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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

Form 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended October 1, 2022

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission File Number: 001-38603

 

SONOS, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware

 

 

03-0479476

(State or other jurisdiction

of incorporation or organization)

 

 

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

614 Chapala Street

Santa Barbara

CA

93101

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

 

(Zip code)

 

805-965-3001

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbol

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value

 

SONO

 

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (Check one):

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging Growth Company

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No ☒

The aggregate market value of the shares of SONO common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of April 1, 2022, the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $2,517.8 million based on the closing price of $27.68 as reported by The Nasdaq Global Select Market System.

As of November 7, 2022, the registrant had 126,685,545 shares of common stock outstanding, $0.001 par value per share.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Part III incorporates by reference certain information from the registrant’s definitive proxy statement (the "2023 Proxy Statement") relating to its 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders. The 2023 Proxy Statement will be filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the fiscal year to which this report relates.

 

 

 


Table of contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

Part I

 

 

Item 1

Business

4

Item 1A

Risk Factors

13

Item 1B

Unresolved Staff Comments

27

Item 2

Properties

27

Item 3

Legal Proceedings

28

Item 4

Mine Safety Disclosures

28

 

 

 

Part II

 

 

Item 5

Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

29

Item 6

[Reserved]

30

Item 7

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

31

Item 7A

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

43

Item 8

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

45

Item 9

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

77

Item 9A

Controls and Procedures

77

Item 9B

Other Information

77

Item 9C

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

77

 

 

 

Part III

 

 

Item 10

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

78

Item 11

Executive Compensation

78

Item 12

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

78

Item 13

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

78

Item 14

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

78

 

 

 

Part IV

 

 

Item 15

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

79

Item 16

Form 10-K Summary

81

Signatures

 

82

 

2


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Forward-Looking Statements

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including statements regarding future operations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, forward-looking statements may be identified by words such as "believe," "may," "will," "estimate," "continue," "anticipate," "intend," "could," "would," "expect," "objective," "plan," "potential," "seek," "grow," "target," "if," and similar expressions intended to identify forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in the section titled "Risk Factors" set forth in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the future events and trends discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may not occur, and actual results may differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include, but are not limited to, statements about:

our expectations regarding our results of operations, including gross margin, financial condition and cash flows;
our expectations regarding the development and expansion of our business;
anticipated trends, challenges and opportunities in our business and in the markets in which we operate;
competitors and competition in our markets;
our ability to maintain and promote our brand and expand brand awareness;
our ability to successfully develop and introduce new products;
our ability to manage our international operations;
the effects of tariffs, trade barriers and retaliatory trade measures;
our ability to expand our customer base and expand sales to existing customers;
our expectations regarding development of our direct-to-consumer sales channels;
expansion of our partner network;
the macroeconomic environment and our ability to navigate it;
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and our response to it;
our ability to retain and hire necessary employees and staff our operations appropriately;
the timing and amount of certain expenses and our ability to achieve operating leverage over time; and
our ability to maintain, protect and enhance our intellectual property.

We caution you that the foregoing list may not contain all of the forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. Except as required by law, we do not intend to update any of these forward-looking statements after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or to conform these statements to actual results or revised expectations.

You should read this Annual Report on Form 10-K with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance and events and circumstances may be materially different from what we expect.

3


Table of contents

PART I

Item 1: Business

Overview

Sonos is one of the world's leading sound experience brands.

We pioneered multi-room, wireless audio products, debuting the world’s first multi-room wireless sound system in 2005. Today, our products include wireless, portable, and home theater speakers, components, and accessories to address consumers’ evolving audio needs. We are known for delivering unparalleled sound, thoughtful design aesthetic, simplicity of use, and an open platform. Our platform has attracted a broad range of more than 130 streaming content providers, such as Apple Music, Spotify, Deezer, and Pandora. These partners find value in our independent platform and access to our millions of desirable and engaged customers. We frequently introduce new services and features across our platform, providing our customers with enhanced functionality, improved sound, and an enriched user experience. We are committed to continuous technological innovation as reflected in our growing global patent portfolio. We believe our patents comprise the foundational intellectual property for wireless multi-room and other audio technologies.

Our innovative products, seamless customer experience, and expanding global footprint have driven 17 consecutive years of sustained revenue growth since our first product launch. Our growth is driven by both new customers buying our products as well as existing customers continuing to add products to their Sonos systems. In fiscal 2022, existing customers accounted for approximately 44% of new product registrations. As of October 1, 2022, we had a total of nearly 41.8 million products registered in approximately 14.0 million households globally, including the addition of approximately 1.4 million new households during fiscal 2022. Our customers have typically purchased additional Sonos products over time. As of October 1, 2022, 60% of our 14.0 million households had registered more than one Sonos product. As of October 1, 2022, our households own 3.0 products on average. We also estimate that our customers listened to 12.8 billion hours, excluding Bluetooth listening, of audio content using our products in fiscal 2022, which represents 5.5% growth from fiscal 2021.

 

4


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Our Products

We generate revenue from sales of our Sonos speaker products, including wireless speakers and home theater speakers, from our Sonos system products, which largely comprises our component products, and from partner products and other revenue, including partnerships with IKEA and Sonance, Sonos and third-party accessories, licensing, advertising, and subscription revenue. Our portfolio of products encourages customers to uniquely tailor their Sonos sound systems to best meet their sound and design preferences.

Sonos speakers. Sonos speakers comprises our wireless speakers and home theater products, including:

 

Product

Launch Date

Description

Sub Mini

October 2022

Our wireless subwoofer which delivers powerful, balanced bass, rich, clear low end frequencies, in a compact cylindrical design.

Ray

June 2022

Our smallest, smart soundbar for TV, music, and more.

Beam (Gen 2)

October 2021

Our smart, compact soundbar for TV, music, and more, with support for Dolby Atmos. Originally introduced as Beam (Gen 1) in June 2018.

Roam Colors

 Roam SL

Roam

May 2022

March 2022

April 2021

Our ultra-portable smart speaker with Bluetooth and WiFi for listening on the go and at home. Originally introduced as Roam in April 2021

Arc

June 2020

Our premium smart soundbar for TV, movies, music, gaming, and more, with support for Dolby Atmos. Replaced Playbar, our first smart soundbar released in April 2013 and Playbase, our powerful sound base for TVs released in 2017.

Five

June 2020

Our high fidelity speaker for superior sound. Originally launched as Play:5 (Gen 1) in November 2009 and completely redesigned in November 2015 as Play:5 (Gen 2).

Sub (Gen 3)

June 2020

Our wireless subwoofer for deep bass. Originally introduced as Sub (Gen 1) in June 2012.

Move

September 2019

Our durable, battery-powered smart speaker for outdoor and indoor listening.

One SL

September 2019

Our powerful microphone-free speaker for music and more. Replaced Play:1 which was introduced in October 2013.

One

October 2017

Our powerful smart speaker with voice control built in.

 

Sonos System Products. Sonos system products comprises our component and other products which allow customers to convert third-party wired systems, stereo systems and home theater set-ups into our easy-to-use, wirelessly controlled streaming music system, including:

 

Product

Launch Date

Description

Port

September 2019

Our versatile streaming component for stereos or receivers. Replaced Connect which launched in January 2007.

Amp

February 2019

Our versatile amplifier powering all our customers’ entertainment. Replaced Connect: Amp which launched in September 2012.

 

 

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Partner Products and Other Revenue. Partner products and other revenue categories comprise products sold in connection with our partnerships, accessories, professional services, licensing, and advertising revenue. Products in this category comprise accessories that allow our customers to integrate our products seamlessly into their homes as well as products manufactured by and/or sold by our partners, including:

 

Product

Launch Date

Description

Audi Partnership

April 2021

Our first-ever automotive audio partnership delivering Sonos-tuned premium sound experience for the Q4 e-tron and further models including the A1, Q2, and Q3.

Sonos Radio HD

November 2020

Our ad-free, high-definition streaming tier of our streaming radio service, Sonos Radio.

Sonos Radio

April 2020

Our free, ad-supported streaming radio experience bringing together more than 60,000 stations from multiple streaming partners alongside original programming from Sonos.

Sonos Architectural by Sonance

February 2019

Our collection of installed passive speakers for indoor and outdoor use designed and optimized for Amp in partnership with Sonance, including in-ceiling, in-wall, and outdoor speakers.

IKEA module units

Various

Hardware and embedded software integrated into final products manufactured and sold by IKEA. Current IKEA products include SYMFONISK picture frame, bookshelf speaker, and speaker lamp.

Accessories

Various

Our custom-designed stands, mounts, shelves, cables, chargers, and more.

 

 

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Our Software

Our proprietary software is the foundation of the Sonos sound system and further differentiates our products and services from those of our competitors.

In June 2020, we introduced Sonos S2, a powerful new app and operating system to enable a new generation of Sonos products and experiences, which includes new features, usability updates, and more personalization while also enabling higher resolution audio technologies for music and home theater. In June 2022, we introduced Sonos Voice Control, the first voice experience purpose-built for listening to and controlling your music on Sonos speakers. Designed with privacy at its core, Sonos Voice Control is the simplest way to control your music, offering complete command of your Sonos system using only your voice. Sonos Voice Control works on every voice-capable Sonos speaker, processing requests entirely on the Sonos device.

Our software provides the following key benefits:

Multi-room experience. Our system enables our speakers to work individually or together in synchronized playback groups, powered by wireless network and Bluetooth capabilities to route and play audio optimally.
Open platform for content partners. Our platform enables customers to easily search and browse for content from a list of more than 130 content partners from around the world including stations, artists, albums, podcasts, audio books, and more. Content partners can connect to Sonos via our platform and find a new and growing audience for their catalogs.
Intuitive and flexible control. Our customers can control their experiences through the Sonos app, voice control, from Sonos devices directly, or an expanding number of third-party apps and smart devices. As our customers navigate across different controllers, our technology synchronizes the control experience across the Sonos platform to deliver the music and entertainment experience they desire.
Smart audio tuning. Our Trueplay technology uses the microphones on an iOS device to analyze room attributes, speaker placement and other acoustic factors to improve sound quality. We also developed Automatic TruePlay to deliver the same audio tuning experience, directly using the microphones integrated to our speakers and make this available to iOS and Android users.
Continuous Improvement. Our software platform and cloud service enables feature enhancements and delivery of new experiences on an ongoing basis. As a result, the Sonos experience improves for customers over time.

Our Partner Ecosystem

We have built a platform that attracts partners to enable our customers to play content from their preferred services. Our platform has attracted a broad range of more than 130 streaming content providers and span across content, control, and third-party applications:

Content. We partner with a broad range of content providers, such as streaming music services, internet radio stations, and podcast services, allowing our customers to enjoy their audio content from whichever source they desire.
Control. We provide our customers with multiple options to control their home audio experiences, including voice control and direct control from within selected streaming music service apps. Our platform is the first to offer consumers the ability to buy a single smart speaker with more than one voice assistant choice. Our voice-enabled speaker products have Amazon Alexa and Google Assistant functionality, and in June 2022, we introduced Sonos Voice Control.
Third-party partnerships. We partner with third-party developers to build new applications and services on top of the Sonos platform, increasing customer engagement and creating new experiences for our customers, such as architectural in-ceiling, in-wall and outdoor speakers in partnership with Sonance, picture frame, bookshelf and table lamp speakers in partnership with IKEA, and automotive sound in partnership with Audi.

Research and Development

Our research and development team develops new hardware products, software and services, while continually improving and enhancing our existing software and hardware products to address customer demands and emerging trends. Our teams have worked on features and enhancements to the Sonos system including developments to the Sonos app, product setup, Trueplay tuning, the ability to use Alexa or Google voice services, and Sonos Voice Control. Our audio team has developed a series of acoustic technologies which enabled us to create speakers that produce high-fidelity sound. In April 2022, we added a talented group of employees to our research and development team through our acquisition of Mayht, a Netherlands-based company, which invented a new approach to audio transducers. We expect that the addition of this team and its strategic technology will help transform and enhance our product portfolio.

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Our wireless and radio team established world-class wireless performance that enabled multi-room experience, wireless surround sound, and many other applications. Our industrial design and mechanical engineering teams developed a cohesive, unique family of products across multiple categories and use-cases such as home theater, all-in-one, and portable. These products demonstrate a range of proprietary manufacturing and design details, logo application techniques, and assembly architecture. The products and software we develop require significant technical knowledge and expertise to develop at a competitive pace. We believe our research and development capabilities and our intellectual property differentiates us from our competitors. We intend to continue to significantly invest in research and development to bring new products and software to market and expand our platform and capabilities.

 

Sales and Marketing

We sell our products primarily through over 10,000 third-party physical retail stores and our products are distributed in more than 60 countries. The majority of our sales are transacted through traditional physical retailers, including on their websites. We also sell through online retailers, to custom installers who bundle our products with services that they sell to their customers, and directly through our website sonos.com.

We invest in customer experience and customer relationship management to drive loyalty, word-of-mouth marketing and sustainable, profitable growth. Our marketing investments are focused on driving profitable growth through advertising, public relations and brand promotion activities, including digital platforms, sponsorships, collaborations, brand activations, and channel marketing. We continue to invest significant resources in our marketing and brand development efforts, including investing in capital expenditures on product displays to support our channel marketing through our retail partners.

 

Manufacturing, Logistics and Fulfillment

We outsource the manufacturing of our speakers and components to contract manufacturers, who produce our products based on our design specifications. Our products are manufactured by contract manufacturers in China and Malaysia, and in fiscal 2022, we began further diversifying our supply chain into Vietnam. In accordance with our agreements with our contract manufacturers, they will enter into purchase orders with their upstream suppliers for component inventory necessary to manufacture our products, based on our demand forecasts.

The vast majority of our products are shipped to our third-party warehouses which are then shipped to our distributors, retailers, and directly to our customers. Our third-party warehouses are located in the United States in California and Pennsylvania, as well as internationally in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, China, Japan, and the United Kingdom.

We use a small number of logistics providers for substantially all of our product delivery to both distributors and retailers. This approach generally allows us to reduce order fulfillment time, reduce shipping costs, and improve inventory flexibility.

 

Our Competitive Strengths

The proliferation of streaming services, the rapid expansion of digital audio content types, and the rise in voice assistants are significantly changing audio consumption habits and increasing demand for easy, premium, integrated audio experiences. As a leading sound system for consumers, content partners and developers, Sonos is capitalizing on the large market opportunity created by these dynamics. We believe the following combination of capabilities and features of our business model distinguish us from our competitors and position us well to capitalize on our opportunities:

Leading sound system. We have developed and refined our sound system over the last 19 years. Our effort has resulted in significant consumer awareness and market share among home audio professionals. For example, a 2022 product study by CE Pro ranked Sonos as the leading brand in the wireless speakers, soundbar, and subwoofer categories. Our 93% share in the wireless speaker category among these industry professionals significantly outpaces our competitors.
Proprietary Sonos app and software platform. We offer our customers a mobile app that controls the Sonos sound system and the entire listening experience. Customers can stream different audio content to speakers in different rooms or the same audio content synchronized throughout the entire home. Additionally, the Sonos app enables universal search, the ability to search for audio content across streaming services and owned content so that customers can easily find, play, or curate music.

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Platform enables freedom of choice for consumers. Our broad and growing network of partners provides access to voice control, streaming music, internet radio, podcasts, and audiobook content, enabling consumers with freedom of choice in content and services. Our platform attracts a broad set of content providers, including leading streaming music services and third-party developers.
Differentiated consumer experience creates engaged households who often repeat purchases. We deliver a differentiated customer experience to millions of households every day, cultivating a long-term passionate and engaged customer base. This engagement with our products, and our ability to continuously improve and enhance the functionality of our existing products through software updates, can help drive momentum in our flywheel as customers add products to their Sonos sound systems. We generate significant revenue and profits from existing customers purchasing additional products to expand their Sonos sound systems. In fiscal 2022, existing households represented approximately 44% of new product registrations. We have proven our ability to profitably develop new experiences that drive existing customers to add additional products to their home, while continuing to add new homes. We believe that we have yet to fully realize the lifetime value of our customer base and this aspect of our financial model will continue to contribute to our ability to achieve sustainable, profitable growth over the long term.
Commitment to innovation drives continuous improvement. We have made significant investments in research and development since our inception and believe that we own the foundational intellectual property of wireless multi-room and other audio technologies. Our patent portfolio continues to grow each year. We were included in the Intellectual Property Owners Association "Top 300 Patent Owners" report for calendar year 2021. As of calendar year 2021, we held approximately 1,150 issued patents in the United States versus approximately 15 in 2011.

Our Growth Strategies

Key elements of our growth strategy include:

Continued introduction of innovative products and services and expansion into new categories. To address our market opportunity, we have developed a long-term roadmap to deliver innovative products, services and software enhancements, and expand into new categories. We intend to continue to introduce products and services across multiple categories designed for enjoyment in all the places and spaces that our customers listen to audio content, including outside of the home, as well as business and enterprise customers. Executing on our roadmap will position us to acquire new customers, increase sales to existing customers, and improve the customer experience.
Expansion of direct-to-consumer efforts and building relationships with existing channel partners and prospective customers. We are focused on reaching and converting prospective customers through third-party retail stores, e-commerce retailers, our website sonos.com, and custom installers of home audio systems. We expect that our direct-to-consumer channel will continue to contribute to our growth. We intend to continue to build direct relationships with current and prospective customers through sonos.com and the Sonos app to drive direct sales. In fiscal 2022, we generated 22.5% of total revenue through our direct-to-consumer channel, primarily sonos.com. While we seek to increase sales through our direct-to-consumer sales channel, we expect that our third-party retailers will continue to be an important part of our ecosystem. We will continue to seek retail partners that can deliver differentiated in-store experiences to support customer demand for product demonstrations. Additionally, we intend to expand and strengthen our partnerships with custom installers who are valuable to our customer base and contribute to our new household growth. For example, a 2022 product survey by CE Pro ranked Sonos as the leading brand in the wireless speakers, soundbar, and subwoofer categories. Our 93% share in the wireless speakers category among these industry professionals significantly outpaces our competitors. In fiscal 2022, we generated 21.2% of total revenue through our installer solutions channel.
Expand partner ecosystem to enhance platform. We intend to deepen our relationships with our current partners and expand our partner ecosystem by providing our customers access to streaming music services, voice assistants, internet radio, podcasts and audiobook content.
Increase brand awareness in existing geographic markets. We intend to increase our household penetration rates in our existing geographic markets by increasing brand awareness, expanding our product offerings and growing our partner ecosystem.
Expansion into new geographic markets. Geographic expansion represents a growth opportunity in currently underserved countries. We intend to expand into new countries over time by employing country-specific marketing campaigns and distribution channels.

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Factors Affecting Performance

New Product Introductions. Since 2005, we have released products in multiple audio categories. We intend to introduce new products that appeal to a broad set of consumers, as well as bring our differentiated listening platform and experience to all the places and spaces where our customers listen to the breadth of audio content available, including inside and outside their homes.

Seasonality. Historically, we have typically experienced the highest levels of revenue in the first fiscal quarter of the year coinciding with the holiday shopping season and our promotional activities. Our promotional discounting activity is typically higher in the first fiscal quarter as well, which negatively impacts gross margin during this period. However, our higher sales volume in the holiday shopping season has historically resulted in a higher operating margin in the first fiscal quarter due to positive operating leverage.

Ability to Sell Additional Products to Existing Customers. Our existing customers typically increase the number of Sonos products in their homes. In fiscal 2022, existing households represented approximately 44% of new product registrations. As we execute on our product roadmap to address evolving consumer preferences, we believe we can expand the number of products in our customers’ homes. Our ability to sell additional products to existing customers is a key part of our business model, as follow-on purchases indicate high customer engagement and satisfaction, decrease the likelihood of competitive substitution, and result in higher customer lifetime value. We will continue to innovate and invest in product development in order to enhance customer experience and drive sales of additional products to existing customers.

Expansion of Partner Ecosystem. Expanding and maintaining strong relationships with our partners will remain important to our success. Our ability to develop, manufacture, and sell voice-enabled speakers that deliver differentiated consumer experiences will be a critical driver of our future performance, particularly as we compete in a larger market with an expanding number of competitors. We currently compete with, and will continue to compete with, companies that have greater resources than we do, many of which have brought voice-enabled speakers to market. To date, our agreements with these partners have all been on a royalty-free basis. We believe our partner ecosystem improves customer experience, attracting more customers to Sonos, which in turn attracts more partners to the platform, further enhancing customer experience. We believe partners choose to be part of the Sonos platform because it provides access to a large, engaged customer base on a global scale. We look to partner with a wide variety of streaming music services, voice assistants, connected home integrators, content creators, and podcast providers. We have also partnered with certain companies in the development of our own voice-enabled products, while also bringing to market our own voice assistant focused specifically on the audio experience. Our competitiveness in the voice-enabled speaker market will depend on successful investment in research and development, market acceptance of our products and our ability to maintain and benefit from our technology partnerships.

As competition increases, we believe our ability to give users the freedom to choose across a broad set of streaming services and voice control partners will be an important key differentiating factor.

Channel Strategy. We believe growing our own e-commerce channel will continue to be important to supporting our overall growth and profitability as consumers continue the shift from physical to online sales channels. We are investing in our e-commerce capabilities and in-app experience to drive direct sales. In fiscal 2022, sales through our direct-to-consumer channel, primarily through sonos.com, represented 22.5% of our revenue in fiscal 2022, and 24.2% in fiscal 2021. Sales through our direct-to-consumer channel decreased 5.1% in fiscal 2022 and increased 46.5% in fiscal 2021.

While we seek to increase sales through our direct-to-consumer sales channel, we expect that our partnerships with third-party retailers and custom installers will continue to be an important part of our ecosystem. We will continue to seek retail partners that can deliver differentiated in-store experiences to support customer demand for product demonstrations. Additionally, we intend to expand and strengthen our partnerships with custom installers who are valuable to our customer base and contribute to our new household growth. In fiscal 2022, we generated 21.2% of total revenue through our installer solutions channel. Our physical retail distribution relies on third-party retailers and our ability to maintain our diversified manufacturing footprint and base of component suppliers in support of production efficiency and flexibility across our global supply chain.

International Expansion. Our products are sold in more than 60 countries, and in fiscal 2022, 45.0% of our revenue was generated outside the United States. Our international growth will depend on our ability to generate sales from the global population of consumers, develop international distribution channels, and diversify our partner ecosystem to appeal to a more global audience. We are committed to strengthening our brand in global markets and our future success will depend in part on our growth in international markets.

Investing in Product and Software Development. Our investments in product and software development consist primarily of expenses in the personnel who support our research and development efforts and capital expenditures for new tooling and production line equipment to manufacture and test our products. We believe that our financial performance will significantly depend on the effectiveness of our investments to design and introduce innovative new products and services and enhance existing products and

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software. If we fail to innovate and expand our product and software offerings or fail to maintain high standards of quality in our products, our brand, market position and revenue will be adversely affected. Further, if our development efforts are not successful, we will not recover the investments made.

Investing in Sales and Marketing. We continue to invest resources in our marketing and brand development efforts. Our marketing investments are focused on increasing brand awareness through advertising, public relations and brand promotion activities. While we maintain a base level of investment throughout the year, significant increases in spending are highly correlated with the holiday shopping season, new product launches, and software introductions. We also invest in capital expenditures on product displays to support our retail channel partners. Sales and marketing investments are typically incurred in advance of any revenue benefits from these activities.

Competition

We compete against established, audio-focused sellers of speakers and sound systems such as Bose, Samsung (and its subsidiaries Harman International and JBL), Sony, Bang & Olufsen, and Masimo (and its subsidiary Sound United that owns, among others, the Denon, Polk Audio and Bowers and Wilkens brands), and against developers of voice-enabled speakers and other voice-enabled products such as Amazon, Apple, and Google. In some cases, our competitors are also our partners in our product development and resale and distribution channels. Many of our competitors have significant market share, diversified product lines, well-established supply and distribution systems, strong worldwide brand recognition, loyal customer bases and significant financial, marketing, research, development and other resources.

The principal competitive factors in our market include:

brand awareness and reputation;
breadth of product offering;
price;
sound quality;
multi-room and wireless capabilities;
customer support;
product quality and design;
ease of setup and use; and
network of technology and content partners.

We believe we compete favorably with our competitors on the basis of the factors described above.

Intellectual Property

Intellectual property is an important aspect of our business, and we seek protection for our intellectual property as appropriate. To establish and protect our proprietary rights, we rely upon a combination of patent, copyright, trade secret and trademark laws, and contractual restrictions such as confidentiality agreements, licenses and intellectual property assignment agreements. We maintain a policy requiring our employees, contractors, consultants and other third parties to enter into confidentiality and proprietary rights agreements to control access to our proprietary information. These laws, procedures and restrictions provide only limited protection, and any of our intellectual property rights may be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, infringed or misappropriated. There is no guarantee that we will prevail on any patent infringement claims against third parties. Furthermore, the laws of certain countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and we therefore may be unable to protect our proprietary technology in certain jurisdictions.

Sonos is a leading innovator that holds a comprehensive portfolio of intellectual property rights, including patents, trade secrets, copyrights, trademarks, service marks, trade dress and other forms of intellectual property rights in the U.S. and various other countries. Sonos’ patent portfolio, in particular, has been recognized as one of the strongest in consumer electronics. Our patents and patent applications relate to hardware, software, networking, accessories, and services, and include technology for the ability to stream content for playback wirelessly to one or more rooms in the home or business. It also includes technology for enabling a wide range of experiences and audio technologies that are important to the Sonos platform and enjoyed by millions of people every day across the globe. Experiences covered by our patents include simple system setup, seamless integration with other platforms and services, balanced

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sound, voice interactions and control, as well as experiences unique to home theater to name a few. We regularly file patent applications in the U.S. and throughout the world to protect our innovations and technology that come from areas such as research, development, and design. Our patents expire at various times and no single patent or other intellectual property right is solely responsible for protecting Sonos’ products and services. Sonos continues to invest in protecting its expanding innovation through ongoing development of its patent portfolio. In addition to its own intellectual property, Sonos also enters into licensing agreements with our third-party partners to provide access to a broad range of technology, services, and content for our customers.

In January 2020, the Company filed a complaint with the U.S. International Trade Commission ("ITC") against Alphabet Inc. ("Alphabet") and Google LLC ("Google") and a counterpart lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California against Google alleging infringement of five Sonos patents. In September 2020, the Company filed another lawsuit against Google alleging infringement of an additional four Sonos patents. This lawsuit is currently pending in U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California. In December 2020, the Company filed another lawsuit against Google Germany Gmbh and Google Ireland Ltd. in the regional court of Hamburg, Germany, alleging infringement of a Sonos patent. Starting in 2020, Google has responded by filing patent infringement lawsuits against the Company in the ITC, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, Canada, Germany, France, and the Netherlands, and patent infringement lawsuits against the Company’s subsidiary, Sonos Europe B.V., in Germany, France, and the Netherlands. See Note 13. Commitments and Contingencies of the notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details.

While we believe that our active patents and patent applications are an important aspect of our business, we also rely heavily on the innovative skills, technical competence and marketing abilities of our personnel.

Human Capital

Sonos is dedicated to creating the ultimate listening experience for our customers, and our employees are critical to achieving this mission. In order to continue to design innovative experiences and products, and compete and succeed in our highly competitive and rapidly evolving market, it is crucial that we continue to attract and retain experienced employees. As part of these efforts, we strive to offer a competitive compensation and benefits program, foster a community where everyone feels included and empowered to do their best work, and give employees the opportunity to give back to their communities and make a social impact.

As of October 1, 2022, we had 1,844 full-time employees. Of our full-time employees, 1,312 were in the United States and 532 were in our international locations. Other than our employees in France and the Netherlands, none of our employees are represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement.

Compensation and Benefits Program. Our compensation program is designed to attract and reward talented individuals who possess the skills necessary to support our business objectives, assist in the achievement of our strategic goals and create long-term value for our stockholders. We provide employees with compensation packages that include base salary, annual incentive bonuses, and long-term equity awards ("RSUs") tied to the value of our stock price. We believe that a compensation program with both short-term and long-term awards provides fair and competitive compensation and aligns employee and stockholder interests, including by incentivizing business and individual performance (pay for performance), motivating based on long-term company performance and integrating compensation with our business plans. In addition to cash and equity compensation, we also offer employees benefits such as life and health (medical, dental & vision) insurance, paid time off, paid parental leave, and a 401(k) plan.

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion. At Sonos, we believe that music and sound is universal and connects us as people, and we strive to build products that move everyone. To do this, we are committed to building an equitable and inclusive environment where diverse teams build more creative solutions, drive better results, innovate and bring their authentic selves to work each day. We monitor the representation of women and racially or ethnically diverse team members at different levels throughout the company and disclose the composition of our team in our annual Listen Better Report, which is our corporate social responsibility report available on the Investor Relations section of our website.

As an organization, we’ve committed to annual diversity, equity and inclusion goals to increase representation at all levels and foster greater connection and belonging at Sonos. To accomplish these goals, we’re implementing initiatives to help us reach these goals, including:

holding management directly accountable in creating a more diverse and inclusive environment by designating 10% of the annual cash incentive plan for management for diversity, equity and inclusion goals;
examining our hiring practices to ensure we source the best talent from the widest available pool;

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intentional listening to our employee resource groups who provide critical insight into the experience of underrepresented groups at Sonos and across our industry;
frequent review of our policies and practices to ensure an equitable experience for all;
coupling our hiring goals with a focus on retention, employee engagement, and inclusive leadership;
implementing mentoring and allyship programs that connect employees to key support systems across Sonos; and
deepening our organizational acumen around allyship, unconscious bias, and equity.

Community Involvement. We aim to enhance the communities where we live and work, and believe that this commitment helps in our efforts to attract and retain employees. We offer employees the opportunity to give back both through our Sonos Soundwaves program, which partners with leading non-profits, and our Sonos Cares program, which offers employees paid volunteer time each year.

Corporate Information

We incorporated in Delaware in August 2002 as Rincon Audio, Inc. and we changed our name to Sonos, Inc. in May 2004. We completed the initial public offering ("IPO") of our common stock in August 2018 and our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol of "SONO." Our principal executive offices are located at 614 Chapala Street, Santa Barbara, California 93101, and our telephone number is (805) 965-3001.

Our website address is www.sonos.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Investors should not rely on any such information in deciding whether to purchase our common stock.

Sonos, the Sonos logo, Sonos One, Sonos One SL, Sonos Five, Sonos Beam, Play:1, Play:5, Playbase, Playbar, Sonos Arc, Amp, Sub, Sonos Move, Port, Boost, Ray, Sonos Ray, Sonos Roam, Sonos Voice Control, Trueplay, Sub Mini, Sonos Sub Mini, Mayht and our other registered or common law trademarks, tradenames or service marks appearing in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are our property. Solely for convenience, our trademarks, tradenames, and service marks referred to in this Annual Report on Form 10-K appear without the ®, ™ and SM symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights to these trademarks, tradenames and service marks. This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains additional trademarks, tradenames and service marks of other companies that are the property of their respective owners.

Available Information

We make available, free of charge through our website, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports, filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act"), as amended, as soon as reasonably practicable after they have been electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC.

The SEC maintains an internet site (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, as well as the other information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, and the section titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” before making an investment decision. The occurrence of any of the events or developments described below could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects. In such an event, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently believe are not material may also impair our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

Economic, Industry and Strategic Risk

Our business has been, and could in the future be, adversely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

 

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The COVID-19 pandemic and related mitigation measures have adversely affected our business and operating results and may continue to impact us in the future. During the pandemic, consistent with its effects industry-wide, our supply chain has experienced disruptions, including lockdowns, port congestion, component supply-related challenges, and inflationary pressures, which may continue in the future. Supply chain challenges have increased our component and shipping and logistics costs, caused delayed product availability, and impacted our ability to forecast and meet product demand, procure certain components, and effectively manage our inventory levels, all of which has and could in the future, materially and adversely affected our business, results of operations, financial position, and cash flows. Although some pandemic-related impacts on our business have abated, they may emerge or intensify again given the uncertain course of the pandemic and its effects.

 

COVID-19 has also negatively impacted the global economy to date, including by contributing to significant global economic uncertainty. The duration and severity of the economic impacts of COVID-19 are unknown and may be prolonged and extend beyond the easing of mitigation measures, the widespread availability of vaccines and treatments or any eventual containment of the spread of COVID-19. In particular, any recession, depression, inflationary pressures, or other sustained adverse market event resulting from, among other causes, COVID-19 may result in high levels of unemployment and associated loss of personal income, decreased consumer confidence, and lower discretionary spending, which could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial position, and cash flows.

 

The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and operating results is uncertain and difficult to predict and will depend on factors outside of our control, including efforts to contain the spread of COVID-19, any resurgence of infections or any variants that may emerge and the impact of the pandemic on the global economy. Moreover, we have experienced increased demand for our products during much of the COVID-19 pandemic and we cannot predict how or whether the easing of COVID-19 mitigation measures will impact demand for our products or shift consumer spending habits in general. During the second half of fiscal 2022, we saw a softening of consumer demand in part as a result of a shift in consumer spending from purchasing goods to purchasing services and it is uncertain whether such shift will continue.

The home audio and consumer electronics industries are highly competitive.

The markets in which we operate are extremely competitive and rapidly evolving, and we expect that competition will intensify in the future. Our competition includes established, well-known sellers of speakers and sound systems such as Bose, Samsung (and its subsidiaries Harman International and JBL), Sony, Bang & Olufsen and Masimo (and its subsidiary Sound United that owns, among others, the Denon, Polk Audio and Bowers and Wilkens brands), and developers of voice-enabled speakers and systems such as Amazon, Apple and Google. We could also face competition from new market entrants, some of whom might be current partners of ours.

In order to deliver products that appeal to changing and increasingly diverse consumer preferences and to overcome the fact that a relatively high percentage of consumers may already own or use products that they perceive to be similar to those that we offer, we must develop superior technology, anticipate increasingly diverse consumer tastes and rapidly develop attractive products with competitive selling prices. In addition, many of our current and potential partners have business objectives that may drive them to sell their speaker products at a significant discount compared to ours. Amazon and Google, for example, both currently offer their speaker products at significantly lower prices than our speaker products. Many of these partners may subsidize these prices and seek to monetize their customers through the sale of additional services rather than the speakers themselves. Even if we are able to efficiently develop and offer innovative products at competitive selling prices, our operating results and financial condition may be adversely impacted if we are unable to effectively anticipate and counter the ongoing price erosion that frequently affects consumer products or if the average selling prices of our products decrease faster than we are able to reduce our manufacturing costs.

Most of our competitors have greater financial, technical and marketing resources available to them than those available to us, and, as a result, they may develop competing products that cause the demand for our products to decline. Our competitors have established, or may establish, cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties to increase the abilities of their products to address the needs of our prospective customers, and other companies may enter our markets by entering into strategic relationships with our competitors. A failure to effectively anticipate and respond to these established and new competitors may adversely impact our business and operating results.

Further, our current and prospective competitors may consolidate with each other or acquire companies that will allow them to develop products that better compete with our products, which would intensify the competition that we face and may also disrupt or lead to termination of our distribution, technology and content partnerships. For example, if one of our competitors were to acquire one of our content partners, the consolidated company may decide to disable the streaming functionality of its service with our products.

If we are unable to compete with these consolidated companies or if consolidation in the market disrupts our partnerships or reduces the number of companies we partner with, our business would be adversely affected.

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To remain competitive and stimulate consumer demand, we must successfully manage frequent new product introductions and transitions.

Due to the quickly evolving and highly competitive nature of the home audio and broader consumer electronics industry, we must frequently introduce new products, enhance existing products and effectively stimulate customer demand for new and upgraded products in both mature and developing markets. For example, in June 2022 we introduced Ray, our compact soundbar and in September 2022 we introduced Sub Mini, the smaller of our two wireless subwoofer offerings. The successful introduction of these products and any new products depends on a number of factors, such as the timely completion of development efforts to correspond with limited windows for market introduction. We face significant challenges in managing the risks associated with new product introductions and production ramp-up issues, including accurately forecasting initial consumer demand, effectively managing any third-party strategic alliances or collaborative partnerships related to new product development or commercialization, as well as the risk that new products may have quality or other defects in the early stages of introduction or may not achieve the market acceptance necessary to generate sufficient revenue. New and upgraded products can also affect the sales and profitability of existing products. Accordingly, if we cannot properly manage the introduction of new products, our operating results and financial condition may be adversely impacted, particularly if the cadence of new product introductions increases as we expect.

Although we have achieved profitability, our business is impacted by a number of factors, including those outside of our control like the global economy, and we may not be able to sustain or increase our profitability and expect to incur increased operating costs in the future.

Although we achieved profitability starting in the fiscal year ended October 2, 2021, we may not be able to maintain or grow our profitability. We have experienced net losses in the past and may incur net losses in the future. We had an accumulated deficit of $2.5 million as of October 1, 2022.

We expect our operating expenses to increase in the future as we expand our operations and execute on our product roadmap and strategy. We plan to make significant future expenditures related to the expansion of our business and our product offerings, including investments in:

research and development to continue to introduce innovative new products, enhance existing products and improve our customers’ listening experience;
sales and marketing to expand our global brand awareness, promote new products, increase our customer base and expand sales within our existing customer base; and
legal, accounting, information technology and other administrative expenses to sustain our operations as a public company.

In order to maintain or grow our profitability, we need to continue to increase our revenue and we cannot assure you that we will be able to do so, particularly during times of global economic, social and political uncertainty. For example, demand for our products was impacted in the second half of fiscal 2022, and in the future may be impacted, by uncertainty in the economic environment including the potential for an extended global recession, continued inflationary pressures, or, in certain markets, foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, including those resulting from the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Our ability to achieve revenue growth will depend in part on our ability to execute on our product roadmap and our strategy and to determine the market opportunity for new products. New product introductions may adversely impact our gross margin in the near to intermediate term due to the frequency of these product introductions and their anticipated increased share of our overall product volume. The expansion of our business and product offerings also places a continuous and significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources. In the event that we are unable to grow our revenue, or in the event that revenue grows more slowly than we expect, our operating results could be adversely affected, and our stock price could be harmed.

Our investments in research and development may not yield the results expected.

Our business operates in intensely competitive markets characterized by changing consumer preferences and rapid technological innovation. Due to advanced technological innovation and the relative ease of technology imitation, new products tend to become standardized more rapidly, leading to more intense competition and ongoing price erosion. In order to strengthen the competitiveness of our products in this environment, we continue to invest heavily in research and development. However, these investments may not yield the innovation or the results expected on a timely basis, or our competitors may surpass us in technological innovation, hindering our ability to timely commercialize new and competitive products that meet the needs and demands of the market, which consequently may adversely impact our operating results as well as our reputation.

If we are not successful in continuing to expand our direct-to-consumer sales channel by driving consumer traffic and consumer purchases through our website, our business and results of operations could be harmed.

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We have invested significant resources in our direct-to-consumer sales channel, primarily through our website, and our future growth relies, in part, on our continued ability to attract consumers to this channel, which has and will continue to require significant expenditures in marketing, software development and infrastructure. If we are unable to continue to drive traffic to, and increase sales through, our website, our business and results of operations could be harmed. The continued success of direct-to-consumer sales through our website is subject to risks associated with e-commerce, many of which are outside of our control. Our inability to adequately respond to these risks and uncertainties or to successfully maintain and expand our direct-to-consumer business via our website may have an adverse impact on our results of operations.

If we are unable to accurately anticipate market demand for our products, we may have difficulty managing our production and inventory and our operating results could be harmed.

We must forecast production and inventory needs in advance with our suppliers and manufacturers; our ability to do so accurately could be affected by many factors, including changes in customer demand and spending patterns, new product introductions, sales promotions, channel inventory levels, uncertainties related to the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia's invasion of Ukraine, and general economic conditions, including inflation and the potential for an extended global recession. If demand does not meet our forecast, excess product inventory could force us to write-down or write-off inventory or to sell the excess inventory at discounted prices, which could cause our gross margin to suffer and impair the strength of our brand. In addition, excess inventory may result in reduced working capital, which could adversely affect our ability to invest in other important areas of our business such as marketing and product development. If our channel partners have excess inventory of our products, they may decrease their purchases of our products in subsequent periods. If demand exceeds our forecast, as it did in parts of fiscal 2022, and we do not have sufficient inventory to meet this demand, we may experience decreased revenue or customer dissatisfaction as a result of any continued inventory shortages or we may have to rapidly increase production which may result in reduced manufacturing quality and customer satisfaction as well as higher supply and manufacturing costs that would lower our gross margin. Any of these scenarios could adversely impact our operating results and financial condition.

Our efforts to expand beyond our core product offerings and offer products with wider applications may not succeed and could adversely impact our business.

We may seek to expand beyond our core sound systems and develop products that have wider applications outside of home sound, such as commercial or office. Developing these products would require us to devote substantial additional resources, and our ability to succeed in developing such products to address such markets is unproven. It is likely that we would need to hire additional personnel, partner with new third parties and incur considerable research and development expenses to pursue such an expansion successfully. We may have less familiarity with consumer preferences for these products and less product or category knowledge, and we could encounter difficulties in attracting new customers due to lower levels of consumer familiarity with our brand. As a result, we may not be successful in future efforts to achieve profitability from new markets, services or new types of products, and our ability to generate revenue from our existing products may suffer. If any such expansion does not enhance our ability to maintain or grow our revenue or recover any associated development costs, our operating results could be adversely affected.

We experience seasonal demand for our products, and if our sales in high-demand periods are below our forecasts, our overall financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.

Given the seasonal nature of our sales, accurate forecasting is critical to our business. Our fiscal year ends on the Saturday closest to September 30, the holiday shopping season occurs in the first quarter of our fiscal year and the typically slower summer months occur in the fourth quarter of our fiscal year. Historically, our revenue has been significantly higher in our first fiscal quarter due to increased consumer spending patterns during the holiday season. Any shortfalls in expected first fiscal quarter revenue, due to macroeconomic conditions like the potential for an extended global recession, product release patterns, a decline in the effectiveness of our promotional activities, supply chain disruptions, inflationary pressures or for any other reason, could cause our annual operating results to suffer

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significantly. In addition, if we fail to accurately forecast customer demand for the holiday season, we may experience excess inventory levels or a shortage of products available for sale, which could further harm our financial condition and operating results.

The success of our business depends in part on the continued growth of the voice-enabled speaker market and our ability to establish and maintain market share.

We have increasingly focused our product roadmap on voice-enabled speakers. We introduced our first voice-enabled speaker, Sonos One, in October 2017, our first voice-enabled home theater speaker, Sonos Beam, in July 2018, our first Bluetooth-enabled portable speaker with voice control, Sonos Move, in September 2019, and our voice-enabled premium home theater speaker, Sonos Arc, in June 2020. In April 2021, we introduced Roam, our portable smart speaker. In May 2022, we introduced Sonos Voice Control, our proprietary voice assistant, on all of our voice-enabled speakers. If the voice-enabled speaker markets do not continue to grow or grow in unpredictable ways, our revenue may fall short of expectations and our operating results may be harmed, particularly since we incur substantial costs to introduce new products in advance of anticipated sales. Additionally, even if the market for voice-enabled speakers does continue to grow, we may not be successful in developing and selling speakers that appeal to consumers or gain sufficient market acceptance. To succeed in this market, we will need to design, produce and sell innovative and compelling products and partner with other businesses that enable us to capitalize on new technologies, some of which have developed or may develop and sell voice-enabled speaker products of their own as further described herein.

If market demand for streaming music does not grow as anticipated or the availability and quality of streaming services does not continue to increase, our business could be adversely affected.

A large proportion of our customer base uses our products to listen to content via subscription-based streaming music services. Accordingly, we believe our future revenue growth will depend in significant part on the continued expansion of the market for streaming music. The success of the streaming music market depends on the quality, reliability and adoption of streaming technology and on the continued success of streaming music services such as Apple Music, Spotify, Deezer, and Pandora. If the streaming music market in general fails to expand or if the streaming services that we partner with are not successful, demand for our products may suffer and our operating results may be adversely affected.

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished, and our business may be adversely affected.

We rely and expect to continue to rely on a combination of confidentiality and license agreements with our employees, consultants and third parties with whom we have relationships, as well as patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret protection laws, to protect our proprietary rights. In the United States and certain other countries, we have filed various applications for certain aspects of our intellectual property, most notably patents. However, third parties may knowingly or unknowingly infringe our proprietary rights or challenge our proprietary rights, pending and future patent and trademark applications may not be approved, and we may not be able to prevent infringement without incurring substantial expense. Such infringement could have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, financial condition and results of operations. We have initiated legal proceedings to protect our intellectual property rights, and we may file additional actions in the future. For example, in January 2020 we filed a complaint with the ITC against Alphabet and Google and a counterpart lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California against Google alleging infringement of five Sonos patents, and in September 2020 we filed another lawsuit against Google alleging infringement of an additional four Sonos patents. The cost of defending our intellectual property has been and may in the future be substantial, and there is no assurance we will be successful. Our business could be adversely affected as a result of any such actions, or a finding that any patents-in-suit are invalid or unenforceable. These actions have led and may in the future lead to additional counterclaims or actions against us, which are expensive to defend against and for which there can be no assurance of a favorable outcome. For example, Google has responded to our legal proceedings by filing multiple patent infringement lawsuits against us in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, cases against us in the ITC and patent infringement lawsuits against us and our subsidiary Sonos Europe B.V. in various foreign jurisdictions. Further, parties we bring legal action against could retaliate through non-litigious means, which could harm our ability to compete against such parties or to enter new markets.

In addition, the regulations of certain foreign countries do not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. As our brand grows, we may discover unauthorized products in the marketplace that are counterfeit reproductions of our products. If we are unsuccessful in pursuing producers or sellers of counterfeit products, continued sales of these products could adversely impact our brand, business, financial condition and results of operations.

We currently are, and may continue to be, subject to intellectual property rights claims and other litigation which are expensive to support, and if resolved adversely, could have a significant impact on us and our stockholders.

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Companies in the consumer electronics industries own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks, domain names and trade secrets, and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property or other rights. As we gain an increasingly high profile and face more intense competition in our markets, and as we introduce more products and services, including through acquisitions and through partners, the possibility of intellectual property rights claims against us grows. Our technologies may not be able to withstand any third-party claims or rights against their use, and we may be subject to litigation and disputes. The costs of supporting such litigation and disputes are considerable, and there can be no assurance that a favorable outcome would be obtained. We may be required to settle such litigation and disputes, or we may be subject to an unfavorable judgment in a trial, and the terms of a settlement or judgment against us may be unfavorable and require us to cease some or all our operations, limit our ability to use certain technologies, pay substantial amounts to the other party or issue additional shares of our capital stock to the other party, which would dilute our existing stockholders. Further, if we are found to have engaged in practices that are in violation of a third party’s rights, we may have to negotiate a license to continue such practices, which may not be available on reasonable or favorable terms, or may have to develop alternative, non-infringing technology or discontinue the practices altogether. In the event that these practices relate to an acquisition or a partner, we may not be successful in exercising any indemnification rights available to us under our agreements or in recovering damages in the event that we are successful. Each of these efforts could require significant effort and expense and ultimately may not be successful.

If we are not able to maintain and enhance the value and reputation of our brand, or if our reputation is otherwise harmed, our business and operating results could be adversely affected.

Our continued success depends on our reputation for providing high-quality products and consumer experiences, and the “Sonos” name is critical to preserving and expanding our business. Our brand and reputation are dependent on a number of factors, including our marketing efforts, product quality, and trademark protection efforts, each of which requires significant expenditures.

The value of our brand could also be severely damaged by isolated incidents, which may be outside of our control. For example, in the United States, we rely on custom installers of home audio systems for a significant portion of our sales but maintain no control over the quality of their work and thus could suffer damage to our brand or business to the extent such installations are unsatisfactory or defective. Any damage to our brand or reputation may adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

Conflicts with our channel and distribution partners could harm our business and operating results.

Several of our existing products compete, and products that we may offer in the future could compete, with the product offerings of some of our significant channel and distribution partners who have greater financial and technical resources than we do. To the extent products offered by our partners compete with our products, they may choose to market and promote their own products over ours or could end our partnerships and cease selling or promoting our products entirely. Any reduction in our ability to place and promote our products, or increased competition for available shelf or website placement, especially during peak retail periods, such as the holiday shopping season, would require us to increase our marketing expenditures and to seek other distribution channels to promote our products. If we are unable to effectively sell our products due to conflicts with our distribution partners or the inability to find alternative distribution channels, our business would be harmed.

The expansion of our direct-to-consumer channel could alienate some of our channel partners and cause a reduction in product sales from these partners. Channel partners may perceive themselves to be at a disadvantage based on the direct-to-consumer sales offered through our website. Due to these and other factors, conflicts in our sales channels could arise and cause channel partners to divert resources away from the promotion and sale of our products. Further, to the extent we use our mobile app to increase traffic to our website and increase direct-to-consumer sales, we will rely on application marketplaces such as the Apple App Store and Google Play to drive downloads of our mobile app. Apple and Google, both of which sell products that compete with ours, may choose to use their marketplaces to promote their competing products over our products or may make access to our mobile app more difficult. Any of these situations could adversely impact our business and results of operations.

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Competition with our technology partners could harm our business and operating results.

We are dependent on a number of technology partners for the development of our products, some of which have developed or may develop and sell products that compete with our products. These technology partners may cease doing business with us or disable the technology they provide our products for a variety of reasons, including to promote their products over our own. For example, we are currently manufacturing and developing voice-enabled speaker systems that are enhanced with the technology of our partners, including those who sell competing products. We introduced Sonos One, Sonos Beam, Sonos Move, Sonos Roam, and Sonos Arc, which feature built in voice-enabled speakers powered by Amazon’s Alexa or Google’s Google Assistant technology. One or more of our partners could disable their integration, terminate or not renew their distribution agreement with us, or begin charging us for their integration with our voice-enabled products. For example, our current agreement with Amazon allows Amazon to disable the Alexa integration in our voice-enabled products with limited notice. We cannot assure you that we will be successful in establishing partnerships with other companies that have developed voice-control enablement technology or in developing such technology on our own.

If one or more of our technology partners do not maintain their integration with our products or seek to charge us for this integration, or if we have not developed alternative partnerships for similar technology or developed such technology on our own, our sales may decline, our reputation may be harmed and our business and operating results may suffer.

Competition with our content partners could cause these partners to cease to allow their content to be streamed on our products, which could lower product demand.

Demand for our products depends in large part on the availability of streaming third-party content that appeals to our existing and prospective customers. Compatibility with streaming music services, podcast platforms and other content provided by our content partners is a key feature of our products. To date, all our arrangements have been entered into on a royalty-free basis. Some of these content partners compete with us already, and others may in the future produce and sell speakers along with their streaming services. Additionally, other content partners may form stronger alliances with our competitors in the home audio market. Any of our content partners may cease to allow their content to be streamed on our products for a variety of reasons, including as a result of our offering competing services, to promote other partnerships or their products over our products, or to seek to charge us for this streaming. If this were to happen, demand for our products could decrease, our costs could increase and our operating results could be harmed.

Operational Risks

We are dependent on a limited number of contract manufacturers to manufacture our products and our efforts to diversify manufacturers may not be successful.

We depend on a limited number of contract manufacturers to manufacture our products, with our key manufacturer, Inventec Appliances Corporation, manufacturing a majority of our products. We have also historically manufactured our products in China. In fiscal 2020, we began our efforts to diversify our supply chain through the addition of new contract manufacturers and geographic diversification, starting with Malaysia and extending such efforts into Vietnam in fiscal 2022. Our reliance on a limited number of contract manufacturers increases the risk that, in the event that any or all of such manufacturers experience an interruption in their operations, fail to perform their obligation in a timely manner or terminate agreements with us, we would not be able to maintain our production capacity without incurring material additional costs and substantial delays or we may be fully prevented from selling our products. Any material disruption in our relationship with our manufacturers would harm our ability to compete effectively and satisfy demand for our products and could adversely impact our revenue, gross margin and operating results.

In addition, there is no guarantee that our efforts to diversify manufacturers will be successful. Identifying and onboarding a new manufacturer takes a significant amount of time and resources. If we do not successfully coordinate the timely manufacturing and distribution of our products by such manufacturers, if such manufacturers are unable to successfully and timely process our orders or if we do not receive timely and accurate information from such manufacturers, we may have an insufficient supply of products to meet customer demand, we may lose sales, we may experience a build-up in inventory, we may incur additional costs, and our financial performance and reporting may be adversely affected. By adding manufacturers in other countries, we may experience increased transportation costs, fuel costs, labor unrest, impact of natural disasters and other adverse effects on our ability, timing and cost of delivering products, which may increase our inventory, decrease our margins, adversely affect our relationships with distributors and other customers and otherwise adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. In addition, any partial or full government-mandated shutdown resulting from COVID-19 may impact or delay our efforts to diversify our supply chain or may cause supply chain disruptions notwithstanding any supply chain diversification efforts.

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We depend on a limited number of third-party components suppliers and logistics providers, and many of our components have long lead times, and our business and operating results could be adversely affected by shortages, disruptions and related challenges.

We are dependent on a limited number of suppliers for various key components used in our products, and we may from time to time have sole source suppliers. The cost, quality and availability of these components are essential to the successful production and sale of our products. We are subject to the risk of industry-wide shortages, price fluctuations and long lead times in the supply of these components and other materials, which risk has been and may continue to be heightened by the impact of COVID-19. If the supply of these components is delayed or constrained, or if one or more of our main suppliers were to go out of business, alternative sources or suppliers may not be available on acceptable terms or at all. In the event that any of our suppliers were to discontinue production of our key product components, developing alternate sources of supply for these components would be time consuming, difficult and costly. In the event we are unable to obtain components in sufficient quantities on a timely basis and on commercially reasonable terms, our ability to sell our products in order to meet market demand would be affected and could materially and adversely affect our brand, image, business prospects and operating results.

In addition, the longer lead time for many of our components presents challenges in our efforts to manage component inventory, as we procure such components based on our then current forecast of demand for our products. During the pandemic, we have also faced the challenge of managing component inventory during periods of fluctuating availability. In particular, many components with longer lead times have experienced shortages during the pandemic and, as a result, during fiscal 2022 we increased our investments in, and purchase commitments for, certain components where possible to secure inventory in anticipation of shortages and strong demand, and we may need to do so again in the future. In the event that actual demand for our products differs from our forecast, we may end up with an excess inventory of components, as we saw in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022, negatively impacting our working capital.

We also use a small number of logistics providers for substantially all our product delivery to both distributors and retailers. If one of these providers were to experience financial difficulties or disruptions in its business, or be subject to closures or other disruptions as a result of COVID-19, our own operations could be adversely affected. Because substantially all of our products are distributed from and into a small number of locations and by a small number of companies, we are susceptible to both isolated and system-wide interruptions caused by events out of our control, including COVID-19 lockdowns. Any disruption to the operations of our distribution facilities could delay product delivery, harm our reputation among our customers and adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

We have limited control over the third-party suppliers and logistics providers on which our business depends. If any of these parties fails to perform its obligations to us, we may be unable to deliver our products to customers in a timely manner. Further, we do not have long-term contracts with all of these parties, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to renew our contracts with them on favorable terms or at all. We may be unable to replace an existing supplier or logistics provider or supplement a provider in the event we experience significantly increased demand. Accordingly, a loss or interruption in the service of any key party could adversely impact our revenue, gross margin and operating results.

We sell our products through a limited number of key channel partners, and the loss of any such channel partner would adversely impact our business.

We are dependent on our channel partners for a vast majority of our product sales. Best Buy, one of our key channel partners, accounted for 15% of our revenue in fiscal 2022. We compete with other consumer products for placement and promotion of our products in the stores of our channel partners, including in some cases products of our channel partners. Our contracts with our channel partners allow them to exercise significant discretion in the placement and promotion of our products, and such contracts do not contain any long-term volume commitments. If one or several of our channel partners do not effectively market and sell our products, discontinue or reduce the inventory of our products, increase the promotions of or choose to promote competing products over ours, the volume of our products sold to customers could decrease, and our business and results of operations would therefore be significantly harmed. Many of our key channel partners temporarily closed or reduced operations in their retail stores at various times during the pandemic and may continue to do so in the future, which has had, and may continue to have, a material effect on our business and results of operations.

Revenue from our channel partners also depends on a number of factors outside our control and may vary from period to period. One or more of our channel partners may experience serious financial difficulty, particularly in light of the impact of the pandemic on the retail sector, may consolidate with other channel partners or may have limited or ceased operations. Our business and results of operations have been, and may continue to be, significantly harmed by retail store closures by many of our key channel partners. Loss of a key channel partner would require us to identify alternative channel partners or increase our reliance on our direct-to-consumer channel, which may be time-consuming and expensive or we may be unsuccessful in our efforts to do so.

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We have and may in the future discontinue support for older versions of our products, resulting in customer dissatisfaction that could negatively affect our business and operating results.

We have historically maintained, and we believe our customers may expect, extensive backward compatibility for our older products and the software that supports them, allowing older products to continue to benefit from new software updates. We expect that as we continue to improve and enhance our software platform, this backward compatibility will no longer be practical or cost-effective, and we may decrease or discontinue service for our older products. For example, certain of our legacy products continue to work but no longer receive software updates (other than bug fixes and patches). To the extent we no longer provide extensive backward capability for our products, we may damage our relationship with our existing customers, as well as our reputation, brand loyalty and ability to attract new customers.

For these reasons, any decision to decrease or discontinue backward capability may decrease sales, generate legal claims and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.

Product quality issues and a higher-than-expected number of warranty claims or returns could harm our business and operating results.

The products that we sell could contain defects in design or manufacture. Defects could also occur in the products or components that are supplied to us. There can be no assurance we will be able to detect and remedy all defects in the hardware and software we sell, which could result in product recalls, product redesign efforts, loss of revenue, reputational damage and significant warranty and other remediation expenses. Similar to other consumer electronics, our products have a risk of overheating and fire in the course of usage or upon malfunction. Any such defect could result in harm to property or in personal injury. If we determine that a product does not meet product quality standards or may contain a defect, the launch of such product could be delayed until we remedy the quality issue or defect. The costs associated with any protracted delay necessary to remedy a quality issue or defect in a new product could be substantial.

We generally provide a one-year warranty on all our products, except in the European Union ("EU") and select other countries where we provide a minimum two-year warranty, depending on the region, on all our products. The occurrence of any material defects in our products could expose us to liability for warranty claims in excess of our current reserves, and we could incur significant costs to correct any defects, warranty claims or other problems. In addition, our failure to comply with past, present and future laws regulating extended warranties and accidental damage coverage could result in reduced sales of our products, reputational damage, penalties and other sanctions, which could harm our business and financial condition.

Our international operations are subject to increased business and economic risks that could impact our financial results.

We have operations outside the United States, and we expect to continue to expand our international presence, especially in Asia. In fiscal 2022, 45% of our revenue was generated outside the United States. This subjects us to a variety of risks inherent in doing business internationally, including:

fluctuations in currency exchange rates and costs of imposing currency exchange controls;
political, social and/or economic instability, including related to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, Russia's invasion of Ukraine and the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the EU, commonly known as "Brexit";
tariffs, trade barriers and duties;
protectionist laws and business practices that favor local businesses in some countries;
higher levels of credit risk and payment fraud and longer payment cycles associated with, and increased difficulty of payment collections from certain international customers;
burdens and risks of complying with a number and variety of foreign laws and regulations, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;
laws and regulations may change from time to time unexpectedly and may be unpredictably enforced;
potential negative consequences from changes in or interpretations of U.S. and foreign tax laws;
the cost of developing connected products for countries where Wi-Fi technology has been passed over in favor of more advanced cellular data networks;
reduced protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
difficulties and associated costs in managing and staffing multiple international locations; and

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delays from customs brokers or government agencies.

If we are unable to manage the complexity of our global operations successfully, or if the risks above become substantial for us, our financial performance and operating results could suffer. Further, any measures that we may implement to reduce risks of our international operations may not be effective, may increase our expenses and may require significant management time and effort. Entry into new international markets requires considerable management time and financial resources related to market, personnel and facilities development before any significant revenue is generated. As a result, initial operations in a new market may operate at low margins or may be unprofitable.

We have significant operations in China, where many of the risks listed above are particularly acute. China experiences high turnover of direct labor due to the intensely competitive and fluid market for labor, and if our labor turnover rates are higher than we expect in that region, or we otherwise fail to adequately manage our labor needs, then our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We will need to improve our financial and operational systems to manage our growth effectively and support our increasingly complex business arrangements, and an inability to do so could harm our business and results of operations.

To manage our growth and our increasingly complex business operations, especially as we move into new markets internationally, we will need to upgrade our operational and financial systems and procedures, which requires management time and may result in significant additional expense. In particular, we replaced our legacy ERP system in order to accommodate our expanding operations. We cannot be certain that we will institute, in a timely or efficient manner or at all, the improvements to our managerial, operational and financial systems and procedures necessary to support our anticipated increased levels of operations. Problems associated with, or disruptions resulting from, any improvement or expansion of our operational and financial systems could adversely affect our relationships with our suppliers, manufacturers, resellers and customers, inhibit our ability to expand or take advantage of market opportunities, cause harm to our reputation, result in errors in our financial and other reporting, and affect our ability to maintain an effective internal control environment and meet our external reporting obligations, any of which could harm our business and operating results and affect our stock price.

A significant disruption in our websites, servers or information technology systems, or those of our third-party partners, could impair our customers’ listening experience or otherwise adversely affect our customers, damage our reputation or harm our business.

As a consumer electronics company, our website and mobile app are important presentations of our business, identity and brand and an important means of interacting with, and providing information to, consumers of our products. We depend on our servers and centralized information technology systems, and those of third parties, for product functionality, to manage operations and to store critical information and intellectual property. Accordingly, we allocate significant resources to maintaining our information technology systems and deploying network security, data encryption, training and other measures to protect against unauthorized access or misuse. Nevertheless, our website and information technology systems, and those of the third parties we rely on, are susceptible to damage, viruses, disruptions or shutdowns due to foreseeable and unforeseeable events. System failures and disruptions could impede the manufacturing and shipping of products, functionality of our products, transactions processing and financial reporting, and result in the loss of intellectual property or data, require substantial repair costs and damage our reputation, competitive position, financial condition and results of operations.

For example, we use Amazon Web Services (“AWS”) to maintain the interconnectivity of our mobile app to our servers and those of the streaming services that our customers access to enjoy our products. Because AWS runs its own platform that we access, we are vulnerable to both system-wide and Sonos-specific service outages at AWS. Our access to AWS’ infrastructure could be limited by a number of potential causes, including technical failures, natural disasters, fraud or security attacks that we cannot predict or prevent.

Additionally, our products may contain flaws that make them susceptible to unauthorized access or use. For example, we previously discovered a vulnerability in our products that could be exploited when a customer visited a website with malicious content, allowing the customer’s local network to be accessed by third parties who could then gain unauthorized access to the customer’s playlists and other data and limited control of the customer’s devices. While we devote significant resources to address and eliminate flaws and other vulnerabilities in our products, there can be no assurance that our products will not be compromised in the future. Any such flaws or vulnerabilities, whether actual or merely potential, could harm our reputation, competitive position, financial condition and results of operations.

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Any cybersecurity breaches or our actual or perceived failure to comply with such legal obligations by us, or by our third-party service providers or partners, could harm our business.

We collect, store, process and use our customers’ personally identifiable information and other data, and we rely on third parties that are not directly under our control to do so as well. While we take measures intended to protect the security, integrity and confidentiality of the personal information and other sensitive information we collect, store or transmit, we cannot guarantee that inadvertent or unauthorized use or disclosure will not occur, or that third parties will not gain unauthorized access to this information. There have been a number of recent reported incidents where third parties have used software to access the personal data of their partners’ customers for marketing and other purposes.

If we or our third-party service providers were to experience a breach, disruption or failure of systems compromising our customers’ data, or if one of our third-party service providers or partners were to access our customers’ personal data without our authorization, our brand and reputation could be adversely affected, use of our products could decrease and we could be exposed to a risk of loss, litigation and regulatory proceedings. In addition, a breach could require expending significant additional resources related to the security of information systems and disrupt our operations.

The use of data by our business and our business associates is highly regulated in all our operating countries. Privacy and information security laws and regulations change, and compliance with them may result in cost increases due to, among other things, systems changes and the development of new processes. If we or those with whom we share information fail to comply with laws and regulations, such as the General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") and California Consumer Privacy Act ("CCPA"), our reputation could be damaged, possibly resulting in lost business, and we could be subjected to additional legal risk or financial losses as a result of non-compliance. Complying with such laws may also require us to modify our data processing practices and policies and incur substantial expenditures.

Changes in how network operators manage data that travels across their networks or in net neutrality rules could harm our business.

We rely upon the ability of consumers to access our service through the internet. If network operators block, restrict or otherwise impair access to our service over their networks, our service and business could be negatively affected. To the extent that network operators implement usage-based pricing, including meaningful bandwidth caps, or otherwise try to monetize access to their networks by data providers, we could incur greater operating expenses. Furthermore, to the extent network operators create tiers of internet access service and either charge us for or prohibit us from being available through these tiers, our business could be negatively impacted.

Further, in the past, internet service providers ("ISPs") have attempted to implement usage-based pricing, bandwidth caps and traffic shaping or throttling. To the extent network operators create tiers of internet access service and charge our customers in direct relation to their consumption of audio content, our ability to attract and retain customers could be impaired, which would harm our business. Net neutrality rules, which were designed to ensure that all online content is treated the same by ISPs and other companies that provide broadband services, were repealed by the Federal Communications Commission ("FCC") effective June 2018. Although the FCC has preempted state jurisdiction over net neutrality, some states have taken executive action directed at reinstating aspects of the FCC’s 2015 order. Further, while many countries, including across the EU, have implemented net neutrality rules, in others, the laws may be nascent or non-existent. The absence or repeal of the net neutrality rules could force us to incur greater operating expenses, cause our streaming partners to seek to shift costs to us or result in a decrease in the streaming-based usage of our platform by our customers, any of which would harm our results of operations. In addition, given uncertainty around these rules, including changing interpretations, amendments or repeal, coupled with potentially significant political and economic power of local network operators, we could experience discriminatory or anti-competitive practices that could impede our growth, cause us to incur additional expense or otherwise negatively affect our business.

Our use of open source software could negatively affect our ability to sell our products and subject us to possible litigation.

We incorporate open source software into our products, and we may continue to incorporate open source software into our products in the future. Open source software is generally licensed by its authors or other third parties under open source licenses. Some of these licenses contain requirements that we make available source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon the open source software and that we license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of a particular open source license or other license granting third parties certain rights of further use. Additionally, if a third-party software provider has incorporated open source software into software that we license from such provider, we could be required to disclose any of our source code that incorporates or is a modification of our licensed software. If an author or other third party that distributes open source software that we use or license were to allege that we had not complied with the conditions of the applicable license, we could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending against those allegations and could be subject to significant damages, enjoined from offering or selling our products

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that contained the open source software and required to comply with the above conditions. Any of the foregoing could disrupt and harm our business and financial condition.

Legal and Regulatory Risks

Changes in international trade policies, including the imposition of tariffs have had, and may continue to have, an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Under the previous administration, the U.S. government has imposed significant new tariffs on China related to the importation of certain product categories, including those under the August 2019 Section 301 Tariff Action (List 4A) ("Section 301 tariffs"). These Section 301 tariffs have increased our cost of revenue and adversely impacted our results of operations. We were able to obtain an exemption from the Section 301 tariffs for certain of our products for a period of time during fiscal 2020 and, for our core speaker products, through the first quarter of fiscal 2021. In March 2022, we obtained an additional exclusion exemption for our core speaker products for the period from October 12, 2021 to December 31, 2022. To date, we have been able to obtain certain refunds on tariffs paid during the fiscal 2020 and fiscal 2021 exemption periods and continue to see outstanding refund requests and corresponding refunds processed for such periods.

In the event that future tariffs are imposed on imports of our products, we do not successfully obtain the remaining refunds to which we are currently entitled, we are not successful in any future exemption requests, the amounts of existing tariffs are increased, our efforts to diversify our supply chain outside of China are delayed or otherwise not successful, or China or other countries take retaliatory trade measures in response to existing or future tariffs, our business may be impacted and we may be required to raise prices or make changes to our operations, any of which could materially harm our revenue or operating results. In response to future new tariffs, we may intensify our efforts to diversify outside of China, resulting in significant costs and disruption to our operations as we would need to pursue the time-consuming processes of recreating new supply chains, identifying substitute components and establishing new manufacturing locations.

We must comply with extensive regulatory requirements, and the cost of such compliance, and any failure to comply, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In our current business and as we expand into new markets and product categories, we must comply with a wide variety of laws, regulations, standards and other requirements governing, among other things, electrical safety, wireless emissions, health and safety, e-commerce, consumer protection, export and import requirements, hazardous materials usage, product related energy consumption, packaging, recycling and environmental matters. Compliance with these laws, regulations, standards and other requirements may be onerous and expensive, and they may be inconsistent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction or change from time to time, further increasing the cost of compliance and doing business. Our products may require regulatory approvals or satisfaction of other regulatory concerns in the various jurisdictions in which they are manufactured, sold or both. These requirements create procurement and design challenges that require us to incur additional costs identifying suppliers and manufacturers who can obtain and produce compliant materials, parts and products. Failure to comply with such requirements can subject us to liability, additional costs and reputational harm and, in extreme cases, force us to recall products or prevent us from selling our products in certain jurisdictions.

We may incur costs in complying with changing tax laws in the United States and abroad, which could adversely impact our cash flow, financial condition and results of operations.

We are a U.S.-based company subject to taxes in multiple U.S. and foreign tax jurisdictions. Our profits, cash flow and effective tax rate could be adversely affected by changes in the tax rules and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we do business, unanticipated changes in statutory tax rates and changes to our global mix of earnings. As we expand our operations, any changes in the U.S. or foreign taxation of such operations may increase our worldwide effective tax rate.

We are also subject to examination by the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") and other tax authorities, including state revenue agencies and foreign governments. If any tax authority disagrees with any position we have taken, our tax liabilities and operating results may be adversely affected. While we regularly assess the likelihood of favorable or unfavorable outcomes resulting from examinations by the IRS and other tax authorities to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes, there can be no assurance that the actual outcome resulting from these examinations will not materially adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the distribution of our products subjects us to numerous complex and often-changing customs regulations. Failure to comply with these systems and regulations could result in the assessment of additional taxes, duties, interest and penalties. There is no assurance that tax and customs authorities agree with our reporting positions and upon audit may assess us additional taxes, duties, interest and penalties. If this occurs and we cannot successfully defend our position, our profitability will be reduced.

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Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.

As of October 1, 2022, we had gross U.S. federal net operating loss carryforwards of $105.8 million, of which $74.7 million have an indefinite life and $31.1 million that expire beginning in 2035, and gross state net operating loss carryforwards of $65.5 million, which expire beginning in 2027, as well as $41.7 million in foreign net operating loss carryforwards with an indefinite life. As of October 1, 2022, we also had U.S. federal research and development tax credit carryforwards of $70.0 million, and state research and development tax credit carryforwards of $48.1 million, which will expire beginning in 2025 and 2024, respectively. Because of the change of ownership provisions of Sections 382 and 383 of the Code, use of a portion of the Company's domestic net operating losses and tax credit carryforwards may be limited in future periods depending upon future changes in ownership. Further, a portion of the carryforwards may expire before being applied to reduce future income tax liabilities if sufficient taxable income is not generated in future periods.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

The stock price of our common stock has been and may continue to be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance.

The stock price of our common stock has been and may continue to be volatile. The stock price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly in response to numerous factors in addition to the ones described in the preceding Risk Factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

overall performance of the equity markets and the economy as a whole;
changes in the financial projections we or third parties may provide to the public or our failure to meet these projections;
actual or anticipated changes in our growth rate relative to that of our competitors;
announcements of new products, or of acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital-raising activities or commitments, by us or by our competitors;
additions or departures of key personnel;
failure of securities analysts to maintain coverage of us, changes in financial estimates by any securities analysts who follow our company or our failure to meet these estimates or the expectations of investors;
rumors and market speculation involving us or other companies in our industry;
sales of shares of our common stock by us or our stockholders particularly sales by our directors, executive officers and significant stockholders, or the perception that these sales could occur; and
additional stock issuances that result in significant dilution to shareholders.

In addition, the stock market with respect to companies in the technology industry has experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the stock prices of these companies. In the past, stockholders have instituted securities class action litigation following periods of market volatility. If we were to become involved in securities litigation, it could subject us to substantial costs, divert resources and the attention of management from our business and adversely affect our business.

We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock, and we do not intend to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We anticipate that we will retain all our future earnings for use in the development of our business and for general corporate purposes. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of the Board. Accordingly, investors must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation, which may never occur, as the only way to realize any future gains on their investments. In addition, the terms of our credit facilities contain restrictions on our ability to declare and pay cash dividends on our capital stock.

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Certain provisions in our corporate charter documents and under Delaware law may prevent or hinder attempts by our stockholders to change our management or to acquire a controlling interest in us.

There are provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws that may make it difficult for a third party to acquire, or attempt to acquire, control of our company, even if a change in control were considered favorable by our stockholders. These anti-takeover provisions include:

a classified Board so that not all members of the Board are elected at one time;
the ability of the Board to determine the number of directors and fill any vacancies and newly created directorships;
a requirement that our directors may only be removed for cause;
a prohibition on cumulative voting for directors;
the requirement of a super-majority to amend some provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws;
authorization of the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock that the Board could use to implement a stockholder rights plan;
an inability of our stockholders to call special meetings of stockholders; and
a prohibition on stockholder actions by written consent, thereby requiring that all stockholder actions be taken at a meeting of our stockholders.

In addition, our restated certificate of incorporation provides that the Delaware Court of Chancery is the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the Delaware General Corporation Law (the "DGCL"), our restated certificate of incorporation or our restated bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our restated certificate of incorporation also provides that the federal district courts of the United States will be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

Further, Section 203 of the DGCL may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company. Section 203 imposes certain restrictions on mergers, business combinations, and other transactions between us and holders of 15% or more of our common stock.

General Risk Factors

The loss of one or more of our key personnel, or our failure to attract, assimilate and retain other highly qualified personnel in the future, could harm our business.

We depend on the continued services and performance of our key personnel. The loss of key personnel, including key members of management as well as our product development, marketing, sales and technology personnel, could disrupt our operations and have an adverse effect on our ability to grow our business. In addition, the loss of key personnel in our finance and accounting departments could harm our internal controls, financial reporting capability and capacity to forecast and plan for future growth. Further, the market for highly skilled workers and leaders in our industry is extremely competitive. If we do not succeed in attracting, hiring and integrating high-quality personnel or in retaining and motivating existing personnel, we may be unable to grow effectively, and our financial condition may be harmed.

Natural disasters, geopolitical unrest, war, terrorism, pandemics, public health issues or other catastrophic events could disrupt the supply, delivery or demand of products, which could negatively affect our operations and performance.

We are subject to the risk of disruption by earthquakes, floods and other natural disasters, fire, power shortages, geopolitical unrest, war, including Russia's invasion of Ukraine, terrorist attacks and other hostile acts, public health issues, epidemics or pandemics, including COVID-19, and other events beyond our control and the control of the third parties on which we depend. Any of these catastrophic events, whether in the United States or abroad, may have a strong negative impact on the global economy, us, our contract manufacturers, our suppliers or customers, and could decrease demand for our products, create delays and inefficiencies in our supply chain and make it difficult or impossible for us to deliver products to our customers. Further, our headquarters are located in Santa Barbara, California, in a seismically active region that is also prone to forest fires. Any catastrophic event that occurred near our headquarters, or near our manufacturing facilities in China or Malaysia, could impose significant damage to our ability to conduct our

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business and could require substantial recovery time, which could have an adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

We may need additional capital, and we cannot be certain that additional financing will be available.

In October 2021, we entered into a credit agreement with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., Bank of America N.A., Morgan Stanley Senior Funding, Inc., and Goldman Sachs Bank USA, which allows us to borrow up to $100.0 million, with a maturity date of October 2026. We may require additional equity or debt financing to fund our operations and capital expenditures. Our ability to obtain financing will depend, among other things, on our development efforts, business plans, operating performance and the condition of the capital markets at the time we seek financing. We cannot assure you that additional financing will be available to us on favorable terms if and when required, or at all.

We have and may in the future acquire other businesses or receive offers to be acquired, which could require significant management attention, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our operating results.

As part of our business strategy, we have and may in the future make investments in complementary businesses, products, services or technologies. These acquisitions and other transactions and arrangements involve significant challenges and risks, including not advancing our business strategy, receiving an unsatisfactory return on our investment, difficulty integrating and retaining new employees, business systems, and technology, or distracting management from our other business initiatives. If an arrangement fails to adequately anticipate changing circumstances and interests of a party, it may result in early termination or renegotiation of the arrangement. The success of these transactions and arrangements will depend in part on our ability to leverage them to enhance our existing products or develop compelling new ones. It may take longer than expected to realize the full benefits from these transactions and arrangements such as increased revenue or enhanced efficiencies, or the benefits may ultimately be smaller than we expected. These events could adversely affect our consolidated financial statements.

If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls in the future, we may experience a loss of investor confidence and an adverse impact to our stock price.

Pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we are required to document and test our internal control procedures and to provide a report by management on internal control over financial reporting, including management’s assessment of the effectiveness of such control. We previously reported and remediated material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting. Completion of remediation does not provide assurance that our remediation or other controls will continue to operate properly. If we are unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures, our ability to record, process and report financial information accurately, and to prepare consolidated financial statements within required time periods could be adversely affected, which could subject us to litigation or investigations requiring management resources and payment of legal and other expenses, negatively affect investor confidence in our consolidated financial statements and adversely impact our stock price.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

We are a global company with our corporate headquarters located in Santa Barbara, California. We lease office space in Santa Barbara, as well as offices in various locations in the U.S. and around the world. We believe our existing facilities are adequate to meet our current requirements.

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Item 3. Legal Proceedings

From time to time, we may become involved in legal proceedings or be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. Other than the matters described in Note 13. Commitments and Contingencies of the notes to our consolidated financial statements included in Part II. Item 8 of this Annual Report, we were not a party to any legal proceedings that in the opinion of our management, if determined adversely to us, would individually or taken together have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition or cash flows. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources, and other factors.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

None.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

Market Information for Our Common Stock

Shares of our common stock trade on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “SONO.”

 

Holders of Record

As of November 7, 2022, there were 1,638 holders of record of our common stock. This figure does not include a substantially greater number of beneficial holders of our common stock whose shares are held of record by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.

Dividend Policy

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock, and we do not currently intend to pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. We expect to retain future earnings, if any, to fund the development and growth of our business. Any future determination to pay dividends on our common stock will be made at the discretion of the Board and will depend upon, among other factors, our financial condition, operating results, current and anticipated cash needs, plans for expansion and other factors that the Board may deem relevant. In addition, the terms of our credit facilities contain restrictions on our ability to declare and pay cash dividends on our capital stock.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The following table presents information with respect to our repurchase of common stock during the quarter ended October 1, 2022.

 

Period

 

Total Number of Shares Purchased (1)

 

 

Average Price Paid per Share

 

 

Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs

 

 

Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
(in thousands)

 

Jul 3 - Jul 30

 

 

483,797

 

 

$

19.68

 

 

 

483,797

 

 

$

23,374

 

Jul 31 - Aug 27

 

 

1,444,900

 

 

$

16.24

 

 

 

1,444,900

 

 

$

 

Aug 28 - Oct 1

 

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

 

$

 

Total

 

 

1,928,697

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,928,697

 

 

 

 

 

(1)
In November 2021, the Board of Directors authorized a common stock repurchase program of up to $150.0 million; as of October 1, 2022, we had fully utilized the amount available under this common stock repurchase program. Over the past three fiscal years, we have completed $250.0 million in share repurchases, for 11,760,762 shares, at an average price of $21.26 per share. See Note 8. Stockholders' Equity of the notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information. We also withhold shares of common stock in connection with the vesting of restricted stock unit awards issued to such employees to satisfy applicable tax withholding requirements. Although these withheld shares are not issued or considered common stock repurchases under our stock repurchase program and therefore are not included in the preceding table, they are treated as common stock repurchases in our consolidated financial statements as they reduce the number of shares that would have been issued upon vesting.

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Stock Performance Graph

img240567566_0.jpg 

 

 

 

September 28,
2018

 

 

September 27,
2019

 

 

October 2,
2020

 

 

October 1,
2021

 

 

September 30,
2022

 

Sonos, Inc.

 

$

80.56

 

 

$

67.86

 

 

$

77.85

 

 

$

162.03

 

 

$

69.81

 

Nasdaq composite index

 

$

103.34

 

 

$

103.11

 

 

$

141.94

 

 

$

192.31

 

 

$

135.54

 

S&P 500

 

$

103.43

 

 

$

107.29

 

 

$

118.44

 

 

$

163.28

 

 

$

126.82

 

 

Item 6. [Reserved]

 

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, particularly in the section titled "Risk Factors."

We operate on a 52-week or 53-week fiscal year ending on the Saturday nearest September 30 each year. Our fiscal year is divided into four quarters of 13 weeks, each beginning on a Sunday and containing two 4-week periods followed by a 5-week period. An additional week is included in the fourth fiscal quarter approximately every five years to realign fiscal quarters with calendar quarters. References to fiscal 2022 are to our 52-week fiscal year ended October 1, 2022, references to fiscal 2021 are to our 52-week fiscal year ended October 2, 2021, references to fiscal 2020 are to our 53-week fiscal year ended October 3, 2020.

Overview

Sonos is one of the world's leading sound experience brands.

We pioneered multi-room, wireless audio products, debuting the world’s first multi-room wireless sound system in 2005. Today, our products include wireless, portable, and home theater speakers, components, and accessories to address consumers’ evolving audio needs. We are known for delivering unparalleled sound, thoughtful design aesthetic, simplicity of use, and an open platform. Our platform has attracted a broad range of more than 130 streaming content providers, such as Apple Music, Spotify, Deezer, and Pandora. These partners find value in our independent platform and access to our millions of desirable and engaged customers. We frequently introduce new services and features across our platform, providing our customers with enhanced functionality, improved sound, and an enriched user experience. We are committed to continuous technological innovation as reflected in our growing global patent portfolio. We believe our patents comprise the foundational intellectual property for wireless multi-room and other audio technologies.

Our innovative products, seamless customer experience and expanding global footprint have driven 17 consecutive years of sustained revenue growth since our first product launch. We generate revenue from the sale of our Sonos speaker products, including wireless speakers and home theater speakers, from our Sonos system products, which largely comprises our component products, and from partner products and other revenue, including partnerships with IKEA and Sonance, Sonos and third-party accessories, licensing, and advertising revenue.

We have developed a robust product and software roadmap that we believe will help us capture the expanding addressable market for our products. We believe executing on our roadmap will position us to acquire new customers, offer a continuously improving experience to our existing customers, and grow follow-on purchases.

Recent developments

The impacts of, and uncertainty related to, the COVID-19 pandemic and its expected duration persist. Developments continue to occur, relating to the emergence of new variants of the virus, outbreaks, and resulting lockdowns globally. COVID-19 has affected our supply chain, consistent with its effect across many industries, including component supply-related challenges, inflationary pressures, port congestion and the continuing impacts of lockdowns in China. We began to see recovery in supply for some of our products, while supply chain constraints resulted in delayed product availability for certain products. As a result of these broader industry-wide supply chain challenges, in fiscal 2022, we experienced increased component costs, and increased shipping and logistics costs, as well as longer lead times.

More recently, macroeconomic trends have led to uncertainty in the economic environment. These include conditions such as the potential for a recession, foreign exchange rate fluctuations - particularly the strengthening of the U.S. dollar relative to the euro and the British pound, high inflation and the related negative impact on the global economy, and the continuing conflict between Russia and Ukraine. Foreign exchange rate fluctuations had an unfavorable impact on revenue for the second half of fiscal 2022, primarily due to the strength of the U.S. dollar relative to the euro and the British pound. These trends, as well as a shift in consumer spending from purchasing goods to purchasing services, led to softening demand in the second half of fiscal 2022. The falloff in demand resulted in an increase in our component supply and inventory as we had previously increased our investments and purchase commitments to secure inventory for long lead-time components during what had been a period of constrained availability and strong demand. We continue to work with our contract manufacturing partners to actively manage the impact of industry-wide supply chain challenges, including fluctuations in component availability and consumer demand. The extent to which our business, or the business of our suppliers or manufacturers, will be impacted in the future is unknown.

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For additional information, refer to Part I, Item 1A. Risk factors.

Key Metrics

In addition to the measures presented in our consolidated financial statements, we use the following key metrics to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business and assist us in making strategic decisions. Our key metrics are total revenue, products sold, adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin. The most directly comparable financial measure calculated under U.S. GAAP for adjusted EBITDA is net income (loss). In the fiscal years ended October 1, 2022 and October 2, 2021, we had net income of $67.4 million and $158.6 million, respectively and in the fiscal year ended October 3, 2020, we had a net loss of $20.1 million.

 

 

 

Fiscal Year Ended

 

 

 

October 1,
2022

 

 

October 2,
2021

 

 

October 3,
2020

 

(In thousands, except percentages)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue

 

$

1,752,336

 

 

$

1,716,744

 

 

$

1,326,328

 

Products sold

 

 

6,281

 

 

 

6,503

 

 

 

5,806

 

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

 

$

226,549

 

 

$

278,585

 

 

$

108,543

 

Adjusted EBITDA margin(1)

 

 

12.9

%

 

 

16.2

%

 

 

8.2

%

 

(1)
For additional information regarding adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin (which are non-GAAP financial measures), including reconciliations of net income (loss), to adjusted EBITDA, see the sections titled "Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin" and "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" below.

Revenue

We generate substantially all of our revenue from the sale of Sonos speakers and Sonos system products. We also generate a portion of revenue from Partner products and other revenue sources, such as module revenue from our IKEA partnership, architectural speakers from our Sonance partnership, accessories such as speaker stands and wall mounts, professional services, licensing, and advertising revenue.

For a description of our revenue recognition policies, see the section titled "Critical accounting policies and estimates."

Products Sold

Products sold represents the number of products that are sold during a period, net of returns and includes the sale of products in the Sonos speakers and Sonos system products categories, as well as module units sold through our partnerships with IKEA and Sonance from our Partner products and other revenue category. Growth rates between products sold and revenue are not perfectly correlated because our revenue is affected by other variables, such as the mix of products sold during the period, promotional discount activity, the introduction of new products that may have higher or lower than average selling prices, as well as the impact of recognition of previously deferred revenue.

Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin

We define adjusted EBITDA as net income (loss) adjusted to exclude the impact of stock-based compensation expense, depreciation, interest, other income (expense), taxes, and other items that we do not consider representative of our underlying operating performance.

We define adjusted EBITDA margin as adjusted EBITDA divided by revenue. See the section titled "Results of Operations —Non-GAAP Financial Measures" for information regarding our use of adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin, and a reconciliation of net income (loss) to adjusted EBITDA.

Components of Results of Operations

Revenue

We generate substantially all of our revenue from the sale of Sonos speakers and Sonos system products. We also generate a portion of revenue from Partner products and other revenue sources, such as module revenue from our IKEA partnership, architectural speakers from our Sonance partnership, and accessories such as speaker stands and wall mounts, as well as professional services,

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licensing, advertising, and subscription revenue. We attribute revenue from our IKEA partnership to our Asia Pacific ("APAC") region, as our regional revenue is defined by the shipment location. Our revenue is recognized net of allowances for returns, discounts, sales incentives, and any taxes collected from customers. We also defer a portion of our revenue that is allocated to unspecified software upgrades and cloud-based services, as well as for newly launched products sold to resellers not recognized until the date of general availability is reached. Our revenue is subject to fluctuation based on the foreign currency in which our products are sold, principally for sales denominated in the euro and the British pound. The introduction of new products may result in an increase in revenue but may also impact revenue generated from existing products as consumers shift purchases to new products.

For a description of our revenue recognition policies, see the section titled "Critical accounting policies and estimates."

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue consists of product costs, including costs of our contract manufacturers for production, components, shipping and handling, tariffs, duty costs, warranty replacement costs, packaging, fulfillment costs, manufacturing and tooling equipment depreciation, warehousing costs, hosting costs, and excess and obsolete inventory write-downs. It also includes licensing costs, such as royalties to third parties, and attributable amortization of acquired developed technology. In addition, we allocate certain costs related to management and facilities, personnel-related expenses, and supply chain logistic costs. Personnel-related expenses consist of salaries, bonuses, benefits, and stock-based compensation expenses.

Gross Profit and Gross Margin

Our gross margin has fluctuated and may, in the future, fluctuate from period to period based on a number of factors, including the mix of products we sell, the channel mix through which we sell our products, fluctuations of the impacts of our product and material cost saving initiatives, the foreign currency in which our products are sold, and tariffs and duty costs implemented by governmental authorities.

Operating Expenses

Operating expenses consist of research and development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses.

Research and development. Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel-related expenses, consulting and contractor expenses, tooling, test equipment, prototype materials, and related overhead costs. To date, software development costs have been expensed as incurred because the period between achieving technological feasibility and the release of the software has been short and development costs qualifying for capitalization have been insignificant.

Sales and marketing. Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of advertising and marketing activity for our products and personnel-related expenses, as well as trade show and event costs, sponsorship costs, consulting and contractor expenses, travel costs, depreciation for product displays, as well as related maintenance and repair expenses, customer experience and technology support tool expenses, revenue related sales fees from our direct-to-consumer business, and overhead costs.

General and administrative. General and administrative expenses consist of personnel-related expenses for our finance, legal, human resources and administrative personnel, as well as the costs of professional services, information technology, litigation, patents, related overhead, and other administrative expenses.

Other Income (Expense), Net

Interest income. Interest income consists primarily of interest income earned on our cash and cash equivalents balances.

Interest expense. Interest expense consists primarily of interest expense associated with our debt financing arrangements and amortization of debt issuance costs.

Other income (expense), net. Other income (expense), net consists primarily of our foreign currency exchange gains and losses relating to transactions and remeasurement of asset and liability balances denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. We expect our foreign currency gains and losses to continue to fluctuate in the future due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates.

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Table of contents

Provision for (Benefit From) Income Taxes

We are subject to income taxes in the United States and foreign jurisdictions in which we operate. Foreign jurisdictions have statutory tax rates different from those in the United States. Accordingly, our effective tax rate will vary depending on jurisdictional mix of earnings, and changes in tax laws. In addition, certain U.S. tax regulations subject the earnings of our non-U.S. subsidiaries to current taxation in the United States. Our effective tax rate will be impacted by our ability to claim deductions and foreign tax credits to offset the taxation of foreign earnings in the United States.

Deferred income taxes reflect the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes. A valuation allowance is provided to reduce our deferred tax assets to amounts that are more-likely-than-not to be realized. We have assessed, on a jurisdictional basis, the available means of recovering deferred tax assets, including the ability to carry back net operating losses, the existence of taxable temporary differences, the availability of tax planning strategies and available sources of future taxable income. We have concluded that future taxable income can be considered a source of income to realize a benefit for deferred tax assets in certain foreign jurisdictions. In addition, we have concluded that a valuation allowance on deferred tax assets in the U.S. continues to be appropriate considering cumulative pre-tax losses in recent years and uncertainty with respect to future taxable income.

It is possible that in the foreseeable future there may be sufficient positive evidence to release a portion or all of the remaining valuation allowance. Release of the remaining valuation allowance would result in a benefit to income tax expense for the period the release is recorded, which could have a material impact on net earnings. The timing and amount of the potential valuation allowance release are subject to significant management judgment, as well as prospective earnings in the United States.

Results of Operations

The consolidated statements of operations data for fiscal years 2022, 2021, and 2020, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of October 1, 2022, and October 2, 2021, are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements appearing in Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The consolidated statements of operations data for fiscal years 2019, and 2018, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of October 3, 2020, September 28, 2019, and September 29, 2018, are derived from audited consolidated financial statements not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in any future period.

 

 

 

Fiscal Year Ended

 

 

 

October 1,
2022

 

 

October 2,
2021

 

 

October 3,
2020

 

 

September 28,
2019

 

 

September 29,
2018
(4)

 

(In thousands, except share and per share amounts and percentages)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue

 

$

1,752,336

 

 

$

1,716,744

 

 

$

1,326,328

 

 

$

1,260,823

 

 

$

1,137,008

 

Cost of revenue (1)

 

 

955,969

 

 

 

906,750

 

 

 

754,372

 

 

 

733,480

 

 

 

647,700

 

Gross profit

 

 

796,367

 

 

 

809,994

 

 

 

571,956

 

 

 

527,343

 

 

 

489,308

 

Operating expenses

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development (1)

 

 

256,073

 

 

 

230,078

 

 

 

214,672

 

 

 

171,174

 

 

 

142,109

 

Sales and marketing (1)

 

 

280,333

 

 

 

272,124

 

 

 

263,539

 

 

 

247,599

 

 

 

270,869

 

General and administrative (1)

 

 

170,429

 

 

 

152,828

 

 

 

120,978

 

 

 

102,871

 

 

 

85,205

 

Total operating expenses

 

 

706,835

 

 

 

655,030

 

 

 

599,189

 

 

 

521,644

 

 

 

498,183

 

Operating income (loss)

 

 

89,532

 

 

 

154,964

 

 

 

(27,233

)

 

 

5,699

 

 

 

(8,875

)

Other income (expense), net

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income

 

 

1,655

 

 

 

146

 

 

 

1,998

 

 

 

4,349

 

 

 

731

 

Interest expense

 

 

(552

)

 

 

(592

)

 

 

(1,487

)

 

 

(2,499

)

 

 

(5,242

)

Other income (expense), net

 

 

(21,905

)

 

 

2,407

 

 

 

6,639

 

 

 

(8,625

)

 

 

(1,162

)

Total other income (expense), net

 

 

(20,802

)

 

 

1,961

 

 

 

7,150

 

 

 

(6,775

)

 

 

(5,673

)

Income (loss) before provision for (benefit from) income taxes

 

 

68,730

 

 

 

156,925

 

 

 

(20,083

)

 

 

(1,076

)

 

 

(14,548

)

Provision for (benefit from) income taxes

 

 

1,347

 

 

 

(1,670

)

 

 

32

 

 

 

3,690

 

 

 

1,056

 

Net income (loss)

 

$

67,383

 

 

$

158,595

 

 

$

(20,115

)

 

$

(4,766

)

 

$

(15,604

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:⁽²⁾

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$

0.53

 

 

$

1.30

 

 

$

(0.18

)

 

$

(0.05

)

 

$

(0.24

)

Diluted

 

$

0.49

 

 

$

1.13

 

 

$

(0.18

)

 

$

(0.05

)

 

$

(0.24

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted-average shares used in computing net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders:⁽²⁾

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

 

127,691,030

 

 

 

122,245,212

 

 

 

109,807,154

 

 

 

103,783,006

 

 

 

65,706,215

 

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Table of contents

Diluted

 

 

137,762,078

 

 

 

140,309,152

 

 

 

109,807,154

 

 

 

103,783,006

 

 

 

65,706,215

 

Other Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Products sold(5)

 

 

6,281

 

 

 

6,503

 

 

 

5,806

 

 

 

6,204

 

 

 

5,165

 

Adjusted EBITDA (3)

 

$

226,549

 

 

$

278,585

 

 

$

108,543

 

 

$

88,689

 

 

$

69,128

 

Adjusted EBITDA margin (3)

 

 

12.9

%

 

 

16.2

%

 

 

8.2

%

 

 

7.0

%

 

 

6.1

%

 

(1)
Stock-based compensation was allocated as follows:

 

 

 

Fiscal Year Ended

 

 

 

October 1,
2022

 

 

October 2,
2021

 

 

October 3,
2020

 

 

September 28,
2019

 

 

September 29,
2018

 

(In thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of revenue

 

$

1,620

 

 

$

988

 

 

$

1,106

 

 

$

985

 

 

$

198

 

Research and development

 

 

30,724

 

 

 

25,075

 

 

 

23,439

 

 

 

17,643

 

 

 

13,960

 

Sales and marketing

 

 

15,335

 

 

 

13,570

 

 

 

14,359

 

 

 

12,965

 

 

 

15,885

 

General and administrative

 

 

27,961

 

 

 

22,494

 

 

 

18,706

 

 

 

14,982

 

 

 

8,602

 

Total stock-based compensation expense

 

$

75,640

 

 

$

62,127

 

 

$

57,610

 

 

$

46,575

 

 

$

38,645

 

 

(2)
See Note 11. Net Income (Loss) Per Share Attributable to Common Stockholders of the notes to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for an explanation of the calculations of our net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted.
(3)
Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA margin are financial measures that are not calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP. See the section titled "—Non-GAAP Financial Measures" below for information regarding our use of these non-GAAP financial measures and a reconciliation of net income (loss) to adjusted EBITDA.
(4)
Reflects the impact of the adoption of new accounting standard in fiscal year 2018 related to revenue recognition.
(5)
Products sold for the fiscal years 2019 and 2018 have been recast to reflect the change in product revenue categorization.

 

 

 

As of

 

 

 

October 1,
2022