Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
China Petroleum & Chemical
20-F 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
20-F 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
20-F 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
20-F 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
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EQNR Equinor Asa 55,616
MPC Marathon Petroleum 30,321
YPF YPF 3,453
PBF PBF Energy 2,773
DK Delek US Holdings 2,393
CLMT Calumet Specialty Products Partners 312
VTNR Vertex Energy 51
BPT BP Prudhoe Bay Royalty Trust 0
BP BP 0
SNP 2018-12-31
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisors
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Item 4. Information on The Company
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 8. Financial Information
Item 9. The Offer and Listing
Item 10. Additional Information
Item 11. Qualitative and Quantitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds
Item 15. Controls and Procedures
Item 16. Reserved
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert
Item 16B. Code of Ethics
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant
Item 16G. Comparison of New York Stock Exchange Corporate Governance Rules and China Corporate Governance Rules for Listed Companies
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure
Item 17. Financial Statements
Item 18. Financial Statements
Item 19. Exhibits
EX-1 a18-41808_1ex1.htm
EX-4.15.4 a18-41808_1ex4d15d4.htm
EX-8.1 a18-41808_1ex8d1.htm
EX-12.1 a18-41808_1ex12d1.htm
EX-12.2 a18-41808_1ex12d2.htm
EX-12.3 a18-41808_1ex12d3.htm
EX-13 a18-41808_1ex13.htm

China Petroleum & Chemical Earnings 2018-12-31

SNP 20F Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

20-F 1 a18-41808_120f.htm 20-F

Table of Contents

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 20-F

 

(Mark One)

 

o

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

 

OR

 

 

x

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended DECEMBER 31, 2018

 

 

OR

 

 

o

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

 

OR

 

 

o

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Date of event requiring this shell company report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

For the transaction period form                       to                        

 

Commission file number 1-15138

 

 

中国石油化工股份有限公司

CHINA PETROLEUM & CHEMICAL CORPORATION

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

The People’s Republic of China

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

22 Chaoyangmen North Street

Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100728

The People’s Republic of China

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

Mr. Huang Wensheng

22 Chaoyangmen North Street

Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100728

The People’s Republic of China

Tel: +86 (10) 5996 0028

Fax: +86 (10) 5996 0386

(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

 

Title of Each Class

 

Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered

American Depositary Shares, each representing 100 H Shares of par value RMB 1.00 per share

 

New York Stock Exchange, Inc.

 

New York Stock Exchange, Inc.*

H Shares of par value RMB 1.00 per share

 

 

 


*              Not for trading, but only in connection with the registration of American Depository Shares.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.

 

None

(Title of Class)

 


Table of Contents

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

 

None

(Title of Class)

 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

H Shares, par value RMB 1.00 per share

25,513,438,600

A Shares, par value RMB 1.00 per share

95,557,771,046

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

x Yes   o No

 

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

o Yes   x No

 

Note — Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

x Yes   o No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

x Yes   o No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer, “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer x

 

Accelerated filer o

 

Non-accelerated filer o

 

Emerging growth company o

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

 

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

 

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP o

 

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
by the International Accounting Standards Board
x

 

Other o

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

o Item 17   o Item 18

 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

o Yes   x No

 

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Section 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. *

 

o Yes   o No

 

*              This requirement does not apply to the registrant in respect of this filing.

 


Table of Contents

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

ITEM 1.

IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS

3

 

 

 

ITEM 2.

OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

3

 

 

 

ITEM 3.

KEY INFORMATION

3

 

 

 

 

A.

SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

3

 

B.

CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

5

 

C.

REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS

5

 

D.

RISK FACTORS

5

 

 

 

ITEM 4.

INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

14

 

 

 

 

A.

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY

14

 

B.

BUSINESS OVERVIEW

16

 

C.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

34

 

D.

PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

34

 

 

 

ITEM 4A.

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

35

 

 

 

ITEM 5.

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

35

 

 

 

 

A.

GENERAL

35

 

B.

CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

38

 

C.

DISCUSSIONS ON RESULTS OF SEGMENT OPERATIONS

45

 

D.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

53

 

 

 

ITEM 6.

DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

56

 

 

 

 

A.

DIRECTORS, SUPERVISORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT

56

 

B.

COMPENSATION

63

 

C.

BOARD PRACTICE

64

 

D.

EMPLOYEES

65

 

E.

SHARE OWNERSHIP

66

 

 

 

ITEM 7.

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

66

 

 

 

 

A.

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS

66

 

B.

RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

67

 

C.

INTERESTS OF EXPERTS AND COUNSEL

68

 

 

 

ITEM 8.

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

68

 

 

 

 

A.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION

68

 

B.

SIGNIFICANT CHANGES

69

 

 

 

ITEM 9.

THE OFFER AND LISTING

69

 

 

 

 

A.

OFFER AND LISTING DETAILS

69

 

 

 

ITEM 10.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

70

 

 

 

 

A.

SHARE CAPITAL

70

 

B.

MEMORANDUM AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

70

 

i


Table of Contents

 

 

C.

MATERIAL CONTRACTS

78

 

D.

EXCHANGE CONTROLS

78

 

E.

TAXATION

79

 

F.

DIVIDENDS AND PAYING AGENTS

83

 

G.

STATEMENT BY EXPERTS

83

 

H.

DOCUMENTS ON DISPLAY

83

 

I.

SUBSIDIARY INFORMATION

83

 

 

 

ITEM 11.

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

84

 

 

 

ITEM 12.

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

89

 

 

 

 

A.

DEBT SECURITIES

89

 

B.

WARRANTS AND RIGHTS

89

 

C.

OTHER SECURITIES

89

 

D.

AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES

89

 

 

 

ITEM 13.

DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

90

 

 

 

ITEM 14.

MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

90

 

 

 

 

A.

MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS TO SECURITIES HOLDERS

90

 

B.

USE OF PROCEEDS

90

 

 

 

ITEM 15.

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

90

 

 

 

ITEM 16.

RESERVED

91

 

 

 

ITEM 16A.

AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

91

 

 

 

ITEM 16B.

CODE OF ETHICS

91

 

 

 

ITEM 16C.

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

91

 

 

 

ITEM 16D.

EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

91

 

 

 

ITEM 16E.

PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

92

 

 

 

ITEM 16F.

CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

92

 

 

 

ITEM 16G.

COMPARISON OF NEW YORK STOCK EXCHANGE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE RULES AND CHINA CORPORATE GOVERNANCE RULES FOR LISTED COMPANIES

92

 

 

 

ITEM 16H.

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

96

 

 

 

ITEM 17.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

96

 

 

 

ITEM 18.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

96

 

 

 

ITEM 19.

EXHIBITS

96

 

ii


Table of Contents

 

CERTAIN TERMS AND CONVENTIONS

 

Definitions

 

Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this annual report to:

 

·                  “Sinopec Corp.,” “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” are to China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation, a PRC joint stock limited company, and its subsidiaries;

 

·                  “Sinopec Group Company” are to our controlling shareholder, China Petrochemical Corporation, a PRC limited liability company;

 

·                  “Sinopec Group” are to the Sinopec Group Company and its subsidiaries other than Sinopec Corp. and its subsidiaries;

 

·                  “provinces” are to provinces and to provincial-level autonomous regions and municipalities in China which are directly under the supervision of the central PRC government;

 

·                  “RMB” are to Renminbi, the currency of the PRC;

 

·                  “HK$” are to Hong Kong dollar, the currency of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the PRC; and

 

·                  “US$” are to US dollars, the currency of the United States of America.

 

Conversion Conventions

 

Unless otherwise specified, conversion of crude oil from tonnes to barrels are made at a rate of one tonne to 7.10 barrels for crude oil we produced domestically and one tonne to 7.20, 7.21 and 7.21 barrels for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively, for crude oil we produced overseas. Conversions of natural gas from cubic meters to cubic feet are made at a rate of one cubic meter to 35.31 cubic feet; and 6,000 cubic feet of natural gas is converted to one BOE.

 

Glossary of Technical Terms

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the context, references to:

 

·                  “BOE” are to barrels-of-oil equivalent.

 

·                  “primary distillation capacity” are to the crude oil throughput capacity of a refinery’s crude oil distillation units, calculated by estimating the number of days in a year that such crude oil distillation units are expected to operate, excluding downtime for regular maintenance, and multiplying that number by the amount equal to the units’ optimal daily crude oil throughput.

 

·                  “rated capacity” are to the output capacity of a given production unit or, where appropriate, the throughput capacity, calculated by estimating the number of days in a year that such production unit is expected to operate, excluding downtime for regular maintenance, and multiplying that number by an amount equal to the unit’s optimal daily output or throughput, as the case may be.

 

CURRENCIES AND EXCHANGE RATES

 

We publish our financial statements in Renminbi. Unless otherwise indicated, all translations from Renminbi to US dollars in this annual report were made at RMB 6.6174 to US$1.00, the average of mid-point exchange rates of Renminbi as published by the PRC State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE) for the year of 2018. We do not guarantee that the Renminbi or US dollar amount can be converted to US dollars or Renminbi, as appropriate, at this exchange rate or any specific exchange rate.

 

1


Table of Contents

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This annual report includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, included in this annual report that address activities, events or developments which we expect or anticipate will or may occur in the future are hereby identified as forward-looking statements for the purpose of the safe harbor provided by Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The words such as believe, intend, expect, anticipate, project, estimate, predict, plan and similar expressions are also intended to identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements address, among others, such issues as:

 

·                  amount and nature of future exploration and development,

 

·                  future prices of and demand for our products,

 

·                  future earnings and cash flow,

 

·                  development projects and drilling prospects,

 

·                  future plans and capital expenditures,

 

·                  estimates of proved oil and gas reserves,

 

·                  exploration prospects and reserves potential,

 

·                  expansion and other development trends of the petroleum and petrochemical industry,

 

·                  production forecasts of oil and gas,

 

·                  expected production or processing capacities, including expected rated capacities and primary distillation capacities, of units or facilities not yet in operation,

 

·                  expansion and growth of our business and operations, and

 

·                  our prospective operational and financial information.

 

These statements are based on assumptions and analyses made by us in light of our experience and perception of historical trends, current conditions and expected future developments, as well as other factors we believe are appropriate in particular circumstances. However, whether actual results and developments will meet our expectations and predictions depends on a number of risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations, including the risks set forth in “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors” and the following:

 

·                  fluctuations in crude oil and natural gas prices,

 

·                  fluctuations in prices of our refined oil and chemical products,

 

·                  failures or delays in achieving production from development projects,

 

·                  potential acquisitions and other business opportunities,

 

·                  general economic, market and business conditions, and

 

·                  other risks and factors beyond our control.

 

Consequently, all of the forward-looking statements made in this annual report are qualified by these cautionary statements and readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements should be considered in light of the various important factors set forth above and elsewhere in this Form 20-F. In addition, we cannot assure you that the actual results or developments anticipated by us will be realized or, even if substantially realized, that they will have the expected effect on us or our business or operations.

 

2


Table of Contents

 

ITEM 1.                                                IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 2.                                                OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

 

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 3.                                                KEY INFORMATION

 

A.                                    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 

The selected consolidated statement of income data (except per ADS data) and consolidated cash flows data for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017 and 2018 are derived from, and should be read in conjunction with, the audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. The selected consolidated statement of income data (except per ADS data) and consolidated cash flows data for the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2015 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2014, 2015 and 2016 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements which are not included elsewhere in this annual report.

 

Moreover, the selected financial data should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” included elsewhere in this annual report. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2014

 

2015

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

 

 

(RMB in millions, except per share, per ADS data and number of shares)

 

Consolidated Statement of Income Data(1):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating revenues

 

2,827,566

 

2,020,375

 

1,930,911

 

2,360,193

 

2,891,179

 

Operating expenses

 

(2,754,127

)

(1,963,553

)

(1,853,718

)

(2,288,723

)

(2,808,915

)

Operating income

 

73,439

 

56,822

 

77,193

 

71,470

 

82,264

 

Earnings before income tax

 

65,818

 

56,411

 

80,151

 

86,697

 

99,110

 

Tax expense

 

(17,571

)

(12,613

)

(20,707

)

(16,279

)

(20,213

)

Net income attributable to equity shareholders of the Company

 

46,639

 

32,512

 

46,672

 

51,244

 

61,618

 

Basic earnings per share(2)

 

0.399

 

0.269

 

0.385

 

0.423

 

0.509

 

Basic earnings per ADS(2)

 

39.92

 

26.90

 

38.55

 

42.33

 

50.89

 

Diluted earnings per share(2)

 

0.399

 

0.269

 

0.385

 

0.423

 

0.509

 

Diluted earnings per ADS(2)

 

39.89

 

26.90

 

38.55

 

42.33

 

50.89

 

Segment Operating Income/(Loss)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exploration and production

 

47,057

 

(17,418

)

(36,641

)

(45,944

)

(10,107

)

Refining

 

(1,954

)

20,959

 

56,265

 

65,007

 

54,827

 

Marketing and distribution

 

29,449

 

28,855

 

32,153

 

31,569

 

23,464

 

Chemicals

 

(2,229

)

19,476

 

20,623

 

26,977

 

27,007

 

Corporate and others

 

(1,063

)

384

 

3,212

 

(4,484

)

(9,293

)

Elimination of inter-segment sales

 

2,179

 

4,566

 

1,581

 

(1,655

)

(3,634

)

Operating income

 

73,439

 

56,822

 

77,193

 

71,470

 

82,264

 

Shares

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic weighted average number of A and H shares

 

116,822,487,451

 

120,852,547,200

 

121,071,209,646

 

121,071,209,646

 

121,071,209,646

 

Diluted weighted average number of A and H shares

 

117,242,396,710

 

120,852,547,200

 

121,071,209,646

 

121,071,209,646

 

121,071,209,646

 

 

3


Table of Contents

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2014

 

2015

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

 

 

(RMB in millions, except per share, per ADS data and number of shares)

 

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data(1):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

10,526

 

68,933

 

124,468

 

113,218

 

111,922

 

Total current assets

 

361,559

 

333,657

 

412,261

 

529,049

 

504,120

 

Total non-current assets

 

1,094,035

 

1,113,611

 

1,086,348

 

1,066,455

 

1,088,188

 

Total assets

 

1,455,594

 

1,447,268

 

1,498,609

 

1,595,504

 

1,592,308

 

Total current liabilities

 

(604,451

)

(462,832

)

(485,543

)

(579,446

)

(565,098

)

Short-term debts and loans from Sinopec Group Company and its affiliates (including current portion of long-term debts)

 

(178,148

)

(115,446

)

(74,819

)

(80,649

)

(61,127

)

Long-term debts and loans from Sinopec Group Company and its affiliates (excluding current portion of long-term debts)

 

(150,932

)

(139,746

)

(117,446

)

(99,124

)

(93,527

)

Total equity attributable to equity shareholders of the Company

 

(595,255

)

(676,197

)

(710,994

)

(726,120

)

(717,284

)

Total equity

 

(649,603

)

(788,161

)

(831,235

)

(852,890

)

(856,535

)

Cash dividends per share

 

0.200

 

0.150

 

0.249

 

0.500

 

0.420

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2014

 

2015

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

 

 

(RMB in millions, except per share, per ADS data and number of shares)

 

Statement of Cash Flow and Other Financial Data(1):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net cash generated from operating activities

 

148,019

 

165,740

 

214,543

 

190,935

 

175,868

 

Net cash generated from/(used in) financing activities

 

(21,524

)

9,093

 

(93,047

)

(56,509

)

(111,260

)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

(132,321

)

(116,719

)

(66,217

)

(145,323

)

(66,422

)

Capital expenditure Exploration and production

 

80,196

 

54,710

 

32,187

 

31,344

 

42,155

 

Refining

 

27,957

 

15,132

 

14,347

 

21,075

 

27,908

 

Marketing and distribution

 

26,989

 

22,115

 

18,493

 

21,539

 

21,429

 

Chemicals

 

15,944

 

17,634

 

8,849

 

23,028

 

19,578

 

Corporate and others

 

3,648

 

2,821

 

2,580

 

2,398

 

6,906

 

Total

 

154,734

 

112,412

 

76,456

 

99,384

 

117,976

 

 


(1)         The acquisition of 55% equity interest of Shanghai Gaoqiao Petrochemical Co., Ltd. (“Gaoqiao”) in 2016 from Sinopec Group Company were considered as “combination of entities under common control” and accounted in a manner of predecessor value accounting. Accordingly, the acquired assets and liabilities have been accounted for at historical cost and the consolidated financial statements for periods prior to the combinations have been restated to include the financial condition and results of operation of these acquired business on a combined basis.

 

(2)         Basic earnings per share have been computed by dividing net income attributable to equity shareholders of our company by the weighted average number of shares in issue. Basic and diluted earnings per ADS have been computed as if all of our issued and authorized ordinary shares, including domestic shares and H shares, are represented by ADSs during each of the years presented. Each ADS represents 100 shares.

 

(3)         On October 26, 2017, Gaoqiao purchased 50% equity interest in Shanghai SECCO from BP Chemicals East China Investment Limited with a cash consideration of RMB 10,135 million. Before the acquisition, we and one of our subsidiaries held 30% and 20% equity interest in Shanghai SECCO, respectively. Upon completion of the acquisition, we, together with our subsidiaries, hold 100% equity interest of Shanghai SECCO, which became a subsidiary of us.

 

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B.                                    CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

 

Not applicable.

 

C.                                    REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Not applicable.

 

D.                                    RISK FACTORS

 

Risks Relating to Our Business Operation

 

We are exposed to risks associated with price fluctuations of crude oil and refined oil products and petrochemical products.

 

We consume a large amount of crude oil to produce our refined oil products and petrochemical products. Increases in crude oil prices may result in cost inflation, and high prices may also reduce demand for our products which might adversely affect our profitability. Decreases in prices of crude oil, refined oil products and petrochemical products may cause us to incur impairment to our investment and assets. A prolonged period of low oil prices may impact our profit and ability to maintain our long-term investment projects. We use financial derivatives, including commodity futures, to hedge risks of the volatility in the crude oil price. The use of such financial derivatives may not successfully hedge all risks. The fair value of derivatives fluctuates due to the volatility of crude oil price, which in turn impacts our financial performance. In addition, while we try to adjust the sale prices of our products to reflect international crude oil price fluctuations, our ability to pass on the increased cost resulting from crude oil price increases to our customers may be limited, and is dependent on international and domestic market conditions as well as the PRC government’s price control policies over refined oil products. For instance, the PRC government could exercise price control over refined oil products when international crude oil prices experience a sustained rise or become significantly volatile. As a result, our results of operations and financial condition may be materially affected by the fluctuation of prices of crude oil, refined oil products and petrochemical products.

 

Our continued business success depends in part on our ability to replace reserves and develop newly discovered reserves.

 

Our ability to achieve our growth objectives is dependent in part on our level of success in discovering or acquiring additional oil and natural gas reserves. Our exploration and development activities for additional reserves also expose us to inherent risks associated with drilling, including the risk that no proved oil or natural gas reserves might be discovered. Exploring for, developing and acquiring reserves is highly risky and capital intensive. The fluctuation in the prices of crude oil and natural gas will impact the amount of our proved oil or natural gas reserves. In the low oil price environment, only large scale, high quality reserves meet our development criteria, and some exploration projects may not be viable and thus cannot be carried forward, potentially leading to failure in supplementing our oil and natural gas reserves with additional reserves through future exploration. Without reserve additions through further exploration and development or acquisition activities, or if the prices of crude oil and natural gas fall sharply, our reserves and production will decline over time, which may materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

 

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We rely heavily on outside suppliers for crude oil and other raw materials, and we may even experience disruption of our ability to obtain crude oil and other raw materials.

 

We purchased a significant portion of crude oil and other feedstock from outside suppliers located in different countries and regions in the world, of which certain amount of the crude oil processed by our refinery business was sourced from countries or regions that were on the sanction list published and administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC, of the U.S. Department of Treasury, including Iran and Sudan. In addition, our business growth requires us to source an increasing amount of crude oil from outside suppliers. While we purposely source our crude oil from a diversified portfolio of outside suppliers to avoid any potential disruptions to our normal business operations, we are subject to the political, geographical and economic risks associated with these countries and areas. If our contractual relationships with one or more outside suppliers were terminated or disrupted due to any natural disasters or political events, it is possible that we would not be able to find sufficient alternative sources of supply in a timely manner or on commercially reasonable terms. As a result, our business and financial condition would be materially and adversely affected.

 

Starting from January 2016, the United States suspended most secondary sanctions (i.e., those covering non-U.S. persons) pursuant to the terms of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (the “JCPOA”). In May 2018, the United States withdrew from the JCPOA. Effective on November 5, 2018, all U.S. sanctions on Iran including those on the crude oil and petrochemical sectors were re-imposed, with eight countries and regions including China granted temporary “significant reduction exceptions” as exemptions to such sanctions to allow the importation of crude oil from Iran, which is scheduled to expire on May 2, 2019. The United States government has recently made an announcement that such exemptions under the “significant reduction exceptions” would not be extended. If the relevant sanctions exemption cannot be continuously obtained, we may be unable to source crude oil from Iran or be subject to secondary sanctions resulting from continuing importing crude oil from Iran, which may have further adverse impact on us, including but not limited to being prohibited to conduct certain business and financing activities that relate to the United States, and in turn materially and adversely impact our ADS trading price, results of operations and financial status.

 

Our business faces operation risks and natural disasters that may cause significant property damages, personal injuries and interruption of operations, and we may not have sufficient insurance coverage for all the financial losses incurred by us.

 

Exploring for, producing and transporting crude oil and natural gas and producing and transporting refined oil products and petrochemical products involves a number of operating hazards. Our operations are subject to significant hazards and risks inherent in refining operations and in transporting and storing crude oil, intermediate products, refined oil products and chemical products. These hazards and risks include, but are not limited to, natural disasters, fires, explosions, pipeline ruptures and spills, third-party interference and mechanical failure of equipment at our or third-party facilities, any of which could result in production and distribution difficulties and disruptions, environmental pollution, personal injury or wrongful death claims and other damage to our properties and the property of others. There is also risk of mechanical failure and equipment shutdowns both in general and following unforeseen events. In certain situations, undamaged refinery processing units may be dependent on or interact with damaged process units and, accordingly, are also subject to being shut down. Even though we have a strong institutional focus on the safety of our operations and have implemented health, safety, security and environment (HSSE) management system within our company with the view to preventing accidents, and reducing personal injuries, property losses and environment pollution, our preventative measures may not be effective. We also maintain insurance coverage on our property, plant, equipment, inventory and potential third party liability, but our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all the financial losses caused by the operation risks and natural disasters. Significant operating hazards and natural disasters may cause interruption to our operations, property or environmental damages as well as personal injuries, and each of these incidents could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

The oil and natural gas reserves data in this annual report are only estimates, and our actual production, revenues and expenditures with respect to our reserves may differ materially from these estimates.

 

There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities of proved oil and natural gas reserves, and in the timing of development expenditures and the projection of future rates of production. Adverse changes in economic conditions, such as a prolonged period of low oil prices, may render it uneconomical to develop certain reserves and lead to downward revisions in our reserves. Our actual production, revenues, taxes and fees payable and development and operating expenditures with respect to our reserves may likely vary from these estimates.

 

The estimate of reserves is influenced by, among other things:

 

·                  the quality and quantity of technical and economic data;

 

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·                  the prevailing oil and gas prices applicable to our production;

 

·                  the production performance of the reservoirs; and

 

·                  the production plans and etc.

 

In addition, new drilling, testing and production results following the estimates may cause substantial upward or downward revisions in the estimates.

 

Oilfield exploration and drilling involves numerous risks, including risks that no commercially productive crude oil or natural gas reserves can be discovered and risks of failure to acquire or retain reserves.

 

Our oil and gas business is currently involved in exploration activities in various regions, including in some areas where natural conditions may be challenging and where the costs of such exploration activities may be high. As a result, our oil and gas business may incur cost overruns or may be required to curtail, delay or cancel drilling operations because of many factors, including, but not limited to, the following:

 

·                  disruption caused by unexpected stratigraphic factors;

 

·                  irregularities in geological formations pressure;

 

·                  equipment failures;

 

·                  oil/gas well blowouts;

 

·                  adverse weather conditions or natural disasters;

 

·                  compliance with existing or enhanced environmental regulations;

 

·                  governmental requirements and standards; or

 

·                  delays in the availability of drilling rigs and delivery and maintenance of equipment.

 

The future production of our oil and gas business depends significantly upon our success in finding or acquiring additional reserves and retaining and developing such reserves. If our oil and gas business fails to conduct successful exploration activities or to acquire or retain assets holding proved reserves, it may not meet its production or growth targets, and its proved reserves will decline as it extracts crude oil and natural gas from the existing reservoirs, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

We have been actively pursuing business opportunities outside China to supplement our domestic resources. However, there can be no assurance that we can successfully locate sufficient alternative sources of crude oil supply or at all due to the complexity of the international political, economic and other conditions. If we fail to obtain sufficient alternative sources of crude oil supply, our results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected.

 

Our exploration, development and production activities and our refining and petrochemical business require substantial expenditure and investments and our plans for and ability to make such expenditures and investments are subject to various risks.

 

Exploring, developing and producing crude oil and natural gas fields are capital-intensive activities involving a high degree of risk. Our ability to undertake exploration, development and production activities and make the necessary capital expenditures and investments is subject to many risks, contingencies and other uncertainties, which may prevent our oil and gas business from achieving the desired results, or which may significantly increase the expenditures and investments that our oil and gas business makes, including, but not limited to, the following:

 

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·                  ability to generate sufficient cash flows from operations to finance its expenditures, investments and other requirements, which are affected by changes in crude oil and natural gas prices and sales volumes, and other factors;

 

·                  availability and terms of external financing;

 

·                  mix of exploration and development activities conducted on an independent basis and those conducted jointly with other partners;

 

·                  extent to which its ability to influence or adjust plans for exploration and development related expenditures is limited under joint operating agreements for those projects in which it has partners;

 

·                  government approvals required for exploration and development-related expenditures and investments in jurisdictions in which it conducts business; and

 

·                  economic, political and other conditions in jurisdictions in which it conducts business.

 

From time to time, we may construct new and/or revamp existing refining and petrochemical facilities, which require substantial capital expenditures and investments. There can be no assurance that the cash generated by our operations will be sufficient to fund these development plans or that our actual future capital expenditures and investments will not significantly exceed our current planned amounts. Our inability to obtain sufficient funding for development plans could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our development projects and production activities involve many uncertainties and operating risks that can prevent us from realizing profits and cause substantial losses.

 

Our development projects and production activities may be curtailed, delayed or cancelled for many reasons, including equipment shortages or failures, natural hazards, unexpected drilling conditions, mechanical and technical difficulties caused by complex geological conditions and operating errors by our employees. These projects and activities, which include projects focused on non-conventional oil and gas exploration and development, will also often require the use of new and advanced technologies that may be expensive to develop, purchase and implement, and may not function as expected. There is a risk that any development projects that we undertake may not yield adequate returns. In addition, our development projects and production activities, particularly those in remote areas, could become less profitable, or unprofitable, if we experience a prolonged period of low oil or gas prices or cost overruns.

 

Our business may be adversely affected by actions and regulations prompted by global climate changes.

 

Many nations in the world have reached consensus on the importance and urgency of addressing climate change. The oil and gas industry in which we operate is drawing increasing concerns about global climate change in recent years. A number of international, national and regional measures to limit greenhouse gas emissions have been enacted. The Paris Agreement on climate change adopted by 195 nations in December 2015 has placed binding commitments on nations that have ratified it since November 2016, which may lead to more stringent national and regional measures in the near future. It could result in substantial impact on capital expenditure from compliance with these measures and revenue generation and strategic growth opportunities. In addition, China has undertaken to peak the CO2 emissions by 2030 or earlier, if possible, and to increase the non-fossil fuel share of all energy to around 20 percent by 2030. China has also implemented a national carbon emissions trading scheme in 2017, power generation industry has been included initially, and will gradually expand the industry coverage after the market matures. As most of our producing subsidiaries in China may be recognized as emission-control enterprises, such change could have certain effect on our business operations.

 

Our overseas businesses may be adversely affected by changes of overseas government policies and business environment.

 

We have operations and assets and may seek new opportunities in various countries and regions, including countries in Africa, South America and Central Asia and certain other regions, some of which are deemed to be subject to a high degree of political risk. The operations in these countries may experience political instability, changes to the regulatory environment, changes in taxation and foreign exchange controls, disease outbreaks, deterioration in social security and environmental risks. Any of these conditions occurring could disrupt or curtail our operations or development activities. These events may also cause our production to decline, limit our ability to pursue new opportunities, affect the recoverability of our assets or cause us to incur additional costs, particularly due to the long-term nature of many of our projects and the significant capital expenditure required.

 

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We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company for United States federal income tax purposes, which could result in adverse United States federal income tax consequences to United States investors in the H shares or ADSs.

 

Depending upon the value of our assets, which may be determined based, in part, on the market price of our H shares or ADSs, and the nature of our assets and income over time, we could be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for United States federal income tax purposes. Based on our income and assets and the market price of our H shares or ADSs, we do not believe that we were a PFIC for the taxable year ended December 31, 2018 and do not anticipate becoming a PFIC in the foreseeable future. Because PFIC status is a factual determination made annually after the close of each taxable year on the basis of the composition of our income and the value of our active versus passive assets for that year, there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC for any future taxable year. The overall level of our passive assets will be affected by how, and how quickly, we expend our liquid assets. Under circumstances where gross income from activities that produce passive income significantly increase relative to our gross income from activities that produce non-passive income or where we determine not to deploy significant amounts of cash for active purposes, our risk of becoming classified as a PFIC may substantially increase. If we were to be or become classified as a PFIC, a US Holder (as defined in “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—United States Federal Income Tax Considerations”) may incur significantly increased United States income tax on gains recognized on the sale or other disposition of the H shares or ADSs and on the receipt of distributions on the H shares or ADSs to the extent such gains or distributions are treated as an “excess distribution” under the United States federal income tax rules. For more information see “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—United States Federal Income Tax Considerations.”

 

Our operations may be adversely affected by cyber-attacks or similar disruptions.

 

We have established cybersecurity control schemes and operation and maintenance schemes for our information infrastructure and application system, built a cybersecurity risk management and control information platform, and devoted significant resources to protecting our digital infrastructure and data against cyber-attacks. If our systems against cyber-security risk prove to be ineffective, we could be adversely affected by, among other things, disruptions to our business operations, and loss of proprietary information, including intellectual property, financial information and employer and customer data, injury to people, property, environment and reputation. As cyber-security attacks continue to evolve, we may be required to expend additional resources to enhance our protective measures against cyber-security breaches.

 

Risks Relating to Our Industry

 

Our operations may be adversely affected by the global and domestic economic conditions.

 

Our results of operations are materially affected by economic conditions in China and elsewhere around the world. There are some uncertainty and instability in the current global economic recovery. The Chinese economy has entered the “new normal” stage with stable and favorable economic growth and is moving forward with high quality development. Our operations may also be adversely affected by factors such as foreign countries’ trade protection policies and regional trade agreements which may adversely affect our export and import activities.

 

Our operations may be adversely affected by the cyclical nature of the market.

 

Most of our revenues are attributable to sales of refined oil products and petrochemical products, and certain of these businesses and related products have historically been cyclical and sensitive to a number of factors that are beyond our control. These factors include the availability and prices of feedstock and general economic conditions, such as changes in industry capacity and output levels, changes in regional and global economic conditions, prices and availability of substitute products and fluctuation in prices and demands of natural gas, refined oil products and chemical products. Although we are an integrated company with upstream, midstream and downstream businesses, we have limited ability to mitigate the adverse influence of the cyclicality of global markets.

 

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We face strong competition from domestic and foreign competitors.

 

Among our competitors, some are major integrated petroleum and petrochemical companies within and outside China, which have recently become more significant participants in the petroleum and petrochemical industry in China. The PRC government has speeded up the release of restrictions on the right to use imported crude oil. This development may lead to refining overcapacity in China and intensify competition among local refineries. The Chinese crude oil and refined oil product markets are becoming increasingly dynamic and internationalized with implementation of tariff concessions and relaxation of market. In the opened-up wholesale market of refined oil products previously dominated by PetroChina and us, we are facing stronger competition with new players and imported products entering the market. Our market share of chemical products is also under stronger competitive pressure due to the increasingly active participation of diversified new market players including multinational petroleum and petrochemical companies and domestic private enterprises. In addition, we also expect to face competition in both domestic and international petrochemical product market as a result of our domestic and international competitors’ increasing production capacity. Increased competition may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Risks Relating to Our Controlling Shareholder

 

We engage in related party transactions with Sinopec Group from time to time which may create potential conflict of interest.

 

We have engaged from time to time and will continue to engage in a variety of transactions with Sinopec Group, which provides us with a number of services, including, but not limited to, ancillary supply, engineering, maintenance, transport, lease of land use right, lease of buildings, as well as educational and ancillary services. The nature of our transactions with Sinopec Group is governed by a number of service and other contracts between Sinopec Group and us. We have established various schemes in those agreements so that these transactions, when entered into, are under terms that are at arm’s length. However, we cannot assure you that Sinopec Group Company or any of its members would not take actions that may favor its interests or its other subsidiaries’ interests over ours.

 

We are controlled by Sinopec Group Company, our ultimate controlling shareholder, whose interest in certain businesses are likely to compete with our business.

 

Sinopec Group Company has interests in certain businesses, such as petrochemical and overseas exploration and development, which compete or are likely to compete, either directly or indirectly, with our businesses. To avoid the adverse effects brought by the competition between us and Sinopec Group Company to the maximum extent possible, we and Sinopec Group Company have entered into a non-competition agreement. In 2012, we received from Sinopec Group Company an undertaking to avoid its competition with us. For details, please refer to the descriptions under “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—A. Major Shareholders.” Notwithstanding the foregoing contractual arrangements, because Sinopec Group Company is our controlling shareholder, Sinopec Group Company may take actions that may conflict with our own interests.

 

It is possible that the current or future activities of our ultimate controlling shareholder, Sinopec Group Company, or its affiliates in or with certain countries that are the subject of economic sanctions under relevant U.S. laws could result in negative media and investor attention to us and possible imposition of sanctions on Sinopec Group Company, which could materially and adversely affect our shareholders’ value and operations.

 

Sinopec Group Company undertakes, from time to time and without our involvement, overseas investments and operations in the oil and gas industry, including exploration and production of oil and gas, refining and Liquefied Natural Gas or LNG, oilfield services and refining engineering projects. Sinopec Group Company’s overseas asset portfolio includes a limited number of projects in countries that are subject to U.S. sanctions administrated by OFAC and by the U.S. Department of State. We currently do not believe that any existing investments of Sinopec Group Company will result in any direct sanctions imposed by OFAC. However, we cannot predict the interpretation or implementation of sanction policy at the U.S. federal, state or local levels with respect to any current or future activities by Sinopec Group Company or its affiliates, in countries or with individuals or entities that are the subject of U.S. sanctions. Similarly, we cannot predict whether U.S. sanctions will be further tightened in the case of Iran, or whether sanction scope will be modified or updated, or if any other countries or regions will be incorporated into the sanction list, or the impact that such actions may have on Sinopec Group Company and us. If becoming the target of U.S. sanctions, Sinopec Group Company may be prohibited from conducting business activities in the United States or with individuals or entities in the United States, and the transactions of the our securities in the United States will also be significantly affected. In addition, certain U.S. state and local governments and colleges have restrictions on the investment of public funds or endowment funds, respectively, in companies that are members of corporate groups with activities in certain countries that are the subject of U.S. sanctions. These investors may not wish to invest, and may divest their investment, in us because of our relationship with Sinopec Group Company and its investments and activities in those OFAC sanctioned countries. It is possible that, as a result of activities by Sinopec Group Company or its affiliates in countries that are the subject of U.S. sanctions, we may be subject to negative media or investor attention, which may distract management, consume internal resources and affect investors’ perception of our Company.

 

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Risks Relating to the PRC

 

Government regulations may limit our activities and affect our business operations.

 

The PRC government, though gradually liberalizing its regulations on entry into the petroleum and petrochemical industry, continues to exercise certain controls over the petroleum and petrochemical industry in China. These control mechanisms include granting the licenses to explore and produce crude oil and natural gas, granting the licenses to market and distribute crude oil and refined oil products, regulating the upper limit of the retail prices for gasoline and diesel; collecting special oil income levies, deciding import and export quotas and procedures, setting safety, environmental and quality standards, and formulating policies to save energy and reduce emission; meanwhile, there could be potential changes to macroeconomic and industry policies such as reforming of the oil and gas industry, further reforming and improvement of pricing mechanism of refined oil products and natural gas, and reforming in resource tax and environmental tax, which could impact the production and operations of the domestic petroleum and petrochemical industry. Such control mechanisms may have material effects on our operations and profitability.

 

The PRC governmental authorities, from time to time, audit or inspect our ultimate controlling shareholder. We cannot predict the impact if any, of their outcome on our reputation, business and financial condition as well as the trading prices of our ADSs and H shares.

 

The PRC governmental authorities, from time to time, perform audits, inspections, inquiries or similar actions on state-owned companies, such as Sinopec Group Company, our ultimate controlling shareholder. Such inspections are not conducted on a regular basis with specific targets, and therefore we cannot predict the outcome of these governmental activities. If, as a result of such audits, inspections or inquiries, (i) material irregularities are found within Sinopec Group Company or us or our employees or (ii) Sinopec Group Company or we become the target of any negative publicity, our reputation, business and financial condition as well as the trading prices of our ADSs and H shares may be materially and negatively impacted.

 

Our business operations may be adversely affected by present or future environmental regulations.

 

As an integrated petroleum and petrochemical company, we are subject to extensive environmental protection laws and regulations in China. These laws and regulations permit:

 

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·                  the imposition of environmental tax for the discharge of waste materials;

 

·                  the government, in accordance with law, to order correction, suspend production and impose fines for unlicensed or uncertified pollution discharge;

 

·                  the government, at its discretion, to seal up or close down any facility which has cause or may cause severe environmental damage and require it to correct or stop operations; and

 

·                  litigations and liabilities arising from pollutions and damages to the environment and public interests.

 

Our production activities produce substantial amounts of liquid, gas and solid waste materials. We have established a system to treat waste materials to prevent and reduce pollution. However, the PRC government has moved, and may move further, toward more rigorous enforcement of applicable laws, and toward the adoption of more stringent environmental standards, which, in turn, would require us to incur additional expenditures on environmental matters.

 

In recent years, we have commenced exploration and production of unconventional oil and gas resources, such as shale oil and gas and coal bed methane, through the application of relatively advanced technologies. As a result, our unconventional oil and gas operations rely on unproven technology which may expose us to higher environmental compliance standards and requirements. In the event of any failure to comply with such standards and requirements, we may be subject to public concerns about our unconventional oil and gas operations, which may also harm our corporate reputation.

 

Some of our development plans require compliance with state policies and governmental regulation.

 

We are currently engaged in a number of construction, renovation and expansion projects. Some of our large construction, renovation and expansion projects are subject to governmental confirmation and registration. The timing and cost of completion of these projects will depend on numerous factors, including when we can receive the required confirmation and registration from relevant PRC government authorities and the general economic condition in China. If any of our key projects required for our future growth are not confirmed or registered, or not confirmed or registered in a timely manner, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely impacted.

 

Government control of currency conversion and exchange rate fluctuation may adversely affect our operations and financial results.

 

We receive a significant majority of our revenues in Renminbi. A portion of such revenues will need to be converted into other currencies to meet our foreign currency needs, which include, among other things:

 

·                  import of crude oil and other materials;

 

·                  debt service on foreign currency-denominated debt;

 

·                  purchases of imported equipment;

 

·                  payment of the principals and interests of bonds issued overseas; and

 

·                  payment of any cash dividends declared in respect of the H shares (including ADS).

 

The existing foreign exchange regulations have significantly reduced government foreign exchange controls for transactions under the current account, including trade and service related foreign exchange transactions and payment of dividends. Foreign exchange transactions under the capital account, including principal payments in respect of foreign currency-denominated obligations, continue to be subject to significant foreign exchange controls and require the approval of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange. These limitations could affect our ability to obtain foreign exchange through debt or equity financing, or to obtain foreign exchange. The PRC government has stated publicly that it intends to make the Renminbi freely convertible in the future. However, we cannot predict whether the PRC government will continue its existing foreign exchange policy and when the PRC government will allow free conversion of Renminbi.

 

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The exchange rate of the Renminbi against the US dollar and other foreign currencies fluctuates and is affected by, among other things, the changes in the PRC’s and international political and economic conditions. On July 21, 2005, the PRC government introduced a floating exchange rate system to allow the value of the Renminbi to fluctuate within a regulated band based on market supply and demand and by reference to a basket of foreign currencies. On June 19, 2010 and August 11, 2015, respectively, the People’s Bank of China (PBOC) decided to further promote the reform of exchange rate regime and enhance the flexibility of Renminbi exchange rate. The changes in foreign exchange rate will impact our cost in purchasing crude oil given the majority of our crude oil purchases are settled in foreign currencies and priced in US dollar. Besides, prices of refined oil products are guided by the PRC government and are pegged to the exchange rate of the Renminbi against the US dollar. Therefore the impact of Renminbi exchange rate fluctuation on the purchase cost of crude oil could largely be offset by the corresponding fluctuation in the prices of domestic refined oil products and chemical products.

 

Risks relating to enforcement of shareholder rights; Mandatory arbitration.

 

Currently, the primary sources of shareholder rights are our articles of association, the PRC Company Law and the Listing Rules of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, which, among other things, impose certain standards of conduct, fairness and disclosure on us, our directors and our controlling shareholder. In general, their provisions for protection of shareholder’s rights and access to information are different from those applicable to companies incorporated in the United States, the United Kingdom and other Western countries. In addition, the mechanism for enforcement of rights under the corporate framework to which we are subject may also be relatively undeveloped and untested. To our knowledge, there has not been any published report of judicial enforcement in the PRC by H share shareholders of their rights under constituent documents of joint stock limited companies or the PRC Company Law or in the application or interpretation of the PRC or Hong Kong regulatory provisions applicable to PRC joint stock limited companies. We cannot guarantee that our shareholders will enjoy protections that they may be entitled in other jurisdictions.

 

China does not have treaties providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts with the United States, the United Kingdom or most other Western countries, and therefore recognition and enforcement in China of judgments of a court in any of these jurisdictions in relation to any matter not subject to a binding arbitration provision may not be assured. Our articles of association as well as the Listing Rules of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange provide that most disputes between holders of H shares and us, our directors, supervisors, officers or holders of domestic shares, arising out of the articles of association or the PRC Company Law concerning the affairs of our company, are to be resolved through arbitration, at the election of the claimant, by arbitration organizations in Hong Kong or the PRC, rather than through a court of law. On June 18, 1999, an arrangement was made between Hong Kong and the PRC for the mutual enforcement of arbitral awards. This new arrangement was approved by the Supreme People’s Court of the PRC and the Hong Kong Legislative Council, and became effective on February 1, 2000. We are uncertain as to the outcome of any action brought in China to enforce an arbitral award granted to shareholders.

 

Our auditor, like other independent registered public accounting firms operating in China, is not permitted to be subject to inspection by Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, and as such, investors may be deprived of the benefits of such inspection.

 

Our independent registered public accounting firm that issued the audit reports included in our annual reports filed with the SEC, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with applicable professional standards. Because our auditor is located in China, a jurisdiction where PCAOB has been unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the PRC authorities, our auditor, like other independent registered public accounting firms, is currently not inspected by PCAOB.

 

Inspections of other firms that PCAOB has conducted outside of China have identified deficiencies in those firms’ audit procedures and quality control procedures, which may be addressed as part of the inspection process to improve future audit quality. The lack of PCAOB inspections in China may prevent PCAOB from regularly evaluating our auditor’s audits and quality control procedures. The inability of PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures or quality control procedures. As a result, investors may be deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections.

 

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On December 7, 2018, the SEC and the PCAOB issued a joint statement highlighting continued challenges faced by the U.S. regulators in their oversight of financial statement audits of U.S.-listed companies with significant operations in China. However, it remains unclear what further actions, if any, the SEC and PCAOB will take to address this issue.

 

Additional remedial measures imposed on certain PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, in proceedings brought by the SEC alleging the firms’ failure to meet specific criteria, could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

 

In December 2012, the SEC brought administrative proceedings against the “Big Four” accounting firms in China, including our independent registered public accounting firm, alleging that these firms had refused to produce audit work papers and other documents related to certain other China-based companies whose securities are publicly traded in the United States. On January 22, 2014, an initial administrative law decision was issued, censuring these accounting firms and barring these firms from practicing before the SEC for a period of six months. The decision is neither final nor legally effective unless and until it is endorsed by the SEC. In February 2015, each of the four PRC-based accounting firms agreed to a censure and to pay a fine to the SEC to settle the dispute and avoid suspension of their ability to practice before the SEC. The settlement required the firms to follow detailed procedures to seek to provide the SEC with access to Chinese firms’ audit documents via the China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) in response to future document requests by the SEC made through the CSRC. Under the terms of the settlement, the underlying proceeding against the four China-based accounting firms was deemed dismissed with prejudice for four years after entry of the settlement. The four-year mark occurred on February 6, 2019. We cannot predict if the SEC will further challenge the four China-based accounting firms’ compliance with U.S. law in connection with U.S. regulatory requests for audit work papers or if the results of such a challenge would result in the SEC imposing penalties such as suspensions.

 

In the event that the Chinese affiliates of the “Big Four” become subject to additional legal challenges by the SEC or PCAOB, depending upon the final outcome, listed companies in the United States with PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in the PRC, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and hence face delisting. Moreover, any negative news about the proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding China-based, U.S.-listed companies and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.

 

If our independent registered public accounting firm was denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to delisting of our ADSs from the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) or deregistration from the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ADSs in the United States.

 

ITEM 4.                                                INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

 

A.                                    HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPANY

 

Our legal and commercial name is China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation. Our head office is located at 22 Chaoyangmen North Street, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100728, the People’s Republic of China, our telephone number is (8610) 5996-0028 and our fax number is (8610) 5996-0386. We have appointed our representative office in the United States, located at 515 Madison Avenue, Suite 27 West, New York, NY 10022, USA (telephone number: (212) 759-5085; fax number: (212) 759-6882) as our agent for service of processes for actions brought under the U.S. securities laws. The SEC maintains an Internet website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding us that filed electronically with the SEC, which can be accessed at http://www.sec.gov. Information about the Company and documents the Company submitted to the SEC are available on the our investor relations website: http://www.sinopec.com/listco/en/investor_centre/corporate_governance/.

 

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We were established as a joint stock limited company on February 25, 2000 under the Company Law of the PRC with Sinopec Group Company as the sole shareholder at our inception. Our principal businesses consist of petroleum and petrochemical businesses transferred to us by Sinopec Group Company pursuant to a reorganization agreement. Such businesses include:

 

·                  exploration for, development, production and marketing of crude oil and natural gas;

 

·                  refining of crude oil and marketing and distribution of refined oil products, including transportation, storage, trading, import and export of petroleum products; and

 

·                  production and sales of petrochemical products.

 

Sinopec Group’s continuing activities primarily consist, among other things, of:

 

·                  exploring and developing oil and gas reserves overseas;

 

·                  operating certain petrochemical facilities;

 

·                  providing geophysical exploration, and well drilling, survey, logging and downhole operational services;

 

·                  manufacturing production equipment and providing equipment maintenance services;

 

·                  providing construction services;

 

·                  providing utilities, such as electricity and water; and

 

·                  providing other operational services including transportation services.

 

Sinopec Group Company transferred the businesses to us either by transferring its equity holdings in subsidiaries or by transferring their assets and liabilities. Sinopec Group Company also agreed in the reorganization agreement to transfer to us its exploration and production licenses and all rights and obligations under the agreements in connection with its core businesses transferred to us. The employees relating to these assets were also transferred to us.

 

From July 8, 2015 to July 7, 2016, Sinopec Group Company increased its shareholding in the Company through acquisitions of our ordinary shares on the stock market in its own name or through other concerting parties, by way of acquiring 72,000,000 A shares. Immediately following the shareholding increase, Sinopec Group Company directly and indirectly held 86,345,821,101 shares of the Company.

 

On October 29, 2015, we entered into a joint venture agreement with Sinopec Assets Management Co., Ltd. (“SAMC”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Sinopec Group Company, in relation to the formation of Sinopec Shanghai Gaoqiao Petrochemical Co., Ltd. (“Gaoqiao”). We and SAMC subscribed for 55% and 45% of the registered capital of Gaoqiao, respectively, and Gaoqiao became a subsidiary of the Company.

 

On August 2, 2016, our board of directors unanimously approved the proposal to introduce capitals from potential investors to invest in Sichuan-to-East China gas pipeline project, through our indirectly wholly-owned subsidiary Sinopec Sichuan-to-East China Natural Gas Pipeline Co., Ltd. (“Sichuan-to-East China Pipeline Co.”). On December 12, 2016, China Life Insurance Co., Ltd. (“China Life”) and SDIC Communications Holding Co., Ltd. (“SDIC Communications”) entered into the Capital Injection Agreement in relation to Sichuan-to-East China Pipeline Co. and agreed to collectively subscribe for 50% equity interest in Sichuan-to-East China Pipeline Co. for an aggregate amount of RMB 22.8 billion in cash. Upon completion of the capital injection, China Life, SDIC Communications and us hold 43.86%, 6.14% and 50% equity interest in Sichuan-to-East China Pipeline Co., respectively.

 

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On April 27, 2017, our board of directors unanimously approved the proposal of the acquisition of equity interest in Shanghai SECCO Petrochemical Company Limited (“Shanghai SECCO”) by Gaoqiao. On October 26, 2017, Gaoqiao purchased 50% equity interest in Shanghai SECCO from BP Chemicals East China Investment Limited with a cash consideration of RMB 10,135 million. Before the acquisition, we and one of our subsidiaries held 30% and 20% equity interest in Shanghai SECCO, respectively. Upon completion of the acquisition, we, together with our subsidiaries, hold 100% equity interest of Shanghai SECCO, which became a subsidiary of us.

 

Following the instruction by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council, on August 9, 2018, Sinopec Group Company gratuitously transferred 1,241,721,854 A shares of the Company to Beijing Chengtong Financial Control Investment Co., Ltd., and 1,241,721,854 A shares to Guoxin Investment Co., Ltd. Upon the completion of such transfers, Sinopec Group Company directly and indirectly held 83,862,377,393 shares of the Company.

 

B.                                    BUSINESS OVERVIEW

 

Exploration and Production

 

Overview

 

We currently explore for, develop and produce crude oil and natural gas in a number of areas in China and overseas. As of December 31, 2018, we held 219 production licenses in China, with an aggregate acreage of 31,643 square kilometers and with terms ranging from 10 to 80 years. Our production licenses may be renewed upon our application at least 30 days prior to the expiration date, which are renewable for unlimited times. During the term of our production license, we pay an annual production license fee of RMB 1,000 per square kilometer.

 

As of December 31, 2018, we held 194 exploration licenses in China for various blocks in which we engaged in exploration activities, with an aggregate acreage of approximately 525,000 square kilometers.

 

As of December 31, 2018, our overseas subsidiary held one production licenses, with an acreage of 322.6 square kilometers. It currently does not have exploration licenses. Our overseas equity-accounted investments held 73 production licenses, with an aggregate acreage of 4,783.3 square kilometers, and no exploration license.

 

Properties

 

We currently operate 295 oil and gas producing fields and blocks.

 

Shengli production field is our most important crude oil production field. It consists of 75 producing blocks of various sizes extending over an area of 2,577 square kilometers in northern Shandong province, all of which are our net developed acreage. Most of Shengli’s blocks are located in the Jiyang trough with various oil producing layers. In 2018, Shengli production field produced approximately 170 million barrels of crude oil and 16.94 billion cubic feet of natural gas, with an average daily production of 463 thousand BOE.

 

As of December 31, 2018, the total acreage of our oil and gas producing fields and blocks in China was 15,426 square kilometers, including 9,622 square kilometers of developed acreage, all of which were net developed acreage; and 5,804 square kilometers of gross undeveloped acreage, all of which were net undeveloped acreage.

 

As of December 31, 2018, the total acreage of our oil and gas producing fields and blocks of our overseas subsidiary was 322.6 square kilometers, including 169.2 square kilometers of developed acreage, of which 110 square kilometers were net developed acreage; and 153.4 square kilometers of gross undeveloped acreage, of which 31.8 square kilometers were net undeveloped acreage.

 

As of December 31, 2018, the total acreage of our oil and gas producing fields and blocks of our overseas equity-accounted investments was 1,700.7 square kilometers, including 1,626.5 square kilometers of developed acreage, of which 1,626.5 square kilometers were net developed acreage; and 74.2 square kilometers of gross undeveloped acreage, of which 74.2 square kilometers were net undeveloped acreage.

 

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Oil and Natural Gas Reserves

 

As of December 31, 2018, our estimated proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas in China were 2,471 million BOE (including 1,339 million barrels of crude oil and 6,793 billion cubic feet of natural gas), and our estimated proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas outside of China, which included a share of the estimated proved reserves of our equity-accounted investments, were 329.2 million BOE. Our estimated proved reserves do not include additional quantities recoverable beyond the term of the relevant production licenses, or that may result from extensions of currently proved areas, or from application of improved recovery processes not yet tested and determined to be economical.

 

The following tables set forth our proved developed and undeveloped crude oil and natural gas reserves by region as of December 31, 2018.

 

Crude Oil Proved Reserves

 

As of December 31, 2018

 

 

 

(in millions of barrels)

 

Developed Subsidiaries

 

 

 

China

 

1,244

 

Shengli

 

910

 

Others

 

334

 

Overseas

 

27

 

Subtotal

 

1,271

 

Equity-accounted investments

 

 

 

China

 

 

Overseas

 

261

 

Subtotal

 

261

 

Total Proved Developed

 

1,532

 

Undeveloped Subsidiaries

 

 

 

China

 

95

 

Shengli

 

16

 

Others

 

79

 

Overseas

 

1

 

Subtotal

 

96

 

Equity-accounted investments

 

 

 

China

 

 

Overseas

 

38

 

Subtotal

 

38

 

Total Proved Undeveloped

 

134

 

Total Crude Oil Proved Reserves

 

1,666

 

 

Natural Gas Proved Reserves

 

As of December 31, 2018

 

 

 

(in billions of cubic feet)

 

Developed Subsidiaries

 

 

 

China

 

5,822

 

Puguang

 

1,904

 

Fuling

 

1,149

 

Others

 

2,769

 

Overseas

 

 

Subtotal

 

5,822

 

Equity-accounted investments

 

 

 

China

 

 

Overseas

 

13

 

Subtotal

 

13

 

Total Proved Developed

 

5,835

 

Undeveloped Subsidiaries

 

 

 

China

 

971

 

Puguang

 

 

Fuling

 

195

 

Others

 

776

 

Overseas

 

 

Subtotal

 

971

 

Equity-accounted investments

 

 

 

China

 

 

Overseas

 

 

Subtotal

 

 

Total Proved Undeveloped

 

971

 

Total Natural Gas Proved Reserves

 

6,806

 

 

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As of December 31, 2018, approximately 96 million barrels of our crude oil proved reserves and 971 billion cubic feet of our natural gas proved reserves were classified as proved undeveloped reserves in China and overseas. 2.2 million barrels of crude oil and 32.6 billion cubic feet natural gas proved reserves in China have been classified as proved undeveloped for more than five years, mainly under Sinopec Shanghai Offshore Petroleum Company, one of our subsidiaries.

 

During 2018, a total of 391 wells were drilled by us in China and 70 wells were drilled overseas. We converted 41.9 million barrels of proved undeveloped crude oil reserves and 117.4 billion cubic feet of proved undeveloped natural gas reserves into proved developed reserves in 2018. Total capital expenditure incurred in converting proved undeveloped reserves into proved developed reserves amounted to RMB 7,970 million, including RMB 7,740 million and RMB 230 million incurred in connection with our operations in China and overseas, respectively, in 2018.

 

Our reserves estimation is managed by a two-tier management system. The Oil and Natural Gas Reserves Management Committee, or the RMC, at our headquarters level, organizes, coordinates and oversees the overall reserves estimation, and is in charge of the major issues in reserves estimation and approving the reserves estimation report of our company. Each of our Branches has a reserves management committee that manages and coordinates the reserves estimation process, organizes the evaluators to do reserves estimation, reviews and inspects the evaluation materials and results at the branches level, and reports to the RMC of the Company.

 

Our RMC consists of our president, the senior management of related divisions at our headquarters level, our exploration and production institution and our Branches in each oil field. The current chairman of our RMC, Mr. Ma Yongsheng, is a member of China Engineering Academy and has over 30 years of experience in the oil and gas industry. A majority of our RMC members hold doctor’s or master’s degrees and our RMC members have an average of 20 years of technical experience in relevant industry fields, such as geology, development and economics.

 

Our reserves estimation is guided by procedural manuals and technical guidance. Initial collection and compilation of reserves information are conducted by different working divisions, including exploration, development and financial divisions, at production bureau level. Technical experts in exploration, development and economics divisions of our Branches in each oil field collectively prepare the initial report on reserves estimation. The reserves management committees at production bureau level then review to ensure the qualitative and quantitative compliance with technical guidance and accuracy and reasonableness of the reserves estimation. We also engage outside consultants who assist us to be in compliance with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission rules and regulations. Our reserves estimation process is further facilitated by a specialized reserves database which is reviewed and updated periodically.

 

Oil and Natural Gas Production

 

In 2018, we produced an average of 1,126.6 thousand BOE per day in China, of which approximately 60.5% was crude oil and 39.5% was natural gas. We produced an average of 110 thousand BOE per day overseas, of which 98.2% was crude oil and 1.8% was natural gas.

 

The following tables set forth our average daily production of crude oil and natural gas for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018. The production of crude oil includes condensate.

 

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Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

 

 

(in thousands of barrels)

 

Average Daily Crude Oil Production

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

China

 

692

 

682

 

682

 

Subsidiaries

 

692

 

682

 

682

 

Shengli

 

464

 

455

 

455

 

Others

 

228

 

227

 

227

 

Overseas

 

138

 

122

 

107

 

Subsidiary

 

51

 

41

 

30

 

Equity-accounted investments

 

87

 

81

 

77

 

Total Crude Oil Production

 

830

 

804

 

789

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

 

 

(in millions of cubic feet)

 

Average Daily Natural Gas Production

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

China

 

2,083

 

2,490

 

2,668

 

Subsidiaries

 

2,083

 

2,490

 

2,668

 

Puguang

 

362

 

558

 

615

 

Fuling

 

486

 

581

 

582

 

Others

 

1,235

 

1,351

 

1,471

 

Overseas

 

10

 

10

 

8

 

Equity-accounted investments

 

10

 

10

 

8

 

Total Natural Gas Production

 

2,093

 

2,500

 

2,676

 

 

Lifting Cost & Realized Prices

 

The following table sets forth our average lifting costs per BOE of crude oil produced, average sales prices per barrel of crude oil and average sales prices per thousand cubic meters of natural gas for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018.

 

 

 

Weighted Average

 

China

 

Overseas(1)

 

 

 

(RMB)

 

For the year ended December 31, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average petroleum lifting cost per BOE

 

112.45

 

111.75

 

116.90

 

Average realized sales price

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Per barrel of crude oil

 

432.32

 

426.81

 

467.11

 

Per thousand cubic meters of natural gas

 

1,263.41

 

1,263.41

 

 

For the year ended December 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average petroleum lifting cost per BOE

 

107.53

 

111.47

 

85.52

 

Average realized sales price

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Per barrel of crude oil

 

332.60

 

327.06

 

363.60

 

Per thousand cubic meters of natural gas

 

1,185.53

 

1,185.53

 

 

For the year ended December 31, 2016

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average petroleum lifting cost per BOE

 

108.21

 

112.19

 

77.62

 

Average realized sales price

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Per barrel of crude oil

 

240.70

 

246.10

 

213.41

 

Per thousand cubic meters of natural gas

 

1,266.03

 

1,266.03

 

 

 


(1)         The exchange rates we used for overseas data in this table were exchange rates for each year ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018, which were RMB 6.6400 to US$1.00, RMB 6.7518 to US$ 1.00 and RMB 6.6204 to US$ 1.00, respectively.

 

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Exploration and Development Activities

 

In the low oil price environment in 2018, we prioritized low-cost and high-quality exploration activities. We continued our efforts in exploration activities, focused on increasing efficiency and effectiveness, continuously reducing our inefficient crude oil production and high cost activities, and completed the construction of the second phase of our Fuling shale gas project.

 

The following table sets forth the numbers of our exploratory and development wells, including a breakdown of productive wells and dry wells we drilled during the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018.

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

Number of

 

Exploratory

 

Development

 

Exploratory

 

Development

 

Exploratory

 

Development

 

Drilled Wells

 

Productive

 

Dry

 

Productive

 

Dry

 

Productive

 

Dry

 

Productive

 

Dry

 

Productive

 

Dry

 

Productive

 

Dry

 

China

 

266

 

149

 

801

 

6

 

266

 

149

 

1,442

 

9

 

286

 

131

 

1,941

 

6

 

Subsidiaries

 

266

 

149

 

801

 

6

 

266

 

149

 

1,442

 

9

 

286

 

131

 

1,941

 

6

 

Shengli

 

166

 

73

 

462

 

5

 

151

 

71

 

845

 

1

 

149

 

71

 

1,201

 

5

 

Others

 

100

 

76

 

339

 

1

 

115

 

78

 

597

 

8

 

137

 

60

 

740

 

1

 

Overseas

 

2

 

1

 

99

 

 

2

 

1

 

119

 

 

 

 

70

 

 

Subsidiaries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equity- accounted investments

 

2

 

1

 

99

 

 

2

 

1

 

119

 

 

 

 

70

 

 

Total

 

268

 

150

 

900

 

6

 

268

 

150

 

1,561

 

9

 

286

 

131

 

2,011

 

6

 

 

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The following table sets forth the number of wells being drilled by us as of December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018:

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

Number of Drilling

 

Gross

 

Net

 

Gross

 

Net

 

Gross

 

Net

 

Welling

 

Exploratory

 

Development

 

Exploratory

 

Development

 

Exploratory

 

Development

 

Exploratory

 

Development

 

Exploratory

 

Development

 

Exploratory

 

Development

 

China

 

78

 

138

 

78

 

138

 

62

 

147

 

62

 

147

 

69

 

277

 

69

 

277

 

Subsidiaries

 

78

 

138

 

78

 

138

 

62

 

147

 

62

 

147

 

69

 

277

 

69

 

277

 

Shengli

 

28

 

21

 

28

 

21

 

19

 

 

19

 

 

25

 

72

 

25

 

72

 

Others

 

50

 

117

 

50

 

117

 

43

 

147

 

43

 

147

 

44

 

205

 

44

 

205

 

Overseas

 

 

2

 

 

2

 

 

5

 

 

5

 

 

10

 

 

10

 

Subsidiaries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equity-accounted investments

 

 

2

 

 

2

 

 

5

 

 

5

 

 

10

 

 

10

 

Total

 

78

 

140

 

78

 

140

 

62

 

152

 

62

 

152

 

69

 

287

 

69

 

287

 

 

The following tables set forth our number of productive wells for crude oil and natural gas as of December 31, 2018, as compared to December 31, 2017 and 2016:

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

Productive Wells for Crude Oil

 

Gross

 

Net

 

Gross

 

Net

 

Gross

 

Net

 

China

 

49,921

 

49,921

 

50,121

 

50,121

 

51,030

 

51,030

 

Subsidiaries

 

49,921

 

49,921

 

50,121

 

50,121

 

51,030

 

51,030

 

Shengli

 

32,019

 

32,019

 

32,105

 

32,105

 

32,805

 

32,805

 

Others

 

17,902

 

17,902

 

18,016

 

18,016

 

18,225

 

18,225

 

Overseas

 

7,432

 

3,614

 

7,350

 

3,968

 

7,293

 

3,939

 

Subsidiaries

 

28

 

14

 

28

 

14

 

28

 

14

 

Equity-accounted investments

 

7,404

 

3,600

 

7,322

 

3,954

 

7,265

 

3,925

 

Total

 

57,353

 

53,535

 

57,471

 

54,089

 

58,323

 

54,969

 

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

Productive Wells for Natural Gas

 

Gross

 

Net

 

Gross

 

Net

 

Gross

 

Net

 

China

 

4,966

 

4,932

 

4,800

 

4,762

 

5,068

 

5,028

 

Subsidiaries

 

4,966

 

4,932

 

4,800

 

4,762

 

5,068

 

5,028

 

Puguang

 

57

 

57

 

57

 

57

 

58

 

58

 

Fuling

 

253

 

253

 

266

 

266

 

368

 

368

 

Others

 

4,656

 

4,622

 

4,477

 

4,439

 

4,642

 

4,602

 

Total

 

4,966

 

4,932

 

4,800

 

4,762

 

5,068

 

5,028

 

 

Refining

 

Overview

 

In 2018, our refinery throughputs were approximately 244 million tonnes. We produce a full range of refined oil products. The following table sets forth our production of our principal refined oil products for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018.

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

 

 

(in million tonnes)

 

Gasoline

 

56.36

 

57.03

 

61.16

 

Diesel

 

67.34

 

66.76

 

64.72

 

Kerosene

 

25.47

 

26.88

 

28.91

 

Light chemical feedstock

 

38.54

 

38.60

 

38.52

 

Liquefied petroleum gas

 

12.12

 

12.37

 

13.17

 

Fuel oil

 

0.94

 

0.80

 

1.68

 

 

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Gasoline and diesel are our largest revenue-generating products, and are sold mostly through our marketing and distribution segment through both wholesale and retail channels. We use most of our production of chemical feedstock as feedstock for our own chemical operations. Most of our other refined oil products were sold in China to a wide variety of industrial and agricultural customers, and a small amount is exported.

 

Refining Facilities

 

Currently we operate 30 refineries in China. As of December 31, 2018, our total primary distillation capacity of crude oil was 293.5 million tonnes per annum.

 

The following table sets forth our total primary distillation capacity per annum of crude oil and refinery throughputs as of and for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018.

 

 

 

As of and for the Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

Primary distillation capacity of crude oil (million tonnes per annum)(1)

 

294.7

 

294.7

 

293.5

 

Refinery throughputs (million tonnes)(2)

 

235.5

 

238.5

 

244.0

 

 


(1)         The primary distillation capacity and refinery throughputs of joint ventures are fully included in our statistics.

 

(2)         When calculating refinery throughputs, conversion from tonnes to barrels are made at a rate of one tonne to 7.35 barrels.

 

In 2018, our gasoline yield was 25.1%, diesel yield was 26.5%, kerosene yield was 11.9%, and light chemical feedstock yield was 15.8%. Other products include lubricant, liquefied petroleum gas, solvent, asphalt, petroleum coke, paraffin and fuel oil. For the years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018, our overall yield for all refined oil products at our refineries was 94.7%, 94.9% and 94.9%, respectively.

 

The following table sets forth the primary distillation capacity per annum as of December 31, 2018 of each of our refineries with the primary distillation capacity of 8 million tonnes or more per annum.

 

Refinery

 

Primary Distillation Capacity as of
December 31, 2018

 

 

 

(in million tonnes per annum)

 

Maoming

 

23.5

 

Zhenhai

 

23.0

 

Jinling

 

21.0

 

Shanghai

 

16.0

 

Qilu

 

14.0

 

Yangzi

 

14.0

 

Fujian

 

14.0

 

Tianjin

 

13.8

 

Guangzhou

 

13.2

 

Gaoqiao

 

13.0

 

Qingdao Refining & Chemical

 

12.0

 

Changling

 

11.5

 

Yanshan

 

11.0

 

Shijiazhuang

 

10.0

 

Jiujiang

 

10.0

 

Hainan

 

9.2

 

Luoyang

 

9.0

 

Wuhan

 

8.5

 

 

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In 2018, our primary distillation capacity of crude oil decreased by 1.2 milllion tonnes per annum. In addition, in 2018, our hydrofining capacity increased by 1.5 million tonnes per annum. The revamping projects for a number of refining facilities to improve refined oil product quality were also completed and put into operation.

 

Source of crude oil

 

In 2018, approximately 89% of the crude oil required for our refinery business was imported.

 

Marketing and Sales of Refined Oil Products

 

Overview

 

We operate the largest sales and distribution network for refined oil products in China. In 2018, we distributed and sold approximately 180.2 million tonnes of gasoline, diesel and kerosene domestically. Most of the refined oil products sold by us are produced internally. In 2018, approximately 70% of our gasoline sales volume and approximately 72% of our diesel sales volumes were produced internally.

 

The table below sets forth a summary of key data in the marketing and sales of refined oil products in the years of 2016, 2017 and 2018.

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

Total sales volume of refined oil products (in million tonnes)

 

194.84

 

198.75

 

198.32

 

Domestic sales volume of refined oil products (in million tonnes)

 

172.70

 

177.76

 

180.24

 

Retail

 

120.14

 

121.56

 

121.64

 

Wholesale and Distribution

 

52.56

 

56.20

 

58.61

 

Average annual throughput of service stations (in tonnes per station)

 

3,926

 

3,969

 

3,979

 

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

2016

 

2017

 

2018

 

Total number of service stations under Sinopec brand

 

30,603

 

30,633

 

30,661

 

Self-operated service stations

 

30,597

 

30,627

 

30,655

 

 

Retail

 

All of our retail sales are made through a network of service stations and petroleum shops operated under the Sinopec brand. Through this unified network we are able to implement consistent pricing policies, maintain both product and service quality standards and more efficiently deploy our retail network.

 

In 2018, we sold approximately 121.6 million tonnes of gasoline, diesel and kerosene through our retail network, representing approximately 67.5% of our total domestic gasoline, diesel, jet fuel and kerosene sales volume. Our retail network mainly consists of service stations that are wholly-owned and operated by us, and jointly-owned and generally operated or leased by us, all of which are operated under the Sinopec brand. We also franchised the Sinopec brand to third parties services stations. As of December 31, 2018, we had 6 franchised service stations that are owned and operated by third parties. In 2018, the average annual throughput of our service stations increased 0.3% from 2017, and we have further strengthened our leading position in our principal market, and further improved our brand awareness and customer loyalty.

 

Wholesale and Distribution

 

In 2018, we sold approximately 58.6 million tonnes of refined oil products, including 11.9 million tonnes of gasoline, 29.1 million tonnes of diesel and 17.6 million tonnes of kerosene, through wholesale and distribution to independent distributors such as domestic industrial enterprises, hotels, restaurants and agricultural producers and long-term large-scale end users such as railways, airlines, shipping and public utilities.

 

We operate 353 storage facilities with a total capacity of approximately 18.8 million cubic meters, substantially all of which are wholly-owned by us. These storage facilities and our wholesale centers are connected to our refineries by railway, waterway and pipelines. We also own some dedicated railways, oil wharfs and oil barges, as well as a number of rail tankers and oil trucks.

 

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Chemicals

 

Overview

 

We are the largest petrochemicals producer and distributor in China, with our petrochemical production plants located in economically developed regions such as central, eastern and southern China. We produce and distribute a full range of chemical products including intermediate petrochemicals, synthetic resins, synthetic fiber monomer and polymers, synthetic fibers and synthetic rubber. Synthetic resins, synthetic fibers, and synthetic rubber comprise a significant majority of our external sales. Synthetic fiber monomer and polymers and intermediate petrochemicals, on the other hand, are mostly internally consumed as feedstock for the production of other chemical products. Our chemical operations are integrated upstream and downstream with our refining businesses, which supply a significant portion of our naphtha and light hydrocarbons feedstock. Due to the high demand in China, we sell substantially all of our chemical products in China.

 

Products

 

Intermediate Petrochemicals

 

We are the largest ethylene producer in China. Our rated ethylene capacity as of December 31, 2018 was 11.1 million tonnes per annum. In 2018, we produced 11.5 million tonnes of ethylene. Nearly all of our olefins production is used as feedstock for our petrochemical operations.

 

We produce aromatics mainly in the forms of benzene and para-xylene, which are used primarily as feedstock for purified terephthalic acid, or PTA, the preferred raw material for polyester. We are the largest aromatics producer in China.

 

Chemicals extracted from olefins and aromatics are mainly used to produce synthetic resins, synthetic rubber and synthetic fibers, as well as intermediate petrochemicals.

 

The following table sets forth our rated capacity per annum, production volume and major plants of production as of or for the year ended December 31, 2018 for our principal intermediate chemical products.

 

 

 

Our Rated
Capacity

 

Our
Production

 

Major Plants of Production

 

 

 

(thousand tonnes
per annum)

 

(thousand
tonnes)

 

 

 

Ethylene

 

11,128

 

11,512

 

Yanshan, Shanghai, Yangzi, Qilu, Maoming, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Zhongyuan, Shanghai SECCO, BASF-YPC*, Fujian*, Sinopec Sabic (Tianjin)*, Zhenhai, Sino-Korean (Wuhan) and Great Wall EC

 

Propylene

 

10,197

 

9,628

 

Yanshan, Shanghai, Yangzi, Qilu, Maoming, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Zhongyuan, Shanghai SECCO, BASF-YPC*, Jinling, Anqing, Qingdao, Hainan, Fujian*, Sinopec Sabic (Tianjin)*, Zhenhai, Sino-Korean (Wuhan) and Great Wall EC

 

Benzene

 

5,558

 

4,253

 

Yanshan, Shanghai, Yangzi, Qilu, Guangzhou, Zhenhai, Tianjin, Luoyang, Shanghai SECCO, BASF-YPC*, Fujian*, Maoming, Hainan and Sino-Korean (Wuhan), Jinling

 

Styrene

 

2,303

 

2,155

 

Zhenhai, Yanshan, Qilu, Guangzhou, Maoming, Shanghai SECCO, Anqing and BASF-YPC*

 

Para-xylene

 

4,759

 

4,762

 

Shanghai, Yangzi, Qilu, Tianjin, Luoyang, Zhenhai, Jinling, Fujian* and Hainan

 

Phenol

 

758

 

742

 

Yanshan, Gaoqiao* and Sinopec Sabic (Tianjin)*

 

 


*                 Joint ventures, of which the production capacities and outputs are fully included in our statistics.

 

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Synthetic Resins

 

We are the largest producer of polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene and supplier of major synthetic resins products in China.

 

The following table sets forth our rated capacity per annum, production volumes and major plants of production for each of our principal synthetic resins as of or for the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

 

 

Our Rated
Capacity

 

Our
Production

 

Major Plants of Production

 

 

 

(thousand tonnes
per annum)

 

(thousand
tonnes)

 

 

 

Polyethylene

 

7,614

 

7,309

 

Yanshan, Shanghai, Yangzi, Qilu, Maoming, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Zhongyuan, Shanghai SECCO, BASF-YPC*, Fujian*, Sinopec Sabic (Tianjin)*, Zhenhai, Sino-Korean (Wuhan) and Great Wall EC

 

Polypropylene

 

7,404

 

7,354

 

Yanshan, Shanghai, Yangzi, Qilu, Guangzhou, Maoming, Tianjin, Zhongyuan, Shanghai SECCO, Fujian*, Sinopec Sabic (Tianjin)*, Zhenhai, Sino-Korean (Wuhan), Great Wall EC, Luoyang, Jiujiang, Jingmen, Hainan, Beihai, Jingmen Branch, and Shijiazhuang

 

Polyvinyl chloride

 

600

 

232

 

Qilu

 

Polystyrene

 

698

 

583

 

Yanshan, Qilu, Maoming, Guangzhou, and Shanghai SECCO

 

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene

 

200

 

154

 

Gaoqiao

 

 


*                 Joint ventures, of which the production capacities and outputs are fully included in our statistics.

 

Synthetic Fiber Monomers and Polymers

 

Our principal synthetic fiber monomers and polymers are purified terephthalic acid, ethylene glycol, acrylonitrile, caprolactam, polyester, polyethylene glycol and polyamide fiber. Based on our 2018 production, we are the largest producer of ethylene glycol and caprolactam in China.

 

The following table sets forth our rated capacity per annum, our production volume and major plants of production as of or for the year ended December 31, 2018 for each type of our principal synthetic fiber monomers and polymers.

 

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Our Rated
Capacity

 

Our
Production

 

Major Plants of Production

 

 

 

(thousand tonnes
per annum)

 

(thousand
tonnes)

 

 

 

Purified terephthalic acid

 

3,119

 

2,063

 

Shanghai, Yangzi, Yizheng, Tianjin and Luoyang

 

Ethylene glycol

 

3,299

 

2,751

 

Yanshan, Shanghai, Yangzi, Tianjin, Maoming, BASF-YPC*, Sinopec Sabic (Tianjin)*, Zhenhai

 

Acrylonitrile

 

1,070

 

820

 

Anqing, Shandong Koruhr* and Shanghai SECCO

 

Caprolactam

 

809

 

716

 

Baling, Shijiazhuang, Baling Constant*

 

Polyester

 

3,178

 

2,754

 

Shanghai, Yizheng, Tianjin and Luoyang

 

 


*                 Joint ventures, of which the production capacities and outputs are fully included in our statistics.

 

Synthetic Fibers

 

Our principal synthetic fiber products are polyester fiber and acrylic fiber.

 

The following table sets forth our rated capacity per annum, production volume and major plants of production for each type of our principal synthetic fibers as of or for the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

 

 

Our Rated
Capacity

 

Our Production

 

Major Plants of Production

 

 

 

(thousand tonnes
per annum)

 

(thousand
tonnes)

 

 

 

Polyester fiber

 

1,331

 

1,020

 

Yizheng, Shanghai, Tianjin and Luoyang

 

Acrylic fiber

 

265

 

193

 

Shanghai, Anqing and Qilu

 

 

Synthetic Rubbers

 

Our principal synthetic rubbers are cis-polybutadiene rubber, styrene butadiene rubber, or SBR, styreneic block copolymers (SBCs) thermoplastic elastomer and isobutadiene isoprene rubber, or IIR. Based on our 2018 production, we are the largest producer of SBR, cis-polybutadiene rubber and SBCs thermoplastic elastomer in China.

 

The following table sets forth our rated capacity per annum, production volume and major plants of production as of or for the year ended December 31, 2018 for each of our principal synthetic rubbers.

 

 

 

Our Rated
Capacity

 

Our
Production

 

Major Plants of Operation

 

 

 

(thousand tonnes
per annum)

 

(thousand
tonnes)

 

 

 

Cis-polybutadiene rubber

 

520

 

431

 

Yanshan, Qilu, Maoming, Yangzi and Gaoqiao

 

Styrene butadiene rubber

 

430

 

267

 

Qilu, Yangzi, Gaoqiao and Yanshan

 

Styrene-butadiene-styrene thermoplastic elastomers

 

140

 

109

 

Yanshan and Maoming

 

Isobutylene isoprene rubber

 

125

 

27

 

Yanshan

 

Isoprene rubber

 

30

 

 

Yanshan

 

Ethylene propylene rubber

 

75

 

62

 

Gaoqiao*

 

 

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*                 Joint ventures, of which the production capacities and outputs are fully included in our statistics.

 

Marketing and Sales of Petrochemicals

 

The central, eastern and southern regions in China, where most of our petrochemical plants are located, constitute the major petrochemical market in China. Our proximity to the major petrochemical market gives us a geographic advantage over our competitors.

 

The prices of petrochemical products in China have become market-oriented. Our principal sales channels consist of (i) direct sales to domestic and foreign large- and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises, which account for more than 75.1% of our direct sales, (ii) sales to distributors, who are responsible for sales and distribution to a portion of our smaller and scattered customers or specific customers, and (iii) sales of chemical products through our e-commerce platform “Chem E-Mall,” which effectively expands our traditional sales channels and provides new options for procurement.

 

Competition

 

According to the Measures for the Administration of Overseas Investment of Enterprises (Decree No. 11 of 2017 of the National Development and Reform Commission), when an investment entity conducts overseas investment, it shall undergo the formalities for the confirmation or recordation of overseas investment projects, report relevant information, and cooperate in supervision and inspection. The scope of implementation of confirmation management is sensitive projects conducted by investors directly or through overseas enterprises controlled by them, including projects involving sensitive countries and regions, and projects involving sensitive industries. The scope of the implementation of recordation management is non-sensitive projects that are directly conducted by investors, namely, non-sensitive projects that involve investors’ direct contribution of assets or rights and interests or provision of financing or security. The confirmation or recordation authority is the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC).

 

Pursuant to the Anti-Monopoly Law of the PRC which became effective on August 1, 2008, when market concentration by business carriers through merger, acquisition of control through shares or assets acquisition, or acquisition of control or the ability to exercise decisive influence over other business carriers by contract or by other means reaches a threshold of declaration level prescribed by the State Council, the business carriers shall declare in advance to the Anti-monopoly Law enforcement agency, otherwise, the business carriers shall not implement such market concentration.

 

Refining and Marketing of Refined Oil Products

 

Market participants compete primarily on the basis of wide-established sales network and logistics system, quality of products and service, efficiency of operations including proximity to customers, awareness of brand name and price. While we constantly face competition from other market participants, we believe that we have a competitive advantage in our principal market against our competitors.

 

Chemicals

 

We compete with domestic and foreign chemicals producers and distributors in the chemicals market. We adopt the strategy of “one product one policy, one customer one case” to meet customers’ needs, coordinate production, sales, research and application, tailor supply secured plans for customers, provide customized services, and strive to create value for customers. Our petrochemical production facilities’ proximity to customers has given us significant regional advantages over our competitors, resulting in lower transportation costs and better competitiveness of our products.

 

Patents and Trademarks

 

In 2018, we were granted 4,434 patents in China and overseas. As of December 31, 2018, we owned a total of 30,365 patents in China and overseas.

 

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Table of Contents

 

In 2018, we had 391 material trademarks approved internally, among which 241 were registered in China and 150 registered overseas.

 

Business Operations Relating to Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012

 

In 2018, we sourced approximately 8.0% of our total refinery throughputs of crude oil from Iran. In addition, we engaged in a small amount of trading activities with Iranian companies, of which trading revenue and net profit was US$526.6 million and US$4.2 million, respectively, accounting for 0.121% and 0.035% among our operating revenue and net profit respectively.

 

Based on feedback to our inquiries to Sinopec Group Company, our controlling shareholder, Sinopec Group Company engaged in a small amount of business activities in Iran such as providing engineering services and designs. Sales revenue from these business activities accounted for 0.041% of its total unaudited sales revenue.

 

Regulatory Matters

 

Overview

 

China’s petroleum and petrochemical industry has seen significant liberalization in the past ten years. However, the exploration, production, marketing and distribution of crude oil and natural gas, as well as the production, marketing and distribution of certain refined oil products are still subject to regulation of many government agencies including:

 

National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC)

 

NDRC is responsible for formulating and implementing key policies in respect of petroleum and petrochemical industry, including:

 

·                  Formulating guidance plan for annual production, import and export amount of crude oil, natural gas and petroleum products nationwide based on its forecast on macro-economic conditions in China;

 

·                  Setting the pricing policy for refined oil products;

 

·                  Approving certain domestic and overseas resource investment projects which are subject to NDRC’s approval as required by the Catalogue of Investment Projects Approved by the Government in effect; and

 

National Energy Administration (NEA)

 

NEA is primarily responsible for the formulation of energy development plans and annual directive plans, approving major energy-related projects and facilitating the implementation of sustainable development of energy strategies, coordinating the development and utilization of renewable energies and new energies, and organizing matters relating to energy conservation and comprehensive utilization as well as environmental protection for the energy industry.

 

The Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM)

 

MOFCOM is responsible for the record-filing of Sino-foreign equity joint venture contracts and Sino-foreign cooperation joint venture contracts, and monitoring the foreign investors’ oil and gas exploration projects in the PRC. It is responsible for approving or filing of the overseas investment by PRC enterprises and issuing the enterprise overseas investment certificate and quotas and licenses for import and export of crude oil and refined oil products. According to the law, MOFCOM is also responsible for supervising, approving and record-filing of foreign investment (excluding financial investment) of domestic enterprises.

 

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Table of Contents

 

Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR)

 

The MNR (formerly known as the Ministry of Land and Resources, or MLR) is responsible for issuing the licenses that are required to explore and produce crude oil and natural gas in China. In March 2018, according to the Institutional Reform Plan of the State Council, the responsibilities of the Ministry of Land and Resources were integrated to form the Ministry of Natural Resources of the People’s Republic of China.

 

Regulation of Exploration and Production

 

Exploration and Production Rights

 

The PRC Constitution provides that all mineral and oil resources belong to the state. In 1986, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress passed the Mineral Resources Law which authorizes MNR, to exercise administrative authority over the exploration and production of the mineral and oil resources within the PRC, including its territorial waters. The Mineral Resources Law and its supplementary regulations provide the basic legal framework under which exploration licenses and production licenses are granted. The MNR has the authority to grant exploration licenses and production licenses on a competitive bidding or other basis it considers appropriate. Applicants for these licenses must be companies approved by the State Council to engage in oil and gas exploration and production activities. Currently, we are one of the few companies that have received such exploration licenses and production licenses in oil and gas industry.

 

Applicants for exploration licenses must first submit applications to the MNR with respect to blocks in which they intend to engage in exploration activities. The holder of an exploration license is obligated to make an annual minimum exploration investment and pay annual exploration license fees, ranging from RMB 100 to RMB 500 per square kilometer, relating to the exploration blocks in respect of which the license is issued. The maximum term of an oil and gas exploration license is 7 years. Such exploration license may be renewed upon application by the holder at least 30 days prior to expiration date, with each renewal for a maximum two-year term. Under the PRC laws and regulations, we are entitled for reductions and exemptions of exploration license fees for exploration in the western, offshore and northeastern regions of China.

 

At the exploration stage, an applicant can also apply for a progressive exploration and production license that allows the holder to test and develop reserves not yet fully proved. The progressive oil and gas exploration and production license has a maximum term of 15 years. When the reserves become proved for a block, the holder must apply for a full production license in order to undertake production.

 

The MNR issues full production licenses to applicants on the basis of the reserve reports approved by relevant authorities. The maximum term of a full production license is 30 years unless a special dispensation is given by the State Council. Due to a special dispensation granted to us by the State Council, the maximum term of our full production licenses is 80 years. The full production license is renewable upon application by the holder at least 30 days prior to expiration of the original term. A holder of the full production license has to pay an annual full production right usage fee of RMB 1,000 per square kilometer.

 

Exploration and production licenses do not grant the holders the right to enter upon any land for the purpose of exploration and production. Holders of exploration and production licenses must separately obtain the right to use the land covered by the licenses, and if permissible under applicable laws, current owners of the rights to use such land may transfer or lease the land to the license holder.

 

Incentives for Shale Gas Development

 

In order to incentivize the exploration, discovery and development of China’s shale gas reserves, to increase the supply of natural gas and to relieve the imbalance between supply and demand of natural gas, the Ministry of Finance of China and China National Energy Administration issued the Notice on Subsidy for Shale Gas Development and Utilization (Ministry of Finance No. 847 [2012]), pursuant to which the central government will subsidize shale gas production companies at a rate of RMB 0.4 per cubic meter of shale gas produced from 2012 to 2015.

 

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Table of Contents

 

China National Energy Administration issued the Shale Gas Industry Policy (NEA No. 5 [2013]) in October 2013, which classifies shale gas as a “national strategic new industry” and calls for more fiscal support for exploration and development of shale gas. In particular, subsidies should be given directly to a shale gas production company according to the amount of its shale gas development and utilization. Local governments are also encouraged to provide subsidies to shale gas production companies, with the subsidy amount to be determined by local fiscal authorities. The Policy also reduces or waives compensatory fee for mineral resources, license and royalty fees for shale gas production companies. For encouraged projects like shale gas exploration and discovery, the policy also waives customs duty for imported equipment and machineries that cannot be manufactured domestically in accordance with relevant regulations.

 

In April 2015, to facilitate the development of the shale gas industry, the Ministry of Finance of China and China National Energy Administration issued the Notice on Fiscal Subsidies for Shale Gas Development and Utilization (Ministry of Finance No. 112 [2015]) to further implement the policy of fiscally subsidizing the shale gas industry during the period of the thirteenth “five-year” plan, and the subsidy will be RMB 0.3 per cubic meter of shale gas produced and RMB 0.2 per cubic meter of shale gas produced from 2016 to 2018 and from 2019 to 2020, respectively.

 

In order to promote the development and utilization of shale gas, in March 2018, the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation jointly issued the Notice on the Reduction of Resource Tax on Shale Gas (Ministry of Finance No. 26 [2018]) which provides that from April 1, 2018 to March 31, 2021, a 30% reduction shall be applied to the 6% tax rate applicable to shale gas.

 

Price Controls on Crude Oil

 

According to the Measures for Administration of Petroleum Products Price issued by NDRC on March 26, 2013 and Measures for Administration of Petroleum Products Price issued by NDRC on January 13, 2016, the crude oil price shall be determined by the enterprises on their own accord, by reference to the international market price. The price for supplying crude oil by us and CNPC to each other shall be determined by both the parties upon consultation in accordance with the principle that the cost for transporting domestic crude oil to the refinery is equivalent to the cost for importing crude oil from international market to the refinery. The price for providing crude oil by us and the CNPC to local refineries shall be determined in reference to the supply prices between the two corporations. The price of crude oil produced by CNOOC or other enterprises shall be determined on their own accord by reference to the international market price.

 

Price Controls on Natural Gas

 

In recent years, the pace of market-oriented natural gas price reforms has accelerated significantly. In April 2015, according to the change in the price of alternative energy, NDRC has reduced the price of non-residential incremental natural gas by RMB 0.44 per cubic meter, increased the price of stock natural gas by RMB 0.04 per cubic meter, and unified the stock natural gas and incremental natural gas prices. In November 2015, pursuant to the general guideline of furthering the price reform of resource products, NDRC released the Circular on Adjustment of the City-Gate Price of Non-Residential Stock Natural Gas (NDRC Pricing Circular 2688[2015]) to further liberalize the pricing of natural gas by replacing the reference ceiling price for city-gate prices of non-residential stock natural gas with a reference base rate. Starting from November 2016, suppliers and buyers may determine through negotiations the specific prices, subject to the cap of 120% of the reference base rate. In October 2016, NDRC has relaxed the control over service prices for gas prices used for fertilizer production, determined that the relevant prices of gas storage facilities were market-oriented, and launched a trial reform of the marketization of city-gate prices in Fujian Province. The city-gate prices for the supply of natural gas in Fujian Province were determined by the supplying and demanding parties through consultation, which further promoted the market-oriented reform of natural gas prices.

 

In August 2017, based on the results of the supervision and review of the pricing of natural gas pipelines, NDRC adjusted the pipeline transportation prices, and issued the Notice on Reducing the Non-Residential Natural Gas Reference City-Gate Price (NDRC Pricing Circular 1582[2017]) in conjunction with the adjustment of the natural gas value-added tax rate. Since September 1, 2017, the non-residential natural gas reference city-gate prices have been reduced by RMB 0.1 per cubic meter. NDRC encouraged the natural gas production and operation enterprises and users to actively enter the natural gas trading platform, and the prices of natural gas that have been openly traded on trading platforms such as the Shanghai Oil and Gas Exchange Center and Chongqing Oil and Gas Exchange Center are formed by the market. The marketization of domestic natural gas prices is further enhanced.

 

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Table of Contents

 

In May 2018, the NDRC issued the Notice on Adjustment of the City-Gate Price of Residential Gas (NDRC Pricing Circular No.794 [2018]) which came into effect on June 10, 2018, to adjust the price of natural gas for civil use and improve price mechanism pursuant to the notice. We have adjusted the sales price of natural gas within the prescribed scope.

 

Regulation of Pipelines Networks

 

In October 2016, NDRC issued the Interim Provisions for Management Measures of Natural Gas Pipeline Transmission Prices and the Interim Provisions for Supervision and Review of Natural Gas Pipeline Transmission Cost (for Trial Implementation) (NDRC Pricing Circular 2142[2016]).

 

In August 2017, according to the Interim Provisions for Management Measures of Natural Gas Pipeline Transmission Prices and the Interim Provisions for Supervision and Review of Natural Gas Pipeline Transmission Cost, after the supervision and review of the pricing of natural gas interprovincial pipelines, NDRC issued the Notice on Ratifying the Natural Gas Pipeline Transmission Prices (NDRC Pricing Circular 1581[2017]) to adjust the prices of natural gas interprovincial pipelines. Since September 1, 2017, based on the pipeline transmission prices (traffic price rate) of the Sichuan-East Gas Pipeline and Yulin-Jinan Pipeline published by the NDRC, along the transportation distance of the natural gas inlet and export, we have calculated and determined the prices of the gas transmission points for Sichuan-East Gas Pipeline and the Yulin-Jinan Pipeline and published the list of prices on our official website. We have updated the information disclosure on our website regarding the cost of operation and the maintenance expense on annual basis.

 

Regulation of Refining and Marketing of Refined Oil Products

 

Gasoline and Diesel Prices

 

Gasoline and diesel prices are government-guided.

 

In March 2013, NDRC released Circular on Establishment of Sound Price Formation Mechanism of Refined Oil Products (NDRC Pricing Circular 624[2013]), which specified that a reformed refined oil product price formation mechanism shall include: shortening of the refined oil product price adjustment period to 10 working days; elimination of the 4% price fluctuation on international market as a prerequisite for price adjustment; adjustment of the composition of benchmarked crude oil as a reference for domestic oil product prices. To save social resources, if the assessed adjustment in domestic refined oil product prices is less than RMB 50 per tonne, the adjustment will be postponed to next period. In cases of special conditions such as significant increase in domestic CPI, significant emergencies or significant fluctuations of crude oil price on international market which may trigger adjustment of domestic refined oil price, NDRC may implement ad hoc suspension, delay or narrowing of price adjustment upon the approval by the State Council. Upon elimination of the special conditions, the price formation mechanism may resume operation after NDRC obtains the State Council’s for approval.

 

On September 16, 2013, a Circular of Relevant Opinions on Pricing Policies for Upgrading Oil Product Quality (NDRC Pricing Circular 1845[2013]) was promulgated by NDRC. The Circular provides that the prices of gasoline and diesel products shall be increased if the quality of such products is upgraded. For standard gasoline and diesel products that are upgraded to GB IV standards, their prices shall be raised by RMB 290 per tonne and RMB 370 per tonne, respectively; for gasoline and diesel products that are upgraded from GB IV to GB V standards, their price shall be raised by RMB 170 per tonne and RMB 160 per tonne, respectively. Prices for regular diesel shall be benchmarked against automobile diesel with same specification.

 

On January 13, 2016, NDRC made further adjustments to the pricing mechanism for refined oil products, effective immediately. When benchmark crude oil price falls below US$ 40/bbl, NDRC will not further adjust oil product prices, the unadjusted portion would be transferred into a risk fund, which can be used for energy conservation and emission reduction, refined oil product quality upgrading and security of and gas supply upon approval by relevant departments.

 

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Jet Fuels Price

 

During the transition period, the ex-factory price of the jet fuels (standard) will temporarily be determined by the buyers and the sellers, subject to a limit of no more than the CIF post-duty price in the Singapore market.

 

Regulation of Crude Oil and Refined Oil Products Market

 

On December 4, 2006, Ministry of Commerce of the PRC promulgated the “Administrative Rules for Crude Oil Market” and “Administrative Rules for Refined Oil Products Market” to open the wholesale market of crude oil and refined oil products to new market entrants, respectively.

 

The Notice of the National Energy Administration on Issuing the Measures for the Supervision and Administration of Fair Opening of Oil and Gas Pipelines Network Facilities (for Trial Implementation) (NEA No. 84 [2014]) requires that (i) oil and gas pipelines network facilities operating enterprises, in case of spare capacity of oil and gas pipelines network facilities, shall equally provide their pipeline network facilities to main third-party market players and provide transportation, storage, gasification, liquefaction, compression, and other services; (ii) the transportation (storage, gasification, etc.) prices determined by the pricing authorities in accordance with the relevant administrative provisions shall be implemented for the opening of oil and gas pipelines network facilities; (iii) oil and gas pipelines network facilities operating enterprises shall disclose the access standards, transportation (storage and gasification) prices, conditions for application for access, acceptance procedures, and other information on oil and gas pipelines network facilities on the websites or the information platforms designated by the National Energy Administration on a quarterly basis; and (iv) oil and gas pipeline network facilities operating enterprises shall submit the relevant status of oil and gas pipelines network facilities to the National Energy Administration or its dispatched offices semiannually.

 

Investment

 

Overseas investments by Chinese enterprises (other than financial enterprises) involving sensitive countries or regions or sensitive industries shall be submitted to MOFCOM for approval, and other overseas investments by Chinese enterprises will only need to submit a filing with MOFCOM or its regional branches.

 

According to Measures for the Administration of Overseas Investment of Enterprises (NDRC No.11 [2017]), promulgated on December 26, 2017, investments made directly, or indirectly through offshore entities controlled by the investor, involving sensitive countries or regions or sensitive industries shall be approved by the NDRC. For non-sensitive direct investments, namely investments for which the investor provide financing or guarantee, or make asset or interest investment directly, filings with NDRC or its local branches shall be made.

 

According to the Measures for Supervision and Administration of Overseas Investment by Central Enterprises (SASAC Decree No. 35[2017]) promulgated by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council, central enterprises shall establish a negative list for overseas investment under which prohibited investments and specially supervised investments shall be administered separately. Central enterprises shall not make any investments categorized as prohibited ones. The foreign investment projects listed in the special supervision category of the negative list shall be submitted to the SASAC for approval.

 

In accordance with the Administrative Measures for Overseas Investments (MOFCOM Order No. 3[2014]) issued by MOFCOM, overseas investments involving sensitive countries (regions) or sensitive industries shall be approved by MOFCOM. All other investments swill require only a filing with MOFCOM.

 

Taxation, Fees and Royalty

 

Companies which operate petroleum and petrochemical businesses in China are subject to a variety of taxes, fees and royalties.

 

Effective from December 1, 2014, the rate of mineral resource compensation charges on crude oil and natural gas is reduced to zero, and the applicable resource tax rate is correspondingly increased from 5% to 6%.

 

Effective from January 1, 2015, the threshold of the special oil income levy is increased from US$55 to 65 per barrel, and a five-level progressive rate is applied to special oil income levy collection based on the sale prices.

 

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From November 29, 2014 to January 12, 2015, the unit tax amount of consumption tax on gasoline, naphtha, solvent and lubricant have been adjusted three times and the current applicable consumption tax rates are set forth in the table below. For further information about consumption tax rates, see Note 7 to our consolidated financial statements.

 

Effective from May 1, 2016, business tax has been completed replaced by value-added tax to cover all the business sectors that used to fall under the business tax regime.

 

In April 2017, the State Council issued a notice to implement the reform of the existing mineral resources income levy system, in which the existing license fees of exploration rights and production rights will be integrated into mining rights occupancy fees, and will be dynamically adjusted based on the changes in mineral product prices and economic development needs. Collection methods and standards have not yet been released.

 

Applicable tax, fees and royalties on refined oil products and other refined oil products generally payable by us or by other companies in similar industries are shown below.

 

Tax Item

 

Tax Base

 

Tax Rate/Fee Rate

 

 

 

 

 

Enterprise income tax

 

Taxable income

 

25% effective from January 1, 2008.

Value-added tax

 

Revenue

 

10% for liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, and low density polyethylene for production of agricultural film and fertilizers and 16% for other items. 6%, 10% and 16% for taxable services. We generally charge value-added tax to our customers at the time of settlement on top of the selling prices of our products on behalf of the taxation authority. We may directly claim refund from the value-added tax collected from our customers for value-added tax that we paid for (i) purchasing materials consumed during the production process; and (ii) charges paid for drilling and other engineering services.

Consumption tax

 

Aggregate volume sold or self-consumed

 

Effective from January 13, 2015, RMB 1.52 per liter for gasoline, naphtha, solvent and lubricant, and RMB 1.2 per liter for diesel, fuel oil and jet kerosene.

Import tariff

 

CIF China price

 

5% for gasoline, 6% for diesel, 9% for jet kerosene and 6% for fuel oil. In 2017, the applicable tax rate for motor gasoline and aviation gasoline, No. 5-7 fuel oil and diesel is 1% and 0% for jet kerosene and naphtha.

Resource tax

 

Aggregate Sales Revenue

 

Effective from December 1, 2014, for domestic production of crude oil and natural gas, the applicable tax rate is increased from 5% to 6% of the sales revenue, exemption or deduction may apply if qualified.

Resource compensation tax

 

Sales revenue of crude oil and natural gas

 

Effective from December 1, 2014, the applicable tax rate is reduced from 1% to zero.

Exploration license fee

 

Area

 

RMB 100 to RMB 500 per square kilometer per annum.

Production license fee

 

Area

 

RMB 1,000 per square kilometer per annum.

Royalty fee(1)

 

Production volume

 

Progressive rate of 0-12.5% for crude oil and 0-3% for natural gas.

City construction tax

 

Total payment of value-added tax and consumption tax

 

1%, 5% and 7%.

Education surcharge and local education surcharge

 

Total payment of value-added tax and consumption tax

 

3% for education surcharge and 2% for local education surcharge.

Special Oil Income Levy

 

Any revenue derived from sale of domestically produced crude oil when the realized crude oil price exceeds US$65 per barrel.

 

Progressive rate of 20% to 40% for revenues derived from crude oil with realized price in excess of US$65 per barrel.

 


(1)         Sino-foreign oil and gas exploration and development cooperative projects whose contracts were signed prior to November 1, 2011 and have not yet expired are still subject to royalty fee, and the project companies of those cooperative projects are not subject to any other resource taxes or fees. Sino-foreign oil and gas exploration cooperative projects whose contracts are signed after November 1, 2011 are not subject to royalty fee, but are subject to resource taxes.

 

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C.            ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

 

For a description of our relationship with Sinopec Group Company, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—A. History and Development of the Company” and “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions.” For a description of our significant subsidiaries, see Note 37 to our consolidated financial statements.

 

D.            PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

 

We own substantially all of our properties, plants and equipment relating to our business activities. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview” for description of our property, plant and equipment.

 

Environmental Matters

 

We are subject to various national environmental laws and regulations and also environmental regulations promulgated by the local governments in those jurisdictions we have operations, and we must pay the environmental tax for pollutant emissions. Usually the environmental tax increases for each incremental amount of discharge up to a certain level. Above a certain level prescribed by the pollutant discharge permits or other standards, the PRC regulations permit the local government to order any of our facilities to cure certain behavior causing environmental damage and subject to the central government’s approval, the local government may also issue orders to close any of our facilities that fail to comply with the existing regulations. In addition, we have incurred capital expenditure specifically in compliance with the various environmental protection objectives set by the PRC government for the petroleum and chemical industry, to promote energy saving and environmental protection.

 

Our Energy Management and Environmental Protection Department is responsible for environmental management functions such as energy saving, emission reduction, environmental protection, water saving, comprehensive utilization of resources and clean production. Each of our production subsidiaries has implemented policies to control its pollutant emissions and discharge and to oversee compliance with the PRC environmental regulations.

 

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Most of our production facilities have their own environmental protection facilities, and the rest of our production facilities utilize available social resources, to guarantee the effective treatment of waste water, solid waste and waste gases, to ensure the compliance with applicable emission standard for our emission of waste water and waste gas, and to follow applicable disposal procedures for our disposal of solid waste.

 

Environmental regulations also require companies to file an environmental impact report to the Ministry of Ecology and Environment or local ecology and environment department for approval before undertaking any project with negative impact on the environment. When carrying out such projects, companies shall construct and implement environmental protection facilities and measures as required by the environmental bureau. After the completion of the construction, the projects shall be assessed according to the relevant requirements of environmental assessment, and the projects will only be permitted to operate after the assessment of its discharge treatment facilities, measures and pollutant discharge satisfactory environmental assessment and approval requirements and reporting on the national information platform for completion-based environmental protection check and acceptance of construction projects.

 

We believe our environmental protection systems and facilities are adequate for us to comply with current applicable national and local environmental protection regulations. The PRC government, however, may impose stricter regulations which may require additional expenditure on compliance with environmental regulations.

 

Our environmental protection expenditures were approximately RMB 6.4 billion in 2016, RMB 7.9 billion in 2017 and RMB 7.9 billion in 2018.

 

Insurance

 

In respect of our refining, petrochemical production, and marketing and sales operations, we currently maintain with Sinopec Group Company, under the terms of its Safety Production Insurance Fund (SPI Fund), approximately RMB 805.2 billion of coverage on our property and plants and approximately RMB 87.2 billion of coverage on our inventory. In 2018, we paid an insurance premium of approximately RMB 2.1 billion to Sinopec Group Company for such coverage.

 

Transportation vehicles and products in transit are not covered by Sinopec Group Company and we maintain insurance policies for those assets with insurance companies in the PRC.

 

The insurance coverage under SPI Fund applies to all domestic enterprises controlled by Sinopec Group Company under regulations published by the Ministry of Finance. We believe that, in the event of a major accident, we will be able to recover most of our losses from insurance proceeds paid under the SPI Fund or by insurance companies.

 

Pursuant to an approval of the Ministry of Finance, Sinopec Group Company entered into an agreement with PICC Property and Casualty Company Limited on January 29, 2002 to purchase a property and casualty policy which would also cover our assets. The policy provides for an annual maximum cumulative claim amount of RMB 4.0 billion and a maximum of RMB 2.36 billion per occurrence.

 

ITEM 4A.                                       UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

None.

 

ITEM 5.                                                OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

 

A.                                    GENERAL

 

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements. Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with IFRS. Certain financial information presented in this section is derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. Unless otherwise indicated, all financial data presented on a consolidated basis or by segment, are presented net of inter-segment transactions (i.e., inter-segment and other intercompany transactions have been eliminated).

 

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Critical Accounting Policies

 

Our reported consolidated financial condition and consolidated results of operations are sensitive to accounting methods, assumptions and estimates that underlie the preparation of our financial statements. We base our assumptions and estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable and which form the basis for making judgments about matters that are not readily apparent from other sources. On an on-going basis, our management evaluates its estimates. Actual results may differ from those estimates as facts, circumstances and conditions change.

 

The selection of critical accounting policies, the judgments and other uncertainties affecting application of those policies and the sensitivity of reported results to changes in conditions and assumptions are factors to be considered when reviewing our financial statements. Our principal accounting policies are set forth in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements. We believe the following critical accounting policies involve the most significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our financial statements.

 

Oil and gas properties and reserves

 

The accounting for the exploration and production activities of oil and gas is subject to accounting rules that are unique to the oil and gas industry. There are two methods to account for oil and gas business activities, the successful efforts method and the full cost method. We have elected to use the successful efforts method. The successful efforts method reflects the volatility that is inherent in exploring for mineral resources in that costs of unsuccessful exploratory efforts are charged to expense as they are incurred. These costs primarily include dry hole costs, seismic costs and other exploratory costs. Under the full cost method, these costs are capitalized and written-off or depreciated over time.

 

Engineering estimates of our oil and gas reserves are inherently imprecise and represent only approximate amounts because of the subjective judgements involved in developing such information. There are authoritative guidelines regarding the engineering criteria that have to be met before estimated oil and gas reserves can be designated as “proved.” Proved and proved developed reserves estimates are updated at least annually and take into account recent production and technical information about each field. In addition, as prices and cost levels change from year to year, the estimate of proved and proved developed reserves also changes. This change is considered a change in estimate for accounting purposes and is reflected on a prospective basis in relation to depreciation rates. Oil and gas reserves have a direct impact on the assessment of the recoverability of the carrying amounts of oil and gas properties reported in the financial statements. If proved reserves estimates are revised downwards, earnings could be affected by changes in depreciation expense or an immediate write-down of the property’s carrying amount.

 

Future dismantlement costs for oil and gas properties are estimated with reference to engineering estimates after taking into consideration the anticipated method of dismantlement required in accordance with industry practices in similar geographic area, including estimation of economic life of oil and gas properties, technology and price level. The present values of these estimated future dismantlement costs are capitalized as oil and gas properties with equivalent amounts recognized as provisions for dismantlement costs.

 

Despite the inherent imprecision in these engineering estimates, these estimates are used in determining depreciation expense, impairment loss and future dismantlement costs. Capitalized costs of proved oil and gas properties are amortized on a unit-of-production method based on volumes produced and reserves.

 

Impairment for long-lived assets

 

If circumstances indicate that the net book value of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable, the asset may be considered “impaired,” and an impairment loss may be recognized in accordance with IAS 36 “Impairment of Assets.” The carrying amounts of long-lived assets are reviewed periodically in order to assess whether the recoverable amounts have declined below the carrying amounts. These assets are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their recorded carrying amounts may not be recoverable. When such a decline has occurred, the carrying amount is reduced to recoverable amount. For goodwill, the recoverable amount is estimated annually. The recoverable amount is the greater of the net selling price and the value in use. It is difficult to precisely estimate selling price because quoted market prices for our assets or cash-generating units are not readily available. In determining the value in use, expected cash flows generated by the asset or the cash-generating unit are discounted to their present value, which requires significant judgement relating to level of sale volume, selling price, amount of operating costs and discount rate. Management uses all readily available information in determining an amount that is a reasonable approximation of recoverable amount, including estimates based on reasonable and supportable assumptions and projections of sale volume, selling price, amount of operating costs and discount rate.

 

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Impairment losses recognized for each of the three years ended December 31, 2016, 2017 and 2018 in our statement of income on long-lived assets are summarized as follows: