and attract highly skilled and talented workers across the globe, and we encourage our employees to provide referrals for open positions. We enhanced our performance management framework, strengthening our goal setting and calibration processes. This framework ensures that feedback provided in these performance discussions supports leadership growth and long-term development. Our development programs include an extensive library suite of professional third-party trainings and courses. In addition, Semtech offers a comprehensive annual and new hire compliance training that focuses on diversity, anti-harassment and code of conduct, among others.
Compensation
Our pay-for-performance philosophy incentivizes individual and team performance that directly contributes to the achievement of company objectives. We provide compensation packages that include a competitive base salary, annual incentive bonus opportunities, and long-term equity awards, as appropriate. Our compensation program is designed to attract, reward and retain those highly-talented individuals who possess the critical skills necessary to support our business objectives, contribute to the achievement of our annual strategic goals and create long-term value for our stockholders. We believe that a compensation program that rewards employees both for short-term and long-term performance aligns employees' and our stockholders' interests.
Health and Well-being
We provide access to a variety of flexible and convenient health and welfare programs, including benefits that support physical and mental health through tools and resources to help employees maintain and improve their health status. We believe our offerings provide flexible choices to meet the diverse needs of our employees and their families globally. Each year, we review our benefits programs to ensure they are appropriately resourced and deliver value. We also offer a financial well-being program for our employees.
Diversity and Inclusion
We are committed in our efforts to increase diversity and foster an inclusive work environment that supports our global workforce and helps us provide innovative solutions for our customers. We continue our focus on improving our hiring, development, advancement and retention of diverse talent and our overall diversity representation.
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We continuously promote inclusion through our stated core values and principles. We provide training to all employees to improve their understanding of behaviors that can be perceived as discriminatory, exclusionary, and/or harassing. Employees are encouraged to report such behaviors to management or via an anonymous hotline.
Community Involvement
As good corporate citizens, we aim to contribute to the communities where we live and work, and believe that this commitment helps in our efforts to attract and retain employees. We offer our employees the opportunity to give back to their local communities, contribute to charities and participate in corporate-sponsored initiatives.
Government Regulations
As a global company, we market and sell our products both inside and outside the U.S. Certain products are subject to the Export Administration Regulations, administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security, or other trade laws, which may require that we obtain an export license before we can export certain controlled products or technology to specified countries or end users. Similar controls exist in other jurisdictions. Failure to comply with these laws could result in governmental sanctions, including substantial monetary penalties and denial of export privileges. We maintain an export compliance program under which we screen export transactions against applicable lists of restricted exports, destinations and end users with the objective of managing export-related decisions, transactions and shipping logistics to ensure compliance with these requirements. In addition, certain products and services are subject to the rules and policies of the Federal Communications Commission ("FCC") and the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, which may require that we obtain FCC authorization before we can market and sell certain regulated products and services and otherwise comply with applicable requirements. Similar regulations exist in other jurisdictions. Failure to comply with these laws could result in governmental sanctions, including monetary penalties and revocation of the authority granted by the FCC or its foreign counterparts.
For discussion related to environmental matters, see Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies, to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Available Information
General information about us can be found on our website at www.semtech.com. The information on our website is for informational purposes only and should not be relied on for investment purposes. The information on our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this or any other report filed with the SEC.
We make available free of charge, either by direct access on our website or a link to the SEC website, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. Our reports filed with, or furnished to, the SEC are also available directly at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
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Item 1A.    Risk Factors
Please carefully consider and evaluate all of the information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the risk factors listed below. If any of these risks actually occur, our business could be materially harmed. If our business is harmed, the trading price of our common stock could decline. See also “Special Note Regarding Forward Looking and Cautionary Statements and Summary Risk Factors” at the beginning of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Risks Relating to Macroeconomic and Industry Conditions
Our future results may fluctuate, fail to match past performance or fail to meet expectations as a result of conditions beyond our control, such as general economic conditions in the markets we compete, conditions unique to our industry and the financial health and viability of our suppliers and customers.
Our results may fluctuate in the future, may fail to match our past performance or fail to meet our expectations and the expectations of analysts and investors as a result of conditions beyond our control. Our results and related ratios, such as gross margin, operating income percentage and effective tax rate may fluctuate for a variety of reasons beyond our control, including: general economic conditions in the countries where we sell our products, including recessions or inflationary pressures; financial market instability or disruptions to the banking system due to bank failures, geopolitical turmoil, such as the conflicts in the Middle East and between Russia and Ukraine and any sanctions, export controls or other retaliatory actions against, or restrictions on doing business with Russia, as well as any resulting disruption, instability or volatility in the global markets and industries resulting from such conflict; the availability of adequate supply commitments from our outside suppliers; the timing of new product introductions by us, our customers and our competitors; seasonality and variability in the computer market and our other end markets; product obsolescence; the scheduling, rescheduling or cancellation of orders by our customers; the cyclical nature of demand for our customers’ products; our ability to predict and meet evolving industry standards and consumer preferences; our ability to develop new process technologies and achieve volume production; changes in manufacturing yields; capacity utilization; product mix and pricing; movements in exchange rates, interest rates or tax rates; our ability to integrate and realize synergies from acquisitions; the manufacturing and delivery capabilities of our subcontractors and litigation and regulatory matters.
Uncertainty about global economic conditions can pose a risk to the overall economy by causing fluctuations to and reductions in consumer and commercial spending. Demand for our products could be different from our expectations due to many factors including: changes in business and macroeconomic conditions; conditions in the credit market that affect consumer confidence; customer acceptance of our products; changes in customer order patterns; including order cancellations; and changes in the level of inventory held by vendors.
The cyclical nature of the industry we operate in may limit our ability to maintain or increase net sales and operating results during industry downturns.
The semiconductor industry has experienced significant downturns, often in connection with, or in anticipation of, maturing product cycles of both semiconductor companies’ and their customers’ products or a decline in general economic conditions. The cyclical nature of the semiconductor industry may cause us to experience substantial period-to-period fluctuations in our operating results and may adversely affect our results of operations and the value of our business.
Our continuing business depends in significant part upon the current and anticipated market demand for our products and services. As a supplier to the semiconductor industry, we are subject to the business cycles that characterize the industry. The timing, length and volatility of these cycles are difficult to predict. The semiconductor industry has historically been cyclical due to sudden changes in demand, the amount of manufacturing capacity and changes in the technology employed in semiconductors. The rate of changes in demand, including end demand, is high, and the effect of these changes upon us occurs quickly, exacerbating the volatility of these cycles. These changes have affected the timing and amounts of customers’ purchases and investments in new technology. These industry cycles create pressure on our revenue, gross margin and net income.
The semiconductor industry has in the past experienced periods of oversupply and that has resulted in significantly reduced prices for semiconductor devices and components, including our products, both as a result of general economic changes and overcapacity. Oversupply causes greater price competition and can cause our revenue, gross margins and net income to decline. During periods of weak demand, customers typically reduce purchases, delay delivery of products and/or cancel orders for our products. Order cancellations, reductions in order size or delays in orders could occur and would materially adversely affect our business and results of operations. Actions to reduce our costs may be insufficient to align our structure with prevailing business conditions. We may be required to undertake additional cost-cutting measures, and may be unable to invest in marketing, research and development and engineering at the levels we believe are necessary to maintain our competitive position. Our failure to make these investments could seriously harm our business.
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The average selling prices of products in our markets have historically decreased rapidly and will likely do so in the future, which could harm our revenue and gross margins.
As is typical in the semiconductor and IoT industries, the average selling price of particular products have historically declined significantly over the life of the product. In the past, we have reduced the average selling prices of our products in anticipation of future competitive pricing pressures, new product introductions by us or our competitors and other factors. We expect that we will have to similarly reduce prices in the future for older generations of products. Reductions in our average selling prices to one customer could also impact our average selling prices to all customers. A decline in average selling prices would harm our gross margins for a particular product. If not offset by sales of other products with higher gross margins, our overall gross margins may be adversely affected. Our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects will suffer if we are unable to offset any reductions in our average selling prices by increasing our sales volumes, reducing our costs and/or developing new or enhanced products with higher selling prices or gross margins on a timely basis.
Disruptions in U.S. government operations and funding could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A prolonged failure to maintain significant U.S. government operations, particularly those pertaining to our business, could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, earnings and cash flows. Continued uncertainty related to recent and future U.S. federal government shutdowns, breach of the U.S. debt ceiling, the U.S. budget and/or failure of the U.S. federal government to enact annual appropriations, such as long-term funding under a continuing resolution, could have a material adverse effect on our revenues, earnings and cash flows. The current split control of the U.S. government increases these risks. Additionally, disruptions in U.S. government operations may negatively impact regulatory approvals and guidance that are important to our operations.
Adverse developments affecting the financial services industry, such as actual events or concerns involving liquidity, defaults or non-performance by financial institutions or transactional counterparties, could adversely affect our current and projected business operations and our financial condition and results of operations.
Adverse developments that affect financial institutions, such as events involving liquidity that are rumored or actual, have in the past and may in the future lead to market-wide liquidity problems. For example, on March 10, 2023, Silicon Valley Bank (“SVB”), Signature Bank and Silvergate Capital Corp. were each swept into receivership.
We either hold the vast majority of our financial assets in our name through a third-party financial institution, or we have transferred them out of SVB. Although we have not experienced any adverse impact to our liquidity or to our current and projected business operations, financial condition or results of operations, uncertainty remains over liquidity concerns in the broader financial services industry, and our business, our business partners, or industry as a whole may be adversely impacted in ways that we cannot predict at this time. Inflation and rapid increases in interest rates have led to a decline in the trading value of previously issued government securities with interest rates below current market interest rates. There is no guarantee that the U.S. Department of Treasury, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Federal Reserve Board will provide access to uninsured funds in the future in the event of the closure of other banks or financial institutions, or that they would do so in a timely fashion.
Although we assess our banking relationships as we believe necessary or appropriate, our access to funding sources and other credit arrangements in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our current and projected future business operations could be significantly impaired by factors that us, the financial institutions with which we have credit agreements or arrangements directly, or the financial services industry or economy in general. These factors could include, among others, events such as liquidity constraints or failures, the ability to perform obligations under various types of financial, credit or liquidity agreements or arrangements, disruptions or instability in the financial services industry or financial markets, or concerns or negative expectations about the prospects for companies in the financial services industry. These factors could involve financial institutions or financial services industry companies with which we have financial or business relationships, but could also include factors involving financial markets or the financial services industry generally.
Risks Relating to Production Operations and Services
We rely on a limited number of suppliers and subcontractors, many of which are based outside the U.S., for many essential components and materials and certain critical manufacturing services and any interruption or loss of supplies or services from these entities could significantly interrupt our business operations and the production of our products.
Our reliance on a limited number of subcontractors and suppliers for wafers, chipsets and other electronic components, packaging, testing and certain other processes involves several risks, including potential inability to obtain an adequate supply of required components and reduced control over the price, timely delivery, reliability and quality of components. These risks are attributable to several factors, including limitations on resources, labor problems, equipment failures or the occurrence of natural disasters. The good working relationships we have established with our suppliers and subcontractors could be disrupted, and our supply chain could suffer, if a supplier or subcontractor were to experience a change in control. There can be no assurance that problems will not occur in the future with suppliers or subcontractors. In addition, the impact of general
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economic conditions, including recessions or inflationary pressures, bank failures and uncertainty in the banking system, geopolitical turmoil and supply chain disruptions, could adversely impact our suppliers and third-party subcontractors, and we may be unable to prevent or mitigate the effect of these conditions on our suppliers or find alternate sources of supply, which may impact our operations. Disruption or termination of our supply sources or subcontractors could significantly delay our shipments to customers, which could damage relationships with current and prospective customers and harm our business. Any prolonged inability to obtain timely deliveries or quality manufacturing or any other circumstances that would require us to seek alternative sources of supply or to manufacture or package certain components internally could limit our growth and harm our business.
Many of our third-party subcontractors and suppliers, including third-party foundries that supply silicon wafers and contract manufacturers that manufacture our modules and routers, are located in geographies outside the U.S. including China, Taiwan and Vietnam. While our utilization of multiple third-party foundries and manufacturers does create some redundancy, any interruption of supply by one or more of these foundries or manufacturers could materially impact us.
A majority of our package and test operations are performed by third-party contractors based in the U.S., China and Taiwan. Our international business activities, in general, are subject to a variety of potential risks resulting from political and economic uncertainties, including rising tensions between the U.S. and China. Any political turmoil or trade restrictions in these countries, particularly China, could limit our ability to obtain goods and services from these suppliers and subcontractors. The effect of an economic crisis or political turmoil impacting our suppliers located in these countries may impact our ability to meet the demands of our customers. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in extended shutdowns of certain of our businesses. This public health crisis or any further political developments or health concerns in markets in which our third-party contractors and suppliers are based could result in social, economic and labor instability, adversely affecting the supply of our products and, in turn, our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we find it necessary to transition the goods and services received from our existing suppliers or subcontractors to other firms, we would likely experience an increase in production costs and a delay in production associated with such a transition, both of which could have a significant negative effect on our operating results, as these risks are substantially uninsured.
Our ability to increase product sales and revenue may be constrained by the manufacturing capacity of our suppliers.
Although we provide our suppliers with rolling forecasts of our production requirements, their ability to provide products to us is limited by their available capacity. This lack of capacity has at times constrained our product sales and revenue growth and may do so again in the future. In addition, an increased need for capacity to meet internal demands or demands of other customers could cause our suppliers to reduce capacity available to us. Our suppliers may also require us to pay amounts in excess of contracted or anticipated amounts for product deliveries or require us to make other concessions in order to acquire the supplies necessary to meet our customer requirements. If our suppliers extend lead times, limit supplies or the manufacturing capacity we require, or increase prices due to capacity constraints or other factors, we may, in turn, have to increase the prices of our products in order to remain profitable, and our customers may reduce their purchase levels with us and/or seek alternative solutions to meet their demand. If any of the foregoing occurs, our revenue and gross margin may materially decline, which could materially and adversely impact our business and results of operations. Delays in increasing third-party manufacturing capacity may also limit our ability to meet customer demand.
Our products may be found to be defective, liability claims may be asserted against us and we may not have sufficient liability insurance.
Manufacturing semiconductors is a highly complex and precise process, requiring production in a tightly controlled, clean environment. Minute impurities in our manufacturing materials, contaminants in the manufacturing environment, manufacturing equipment failures, and other defects can cause our products to be non-compliant with customer requirements or otherwise nonfunctional. Manufacturing our modules, routers and other products is also a complex process, and often requires the use of numerous components, the failure of any one of which could cause the product to fail. Similarly, our service offerings are highly complicated and involve the use of numerous systems, networks and technologies, any of which could cause our service offerings to fail or malfunction.
We face an inherent business risk of exposure to warranty and product liability claims in the event that our products or services fail to perform as expected or such failure of our products or services results, or is alleged to result, in bodily injury or property damage (or both). Since a defect or failure in our products or services could give rise to failures in the goods or services that incorporate or use them (and consequential claims for damages against our customers from their customers), we may face claims for damages that are disproportionate to the revenues and profits we receive from the products or services involved.
Our general warranty policy for products provides for repair or replacement of defective parts. In some cases, a refund of the purchase price is offered. Our standard terms for our service offerings also limit our liability, and in some cases specify the remedies the customer is entitled to receive if the services fail to meet applicable service level objectives. However, in certain instances, we have agreed to other terms, including some indemnification provisions, which could prove to be significantly more costly than our standard remedies. We attempt to limit our liability through our standard terms and conditions and negotiation of sale and other customer contracts, but there is no assurance that such limitations will be accepted or effective.
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While we maintain some insurance for such events, a successful warranty or product liability claim against us in excess of our available insurance coverage, if any, and established reserves, or a requirement that we participate in a product recall, would have adverse effects (that could be material) on our business, operating results and financial condition. Additionally, in the event that our products or services fail to perform as expected, our reputation may be damaged, which could make it more difficult for us to sell our products and services to existing and prospective customers and could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
Obsolete inventories as a result of changes in demand for our products and changes in the life cycles of our products could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
The life cycles of some of our products depend heavily upon the life cycles of the end-products into which our products are designed. End-market products with short life cycles require us to manage closely our production and inventory levels. Inventory may also become obsolete because of adverse changes in end-market demand. We may in the future be adversely affected by obsolete or excess inventories, which may result from unanticipated changes in the estimated total demand for our products or the estimated life cycles of the end-products into which our products are designed. In addition, some customers restrict how far back the date of manufacture for our products can be, which can render our products obsolete. In addition, certain customers may stop ordering products from us and go out of business due to adverse economic conditions or otherwise, thereby causing some of our product inventory to become obsolete. As a result, our inventory may become obsolete for reasons beyond our control, which may adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
Business interruptions, such as natural disasters, acts of violence and the outbreak of contagious diseases, could harm our business and have a material adverse effect on our operations.
Earthquakes and other natural disasters, terrorist attacks, armed conflicts, wars and other acts of violence, and other national or international crisis, calamity or emergency, including the outbreak of pandemic or contagious disease, such as COVID-19, may result in interruption to the business activities of us, our suppliers and our customers and overall disruption of the economy at many levels. These events may directly impact our physical facilities or those of our customers and suppliers. Additionally, these events, which are generally unforeseeable and difficult to predict, may cause some of our customers or potential customers to reduce their level of expenditures on certain services and products, which could ultimately reduce our revenue.
Our corporate headquarters, a portion of our assembly and research and development activities, and certain other critical business operations are located near major earthquake fault lines. We do not maintain earthquake insurance and our business could be harmed in the event of a major earthquake. We generally do not maintain flood coverage, including for our Asian locations where certain of our operations support and sales offices are located. Such flood coverage has become very expensive; as a result we have elected not to purchase this coverage. If one of these locations were to experience a major flood, our business may be harmed.
Our business could also be harmed if natural disasters, acts of violence, national or international crises or other calamities or emergencies interrupt the production of wafers, components or products by our suppliers, the assembly and testing of products by our subcontractors, or the operations of our distributors and direct customers. We rely on third-party freight firms for nearly all of our shipments from vendors to assembly and test sites, primarily in Asia, and for shipments of our final product to customers. This includes ground and air transportation. Any significant disruption of such freight business globally or in certain parts of the world, particularly where our operations are concentrated could materially and adversely affect our ability to generate revenues.
The ultimate impact of business interruption events, both in terms of direct impact on us and our supply chain, as well as on our end customers (to include their own supply chain issues as well as end-market issues), may not be known for a considerable period of time following the event. We maintain some business interruption insurance to help reduce the effect of business interruptions, but we are not fully insured against such risks. Also as a result of these events, insurance premiums for businesses may increase and the scope of coverage may be decreased. Consequently, we may not be able to obtain adequate insurance coverage for our business and properties. Further, any loss of revenue due to a slowdown or cessation of end customer demand is uninsured. Accordingly, any of these disruptions could significantly harm our business.
We depend on mobile network operators to promote and offer acceptable wireless data services.
Certain of our products and wireless connectivity services can only be used over wireless data networks operated by third parties. Our business and future growth will depend, in part, on the successful deployment by mobile network operators of next generation wireless data networks and appropriate pricing of wireless data services. We also depend on successful strategic relationships with our mobile network operator partners to provide direct or indirect roaming services onto their networks and our operating results and financial condition could be harmed if they increase the price of their services or experience operational issues with their networks. In certain cases, our mobile network operator partners may also offer services that compete with our IoT services business.
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Risks Relating to Research and Development, Engineering, Intellectual Property and New Technologies
We may be unsuccessful in developing and selling new products, which is central to our objective of maintaining and expanding our business.
We operate in a dynamic environment characterized by price erosion, rapid technological change, and design and other technological obsolescence. Our competitiveness and future success depend on our ability to predict and adapt to these changes in a timely and cost-effective manner by designing, developing, manufacturing, marketing and providing support for our own new products and technologies. A failure to achieve design wins, to introduce these new products in a timely manner, or to achieve market acceptance for these products on commercially reasonable terms could harm our business.
The introduction of new products presents significant business challenges because product development commitments and expenditures must be made well in advance of product sales. The success of a new product depends on accurate forecasts of long-term market demand and future technological developments, as well as on a variety of specific implementation factors, including: timely and efficient completion of technology, product and process design and development; timely and efficient implementation of manufacturing, assembly, and test processes; the ability to secure and effectively utilize fabrication capacity in different geometries; product performance, quality and reliability; and effective marketing, sales and service.
The efforts to achieve design wins typically are lengthy and can require us to both incur design and development costs and dedicate scarce engineering resources in pursuit of a single customer opportunity. We may not prevail in the competitive selection process. If a customer initially chooses a competitor's product during the selection process, it becomes significantly more difficult for us to sell our products for use in that customer's system because changing suppliers can involve significant cost, time, effort and risk for our customers. Thus, our failure to win a competitive bid can result in our foregoing revenues from a given customer's product line for the life of that product. Even if we are able to develop products and achieve design wins, the design wins may never generate revenues if end-customer projects are unsuccessful in the marketplace or the end-customer terminates the project, which may occur for a variety of reasons. In addition, mergers and consolidations among customers may lead to termination of certain projects before the associated design win generates revenue. If design wins do generate revenue, the time lag between the design win and meaningful revenue can be uncertain and could be significant. If we fail to develop products with required features or performance standards or experience even a short delay in bringing a new product to market, or if our customers fail to achieve market acceptance of their products, our business, financial condition and operating results could be materially and adversely impacted.
Our customers require our products to undergo a lengthy and expensive qualification process without any assurance of product sales.
Prior to purchasing our products, certain of our customers require that our products undergo an extensive qualification process, which involves testing of the products in the customer's system as well as rigorous reliability testing. This qualification process may continue for six months or longer. However, qualification of a product by a customer does not ensure any sales of the product to that customer. Even after successful qualification and sales of a product to a customer, a subsequent revision to the product or software, changes in the manufacturing process or the selection of a new supplier by us may require a new qualification process, which may result in delays and in us holding excess or obsolete inventory. After our products are qualified, it can take an additional six months or more before the customer commences volume production of components or devices that incorporate our products. Despite these uncertainties, we devote substantial resources, including design, engineering, sales, marketing and management efforts, toward qualifying our products with customers in anticipation of sales. If we are unsuccessful or delayed in qualifying any of our products with a customer, such failure or delay would preclude or delay sales of such product to the customer, which may impede our growth and cause our business to suffer.
Our products may fail to meet new industry standards or requirements and the efforts to meet such industry standards or requirements could be costly.
Many of our products are based on industry standards that are continually evolving. Our ability to compete in the future will depend in part on our ability to anticipate, identify and ensure compatibility or compliance with these evolving industry standards. The emergence of new industry standards could render our products incompatible with products developed by our customers and potential customers. As a result, we could be required to invest significant time and effort and to incur significant expense to redesign our products to ensure compliance with relevant standards. If our products are not in compliance with prevailing industry standards or requirements, we could miss opportunities to achieve crucial design wins which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial conditions.
Unfavorable or uncertain conditions in the 5G infrastructure market may cause fluctuations in our rate of revenue growth or financial results.
Markets for 5G infrastructure may not develop in the manner or in the time periods we anticipate. If domestic and global economic conditions worsen, overall spending on 5G infrastructure may be reduced, which would adversely impact demand for our products in these markets. In addition, as regulatory and private sector stakeholders have expressed concerns about the
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negative effects and dangers posed to others by the deployment of 5G technology, unfavorable developments with evolving laws and regulations worldwide related to 5G or 5G suppliers may limit global adoption, impede our strategy, and negatively impact our long-term expectations in this area. Even if the 5G infrastructure market develops in the manner or in the time periods we anticipate, if we do not have timely, competitively priced, market-accepted products available to meet our customers’ planned roll-out of 5G wireless communication systems, we may miss a significant opportunity and our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, as a result of the fact that the markets for 5G are not yet fully developed, demand for these products may be unpredictable and may vary significantly from one period to another.
We may be unable to adequately protect our intellectual property rights.
We pursue patents for select products and unique technologies, and we also rely on trade secret protections through a combination of nondisclosure agreements and other contractual provisions, as well as our employees’ commitment to confidentiality and loyalty, to protect our know-how and processes. We intend to continue protecting our proprietary technology, including through trademark and copyright registrations and patents. Despite this intention, we may not be successful in achieving adequate protection. Our failure to adequately protect our material know-how and processes could harm our business. There can be no assurance that the steps we take will be adequate to protect our proprietary rights, that our patent applications will lead to issued patents, that others will not develop or patent similar or superior products or technologies, or that our patents will not be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented by others. The costs of enforcing our rights in our intellectual property can also be substantial, and the outcome of any enforcement measures is uncertain. Furthermore, the laws of the countries in which our products are or may be developed, manufactured or sold may not protect our products and intellectual property rights to the same extent as laws in the U.S.
We may be found to infringe on the intellectual property rights of others or be required to enter into intellectual property licenses on unfavorable terms.
The industries in which we operate have many participants that own, or claim to own, proprietary intellectual property. We license technology, intellectual property, and software from third parties for use in our products and services, and may be required to license additional technology, intellectual property, and software in the future. Some licensors have instituted policies limiting the products they will cover under their licenses to end products only, which limits our ability to obtain licenses from such licensors, where required, for our wireless embedded module products. There is no assurance that we will be able to maintain our third-party licenses or obtain new licenses when required.
In the past we have received, and in the future, we are likely to receive, assertions or claims from third parties alleging that our products violate or infringe their intellectual property rights. We may be subject to these claims directly or through indemnities against these claims which we have provided to certain customers and other third parties. Our component suppliers and technology licensors do not typically indemnify us against these claims and therefore we do not have recourse against them in the event a claim is asserted against us or a customer we have indemnified.
Intellectual property litigation in the wireless communications area is prevalent. In the past, claims have been brought against us both by operating companies, and by third parties whose primary (or sole) business purpose is to acquire patents and other intellectual property rights, and not to manufacture and sell products and services. These entities aggressively pursue litigation, resulting in increased litigation costs for us. Infringement of intellectual property can be difficult to determine, and litigation may be necessary to determine infringement of intellectual property rights. In many cases, these third parties are companies with substantially greater resources than us, and they may choose to pursue complex litigation to a greater degree than we could. Regardless of whether these infringement claims have merit or not, we may be subject to the following:
we may be found to be liable for substantial damages, liabilities and litigation costs, including attorneys' fees;
we may be prohibited from further use of intellectual property because of an injunction and may be required to cease selling our products that are subject to the claim;
we may have to license third party intellectual property, incurring royalty fees that may or may not be on commercially reasonable terms; in addition, there is no assurance that we will be able to successfully negotiate and obtain such a license from the third party;
we may have to develop a non-infringing alternative, which could be costly and delay or result in the loss of sales; in addition, there is no assurance that we will be able to develop such a non-infringing alternative;
management attention and resources may be diverted;
our relationships with customers may be adversely affected;
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we may be required to indemnify our customers for certain costs and damages they incur in respect of such a claim; and
we may decide to cease selling certain product lines or not launch certain product lines to avoid infringement claims.
If we enter into royalty-paying licenses to intellectual property, we may be unable to pass the costs of the royalties through to our customers. In addition, we may be subject to disputes with licensors with respect to the calculation of the royalties we have paid under such licenses.
Any intellectual property litigation against us or our customers, any inability to license intellectual property rights on commercially reasonable terms, and any dispute with a licensor, could therefore have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
We must commit resources to product production prior to receipt of purchase commitments and could lose some or all of the associated investment.
Sales are made primarily on a current delivery basis pursuant to purchase orders that may be revised or cancelled by our customers without penalty, rather than pursuant to long-term contracts. Some contracts require that we maintain inventories of certain products at levels above the anticipated needs of our customers. As a result, we must commit resources to the production of products and the procurement of components without binding purchase commitments from customers. Our inability to sell products after we devote significant resources to them could harm our business. Likewise, the lead time for the components required to manufacture some our products can be lengthy, and we may be unable to meet our customers’ demand for our products if we fail to anticipate their demand and place sufficient orders for the necessary components.
While we intend to continue to invest in research and development, we may be unable to make the substantial investments that are required to remain competitive in our business.
The industries in which we operate require substantial investment in research and development in order to bring to market new and enhanced solutions. We are unable to predict whether we will have sufficient resources to maintain the level of investment in research and development required to remain competitive. The added costs could prevent us from being able to maintain a technology advantage over larger competitors that have significantly more resources to invest in research and development. In addition, we cannot assure you that the technologies which are the focus of our research and development expenditures will become commercially successful or generate any revenue.
Certain software we use is from open source code sources, which, under certain circumstances, may lead to unintended consequences and, therefore, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
We use open source software in connection with certain of our products and services, and we intend to continue to use open source software in the future. From time to time, there have been claims challenging the ownership of open source software against companies that incorporate open source software into their products or services or alleging that these companies have violated the terms of an open source license. As a result, we could be subject to lawsuits by parties claiming ownership of what we believe to be open source software or alleging that we have violated the terms of an open source license. Litigation could be costly for us to defend, have a negative effect on our operating results and financial condition or require us to devote additional research and development resources to change our solutions. In addition, if we were to combine our proprietary software solutions with open source software in certain manners, we could, under certain open source licenses, be required to publicly release the source code of our proprietary software solutions. If we inappropriately use open source software, we may be required to re-engineer our solutions, discontinue the sale of our solutions, release the source code of our proprietary software to the public at no cost or take other remedial actions. There is a risk that open source licenses could be construed in a way that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our solutions, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
We may need to transition to smaller geometry process technologies and achieve higher levels of design integration to remain competitive and may experience delays in this transition or fail to efficiently implement this transition.
In order to remain competitive, we have transitioned and expect to continue to transition certain of our products to increasingly smaller geometries. This transition requires us to modify the manufacturing processes for our products, to design new products to more stringent standards and to redesign some existing products. In some instances, we depend on our relationship with our third-party foundries to transition to smaller geometry processes successfully. Our foundries may not be able to effectively manage the transition or we may not be able to maintain our foundry relationships. If our foundries or we experience significant delays in this transition or fail to efficiently implement this transition, we could experience reduced manufacturing yields, delays in product deliveries and increased expenses, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. As smaller geometry processes become more prevalent, we expect to continue to integrate
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greater levels of functionality into our products. However, we may not be able to achieve higher levels of design integration or deliver new integrated products on a timely basis or at all.
Risks Relating to International Operations
We are subject to export restrictions and laws affecting trade and investments, which may limit our ability to sell to certain customers.
As a global company headquartered in the U.S., we are subject to U.S. laws and regulations that limit and restrict the export of some of our products and services and may restrict our transactions with certain customers, business partners and other persons, including, in certain cases, dealings with or between our U.S. employees and subsidiaries. In certain circumstances, export control and economic sanctions regulations may prohibit the export of certain products, services and technologies, and in other circumstances we may be required to obtain an export license or other authorization before entering into a transaction or transferring a controlled item. We maintain an economics sanction and export compliance program but there are risks that the compliance controls could be circumvented, exposing us to legal liabilities. These restrictions and laws have significantly restricted our operations in the recent past and may continue to do so in the future. We must also comply with export restrictions and laws imposed by other countries affecting trade and investments.
Actions by the U.S. Department of Commerce or future regulatory activity may materially interfere with our ability to make sales to certain Chinese or other foreign customers. Chinese and other customers outside the U.S. affected by future U.S. government export control measures or sanctions or threats of export control measures or sanctions may respond by developing their own solutions to replace our products or by adopting our foreign competitors’ solutions. In addition, our association with customers that are or become subject to U.S. regulatory scrutiny or export restrictions could subject us to actual or perceived reputational harm among current or prospective investors, suppliers or customers, customers of our customers, other parties doing business with us, or the general public. Any such reputational harm could result in the loss of investors, suppliers or customers, which could harm our business, financial condition, operating results or prospects.
We sell and trade with customers outside the U.S., which subjects our business to increased risks.
Sales to customers outside the U.S. accounted for approximately 76% of net sales for fiscal year 2024. Sales to customers located in China (including Hong Kong), Japan, Taiwan, Singapore and Australia comprised 32%, 6%, 6%, 5% and 5% of our sales, respectively, in fiscal year 2024. International sales are subject to certain risks, including unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, tariffs and other barriers, political and economic instability, difficulties in accounts receivable collection, difficulties in managing distributors and representatives, difficulties in staffing and managing foreign subsidiary and branch operations and potentially adverse tax consequences. Other risks include local business and cultural factors that may differ from our domestic standards and practices, including business practices from which we are prohibited from engaging by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws and regulations, laws of certain foreign countries that may not protect our products, assets or intellectual property rights to the same extent as do U.S. laws, and difficulties enforcing contracts in such foreign countries generally. These factors may harm our business. Our use of the Semtech name may be prohibited or restricted in some countries, which may negatively impact our sales efforts.
A substantial portion of our sales is derived from China and adverse changes to general economic conditions in China could have a material and adverse impact on our sales and financial results.
In fiscal year 2024, sales to customers in China comprised 32% of our net sales. The continuing economic slowdown in China could adversely affect our sales to customers in China and consequently, our business, operating results and financial condition. In addition, there are risks that the Chinese government may, among other things, require the use of local suppliers, compel companies that do business in China to partner with local companies to conduct business, or provide incentives to government-backed local customers to buy from local suppliers rather than companies like ours, all of which could adversely impact our business, operating results and financial condition. Further, changes in U.S. and global social, political, regulatory and economic conditions or in laws and policies governing trade with China as a result of rising tensions could adversely affect our business.
We and our manufacturing partners are or will be subject to extensive Chinese government regulation, and the benefit of various incentives from Chinese governments that we and our manufacturing partners receive may be reduced or eliminated, which could increase our costs or limit our ability to sell products and conduct activities in China.
Many of our manufacturing partners are located in China. The Chinese government has broad discretion and authority to regulate the technology industry in China. Additionally, China’s government has implemented policies from time to time to regulate economic expansion in China. The Chinese government exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through the allocation of resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.
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Any additional new regulations or the amendment or modification of previously implemented regulations could require us and our manufacturing partners to change our business plans, increase our costs, or limit our ability to sell products and conduct activities in China, which could adversely affect our business and operating results.
The Chinese government and provincial and local governments have provided, and continue to provide, various incentives to encourage the development of the semiconductor industry in China. Such incentives may include tax rebates, reduced tax rates, favorable lending policies and other measures, some or all of which may be available to our manufacturing partners and to us with respect to our facilities in China. Any of these incentives could be reduced or eliminated by governmental authorities at any time. Any such reduction or elimination of incentives currently provided to us and our manufacturing partners could adversely affect our business and operating results.
Our foreign currency exposures may change over time as the level of activity in foreign markets grows and could have an adverse impact upon financial results.
As a global enterprise, we face exposure to adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. Certain of our assets, including certain bank accounts, exist in non-U.S. dollar-denominated currencies, which are sensitive to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations. The non-U.S. dollar-denominated currencies are principally the Swiss franc, euro, Canadian dollar, Mexican peso, Japanese yen, Great British pound and Australian dollar. We also have a significant number of employees that are paid in foreign currency, including Australia, Canada, France, India, Mexico, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom.
If the value of the U.S. dollar weakens relative to these specific currencies, the cost of doing business in terms of U.S. dollars rises. Whereas if the value of the U.S. dollar strengthens relative to these specific currencies, it could make the pricing of our products less competitive and affect demand for our products. With the growth of our international business, our foreign currency exposures may grow and, under certain circumstances, could harm our business. As a means of managing our foreign exchange exposure, we routinely convert U.S. dollars into foreign currency in advance of the expected payment. We regularly assess whether or not to hedge foreign exchange exposure.
We may be subject to increased tax liabilities and an increased effective tax rate if we need to remit funds held by our subsidiaries outside the U.S.
With the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“Tax Act”), all post-1986 previously unremitted earnings for which no U.S. deferred tax liability had been accrued were subject to U.S. tax. Notwithstanding the U.S. taxation of these amounts, we have determined that none of our current foreign earnings will be permanently reinvested. If we needed to remit all or a portion of our historical undistributed earnings to the U.S. for investment in our domestic operations, any such remittance could result in increased tax liabilities and a higher effective tax rate. Determination of the amount of the unrecognized deferred tax liability on these unremitted earnings is not practicable.
Risks Relating to Sales, Marketing and Competition
We receive a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of customers and the loss of any one of these customers or failure to collect a receivable from them could adversely affect our business.
Our largest customers have varied from year to year. Historically, we have had significant customers that individually accounted for 10% or more of sales in certain quarters or years or represented 10% or more of net accounts receivables at any given date. Sales to our customers are generally made on open account, subject to credit limits we may impose, and the receivables are subject to the risk of being uncollectible.
We believe that our operating results for the foreseeable future will continue to depend on sales to a relatively small number of customers and end customers. We may not be able to maintain or increase sales to some of our top customers for a variety of reasons, including that our agreements with our customers do not require them to purchase a minimum quantity of our products; some of our customers can stop incorporating our products into their own products with limited notice to us and suffer little or no penalty; and many of our customers have pre-existing or concurrent relationships with our current or potential competitors that may affect the customers’ decisions to purchase our products. The loss of a major customer, a reduction in sales to any major customer or our inability to attract new significant customers could seriously impact our revenue and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The volatility of customer demand limits our ability to predict future levels of sales and profitability.
We primarily conduct our sales on a purchase order basis, rather than pursuant to long-term contracts. The loss of any significant customer, any material reduction in orders by any of our significant customers, the cancellation of a significant customer order or the cancellation or delay of a customer’s significant program or product could harm our business.
Suppliers can rapidly increase production output in response to slight increases in demand, leading to a sudden oversupply situation and a subsequent reduction in order rates and revenues as customers adjust their inventories to account for shorter lead times. Conversely, when circumstances create longer lead times customers may order in excess of what they need to ensure availability, then cancel orders if lead times are reduced. A rapid and sudden decline in customer demand for products or
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cancellation of orders can result in excess quantities of certain products relative to demand. Should this occur, our operating results may be adversely affected as a result of charges to reduce the carrying value of our inventory to the estimated demand level or market price. Our quarterly revenues are highly dependent upon turns fill orders (orders booked and shipped in the same quarter). The short-term and volatile nature of customer demand makes it extremely difficult to accurately predict near term revenues and profits.
Most of our authorized distributors, which collectively represent a significant portion of our net sales, can terminate their contract with us with little or no notice. The termination of a distributor could negatively impact our business, including net sales and accounts receivable.
In fiscal year 2024, authorized distributors accounted for approximately 66% of our net sales. We generally do not have long-term contracts with our distributors and most can terminate their agreement with us with little or no notice. For fiscal year 2024, our largest distributors were based in Asia. The termination of any of our distributor relationships could impact our net sales and limit our access to certain end-customers. It could also result in the return of excess inventory of our product held by that distributor. Since many distributors simply resell finished products, they generally operate on very thin profit margins. If a distributor were to terminate an agreement with us or go out of business, our accounts receivable from the particular distributor would be subject to significant collection risk. Our reliance on distributors also subjects us to a number of additional risks, including: write-downs in inventories associated with stock rotation rights and increases in provisions for price adjustments granted to certain distributors; potential reduction or discontinuation of sales of our products by distributors; failure to devote resources necessary to sell our products at the prices, in the volumes and within the time frames that we expect; dependence upon the continued viability and financial resources of these distributors, some of which are small organizations with limited working capital and all of which depend on general economic conditions and conditions within the semiconductor and IoT industries; dependence on the timeliness and accuracy of shipment forecasts and resale reports from our distributors; and management of relationships with distributors, which can deteriorate as a result of conflicts with efforts to sell directly to our end customers. If any significant distributor becomes unable or unwilling to promote and sell our products, or if we are not able to renew our contracts with the distributors on acceptable terms, we may not be able to find a replacement distributor on reasonable terms or at all and our business could be harmed.
Our inability to effectively control the sales of our products on the gray market could have a material adverse effect on us.
We market and sell our products directly to OEMs and through authorized third-party distributors. From time to time, it is possible our products could be diverted from our authorized distribution channels and customers may purchase products from the unauthorized "gray market." Gray market products result in shadow inventory that is not visible to us, thus making it difficult to forecast demand accurately. Also, when gray market products enter the market, we and our distribution channels compete with these discounted gray market products, which adversely affects demand for our products and negatively impacts our margins. In addition, our inability to control gray market activities could result in customer satisfaction issues because when products are purchased outside of our authorized distribution channels there is a risk that our customers are buying products that may have been altered, mishandled or damaged, or are used products represented as new.
Competition from new or established IoT, cloud services and wireless services companies, or from those with greater resources, may prevent us from increasing or maintaining our market and could result in price reductions and/or loss of business, resulting in reduced revenues and gross margins.
The market for IoT products and services is highly competitive and rapidly evolving. We may experience intense competition on our businesses, including:
competition from more established and larger companies with strong brands and greater financial, technical and marketing resources or companies with different business models;
competition from companies that operate in lower cost jurisdictions than we do, or who receive government support or subsidies that we do not;
business combinations or strategic alliances by our competitors which could weaken our competitive position;
introduction of new products or services by us that put us in direct competition with major new competitors;
existing or future competitors who may be able to respond more quickly to technological developments and changes and introduce new products or services before we do; and
competitors who may independently develop and patent technologies and products that are superior to ours or achieve greater acceptance due to factors such as more favorable pricing, more desired or better-quality features or more efficient sales channels.
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If we are unable to compete effectively with our competitors' pricing strategies, technological advances and other initiatives, we may lose customer orders and market share and we may need to reduce the price of our products and services, resulting in reduced revenue and gross margins. In addition, new market entrants or alliances between customers and suppliers could emerge to disrupt the markets in which we operate through disintermediation of our modules business or other means. There can be no assurance that we will be able to compete successfully and withstand competitive pressures.
Risks Relating to Governmental Regulations
Changes in government trade policies could have an adverse impact on our business or the business of our customers, which may materially adversely affect our business operations, sales or gross margins.
The U.S. government has made statements and taken certain actions that have led to, and may lead to, further changes to U.S. and international trade policies, including tariffs affecting certain products exported by a number of U.S. trading partners, including China. In response, many U.S. trading partners, including China, have imposed or proposed new or higher tariffs on U.S. products. The tariffs imposed by the U.S. on products imported from China include parts and materials used in semiconductor manufacturing and could have the effect of increasing the cost of materials we use to manufacture certain products, which could result in lower margins. The U.S. government has also taken actions targeting exports of certain technologies to China which could lead to additional restrictions on the export of products that include or enable certain technologies, including products we provide to China-based customers. In addition, the geopolitical headwinds driven by export restrictions and tariffs imposed by the U.S. government may weaken demand for our products.
We cannot predict what further actions may ultimately be taken with respect to tariffs or trade relations between the U.S. and other countries, what products may be subject to such actions, or what actions may be taken by the other countries in retaliation. Accordingly, it is difficult to predict exactly how, and to what extent, such actions may impact our business, or the business of our customers, partners or vendors. Any unfavorable government policies on international trade, such as capital controls or tariffs, may further affect the demand for our products, increase the cost of components, delay production, impact the competitive position of our products or prevent us from being able to sell products in certain countries, and may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. Any resulting trade wars could have a significant adverse effect on world trade and global economic conditions and could adversely impact our revenues, gross margins and business operations.
Certain of our products and services are subject to laws and regulations in the U.S., Canada, the European Union and other regions in which we operate.
Certain of our products and services are subject to laws and regulations in the U.S., Canada, the European Union and other regions in which we operate. From time to time in the ordinary course we may be required to obtain regulatory approvals or licenses in order to sell certain products and services, which could result in increased costs and inability to sell our products and services.
For example, in the U.S., the FCC regulates many aspects of communications devices and services. In Canada, similar regulations are administered by the Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. European Union directives provide comparable regulatory guidance in Europe. Further, regulatory requirements may change, or we may not be able to receive approvals, registrations or licenses from jurisdictions in which we may desire to sell products and services in the future. In addition, many laws and regulations are still evolving and being tested in courts and by regulatory authorities and could be interpreted in ways that could harm our business.
The application and interpretation of these laws and regulations often are uncertain, particularly in the new and rapidly evolving industry in which we operate. Because laws and regulations have continued to develop and evolve rapidly, it is possible that we or our products or services may not be, or may not have been, compliant with each applicable law or regulation. Compliance with applicable laws and regulations may impose substantial costs on our business, and if we fail to comply we may be subject to regulatory and civil liability, additional costs (including fines), reputational harm, and in severe cases, may be prevented from selling our products and services in certain jurisdictions, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial position, results of operation, and cash flows.
We are subject to government regulations and other standards that impose operational and reporting requirements.
We, our suppliers, and our customers are subject to a variety of U.S. federal, foreign, state and local governmental laws, rules and regulations, including laws, rules and regulations governing data privacy protections for personal information, and corrupt practices/anti-bribery prohibitions, that impact our business in terms of ongoing monitoring of compliance. Legislation and related regulations in the U.K. under that country’s Bribery Act could have extra-territorial application of compliance standards that may be inconsistent with comparable U.S. law, requiring us to re-evaluate and amend our compliance programs, policies and initiatives.
The SEC and The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC ("Nasdaq") have revised, and continue to revise, their regulations and listing standards. These developments have increased, and may continue to increase, our legal compliance and financial reporting
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costs. For example, in March 2024, the SEC adopted a rule requiring registrants to include certain climate-related disclosures in registration statements and annual reports. Currently, the ultimate impact of these laws on our business is uncertain and may result in increased costs, risk of litigation, reputational harm or other harm with customers, regulators, investors or other stakeholders.
These developments also may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. This, in turn, could make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our Board of Directors, or qualified executive officers.
Failure to comply with present or future laws, rules and regulations of any kind that govern our business could result in suspension of all or a portion of production, cessation of all or a portion of operations, or the imposition of significant regulatory, administrative, civil, or criminal penalties or sanctions, any of which could harm our business.
Our failure to comply with any applicable environmental regulations could result in a range of consequences, including fines, suspension of production, excess inventory, sales limitations, and criminal and civil liabilities.
We are subject to various state, federal and international laws and regulations governing the environment, including those restricting the presence of certain substances in electronic products and making producers of those products financially responsible for the collection, treatment, recycling and disposal of those products and those related to the use, storage, handling, discharge or disposal of certain toxic, volatile or otherwise hazardous chemicals and the incorporation of such substances into products available for sale. If we or our suppliers were to incur substantial additional expenses to acquire equipment or otherwise comply with environmental regulations, product costs could significantly increase, thus harming our business. If we violate or fail to comply with any of them, a range of consequences could result, including fines, import/export restrictions, sales limitations, criminal and civil liabilities or other sanctions. We could also be held liable for any and all consequences arising out of exposure to hazardous materials used, stored, released, disposed of by us or located at, under or emanating from our facilities or other environmental or natural resource damage. We have incurred, and may continue to incur, liabilities under various statutes for the cleanup of pollutants at locations we have operated and at third-party disposal and recycling sites we have used.
Environmental laws are complex, change frequently and have tended to become more stringent over time. For example, the E.U. and China are two among a growing number of jurisdictions that have enacted restrictions on the use of lead, among other chemicals, in electronic products. These regulations affect semiconductor packaging. There is a risk that the cost, quality and manufacturing yields of lead-free products may be less favorable compared to lead-based products or that the transition to lead-free products may produce sudden changes in demand, which may result in excess inventory. Future environmental legal requirements may become more stringent or costly and our compliance costs and potential liabilities arising from past and future releases of, or exposure to, hazardous substances may harm our business and our reputation.
The Processing of user data (including personal information) could give rise to liabilities or additional costs as a result of laws, governmental regulations and mobile network operator and other customer requirements or differing views of individuals’ privacy rights.
Certain of our products and services as well as the operation of our businesses involves the collection, use, processing, disclosure, transmission and storage (“Processing”) of a large volume of data (including personal information). Numerous state, federal and international laws, rules and regulations govern the Processing of personal information and can expose us to third party claims, enforcement actions and investigations by regulatory authorities, and potentially result in regulatory penalties, significant legal liability and harm to our reputation if our compliance efforts fail or are perceived to fail.
For example, the European Union General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") became effective on May 25, 2018. Failure to comply with the GDPR may result in fines of up to the greater of 20 million euros or 4% of a company’s annual global revenue. Canada’s Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and applicable provincial laws also impose strict requirements for Processing personal information that applies to our business operations. And in the U.S., a number of states have enacted or have proposed to enact state privacy laws. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act ("CCPA") gives California residents expanded rights to access and delete their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used by requiring covered businesses to provide new disclosures to California residents and provide such individuals ways to opt-out of certain sales of personal information. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for certain data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. Additionally, the California Privacy Rights and Enforcement Act of 2020 (“CPRA”) further expands the CCPA with additional data privacy compliance requirements that may impact our business, and establishes a regulatory agency dedicated to enforcing those requirements. A determination that we have violated any of these or other privacy or data protection laws could result in significant damage awards, fines and other penalties that could, individually or in the aggregate, materially harm our business and reputation.
Furthermore, the interpretation of privacy and data protection laws in a number of jurisdictions is unclear and in a state of flux. There is a risk that these laws may be interpreted and applied in conflicting ways from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Complying
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with these varying state, federal and international requirements could cause us to incur additional costs and change our business practices. In addition, because our products and services are sold and used worldwide, we may be required to comply with laws and regulations in countries or states where we have no local entity, employees, or infrastructure.
We could also be adversely affected if legislation or regulations are expanded to require changes in our products, services or business practices, if governmental authorities in the jurisdictions in which we do business interpret or implement their legislation or regulations in ways that negatively affect our business or if end users or others allege that their personal information was misappropriated, for example, because of a defect or vulnerability in our products or services or if we experience a data breach. If we are required to allocate significant resources to modify our products, services or our existing security procedures for the personal information that our products and services process, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.
In addition, despite our efforts to protect our systems and the data (including personal information) processed thereby, we cannot assure you that we or our service providers will not suffer a data breach or compromise, that hackers or other unauthorized parties will not gain access to personal information or other data, or that any such data compromise or access will be discovered or remediated on a timely basis. Any compromise or breach of our security measures, or those of our third-party service providers, could violate applicable privacy, data security and other laws, and cause significant legal and financial exposure, adverse publicity and a loss of confidence in our security measures, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Certain of our customers and suppliers require us to comply with their codes of conduct, which may include certain restrictions that may substantially increase our cost of doing business as well as have an adverse effect on our operating efficiencies, operating results and financial condition.
Certain of our customers and suppliers require us to agree to comply with their codes of conduct, which may include detailed provisions on labor, human rights, health and safety, environment, corporate ethics and management systems. Certain of these provisions are not requirements under the laws of the countries in which we operate and may be burdensome to comply with on a regular basis. Moreover, new provisions may be added or material changes may be made to any these codes of conduct, and we may have to promptly implement such new provisions or changes, which may substantially further increase the cost of our business, be burdensome to implement and/or adversely affect our operational efficiencies and operating results. If we violate any such codes of conduct, we may lose further business with the customer or supplier and, in addition, we may be subject to fines from the customer or supplier. While we believe that we are currently in compliance with our customers and suppliers’ codes of conduct, there can be no assurance that, from time to time, if any one of our customers and suppliers audits our compliance with such code of conduct, we would be found to be in full compliance. A loss of business from these customers or suppliers could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
Our operating results could be adversely affected as a result of changes in our effective tax rates, the adoption of new U.S. or foreign tax legislation or exposure to additional tax liabilities, or by material differences between our forecasted annual effective tax rates and actual tax rates.
Our future effective tax rates could be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in applicable tax laws or their interpretation. We are also subject to the examination of our tax returns and other tax matters by the Internal Revenue Service of the U.S. ("IRS") and other tax authorities and governmental bodies. We regularly assess the likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for taxes. There can be no assurance as to the outcome of these examinations. If our effective tax rates were to increase, particularly in the U.S., Canada or Switzerland, or if the ultimate determination of taxes owed is for an amount in excess of amounts previously accrued, our operating results, cash flows, and financial condition could be adversely affected. See the risk factor captioned "We may be subject to increased tax liabilities and an increased effective tax rate if we need to remit funds held by our subsidiaries outside the U.S." above.
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (the "OECD") has been working on a Base Erosion and Profit Shifting ("BEPS") Project, and since 2015 has been issuing guidelines and proposals with respect to various aspects of the existing framework under which our tax obligations are determined in countries in which we do business. In 2021, the OECD announced that more than 140 member jurisdictions have politically committed to potential changes to the international corporate tax system, including enacting a minimum tax rate of at least 15% as part of the OECD’s “Pillar Two” initiative. During December 2022, the European Union reached an agreement on the introduction of a minimum tax directive requiring member states to enact local legislation. On December 22, 2023, the Swiss Federal Council officially declared the entry into force of the Swiss implementation of the OECD’s Pillar Two rules beginning January 1, 2024, which imposes global minimum tax of 15% on multination enterprises with an annual revenue exceeding €750 million in at least two out of the last four years. We expect to meet the revenue thresholds requirement in fiscal year 2026, and these provisions will adversely impact our provision for income taxes. The OECD’s proposed changes have not generally been enacted into law in all of the jurisdictions in which we operate. We will continue to monitor countries’ laws with respect to the OECD model rules and the Pillar Two
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global minimum tax. Future tax law changes resulting from these developments may result in changes to long-standing tax principles, which could adversely affect our effective tax rate or result in higher cash tax liabilities.
Significant judgment is required in the calculation of our tax provision and the resulting tax liabilities as well as determination of our ability to realize our deferred tax assets. Our estimates of future taxable income and the regional mix of this income can change as new information becomes available. Any such changes in our estimates or assumptions can significantly impact our tax provision in a given period by, for example, requiring us to impair existing deferred tax assets. Such required changes could result in us having to restate our consolidated financial statements. Restatements are generally costly and could adversely impact our operating results or have a negative impact on the trading price of our common stock.
In addition, although the Creating Helpful Incentives to Produce Semiconductors and Science Act (“CHIPS Act”) provides various incentives and tax credits to U.S. companies in connection with semiconductor manufacturing, we may be unsuccessful (including, relative to the efforts of our competitors) in any efforts to obtain such incentives and tax credits.
We may be subject to taxation and review of our compliance with income, value-added and other sales-type tax regulations in other jurisdictions which could negatively affect our operations.
As a global organization, we may be subject to a variety of transfer pricing or permanent establishment challenges by taxing authorities in various jurisdictions. If certain of our non-U.S. activities were treated as carrying on business as a permanent establishment and therefore, subject to income tax in such jurisdiction, our operating results could be materially adversely affected.
We are required to comply with rules regarding value-added taxes and other sales-type taxes in various jurisdictions. If these taxes are not properly collected and paid, our operating results could be materially adversely affected.
Corporate responsibility, specifically related to environmental, social and governance (“ESG”) matters, may impose additional costs and expose us to new risks.
Public ESG and sustainability reporting is becoming more broadly expected by investors, shareholders and other third parties. Certain organizations that provide corporate governance and other corporate risk information to investors and shareholders have developed, and others may in the future develop, scores and ratings to evaluate companies and investment funds based upon ESG or “sustainability” metrics. Many investment funds focus on positive ESG business practices and sustainability scores when making investments and may consider a company’s ESG or sustainability scores as a reputational or other factor in making an investment decision. In addition, investors, particularly institutional investors, use these scores to benchmark companies against their peers and if a company is perceived as lagging, these investors may engage with such company to improve ESG disclosure or performance and may also make voting decisions, or take other actions, to hold these companies and their boards of directors accountable. We may face reputational damage in the event our corporate responsibility initiatives or objectives, including with respect to board diversity, do not meet the standards set by our investors, shareholders, lawmakers, listing exchanges or other constituencies, or if we are unable to achieve an acceptable ESG or sustainability rating from third party rating services. A low ESG or sustainability rating by a third-party rating service could also result in the exclusion of our common stock from consideration by certain investors who may elect to invest with our competition instead. Ongoing focus on corporate responsibility matters by investors and other parties as described above may impose additional costs or expose us to new risks.
In addition, one or more of our customers have also requested, and other customers may in the future request, that we achieve net zero carbon emissions. We may incur costs to achieve our carbon and other environmental sustainability goals and the goals of our customers. Such activity may require us to modify our supply chain practices, make capital investments to modify certain aspects of our operations or increase our operating costs. There can be no assurance of the extent to which any of our climate goals or the goals of our customers will be achieved or that any future investments that we make in furtherance of achieving our climate goals or the goals of our customers will produce the expected results or meet increasing stakeholder environmental, social and governance expectations. If we do not meet these goals, we could incur adverse publicity and reaction or the loss of business from certain of our customers, which could adversely impact our reputation, and in turn adversely impact our results of operations.
Furthermore, new climate change laws and regulations could require us to change our manufacturing processes or procure substitute raw materials that may cost more or be more difficult to procure. Various jurisdictions in which we do business have implemented, or in the future could implement or amend, restrictions on emissions of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases ("GHG"), limitations or restrictions on water use, regulations on energy management and waste management, and other climate change-based rules and regulations, which may increase our expenses and adversely affect our operating results. Continuing political and social attention to the issue of sustainability has also resulted in new regulations requiring disclosure of extensive information on climate-related matters and other sustainability topics. The State of California recently passed the Climate Corporate Data Accountability Act and the Climate-Related Financial Risk Act that will impose broad climate-related disclosure obligations on certain companies doing business in California, subject to minimum revenue requirements, starting in 2026. Based on our net sales for fiscal year 2024, we expect that we will initially be subject only to the Climate-Related
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Financial Risk Act, which will require biennial reporting of climate-related financial risks. Finally, in March 2024, the SEC finalized a new disclosure rule that will require certain climate-related disclosures, including Scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions, climate-related targets and goals and certain climate-related financial statement metrics, with phase-in compliance beginning in 2026. We are assessing our obligations under these new regulations, and expect that compliance could require substantial effort in the future. Enhanced disclosure on climate-related and other sustainability topics could lead to reputational or other harm with customers, regulators, investors or other stakeholders and could also increase our litigation risks relating to statements alleged to have been made by us or others in our industry regarding climate change risks, or in connection with any future disclosures we may make regarding reported emissions, particularly given the inherent uncertainties and estimations with respect to calculating GHG emissions. We expect increased worldwide regulatory activity relating to climate change in the future. Future compliance with these laws and regulations may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Risks Relating to our Business Strategies, Integration, Personnel and Other Operations
Our business and growth depend on our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel, including our management team and other key personnel, and the inability to attract, hire, integrate, train, retain, or motivate specialized technical and management personnel could harm our business and growth.
Our success and growth depend to a significant degree on the skills and continued services of our management team and other key personnel. If we lose the services of any member of management or any key personnel, we may not be able to locate a suitable or qualified replacement, and we may incur additional expenses to recruit and train a replacement. We have experienced recent changes in our management team. While we seek to manage these transitions carefully, these changes may result in a loss of institutional knowledge and may cause disruptions to our business and growth. If we fail to successfully integrate new key personnel into our organization or if key employees are unable to successfully transition into new roles, our business could be adversely affected. We cannot guarantee that we will be able to retain our executive officers or key employees in the future. Additionally, lack of effective leadership may lead to low morale, higher turnover, and decreased ability to execute our strategy. The loss of the services of any of our executive officers or key employees, and any failure to have in place and execute an effective succession plan for executive officers or key employees, could disrupt our business and have a significant negative impact on our operating results, prospects and future growth.
In addition, our future success depends upon our ability to attract and retain highly qualified technical, marketing and managerial personnel. We are dependent on a relatively small group of key technical personnel with relevant expertise, including analog and mixed-signal expertise. Personnel with highly skilled managerial capabilities, and relevant expertise, are scarce and competition for personnel with these skills is intense. In addition, work from home or continuing macroeconomic related uncertainty may result in significant psychological, emotional or financial burdens for some of our employees, which may impact their productivity and morale and may lead to higher employee absences and higher attrition rates. There can be no assurance that we will be able to retain key employees or that we will be successful in attracting, integrating or retaining other highly qualified personnel in the future. If we are unable to retain the services of key employees or are unsuccessful in attracting new highly qualified employees, our business could be harmed.
We have encountered and expect to continue encountering difficulties that have adversely impacted, and likely will continue to adversely impact, our ability to realize the anticipated benefits from the Sierra Wireless Acquisition, and our significant additional indebtedness that we incurred in connection with the acquisition has negative consequences.
Following the Sierra Wireless Acquisition, we experienced reduced business levels in the business acquired from Sierra Wireless due to current macroeconomic and industry conditions, including elevated interest rates. This has resulted in reduced earnings forecasts associated with the business acquired from Sierra Wireless, and, as a result, we recorded a total of $755.6 million of pre-tax non-cash goodwill impairment charges for fiscal year 2024 in the Statements of Operations as a result of impairment tests performed throughout the fiscal year. If business conditions related to the Sierra Wireless business do not improve, we may never realize some or any of the benefits we anticipated from the Sierra Wireless Acquisition, including operational synergies, revenue growth and earnings accretion, and we may be required to record additional impairments of our goodwill allocated to this business. Events outside our control, including economic trends and changes in regulation and laws, also could adversely affect our ability to realize the expected benefits from the Sierra Wireless Acquisition.
As a result of the Sierra Wireless Acquisition, the amount of our debt increased substantially, resulting in additional interest expense. In the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2023, we borrowed term loans in an aggregate principal amount of $895.0 million under the Term Loan Facility in order to fund a portion of the consideration for the Sierra Wireless Acquisition and related fees and expenses. Our increased indebtedness as a result of this financing has had, and likely will continue to have, important consequences to us and our stockholders, including: increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions; limiting our ability to obtain additional financing to fund future working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate requirements; with respect to variable rate indebtedness, risks associated with increases in interest rates; requiring the use of a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations for the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness, thereby reducing our ability to use our cash flow to fund working capital, future acquisitions, capital expenditures, stock repurchases and general corporate requirements; limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to,
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changes in our business and our industry; and putting us at a disadvantage compared to our competitors with less indebtedness. See “Item 1A. Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Our Indebtedness - Covenants in the Credit Agreement (as defined below) may restrict our ability to pursue our business strategies and any violation of one or more of the covenants could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations,” below for further discussion on the impact of our increased indebtedness.
We are also continuing to integrate certain remaining business, operational and administrative systems related to the Sierra Wireless business, which is a complex, costly and time consuming process. We have encountered and expect to continue to encounter difficulties integrating ours and Sierra Wireless’s businesses and operations, which has adversely impacted and delayed the operational synergies we expected to realize as a result of the acquisition. Our integration of certain business processes related to the Sierra Wireless business has also resulted in material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting as further described in Part II, Item 9A, “Controls and Procedures.” See “Risks Relating to Compliance” below. It is not certain that we will be successful in integrating Sierra Wireless’ business with our business. Risks related to our ability to successfully complete the integration of the Sierra Wireless business and realize the benefits we anticipated from the Sierra Wireless Acquisition include, but are not limited to the following:
continuation or worsening of adverse macroeconomic conditions in regions in which we and Sierra Wireless operate;
difficulties entering new markets and integrating new technologies in which we have no or limited direct prior experience;
failure to leverage the increased scale of the combined businesses quickly and effectively;
successfully managing relationships with our combined customer, supplier and distributor base;
coordinating and integrating independent research and development and engineering teams across technologies and product platforms to enhance product development while reducing costs;
consolidating and integrating corporate, finance and administrative infrastructures and integrating and harmonizing business systems, including remediating the material weaknesses described in Part II, Item 9A, "Controls and Procedures";
challenges identifying and assessing changes in the business that could impact our system of internal controls, which resulted in a material weakness and contributed to other material weaknesses within our system of internal control over financial reporting at the control activity level;
coordinating sales and marketing efforts to effectively position our capabilities and the direction of product development;
unanticipated costs or liabilities associated with the integration;
the increased scale and complexity of our operations;
potential litigation associated with the Sierra Wireless Acquisition;
difficulties in the assimilation of employees and culture and the impact on the business from the loss of employees due to workforce reductions or other departures;
obligations to counterparties of Sierra Wireless that arise as a result of the change in control of Sierra Wireless, including with respect to limitations or restrictions that may be imposed on our ability to integrate products or technology used or produced by Sierra Wireless into our new or existing products; and
diversion of capital and other resources, including management’s attention from other important business objectives.
Many of these factors are outside of our control and have resulted, and could continue to result, in increased costs, decreases in expected revenues and diversion of management’s time and attention, which has materially impacted, and could continue to materially impact the combined company. If we cannot successfully integrate our and Sierra Wireless’ businesses and operations, or if there are further delays in completing the integration, it could further negatively impact our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of the Sierra Wireless Acquisition, which in turn could adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
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We face risks associated with companies we have acquired in the past and may acquire in the future.
We have expanded our operations through the Sierra Wireless Acquisition, and we may continue to expand and diversify our operations with additional acquisitions. Acquisitions may divert management attention and resources from other business objectives. Acquisitions have used and could use in the future a significant portion of our available liquid assets or we could incur debt or issue equity securities to fund acquisitions. Any issuance of equity securities could be dilutive to existing stockholders. Debt financing could subject us to restrictive covenants that could have an adverse effect on our business. Although we undertake detailed reviews of proposed acquisition candidates and attempt to negotiate acquisition terms favorable to us, we may encounter difficulties or incur liabilities for which we have no recourse. We cannot provide any assurance that any acquisition will have a positive impact on our future performance.
If we are unsuccessful in integrating acquired companies into our operations or if integration is more difficult than anticipated, then we may not achieve anticipated cost savings or synergies and may experience disruptions that could harm our business. Acquisitions could have a negative impact on our future earnings by way of poor performance by the acquired company or, if we later conclude we are unable to use or sell an acquired product or technology, we could be required to write down the related intangible assets and goodwill.
We have incurred substantial impairment charges, and we may be required to recognize additional impairment charges in the future, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.
We assess our goodwill, other intangible assets and our long-lived assets on an annual basis and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of our assets may not be recoverable, and as and when required by accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. ("GAAP") to determine whether they are impaired. During fiscal year 2024, we recorded $755.6 million of goodwill impairment and $131.4 million of intangible impairments. No impairment was recorded during fiscal years 2023 or 2022 on our goodwill or intangible assets. See Note 8, Goodwill and Intangible Assets, to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further discussion of these impairment charges. During fiscal years 2024, 2023 and 2022, we also recorded $3.9 million, $1.2 million and $1.3 million of non-cash impairment charges and credit loss reserves on certain of our investments. Future restructuring or appraisal of our business impacting fair value of our assets or changes in estimates of our future cash flows could affect our impairment analysis in future periods and cause us to record either an additional expense for impairment of assets previously determined to be partially impaired or record an expense for impairment of other assets. Depending on future circumstances, we may never realize the full value of intangible assets. Any future determination or impairment of a significant portion of our goodwill and other intangibles could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.
We rely on certain critical information systems for the operation of our business and a disruption in our information systems, including those related to cybersecurity, could adversely affect our business operations.
We maintain and rely upon certain critical information systems for the effective operation of our business. These information systems include telecommunications, the Internet, our corporate intranet, various computer hardware and software applications, network communications, and e-mail. In some cases, these systems are also used to provide services to our customers. These information systems may be owned by us or by our outsource providers or even third parties such as vendors and contractors and may be maintained by us or by such providers or third parties. These information systems are subject to attacks, failures, and access denials from a number of potential sources including viruses, destructive or inadequate code, insider threats, power failures, and physical damage to computers, hard drives, communication lines and networking equipment. To the extent that these information systems are under our control, we have implemented security procedures, such as virus protection software, security procedures and emergency recovery processes, to address the outlined risks; however, these measures may not prevent all incidents and our inability to use or access these information systems at critical points in time could unfavorably impact the timely and efficient operation of our business. If the systems used for the provision of services to our customers are disrupted, our revenues may be affected, we may incur other liabilities to our customers, and we may suffer reputational damage. Additionally, any compromise of our information security could result in the unauthorized access to or disclosure of our confidential business or proprietary information, including potential theft of our intellectual property or trade secrets (including our proprietary technology) or the unauthorized release of customer, supplier or employee data and result in a violation of privacy or other laws, thus exposing us to litigation, regulatory enforcement or damage to our reputation. To the extent that our business is interrupted or data or proprietary technology is lost, destroyed or inappropriately used or disclosed, such disruption could adversely affect our competitive position, relationship with customers, suppliers or employees or our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, we may be required to incur significant costs to protect against or repair the damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches in the future, and our insurance may not be adequate to fully reimburse us for all costs and losses we incur.
The costs associated with our indemnification of certain customers, distributors, and other parties could be higher in future periods.
In the normal course of our business, we indemnify other parties, including customers, distributors, and lessors, with respect to certain matters. These obligations typically arise pursuant to contracts under which we agree to hold the other party harmless
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against losses arising from a breach of representations and covenants related to certain matters, such as acts or omissions of our employees, infringement of third-party intellectual property rights, and certain environmental matters. There can be no assurances that we will not incur significant expense under these indemnification provisions in the future.
We have also entered into agreements with our current and former directors and certain of our current and former executives indemnifying them against certain liabilities incurred in connection with their duties. Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws contain similar indemnification obligations with respect to our current and former directors and employees, as does the California Labor Code. We cannot estimate the amount of potential future payments, if any, that we might be required to make as a result of these agreements.
Risks Relating to Compliance
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, which has led to a conclusion that our internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of January 28, 2024. If we are unable to remediate the material weaknesses, discover additional weaknesses, or are unable to achieve and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, our results of operations, stock price and investor confidence in our Company could be adversely affected.
Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires that companies evaluate and report on the effectiveness of their internal control over financial reporting as of the end of each fiscal year. In addition to the Company’s evaluation, our independent registered public accounting firm provides an opinion regarding the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. As disclosed in more detail in Part II, Item 9A, “Controls and Procedures” below, we identified material weaknesses as of January 28, 2024, in our internal control over financial reporting. We have identified a deficiency in a principle associated with the risk assessment component of the Internal Control-Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (the “COSO framework”). Specifically, the control deficiency constitutes a material weakness relating to identifying and assessing changes in the business that could impact our system of internal control. The risk assessment material weakness contributed to other material weaknesses within our system of internal control over financial reporting at the control activity level, all of which were associated with the Sierra Wireless business, which the Company acquired on January 12, 2023.
Internal controls related to our financial reporting systems are important to accurately reflect our financial position and results of operations in our financial reports. If, as a result of the ineffectiveness of our internal controls, we cannot provide reliable financial statements, our business decision processes may be adversely affected, our business and results of operations could be harmed, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information and our ability to obtain additional financing, or additional financing on favorable terms, could be adversely affected.
Our management has taken action to begin remediating the material weaknesses; however, certain remedial actions have only recently commenced and other remedial actions have not yet started, and while we expect to continue to implement our remediation plans, we cannot be certain as to when remediation will be fully completed or if our remediation efforts will be successful. Additional information regarding the initial remediation efforts are disclosed in more detail in Part II, Item 9A, “Controls and Procedures” below. In addition, we could in the future identify additional internal control deficiencies that could rise to the level of a significant deficiency or material weakness or uncover material errors in financial reporting. During the course of our evaluation, we may identify areas requiring improvement and may be required to design additional enhanced processes and controls to address issues identified through this review. In addition, there can be no assurance that such remediation efforts will be successful, that our internal control over financial reporting will be effective as a result of these efforts or that any such future significant deficiencies identified may not be material weaknesses that would be required to be reported in future periods. In addition, we cannot provide assurance that our independent registered public accounting firm will be able to attest that such internal controls are effective when they are required to do so.
If we fail to remediate the material weaknesses and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures or internal control over financial reporting, our ability to accurately record, process, and report financial information and, consequently, our ability to prepare financial statements within required time periods could be adversely affected. Failure to maintain effective internal controls could result in a failure to comply with SEC rules and regulations, stock exchange listing requirements, and the covenants under our debt agreements, subject us to litigation, investigations or enforcement actions, negatively affect investor confidence in our financial statements, and adversely impact our stock price and ability to access capital markets. The defense of any such claims, investigations or enforcement actions could cause the diversion of the Company’s attention and resources and could cause us to incur significant legal and other expenses even if the matters are resolved in our favor.
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Risks Relating to our Indebtedness
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The terms of our indebtedness, including under our Credit Agreement (as defined below), could have significant consequences on our future operations, including:
making it more difficult for us to satisfy our debt obligations and our other ongoing business obligations, which may result in defaults;
sensitivity to interest rate increases on our variable rate outstanding indebtedness, which could result in increased interest under our credit facilities which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly;
reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes, and limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for these purposes;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, and increasing our vulnerability to, changes in our business, the industries in which we operate, and the overall economy;
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to any of our competitors that have less debt or are less leveraged;
increasing our vulnerability to the impact of adverse economic and industry conditions; and
if we receive a downgrade of our credit ratings, our cost of borrowing could increase, negatively affecting our ability to access the capital markets on advantageous terms, or at all.
Our ability to meet our payment and other obligations under our debt instruments depends on our ability to generate significant cash flow in the future. This, to some extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative and regulatory factors as well as other factors that are beyond our control. We cannot assure you that our business will generate cash flow from operations, or that future borrowings will be available to us under our existing or any future credit facilities or otherwise, in an amount sufficient to enable us to meet our debt obligations and to fund other liquidity needs. We may incur substantial additional indebtedness, including secured indebtedness, for many reasons, including to fund acquisitions. If we add additional debt or other liabilities, the related risks that we face could intensify.
Furthermore, a systemic failure of the banking system in the U.S. or globally may result in a situation in which we lose our ability to draw down funds from our Revolving Credit Facility (as defined below), lose access to our deposits and are unable to obtain financing from other sources which could materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Restrictive and financial covenants in the Credit Agreement governing our credit facilities may restrict our ability to pursue our business strategies, and any violation of one or more of these covenants could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The Credit Agreement contains a number of restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us and may limit our ability to engage in acts that may be in our long-term best interests. The Credit Agreement includes covenants restricting, among other things, our and our subsidiaries’ ability to: incur or guarantee additional debt or issue certain preferred stock; pay dividends or make distributions on our capital stock or redeem, repurchase or retire our capital stock; make certain investments and acquisitions; create liens on our or our subsidiaries’ assets; enter into transactions with affiliates; merge or consolidate—with another person or sell or otherwise dispose of substantially all of our assets; make certain payments in respect of other material indebtedness; and alter the business that we conduct.
In addition, under the Credit Agreement, we are required to maintain a maximum consolidated leverage ratio, a minimum interest expense coverage ratio and minimum liquidity. Due to the impact of macroeconomic conditions and a softer demand environment on our business and results of operations, we entered into amendments to the Credit Agreement in February 2023, June 2023 and October 2023 to provide additional financial flexibility with respect to the financial covenants in the Credit Agreement. These amendments resulted in, among other things, an increase in the maximum leverage ratio, a decrease in the minimum interest ratio and also introduced the minimum liquidity covenant that applies through January 31, 2025. We were in compliance with these covenants as of January 28, 2024.
In response to adverse market demand conditions, management has taken actions to reduce expenses and maintain compliance with the financial covenants. Failure to meet the covenant requirements in the Credit Agreement would constitute an event of default under the Credit Agreement and there is no certainty we would be able to obtain waivers or amendments with the requisite lenders party thereto in order to maintain compliance. Other covenants in the Credit Agreement may also limit or restrict our ability to take certain actions to address our compliance with certain of the financial covenants in the Credit Agreement. Our ability to meet such financial covenants can also be affected by events beyond our control, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to meet such financial covenants.
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If an event of default occurs and we are unable to obtain necessary waivers or amendments, the requisite lenders may elect to declare all outstanding borrowings, together with accrued and unpaid interest and other amounts payable thereunder, to be immediately due and payable. Further, if an event of default occurs, the lenders will have the right to proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure that debt. If the debt under the Credit Agreement were to be accelerated, our assets may not be sufficient to repay in full that debt that may become due as a result of that acceleration. We could seek replacement financing at prevailing market rates or raise additional capital by issuing equity or debt securities; however, this may not be on terms favorable to us, or available at all.
We are required to assess our ability to continue as a going concern as part of our preparation of financial statements at each quarter-end. This assessment includes, among other things, our ability to comply with the financial covenants and other requirements under the Credit Agreement. If in future periods we are not able to demonstrate that we will be in compliance with the financial covenant requirements in the Credit Agreement over the next twelve months from the issuance of the financial statements and would not have sufficient funds or financing plans to satisfy the obligations thereunder if an event of default occurs, management may be required to conclude that the uncertainty surrounding compliance with these financial covenants raises substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Any such determination that we may be unable to continue as a going concern, or the perception that we may be unable to do so, may materially harm our business and reputation and may make it more difficult for us to obtain financing for the continuation of our operations, which, in turn, may adversely impact our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
If, in the event of such a determination, we are not successful in raising additional capital or refinancing our existing debt or securing new financing, we may be required to reduce the scope of our operations, liquidate some of our assets where possible, and/or suspend or curtain planned programs among other possible courses of action.
The accounting method for the Notes could adversely affect our financial condition and results.
We have adopted accounting guidance that simplifies the accounting for convertible debt that may be settled in cash. As a result, our 1.625% Convertible Senior Notes due 2027 (the “2027 Notes”) and 4.00% Convertible Senior Notes due 2028 (the “2028 Notes” and, together with the 2027 Notes, the "Notes"), are recorded on our balance sheet at face value less unamortized debt issuance costs, with interest expense reflecting the cash coupon plus the amortization of the capitalized issuance costs. Additionally, we apply the if-converted method to the Notes in calculating earnings per share, which may reduce our reported diluted earnings per share.
Furthermore, in the event the conditional conversion feature of the Notes is triggered, holders of Notes will be entitled to convert their Notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their Notes, we would be required to settle any converted principal amount of such Notes through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their Notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the Notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital. As of January 28, 2024, the Notes are not convertible at the option of the holders.
Conversion of the Notes may dilute the ownership interest of our stockholders or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.
The conversion of some or all of the Notes may dilute the ownership interests of our stockholders. Upon conversion of the Notes, we have the option to pay or deliver, as the case may be, cash, shares of our common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock in respect of the remainder, if any, of our conversion obligation in excess of the aggregate principal amount of the Notes being converted. If we elect to settle the remainder, if any, of our conversion obligation in excess of the aggregate principal amount of the Notes being converted in shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, any sales in the public market of our common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of the Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the Notes could be used to satisfy short positions, or anticipated conversion of the Notes into shares of our common stock could depress the price of our common stock.
Certain provisions in the indentures governing the Notes may delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover attempt of us.
Certain provisions in the indentures governing the Notes may make it more difficult or expensive for a third party to acquire us. For example, the indentures governing the Notes generally require us, at the option of the holders, to repurchase the Notes for cash upon the occurrence of a fundamental change and, in certain circumstances, to increase the conversion rate for a holder that converts its Notes in connection with a make-whole fundamental change, as defined in the indenture for the Notes. A takeover of us may trigger the requirement that we repurchase the Notes and/or increase the conversion rate, which could make it costlier for a potential acquirer to engage in such takeover. Such additional costs may have the effect of delaying or preventing a takeover of us that would otherwise be beneficial to investors.
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The Convertible Note Hedge Transactions and Warrants transactions may affect the trading price of our common stock.
On October 6, 2022 and October 19, 2022, we entered into privately negotiated convertible note hedge transactions (the “Convertible Note Hedge Transactions”) with an affiliate of one of the initial purchasers of the 2027 Notes and another financial institution (collectively, the “Counterparties”). We also separately entered into privately negotiated warrant transactions (the “Warrants”) with the Counterparties. The Convertible Note Hedge Transactions are expected generally to reduce the potential dilution to our common stock upon any conversion of the 2027 Notes and/or offset any cash payments we are required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted 2027 Notes, as the case may be. However, the Warrants transactions could separately have a dilutive effect on our common stock to the extent that the market price per share of our common stock exceeds the strike price of the Warrants.
In addition, the Counterparties or their respective affiliates may modify their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivatives with respect to our common stock and/or purchasing or selling our common stock or other securities of ours in secondary market transactions prior to the maturity of the 2027 Notes (and are likely to do in connection with any conversion of the 2027 Notes or redemption or repurchase of the 2027 Notes). This activity could cause or avoid an increase or a decrease in the market price of our common stock. We do not make any representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any potential effect that the transactions described above may have on the price of our common stock. In addition, we do not make any representation that the Counterparties will engage in these transactions or that these transactions, once commenced, will not be discontinued without notice.
We are subject to counterparty risk with respect to the Convertible Note Hedge Transactions.
The Counterparties are financial institutions, and we will be subject to the risk that any or all of them might default under the Convertible Note Hedge Transactions. Our exposure to the credit risk of the Counterparties is not secured by any collateral. If a Counterparty becomes subject to insolvency proceedings, we will become an unsecured creditor in those proceedings with a claim equal to our exposure at that time under the Convertible Note Hedge Transactions with such Counterparty. Our exposure will depend on many factors but, generally, an increase in our exposure will be correlated to an increase in the market price and in the volatility of our common stock. In addition, upon a default by a Counterparty, we may suffer adverse tax consequences and more dilution than we currently anticipate with respect to our common stock. We can provide no assurances as to the financial stability or viability of the Counterparties.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 1C.    Cybersecurity
Risk Management and Strategy
As part of our overall enterprise risk management strategy, our cybersecurity processes seek to help the Company prevent or mitigate potential cybersecurity incidents, and to detect and remediate them quickly when they occur. To achieve this, the Company uses a broad selection of security tools and methodologies to assess, identify and manage material risks from cybersecurity threats.
Key aspects of our cybersecurity risk management and threat mitigation strategy include:
Maintaining our ISO/IEC 27001:2022 certification and using it along with other common security frameworks to help assess, identify, and manage material risks from cybersecurity;
Utilizing dedicated IT Security Operations and Product Security teams focused on monitoring, enforcing and improving cybersecurity throughout the enterprise;
Engaging and training internal stakeholders from representative aspects of the business (product and functional teams) on our Incident Response and Reporting plan on a quarterly basis;
Maintaining and regularly testing our disaster recovery and business continuity plans; and
Creating information security awareness among our employees and partners through the use of phishing exercises and regular cyber-awareness articles & newsletter campaigns.
The Company evaluates our third-party vendors and service providers to ensure appropriate oversight and to identify any risks from cybersecurity threats associated with the use of their tools or services. To that end, as part of the onboarding process, our internal IT Security Operations team:
Collects and evaluates self-certification information about each vendor’s cybersecurity program and external certifications;
Reviews independent security reports that inform us about each vendor’s security posture and historical incidents; and
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Provides a timely evaluation of whether to continue the vendor’s engagement based on their cybersecurity risk profile.
As part of our processes, we also engage third parties and industry experts to conduct audits and other assessments of our cybersecurity system. These assessments include vulnerability assessments, penetration testing and table-top exercises. The results of these reviews help to identify areas for continued focus, improvement and/or compliance. We also regularly evaluate our cybersecurity position against benchmarks of our peers and industry leaders, and expect our strategy and management approach to change as the general cybersecurity landscape evolves.
Governance
Consistent with our overall risk management governance structure, the Vice President of IT Security is responsible for the day-to-day management of cybersecurity risk, while our Board and its Audit Committee play an active, ongoing oversight role.
The Audit Committee or the full Board receive quarterly cybersecurity updates, which are prepared by our Vice President of IT Security. The report provides comprehensive cybersecurity updates, including topics such as security incidents, our threat landscape, compliance, key performance metrics and material risks, along with updates on general cybersecurity project execution.
The Vice President of IT Security works directly with the IT Security Operation Team and the Product Security Team to ensure effective and timely monitoring, prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents. In line with our incident response plan, the Vice President of IT Security provides regular updates about cybersecurity incidents to the Audit Committee, the Chief Operating Officer and other members of the executive management team.
Our Vice President of IT Security has held IT security and leadership roles at the Company for over 23 years and maintains a wide range of industry certifications including Certified Information Systems Security Professional.
As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we are not aware of any risks from cybersecurity threats, including as a result of previous cybersecurity incidents, that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition. However, we can give no assurance that we have detected or protected against all cybersecurity threats or incidents. For additional information on our cybersecurity risks, see “Item 1A. Risk Factors – We rely on certain critical information systems for the operation of our business and a disruption in our information systems, including those related to cybersecurity, could adversely affect our business operations.”
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Item 2.    Properties
Our corporate headquarters is located in Camarillo, California where we own an approximately 88,000 square foot facility. The parcel on which our headquarters is located can accommodate substantial expansion. As of January 28, 2024, we owned or leased multiple properties. The locations and primary functions of significant properties are summarized in the following table:
LocationsSquare FeetAdministrationResearch and/or developmentManufacturing supportSales and marketingApplication engineeringTest and assemblyReliability testingLeased
Camarillo, California88,000 
Colorado Springs, Colorado25,967 
Colorado Springs, Colorado51,588 
Irvine, California20,072 
San Diego, California18,189 
Richmond, British Columbia, Canada76,000 
Burlington, Ontario, Canada68,000 
Neuchatel, Switzerland37,275 
Taipei, Taiwan36,720 
Pune, India30,100 
Kanata, Ontario, Canada29,221 
Rapperswil, Switzerland17,760 
Bristol, United Kingdom17,430 
Shenzhen, China15,678 
In addition to the properties listed in the above table, we also lease Sales and Marketing, Research and Development, and Administrative offices at various locations in the U.S. and internationally under operating leases, none of which are material to our future cash flows. Our leases expire at various dates through 2032.
We believe that our existing leased and owned space is more than adequate for our current operations, and that suitable replacement and additional space will be available in the future on commercially reasonable terms as circumstances warrant.
Item 3.     Legal Proceedings
A description of our material legal proceedings in Note 14, Commitment and Contingencies, to the Consolidated Financial Statements is incorporated by reference into this Item 3.
Item 4.     Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II

Item 5.     Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information
Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "SMTC."
Holders
As of March 22, 2024, we had 171 holders of record of our common stock. The actual number of holders of our common stock is greater than this number of record holders and includes stockholders who are beneficial owners, but whose shares are held in street name by brokers or held by other nominees.
Dividends
The payment of dividends on our common stock is within the discretion of our Board of Directors. Currently, we intend to retain earnings to finance the growth of our business. We did not pay cash dividends on our common stock during fiscal years 2024, 2023 or 2022, and our Board of Directors has not indicated an intent to declare a cash dividend on our common stock in the foreseeable future.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
We maintain a stock repurchase program that was initially approved by our Board of Directors and announced by us in March 2008. The stock repurchase program does not have an expiration date and our Board of Directors has authorized expansion of the program over the years. On March 11, 2021, our Board of Directors approved the expansion of the stock repurchase program by an additional $350.0 million. We did not repurchase any shares of our common stock under the program during fiscal year 2024. As of January 28, 2024, the remaining authorization under the program was $209.4 million. Under the program, we may repurchase our common stock at any time or from time to time, without prior notice, subject to market conditions and other considerations. Our repurchases may be made through Rule 10b5-1 and/or Rule 10b-18 or other trading plans, open market purchases, privately negotiated transactions, block purchases or other transactions. To the extent we repurchase any shares of our common stock under the program in the future, we expect to fund such repurchases from cash on hand and borrowings on our Revolving Credit Facility (as defined below). We have no obligation to repurchase any shares under the program and may suspend or discontinue it at any time.
Sales of Unregistered Securities
We did not make any sales of unregistered securities during fiscal year 2024 that have not been previously reported.
Performance Graph
This chart and graph show the value of a $100 cash investment at the close of market on the last trading day of fiscal year 2019 in (i) our common stock, (ii) the Nasdaq Composite Index, and (iii) the Philadelphia ("PHLX") Semiconductor Index, and assumes that all dividends are reinvested. Note that historic stock price performance is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
SMTC Performance Graph v2.jpg
Fiscal Year201920202021202220232024
Semtech$100 $106 $143 $136 $67 $41 
Nasdaq Composite$100 $130 $182 $192 $162 $216 
PHLX SEMICONDUCTOR SECTOR$100 $150 $225 $258 $230 $339 
The information contained in this Item 5 under the heading "Performance Graph" (i) is being furnished and shall not be deemed "filed" for the purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities of that section, and (ii) shall not be incorporated by reference into any registration statement or other document pursuant to the Exchange Act, or the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing to this Item 5 Performance Graph information.
Item 6.    [Reserved]

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Item 7.     Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and operating results should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. See also “Special Note Regarding Forward Looking and Cautionary Statements” at the beginning of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Overview
We are a high-performance semiconductor, IoT systems and cloud connectivity service provider and were incorporated in Delaware in 1960. We design, develop, manufacture and market a wide range of products for commercial applications, the majority of which are sold into the infrastructure, high-end consumer and industrial end markets. Infrastructure end market includes data centers, PON, base stations, optical networks, servers, carrier networks, switches and routers, cable modems, wireless LAN and other communication infrastructure equipment. High-end consumer end market includes smartphones, tablets, wearables, desktops, notebooks, and other handheld products, wireless charging, set-top boxes, digital televisions, monitors and displays, digital video recorders and other consumer equipment. Industrial end market includes IoT applications, analog and digital video broadcast equipment, video-over-IP solutions, automated meter reading, smart grid, wireless charging, medical, security systems, automotive, industrial and home automation and other industrial equipment. Our end customers for our silicon solutions are primarily OEMs that produce and sell technology solutions. Our IoT module, router, gateway and managed connectivity solutions ship to IoT device makers and enterprises to provide IoT connectivity to end devices.
We report results on the basis of 52 and 53 week periods and our fiscal year ends on the last Sunday in January. Fiscal years 2024, 2023 and 2022 each consisted of 52 weeks.
We remained focused on furthering our role as a leading provider of disruptive platforms that enable our customers to deliver solutions to create a smarter planet. We continued to invest in secular trends that enable a smarter, more sustainable planet; enable higher bandwidth; and enable greater mobility.
The increasing adoption of our LoRa® technology for low power wide-area networks is providing connectivity solutions that enable IoT networks to make a smarter, more connected planet. Our portfolio of optical and copper connectivity solutions continue to address the demand for greater bandwidth and higher performance, while using less power by our global hyper-scale data center customers. Additionally, the unexpected pivot to online learning and remote work environments during the COVID-19 pandemic exposed the fragile nature of many global networks that struggled under the spike in demand. This has driven infrastructure suppliers around the world to accelerate their investments in high-speed connectivity using 5G wireless and PON technology where we are an industry leader. Though network capacities have normalized to accommodate remote environments, industry demand within hyperscale data centers expanded to support artificial intelligence-driven applications, as well as general compute data center applications.
The trend towards adoption of finer silicon geometries has accelerated across all categories of end systems, making them increasingly vulnerable to electrical and electromagnetic threats. Our protection solutions, which enable the highest levels of system performance, have found increased adoption across the board, driven by the need to maintain product functionality despite the challenging threat environment (electrical and electromagnetic), and increased system sensitivity to threats due to adoption of finer silicon geometries for implementation of system functions. Finally, the increasing demand for smaller, lower-powered higher performance mobile platforms with more enjoyable organic light-emitting diode displays has benefited our protection and proximity sensing solutions that protect these mobile devices and help our customers comply with radio frequency absorption regulations.
Through our acquisition of Sierra Wireless, Inc. ("Sierra Wireless") in January 2023, we supply cellular wireless devices and provide services in the wireless communications and information technology industry, enabling connectivity for IoT solutions through cellular and short range wireless technologies. These technologies primarily include 3G standards such as UMTS (including HSPDA and HSUPA) and EV-DO; 4G standards such as HSPA+, LTE, LTE-A; 5G standards such as fifth generation new radio (“5G NR”) standards (both millimeter wave and sub-6 Gigahertz frequencies); Low Power Wide Area ("LPWA") standards such as LTE-M and NB-IoT; and wireless local area network technologies such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth; and Global Navigation Satellite System (“GNSS”) positioning.
We also offer IoT connectivity services that help customers simplify their IoT journey, whether their machines or other connected assets are regionally located or globally dispersed. Our connectivity services optimizes and simplifies North American deployments, with multi-carrier options for IoT deployments in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico and a single point of accountability for connectivity management. We also accelerate global IoT deployments by providing a solution for customers to maintain a secure connection to assets throughout the world.
Recent Developments
Leadership
Pursuant to the Cooperation Agreement entered into by and among us and Lion Point Capital, LP and certain of its affiliates on March 17, 2023 (the “Cooperation Agreement”), our board of directors (the “Board” or “Board of Directors”) appointed
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Gregory M. Fischer and Paul V. Walsh Jr. as members of the Board, effective April 14, 2023, to serve until our calendar year 2023 annual meeting of stockholders and until their successors are elected or qualified, or until their earlier deaths, resignations or removals. In accordance with the Cooperation Agreement, the Board Designees were nominated for election to the Board at our 2023 annual meeting of stockholders, and were elected to the Board at such meeting.
On May 24, 2023, the Board appointed Paul H. Pickle to serve as our President and Chief Executive Officer, which became effective as of June 30, 2023 (the “CEO Transition Date”). Mr. Pickle succeeded Mohan Maheswaran as the Company's President and Chief Executive Officer on the CEO Transition Date.
Effective June 30, 2023, the Board also appointed Mr. Pickle as a member of the Board to serve until our calendar year 2024 annual meeting of stockholders and until his successor is elected or qualified, or until his earlier death, resignation or removal.
Pursuant to the Cooperation Agreement, the Board appointed Hong Q. Hou as a member of the Board, effective July 1, 2023, to serve until our calendar year 2024 annual meeting of stockholders and until his successor is elected or qualified, or until his earlier death, resignation or removal.
On September 5, 2023, the Board appointed Mark Lin to serve as our Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, which became effective on October 2, 2023 (the "CFO Transition Date"). Mr. Lin succeeded Emeka Chukwu as the Company’s Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer on the CFO Transition Date.
Pursuant to the Cooperation Agreement, the Board appointed Julie G. Ruehl as a member of the Board, effective December 1, 2023, to serve until our calendar year 2024 annual meeting of stockholders and until her successor is elected or qualified, or until her earlier death, resignation or removal.
Restructuring
During the second quarter of fiscal year 2024, we commenced a reduction in workforce plan. Additionally, during fiscal year 2024, we have undertaken structural reorganization actions to reduce our workforce as a result of cost-saving measures and internal resource alignment including from the realization of synergies of the acquisition of Sierra Wireless, Inc. completed on January 12, 2023 (the "Sierra Wireless Acquisition"). Total restructuring charges in fiscal year 2024 were $24.6 million, of which $6.0 million related to the reduction in workforce plan that commenced during the second quarter of fiscal year 2024 and was completed during the second half of fiscal year 2024. For additional information, see Note 17, Restructuring, to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Financing
On February 24, 2023, we entered into the first amendment to the Credit Agreement (as defined below) to make certain modifications to the financial covenants in the Credit Agreement, as further described under “―Liquidity and Capital Resources―Expected Sources and Uses of Liquidity―Credit Agreement” below.
On June 6, 2023, we entered into the second amendment ("Second Amendment") to the Credit Agreement to provide certain financial covenant relief as further described under "―Liquidity and Capital Resources―Expected Sources and Uses of Liquidity―Credit Agreement" below.
On October 19, 2023, we entered into the third amendment to the Credit Agreement in order to, among other things, (i) extend the financial covenant relief period under the Credit Agreement by one year to April 30, 2026, (ii) increase the maximum consolidated leverage ratio covenant for certain test periods as set forth in the Third Amendment, (iii) reduce the minimum consolidated interest coverage ratio covenant for certain test periods as set forth in the Third Amendment and (iv) make certain other changes as set forth in the Third Amendment.
On October 26, 2023, we issued and sold $250.0 million in aggregate principal amount of our 4.00% Convertible Senior Notes due 2028 (the “2028 Notes”) in a private placement. The 2028 Notes were issued pursuant to an indenture, dated October 26, 2023, by and among the Company, the subsidiary guarantors party thereto, and U.S. Bank Trust Company, National Association, as trustee. In connection with entering into the Third Amendment, we used the proceeds from the offering of the 2028 Notes and cash on hand to repay $250 million aggregate principal amount of the term loans outstanding under the Credit Agreement. The 2028 Notes bear interest at a rate of 4.00% per year, payable semi-annually in arrears on May 1 and November 1 of each year, beginning on May 1, 2024. The 2028 Notes will mature on November 1, 2028, unless earlier converted, redeemed or repurchased. For additional information on the 2028 Notes, see Note 10, Long-Term Debt, to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Impact of Macroeconomic Conditions
Macroeconomic factors such as market volatility, inflationary pressures, elevated interest rates, geopolitical tensions and recessionary concerns have caused uncertainty in end customer demand and have resulted in elevated channel inventories. We believe that we can continue to take appropriate actions to align our inventory levels with anticipated customer demand profiles.
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Our Segments
We have four operating segments—Signal Integrity, Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless, IoT Systems, and IoT Connected Services—that represent four separate reportable segments. Historically, the Company had three operating segments—Signal Integrity, Wireless and Sensing, and Protection—that had been aggregated into two reportable segments identified as the High-Performance Analog Group, which was comprised of the Signal Integrity and Wireless and Sensing operating segments, and the System Protection Group, which was comprised of the Protection operating segment. In the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2023, as a result of organizational restructuring, the proximity sensing business and the power business were moved from the previous Wireless and Sensing operating segment into the newly formed Advanced Protection and Sensing operating segment, which also includes the Protection business. Following this organizational restructuring, the Company determined that Signal Integrity and the revised Wireless and Sensing operating segments were no longer economically similar and as a result the Company concluded that Signal Integrity should be separately reported as its own reportable segment. Also in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2023, in conjunction with the Sierra Wireless Acquisition, the Company formed two additional operating segments including the IoT System operating segment, which absorbed the Company's revised Wireless and Sensing operating segment, and the IoT Connected Services operating segment. In the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2024, as a result of organizational restructuring, the wireless business, which was previously included in the IoT Systems operating segment, and the SDVoE business, which was previously included in the Signal Integrity operating segment, were moved into the Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless operating segment, formerly the Advanced Protection and Sensing operating segment, which also includes the proximity sensing, power and protection businesses. As a result of these changes, the Company has four reportable segments. All prior year information in the tables below has been revised retrospectively to reflect the change to the Company's reportable segments. See Note 16, Segment Information, to our Consolidated Financial Statements for segment information.
Factors Affecting Our Performance
Most of our sales to customers are made on the basis of individual customer purchase orders and many customers include cancellation provisions in their purchase orders. Net sales made through independent distributors in fiscal years 2024, 2023 and 2022 were 66%, 85% and 87%, respectively of net sales, and the remainder were made directly to customers. The lower percentage of distributor sales in fiscal year 2024 primarily relates to sales channels associated with the Sierra Wireless business, which we acquired in January 2023.
We are a global business with customers and suppliers around the world. A significant amount of our third-party subcontractors and suppliers, including third-party foundries that supply silicon wafers, are located outside the United States, including China, Taiwan and Vietnam. Net sales outside the United States for fiscal years 2024, 2023 and 2022 constituted approximately 76%, 87% and 90%, respectively, of our net sales. Approximately 58%, 72% and 79% of net sales in fiscal years 2024, 2023 and 2022, respectively, were to customers located in the Asia-Pacific region. We are subject to export restrictions and trade regulations, which have limited our ability to sell to certain customers.
We use several metrics as indicators of future potential growth. The indicators that we believe best correlate to potential future sales growth are design wins and new product releases. There are many factors that may cause a design win or new product release to not result in sales, including a customer decision not to go to system production, a change in a customer’s perspective regarding a product’s value or a customer’s product failing in the end market. As a result, although a design win or new product introduction is an important step towards generating future sales, it does not necessarily result in us being awarded business or receiving a purchase commitment.
Inflationary factors could affect our future performance if we are unable to pass higher costs on to our customers.
Revenue
We derive our revenue primarily from the sale of our products into various end markets. Revenue is recognized when control of these products is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for these products. Control is generally transferred when products are shipped and, to a lesser extent, when the products are delivered.
Cloud and connectivity services, primarily reported in our IoT Connected Services segment, are provided on either a subscription or consumption basis. Revenue related to cloud and connectivity services provided on a subscription basis is recognized ratably over the contract period. Revenue related to cloud and connectivity services provided on a consumption basis is recognized based on the customer utilization of such resources. Revenues from SIM activation and initial application setup are deferred and recognized over the estimated customer life on a straight-line basis. Licenses for on-premise software provide the customer with a right to use the software as it exists when made available to the customer. Revenue from distinct on-premise licenses are recognized upfront at the point in time when the software is made available to the customer. Revenue from software maintenance, unspecified upgrades and technical support contracts are recognized over the period such items are delivered or services are provided. Revenue from technical support contracts extending beyond the current period is deferred and is recognized over the applicable earning period.
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Recovery of costs associated with product design and engineering services are recognized during the period in which services are performed and are reported as a reduction to product development and engineering expense. Historically, these recoveries have not exceeded the cost of the related development efforts. We include revenue related to granted technology licenses as part of "Net sales" in the Statements of Operations. Historically, revenue from these arrangements has not been significant though it is part of our recurring ordinary business.
We determine revenue recognition through the following five steps:
Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer
Identification of the performance obligations in the contract
Determination of the transaction price
Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
Recognition of revenue when, or as, performance obligations are satisfied
We account for a contract when it has approval and commitment from both parties, the rights of the parties are identified, payment terms are identified, the contract has commercial substance and collectability of consideration is probable.
Our customer contracts can include various combinations of products and services, which are generally capable of being distinct and accounted for as separate performance obligations. Net sales reflect the transaction prices for contracts, which include units shipped at selling prices reduced by variable consideration. Determination of variable consideration requires judgment by us. Variable consideration includes expected sales returns and other price adjustments. Variable consideration is estimated using the expected value method considering all reasonably available information, including our historical experience and our current expectations, and is reflected in the transaction price when sales are recorded. Sales returns are generally accepted at our discretion or from distributors with such rights. Our contracts with trade customers do not have significant financing components or non-cash consideration. We record net sales excluding taxes collected on our sales to our trade customers.
We provide an assurance type warranty, which is typically not sold separately and does not represent a separate performance obligation. Our payment terms are generally aligned with shipping terms.
Gross Profit
Gross profit is equal to our net sales less our cost of sales. Our cost of sales includes materials, depreciation on fixed assets used in the manufacturing process, shipping costs, direct labor and overhead, as well as amortization of acquired technology and acquired technology impairments. The majority of our manufacturing is outsourced, resulting in relatively low fixed manufacturing costs and variable costs that highly correlate with volume. We determine the cost of inventory by the first-in, first-out method.
Operating Costs and expenses, net
Our operating costs and expenses generally consist of selling, general and administrative, product development and engineering costs, costs associated with acquisitions, restructuring charges, and other operating related charges.
Results of Operations
A discussion of our results of operations for the fiscal years ended January 28, 2024 and January 29, 2023 and year-over-year comparisons between these fiscal years appears below. In the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2024, we made certain changes in our reportable segments due to organizational restructuring. See “―Our Segments” above. See also Note 16, Segment Information, to our Consolidated Financial Statements for additional segment information.
With the exception of net sales, gross profit and operating expenses, which are discussed below to reflect the changes to our reportable segments and reclassification of restructuring costs (see "Reclassification" below), a discussion of our results of operations for the fiscal year ended January 30, 2022 and year-over-year comparisons between fiscal years 2023 and 2022 have been omitted from this Annual Report on Form 10-K, but may be found in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 29, 2023, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 30, 2023.
Reclassification
During fiscal year 2024, we reclassified restructuring costs that were included in "Selling, general and administrative" and "Product development and engineering" within "Total operating costs and expenses, net" in the Statements of Operations to be separately presented in "Restructuring" within "Total operating costs and expenses, net" in the Statements of Operations. This was applied retrospectively, which resulted in the reclassification of $11.1 million of restructuring costs from "Selling, general and administrative" and $0.5 million of restructuring costs from "Product development and engineering" to "Restructuring" in the Statements of Operations for fiscal year 2023. There were no restructuring costs in fiscal year 2022. This reclassification did
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not impact our gross profit, operating income, net income or earnings per share for any historical periods and also did not impact the Balance Sheets or Statements of Cash Flows.
Fiscal Year 2024 Compared with Fiscal Year 2023
Net Sales
The following table summarizes our net sales by major end market:
Fiscal Years
(in thousands, except percentages)20242023
Net Sales% Net SalesNet Sales% Net SalesChange
Infrastructure$163,947 19 %$287,270 38 %(43)%
High-End Consumer125,222 14 %158,416 21 %(21)%
Industrial579,589 67 %310,847 41 %86 %
Total$868,758 100 %$756,533 100 %15 %
Net sales for fiscal year 2024 were $868.8 million, an increase of 15% compared to $756.5 million for fiscal year 2023 driven by the Sierra Wireless Acquisition, which contributed $431.5 million of net sales from our industrial end market, partially offset by softer demand resulting in lower volume across all end markets. Net sales from our industrial end market increased $268.7 million versus the prior year primarily due to an approximately $235 million increase in module sales, an approximately $90 million increase in router sales and an approximately $88 million increase in managed connectivity sales all of which were driven by the Sierra Wireless Acquisition, partially offset by an approximately $118 million decrease in LoRa-enabled industrial product sales, an approximately $14 million decrease in industrial TVS product sales and an approximately $10 million decrease in broadcast sales, all of which were driven by softer demand. Net sales from our infrastructure end market decreased $123.3 million driven by an approximately $85 million decrease in PON sales, an approximately $19 million decrease in wireless infrastructure sales, an approximately $10 million decrease in infrastructure TVS product sales and an approximately $6 million decrease in data center sales. Net sales from our high-end consumer end market decreased $33.2 million primarily driven by an approximately $30 million decrease in consumer TVS product sales.
The following table summarizes our net sales by reportable segment:
Fiscal Years
(in thousands, except percentages)20242023
Net Sales% Net SalesNet Sales% Net SalesChange
Signal Integrity$177,033 20 %$298,290 39 %(41)%
Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless
260,264 30 %443,239 59 %(41)%
IoT Systems334,904 39 %9,811 %3,314 %
IoT Connected Services96,557 11 %5,193 %1,759 %
Total$868,758 100 %$756,533 100 %15 %
Net sales from Signal Integrity decreased $121.3 million in fiscal year 2024 versus fiscal year 2023 primarily due to an approximately $85 million decrease in PON sales, a $19 million decrease in wireless infrastructure sales, a $10 million decrease in broadcast sales and a $6 million decrease in data center sales, all of which were driven by softer demand. Net sales from Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless decreased $183.0 million in fiscal year 2024 versus fiscal year 2023 primarily driven by an approximately $121 million decrease in LoRa-enabled product sales and an approximately $54 million decrease in total TVS product sales both driven by softer demand. Net sales from IoT Systems increased $325.1 million in fiscal year 2024 versus fiscal year 2023 primarily due to an approximately $235 million increase in module sales and a $90 million increase in router sales both driven by the Sierra Wireless Acquisition. Net sales from IoT Connected Services increased $91.4 million in fiscal year 2024 versus fiscal year 2023 primarily due to an approximately $88 million increase in managed connectivity sales driven by the Sierra Wireless Acquisition.
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Gross Profit
The following table summarizes our gross profit and gross margin by reportable segment:
Fiscal Years
(in thousands, except percentages)20242023
Gross ProfitGross MarginGross ProfitGross Margin
Signal Integrity$101,245 57.2 %$208,510 69.9 %
Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless146,598 56.3 %274,515 61.9 %
IoT Systems134,277 40.1 %3,245 33.1 %
IoT Connected Services47,228 48.9 %2,489 47.9 %
Unallocated costs, including share-based compensation, amortization of acquired technology and acquired technology impairments(133,098)(10,201)
Total$296,250 34.1 %$478,558 63.3 %
In fiscal year 2024, gross profit decreased to $296.3 million from $478.6 million in fiscal year 2023. This decrease was primarily due to $91.8 million of acquired technology impairments, a $28.1 million increase in the amortization of acquired technology intangible assets related to the Sierra Wireless Acquisition, $3.3 million of inventory step-up related to the Sierra Wireless Acquisition, a $107.3 million decrease from Signal Integrity primarily driven by lower PON sales and lower wireless sales due to softer demand and a $127.9 million decrease from Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless primarily driven by lower LoRa-enabled product sales due to softer demand, partially offset by a $131.0 million increase from IoT Systems due to the Sierra Wireless Acquisition and a $44.7 million increase from IoT Connected Services due to the Sierra Wireless Acquisition.
Our gross margin was 34.1% in fiscal year 2024, compared to 63.3% in fiscal year 2023. Gross margin in Signal Integrity was 57.2% in fiscal year 2024, compared to 69.9% in fiscal year 2023 primarily due to an unfavorable product mix driven by lower sales, primarily in PON. Gross margin in Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless was 56.3% in fiscal year 2024, compared to 61.9% in fiscal year 2023 primarily due to an unfavorable product mix driven by lower LoRa-enabled product sales, as well as pricing pressures and lower overhead absorption. Gross margin in IoT Systems was 40.1% in fiscal year 2024, compared to 33.1% in fiscal year 2023 due to higher router and module sales driven by the Sierra Wireless Acquisition. Gross margin in IoT Connected Services was 48.9% in fiscal year 2024, compared to 47.9% in fiscal year 2023 due to higher managed connectivity sales driven by the Sierra Wireless Acquisition.
Operating Costs and Expenses, net
Fiscal Years
(in thousands, except percentages)20242023
Cost/Exp.% Net SalesCost/Exp.% Net SalesChange
Selling, general and administrative$220,220 25 %$224,812 30 %(2)%
Product development and engineering186,450 21 %166,948 21 %12 %
Intangible amortization14,913 %821 — %1,716 %
Restructuring23,775 %11,491 %107 %
Gain on sale of business— — %(18,313)(2)%(100)%
Intangible impairments39,593 %— — %100 %
Goodwill impairment755,621 87 %— — %100 %
Total operating costs and expenses, net$1,240,572 143 %$385,759 51 %222 %
Selling, General & Administrative (“SG&A”) Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses decreased $4.6 million for fiscal year 2024 compared to fiscal year 2023 primarily as a result of a $34 million decrease in share-based compensation acceleration expense, offset by a $26 million net increase in staffing-related costs and a $5 million increase in consulting expenses, all of which related to the Sierra Wireless Acquisition.
Product Development and Engineering Expenses
Product development and engineering expenses increased $19.5 million for fiscal year 2024 compared to fiscal year 2023 primarily as a result of a $26 million net increase in staffing related costs due to higher headcount, a $3 million increase from new product introduction expenses, and a $2 million increase in transaction and integration expenses, offset by an $11 million decrease in share-based compensation acceleration expense, all of which related to the Sierra Wireless Acquisition. The levels of product development and engineering expenses reported in a fiscal period can be significantly impacted, and therefore experience period-over-period volatility, by the number of new product tape-outs and by the timing of recoveries from non-recurring engineering services, which are typically recorded as a reduction to product development and engineering expense.
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Intangible Amortization
Intangible amortization for fiscal year 2024 increased $14.1 million for fiscal year 2024 compared to fiscal year 2023 due to intangibles acquired in the Sierra Wireless Acquisition related to customer relationships and trade name. Amortization of acquired technology intangibles is reflected in cost of sales.
Restructuring Expenses
Restructuring expenses increased $12.3 million for fiscal year 2024 compared to fiscal year 2023 primarily due to structural reorganization actions to reduce our workforce as a result of cost-saving measures and internal resource alignment including from the realization of synergies of the Sierra Wireless Acquisition.
Gain on Sale of Business
Gain on sale of business decreased $18.3 million for fiscal year 2024 compared to fiscal year 2023 due to the divestiture of the Disposal Group in May 2022.
Intangible Impairments
Intangible impairments totaled $39.6 million for fiscal year 2024 primarily due to reduced earnings forecasts associated with the business acquired from Sierra Wireless and current macroeconomic conditions, including an elevated interest rate environment. There were no intangible impairments for fiscal year 2023.
Goodwill Impairment
Goodwill impairment was $755.6 million for fiscal year 2024 primarily due to reduced earnings forecasts associated with the business acquired from Sierra Wireless and current macroeconomic conditions, including an elevated interest rate environment. During the second quarter of fiscal year 2024, as a result of reduced earnings forecasts associated with the business acquired from Sierra Wireless and current macroeconomic conditions, including an elevated interest rate environment, the Company performed an interim impairment test using a quantitative assessment of the reporting units related to the Sierra Wireless Acquisition (specifically, the IoT Connected Services, IoT Systems–Modules and IoT Systems–Routers reporting units). This interim impairment test resulted in $279.6 million of total pre-tax non-cash goodwill impairment charges recorded during the second quarter of fiscal year 2024, consisting of $69.0 million of goodwill impairment for the IoT Connected Services reporting unit, $109.9 million of goodwill impairment for the IoT Systems–Modules reporting unit and $100.7 million goodwill impairment for the IoT Systems–Routers reporting unit. During the third quarter of fiscal year 2024, the Company recorded an additional $2.3 million of total pre-tax non-cash goodwill impairment charges resulting from the finalization of the measurement period adjustments, consisting of $1.6 million of goodwill impairment for the IoT Connected Services reporting unit, $0.2 million of goodwill impairment for the IoT Systems–Modules reporting unit and $0.5 million of goodwill impairment for the IoT Systems–Routers reporting unit. During the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2024, the Company performed its annual goodwill and intangible asset impairment assessment using a quantitative assessment for all of its reporting units. Due to a further reduction in earnings forecasts associated with the business acquired from Sierra Wireless, the Company recorded an additional $473.8 million of total pre-tax non-cash goodwill impairment charges resulting from a quantitative assessment of the reporting units, consisting of $138.4 million of goodwill impairment for the IoT Connected Services reporting unit, $135.1 million of goodwill impairment for the IoT Systems–Modules reporting unit and $200.3 million of goodwill impairment for the IoT Systems–Routers reporting unit. There was no goodwill impairment at any of the Company's other reporting units. There was no goodwill impairment for fiscal year 2023. See Note 8, Goodwill and Intangible Assets, to our Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Interest Expense
Interest expense was $95.8 million and $17.6 million for fiscal years 2024 and 2023, respectively. The $78.2 million increase was primarily due to additional debt agreements entered into during fiscal year 2023 related to financings for the Sierra Wireless Acquisition and refinancing activities undertaken during fiscal year 2024, as well as higher interest rates on the portion of our outstanding floating-rate debt that was unhedged during the period.
Investment Impairments and Credit Loss Reserves
In fiscal year 2024, investment impairments and credit loss reserves totaled a loss of $3.9 million primarily due to $2.6 million of other-than-temporary impairments on certain non-marketable equity investments and adjustments to our credit loss reserve for our available-for-sale debt securities. In fiscal year 2023, investment impairments and credit loss reserves totaled a loss of $1.2 million as we had a recovery on our credit loss reserves of $0.3 million for our available-for-sale debt securities and recorded a $1.5 million other-than-temporary impairment on one of our non-marketable equity investments.
Provision for Income Taxes
We recorded income tax expense of $50.5 million for fiscal year 2024 compared to income tax expense of $17.3 million for fiscal year 2023. The effective tax rates for fiscal years 2024 and 2023 were (4.9%) and 22.0%, respectively. Our effective tax rate for fiscal year 2024 differs from the statutory federal income tax rate of 21% primarily due to our regional mix of income,
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changes in valuation allowance, non-deductibility of goodwill impairment and research and development ("R&D") tax credits. The Tax Act requires R&D costs incurred for tax years beginning after December 31, 2021 to be capitalized and amortized ratably over five or fifteen years for tax purposes, depending on where the research activities are conducted. We have elected to treat global intangible low-taxed income ("GILTI") as a period cost and the additional capitalization of R&D costs within GILTI increases our provision for income taxes.
We receive a tax benefit from a tax holiday that was granted in Switzerland. The tax holiday commenced on January 30, 2017, and was effective for five years (the “Initial Term”). Since we met certain staffing targets, the holiday has been extended for an additional five years. The maximum benefit under this tax holiday is CHF 500.0 million of cumulative after tax profit, which equates to a maximum potential tax savings of CHF 44.0 million. The extended term of the tax holiday is effective until fiscal year 2027. However, Switzerland implemented the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development's ("OECD") global minimum tax ("Pillar Two") rules effective from January 1, 2024. These rules are expected to be applicable for us starting in fiscal year 2026 and will adversely impact our provision for income taxes.
As a global organization, we are subject to audit by taxing authorities in various jurisdictions. To the extent that an audit, or the closure of a statute of limitations results in adjusting our reserves for uncertain tax positions, our effective tax rate could experience extreme volatility since any adjustment would be recorded as a discrete item in the period of adjustment.
For further information on the effective tax rate and the Tax Act’s impact, see Note 12, Income Taxes, to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Fiscal Year 2023 Compared with Fiscal Year 2022
The discussion below updates the discussion included in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 29, 2023, filed with the SEC on March 30, 2023, to reflect the changes to our reportable segments and the Reclassification.
Net Sales
The following table summarizes our net sales by major end market:
Fiscal Years
(in thousands, except percentages)20232022
Net Sales% Net SalesNet Sales% Net SalesChange
Infrastructure$287,270 38 %$264,464 35 %%
High-End Consumer158,416 21 %220,380 30 %(28)%
Industrial310,847 41 %256,014 35 %21 %
Total$756,533 100 %$740,858 100 %%
Net sales for fiscal year 2023 were $756.5 million, an increase of 2% compared to $740.9 million for fiscal year 2022. Net sales from our industrial end market increased $54.8 million versus the prior year primarily due to an approximately $53 million increase in LoRa-enabled product sales led by an increase in pico gateways. Net sales from our infrastructure end market increased $22.8 million driven by an approximately $37 million increase in PON sales, partially offset by an approximately $11 million decrease in data center sales and an approximately $5 million decrease in wireless infrastructure sales. Net sales from our high-end consumer end market decreased $62.0 million primarily driven by an approximately $47 million decrease in our proximity sensing product sales, including smartphones and an approximately $23 million decrease in Protection product sales, including wearables, mobile computers and smartphones, partially offset by an approximately $7 million increase in industrial automation and automotive sales.
The following table summarizes our net sales by reportable segment:
Fiscal Years
(in thousands, except percentages)20232022
Net Sales% Net SalesNet Sales% Net SalesChange
Signal Integrity$298,290 39 %$286,259 39 %%
Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless443,239 59 %454,599 61 %(2)%
IoT Systems9,811 %— — %100 %
IoT Connected Services5,193 %— — %100 %
Total$756,533 100 %$740,858 100 %%
Net sales for fiscal year 2023 were $756.5 million, an increase of 2% compared to $740.9 million for fiscal year 2022. Net sales from Signal Integrity increased $12.0 million in fiscal year 2023 versus fiscal year 2022 primarily due to an approximately $37
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million increase in PON sales, driven by higher 10G PON sales, partially offset by an approximately $11 million decrease in data center sales, an approximately $7 million decrease in broadcast sales and an approximately $5 million decrease in wireless infrastructure sales. Net sales from Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless decreased $11.4 million in fiscal year 2023 versus fiscal year 2022 primarily driven by an approximately $47 million decrease in proximity sensing sales and an approximately $23 million decrease in consumer product sales, including wearables, mobile computers and smartphones, offset by an approximately $53 million increase in LoRa-enabled product sales led by an increase in pico gateways. Net sales from IoT Systems increased $9.8 million in fiscal year 2023 versus fiscal year 2022 due to an approximately $6 million increase in module sales and an approximately $4 million increase in router sales driven by the Sierra Wireless Acquisition. Net sales from IoT Connected Services increased $5.2 million in fiscal year 2023 versus fiscal year 2022 primarily due to approximately $5 million in managed connectivity sales driven by the Sierra Wireless Acquisition.
Gross Profit
The following table summarizes our gross profit and gross margin by reportable segment:
Fiscal Years
(in thousands, except percentages)20232022
Gross ProfitGross MarginGross ProfitGross Margin
Signal Integrity$208,510 69.9 %$195,984 68.5 %
Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless
274,515 61.9 %274,215 60.3 %
IoT Systems3,245 33.1 %— — %
IoT Connected Services2,489 47.9 %— — %
Unallocated costs, including share-based compensation and amortization of acquired technology(10,201)(9,060)
Total$478,558 63.3 %$461,139 62.2 %
In fiscal year 2023, gross profit increased to $478.6 million from $461.1 million in fiscal year 2022 as a result of higher sales. This increase included a $12.5 million increase from Signal Integrity primarily driven by higher PON sales, a $0.3 million increase from Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless primarily driven by higher LoRa-enabled sales, including pico gateways, a $3.2 million increase from IoT Systems and a $2.5 million increase from IoT Connected Services, both of which were driven by the Sierra Wireless Acquisition, partially offset by lower consumer sales.
Our gross margin was 63.3% in fiscal year 2023, compared to 62.2% in fiscal year 2022. Gross margin for Signal Integrity was 69.9% in fiscal year 2023, compared to 68.5% in fiscal year 2022 primarily driven by higher PON sales. Gross margin for Analog Mixed Signal and Wireless was 61.9% in fiscal year 2023, compared to 60.3% in fiscal year 2022 primarily driven by higher LoRa-enabled sales, including pico gateways. Gross margin for IoT Systems was 33.1% in fiscal year 2023 and gross margin for IoT Connected Services was 47.9% in fiscal year 2023.
Operating Costs and Expenses, net
Fiscal Years
(in thousands, except percentages)20232022
Cost/Exp.% Net SalesCost/Exp.% Net SalesChange
Selling, general and administrative$224,812 30 %$168,210 23 %34 %
Product development and engineering166,948 22 %147,925 20 %13 %
Intangible amortization821 — %— — %100 %
Restructuring11,491 %— — %100 %
Gain on sale of business(18,313)(2)%— — %100 %
Changes in the fair value of contingent earn-out obligations— — %(13)— %(100)%
Total operating costs and expenses, net$385,759 52 %$316,122 43 %22 %
Selling, General & Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $56.6 million for fiscal year 2023 compared to fiscal year 2022 primarily driven by $34 million of share-based compensation acceleration expense and approximately $29 million of other transaction costs related to the Sierra Wireless Acquisition, partially offset by an $11 million decrease in share-based compensation caused by the impact of the lower closing stock price at year-end on the cash-settled awards.
Product Development and Engineering Expenses
Product development and engineering expenses increased $19.0 million for fiscal year 2023 compared to fiscal year 2022 primarily a result of $11 million of share-based compensation acceleration expense related to the Sierra Wireless Acquisition.
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New product introduction expenses, including costs related to Sierra