Company Quick10K Filing
Synopsys
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$0.00 155 $21,200
10-K 2019-12-20 Annual: 2019-10-31
10-Q 2019-08-26 Quarter: 2019-07-31
10-Q 2019-05-24 Quarter: 2019-04-30
10-Q 2019-02-25 Quarter: 2019-01-31
10-K 2018-12-17 Annual: 2018-10-31
10-Q 2018-08-24 Quarter: 2018-07-31
10-Q 2018-05-25 Quarter: 2018-04-30
10-Q 2018-02-23 Quarter: 2018-01-31
10-K 2017-12-14 Annual: 2017-10-31
10-Q 2017-08-18 Quarter: 2017-07-31
10-Q 2017-05-19 Quarter: 2017-04-30
10-Q 2017-02-17 Quarter: 2017-01-31
10-K 2016-12-12 Annual: 2016-10-31
10-Q 2016-08-22 Quarter: 2016-07-31
10-Q 2016-05-24 Quarter: 2016-04-30
10-Q 2016-02-22 Quarter: 2016-01-31
10-K 2015-12-14 Annual: 2015-10-31
10-Q 2015-08-24 Quarter: 2015-07-31
10-Q 2015-05-22 Quarter: 2015-04-30
10-Q 2015-02-24 Quarter: 2015-01-31
10-K 2014-12-15 Annual: 2014-10-31
10-Q 2014-08-26 Quarter: 2014-07-31
10-Q 2014-05-28 Quarter: 2014-04-30
10-Q 2014-02-26 Quarter: 2014-01-31
10-K 2013-12-20 Annual: 2013-10-31
10-Q 2013-05-31 Quarter: 2013-04-30
10-Q 2013-03-04 Quarter: 2013-01-31
10-K 2012-12-20 Annual: 2012-10-31
10-Q 2012-08-31 Quarter: 2012-07-31
10-Q 2012-06-04 Quarter: 2012-04-30
10-Q 2012-03-06 Quarter: 2012-01-31
10-K 2011-12-16 Annual: 2011-10-31
10-Q 2011-09-02 Quarter: 2011-07-31
10-Q 2011-05-27 Quarter: 2011-04-30
10-Q 2011-03-02 Quarter: 2011-01-31
10-K 2010-12-17 Annual: 2010-10-31
10-Q 2010-09-08 Quarter: 2010-07-31
10-Q 2010-06-04 Quarter: 2010-04-30
10-Q 2010-03-09 Quarter: 2010-01-31
8-K 2019-12-19 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-12-04 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-08-29 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-08-21 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-08-21 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-06-14 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-06-04 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-05-22 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-04-08 Officers, Shareholder Vote, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-28 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-20 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-05 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-05 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-22 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-03 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-31 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-23 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-05 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-05 Officers, Shareholder Vote, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-21 Earnings, Exhibits
SNPS 2019-10-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Note 1. Description of Business
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 3. Business Combinations
Note 4. Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Note 5. Financial Assets and Liabilities
Note 6. Fair Value Measures
Note 7. Commitments and Contingencies
Note 8. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Note 9. Stock Repurchase Program
Note 10. Employee Benefit Plans
Note 11. Income Taxes
Note 12. Other Income (Expense), Net
Note 13. Segment Disclosure
Note 14. Effect of New Accounting Pronouncements
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
EX-4.2 a103119exhibit42.htm
EX-21.1 a103119exhibit211.htm
EX-23.1 a103119exhibit231.htm
EX-31.1 a103119exhibit311.htm
EX-31.2 a103119exhibit312.htm
EX-31.3 a103119exhibit313.htm
EX-32.1 a103119exhibit321.htm

Synopsys Earnings 2019-10-31

SNPS 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

Comparables ($MM TTM)
Ticker M Cap Assets Liab Rev G Profit Net Inc EBITDA EV G Margin EV/EBITDA ROA
VEEV 23,190 1,860 415 969 707 288 321 22,362 73% 69.7 15%
SNPS 21,200 6,153 2,214 3,305 2,577 626 692 20,637 78% 29.8 10%
CDNS 19,514 2,612 1,182 2,304 0 426 645 18,880 0% 29.3 16%
TWLO 17,757 5,109 812 881 476 -203 -141 17,222 54% -122.3 -4%
SPLK 17,377 4,488 3,054 1,422 1,667 0 132 15,705 117% 119.4 0%
ANSS 17,172 3,513 696 1,391 1,239 438 565 16,541 89% 29.3 12%
CHKP 16,409 5,828 2,056 0 0 0 0 16,105 0%
SSNC 15,642 16,141 11,295 4,389 1,860 318 1,193 22,411 42% 18.8 2%
DATA 14,111 1,912 837 1,231 1,077 -143 -129 13,558 87% -104.9 -7%
SYMC 13,392 15,369 10,119 4,822 3,749 117 811 16,198 78% 20.0 1%

Document
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
 
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended October 31, 2019
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number 0-19807
 
 
 
synopsyslogoa16.jpg 
SYNOPSYS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
56-1546236
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
690 East Middlefield Road,
Mountain View,
California
 
94043
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)

(650584-5000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par value
SNPS
Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.


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Large accelerated filer
 
ý
  
Accelerated Filer
 
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
  
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes     No  
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was approximately $13.7 billion. Aggregate market value excludes an aggregate of approximately 37.5 million shares of common stock held by the registrant’s executive officers and directors and by each person known by the registrant to own 5% or more of the outstanding common stock on such date. Exclusion of shares held by any of these persons should not be construed to indicate that such person possesses the power, direct or indirect, to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of the registrant, or that such person is controlled by or under common control with the registrant.
On December 13, 2019, 150,534,877 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, $0.01 par value, were outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s Proxy Statement relating to the registrant’s 2020 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, scheduled to be held on April 9, 2020, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. Except as expressly incorporated by reference, the registrant’s Proxy Statement shall not be deemed to be part of this report.



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SYNOPSYS, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
Fiscal year ended October 31, 2019
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  
Page No.
 
 
  
 
Item 1.
 
  
Item 1A.
 
 
Item 1B.
 
 
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i

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Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this Form 10-K or Annual Report) contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the Securities Act), Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Any statements herein that are not statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements. Words such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “can,” “should,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “intend,” “believe,” “estimate,” “project,” “continue,” “forecast,” “likely,” “potential,” “seek,” or the negatives of such terms, and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. This Form 10-K includes, among others, forward-looking statements regarding:
our business, product and platform strategies;
our business outlook;
the continuation of current industry trends towards customer and vendor consolidation, and the impact of such consolidation;
prior and future acquisitions, including the expected benefits and risks of completed acquisitions;
the impact of macroeconomic conditions and trade disruptions on our business and our customers’ businesses;
demand for our products and our customers’ products;
the expected realization of our backlog;
customer license renewals;
the completion of development of our unfinished products, or further development or integration of our existing products;
technological trends in integrated circuit design;
our ability to successfully compete in the markets in which we serve;
our license mix, our business model, and variability in our revenue;
litigation;
our ability to protect our intellectual property;
the impact of new and recently adopted accounting pronouncements;
our cash, cash equivalents and cash generated from operations;
our available-for-sale securities; and
our future liquidity requirements.
These statements are based on our current expectations about future events and involve certain known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause our actual results, time frames or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied in our forward-looking statements. Accordingly, we caution readers not to place undue reliance on these statements. Such risks and uncertainties include, among others, those listed in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors of this Form 10-K. The information included herein represents our estimates and assumptions as of the date of this filing. Unless required by law, we undertake no obligation to update publicly any forward-looking statements, or to update the reasons actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future. All subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to Synopsys, Inc. or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements. Readers are urged to carefully review and consider the various disclosures made in this report and in other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) that attempt to advise interested parties of the risks and factors that may affect our business.

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Fiscal Year End
Our fiscal year ends on the Saturday nearest to October 31 and consists of 52 weeks, with the exception that approximately every five years, we have a 53-week year. When a 53-week year occurs, we include the additional week in the first quarter to realign fiscal quarters with calendar quarters. Fiscal 2018 was a 53-week year and ended on November 3, 2018. Fiscal 2019 and 2017 were 52-week years and ended on November 2, 2019 and October 28, 2017, respectively. Fiscal 2020 will be a 52-week year.
For presentation purposes, this Form 10-K refers to the closest calendar month end.

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PART I

 Item 1.     Business
Company and Segment Overview

Synopsys, Inc. provides products and services used across the entire silicon to software spectrum, from engineers creating advanced semiconductors to software developers seeking to ensure the security and quality of their code.

We are a global leader in supplying the electronic design automation (EDA) software that engineers use to design and test integrated circuits (ICs), also known as chips. We also offer semiconductor intellectual property (IP) products, which are pre-designed circuits that engineers use as components of larger chip designs rather than designing those circuits themselves. We provide software and hardware used to validate the electronic systems that incorporate chips and the software that runs on them. To complement these offerings, we provide technical services and support to help our customers develop advanced chips and electronic systems. These products and services are part of our Semiconductor & System Design segment.
 
We are also a leading provider of software tools and services that improve the security and quality of software code in a wide variety of industries, including electronics, financial services, media, automotive, medicine, energy and industrials. These tools and services are part of our Software Integrity segment.
Corporate Information

We incorporated in 1986 in North Carolina and reincorporated in 1987 in Delaware. Our headquarters are located at 690 East Middlefield Road, Mountain View, California 94043, and our headquarters’ telephone number is (650) 584-5000. We have approximately 120 offices worldwide.

Our annual and quarterly reports on Forms 10-K and 10-Q (including related filings in XBRL format), current reports on Form 8-K, and Proxy Statements relating to our annual meetings of stockholders (including any amendments to these reports, as well as filings made by our executive officers and directors) are available through the Investor Relations page of our website (www.synopsys.com) free of charge as soon as practicable after we file them with, or furnish them to, the SEC (www.sec.gov). We use our Investor Relations page as a routine channel for distribution of important information, including news releases, investor presentations, and financial information. The contents of our website are not part of this Form 10-K.
Background

Recent years have seen a remarkable proliferation of consumer and wireless electronic products, particularly mobile devices. The growth of the Internet and cloud computing has provided people with new ways to create, store and share information. At the same time, the increasing use of electronics in cars, buildings, appliances and other consumer products is creating a connected landscape of “smart” devices. Numerous software applications (apps) have been developed to expand the potential of these connected devices. The increasing impact of artificial intelligence and machine learning is driving an increase in the activity of new and existing chip and system design companies around the world.

These developments have been fueled by innovation in the semiconductor and software industries. It is common for a single chip to combine many components (processor, communications, memory, custom logic, input/output) and embedded software into a single system-on-chip (SoC), necessitating highly complex chip designs. The most complex chips today contain more than a billion transistors. Transistors are the basic building blocks for ICs, each of which may have features that are less than 1/1,000th the diameter of a human hair. At such small dimensions, the wavelength of light itself can become an obstacle to production, proving too big to create such dense features and requiring creative and complicated new approaches from designers. Designers have turned to new manufacturing techniques to solve these problems, such as multiple-patterning lithography and FinFET transistors, which in turn have introduced new challenges to design and production.

The popularity of mobile devices and other electronic products has increased demand for chips and systems with greater functionality and performance, reduced size, and lower power consumption. Our customers are the designers of those products and are facing intense pressure to deliver innovative products in shorter timeframes and at lower prices. In other words, innovation in chip and system design often hinges on providing products

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“better,” “sooner,” and “cheaper” than competitors. The designs of these chips and systems are extremely complex and necessitate state-of-the-art design solutions.

A similar dynamic is at work in the software arena, whether embedded on a chip or as a standalone. The pace of innovation often requires developers to deliver more secure, high-quality software, which can include millions of lines of code, in increasingly frequent release cycles. Bugs, defects, and security vulnerabilities in code can be difficult to detect and expensive to fix. But, at a time when software is critical in many industries across a growing array of smart devices, it is crucial to have high-quality, secure code to ensure consumers’ privacy and safety.
Our Role—The Silicon to Software Partner

Synopsys' products and services enable innovators across a variety of markets—from mobile electronics and finance to media, medical, energy, industrial, and automotive—to develop smart and secure products and applications. Across all industries, our customers face tremendous pressure to build differentiated chips and develop robust code more quickly and cost-effectively than ever before. With the increasing amount of embedded software in today’s devices, security and quality are top concerns. Synopsys technologies and services are designed to help our customersboth hardware designers and software developersto speed time to market, achieve the highest quality of results, mitigate risk, and maximize profitability. Our offerings span from silicon to software.

The task of the chip and system designer is to determine how best to design, locate, and connect the building blocks of chips, and to verify that the resulting design behaves as intended and can be manufactured efficiently and cost-effectively. This task is a complex, multi-step process that is both expensive and time-consuming. We offer a wide range of products that help designers at different steps in the overall design process, both for the design of individual ICs and for the design of larger systems. Our products can increase designer productivity and efficiency by automating tasks, keeping track of large amounts of design data, adding intelligence to the design process, facilitating reuse of past designs, and reducing errors. Our IP products offer proven, high-quality pre-configured circuits that are ready-to-use in a chip design, saving customers time and enabling them to direct resources to features that differentiate their products. Our global service and support engineers also provide expert technical support and design assistance to our customers.

The task of the software developer is to write code that not only accomplishes the developer's goal as efficiently as possible, but also runs securely and is free of defects. We offer products that can help developers write higher quality, more secure code by analyzing their code for quality defects and known security vulnerabilities, adding intelligence and automation to the software testing process, and helping to eliminate defects in a systematic manner. To the extent that developers make use of open source software in their code, our products can help developers better manage the composition and security of the code. Our products enable software developers to catch flaws earlier in the development cycle, when they are less costly to fix.
Products and Services
Semiconductor & System Design Segment

Our Semiconductor & System Design segment includes the EDA, IP and System Integration and Other revenue categories.

EDA

The process of designing ICs contains many complex steps: architecture definition, register transfer level (RTL) design, functional/RTL verification, logic design or synthesis, gate-level verification, floorplanning, and place and route, to name just a few. Designers use our EDA products to automate the IC design process and to reduce errors. We offer a platform that features a large number of EDA products intended to address the process comprehensively. Our EDA products generally fall into the following categories:
Digital and custom IC design and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) design, which includes software tools to design an IC;
Verification, which includes technology to verify that an IC design behaves as intended; and
Manufacturing, which includes products that both enable early manufacturing process development and convert IC design layouts into the masks used to manufacture the chips.

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Digital and Custom IC Design

Our Fusion Design Platform™ provides customers with a comprehensive digital design implementation solution that includes industry-leading products and incorporates common libraries and consistent timing, delay calculation, UPF power intent descriptions, and constraints throughout the design process. The Fusion Design Platform, which was launched in the fall of 2018, redefines conventional design tool boundaries to deliver a more integrated flow than ever before, with better quality and time to results. The platform gives designers the flexibility to integrate internally developed tools as well as those from third-parties. With innovative technologies, a common foundation, and flexibility, our Fusion Design Platform helps reduce design times, decrease uncertainties in the design steps, and minimize the risks inherent in advanced, complex IC design. The platform supports multiple technology nodes, including advanced nodes at 16/14nm, 12nm, 10nm, and 7/8nm, with technology collaborations at 5nm and below.

Key design products, available as part of the Fusion Design Platform, include Fusion Compiler™ RTL to GDSII design implementation, Design Compiler® logic synthesis, IC Compiler™ II physical design, Synopsys TestMAXTM test and diagnosis, PrimeTime® static timing analysis, StarRC™ parasitic extraction, Ansys RedHawk fusion rail analysis, and IC Validator physical verification.

Our Custom Design Platform™ is a unified suite of design and verification tools that accelerates the development of robust custom and AMS designs. Anchored by the Custom Compiler custom design environment, the platform features industry-leading circuit simulation performance, a fast, easy-to-use custom layout editor complemented with best-in-class technologies for parasitic extraction, reliability analysis, and physical verification. Key features of the Custom Design Platform include reliability-aware verification, visually-assisted layout automation, extraction fusion, and DRC fusion technologies. The platform supports multiple technology nodes, including advanced technology nodes such as 16/14nm, 12nm, 10nm, and 7/8nm, with technology collaborations at 5nm and below.

Our Custom Design Platform is based on the OpenAccess database and includes open APIs for third-party tool integration. Platform tools include HSPICE® and FineSim® SPICE circuit simulators, CustomSim™ FastSPICE, Custom Compiler layout and schematic editor, StarRC parasitic extraction, and IC Validator physical verification.
FPGA Design

FPGAs are complex chips that can be customized or programmed to perform a specific function after they are manufactured. For FPGA design, we offer Synplify® (Pro® and Premier) implementation and Identify® debug software tools.
Verification

Our Verification Continuum™ platform is built from our industry-leading and fastest verification technologies, providing virtual prototyping, static and formal verification, simulation, emulation, FPGA-based prototyping, and debug in a unified environment with verification IP, planning, and coverage technology. By providing consistent compile, runtime and debug environments across the flow of verification tasks and by enabling seamless transitions between simulation, emulation, and prototyping, the platform helps our customers accelerate hardware verification, bring up software earlier, and get to market sooner with advanced SoCs.

The individual products included in the Verification Continuum platform are reported in our EDA and IP and System Integration revenue categories. The solutions reported in our EDA revenue include the following:
SpyGlass® family of static verification technologies including lint, CDC (clock domain crossing), RDC (reset domain crossing), Synopsys TestMAX Advisor, and low-power analysis and verification;
VCS® functional verification solution, our comprehensive RTL and gate-level simulation technology, including Fine-Grained Parallelism (FGP);
Verdi® automated debug system, the industry’s most comprehensive SoC debug;
VC Formal™, our next-generation formal verification product;
ZeBu® emulation systems, which use high-performance hardware to emulate SoC designs so that designers can accelerate verification of large complex SoCs and perform earlier verification of the SoC together with software; and

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Other principal individual verification solutions, including CustomSim™, FastSPICE and FineSim® SPICE/FastSPICE circuit simulation and analysis products, HSPICE® circuit simulator, and CustomExplorer™ Ultra mixed-signal regression and analysis environment.

The verification IP, virtual prototyping, and FPGA-based prototyping solutions that are part of our Verification Continuum platform are included in our IP and System Integration category and further described below.
Manufacturing

Our Manufacturing Solutions include Sentaurus™ technology computer-aided design (TCAD) device and process simulation products, Proteus™ mask synthesis tools, CATS® mask data preparation software, Yield Explorer® Odyssey, and Yield-Manager® yield management solutions.

We also provide consulting and design services that address all phases of the SoC development process, as well as a broad range of expert training and workshops on our latest tools and methodologies.
IP and System Integration
IP Products

As more functionality converges into a single device or even a single chip, and as chip designs grow more complex, the number of third-party IP blocks incorporated into designs is rapidly increasing. We are a leading provider of high-quality, silicon-proven IP solutions for SoCs. Our broad DesignWare IP portfolio includes:
High-quality solutions for widely used wired and wireless interfaces such as USB, PCI Express, DDR, Ethernet, SATA, MIPI, HDMI, and Bluetooth Low Energy;
Logic libraries and embedded memories, including memory compilers, non-volatile memory, standard cells, and integrated test and repair;
Processor solutions, including configurable ARC® processor cores, software, Embedded Vision processor cores and application-specific instruction-set processor (ASIP) tools for embedded applications;
IP subsystems for audio, sensor, and data fusion functionality that combine IP blocks, an efficient processor, and software into an integrated, pre-verified subsystem;
Security IP solutions, including cryptographic cores and software, security subsystems, platform security and content protection IP;
Analog IP including data converters and audio codecs; and
SoC infrastructure IP, datapath and building block IP, mathematical and floating-point components, ARM® AMBA® interconnect fabric and peripherals, and verification IP.

Our IP Accelerated initiative augments our established, broad portfolio of silicon-proven DesignWare IP with IP Prototyping Kits and customized IP subsystems to accelerate prototyping, software development, and integration of IP into SoCs.

We offer a broad portfolio of IP that has been optimized to address specific application requirements for the mobile, automotive, digital home, internet of things, and cloud computing markets, enabling designers to quickly develop SoCs in these areas.

Our Verification IP portfolio, part of our Verification Continuum platform, is also part of the IP Products category.
System Integration Solutions

Our System Integration verification solutions include the following elements of our Verification Continuum platform:
HAPS® FPGA-based prototyping systems, which provide design and verification teams with an integrated and scalable hardware-software solution for early software development and to improve their SoC schedules;

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Virtualizer™ virtual prototyping solution, which addresses the increasing development challenges associated with software-rich semiconductor and electronic products by accelerating both the development and deployment of virtual prototypes; and
Platform Architect solution, which provides architects and system designers with tools and efficient methods for early analysis and optimization of multi-core SoC architectures for performance and power.

We also provide a series of tools used in the design of optical systems and photonic devices. Our CODE V® solution enables engineers to model, analyze and optimize designs for optical imaging and communication systems. Our LightTools® design and analysis software allows designers to simulate and improve the performance of a broad range of illumination systems, from vehicle lighting to projector systems.

Other

Our Other revenue category includes revenue from sales of products to academic and research institutions.

Software Integrity Segment

Our Software Integrity platform is a comprehensive solution for building integrity—security, quality and compliance testing—into our customers’ software development lifecycle and supply chain. These testing tools, services, and programs enable our customers to manage open source license compliance and detect and remediate security vulnerabilities and defects across their entire software development lifecycle. Our offerings include security and quality testing, managed services, programs and professional services, and training.

Key products in the security, quality and compliance testing space include:
    
Polaris Software Integrity Platform™, which is designed to provide customers with an easy-to-use and integrated platform that features critical application security products (see below) and certain services. Introduced in April 2019 with its initial configuration, Polaris Software Integrity Platform™ will be enhanced throughout 2020 and beyond;

Coverity® static analysis tools (including regular critical updates), which analyze software code to find crash-causing bugs, incorrect program behavior, the latest security vulnerabilities, memory leaks and other performance-degrading flaws;

Defensics® fuzz testing tools, which examine security vulnerabilities in software binaries and libraries, particularly network protocols and file formats, by systematically sending invalid or unexpected inputs to the system under test;

Black Duck™ software composition analysis tools, which scan binary and source code for license issues and other known security vulnerabilities stemming from incorporated third-party and open source code; and

Seeker® IAST tool, which identifies exploitable security vulnerabilities while web applications are running, thereby verifying results and eliminating false positives.

Managed services allow developers to test code across many dimensions, and to rapidly respond to changing testing requirements and evolving threats. This includes Mobile Application Security Testing (AST) services to find vulnerabilities in mobile applications as well as Dynamic Application Security Testing (DAST) services which identify security vulnerabilities while web applications are running, without the need for source code.

Programs and professional services address unique security and quality needs with specialized consulting by skilled experts, including the Building Security in Maturity Mode (BSIMM), which measures the effectiveness of software security initiatives by assessing the current state as compared to industry benchmarks, and the Black Duck™ on demand audit services, which provides open source compliance and software vulnerability assessments as part of the due diligence process for mergers and acquisitions.


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Finally, training includes eLearning and instructor-led training that prepares developers and security professionals to build security and quality into their software development process and remediate found vulnerabilities and defects.
Customer Service and Technical Support

A high level of customer service and support is critical to the adoption and successful use of our products. We provide technical support for our products through both field-based and corporate-based application engineering teams. Customers that purchase Technology Subscription Licenses (TSLs) receive post-contract customer support bundled with their license fee. Customers that purchase perpetual licenses may purchase these services separately, as further described in Product Sales and Licensing Agreements below.

Post-contract customer support includes providing frequent updates and upgrades to maintain the utility of the software due to rapid changes in technology. In our Semiconductor & System Design segment, post-contract customer support for our EDA and IP products also includes access to the SolvNet® portal, where customers can explore our complete design knowledge database. Updated daily, the SolvNet portal includes technical documentation, design tips, and answers to user questions. Customers can also engage, for additional charges, with our worldwide network of applications consultants for additional support needs.

In our Software Integrity segment, post-contract customer support for our products includes access to our support community portal, where customers can access our product documentation, self-service training materials, customer forums and our product knowledge base. Customers can also raise support tickets, request replacement license keys and validate the terms of their active license keys through the portal. Our support community portal is frequently updated with new and supplemental materials on a variety of topics. Customers may engage dedicated support engineers for an additional charge.

In addition, we offer training workshops designed to increase customer design proficiency and productivity with our products. Workshops cover our EDA products and methodologies used in our design and verification flows, as well as specialized modules addressing system design, logic design, physical design, simulation and testing. We offer regularly scheduled public and private courses in a variety of locations worldwide, as well as online training (live or on-demand) through our Virtual Classrooms.
Product Warranties

We generally warrant our products to be free from defects in media and to substantially conform to material specifications for a period of 90 days for our software products and for up to 6 months for our hardware products. In many cases, we also provide our customers with limited indemnification with respect to claims that their use of our software products infringes on United States patents, copyrights, trademarks or trade secrets. We have not experienced material warranty or indemnity claims to date.
Support for Industry Standards

We actively create and support standards that help our EDA and IP customers increase productivity, facilitate efficient design flows, improve interoperability of tools from different vendors, and ensure connectivity, functionality and interoperability of IP building blocks. Standards in the electronic design industry can be established by formal accredited organizations, industry consortia, company licensing made available to all, de facto usage, or through open source licensing.

In our Semiconductor & System Design segment, our EDA products support many standards, including the most commonly used hardware description languages: SystemVerilog, Verilog, VHDL, and SystemC®. Our products utilize numerous industry-standard data formats, APIs, and databases for the exchange of design data among our tools, other EDA vendors’ products, and applications that customers develop internally. We also comply with a wide range of industry standards within our IP product family to ensure usability and interconnectivity.

In our Software Integrity segment, our solutions support several existing and emerging industry standards for software coding and security, such as the Motor Industry Software Reliability Association (MISRA) coding standards for the automotive industry. In addition, our products support multiple major programming languages, including C/C++, Objective C, C#, JavaScript (including many commonly used frameworks), and others. In addition, we support many common compilers, development environments, frameworks, and data and file formats.

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Sales and Distribution

Our Semiconductor & System Design segment customers are primarily semiconductor and electronics systems companies. The customers for products in our Software Integrity segment include many of these companies as well as companies from a wider array of industries, including electronics, financial services, media, automotive, medicine, energy and industrials.

We market our products and services principally through direct sales in the United States and our principal foreign markets. We typically distribute our software products and documentation to customers electronically, but provide physical media (e.g., DVD-ROMs) when requested by the customer.

We maintain sales and support centers throughout the United States. Outside the United States, we maintain sales, support or service offices in Canada, multiple countries in Europe, Israel and throughout Asia, including Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan. Our international headquarters are located in Dublin, Ireland. Our offices are further described under Part I, Item 2, Properties.
Information relating to domestic and foreign operations, including revenue and long-lived assets by geographic area, is contained in Part II, Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data. Risks related to our foreign operations are described in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors.
Performance Obligations and Backlog

We adopted the Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606) at the beginning of fiscal 2019. This revenue standard requires disclosure of revenue allocated to remaining performance obligations. Contracted but unsatisfied or partially unsatisfied performance obligations were approximately $4.4 billion as of October 31, 2019, of which $494.3 million were in non-cancellable commitments from customers who will determine specific products or services selections at a later date. The remaining performance obligations, excluding the non-cancellable commitments, were $3.9 billion, of which 56% are expected to be fulfilled and recognized over the next 12 months.
Our historical backlog was $4.0 billion as of October 31, 2018, primarily representing three years of committed orders which included non-cancellable commitments with future deliverables.

Revenue Attributable to Product Categories and Segments

Beginning in fiscal 2019, we report under two segments: Semiconductor & System Design segment and Software Integrity segment. Revenue attributable to each of our four product categories (with EDA, IP & Systems Integration, and Other comprising our Semiconductor & System Design segment) is shown below as a percentage of our total revenue for those fiscal years.

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chart-fce09c8d86a75de9ad8.jpg
Aggregate revenue derived from Intel Corporation and its subsidiaries through multiple agreements accounted for 12.8%, 15.4% and 17.9% of our total revenue in fiscal 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. In each such year, the revenue derived from Intel Corporation and its subsidiaries was primarily attributable to our Semiconductor & System Design segment. No other customer accounted for more than 10% of our revenue during such periods.
Product Sales and Licensing Agreements

We typically license our software to customers under non-exclusive license agreements that restrict use of our software to specified purposes within specified geographical areas. The majority of licenses to our EDA products are network licenses that allow a number of individual users to access the software on a defined network, including, in some cases, regional or global networks. The majority of licenses to our Software Integrity products are capacity or user licenses that allow a number of users to access the software based on a specified number of team members or specified code-bases in a defined territory. License fees depend on the type of license, product mix, and number of copies of each product licensed.

In a number of cases regarding our EDA products, we provide our customers the right to “re-mix” a portion of the software they initially licensed for other specified Synopsys products. For example, a customer may use our front-end design products for a portion of the license term and then exchange such products for back-end place-and-route software for the remainder of the term in order to complete the customer’s IC design. This practice helps ensure our EDA customer’s access to the complete design flow needed to design their product. Offering remix rights to EDA customers gives us an advantage over competitors who offer a narrower range of EDA products because customers can obtain more of their design flow from a single vendor. At the same time—because in such cases the customer does not need to obtain a new license and pay an additional license fee for the use of the additional EDA products—the use of these arrangements could result in reduced revenue compared to licensing the individual products separately without re-mix rights.

For a full discussion of our software product offerings, see Part II, Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.


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We typically license our DesignWare IP products under nonexclusive license agreements that provide usage rights for specific applications. Fees under these licenses are typically charged on a per design basis plus, in some cases, royalties. Royalty arrangements are not material to our total revenue.

Our hardware products, which principally consist of our prototyping and emulation systems, are either sold or leased to our customers. Our professional services team typically provides design consulting services to our customers under consulting agreements with statements of work specific to each project.
Competition

The EDA industry is highly competitive. We compete against other EDA vendors and against our customers’ own design tools and internal design capabilities. In general, we compete principally on technology leadership, product quality and features (including ease-of-use), license terms, price and payment terms, post-contract customer support, flexibility of tool use, and interoperability with our own and other vendors’ products. We also deliver a significant amount of engineering and design consulting for our products. No single factor drives an EDA customer’s buying decision, and we compete on all fronts to capture a higher portion of our customers’ budgets. Our competitors include EDA vendors that offer varying ranges of products and services, such as Cadence Design Systems, Inc. and Mentor Graphics Corporation (now part of Siemens AG). We also compete with other EDA vendors, including new entrants to the marketplace, that offer products focused on one or more discrete phases of the IC design process, as well as with customers’ internally developed design tools and capabilities.

Our Semiconductor & System Design segment competes against numerous other IP providers, including Cadence Design Systems, Inc., and our customers' internally developed IP. We generally compete on the basis of product quality, reliability and features, ease of integration with customer designs, compatibility with design tools, license terms, price and payment terms, and customer support.

Our Software Integrity segment competes with numerous other solution providers, many of which focus on specific aspects of software security or quality analysis. We also compete with frequent new entrants, which include start-up companies and more established software companies. For example, competitors named in the Gartner Magic Quadrant for Application Security Testing include Checkmarx Ltd., Veracode (now part of Thoma Bravo, LLC) and Micro Focus International plc.
Proprietary Rights

We primarily rely upon a combination of copyright, patent, trademark, and trade secret laws and license and non-disclosure agreements to establish and protect our proprietary rights. We have a diversified portfolio of more than 3,200 United States and foreign patents issued, and we will continue to pursue additional patents in the future. Our issued patents have expiration dates through 2039. Our patents primarily relate to our products and the technology used in connection with our products. Our source code is protected both as a trade secret and as an unpublished copyrighted work. However, third parties may independently develop similar technology. In addition, effective copyright and trade secret protection may be unavailable or limited in some foreign countries. While protecting our proprietary technology is important to our success, our business as a whole is not significantly dependent upon any single patent, copyright, trademark, or license.

In many cases, under our customer agreements and other license agreements, we offer to indemnify our customers if the licensed products infringe on a third party’s intellectual property rights. As a result, we may from time to time need to defend claims that our customers’ use of our products infringes on these third-party rights. We license software and other intellectual property from third parties, including, in several instances, for inclusion in our products. Risks related to our use of third-party technology are described in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors.
Employees
As of October 31, 2019, Synopsys had 13,896 employees, of which 4,512 were based in the United States.

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Information about our Executive Officers
The executive officers of Synopsys and their ages as of December 20, 2019 were as follows:
Name
 
Age
 
Position
Aart J. de Geus
 
65
 
Co-Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board of Directors
Chi-Foon Chan
 
70
 
Co-Chief Executive Officer and President
Trac Pham
 
50
 
Chief Financial Officer
Joseph W. Logan
 
60
 
Sales and Corporate Marketing Officer
John F. Runkel, Jr.
 
64
 
General Counsel and Corporate Secretary
Aart J. de Geus co-founded Synopsys and has served as Chairman of our Board of Directors since February 1998 and Chief Executive Officer since January 1994. He has served as Co-Chief Executive Officer with Dr. Chi-Foon Chan since May 2012. Since the inception of Synopsys in December 1986, Dr. de Geus has held a variety of positions, including President, Senior Vice President of Engineering and Senior Vice President of Marketing. He has served as a member of Synopsys’ Board of Directors since 1986, and served as Chairman of our Board from 1986 to 1992 and again from 1998 until present. Dr. de Geus has also served on the board of directors of Applied Materials, Inc. since July 2007. Dr. de Geus holds an M.S.E.E. from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Southern Methodist University.
Chi-Foon Chan has served as our Co-Chief Executive Officer since May 2012 and as our President and a member of our Board of Directors since February 1998. Prior to his appointment as our Co-Chief Executive Officer in May 2012, he had served as our Chief Operating Officer since April 1997. Dr. Chan joined Synopsys in May 1990 and has held various senior management positions, including Executive Vice President, Office of the President from September 1996 to February 1998 and Senior Vice President, Design Tools Group from February 1994 to April 1997. Dr. Chan has also held senior management and engineering positions at NEC Electronics and Intel Corporation. Dr. Chan holds a B.S. in Electrical Engineering from Rutgers University, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in Computer Engineering from Case Western Reserve University.
Trac Pham is our Chief Financial Officer. Mr. Pham joined Synopsys in November 2006 as Vice President, Financial Planning and Strategy. He became our Vice President, Corporate Finance, in August 2012, assuming additional responsibility for our tax and treasury functions, before being appointed Chief Financial Officer in December 2014. Mr. Pham holds a Bachelor of Arts in Economics from the University of California, Berkeley and an MPIA (Master of Pacific International Affairs) from the University of California, San Diego. He is an active status California CPA.
Joseph W. Logan serves as our Sales and Corporate Marketing Officer. He became Senior Vice President of Worldwide Sales in September 2006 and assumed responsibility for our Corporate Marketing organization in August 2013. Previously, Mr. Logan was head of sales for Synopsys’ North America East region from September 2001 to September 2006. Prior to Synopsys, Mr. Logan was head of North American Sales and Support at Avant! Corporation. Mr. Logan holds a B.S.E.E. from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
John F. Runkel, Jr. has served as our General Counsel and Corporate Secretary since May 2014. From October 2008 to March 2013, he was Executive Vice President, General Counsel, and Corporate Secretary of Affymetrix, Inc. He served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Intuitive Surgical, Inc. from 2006 to 2007. Mr. Runkel served in several roles at VISX, Inc. from 2001 to 2005, most recently as Senior Vice President of Business Development and General Counsel. Mr. Runkel was also a partner at the law firm of Sheppard, Mullin, Richter & Hampton LLP for 11 years. He holds a Bachelor of Arts and a Juris Doctorate from the University of California, Los Angeles.
There are no family relationships among any Synopsys executive officers or directors.

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 Item 1A.     Risk Factors
A description of the risk factors associated with our business is set forth below. Investors should carefully consider these risks and uncertainties before investing in our common stock.
The growth of our business depends primarily on the semiconductor and electronics industries.
The growth of the electronic design automation (EDA) industry as a whole, our Semiconductor & System Design segment product sales, and to some extent our Software Integrity segment product sales, is dependent on the semiconductor and electronics industries. A substantial portion of our business and revenue depends upon the commencement of new design projects by semiconductor manufacturers, systems companies, and their customers. The increasing complexity of designs of systems-on-chips, integrated circuits, electronic systems and customers’ concerns about managing costs, have previously led and in the future could lead to a decrease in design starts and design activity in general, with some customers focusing more on one discrete phase of the design process or opting for less advanced, but less risky, manufacturing processes that may not require the most advanced EDA products. Demand for our products and services could decrease and our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected if growth in the semiconductor and electronics industries slows or stalls. Additionally, as the EDA industry has matured, consolidation has resulted in stronger competition from companies better able to compete as sole source vendors. This increased competition may cause our revenue growth rate to decline and exert downward pressure on our operating margins, which may have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
Furthermore, the semiconductor and electronics industries have become increasingly complex ecosystems. Many of our customers outsource the manufacture of their semiconductor designs to foundries. Our customers also frequently incorporate third-party IP, whether provided by us or other vendors, into their designs to improve the efficiency of their design process. We work closely with major foundries to ensure that our EDA, IP, and manufacturing solutions are compatible with their manufacturing processes. Similarly, we work closely with other major providers of semiconductor IP, particularly microprocessor IP, to optimize our EDA tools for use with their IP designs and to assure that their IP and our own IP products, which may each provide for the design of separate components on the same chip, work effectively together. If we fail to optimize our EDA and IP solutions for use with major foundries’ manufacturing processes or major IP providers’ products, or if our access to such foundry processes or third-party IP products is hampered, then our solutions may become less desirable to our customers, resulting in an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
Consolidation among our customers and within the industries in which we operate, as well as our dependence on a relatively small number of large customers, may negatively impact our operating results.

A number of business combinations, including mergers, asset acquisitions and strategic partnerships, among our customers in the semiconductor and electronics industries have occurred over the last several years, and more could occur in the future. Consolidation among our customers could lead to fewer customers or the loss of customers, increased customer bargaining power, or reduced customer spending on software and services. Furthermore, we depend on a relatively small number of large customers, and on such customers continuing to renew licenses and purchase additional products from us, for a large portion of our revenue. Reduced customer spending or the loss of a small number of customers, particularly our large customers, could adversely affect our business and financial condition. In addition, we and our competitors from time to time acquire businesses and technologies to complement and expand our respective product offerings. If any of our competitors consolidate or acquire businesses and technologies which we do not offer, they may be able to offer a larger technology portfolio, additional support and service capability, or lower prices, which could negatively impact our business and operating results.
The global nature of our operations exposes us to increased risks and compliance obligations that may adversely affect our business.
We derive roughly half of our revenue from sales outside the United States, and we expect our orders and revenue to continue to depend on sales to customers outside the U.S. We have also continually expanded our non-U.S. operations. This strategy requires us to recruit and retain qualified technical and managerial employees, manage multiple remote locations performing complex software development projects and ensure intellectual property protection outside of the U.S. Our international operations and sales subject us to a number of increased risks, including:


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Ineffective or weaker legal protection of intellectual property rights;
Uncertain economic and political conditions in countries where we do business;
Government trade restrictions, including tariffs, export licenses, or other trade barriers, and changes to existing trade arrangements between various countries;
Difficulties in adapting to cultural differences in the conduct of business, which may include business practices in which we are prohibited from engaging by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act or other anti-corruption laws;
Financial risks such as longer payment cycles and difficulty in collecting accounts receivable;
Inadequate local infrastructure that could result in business disruptions;
Additional taxes, interest, and potential penalties, and uncertainty around changes in tax laws of various countries; and
Other factors beyond our control such as natural disasters, terrorism, civil unrest, war and infectious diseases.

Furthermore, if any of the foreign economies in which we do business deteriorate or if we fail to effectively manage our global operations, our business and results of operations will be harmed.

As our business volume increases in the Asia Pacific region, there is inherent risk, based on the complex relationships between certain Asian countries and the United States, that political, diplomatic, or military events could result in trade disruptions, including tariffs, trade embargoes, export restrictions and other trade barriers. A significant trade disruption, export restriction, or the establishment or increase of any trade barrier in any area where we do business could reduce customer demand and cause customers to search for substitute products and services, make our products and services more expensive or unavailable for customers, increase the cost of our products and services, have a negative impact on customer confidence and spending, make our products less competitive, or otherwise have a materially adverse impact on our future revenue and profits, our customers' and suppliers’ businesses, and our results of operations.

For example, beginning in May 2019, the United States government placed certain entities on the “Entity List,” restricting the sale of U.S. technologies to the named entities. As a result of this government action, we are not able to book new business with these entities, and revenue associated with these entities is put “on hold” until either the contract expires, or the restriction is lifted. In response to that action or similar actions taken by the United States, other countries may adopt tariffs and trade barriers that could limit our ability to offer our products and services. Current and potential customers who are concerned or affected by such tariffs or restrictions may respond by developing their own products or replacing our solutions, which would have an adverse effect on our business. In addition, government or customer efforts, attitudes, laws, or policies regarding technology independence may lead to non-U.S. customers favoring their domestic technology solutions that could compete with or replace our products, which would also have an adverse effect on our business.

In addition to tariffs and other trade barriers, our global operations are subject to numerous U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including those related to anti-corruption, tax, corporate governance, imports and exports, financial and other disclosures, privacy and labor relations. These laws and regulations are complex and may have differing or conflicting legal standards, making compliance difficult and costly. In addition, there is uncertainty regarding how proposed, contemplated or future changes to these complex laws and regulations could affect our business. We may incur substantial expense in complying with the new obligations to be imposed by these laws and regulations, and we may be required to make significant changes in our business operations, all of which may adversely affect our revenues and our business overall. If we violate these laws and regulations we could be subject to fines, penalties or criminal sanctions, and may be prohibited from conducting business in one or more countries. Although we have implemented policies and procedures to help ensure compliance with these laws and regulations, there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors, agents or partners will not violate such laws and regulations. Any violation individually or in the aggregate could have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial condition.
Our financial results are also affected by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. A weakening U.S. dollar relative to other currencies increases expenses of our foreign subsidiaries when they are translated into U.S. dollars in our consolidated statements of operations. Likewise, a strengthening U.S. dollar relative to other currencies, including the renminbi or Yen, reduces revenue of our foreign subsidiaries upon translation and consolidation. Exchange rates are subject to significant and rapid fluctuations, and therefore we cannot predict the prospective impact of exchange rate fluctuations. Although we engage in foreign currency hedging activity, we may be unable to hedge all of our foreign currency risk, which could have a negative impact on our results of operations.

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Uncertainty in the global economy, and its potential impact on the semiconductor and electronics industries in particular, may negatively affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
While the global economy has been relatively strong in recent years, there are still uncertainties surrounding the strength of economic recovery in many regions. Uncertainty caused by challenging global economic conditions could lead some of our customers to postpone their decision-making, decrease their spending and/or delay their payments to us. Such caution by customers could, among other things, limit our ability to maintain or increase our sales or recognize revenue from committed contracts.
We cannot predict the stability of the economy as a whole or the industries in which we operate. Further economic instability could adversely affect the banking and financial services industry and result in credit downgrades of the banks we rely on for foreign currency forward contracts, credit and banking transactions, and deposit services, or cause them to default on their obligations. There is uncertainty regarding how proposed, contemplated or future changes to the complex laws and regulations governing our industry, the banking and financial services industry, and the economy could affect our business. In addition, economic conditions could deteriorate in the future, and, in particular, the semiconductor and electronics industries could fail to grow, including as the result of any disruption of international trade relationships. In the event of future improvements in economic conditions for our customers, the positive impact on our revenues and financial results may be deferred due to our business model. Any of the foregoing could cause adverse effects on our business, operating results and financial condition, and could cause our stock price to decline.
Our operating results may fluctuate in the future, which may adversely affect our stock price.
Our operating results are subject to quarterly and annual fluctuations, which may adversely affect our stock price. Our historical results should not be viewed as indicative of our future performance due to these periodic fluctuations.
Many factors may cause our revenue or earnings to fluctuate, including:

Changes in demand for our products—especially products, such as hardware, generating upfront revenue—due to fluctuations in demand for our customers’ products and due to constraints in our customers’ budgets for research and development and EDA products and services;
Product competition in the EDA industry, which can change rapidly due to industry or customer consolidation and technological innovation;
Our ability to innovate and introduce new products and services or effectively integrate products and technologies that we acquire;
Failures or delays in completing sales due to our lengthy sales cycle, which often includes a substantial customer evaluation and approval process because of the complexity of our products and services;
Our ability to implement effective cost control measures;
Our dependence on a relatively small number of large customers, and on such customers continuing to renew licenses and purchase additional products from us, for a large portion of our revenue;
Changes to the amount, composition and valuation of, and any impairments to or write-offs of, our inventory;
Changes in the mix of our products sold, as increased sales of our products with lower gross margins, such as our hardware products, may reduce our overall margins;
Expenses related to our acquisition and integration of businesses and technology;
Changes in tax rules, as well as changes to our effective tax rate, including the tax effects of infrequent or unusual transactions and tax audit settlements;
Delays, increased costs or quality issues resulting from our reliance on third parties to manufacture our hardware products, which includes a sole supplier for certain hardware components;
Natural variability in the timing of IP drawdowns, which can be difficult to predict;
General economic and political conditions that affect the semiconductor and electronics industries, such as disruptions to international trade relationships, including tariffs, export licenses, or other trade barriers affecting our or our suppliers' products; and
Changes in accounting standards, which may impact the way we recognize our revenue and costs and impact our earnings.

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The timing of revenue recognition may also cause our revenue and earnings to fluctuate. The timing of revenue recognition is affected by factors that include:

Cancellations or changes in levels of orders or the mix between upfront products revenue and time-based products revenue;
Delay of one or more orders for a particular period, particularly orders generating upfront products revenue, such as hardware;
Delay in the completion of professional services projects that require significant modification or customization and are accounted for using the percentage of completion method;
Delay in the completion and delivery of IP products in development as to which customers have paid for early access;
Customer contract amendments or renewals that provide discounts or defer revenue to later periods;
The levels of our hardware and IP revenues, which are recognized upfront and are primarily dependent upon our ability to provide the latest technology and meet customer requirements; and
Changes in our revenue recognition model.
These factors, or any other factors or risks discussed herein, could negatively impact our revenue or earnings and cause our stock price to decline. Additionally, our results may fail to meet or exceed the expectations of securities analysts and investors, or such analysts may change their recommendation regarding our stock, which could cause our stock price to decline. Our stock price has been, and may continue to be, volatile, which may make it more difficult for our stockholders to sell their shares at a time or a price that is favorable to them.
We operate in highly competitive industries, and if we do not continue to meet our customers’ demand for innovative technology at lower costs, our products may become uncompetitive and obsolete, and our business and financial condition may be harmed.
In our Semiconductor & System Design segment, we compete against EDA vendors that offer a variety of products and services, such as Cadence Design Systems, Inc. and Mentor Graphics Corporation (now part of Siemens AG). We also compete with other EDA vendors, including new entrants to the marketplace, that offer products focused on one or more discrete phases of the IC design process. Moreover, our customers internally develop design tools and capabilities that compete with our products, including internal designs that compete with our IP products. In the area of IP products, we compete against numerous other IP providers as well as our customers' internally developed IP.
In our Software Integrity segment, we compete with numerous other solution providers, many of which focus on specific aspects of software security or quality analysis. We also compete with frequent new entrants, which include start-up companies and more established software companies.
The industries in which we operate are highly competitive and the demand for our products and services is dynamic and depends on a number of factors, including demand for our customers’ products, design starts and our customers’ budgetary constraints. Technology in these industries evolves rapidly and is characterized by frequent product introductions and improvements as well as changes in industry standards and customer requirements. Semiconductor device functionality requirements continually increase while feature widths decrease, substantially increasing the complexity, cost and risk of chip design and manufacturing. At the same time, our customers and potential customers continue to demand an overall lower total cost of design, which can lead to the consolidation of their purchases with one vendor. In order to succeed in this environment, we must successfully meet our customers’ technology requirements and increase the value of our products, while also striving to reduce their overall costs and our own operating costs.
We compete principally on the basis of technology, product quality and features (including ease-of-use), license or usage terms, post-contract customer support, interoperability among products, and price and payment terms. Specifically, we believe the following competitive factors affect our success:

Our ability to anticipate and lead critical development cycles and technological shifts, innovate rapidly and efficiently, improve our existing software and hardware products, and successfully develop or acquire such new products;
Our ability to offer products that provide both a high level of integration into a comprehensive platform and a high level of individual product performance;
Our ability to enhance the value of our offerings through more favorable terms such as expanded license usage, future purchase rights, price discounts and other differentiating rights, such as

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multiple tool copies, post-contract customer support, “re-mix” rights that allow customers to exchange the software they initially licensed for other Synopsys products, and the ability to purchase pools of technology;
Our ability to compete on the basis of payment terms; and
Our ability to provide engineering and design consulting for our products.
If we fail to successfully manage these competitive factors, fail to successfully balance the conflicting demands for innovative technology and lower overall costs, or fail to address new competitive forces, our business and financial condition will be adversely affected.
Cybersecurity threats or other security breaches could compromise sensitive information belonging to us or our customers and could harm our business and our reputation, particularly that of our security testing solutions.
We store sensitive data, including intellectual property, our proprietary business information and that of our customers, and confidential employee information, in our data centers and on our networks. Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions that could result in unauthorized disclosure or loss of sensitive information.
For example, we discovered unauthorized third-party access to our products and product license files hosted on our SolvNet customer license and product delivery system in 2015. We determined that no customer project or design data had been accessed. No personally identifiable information or payment card information is stored on the system. While we identified and closed the method used to gain access, it is possible that our security measures may be circumvented again in the future, and such a breach could harm our business and reputation. The techniques used to obtain unauthorized access to networks, or to sabotage systems, change frequently and generally are not recognized until launched against a target. We may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. Furthermore, in the operation of our business we also use third-party vendors that store certain sensitive data, including confidential information about our employees, and these third parties are subject to their own cybersecurity threats. While our standard vendor terms and conditions include provisions requiring the use of appropriate security measures to prevent unauthorized use or disclosure of our data, as well as other safeguards, a breach may still occur. Any security breach of our own or a third-party vendor’s systems could cause us to be non-compliant with applicable laws or regulations, subject us to legal claims or proceedings, disrupt our operations, damage our reputation, and cause a loss of confidence in our products and services, any of which could adversely affect our business.
Our software products, including our hosted solutions as well as our software security and quality testing solutions, may also be vulnerable to cyber attacks. An attack could disrupt the proper functioning of our software, cause errors in the output of our customers’ work, allow unauthorized access to our or our customers’ proprietary information, and other destructive outcomes. As a result, our reputation could suffer, customers could stop buying our products, we could face lawsuits and potential liability, and our financial performance could be negatively impacted.
We offer software security and quality testing solutions. If we fail to identify new and increasingly sophisticated methods of cyber attacks, or fail to invest sufficient resources in research and development regarding new threat vectors, our security testing products and services may fail to detect vulnerabilities in our customers’ software code. An actual or perceived failure to identify security flaws may harm the perceived reliability of our security testing products and services, and could result in a loss of customers or sales, or an increased cost to remedy a problem. Furthermore, our growth and recent acquisitions in the software security and quality testing space may increase our visibility as a security-focused company and may make us a more attractive target for attacks on our own information technology infrastructure. Successful attacks could damage our reputation as a security-focused company.

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If we fail to protect our proprietary technology, our business will be harmed.
Our success depends in part upon protecting our proprietary technology. Our efforts to protect our technology may be costly and unsuccessful. We rely on agreements with customers, employees and other third-parties as well as intellectual property laws worldwide to protect our proprietary technology. These agreements may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. Additionally, despite our measures to prevent piracy, other parties may attempt to illegally copy or use our products, which could result in lost revenue. Some foreign countries do not currently provide effective legal protection for intellectual property and our ability to prevent the unauthorized use of our products in those countries is therefore limited. Our trade secrets may also be stolen, otherwise become known, or be independently developed by competitors.
We may need to commence litigation or other legal proceedings in order to:

Assert claims of infringement of our intellectual property;
Defend our products from piracy;
Protect our trade secrets or know-how; or
Determine the enforceability, scope and validity of the propriety rights of others.
If we do not obtain or maintain appropriate patent, copyright or trade secret protection, for any reason, or cannot fully defend our intellectual property rights in certain jurisdictions, our business and operating results would be harmed. In addition, intellectual property litigation is lengthy, expensive and uncertain. Legal fees related to such litigation will increase our operating expenses and may reduce our net income.
We may not be able to realize the potential financial or strategic benefits of the acquisitions we complete, or find suitable target businesses and technology to acquire, which could hurt our ability to grow our business, develop new products or sell our products.
Acquisitions and strategic investments are an important part of our growth strategy. We have completed a significant number of acquisitions in recent years. We expect to make additional acquisitions and strategic investments in the future, but we may not find suitable acquisition or investment targets or we may not be able to consummate desired acquisitions or investments due to unfavorable credit markets, commercially unacceptable terms, or other risks, which could harm our operating results. Acquisitions and strategic investments are difficult, time-consuming, and pose a number of risks, including:

Potential negative impact on our earnings per share;
Failure of acquired products to achieve projected sales;
Problems in integrating the acquired products with our products;
Difficulties entering into new markets in which we are not experienced or where competitors may have stronger positions;
Potential downward pressure on operating margins due to lower operating margins of acquired businesses, increased headcount costs and other expenses associated with adding and supporting new products;
Difficulties in retaining and integrating key employees;
Substantial reductions of our cash resources and/or the incurrence of debt;
Failure to realize expected synergies or cost savings;
Difficulties in integrating or expanding sales, marketing and distribution functions and administrative systems, including information technology and human resources systems;
Dilution of our current stockholders through the issuance of common stock as part of the merger consideration;
Difficulties in negotiating, governing and realizing value from strategic investments;
Assumption of unknown liabilities, including tax and litigation, and the related expenses and diversion of resources;
Disruption of ongoing business operations, including diversion of management’s attention and uncertainty for employees and customers, particularly during the post-acquisition integration process;
Potential negative impacts on our relationships with customers, distributors and business partners;
Exposure to new operational risks, regulations, and business customs to the extent acquired businesses are located in regions where we are not currently conducting business;
The need to implement controls, processes and policies appropriate for a public company at acquired companies that may have lacked such controls, processes and policies;

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Negative impact on our net income resulting from acquisition or investment-related costs; and
Requirements imposed by government regulators in connection with their review of an acquisition, including required divestitures or restrictions on the conduct of our business or the acquired business.
If we do not manage the foregoing risks, the acquisitions or strategic investments that we complete may have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition.
We pursue new product and technology initiatives from time to time, and if we fail to successfully carry out these initiatives, our business, financial condition, or results of operations could be adversely impacted.
As part of the evolution of our business, we have made substantial investments to develop new products and enhancements to existing products through our acquisitions and research and development efforts. If we are unable to anticipate technological changes in our industry by introducing new or enhanced products in a timely and cost-effective manner, or if we fail to introduce products that meet market demand, we may lose our competitive position, our products may become obsolete, and our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected.

Additionally, from time to time, we invest in expansion into adjacent markets, including software security and quality testing solutions. Although we believe these solutions are complementary to our EDA tools, we have less experience and a more limited operating history in offering software quality testing and security products and services, and our efforts in this area may not be successful. Our success in these new markets depends on a variety of factors, including the following:

Our ability to attract a new customer base, including in industries in which we have less experience;
Our successful development of new sales and marketing strategies to meet customer requirements;
Our ability to accurately predict, prepare for, and promptly respond to technological developments in new fields, including, in the case of our software quality testing and security tools and services, identifying new security vulnerabilities in software code and ensuring support for a growing number of programming languages;
Our ability to compete with new and existing competitors in these new industries, many of which may have more financial resources, industry experience, brand recognition, relevant intellectual property rights, or established customer relationships than we currently do, and could include free and open source solutions that provide similar software quality testing and security tools without fees;
Our ability to skillfully balance our investment in adjacent markets with investment in our existing products and services;
Our ability to attract and retain employees with expertise in new fields;
Our ability to sell and support consulting services at profitable margins; and
Our ability to manage our revenue model in connection with hybrid sales of licensed products and consulting services.

Difficulties in any of our new product development efforts or our efforts to enter adjacent markets could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.
We may have to invest more resources in research and development than anticipated, which could increase our operating expenses and negatively affect our operating results.
We devote substantial resources to research and development. New competitors, technological advances in the semiconductor industry or by competitors, our acquisitions, our entry into new markets, or other competitive factors may require us to invest significantly greater resources than we anticipate. If we are required to invest significantly greater resources than anticipated without a corresponding increase in revenue, our operating results could decline. Additionally, our periodic research and development expenses may be independent of our level of revenue, which could negatively impact our financial results. Finally, there can be no guarantee that our research and development investments will result in products that create additional revenue.
Product errors or defects could expose us to liability and harm our reputation and we could lose market share.

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Software products frequently contain errors or defects, especially when first introduced, when new versions are released, or when integrated with technologies developed by acquired companies. Product errors, including those resulting from third-party suppliers, could affect the performance or interoperability of our products, could delay the development or release of new products or new versions of products and could adversely affect market acceptance or perception of our products. In addition, any allegations of manufacturability issues resulting from use of our IP products could, even if untrue, adversely affect our reputation and our customers’ willingness to license IP products from us. Any such errors or delays in releasing new products or new versions of products or allegations of unsatisfactory performance could cause us to lose customers, increase our service costs, subject us to liability for damages and divert our resources from other tasks, any one of which could materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.
Our hardware products, which primarily consist of prototyping and emulation systems, subject us to distinct risks.
The growth in sales of our hardware products subjects us to several risks, including:

Increased dependence on a sole supplier for certain hardware components, which may reduce our control over product quality and pricing and may lead to delays in production and delivery of our hardware products, should our supplier fail to deliver sufficient quantities of acceptable components in a timely fashion;
Increasingly variable revenue and decreasingly accurate revenue forecasts, due to fluctuations in hardware revenue, which is recognized upfront upon shipment, as opposed to most sales of software products for which revenue is recognized over time;
Potential reductions in overall margins, as the gross margin for our hardware products is typically lower than those of our software products;
Longer sales cycles, which create risks of insufficient, excess or obsolete inventory and variations in inventory valuation, which can adversely affect our operating results;
Decreases or delays in customer purchases in favor of next-generation releases, which may lead to excess or obsolete inventory or require us to discount our older hardware products; and
Longer warranty periods than those of our software products, which may require us to replace hardware components under warranty, thus increasing our costs.
Changes in United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U.S. GAAP) could adversely affect our financial results and may require significant changes to our internal accounting systems and processes.
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP. These principles are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and various bodies formed to interpret and create appropriate accounting principles and guidance.
The FASB periodically issues new accounting standards on a variety of topics, including, for example, revenue recognition and accounting for leases. For information regarding new accounting standards, please refer to Note 14 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements under the heading "Effect of New Accounting Pronouncements." These and other such standards generally result in different accounting principles, which may significantly impact our reported results or could result in variability of our financial results. For example, the new revenue recognition standard became applicable to us at the beginning of fiscal 2019 and there is an increased volatility in our total revenue with less predictability than the prior accounting standard.
Our results could be adversely affected by a change in our effective tax rate as a result of tax law changes and related new or revised guidance and regulations, changes in our geographical earnings mix, unfavorable government reviews of our tax returns, material differences between our forecasted and actual annual effective tax rates, future changes to our tax structure, or by evolving enforcement practices.
Our operations are subject to income and transaction taxes in the United States and in multiple foreign jurisdictions, with a significant amount of our foreign earnings generated by our subsidiaries organized in Ireland and Hungary. Because we have a wide range of statutory tax rates in the multiple jurisdictions in which we operate, any changes in our geographical earnings mix, including those resulting from our intercompany transfer pricing or from changes in the rules governing transfer pricing, could materially impact our effective tax rate. Furthermore, a change in the tax law of the jurisdictions where we do business, including an increase in tax rates or an adverse change in the treatment of an item of income or expense, could result in a material increase in our tax expense and impact our financial position and cash flows.


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On December 22, 2017, the President of the United States signed into law the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (Tax Act), which significantly changed prior U.S. tax law and includes numerous provisions that affect our business. The Tax Act includes certain new provisions that began to affect our income from foreign operations in the first quarter of fiscal 2019. The applicability and impact of these new tax provisions is dependent in part on changes to our tax structure that were implemented in response to the Tax Act at the end of fiscal 2018. The net impact of such changes is uncertain, and could adversely affect our tax rate and cash flow in future years. Since the beginning of fiscal 2019, the U.S. Treasury Department has issued proposed regulations that, if finalized as written, would have a material impact on our ability to claim certain tax benefits related to the Tax Act. While the Company continues to evaluate the potential impact on its estimated annual tax rate, certain of these regulations have not been finalized and are subject to change. As additional regulations and guidance evolve with respect to the Tax Act, and as we gather more information and perform more analysis, our results may materially differ from previous estimates, and those differences may materially affect our financial position. Accounting for certain of these provisions requires the exercise of significant judgment. As regulations and guidance evolve with respect to the Tax Act, and as we gather more information and perform more analysis, our results may materially differ from previous estimates, and those differences may materially affect our financial position.
Further changes in the tax laws of foreign jurisdictions could arise as a result of the base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) project undertaken by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which represents a coalition of member countries. On October 5, 2015, the OECD issued a series of reports recommending changes to numerous long-standing tax principles. Many of these recommendations are being adopted by various countries in which we do business and may increase our taxes in these countries. Changes to these and other areas in relation to international tax reform, including future actions taken by foreign governments in response to the Tax Act, could increase uncertainty and may adversely affect our tax rate and cash flow in future years.
Our income and non-income tax filings are subject to review or audit by the Internal Revenue Service and state, local and foreign taxing authorities. We exercise significant judgment in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes and, in the ordinary course of our business, there may be transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. We may also be liable for potential tax liabilities of businesses we acquire, including future taxes payable related to the transition tax on earnings from their foreign operations, if any, under the Tax Act. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination in an audit may be materially different than the treatment reflected in our historical income tax provisions and accruals. An assessment of additional taxes because of an audit could adversely affect our income tax provision and net income in the periods for which that determination is made.

In July 2017, the Hungarian Tax Authority (HTA) issued a final assessment against our Hungarian subsidiary (Synopsys Hungary) for fiscal years 2011 through 2013. The HTA has applied withholding taxes on certain payments made to affiliates, resulting in an aggregate tax assessment of approximately $25.0 million and interest and penalties of $11.0 million. We paid the tax assessments, penalties and interest in the first quarter of fiscal 2018 as required by law and recorded these amounts as prepaid taxes on our balance sheet. On April 30, 2019, the Hungarian Administrative Court ruled against Synopsys Hungary. We filed an appeal with the Hungarian Supreme Court on July 5, 2019. For further discussion of the Hungary audit, see Note 11 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements under the heading "Non-U.S. Examinations."

We maintain significant deferred tax assets related to certain tax credits. Our ability to use these credits is dependent upon having sufficient future taxable income in the relevant jurisdiction and in the case of foreign tax credits, how such credits are treated under provisions of the Tax Act. Changes in our forecasts of future income could result in an adjustment to the deferred tax asset and a related charge to earnings that could materially affect our financial results.
Liquidity requirements in our U.S. operations may require us to raise cash in uncertain capital markets, which could negatively affect our financial condition.
As of October 31, 2019, approximately 74% of our worldwide cash and cash equivalents balance is held by our international subsidiaries. We intend to meet our U.S. cash spending needs, including the Tax Act provisional transition tax, primarily through our existing U.S. cash balances, ongoing U.S. cash flows, and available credit under our term loan and revolving credit facilities. Should our cash spending needs in the U.S. rise and exceed these liquidity sources, we may be required to incur additional debt at higher than anticipated interest rates or access other funding sources, which could negatively affect our results of operations, capital structure or the market price of our common stock.

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From time to time we are subject to claims that our products infringe on third-party intellectual property rights.
We are from time to time subject to claims alleging our infringement of third-party intellectual property rights, including patent rights. Under our customer agreements and other license agreements, we agree in many cases to indemnify our customers if our products infringe a third party’s intellectual property rights. Infringement claims can result in costly and time-consuming litigation, require us to enter into royalty arrangements, subject us to damages or injunctions restricting our sale of products, invalidate a patent or family of patents, require us to refund license fees to our customers or to forgo future payments or require us to redesign certain of our products, any one of which could harm our business and operating results.

For example, we were engaged in complex patent litigation with Mentor Graphics Corporation (Mentor) involving several actions in different forums. In June 2018, we settled all outstanding patent litigation with Mentor for a $65.0 million payment made in the third quarter of fiscal 2018 to Siemens, which acquired Mentor in March 2017. Further information regarding the lawsuits and settlement are contained in Part I, Item 3, Legal Proceedings and Note 7 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements under the heading “Legal Proceedings.” In conjunction with the settlement, we also amended an existing interoperability agreement with Mentor to collaborate on a wide range of EDA products. The amendment includes a one-time termination charge between $0.0 and $25.0 million, payable to Mentor under certain conditions. In the event such conditions are met, the termination charge could have an adverse effect on our operating results.
We may be subject to litigation proceedings that could harm our business.
We may be subject to legal claims or regulatory matters involving stockholder, consumer, employment, customer, supplier, competition, and other issues on a global basis. Litigation is subject to inherent uncertainties, and unfavorable rulings could occur. An unfavorable ruling could include monetary damages or, in cases for which injunctive relief is sought, an injunction prohibiting us from manufacturing or selling one or more products. If we were to receive an unfavorable ruling on a matter, our business and results of operations could be materially harmed. Further information regarding certain of these matters is contained in Part I, Item 3, Legal Proceedings.
We may not be able to continue to obtain licenses to third-party software and intellectual property on reasonable terms or at all, which may disrupt our business and harm our financial results.
We license third-party software and other intellectual property for use in product research and development and, in several instances, for inclusion in our products. We also license third-party software, including the software of our competitors, to test the interoperability of our products with other industry products and in connection with our professional services. These licenses may need to be renegotiated or renewed from time to time, or we may need to obtain new licenses in the future. Third parties may stop adequately supporting or maintaining their technology, or they or their technology may be acquired by our competitors. If we are unable to obtain licenses to these third-party software and intellectual property on reasonable terms or at all, we may not be able to sell the affected products, our customers’ use of the products may be interrupted, or our product development processes and professional services offerings may be disrupted, which could in turn harm our financial results, our customers, and our reputation.
The inclusion of third-party intellectual property in our products can also subject us and our customers to infringement claims. Although we seek to mitigate this risk contractually, we may not be able to sufficiently limit our potential liability. Regardless of outcome, infringement claims may require us to use significant resources and may divert management's attention.
Some of our products and technology, including those we acquire, may include software licensed under open source licenses. Some open source licenses could require us, under certain circumstances, to make available or grant licenses to any modifications or derivative works we create based on the open source software. Although we have tools and processes to monitor and restrict our use of open source software, the risks associated with open source usage may not be eliminated and may, if not properly addressed, result in unanticipated obligations that harm our business.

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If we fail to timely recruit and retain senior management and key employees, our business may be harmed.
We depend in large part upon the services of key members of our senior management team to drive our future success. If we were to lose the services of any member of our senior management team, our business could be adversely affected. To be successful, we must also attract and retain key technical, sales and managerial employees, including those who join us in connection with acquisitions. There are a limited number of qualified EDA and IC design engineers, and competition for these individuals is intense and has increased. Our employees are often recruited aggressively by our competitors and our customers. Any failure to recruit and retain key technical, sales and managerial employees could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, efforts to recruit and retain qualified employees could be costly and negatively impact our operating expenses.
We issue equity awards from employee equity plans as a key component of our overall compensation. We face pressure to limit the use of such equity-based compensation due to its dilutive effect on stockholders. If we are unable to grant attractive equity-based packages in the future, it could limit our ability to attract and retain key employees.
Our business is subject to evolving corporate governance and public disclosure regulations that have increased both our compliance costs and the risk of noncompliance, which could have an adverse effect on our stock price.
We are subject to changing rules and regulations promulgated by a number of governmental and self-regulatory organizations, including the SEC, the Nasdaq Stock Market, and the FASB. These rules and regulations continue to evolve in scope and complexity and many new requirements have been created in response to laws enacted by Congress, making compliance more difficult and uncertain. For example, our efforts to comply with the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and other regulations, including "conflict minerals" regulations affecting our hardware products, have resulted in, and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities.
There are inherent limitations on the effectiveness of our controls and compliance programs.
Regardless of how well designed and operated it is, a control system can provide only reasonable assurance that its objectives will be met. Further, the design of a control system must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints, and the benefits of controls must be considered relative to their costs. Because of the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, have been detected. Moreover, although we have implemented compliance programs and compliance training for employees, such measures may not prevent our employees, contractors or agents from breaching or circumventing our policies or violating applicable laws and regulations. Failure of our control systems and compliance programs to prevent error, fraud or violations of law could have a material adverse impact on our business.
Our investment portfolio may be impaired by any deterioration of capital markets.
From time to time, our cash equivalent and short-term investment portfolio consists of investment-grade U.S. government agency securities, asset-backed securities, corporate debt securities, commercial paper, certificates of deposit, money market funds, municipal securities and other securities, and bank deposits. Our investment portfolio carries both interest rate risk and credit risk. Fixed rate debt securities may have their market value adversely impacted due to a credit downgrade or a rise in interest rates, while floating rate securities may produce less income than expected if interest rates fall or a credit downgrade occurs. As a result of capital pressures on certain banks, especially in Europe, and the continuing low interest rate environment, some of our financial instruments may become impaired.
Our future investment income may fall short of expectations due to changes in interest rates or if the decline in fair value of investments held by us is judged to be other-than-temporary. In addition, we may suffer losses in principal if we are forced to sell securities that decline in market value due to changes in the issuer’s credit quality or changes in interest rates.
In preparing our financial statements we make certain assumptions, judgments and estimates that affect amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements, which, if not accurate, may significantly impact our financial results.

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We make assumptions, judgments and estimates for a number of items, including the fair value of financial instruments, goodwill, long-lived assets and other intangible assets, the realizability of deferred tax assets, the recognition of revenue and the fair value of stock awards. We also make assumptions, judgments and estimates in determining the accruals for employee-related liabilities, including commissions and variable compensation, and in determining the accruals for uncertain tax positions, valuation allowances on deferred tax assets, allowances for doubtful accounts, and legal contingencies. These assumptions, judgments and estimates are drawn from historical experience and various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances as of the date of the consolidated financial statements. Actual results could differ materially from our estimates, and such differences could significantly impact our financial results.
Catastrophic events may disrupt our business and harm our operating results.

Due to the global nature of our business, our operating results may be negatively impacted by catastrophic events throughout the world. We rely on a global network of infrastructure applications, enterprise applications and technology systems for our development, marketing, operational, support and sales activities. A disruption or failure of these systems in the event of a major earthquake, fire, telecommunications failure, cybersecurity attack, terrorist attack, epidemic, or other catastrophic event could cause system interruptions, delays in our product development and loss of critical data and could prevent us from fulfilling our customers’ orders. Moreover, our corporate headquarters, a significant portion of our research and development activities, our data centers, and certain other critical business operations are located in California, near major earthquake faults. A catastrophic event that results in the destruction or disruption of our data centers or our critical business or information technology systems would severely affect our ability to conduct normal business operations and, as a result, our operating results would be adversely affected.

 Item 1B.     Unresolved Staff Comments
None.

 Item 2.     Properties
Our principal offices are located in two adjacent buildings in Mountain View, California, which together provide approximately 341,000 square feet of available space. This space is leased through August 2030, and we have two options to extend the lease term, the first to extend the term by ten years, followed by a second option to extend by approximately nine additional years. We also lease approximately 238,000 square feet of space in three separate buildings in Sunnyvale, California, with lease expirations ranging from December 2019 through June 2020.

Additionally, we own one building in Sunnyvale, California with approximately 120,000 square feet of space that will be vacated and leased to a third party in 2020 under a lease agreement that runs through February 2031. We will vacate these four Sunnyvale buildings between November 2019 and February 2020, and move into three separate buildings comprising approximately 350,000 square feet of space in Sunnyvale, California, which we have leased through October 2031. These buildings in Mountain View and Sunnyvale are used for research and development, sales and support, marketing, and administrative activities for both of our business segments.
We currently lease 31 other offices throughout the United States, and own two office buildings in Oregon, one of which is leased to a tenant. These offices are used primarily for sales and support activities as well as research and development for both of our business segments.
International Facilities
We lease additional space for sales, service, and research and development activities for both of our business segments in approximately 29 countries throughout the world, including 25,000 square feet in Dublin, Ireland for our international headquarters, as well as significant sites in Yerevan, Armenia, Bangalore, India, Shanghai and Wuhan. In addition, we own two buildings in Hsinchu with approximately 212,000 square feet of combined space.
We believe that our existing facilities, including both owned and leased properties, are in good condition and suitable for the current conduct of our business.

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 Item 3.     Legal Proceedings
We are subject to routine legal proceedings, as well as demands, claims and threatened litigation that arise in the normal course of our business. The ultimate outcome of any litigation is often uncertain and unfavorable outcomes could have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition. Regardless of outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on Synopsys because of the defense costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.

We regularly review the status of each significant matter and assess its potential financial exposure. If the potential loss from any claim or legal proceeding is considered probable and the amount is estimable, we accrue a liability for the estimated loss. Legal proceedings are inherently uncertain and as circumstances change, it is possible that the amount of any accrued liability may increase, decrease, or be eliminated.
Mentor Patent Litigation

Prior to the legal settlement as further described below, we were engaged in complex patent litigation with Mentor Graphics Corporation (Mentor) involving several actions in different forums. We succeeded to the litigation when we acquired Emulation & Verification Engineering S.A. on October 4, 2012.
Legal Settlement

In March 2017, Siemens PLM Software (Siemens) acquired Mentor. On June 29, 2018, Synopsys, Siemens and Mentor settled all outstanding patent litigation between Synopsys and Mentor for a $65.0 million payment made in the third quarter from Synopsys to Mentor. Synopsys had previously accrued $39.0 million and recorded the remaining $26.0 million as an expense in the quarter ended July 31, 2018. As a result of the settlement, the litigation with Mentor was dismissed and the injunction entered in connection with that litigation was vacated.

The settlement included mutual seven-year patent cross-licenses between Synopsys and Siemens, and between Synopsys and Mentor. Synopsys and Mentor also amended an existing interoperability agreement to collaborate on a wide range of EDA products for the benefit of their mutual customers. The amendment includes a one-time termination charge between $0.0 and $25.0 million, payable to Mentor under certain conditions.

Other Proceedings

In July 2017, the HTA issued a final assessment against Synopsys' Hungarian subsidiary (Synopsys Hungary) for fiscal years 2011 through 2013. The HTA has disallowed Synopsys Hungary's tax positions taken during these years regarding the timing of the deduction of research expenses and applied withholding taxes on certain payments made to affiliates, resulting in an aggregate tax assessment of approximately $44.5 million and interest and penalties of $18.0 million. On August 2, 2017, Synopsys Hungary filed a claim contesting the final assessment with the Hungarian Administrative Court. On November 16, 2017, Synopsys Hungary paid the assessment as required by law, while continuing its challenge to the assessment in court. Hearings were held in February and July 2018, February 26, 2019 and April 30, 2019. On December 10, 2018, Synopsys withdrew its claim contesting the final assessment with regard to the timing of the deduction of research expenses, resulting in a remaining disputed tax assessment of approximately $25.0 million and interest and penalties of $11.0 million. On April 30, 2019, the Hungarian Administrative Court (Court) ruled against Synopsys Hungary. The Court's opinion was received on May 16, 2019. Synopsys Hungary filed an appeal with the Hungarian Supreme Court on July 5, 2019. In the second quarter of 2019, as a result of the Court's decision, the Company recorded a tax expense due to an unrecognized tax benefit of $17.4 million, which is net of estimated U.S. foreign tax credits for the tax assessments.

For further discussion of the Hungary audit, see Note 11 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements under the heading "Non-U.S. Examinations."

 Item 4.     Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.


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PART II

 Item 5.     Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock trades on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “SNPS.” As of December 13, 2019, we had 260 stockholders of record.
Performance Graph
The following graph compares the five-year total return to stockholders of our common stock relative to the cumulative total returns of the S&P 500 Index, the S&P Information Technology Index and the Nasdaq Composite Index. The graph assumes that $100 was invested in Synopsys common stock on October 31, 2014 (the last trading day before the beginning of our fifth preceding fiscal year) and in each of the indexes on October 31, 2014 (the closest month end) and that all dividends were reinvested. No cash dividends were declared on our common stock during such time. The comparisons in the table are not intended to forecast or be indicative of possible future performance of our common stock.
COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
chart-306a62c1e99d53daab5.jpg
*$100 invested on October 31, 2014 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.

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The information presented above in the stock performance graph shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C, except to the extent that we subsequently specifically request that such information be treated as soliciting material or specifically incorporate it by reference into a filing under the Securities Act or Exchange Act.
Stock Repurchase Program
Our Board of Directors (Board) previously approved a stock repurchase program pursuant to which we were authorized to purchase up to $500.0 million of our common stock, and has periodically replenished the stock repurchase program to such amount. Our Board replenished the stock repurchase program up to $500.0 million on June 14, 2019. The program does not obligate us to acquire any particular amount of common stock, and the program may be suspended or terminated at any time by our Chief Financial Officer or our Board. We repurchase shares to offset dilution caused by ongoing stock issuances from existing equity plans for equity compensation awards and issuances related to acquisitions, and when management believes it is a good use of cash. Repurchases are transacted in accordance with Rule 10b-18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act) and may be made through any means including, but not limited to, open market purchases, plans executed under Rule 10b5-1(c) of the Exchange Act and structured transactions. As of October 31, 2019, $400.0 million remained available for further repurchases under the program.
In December 2017, we entered into two simultaneous accelerated share repurchase agreements (the December 2017 ASRs) to repurchase an aggregate of $200.0 million of our common stock. Pursuant to the December 2017 ASRs, we made a prepayment of $200.0 million and received initial share deliveries of shares valued at $160.0 million. In February 2018, we received additional deliveries of shares valued at $20.0 million for one of the two December 2017 ASRs. The remaining balance of $20.0 million was settled in March 2018. Total shares repurchased under the December 2017 ASRs were approximately 2.3 million shares, at an average purchase price of $87.08 per share.
In May 2018, we entered into an accelerated share repurchase agreement (the May 2018 ASR) to repurchase an aggregate of $165.0 million of our common stock. Pursuant to the May 2018 ASR, we made a prepayment of $165.0 million and received initial share deliveries valued at $132.0 million. The remaining balance of $33.0 million was settled in October 2018. Total shares repurchased under the May 2018 ASR were approximately 1.8 million shares, at an average purchase price of $92.42 per share.
In February 2019, we entered into an accelerated share repurchase agreement (the February 2019 ASR) to repurchase an aggregate of $100.0 million of our common stock. Pursuant to the February 2019 ASR, we made a prepayment of $100.0 million and received initial share deliveries valued at $80.0 million. The remaining balance of $20.0 million was settled in May 2019. Total shares repurchased under the February 2019 ASR were approximately 0.9 million shares, at an average purchase price of $114.01 per share.
In June 2019, we entered into an accelerated share repurchase agreement (the June 2019 ASR) to repurchase an aggregate of $100.0 million of our common stock. Pursuant to the June 2019 ASR, we made a prepayment of $100.0 million and received initial share deliveries valued at $80.0 million. The remaining balance of $20.0 million was settled in August 2019. Total shares repurchased under the June 2019 ASR were approximately 0.8 million shares, at an average purchase price of $130.23 per share.
In August 2019, we entered into an accelerated share repurchase agreement (the August 2019 ASR) to repurchase an aggregate of $100.0 million of our common stock. Pursuant to the August 2019 ASR, we made a prepayment of $100.0 million and received initial share deliveries valued at $80.0 million. The remaining balance of $20.0 million was settled in October 2019. Total shares repurchased under the August 2019 ASR were approximately 0.7 million shares, at an average purchase price of $134.99 per share.
In December 2019, we entered an accelerated share repurchase agreements (the December 2019 ASR) to repurchase an aggregate of $100.0 million of our common stock. Pursuant to the December 2019 ASR, we will make a prepayment of $100.0 million to receive initial share deliveries of shares valued at $80.0 million. The remaining balance of $20.0 million is anticipated to be settled on or before February 27, 2020, upon completion of the repurchase. Under the terms of the December 2019 ASR, the specific number of shares that we ultimately repurchase will be based on the volume-weighted average share price of our common stock during the repurchase period, less a discount.

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The table below sets forth information regarding our repurchases of our common stock during the three months ended October 31, 2019:
Period
Total
number
of shares
purchased (1)
 
Average
price paid
per share (1)
 
Total
number of
shares
purchased
as part of
publicly
announced
programs
 
Maximum dollar
value of shares
that may yet be
purchased
under the
programs
Month #1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
August 4, 2019 through September 7, 2019
675,211

 
$
148.10

 
675,211

 
$
400,000,000

Month #2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
September 8, 2019 through October 5, 2019

 
$

 

 
$
400,000,000

Month #3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
October 6, 2019 through November 2, 2019
155,808

 
$
128.36

 
155,808

 
$
400,000,000

Total
831,019

 
$
144.40

 
831,019

 
$
400,000,000

(1)
Amounts are calculated based on the settlement date.

 Item 6.     Selected Financial Data
 
Fiscal Year Ended October 31,(1)
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(in thousands, except per share data)
Revenue
$
3,360,694

 
$
3,121,058

 
$
2,724,880

 
$
2,422,532

 
$
2,242,211

Income before provisions for income taxes
545,506

 
363,543

 
383,098

 
329,548

 
281,610

Provision (benefit) for income taxes(2)
13,139

 
(68,975
)
 
246,535

 
62,722

 
55,676

Net income
532,367

 
432,518

 
136,563

 
266,826

 
225,934

Net income per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
3.55

 
2.90

 
0.91

 
1.76

 
1.46

Diluted
3.45

 
2.82

 
0.88

 
1.73

 
1.43

Working capital (deficit)(3)
(13,536
)
 
(558,618
)
 
68,484

 
1,992

 
(109,546
)
Total assets
6,405,160

 
6,145,974

 
5,396,414

 
5,240,365

 
5,045,739

Long-term debt
120,093

 
125,535

 
134,063

 

 

Stockholders’ equity
4,088,876

 
3,485,015

 
3,279,724

 
3,195,146

 
3,133,989

(1)
Our fiscal year ends on the Saturday nearest to October 31 and consists of 52 weeks, with the exception that approximately every five years, we have a 53-week year. When a 53-week year occurs, we include the additional week in the first quarter to realign fiscal quarters with calendar quarters. Fiscal 2018 was a 53-week year and ended on November 3, 2018. Fiscal 2019, 2017, 2016, and 2015 were 52-week years ending on November 2, 2019, October 28, 2017, October 29, 2016, and October 31, 2015, respectively.
(2)
Includes $10.9 million, $14.7 million, $7.1 million, $16.5 million, and $6.3 million in net tax benefits from tax settlements received in fiscal 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively. Fiscal 2018 additionally includes a $57.8 million net benefit from tax reform and tax restructuring. Fiscal 2017 additionally includes a $166.2 million expense from our repatriation of foreign earnings. See Note 11 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
(3)
Includes reclassifications of deferred tax assets and liabilities for fiscal year 2015 related to ASU 2015-17 “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes.” See Note 11 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.


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 Item 7.     Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Overview
The following overview of our financial condition and results of operations is qualified in its entirety by the more complete discussion contained in this Item 7, the risk factors set forth in Item 1A of this Form 10-K and our consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto set forth in Item 8 of this Form 10-K. Please also see the cautionary language at the beginning of Part I of this Form 10-K regarding forward-looking statements.
Business Summary
Synopsys, Inc. provides products and services used across the entire silicon to software spectrum, from engineers creating advanced semiconductors to software developers seeking to ensure the security and quality of their code. We are a global leader in supplying the electronic design automation (EDA) software that engineers use to design and test integrated circuits (ICs), also known as chips. We also offer semiconductor intellectual property (IP) products, which are pre-designed circuits that engineers use as components of larger chip designs rather than designing those circuits themselves. We provide software and hardware used to validate the electronic systems that incorporate chips and the software that runs on them. To complement these offerings, we provide technical services and support to help our customers develop advanced chips and electronic systems. These products and services are part of our Semiconductor & System Design segment.
We are also a leading provider of software tools and services that improve the security and quality of software code in a wide variety of industries, including electronics, financial services, media, automotive, medicine, energy and industrials. These tools and services are part of our Software Integrity segment.
Our EDA and IP customers are generally semiconductor and electronics systems companies. Our solutions help these companies overcome the challenges of developing increasingly advanced electronics products while also helping them reduce their design and manufacturing costs. While our products are an important part of our customers’ development process, our sales could be affected based on their research and development budgets, and our customers' spending decisions may be affected by their business outlook and willingness to invest in new and increasingly complex chip designs.
Our Software Integrity business delivers products and services that enable software developers to test their code - while it is being written - for known security vulnerabilities and quality defects, as well as testing for open source security vulnerabilities and license compliance. Our Software Integrity customers are software developers across many industries, including, but also well beyond, the semiconductor and systems industries. Our Software Integrity products and services form a platform that helps our customers build security into the software development lifecycle and across the entire cyber supply chain.
Despite global economic uncertainty, we have consistently grown our revenue since 2005. We achieved these results because of our solid execution, leading technologies and strong customer relationships. We recognize our revenue for the software licenses over the arrangement period, which typically approximates three years. For discussion on our revenue recognition policy, please see Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements. Time-based revenue consists of time-based products, maintenance and service revenue. The revenue we recognize in a particular period generally results from selling efforts in prior periods rather than the current period. As a result, decreases as well as increases in customer spending do not immediately affect our revenues in a significant way.
Our growth strategy is based on building on our leadership in our EDA products, expanding and proliferating our IP offerings, and driving growth in the software security and quality market. As we continue to expand our product portfolio and our total addressable market, for instance in the software security and quality space, and as hardware product sales grow, we expect to experience increased variability in our total revenue. In addition, due to our adoption of Accounting Standard Codification 606 (ASC 606), "Revenue from Contracts with Customers", in the beginning of fiscal 2019, as further described in Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, the way in which we are required to account for certain types of arrangements has increased the variability in our total revenue from period to period. Nevertheless, the accounting impact has not affected our cash generated from our business. Based on our leading technologies, customer relationships, business model, diligent expense management, and acquisition strategy, we believe that we will continue to execute our strategies successfully.
Business Segments

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Effective in fiscal 2019, we realigned our business to evaluate the results of our Software Integrity business separately from our traditional EDA and semiconductor IP business. The Chief Operating Decision Makers (CODMs) now regularly review disaggregated information for the following two reportable segments: (1) Semiconductor & System Design, which includes EDA tools, IP products, system integration solutions and other revenue categories, and (2) Software Integrity, which includes a comprehensive solution for building integrity—security, quality and compliance testing—into our customers’ software development lifecycle and supply chain. Our historical results have been recast to retrospectively reflect the change from one to two reportable segments.
As a result of the change in reporting structure, financial information provided to and used by the CODMs to assist in making operational decisions, allocating resources and assessing performance reflects consolidated financial information as well as revenue, adjusted operating income, and adjusted operating margin for the Semiconductor & System Design and Software Integrity segments, accompanied by disaggregated information relating to revenues by geographic region.
Semiconductor & System Design. This segment includes our advanced silicon design, verification products and services, and semiconductor IP portfolio, which encompasses products and services that serve companies primarily in the semiconductor and electronics industries. EDA includes digital, custom IC design and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) design software, verification products, and manufacturing software products. Designers use these products to automate the IC design process and to reduce errors. For IP, we are a leading provider of high-quality, silicon-proven IP solutions for system-on-chips (SoCs). This includes IP that has been optimized to address specific application requirements for the mobile, automotive, digital home, internet of things, and cloud computing markets, enabling designers to quickly develop SoCs in these areas.
Software Integrity. This segment includes a broad portfolio of products and services such as leading quality testing technologies, automated analysis, and consulting experts. Beginning in fiscal 2019, we launched the Polaris Software Integrity Platform, an integrated cloud-based solution that unites key elements to provide an even more valuable way for developers to better develop personalized approaches for open source license compliance and detect and remediate known security vulnerabilities and quality defects early in the development process, thereby minimizing risk and maximizing productivity.
Fiscal Year End
Our fiscal year ends on the Saturday nearest to October 31 and consists of 52 weeks, with the exception that approximately every five years, we have a 53-week year. When a 53-week year occurs, we include the additional week in the first quarter to realign fiscal quarters with calendar quarters. Fiscal 2018 was a 53-week year and ended on November 3, 2018. Fiscal 2019 and 2017 were 52-week years ending on November 2, 2019 and October 28, 2017, respectively. Fiscal 2020 will be a 52-week year.
For presentation purposes, this Form 10-K refers to the closest calendar month end.
Fiscal 2019 Financial Performance Summary
We adopted new revenue guidance, ASC 606, at the beginning of fiscal 2019 under the modified retrospective method which has limited the comparability of prior year results in revenue and commission expense. The comparative information for periods prior to fiscal 2019 has not been restated. Additional comparative information is provided in Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for the adoption of ASC 606 and our pro-forma financial results under Accounting Standards Codification 605 (ASC 605), "Revenue Recognition", for fiscal 2019.
In fiscal 2019, compared to fiscal 2018, our financial performance reflects the following:
Revenues were $3.4 billion, an increase of $239.6 million or 8%, primarily due to our continued growth organically, as well as the adoption of ASC 606, partially offset by additional revenue of approximately $46.0 million due to the extra week in fiscal 2018;
Total cost of revenue and operating expenses were $2.8 billion, an increase of $79.6 million or 3%, primarily due to increases in restructuring costs of $34.2 million and employee-related costs of $81.3 million, resulting from increases in headcount, partially offset by a litigation settlement in fiscal 2018 of $26.0 million and a legal settlement in our favor in fiscal 2019 of $18.3 million;
Operating income of $520.2 million, an increase of $160.0 million or 44%.

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our discussion and analysis of our financial results under Results of Operations below are based on our audited results of operations, which we have prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. In preparing these financial statements, we make assumptions, judgments and estimates that can affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and net income. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates based on historical experience and various other assumptions we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. Our actual results may differ from these estimates. See Note 2 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for further information on our significant accounting policies.
The accounting policies that most frequently require us to make assumptions, judgments and estimates, and therefore are critical to understanding our results of operations, are:
Revenue recognition;
Valuation of business combinations; and
Income taxes.
Revenue Recognition
Our contracts with customers often include promises to transfer multiple products and services to a customer. Determining whether services and products are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately versus together may require significant judgment. We have concluded that our EDA software licenses in TSL contracts are not distinct from our obligation to provide unspecified software updates to the licensed software throughout the license term, because those promises represent inputs to a single, combined performance obligation. Where unspecified additional software product rights are part of the contract with the customer, those rights are accounted for as part of the single performance obligation that includes the licenses, updates, and technical support, because such rights are provided during the same period of time and have the same time-based pattern of transfer to the customer. In reaching this conclusion, we considered the nature of our obligation to customers which is to provide an ongoing right to use the most up to date and relevant software. As EDA customers operate in a rapidly changing and competitive environment, satisfying the obligation requires providing critical updates to the existing software products, including ongoing iterative interaction with customers to make the software relevant to the customers’ ability to meet the time to go to market with advanced products.
Business Combinations
We allocate the purchase price of acquired companies to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their estimated fair values at the acquisition date. The purchase price allocation process requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions with respect to intangible assets. Although we believe the assumptions and estimates we have made are reasonable, they are based in part on historical experience, market conditions and information obtained from management of the acquired companies and are inherently uncertain. Examples of critical estimates in valuing certain of the intangible assets we have acquired or may acquire in the future include, but are not limited to:
future expected cash flows from software license sales, subscriptions, support agreements, consulting contracts and acquired developed technologies and patents;
historical and expected customer attrition rates and anticipated growth in revenue from acquired customers;
the expected use of the acquired assets; and
discount rates.
Unanticipated events and circumstances may occur which may affect the accuracy or validity of such assumptions, estimates or actual results.
Income Taxes
We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, income tax expense is recognized for the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year. In addition, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, and for operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. Management must make assumptions, judgments and estimates to determine our current provision for income taxes and also our deferred tax assets and liabilities.

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Our assumptions, judgments and estimates relative to the current provision for income taxes take into account current tax laws, our interpretation of current tax laws and possible outcomes of current and future audits conducted by foreign and domestic tax authorities. We have established reserves for income taxes to address potential exposures involving tax positions that could be challenged by tax authorities. In addition, we are subject to the continual examination of our income tax returns by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and other domestic and foreign tax authorities. We regularly assess the likelihood of outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes and have reserved for potential adjustments that may result from such examinations. We believe such estimates to be reasonable; however, the final determination of any of these examinations could significantly impact the amounts provided for income taxes in our consolidated financial statements.
Effect of New Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
See Note 14 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Results of Operations
We adopted new revenue guidance, ASC 606, at the beginning of fiscal 2019 under the modified retrospective method which has limited the comparability of prior year results in revenue and commission expense. The comparative information for periods prior to the fiscal 2019 has not been restated. Additional comparative information is provided in Note 2 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for the adoption of ASC 606 and our pro-forma financial results under ASC 605 for fiscal 2019.
Revenue
Our revenues are generated from two business segments: the Semiconductor & System Design segment and the Software Integrity segment. See Note 13 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information about our reportable segments and revenue by geographic regions.
Further disaggregation of the revenues into various products and services within these two segments is summarized as follows:
Semiconductor & System Design Segment
This segment is comprised of the following:
EDA software includes digital, custom and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) IC design software, verification products and obligations to provide unspecified updates and support services. EDA products and services are typically sold through TSL arrangements that grant customers the right to access and use all of the licensed products at the outset of an arrangement and software updates are generally made available throughout the entire term of the arrangement. The weighted-average term of the TSLs we entered into in fiscal 2019, 2018, and 2017 were all 2.7 years, respectively. Under ASC 606, we have concluded that the software licenses in TSL contracts are not distinct from the obligation to provide unspecified software updates to the licensed software throughout the license term, because the multiple software licenses represent inputs to a single, combined offering, and timely, relevant software updates are integral to maintaining the utility of the software licenses. We recognize revenue for the combined performance obligation under TSL contracts ratably over the term of the license. Under ASC 605, these arrangements were previously recognized ratably over the contract term.
IP & System Integration includes our DesignWare® IP portfolio and system-level products and services. Under ASC 606, these arrangements generally have two performance obligations which consist of transferring of the licensed IP and providing related support, which includes rights to technical support and software updates that are provided over the support term and are transferred to the customer over a time. Revenue allocated to the IP licenses is recognized at a point in time upon the later of the delivery date or the beginning of the license period, and revenue allocated to support is recognized over the support term. Royalties are recognized as revenue in the quarter in which the applicable customer sells its products that incorporate our IP. Payments for IP contracts are generally received upon delivery of the IP. Revenue related to the customization of certain IP is recognized as “Professional Services.” Under ASC 605, we previously recognized revenues ratably for certain IP licensing and support arrangements.
In the case of arrangements involving the sale of Hardware products, we generally have two performance obligations. The first performance obligation is to transfer the hardware product, which

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includes software integral to the functionality of the hardware product. The second performance obligation is to provide maintenance on the hardware and its embedded software, which includes rights to technical support, hardware repairs and software updates that are all provided over the same term and have the same time-based pattern of transfer to the customer. The portion of the transaction price allocated to the hardware product is generally recognized as revenue at the time of delivery because the customer obtains control of the product at that point in time. We have concluded that control generally transfers at that point in time because the customer has title to the hardware, physical possession, and a present obligation to pay for the hardware. The portion of the transaction price allocated to the maintenance obligation is recognized as revenue ratably over the maintenance term. The adoption of ASC 606 did not change the timing of revenue recognition for hardware products.
Revenue from Professional Service contracts is recognized over time, generally using costs incurred or hours expended to measure progress. We have a history of reasonably estimating project status and the costs necessary to complete projects. A number of internal and external factors can affect these estimates, including labor rates, utilization and efficiency variances and specification and testing requirement changes. The adoption of ASC 606 did not change from ASC 605 the timing of revenue recognition for professional services.
Software Integrity Segment
We sell Software Integrity products in arrangements that provide customers the right to software licenses, maintenance updates and technical support. Over the term of these arrangements, the customer expects us to provide integral maintenance updates to the software licenses, which help customers protect their own software from new critical quality defects and potential security vulnerabilities. The licenses and maintenance updates serve together to fulfill our commitment to the customer as both work together to provide the functionality to the customer and represent a combined performance obligation. We will recognize revenue for the combined performance obligation over the term of the arrangement.
Most of our customer arrangements are complex, involving hundreds of products and various license rights, and our customers bargain with us over many aspects of these arrangements. For example, they often demand a broader portfolio of solutions, support and services and seek more favorable terms such as expanded license usage, future purchase rights and other unique rights at an overall lower total cost. No single factor typically drives our customers’ buying decisions, and we compete on all fronts to serve customers in highly competitive markets. Customers generally negotiate the total value of the arrangement rather than just unit pricing or volumes.
Total Revenue
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
$ Change    
 
% Change    
 
$ Change    
 
% Change    
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018 to 2019
 
2017 to 2018
 
(dollars in millions)
Semiconductor & System Design Segment
$
3,026.1

 
$
2,840.6

 
$
2,551.1

 
$
185.5

 
7
%
 
$
289.5

 
11
%
Software Integrity Segment
334.6

 
280.5

 
173.8

 
54.1

 
19
%
 
106.7

 
61
%
Total
$
3,360.7

 
$
3,121.1

 
$
2,724.9

 
$
239.6

 
8
%
 
$
396.2

 
15
%
The overall growth of our business has been the primary driver of the increase in our revenue. Our revenues are subject to fluctuations, primarily due to customer requirements, including the timing and value of contract renewals, as well as payment terms for revenue recognized under ASC 605. For example, we experience variability in our revenue due to factors such as the timing of IP consulting projects, royalties, variability in IP products sales and hardware sales. As revenue from IP products sales and hardware sales are recognized upfront, customer demand and timing requirements for such IP products and hardware have resulted in increased variability of our total revenue.
The increase in total revenue for fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018 was primarily attributable to the continued business growth in all product categories, and higher revenue of $102.5 million recognized under new revenue standard ASC 606 compared with revenue recognized under old revenue standard ASC 605. The increase was partially offset by approximately $46.0 million of additional revenue due to one extra week in fiscal 2018.

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The increase in total revenue for fiscal 2018 compared to fiscal 2017 was primarily attributable to the continued overall growth of our business, mainly due to higher TSL license revenue from arrangements booked in prior periods, an increase in professional services, additional revenue of approximately $46.0 million due to an extra week in the first quarter of fiscal 2018 compared to fiscal 2017, and contributions from acquired companies.
For a discussion of revenue by geographic areas, see Note 13 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Time-Based Products Revenue
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018 to 2019
 
2017 to 2018
 
(dollars in millions)
 
$
2,198.0

 
$
2,303.3

 
$
2,021.8

 
$
(105.3
)
 
(5
)%
 
$
281.5

 
14
%
Percentage of total revenue
65
%
 
74
%
 
74
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The decrease in time-based products revenue for fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018 was primarily attributable to the impact of lower revenue recognized under ASC 606 of $206.9 million offset by an increase in TSL license revenue from arrangements booked in prior periods.
The increase in time-based products revenue for fiscal 2018 compared to fiscal 2017 was primarily attributable to an increase in TSL license revenue due to arrangements booked in prior periods, including contributions from acquired companies, and additional revenue due to an extra week in fiscal 2018 compared to fiscal 2017.
Upfront Products Revenue
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018 to 2019
 
2017 to 2018
 
(dollars in millions)
 
$
619.8

 
$
357.7

 
$
338.2

 
$
262.1

 
73
%
 
$
19.5

 
6
%
Percentage of total revenue
18
%
 
11
%
 
12
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Changes in upfront products revenue are generally attributable to normal fluctuations in customer requirements, which can drive the amount of upfront orders and revenue in any particular period.
The increase in upfront products revenue for fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018 was primarily due to an increase in the sale of IP products driven by higher demand from customers and higher IP revenue recognized upfront under ASC 606 of $235.4 million.
The increase in upfront products revenue for fiscal 2018 compared to fiscal 2017 was primarily attributable to an increase in the sale of IP products driven by higher demand from customers.
Upfront products revenue as a percentage of total revenue will likely fluctuate based on the timing of IP products and hardware sales. Such fluctuations will continue to be impacted by the timing of shipments due to customer requirements.
Maintenance and Service Revenue
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018 to 2019
 
2017 to 2018
 
(dollars in millions)
Maintenance revenue
$
179.0

 
$
100.4

 
$
84.1

 
$
78.6

 
78
%
 
$
16.3

 
19
%
Professional service and other revenue
363.9

 
359.6

 
280.8

 
4.3

 
1
%
 
78.8

 
28
%
Total
$
542.9

 
$
460.0

 
$
364.9

 
$
82.9

 
18
%
 
$
95.1

 
26
%
Percentage of total revenue
17
%
 
15
%
 
14
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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The increase in maintenance revenue for fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018 was primarily due to higher revenue under ASC 606 of $74.0 million and an increase in the volume of arrangements that include maintenance.
The increase in maintenance revenue for fiscal 2018 compared to fiscal 2017 was primarily due to an increase in the volume of arrangements that include maintenance.
The increase in professional services and other revenue for fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018 was primarily due to the timing of IP consulting projects. The increase was offset by the impact of the extra week in fiscal 2018.
The increase in professional services and other revenue for fiscal 2018 compared to fiscal 2017 was primarily due to an increase in consulting projects, including contributions from acquisitions, and to a lesser extent, the impact of the extra week in fiscal 2018.
Cost of Revenue and Operating Expenses
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018 to 2019
 
2017 to 2018
 
(dollars in millions)
Cost of revenue
$
752.9

 
$
735.9

 
$
654.2

 
$
17.0

 
2
%
 
$
81.7

 
12
%
Operating expenses
2,087.5

 
2,024.9

 
1,723.1

 
62.6

 
3
%
 
301.8

 
18
%
Total
$
2,840.4

 
$
2,760.8

 
$
2,377.3

 
$
79.6

 
3
%
 
$
383.5

 
16
%
Total expenses as a percentage of total revenue
85
%
 
88
%
 
87
%
 
 
 
 
Our expenses are generally impacted by changes in personnel-related costs including salaries, benefits, stock-based compensation and variable compensation; changes in amortization; and changes in selling and marketing expenses. The increase in our expenses compared to prior fiscal years was primarily due to an increase in personnel-related costs, driven by increased headcount from our overall growth, and fixed charges including information technology (IT) and facilities. 
Foreign currency fluctuations, net of hedging, did not have a significant impact on expenses during fiscal 2019 as compared to fiscal 2018, or fiscal 2018 as compared to fiscal 2017. See Note 5 of Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for details on our foreign exchange hedging programs.
Cost of Revenue
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018 to 2019
 
2017 to 2018
 
(dollars in millions)
Cost of products revenue
$
459.1

 
$
448.4

 
$
413.2

 
$
10.7

 
2
 %
 
$
35.2

 
9
%
Cost of maintenance and service revenue
234.2

 
203.5

 
164.9

 
30.7

 
15
 %
 
38.6

 
23
%
Amortization of intangible assets
59.6

 
84.0

 
76.1

 
(24.4
)
 
(29
)%
 
7.9

 
10
%
Total
$
752.9

 
$
735.9

 
$
654.2

 
$
17.0

 
2
 %
 
$
81.7

 
12
%
Percentage of total revenue
22
%
 
24
%
 
24
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
We divide cost of revenue into three categories: cost of products revenue, cost of maintenance and service revenue, and amortization of intangible assets. We segregate expenses directly associated with consulting and training services from cost of products revenue associated with internal functions providing license delivery and post-customer contract support services. We then allocate these group costs between cost of products revenue and cost of maintenance and service revenue based on products and maintenance and service revenue reported.
Cost of products revenue. Cost of products revenue includes costs related to products sold and software licensed, allocated operating costs related to product support and distribution costs, royalties paid to third-party vendors, and the amortization of capitalized research and development costs associated with software products that had reached technological feasibility.

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Cost of maintenance and service revenue. Cost of maintenance and service revenue includes operating costs related to maintaining the infrastructure necessary to operate our services and costs to deliver our consulting services, such as hotline and on-site support, production services and documentation of maintenance updates. We expect our cost of maintenance and service revenue to increase in future periods because of recent acquisitions, but we do not expect the impact to be material to our total cost of revenue.
Amortization of intangible assets. Amortization of intangible assets, which is recorded to cost of revenue and operating expenses, includes the amortization of core/developed technology, trademarks, trade names, customer relationships, covenants not to compete related to acquisitions and certain contract rights related to acquisitions.
The increase in cost of revenue for fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018 was primarily due to an increase of $21.5 million in personnel-related costs as a result of headcount increases from organic hiring, $11.3 million in consulting costs primarily related to servicing IP consulting arrangements, $10.1 million in IT and facility expenses, and $5.3 million in depreciation and maintenance expenses, partially offset by a decrease of $24.4 million in amortization of intangible assets and one additional week of expenses of approximately $4.5 million in fiscal 2018.
The increase in cost of revenue for fiscal 2018 compared to fiscal 2017 was primarily due to an increase of $47.7 million in personnel-related costs as a result of headcount increases, including those from acquisitions, an increase of $11.3 million in costs related to servicing IP consulting arrangements, and an increase of $7.9 million in amortization of intangible assets, as well as one additional week of expenses of approximately $4.5 million in fiscal 2018.
Changes in other cost of revenue categories for the above-mentioned periods were not individually material.
Operating Expenses
Research and Development
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018 to 2019
 
2017 to 2018
 
(dollars in millions)
 
$
1,136.9

 
$
1,084.8

 
$
908.8

 
$
52.1

 
5
%
 
$
176.0

 
19
%
Percentage of total revenue
34
%
 
35
%
 
33
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The increase in research and development expenses for fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018 was primarily due to increases of $41.5 million in personnel-related costs as a result of headcount increases, including organic hiring and those from prior year acquisitions, $22.8 million in IT and facility expenses, and $5.5 million in consultants and contractor costs, partially offset by an additional week of expenses of approximately $19.3 million in fiscal 2018.
The increase in research and development expense for fiscal 2018 compared to fiscal 2017 was primarily due to an increase of $114.4 million in personnel-related costs as a result of headcount increases, including those from acquisitions, and one additional week of expenses of approximately $19.3 million in fiscal 2018.
Changes in other research and development expense categories for the above-mentioned periods were not individually material.
Sales and Marketing
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018 to 2019
 
2017 to 2018
 
(dollars in millions)
 
$
632.9

 
$
623.0

 
$
549.2

 
$
9.9

 
2
%
 
$
73.8

 
13
%
Percentage of total revenue
19
%
 
20
%
 
20
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The increase in sales and marketing expenses for fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018 was primarily due to increases of $11.3 million in personnel-related costs as a result of headcount increases and $4.3 million in IT and facility expenses, partially offset by an additional week of expenses of approximately $5.8 million in fiscal 2018.
For fiscal 2019, commission expenses were $4.1 million lower compared to commission expenses under ASC 605.


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Changes in other sales and marketing expense categories for the above-mentioned periods were not individually material.
The increase in sales and marketing expense for fiscal 2018 compared to fiscal 2017 was primarily attributable to an increase of $51.0 million in personnel costs as a result of headcount increases, an increase of $7.5 million due to timing of marketing events, and one additional week of expenses of approximately $5.8 million in fiscal 2018.
General and Administrative
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018 to 2019
 
2017 to 2018
 
(dollars in millions)
 
$
229.2

 
$
262.6

 
$
196.8

 
$
(33.4
)
 
(13
)%
 
$
65.8

 
33
%
Percentage of total revenue
7
%
 
8
%
 
7
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The decrease in general and administrative expenses for fiscal 2019 compared to fiscal 2018 was primarily due to a $26.0 million litigation settlement in the third quarter of fiscal 2018, a legal settlement of $18.3 million in our favor in the first quarter of fiscal 2019, and an additional week of expenses of approximately $4.1 million in fiscal 2018. The decreases were partially offset by a $7.1 million increase in personnel-related costs.
The increase in general and administrative expenses for fiscal 2018 compared with fiscal 2017 was primarily due to an increase of $21.5 million in personnel-related costs as a result of headcount increases, an increase of $22.1 million in professional service costs primarily due to additional legal, accounting, and tax services related to various projects, an increase of $18.2 million in net litigation settlement costs primarily due to a $26.0 million litigation settlement recorded in fiscal 2018 compared with $7.6 million net litigation charges recorded in fiscal 2017, an increase of $11.0 million in facilities expenses, and one additional week of expenses of approximately $4.1 million in fiscal 2018.
Changes in other general and administrative expense categories for the above-mentioned periods were not individually material.
Change in Fair Value of Deferred Compensation
The income or loss arising from the change in fair value of our non-qualified deferred compensation plan obligation is recorded in cost of sales and each functional operating expense, with the offsetting change in the fair value of the related assets recorded in other income (expense), net. These assets are classified as trading securities. There is no overall impact to our net income from the income or loss of our deferred compensation plan obligation and asset.
Amortization of Intangible Assets
Amortization of intangible assets includes the amortization of contract rights and the amortization of core/developed technology, trademarks, trade names, customer relationships, and in-process research and development related to acquisitions completed in prior years. Amortization expense is included in the consolidated statements of operations as follows:
 
Year Ended October 31,
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
$ Change
 
% Change
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018 to 2019
 
2017 to 2018
 
(dollars in millions)
Included in cost of revenue
$
59.6

 
$
84.0