Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Sasol
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$33.76 625 $21,090
20-F 2018-06-30 Annual: 2018-06-30
20-F 2017-06-30 Annual: 2017-06-30
20-F 2016-06-30 Annual: 2016-06-30
HES Hess 20,090
CCK Crown Holdings 7,570
AIV Apartment Investment & Management 7,350
STOR Store Capital 7,100
ARES Ares Management 2,460
IMGN Immunogen 405
SOHO Sotherly Hotels 97
AUTO Autoweb 45
SGLDF Shoal Games 0
RCHA Rich Pharmaceuticals 0
SSL 2018-06-30
Item 17 o Item 18 o
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Item 4. Information on The Company
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 8. Financial Information
Item 9. The Offer and Listing
Item 10. Additional Information
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds
Item 15. Controls and Procedures
Item 16.A Audit Committee Financial Expert
Item 16.B Code of Conduct
Item 16.C Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 16.D Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16.E Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16.F Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant
Item 16.G Corporate Governance
Item 16.H Mine Safety Disclosure
Item 17. Financial Statements
Item 18. Financial Statements
Item 19. Exhibits
EX-1.1 a2236404zex-1_1.htm
EX-4.1 a2236404zex-4_1.htm
EX-4.4 a2236404zex-4_4.htm
EX-8.1 a2236404zex-8_1.htm
EX-12.1 a2236404zex-12_1.htm
EX-12.2 a2236404zex-12_2.htm
EX-13.1 a2236404zex-13_1.htm
EX-13.2 a2236404zex-13_2.htm
EX-15.2 a2236404zex-15_2.htm
EX-99.1 a2236404zex-99_1.htm
EX-99.2 a2236404zex-99_2.htm
EX-99.3 a2236404zex-99_3.htm
EX-99.4 a2236404zex-99_4.htm
EX-99.5 a2236404zex-99_5.htm
EX-99.6 a2236404zex-99_6.htm
EX-99.7 a2236404zex-99_7.htm
EX-99.8 a2236404zex-99_8.htm
EX-99.9 a2236404zex-99_9.htm
EX-99.9.1 a2236404zex-99_91.htm
EX-99.9.2 a2236404zex-99_92.htm

Sasol Earnings 2018-06-30

SSL 20F Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

20-F 1 a2236404z20-f.htm 20-F

Use these links to rapidly review the document
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on 27 August 2018


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549



FORM 20-F


o

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ý

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934—for the year ended 30 June 2018

OR

o

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

o

 

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number: 001-31615

Sasol Limited
(Exact name of registrant as Specified in its Charter)

Republic of South Africa
(Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organisation)

Sasol Place, 50 Katherine Street, Sandton, 2196
South Africa

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Paul Victor, Chief Financial Officer, Tel. No. +27 10 344 7896, Email paul.victor@sasol.com
Sasol Place, 50 Katherine Street, Sandton, 2196, South Africa

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)



Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class   Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
American Depositary Shares   New York Stock Exchange
Ordinary Shares of no par value*   New York Stock Exchange
4,50% Notes due 2022 issued by Sasol Financing International Limited   New York Stock Exchange
*
Listed on the New York Stock Exchange not for trading or quotation purposes, but only in connection with the registration of American Depositary Shares pursuant to the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission.



Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act: None



            Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer's classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the
annual report:
623 081 550 Sasol ordinary shares of no par value
16 085 199 Sasol preferred ordinary shares of no par value
6 394 179 Sasol BEE ordinary shares of no par value



            Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý    No o

            If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes o    No ý

            Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý    No o

            Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232 405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes o    No o

            Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large accelerated filer ý   Accelerated filer o   Non-accelerated filer o   Emerging growth company o

            If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

The term "new or revised financial accounting standard" refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

            Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

U.S. GAAP o   International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
by the International Accounting Standards Board ý
  Other o

            If "Other" has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17 o    Item 18 o

            If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o    No ý

   


Table of Contents


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
   
  Page  

ITEM 1.

  IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS     6  

ITEM 2.

 

OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

   
6
 

ITEM 3.

 

KEY INFORMATION

   
6
 

ITEM 4.

 

INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

   
27
 

ITEM 4A.

 

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

   
58
 

ITEM 5.

 

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

   
58
 

ITEM 6.

 

DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

   
75
 

ITEM 7.

 

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

   
76
 

ITEM 8.

 

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

   
77
 

ITEM 9.

 

THE OFFER AND LISTING

   
77
 

ITEM 10.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

   
78
 

ITEM 11.

 

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

   
92
 

ITEM 12.

 

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

   
93
 

ITEM 13.

 

DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

   
94
 

ITEM 14.

 

MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

   
94
 

ITEM 15.

 

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

   
94
 

ITEM 16A.

 

AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

   
95
 

ITEM 16B.

 

CODE OF ETHICS

   
95
 

ITEM 16C.

 

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

   
95
 

ITEM 16D.

 

EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

   
96
 

ITEM 16E.

 

PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

   
97
 

ITEM 16F.

 

CHANGE IN REGISTRANT'S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

   
97
 

ITEM 16G.

 

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

   
97
 

ITEM 16H.

 

MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

   
97
 

ITEM 17.

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

   
97
 

ITEM 18.

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

   
98
 

ITEM 19.

 

EXHIBITS

   
H-1
 

LOCATION MAPS

   
M-1
 

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PRESENTATION OF INFORMATION

        We are incorporated in the Republic of South Africa as a public company under South African company law. Our audited consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).

        As used in this Form 20-F:

    "rand" or "R" means the currency of the Republic of South Africa;

    "US dollars", "dollars", "US$" or "$" means the currency of the United States (US);

    "euro", "EUR" or "€" means the common currency of the member states of the European Monetary Union; and

    "CAD" means Canadian dollar, the currency of Canada.

        We present our financial information in rand, which is our reporting currency. Solely for your convenience, this Form 20-F contains translations of certain rand amounts into US dollars at specified rates as at and for the year ended 30 June 2018. These rand amounts do not represent actual US dollar amounts, nor could they necessarily have been converted into US dollars at the rates indicated.

All references in this Form 20-F to "years" refer to the financial years ended on 30 June. Any reference to a calendar year is prefaced by the word "calendar".

        Besides applying barrels (b or bbl) and standard cubic feet (scf) for reporting oil and gas reserves and production, Sasol applies the Système International (SI) metric measures for all global operations. A ton, or tonne, denotes one metric ton equivalent to 1 000 kilograms (kg). Sasol's reference to metric tons should not be confused with an imperial ton equivalent to 2 240 pounds (or about 1 016 kg). Barrels per day, or bpd, or bbl/d, is used to refer to our oil and gas production.

        In addition, in line with a South African convention under the auspices of the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS), the information presented herein is displayed using

the decimal comma (e.g., 3,5) instead of the more familiar decimal point (e.g., 3.5) used in the UK, US and elsewhere. Similarly, a hard space is used to distinguish thousands in numeric figures (e.g., 2 500) instead of a comma (e.g., 2,500).

        All references to the "group", "us", "we", "our", "company", or "Sasol" in this Form 20-F are to Sasol Limited, its group of subsidiaries and its interests in associates, joint arrangements and structured entities. All references in this Form 20-F are to Sasol Limited or the companies comprising the group, as the context may require. All references to "(Pty) Ltd" refers to Proprietary Limited, a form of corporation in South Africa which restricts the right of transfer of its shares and prohibits the public offering of its shares.

        All references in this Form 20-F to "South Africa" and "the government" are to the Republic of South Africa and its government. All references to the "JSE" are to the JSE Limited or Johannesburg Stock Exchange, the securities exchange of our primary listing. All references to "SARB" refer to the South African Reserve Bank. All references to "PPI" and "CPI" refer to the South African Producer Price Index and Consumer Price Index, respectively, which are measures of inflation in South Africa. All references to "GTL" and "CTL" refer to our gas-to-liquids and coal-to-liquids processes, respectively.

        Unless otherwise stated, presentation of financial information in this annual report on Form 20-F will be in terms of IFRS. Our discussion of business segment results follows the basis used by the Joint Presidents and Chief Executive Officers (the company's chief operating decision makers) for segmental financial decisions, resource allocation and performance assessment, which forms the accounting basis for segmental reporting, that is disclosed to the investing and reporting public.

        "Financial Review" means the Integrated Report—Financial Review included in Exhibit 99.3.

        "Headline earnings per share (HEPS)" refers to disclosure made in terms of the JSE listing requirements.

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        "Core headline earnings per share (CHEPS)" refers to a disclosure based on HEPS above, calculated by adjusting headline earnings with once-off items, period close adjustments and depreciation and amortisation of significant capital projects exceeding four billion rand which have reached beneficial operation and are still ramping up and share-based payments on implementation of Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (B-BBEE) transactions. Period close adjustments in relation to the valuation of our derivatives at period end is to remove

volatility from earnings as these instruments are valued using forward curves and other market factors at the reporting date and could vary from period to period. We believe core headline earnings are a useful measure of the group's sustainable operating performance. However, this is not a defined term under IFRS and may not be comparable with similarly titled measures reported by other companies.

        "EBIT" refers to earnings before interest and tax.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

        We may from time to time make written or oral forward-looking statements, including in this Form 20-F, in other filings with the US Securities and Exchange Commission, in reports to shareholders and in other communications. These statements may relate to analyses and other information which are based on forecasts of future results and estimates of amounts not yet determinable. These statements may also relate to our future prospects, developments and business strategies. Examples of such forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:

    the capital cost of our projects (including material, engineering and construction cost) and the timing of project milestones;

    our ability to obtain financing to meet the funding requirements of our capital investment programme, as well as to fund our on-going business activities and to pay dividends;

    changes in the demand for and international prices of crude oil, gas, petroleum and chemical products and changes in foreign currency exchange rates;

    statements regarding our future results of operations and financial condition and regarding future economic performance including cost-containment and cash-conservation programmes;

    statements regarding recent and proposed accounting pronouncements and their impact on our future results of operations and financial condition;

    statements of our business strategy, business performance outlook, plans, objectives or goals, including those related to products or services;

    statements regarding future competition, volume growth and changes in market share in the industries and markets for our products;

    statements regarding our existing or anticipated investments (including the

      Lake Charles Chemicals Project, Mozambique exploration and development activities, the GTL joint ventures in Qatar and Nigeria, chemical projects and joint arrangements in North America and other investments), acquisitions of new businesses or the disposal of existing businesses, including estimates or projections of internal rates of return (IRR) and future profitability;

    statements regarding our estimated oil, gas and coal reserves;

    statements regarding the probable future outcome of litigation and regulatory proceedings and the future development in legal and regulatory matters including statements regarding our ability to comply with future laws and regulations;

    statements regarding future fluctuations in refining margins and crude oil, natural gas and petroleum product prices;

    statements regarding the demand, pricing and cyclicality of oil, gas and petrochemical product prices;

    statements regarding changes in the fuel and gas pricing mechanisms in South Africa and their effects on prices, our operating results and profitability;

    statements regarding future fluctuations in exchange and interest rates and changes in credit ratings;

    statements regarding total shareholder return;

    statements regarding our growth and expansion plans;

    statements regarding our current or future products and anticipated customer demand for these products;

    statements regarding acts of war, terrorism or other events that may adversely affect the group's operations or that of key stakeholders to the group;

    statements and assumptions relating to macroeconomics;

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    statements regarding tax litigation and assessments; and

    statements of assumptions underlying such statements.

        Words such as "believe", "anticipate", "expect", "intend", "seek", "will", "plan", "could", "may", "endeavour", "target", "forecast" and "project" and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements.

        By their very nature, forward-looking statements involve inherent risks and uncertainties, both general and specific, and there are risks that the predictions, forecasts, projections and other forward-looking statements will not be achieved. If one or more of these risks materialise, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements. You should understand that a number of important factors could cause actual results to differ materially from the plans, objectives, expectations, estimates and intentions expressed in such forward-looking statements. These factors include among others, and without limitation:

    the outcome in pending and developing regulatory matters and the effect of changes in regulation and government policy;

    the political, social and fiscal regime and economic conditions and developments in the world, especially in those countries in which we operate;

    the outcome of legal proceedings including tax litigation and assessments;

    our ability to maintain key customer relations in important markets;

    our ability to improve results despite increased levels of competition;

    our ability to exploit our oil, gas and coal reserves as anticipated;

    the continuation of substantial growth in significant developing markets;
    the ability to benefit from our capital investment programme;

    the accuracy of our assumptions in assessing the economic viability of our large capital projects and growth in significant developing areas of our business;

    the ability to gain access to sufficient competitively priced gas, oil and coal reserves and other commodities;

    the impact of environmental legislation and regulation on our operations and access to natural resources;

    our success in continuing technological innovation;

    the success of our B-BBEE ownership transaction;

    our ability to maintain sustainable earnings despite fluctuations in oil, gas and commodity prices, foreign currency exchange rates and interest rates;

    our ability to attract and retain sufficient skilled employees;

    the risk of completing major projects within budget and schedule; and

    our success at managing the foregoing risks.

        The foregoing list of important factors is not exhaustive; when making investment decisions, you should carefully consider the foregoing factors and other uncertainties and events, and you should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements apply only as of the date on which they are made and we do not undertake any obligation to update or revise any of them, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. See "Item 3.D—Risk factors"

ENFORCEABILITY OF CERTAIN CIVIL LIABILITIES

        We are a public company incorporated under the company law of South Africa. Most of our directors and officers reside outside the US,

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principally in South Africa. You may not be able, therefore, to effect service of process within the US upon those directors and officers with respect to matters arising under the federal securities laws of the US.

        In addition, most of our assets and the assets of most of our directors and officers are located outside the US. As a result, you may not be able to enforce against us or our directors and officers judgements obtained in US courts predicated on the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the US.

        There are additional factors to be considered under South African law in respect of the enforceability, in South Africa (in original actions or in actions for enforcement of judgements of US courts) of liabilities predicated on the US federal securities laws. These additional factors include, but are not necessarily limited to:

    South African public policy considerations;

    South African legislation regulating the applicability and extent of damages and/or penalties that may be payable by a party;

    the applicable rules under the relevant South African legislation which regulate the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgements in South Africa; and

    the South African courts' inherent jurisdiction to intervene in any matter which such courts may determine warrants the courts' intervention (despite any agreement amongst the parties to (i) have any certificate or document being conclusive proof of any factor, or (ii) oust the courts' jurisdiction).

        Based on the foregoing, there is no certainty as to the enforceability in South Africa

(in original actions or in actions for enforcement of judgements of US courts) of liabilities predicated on the US federal securities laws.

ITEM 1.    IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

        Not applicable.

ITEM 2.    OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

        Not applicable.

ITEM 3.    KEY INFORMATION

3.A Selected financial data

        The following information should be read in conjunction with "Item 5—Operating and financial review and prospects" and the consolidated financial statements, the accompanying notes and other financial information included elsewhere in this annual report on Form 20-F.

        The financial data set forth below for the years ended as at 30 June 2018 and 2017 and for each of the years in the three-year period ended 30 June 2018 has been derived from and should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements included in Item 18.

        Financial data as at 30 June 2016, 2015 and 2014, and for the years ended 30 June 2015 and 2014 have been derived from the group's previously published audited consolidated financial statements, which are not included in this document.

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        The audited consolidated financial statements from which the selected consolidated financial data set forth below have been derived were prepared in accordance with IFRS.

 
  30 June
2018
  30 June
2017
  30 June
2016
  30 June
2015
  30 June
2014
 
 
  (Rand in millions)
(except per share information and weighted
average shares in issue)

 

Income Statement data:

                               

Turnover

    181 461     172 407     172 942     185 266     202 683  

Earnings before interest and tax

    17 747     31 705     24 239     46 549     45 818  

Earnings attributable to owners of Sasol Limited

    8 729     20 374     13 225     29 716     29 580  

Statement of Financial Position data:

                               

Total assets

    439 235     398 939     390 714     323 599     280 264  

Total equity

    228 608     217 234     212 418     196 483     174 769  

Total liabilities

    210 627     181 705     178 296     127 116     105 495  

Share capital(1)

    15 775     29 282     29 282     29 228     29 084  

Per share information (Rand):

                               

Basic earnings per share

    14,26     33,36     21,66     48,71     48,57  

Diluted earnings per share

    14,18     33,27     21,66     48,70     48,27  

Dividends per share(2)

    12,90     12,60     14,80     18,50     21,50  

Weighted average shares in issue (in millions):

                               

Average shares outstanding—basic(3)

    612,2     610,7     610,7     610,1     609,0  

Average shares outstanding—diluted(4)

    615,9     612,4     610,7     610,2     620,8  

(1)
For information regarding the share repurchases and cancellations please refer to "Item 18—Annual Financial Statements—Note 15 Share capital".

(2)
The total dividend includes the interim and final dividend. The final dividend was declared subsequent to the reporting date and is presented for information purposes only. No provision for this final dividend has been recognised. Dividends per share in dollars (Rand per US dollar as of 23 August 2018) are as follows: $0,97 for 30 June 2018, $0,95 for 30 June 2017, $1,03 for 30 June 2016, $1,43 for 30 June 2015 and $1,98 for 30 June 2014.

(3)
Increase in basic average shares outstanding is due to shares issued as long-term incentives (LTI's) to employees and Sasol shares issued as part of the Sasol Khanyisa transaction.

(4)
The number of shares outstanding is adjusted to show the potential dilution if the LTI's were settled in Sasol Limited shares. The Sasol Inzalo transaction and Sasol Khanyisa Tier 1, Tier 2 and Khanyisa Public are anti-dilutive in 2018.

Exchange rate information

        The following table sets forth certain information with respect to the rand/US dollar exchange rate for the years shown:

Rand per US dollar for the year ended 30 June and the respective month:

 
  Average(1)   High(2)   Low(2)  

2014

    10,39     11,32     9,59  

2015

    11,45     12,58     10,51  

2016

    14,52     16,88     12,25  

2017

    13,61     14,75     12,44  

2018

    12,85     14,48     11,55  

February 2018

    11,82     12,17     11,55  

March 2018

    11,83     12,02     11,62  

April 2018

    12,10     12,47     11,82  

May 2018

    12,53     12,76     12,25  

June 2018

    13,33     13,86     12,57  

2019(3)

                   

July 2018(3)

    13,38     13,83     13,11  

August 2018 (Up to 23 August 2018)

    14,01     14,73     13,23  

(1)
The average exchange rates for each full year are calculated using the average exchange rate on the last day of each month during the period. The average exchange rate for each month is calculated using the average of the daily exchange rates during the period.

(2)
Based on the closing rate of Thomson Reuters for the applicable period.

(3)
The average exchange rate for the period 1 July 2018 to 23 August 2018 is calculated using the average exchange rate on the last day of each month and as at 23 August 2018. The average exchange rate for each month or part thereof is calculated using the average of the daily exchange rates during the period.

        On 23 August 2018 the closing exchange rate of rand per US dollar as reported by Thomson Reuters was R14,41.

3.B Capitalisation and indebtedness

        Not applicable.

3.C Reasons for the offer and use of proceeds

        Not applicable.

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3.D Risk factors

Fluctuations in crude oil, natural gas, ethane and petroleum product prices and refining margins may adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition

        Market prices for crude oil, natural gas, ethane and petroleum products fluctuate as they are subject to local and international supply and demand fundamentals and other factors over which we have no control. Worldwide supply conditions and the price levels of crude oil may be significantly influenced by general economic conditions, industry inventory levels, technology advancements, production quotas or other actions that might be imposed by international cartels that control the production of a significant proportion of the worldwide supply of crude oil, weather-related damage and disruptions, competing fuel prices and geopolitical risks, especially in the Middle East, North Africa and West Africa.

        During 2018, the dated Brent crude oil price averaged US$63,62/bbl and fluctuated between a high of US$80,29/bbl and a low of US$46,53/bbl. This compares to an average dated Brent crude oil price of US$49,77/bbl during 2017, which fluctuated between a high of US$56,30/bbl and a low of US$40,26/bbl.

        A substantial proportion of our turnover is derived from sales of petroleum, natural/piped gas and petrochemical products, prices for which have fluctuated widely in recent years and are affected by crude oil prices, the price and availability of substitute fuels, changes in product inventory, product specifications and other factors.

        The South African government controls and/or regulates certain fuel prices. The pump price of petrol is regulated at an absolute level. Furthermore maximum price regulation applies to the refinery gate price of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and the sale of unpacked illuminating paraffin. South African liquid fuels are valued using the "Basic Fuel Price" (BFP). BFP is a formula-driven price that considers, amongst others, the international prices of refined products (petrol, diesel and illuminating

paraffin), the rand/US dollar exchange rate and the logistical cost of transporting liquid fuels to South Africa. The BFP is then used as a component in the regulated prices that are published by the government on a monthly basis. Piped gas prices are approved at a maximum level by the National Energy Regulator of South Africa (NERSA) from time to time.

        Through our equity participation in the National Petroleum Refiners of South Africa (Pty) Ltd (Natref) crude oil refinery, we are exposed to fluctuations in refinery margins resulting from fluctuations in international crude oil and petroleum product prices. We are also exposed to changes in absolute levels of international petroleum product prices through our synthetic fuel operations.

        Prolonged periods of low crude oil and natural gas prices could also result in projects being delayed or cancelled, as well as the impairment of certain assets. In Canada, low gas prices resulted in an impairment of our shale gas assets of R2,8 billion (CAD281 million) in 2018. The total cumulative impairments recognised between 2014 and 2017 on our Canadian shale gas assets were R16,5 billion (CAD1,6 billion). The valuation of the Production Sharing Agreement (PSA) in Mozambique in 2018 was impacted by weaker long-term macro economic assumptions and lower than expected oil volumes. This resulted in a partial impairment of R1,1 billion (US$94 million).

        We use derivative financial instruments to partially protect us against day-to-day, and longer-term fluctuations in US dollar oil, export coal and ethane prices. The oil price affects the profitability of both our energy and chemical products. See "Item 11—Quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk". While the use of these instruments may provide some protection against fluctuations in crude oil prices, it does not protect us against longer-term fluctuations in crude oil prices or differing trends between crude oil and petroleum product prices.

        We are unable to accurately forecast fluctuations in crude oil, ethane, natural/piped gas and petroleum products prices. Fluctuations in any of these may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash

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flows and financial condition. Refer "Item 5A—Operating results" for the impact of the crude oil prices on the results of our operations.

Fluctuations in exchange rates may adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition

        The rand is the principal functional currency of our operations and we report our results in rand. However, a significant majority of our turnover is impacted by the US dollar and the price of most petroleum and chemical products is based on global commodity and benchmark prices which are quoted in US dollars.

        Further, as explained above, the components that constitute BFP are US dollar-denominated and converted to rand, which impacts the price at which we can sell fuel in South Africa.

        A significant part of our capital expenditure is US dollar-denominated, as it is directed to investments outside South Africa or constitutes materials, engineering and construction costs imported into South Africa. Fluctuations in the rand/US dollar exchange rate impacts our gearing and estimated capital expenditure.

        We also generate turnover and incur operating costs in euro and other currencies.

        Fluctuations in the exchange rates of the rand against the US dollar, euro and other currencies impacts the comparability of our financial statements between periods due to the effects of translating the functional currencies of our foreign subsidiaries into rand at different exchange rates.

        Accordingly, fluctuations in exchange rates between the rand and US dollar, and/or euro may have a material effect on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition. As a result of the continued and sustained strengthening of the exchange rate outlook and the resulting impact on our Base Chemicals margins we fully impaired our South African Chlor Vinyls cash generating unit in the amount of R5,2 billion (R3,7 billion after tax).

        During 2018, the rand/US dollar exchange rate averaged R12,85, fluctuating between a high

of R14,48 and a low of R11,55. This compares to an average exchange rate of R13,61 during 2017, which fluctuated between a high of R14,75 and a low of R12,44. At 30 June 2018 the closing rand/US dollar exchange rate was R13,73 as compared to R13,06 at 30 June 2017.

        The rand exchange rate is affected by various international and South African economic and political factors. Subsequent to 30 June 2018, the rand has on average weakened against the US dollar and the euro, closing at R14,41 and R16,62, respectively, on 23 August 2018. In general, a weakening of the rand would have a positive effect on our operating results. Conversely, strengthening of the rand would have an adverse effect on our operating results, cash flows and financial condition. Refer to "Item 5.A—Operating results" for further information regarding the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on our results of operations. We engage in hedging activities which partially protects the balance sheet and our earnings against fluctuations in the rand exchange rate. While the use of these instruments may provide some protection against fluctuations in the rand exchange rate, it does not protect us against a longer term strong rand/US dollar exchange rate. Refer to "Item 11—Quantitative and qualitative disclosures about market risk".

        Although the exchange rate of the rand is primarily market-determined, its value at any time may not be an accurate reflection of its underlying value, due to the potential effect of, among other factors, exchange controls. For more information regarding exchange controls in South Africa see "Item 10.D—Exchange controls".

Cyclicality in petrochemical product prices and demand may adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition

        The demand for chemicals and especially products such as polymers, solvents, olefins, surfactants and fertilisers are cyclical. Typically, higher demand during peaks in the industry business cycle leads producers to increase their production capacity. Although peaks in the business cycle have been characterised by

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increased selling prices and higher EBIT margins in the past, such peaks have led to overcapacity with supply exceeding demand growth. Low periods during the industry business cycle are characterised by a decrease in selling prices and excess capacity, which can depress EBIT margins. We are unable to accurately forecast the timing of the industry business cycle, and lower prices for chemical products during downturns in the cycle may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

Our large projects are subject to schedule delays and cost overruns, and we may face constraints in financing our existing projects or new business opportunities, which could render our projects unviable or less profitable than planned

        We are progressing with the construction of our Lake Charles Chemicals Project in Louisiana, US (LCCP) and indications are that the cost of the project will remain within the previous market guidance of US$11,13 billion. As at the end of June 2018, engineering, equipment fabrication and procurement were substantially complete and construction progress reached 68% completion. Overall the project is 88% complete with capital expenditure amounting to US$9,85 billion. We achieved first steam production in July 2018, a critical component to the operation of the LCCP and a key enabler for further commissioning. The progressive start-up of utilities is ongoing and gaining momentum, as we approach start-up of the first units by the second half of calendar year 2018. The remainder of the derivative units are expected to start up in calendar year 2019. Progress on the LCCP units are reviewed and considered internally and by third party consultants regularly. As we move toward start-up, we will update guidance in the event we confirm a materially different view of unit startup and/or cost.

        In Mozambique, the PSA Phase 1 and Phase 2 drilling activities have been completed. In total, 11 wells were drilled comprising of seven oil wells and four gas wells. The Inhassoro oil reservoirs have proved more complex than

expected and, with the reduced expectation of recoverable oil volumes and uncertainty on the oil price, we are looking to maximise the use of existing processing facilities in the adjacent Petroleum Production Agreement (PPA) facilities. While Phase 1 gas results confirmed gas resources cover for the planned Central Termica Temane (CTT), formerly Mozambique Gas to Power Project (MGtP), Phase 2 appraisal drilling results however indicate gas volumes to be at the lower end of our initial estimates. Focused efforts are underway to assess the range of options and possibilities to sustainably secure and source gas feedstock.

        The development of these projects are capital intensive processes carried out over long durations and requires us to commit significant capital expenditure and allocate considerable management resources in utilising our existing experience and know-how.

        Projects like the LCCP and PSA are subject to the risk of delays and cost overruns which are inherent in any large construction project, including as a result of, among other factors:

    shortages or unforeseen increases in the cost of equipment, labour and raw materials;

    unforeseen design and engineering problems;

    unforeseen construction problems;

    inadequate phasing of activities;

    labour disputes;

    inadequate workforce planning or productivity of workforce;

    inadequate change management practices;

    natural disasters and adverse weather conditions, including excessive winds, higher-than-expected rainfall patterns, tornadoes, cyclones and hurricanes;

    failure or delay of third-party service providers; and

    changes to regulations, such as environmental regulations.

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        In addition, significant variations in the assumptions we make in assessing the viability of our projects, including those relating to commodity prices and the prices for our products, exchange rates, import tarrifs, interest rates, discount rates (due to change in country risk premium) and the demand for our products, may adversely affect the profitability or even the viability of our investments.

        As the LCCP capital investment is particularly material to Sasol, any further cost overruns or adverse changes in assumptions affecting the viability of the project could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flows, financial condition and prospects. We have updated the LCCP economics with the latest view of long-term market assumptions obtained from independent market consultants. Due to the uncertainty and volatility in the market, the views from the independent market consultants differ significantly from period to period. Views provided also differ on where ethane will be sourced from in the long-term. This divergence in views makes it more difficult to accurately evaluate the project economics and increases the risk that the assumptions underlying our assessment of the viability of the project may prove incorrect.

        Our operating cash flow and banking facilities may be insufficient to meet our capital expenditure plans and requirements, depending on the timing and cost of development of our existing projects and any further projects we may pursue, as well as our operating performance and the utilisation of our banking facilities. As a result, new sources of capital may be needed to meet the funding requirements of these projects, to fund ongoing business activities and to pay dividends. Our ability to raise and service significant new sources of capital will be a function of macroeconomic conditions, our credit rating, our gearing and other risk metrics, the condition of the financial markets, future prices for the products we sell, the prospects for our industry, our operational performance and operating cash flow and debt position, among other factors.

        In the event of unanticipated operating or financial challenges, any dislocation in financial

markets, any downgrade of our credit ratings by ratings agencies or new funding limitations, our ability to pursue new business opportunities, invest in existing and new projects, fund our ongoing business activities and retire or service outstanding debt and pay dividends, could be constrained, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

Our access to and cost of funding is affected by our credit rating, which in turn is affected by the sovereign credit rating of the Republic of South Africa

        Our credit rating may be affected by our ability to maintain our outstanding debt and financial ratios at levels acceptable to the credit ratings agencies; our business prospects; the sovereign credit rating of the Republic of South Africa and other factors, some of which are outside our control. The credit rating assigned by the ratings agencies is dependent on a number of factors, including the gearing levels of the group. In assessing these gearing levels, performance guarantees which have been issued by Sasol are taken into account as potential future exposure, which may impact the liquidity of the group. Our credit rating has been affected by movements in the sovereign credit rating of the Republic of South Africa.

        Any future adverse rating actions or downgrade of the South African sovereign credit rating may have an adverse effect on our credit rating, which could negatively impact our ability to borrow money and could increase the cost of debt finance.

Our ability to respond to climate change could negatively impact our growth strategies, reduce demand for our products and increase our operational costs.

        Key processes in South Africa, especially coal gasification and combustion, result in relatively high carbon dioxide emissions. Sasol is committed to reducing its overall impact on the environment, while developing and implementing an appropriate climate change mitigation response to enable the long-term resilience of the company's strategy and business operations.

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In light of this, Sasol has identified environmental sustainability as one of our top risk events, including climate change as a key issue in the context of our support for the Paris Agreement and the national circumstances of the countries in which we operate.

        Sasol's ability to develop and implement an appropriate climate change mitigation response poses a significant transitional risk for our current business in South Africa. This is enhanced by the necessity to appropriately address increasing societal pressures and shifts away from carbon intensive processes and products, as well as meeting new and anticipated policy and legislative requirements including carbon tax, carbon budgets and reduction targets. It is particularly challenging in South Africa where access to lower carbon energies are limited.

        Further, climate change poses a significant risk for our business as it relates to potential physical impacts including change of weather patterns, extreme events, hurricanes, tornadoes, flooding, sea level rise and water scarcity. In this regard, we are advancing work in developing an adaptation strategy for the identified key priority regions such as the US Gulf Coast, Mozambique, Secunda and Sasolburg. Ongoing monitoring efforts accordingly also guide our interventions to improve our maintenance and asset integrity processes.

        These climate change related risks could negatively impact Sasol's growth strategies and targets, reduce demand for our products and are likely to increase our operational costs.

        A substantial carbon tax, such as that currently under consideration in South Africa, may negatively impact free cash flows generated from our South African operations from 2019. Considering South Africa's developmental challenges, the structure of its economy and the fact that the carbon tax design is not aligned with the carbon budget, Sasol believes alternative mechanisms could achieve the outcome sought by the proposed stand-alone carbon tax. We continue to work to identify and debate with authorities an appropriate response that balances the need for economic

development, job creation, energy security and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions.

        Our international operations are less carbon-intensive and have been operating for some time in a more mature GHG regulatory regime. However, continued political attention to issues concerning climate change and potential mitigation through regulation could have a material impact on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

Exposure related to investments in associates and joint arrangements may adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition

        We have invested in a number of associates and joint arrangements and will consider opportunities for further upstream oil and gas and downstream investments (including licensing opportunities), where appropriate, as well as opportunities in chemicals. The development of these projects may require investments in associates and joint arrangements, some of which are aimed at facilitating entry into countries and/or sharing risk with third parties. Although the risks are shared, the objectives of our associates, and joint arrangement partners, their ability to meet their financial and/or contractual obligations, their behaviour, their compliance with legal and ethical standards, as well as the increasing complexity of country-specific legislation and regulations may adversely affect our reputation and/or result in disputes and/or litigation, all of which may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition, and may constrain the achievement of our growth objectives.

Our coal, synthetic oil, natural oil and natural gas reserve estimates may be materially different from quantities that we eventually recover

        Our reported coal, synthetic oil, natural oil and gas reserves are estimated quantities based on applicable reporting regulations that, under present conditions, have the potential to be economically mined, processed and produced.

        There are numerous uncertainties inherent in estimating quantities of reserves and in

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projecting future rates of production, including factors which are beyond our control. The accuracy of any reserve estimate is a function of the quality of available data, engineering and geological interpretation, costs to develop and market prices for related products.

        Reserve estimates will require revision based on improved data acquired from actual production experience and other factors, including resource extensions and new discoveries. In addition, regulatory changes, market prices, increased production costs and other factors may result in a revision to estimated reserves. Revised estimates may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cashflows and financial condition. See "Item 4.D—Property, plants and equipment".

We may be unable to access, discover, appraise and develop new coal, synthetic oil, natural oil and natural gas resources at a rate that is adequate to sustain our business and/or enable growth

        Competition for suitable opportunities, increasing technical difficulty, stringent regulatory and environmental standards, large capital requirements and existing capital commitments may negatively affect our ability to access, discover, appraise and develop new resources in a timely manner, which could adversely impact our ability to support and sustain our current business operations.

        Our future growth could also be impacted by these factors, potentially leading to material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

We may not achieve projected benefits of acquisitions or divestments

        We may pursue acquisitions or divestments. With any such transaction, there is the risk that any benefits or synergies identified at the time of acquisition may not be achieved as a result of changing or inappropriate assumptions or materially different market conditions, or other factors. Furthermore, we could be found liable, regardless of extensive due diligence reviews, for

past acts or omissions of the acquired business without any adequate right of redress.

        In addition, delays in the sale of assets, or reductions in value realisable, may arise due to changing market conditions. Failure to achieve expected values from the sale of assets, or delays in expected receipt or delivery of funds may result in higher debt levels, underperformance of those businesses and loss of key personnel.

There are country-specific risks relating to the countries in which we operate that could adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition

        Several of our subsidiaries, joint arrangements and associates operate in countries and regions that are subject to significantly differing political, social, economic and market conditions. See "Item 4.B—Business overview" for a description of the extent of our activities in the main countries and regions in which we operate. Although we are a South African-domiciled company and the majority of our operations are located in South Africa, we also have significant energy businesses in other African countries, chemical businesses in Europe, the US, the Middle East and Asia, a joint venture GTL facility in Qatar, joint operations in the US and Canada and a 10% indirect economic interest in the Escravos GTL (EGTL) project in Nigeria which is an upstream joint venture between Chevron Nigeria Limited (CNL) and Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC).

        Particular aspects of country-specific risks that may have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition include:

(a)   Political and socio-economic issues

    i. Political, social and economic uncertainty

        We have invested, or are in the process of investing in, significant operations in Southern African, Western African, European, North American, Asian and Middle Eastern countries that have in the past, to a greater or lesser extent, experienced political, social and economic uncertainty.

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        In particular, in South Africa, the current risks to the country's medium-term economic prospects and its fiscal challenges have led to credit rating agencies downgrading the South African sovereign credit rating. In Mozambique, the ongoing fiscal crisis has led to a significant currency weakening and downgrades in its credit rating by all the major rating agencies, which complicated debt restructuring discussions between the country and the International Monetary Fund. Other countries in which we operate may also face sovereign downgrade risks and risks that may impact their ability to access funding and honour commitments.

        Government policies, laws and regulations in countries in which we operate, or plan to operate, may change in the future. Governments in those countries have in the past and may in the future pursue policies of resource nationalisation and market intervention, including through protectionism like import tariffs and subsidies. The impact of such changes on our ability to deliver on planned projects cannot be determined with any degree of certainty and such changes may therefore have an adverse effect on our operations and financial results.

        Sasol's strategic objective to progressively grow a resilient oil-based portfolio in its preferred West African countries, inherently carries frontier basin exploration and new country entry risks, off-set by potential high reward through unlocking of new exploration plays. Sasol managed the associated exploration and new country risks through building a balanced portfolio of exploration and production assets, rigorously ensuring compliance with all corporate and legislative governance requirements, and following its internal technical and business quality assurance processes.

    ii. Transformation and localisation issues

        In some countries, our operations are required to comply with local procurement, employment equity, equity participation, corporate social responsibility and other regulations that are designed to address

country-specific social and economic transformation and localisation issues.

        In South Africa, there are various transformation initiatives with which we are required to comply since Sasol operates in more than one sector of the economy. We believe transformation to be a strategic, business and social imperative that would enable Sasol to become more competitive in the markets in which it operates. The broad risks that we face should we not comply with these transformation initiatives include the inability to obtain licences to operate in certain sectors such as mining and liquid fuels, limited ability to successfully tender for government and public entity tenders and potential loss of customers (as private sector customers increasingly require their suppliers to have a minimum B-BBEE rating).

        The draft Mining Charter III was published on 15 June 2018, for comments within 30 days. Although the 2018 draft is an improvement on the 2017 draft, there are a number of contentious issues that are being debated by industry stakeholders. We are participating in these discussions and are providing input to the draft Mining Charter III on those issues that may have an impact on our business. Once the final Mining Charter III is published Sasol will undertake a comprehensive study to understand the impact on our business and to determine the steps necessary to ensure our operations are not adversely affected. For more information refer to "Item 3.D—Risk Factors—South African mining legislation may have an adverse effect on our mineral rights".

        The revised Codes of Good Practice for Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (B-BBEE) (the Revised Codes), which came into effect on 1 May 2015, provide a standard framework for the measurement of B-BBEE across all sectors of the economy, other than sectors that have their own sectorial transformation charters (e.g. the mining and liquid fuels industries). The Revised Codes provide more stringent targets, which negatively impacted on Sasol's B-BBEE contributor status.

        Since our announcement during September 2017 to unwind the Sasol Inzalo B-BBEE transaction and introduce Sasol Khanyisa,

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specific management focus was placed on engaging with trade unions on issues pertaining to employee share ownership levels. Two of the five Sasol trade unions, Solidarity and CEPPWAWU, have declared disputes relating individually to Sasol Khanyisa and the unwind of Sasol Inzalo which, if not resolved, may result in industrial action, which could adversely affect our operations and could give rise to costs which would impact earnings.

        We believe that the long-term benefits of Sasol Khanyisa to the company and South Africa should outweigh any possible adverse effects, such as dilution to existing shareholders, but we cannot assure you that future implications of compliance with these requirements or with any newly imposed conditions will not have a material adverse effect on our shareholders or business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition. See "Item 4.B—Empowerment of historically disadvantaged South Africans".

    iii. Disruptive industrial action

        The majority of our employees worldwide belong to trade unions. These employees comprise mainly of general workers, artisans and technical operators. The South African labour market remains volatile and can be characterised by major industrial action in key sectors of the economy especially during wage negotiations.

        In Sasol South Africa, only petroleum sector wage negotiations took place during 2018. These negotiations have been successfully concluded with a three-year wage agreement effective 1 July 2018 to 30 June 2021. Sasol operations falling within the industrial chemicals sector are not negotiating during 2018 as this sector is covered by a multi-year agreement valid until 30 June 2019.

        Sasol Mining concluded a three-year wage agreement with all five of its participating trade unions in August 2017, paving the way for stable labour relations over the next three years.

        Sasol remains committed to resolve current disputes and will continue to engage with key players to ensure a successful conclusion hereof.

        Although we have positive relationships with our employees and their unions, significant

labour disruptions could occur in the future and our labour costs could increase significantly in the future.

(b) Fiscal

        Macroeconomic factors, such as higher inflation and interest rates, could adversely impact our ability to contain costs and/or ensure cost-effective debt financing in the countries in which we operate.

        Our sustainability and competitiveness is influenced by our ability to optimise our cost base. As we are unable to control the price at which our products are sold, an increase in inflation in countries in which we operate may result in significantly higher future operational costs.

        In South Africa, consumer price inflation averaged 4,5% in 2018, from 6,1% in 2017. The lower rate of consumer inflation can be attributed mainly to an appreciation in the exchange rate and easing food and services price inflation over the course of the year. The easing in inflationary pressures promoted the South African Reserve Bank to cut interest rates by 25 basis points in both July 2017 and March 2018, taking the policy interest rate to 6,5% by 30 June 2018.

        The exchange rate remains a key risk to the inflation outlook. Global financial conditions, escalating trade tensions, emerging market sentiment swings and domestic political and policy developments are likely to contribute to ongoing currency volatility.

        Higher confidence levels and a more stable political environment are expected to provide support to the South African economy. However, the business environment is likely to remain challenging as South Africa faces a number of structural, policy and financial challenges to growth. While the interest rate outlook remains data dependent, the SARB is expected to hike interest rates during the course of 2019 as inflation starts moving towards the upper end of the 3-6% inflation target range.

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(c) Legal and regulatory

    i. Exchange control regulations

        South African law provides for exchange control regulations which apply to transactions involving South African residents, including both natural persons and legal entities. These regulations may restrict the export of capital from South Africa, including foreign investments. The regulations may also affect our ability to borrow funds from non-South African sources for use in South Africa, including the repayment of these borrowings from South Africa and, in some cases, our ability to guarantee the obligations of our subsidiaries with regard to these funds. These restrictions may affect the manner in which we finance our transactions outside South Africa and the geographic distribution of our debt. See "Item 10.D—Exchange controls" and "Item 5.B—Liquidity and capital resources".

    ii. Tax laws and regulations

        We operate in multiple tax jurisdictions globally and are subject to both local and international tax laws and regulations. Although we aim to fully comply with tax laws in all the countries in which we operate, tax is a highly complex area leading to the risk of unexpected tax uncertainties. Tax laws are changing regularly and their interpretation may potentially result in ambiguities and uncertainties, in particular in the areas of international taxation and transfer pricing. Where the tax law is not clear, we interpret our tax obligations in a responsible way, with the support of legal and tax advisors as deemed appropriate. Tax authorities and courts may arrive at different interpretations to those taken by Sasol, which may lead to substantial increases in tax payments. Although we believe we have adequate systems, processes and people in place to assist us with complying with all applicable tax laws and regulations, the outcomes of certain tax disputes and assessments may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial position.

        We could also be exposed to significant fines and penalties and to enforcement measures, including, but not limited to, tax assessments, despite our best efforts at compliance. In response to tax assessments or similar tax deficiency notices in particular jurisdictions, we may be required to pay the full amount of the tax assessed (including stated

penalties and interest charges) or post security for such amounts notwithstanding that we may contest the assessment and related amounts.

        In particular, one of our subsidiaries, Sasol Oil (Pty) Ltd ("Sasol Oil"), has received assessments on its international crude oil procurement activities and the proceedings relating to these assessments are ongoing.

        For more information regarding pending tax disputes and assessments refer to "Legal proceedings and other contingencies" under Item 4.B Business overview.

        Any of these risks may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

    iii. Ownership rights

        We operate in several countries where ownership of rights in respect of land and resources is uncertain and where disputes in relation to ownership or other community matters may arise. For example, the South African government is considering the expropriation of land without compensation to enhance land reform and redistribution. The impact of these policy intentions and related disputes are not always predictable and may cause disruption to our operations or development plans.

    iv. Legal and regulatory uncertainties

        Some of the countries where we have already made investments, or other countries where we may consider making investments are in various stages of developing institutions and legal and regulatory systems that are characteristic of democracies and market economies.

        The procedural safeguards of the legal and regulatory regimes in these countries in many cases are still being developed and, therefore, existing laws and regulations may be applied inconsistently. In some circumstances, it may not be possible to obtain the legal remedies provided

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under those laws and regulations in a timely manner. In particular in South Africa the legal landscape is rapidly evolving, amongst others, due to increasing societal and enforcement pressure. Therefore, the risk of uncertainty is higher in South Africa and that could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows, financial condition and future growth.

(d) Transportation, water, electricity and other infrastructure

        The infrastructure in some countries in which we operate, such as rail infrastructure, electricity and water supply, may need to be further upgraded and expanded, and in certain instances, possibly at our own cost. Reliable supply of electricity is important to run our plants optimally. Unplanned power outages as we experienced at our South African plants in 2018 have a negative impact on our production volumes, cost and profitability. Back-up systems increase the cost of production and only mitigate the risk partially as we remain dependent on external electricity supply.

        Water, as a resource, is becoming increasingly limited as global demand for water increases. A significant part of our operations, including mining, chemical processing and others, requires use of large volumes of water. South Africa is generally an arid country and prolonged periods of drought or significant changes to current water laws could increase the cost of our water supplies or otherwise impact our operations. Water use by our operations varies widely depending largely on feedstock and technology choice. Water to our South African operations is supplied from the Integrated Vaal River System (IVRS). While the water supply to these operations remains secure the revised water balance for the IVRS shows a worsening of the water supply imbalance which could result in an increasing probability of water restrictions being imposed. Although various technological advances may improve the water efficiency of our processes, we may experience limited water availability and other infrastructure challenges which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows, financial condition and future growth.

(e) Stakeholder relationships

        Sasol has a complex network of stakeholders, often with competing interests. Our stakeholders are persons or groups who are

directly or indirectly affected by our operations, as well as those who have interests in our business and/or the ability to influence its outcomes. Stakeholders may include local communities, national, provincial or local government authorities, politicians, religious leaders, civil society organisations and groups with special interests, the academic community and media. In addition, they include employees, investors, suppliers, customers and business partners. Failure to manage relationships with local communities, governments and non-governmental organisations may harm our reputation as well as our ability to conduct our operations effectively. Our stakeholder objective is to position Sasol as a credible partner and build trust with all our stakeholders. Our engagement approach is supported by open and effective communication, clear and agreed-on feedback, mutually beneficial outcomes where possible, as well as inclusiveness and integrity. However, we cannot assure you that the strategy will mitigate the risk fully and therefore, stakeholder relations could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows, financial condition and future growth.

(f) Contract stability

        Host governments in some of the resource-rich countries in which we operate or consider making investments in may display tendencies of wanting to change existing contracts through early terminations, non-renewal or cancellation of contractual rights, or we may not be able to fully enforce our contractual rights in those jurisdictions or enforce judgements obtained in the courts of other jurisdictions, should they hold the view that these contracts are not beneficial to their countries.

(g) Other specific country risks that are applicable to countries in which we operate and which may have a material adverse effect on our business include:

    acts of warfare and civil clashes;

    the loss of control of oil and gas field developments and transportation infrastructure;

    failure to receive new permits and consents;

    expropriation of assets;

    lack of capacity to deal with emergency response situations;

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    social and labour unrest due to economic and political factors in host countries;

    terrorism, xenophobia and kidnapping threats;

    security threats to assets, employees and supply chain;

    possible demands to participate in unethical or corrupt conduct that lead us to forgo certain opportunities;

    feedstock security of supply; and

    sanctions against countries in which we operate.

Actual or alleged non-compliance with laws could result in criminal or civil sanctions and could harm our reputation

        Non-compliance with competition laws, anti-corruption laws, sanction laws and environmental laws have been identified as our top four legal risks.

    Anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws

        Ethical misconduct and non-compliance with applicable anti-corruption laws could result in criminal or civil sanctions and could have a material adverse impact on our reputation, operations and licence to operate.

        Petrochemical and energy companies need to be particularly vigilant with regard to the risk of bribery, especially when the scale of investments and the corruption perception of the countries where operations take place are considered. We, like other international petrochemical companies, have a geographically diverse portfolio and conduct operations in countries, some of which have a perceived high prevalence of corruption. Our operations must comply with the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws of South Africa and other applicable jurisdictions. There has been a substantial increase in the global enforcement of these laws. In particular, major investments in countries with a high corruption risk are subject to an elevated risk in dealings with private companies, governments or government-controlled entities. Although we have an anti-corruption and

anti-bribery compliance programme in place designed to reduce the likelihood of violations of such laws, any violation could result in substantial criminal or civil sanctions and could damage our reputation.

    Sanctions laws

        Our international operations require compliance with trade and economic sanctions or other restrictions imposed by the US or other governments or organisations, including the United Nations, the European Union and its member countries. These trade and economic sanctions are not always aligned which increases the complexities when a company has operations in various countries. Under economic and trading sanctions laws, governments may seek to impose modifications to business practices, and modifications to compliance programmes, which may increase compliance costs, and may subject us to fines, penalties and other sanctions.

        Although we believe that we are in compliance with all applicable sanctions and embargo laws and regulations, and intend to maintain such compliance, there can be no assurance that we will be in compliance in the future, particularly as the scope of certain laws may be unclear and may be subject to changing interpretations.

        We are monitoring developments in the US, the European Union (EU) and other jurisdictions that maintain sanctions programmes, including developments in implementation and enforcement of such sanctions programmes. Expansion of sanctions programmes, embargoes and other restrictions in the future (including additional designations of countries subject to sanctions), or modifications in how existing sanctions are interpreted or enforced, could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

    Environmental laws and regulations

        In recent years, the environmental legislation in South Africa has resulted in significantly stricter standards than in the past which poses a risk to some of our operations in South Africa. For instance, by 2020, our existing

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plants are required to meet more stringent point source standards for air quality emissions applicable to newly commissioned plants. Meeting some of these requirements will require retrofitting of some of our existing plants and we are on track with the implementation of committed roadmaps intended to bring us into compliance with most of the new plant standards by 2025. The new plant standard for boiler sulfur dioxide could pose significant compliance challenges for our existing plants from a technical and financial feasibility point of view. Accordingly, Sasol continues discussions with key stakeholders regarding sustainable longer-term solutions and to investigate technologies that may enable us to comply and advance the necessary environmental compliance and improvement roadmaps.

        To mitigate associated compliance risks in the short and long term, Sasol will be reliant on mechanisms available in law and decisions thereon by the relevant authorities to obtain postponements on the requisite compliance time frames. We also rely on other mechanisms, such as the implementation of air quality offsets as per our approved plans, to address our compliance challenges.

        We remain concerned about the limitations of the postponement mechanism, which is currently the only formalised mechanism provided in law, to provide longer-term certainty in the face of these significant compliance challenges with the continued focus on sustainable ambient air quality improvement. Proposed changes to the regulatory framework could also negatively impact Sasol's approach to place reliance on compliance extensions beyond 2025. Consequently, we continue to participate in the pending law reform processes, including the recent proposed amendments to the National Air Quality Framework and the relevant regulations governing minimum emission standards and associated compliance time frames in the interest of ensuring a reasonable and sustainable legal framework enabling air quality improvements and sustainable compliance. We also continue to engage with the regulatory authorities to provide for the legislated recognition of offsets. The success of these engagements and our participation in the law

reform processes cannot be guaranteed. Where we are unable to rely on mechanisms available in law or find appropriate feasible solutions, we may, of necessity, elect to decommission or mothball essential parts of our plant for purposes of mitigating the potential non-compliance risks.

        The outcome of these processes and applications cannot be guaranteed and may be successfully challenged by third parties. Non-compliance may result in the violation of licence conditions with the associated consequence of administrative enforcement action, which may include directions to cease operations, as well as criminal prosecution. This may have a material adverse impact on our business.

        Some of our operations are carried out in declared air quality priority areas which are further subject to the requirements of the Vaal Triangle and Highveld Priority Area Air Quality Improvement Plans. These plans are currently under review, subject to the completion of source apportionment studies. Accordingly, further emission reduction commitments may be required from Sasol and are likely to trigger additional cost for air quality improvements in these priority areas.

    Competition laws/Anti-Trust Laws

        Violations of competition/antitrust legislation could expose the group to administrative penalties and civil claims and damages, including punitive damages by entities which can prove they were harmed by such conduct. Such penalties and damages could be significant and have an adverse impact on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition. In addition, our reputation could be damaged by findings of such contraventions and individuals could be subject to imprisonment or fines in some countries where competition/anti-trust violations are a criminal offence. Competition authorities are increasingly engaging with each other to exchange information relating to violations of competition/anti-trust laws and enforce competition/antitrust laws.

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        The South African Competition Commission has, in the past, conducted proceedings against various petroleum products producers, including Sasol. Sasol concluded a settlement agreement with the Competion Commission on a no admission of guilt and no penalty basis. On 3 May 2018, the Competition Tribunal of South Africa approved the settlement agreement. This effectively closed the proceedings with no penalty imposed on Sasol. We continue to interact and co-operate with the South African Competition Commission in respect of leniency applications as well as in the areas that are subject to the Commission's investigations. In June 2017, Sasol Germany received a request for information from the European Commission regarding the ethylene market in Europe. Sasol responded to this request for information.

        Although it is our policy to comply with all laws, and notwithstanding training and compliance programmes, we could inadvertently contravene competition/anti-trust laws and be subject to the imposition of fines, criminal sanctions and/or civil claims and damages. This could have a material adverse impact on our reputation, business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

South African mining legislation may have an adverse effect on our mineral rights

        Certain amendments to the Mineral and Petroleum Resource Development Act, 28 of 2002 (MPRDA) are currently under consideration. The impact thereof on our operations will be considered once we have clarity on the nature of the amendments.

        The revised Mining Charter published on 15 June 2018 contains a number of revisions, including but not limited to an increase in the minimum black shareholding requirement from 26% to 30% for current and new mining rights, subject to certain provisions as well as the requirement for a free carry to be given to employees and communities. The new draft contains more stringent compliance criteria than the previous Mining Charter, which may have a material adverse effect on Sasol Mining. The potential impact on Sasol Mining may be two-fold: higher cost of production and the risk of being in non-compliance with the requirements of the revised Mining Charter, which could lead to the suspension or

cancellation of Sasol Mining's mining and/or prospecting rights. If a holder of a prospecting right or mining right in South Africa conducts prospecting or mining operations in contravention of the MPRDA, including the revised Mining Charter and Social and Labour Plans, the converted mining rights can be suspended or cancelled by the Minister of Mineral Resources. The entity, upon receiving a notice of breach from the Minister, has a specific period of time to remedy such breach. The MPRDA and applicable provisions in the National Environmental Management Act and National Water Act impose additional responsibilities with respect to environmental management as well as the prevention of environmental pollution, degradation or damage from mining and/or prospecting activities.

        The effect of the proposed changes to the MPRDA, associated regulations to be promulgated and the revised Mining Charter on our mining and petroleum rights in the future may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition. See "Item 4.B—Business overview—The Mining Charter and the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Amendment Bill".

Legislation in South Africa on petroleum and energy activities may have an adverse impact on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition

Regulation of Petroleum Products

The Petroleum Products Amendment Act

        The Petroleum Products Amendment Act (the Petroleum Products Act) requires persons involved in the manufacturing, wholesale and retail sale of petroleum products to obtain relevant licences for such activities. Sasol Oil, Natref and Sasol South Africa Limited submitted applications for their respective operations. The Sasol Oil wholesale licence; and Sasol South Africa Limited manufacturing licence applications have been approved and the licences issued. The Sasol Oil manufacturing licence application has been accepted, however the licence has not yet been issued. As provided in the Petroleum Products Act, Sasol Oil continues to act as a deemed licence holder in relation to its manufacturing activities. The

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Natref manufacturing licence application is also still under review by the Department of Energy.

        Accordingly, Sasol Oil and Natref continue to operate as being persons who, as of the effective date of the Petroleum Products Act, are deemed to be holders of a licence until their applications have been finalised. Until these applications have been finalised, we cannot provide assurance that the conditions of the licences may not have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

        The Petroleum Products Act entitles the Minister of Energy to regulate the prices, specifications and stock holding of petroleum products and the status in this regard is as follows:

    The Retail-Pump prices of petrol, Maximum Refinery Gate Price of Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) and the Single Maximum National Price of Illuminating Paraffin are regulated. Prices are adjusted monthly according to published working rules and pricing formulae; and

    Regulations to better align South African liquid fuels specifications with those prevailing in Europe were intended to become effective on 1 July 2017. None of the local refineries, including those of Sasol, would have been able to comply with these new specifications. The Minister of Energy rescinded and amended the regulations and will announce a new implementation date in due course. There is a significant risk that the market demand and imported supply of cleaner fuels could overtake the regulatory date of the introduction of these fuel specifications and/or the date by which we can upgrade our plants to meet this demand. Compliance with these new fuel specifications will require substantial capital investments at both Natref and Secunda Synfuels Operations. The amount of capital investment required has not yet been finalised and discussions with the South African government regarding potential investment incentives are on-going.
    Regulations to oblige licenced manufacturers and/or wholesalers to keep minimum levels of market-ready petrol, diesel, illuminating paraffin, jet fuel and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) have been under consideration by the Department of Energy since 2007. No indications on volumes, cost recovery, implementation date and compensation mechanisms are available yet.

Regulation of pipeline gas activities in South Africa

The Gas Act

        The Gas Act provides that the National Energy Regulatory of South Africa (NERSA) has the authority to issue licences for construction and operation of gas pipelines and trading in gas. NERSA also has the authority to approve gas transmission tariffs and maximum gas prices that may be charged by gas traders, where there is inadequate competition as contemplated in the South African Competition Act. The Gas Act further gives NERSA the authority to impose fines and other punitive measures for failure to comply with the licence conditions and/or the provisions of the Gas Act. Future regulation of maximum gas prices may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flow and financial condition.

        Pursuant to the 2013 NERSA decisions approving the Sasol Gas maximum gas prices and transmission tariffs, Sasol Gas implemented a standardised pricing mechanism in its supply agreements with customers in compliance with the applicable regulatory and legal framework. NERSA approved further maximum gas prices and transmission tarrifs based on the same pricing and tariff mechanisms in November 2017.

        Seven of Sasol Gas's largest customers initiated a judicial review of the 2013 NERSA decisions relating to its maximum price and tariff methodologies and NERSA's decision on Sasol Gas's maximum price and transmission tariff applications. The review application proceedings were completed and the High Court judgement upheld the NERSA approved pricing methodology. The gas customers have appealed this outcome in the Supreme Court of Appeal

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(SCA). In May 2018 the SCA upheld the appeal. This SCA ruling overturned the 2013 NERSA maximum price decisions and ordered NERSA to revise its decisions and also ordered that the revised NERSA maximum price decisions will apply retrospectively from 26 March 2014 when the original decisions became effective. NERSA has applied to the Constitutional Court for leave to appeal the SCA decision. Sasol is supporting NERSA in this application. The outcome of this application for leave to appeal remains pending.

        While the current contractual agreements with the Sasol Gas customers remain in place in terms of the November 2017 maximum price and transmission tariff decisions of NERSA, we cannot assure you that the provisions of the Gas Act and the future implementation of a new gas price and tariff methodology pursuant to the NERSA approvals, and the outcome of the appeal application, will not have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

Changes in safety, health and environmental regulations and legislation and public opinion may adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition

        We are subject to a wide range of general and industry-specific environmental, health and safety and other legislation in jurisdictions in which we operate. See "Item 4.B—Business overview—Regions in which Sasol operates and their applicable legislation".

        One of our most material challenges is the ability to anticipate and respond to the rapidly changing regulatory and policy context and associated stakeholder challenges, in particular relating to environmental legislation in South Africa. Evolving legislation relating to air quality, climate change, water and waste management introduce profound regulatory challenges to our existing plants in South Africa. The quality, emission and disposal limit requirements imposed in our air quality, waste management and water use licences for our South African operations are consequently becoming increasingly more stringent. These laws and regulations and their enforcement are likely to become more stringent over time in all

jurisdictions in which we operate, although these laws in some jurisdictions are already more established than in others. These compliance challenges are further impacted by the fact that, in some instances, legislation does not adequately provide for sufficient and/or flexible transitional arrangements for existing plants to comply with the imposed more stringent requirements. Compliance with these requirements is a significant factor in our business. We continue to effectively invest in significant capital expenditures in order to comply with these requirements, our committed environmental roadmaps and offset commitments. We continue with transparent disclosures and engagements with our key stakeholders in an effort to address these challenges. A failure to comply could have an impact on our licence to operate, as well as result in administrative and criminal enforcement, and could harm our relationships with stakeholders.

        Sasol's highly energy intensive operations in South Africa exist in the midst of rapidly evolving national legislation on GHG emissions. In support of the Paris Agreement, the government has recently published for comment the Climate Change and Carbon Tax Bills and promulgated the Pollution Prevention Plan and Greenhouse Gas Mandatory Reporting regulations. Sasol has submitted its GHG inventory data for South Africa in compliance with the regulations and successfully obtained approval for its first mandatory Pollution Prevention Plan. We envisage that compliance with carbon budgets will become mandatory in 2021. For further information on the impact of carbon taxes refer to "Item 3.D—Our inability to respond to climate change could negatively impact our growth strategies, reduce demand for our products and increase our operational costs".

        Changes to waste management legislation in South Africa, particularly around landfill prohibitions, are compelling our South African operations to find alternative solutions to waste management and disposal. The changing regulatory landscape introduces increasingly stringent waste disposal restrictions and punitive fiscal reform measures including waste levies. We

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are quantifying the potential costs associated with meeting these requirements. We will be dependent on regulatory authorities clarifying the interpretation and applicability of specific requirements to our waste streams, to determine whether there would be compliance challenges associated with technical and feasibility constraints. We may have to rely on mechanisms in law, such as exemption applications, to address potential waste management compliance challenges, the outcome of which cannot be guaranteed.

        Regarding the regulation of water activities, we have noticed an increase in the number of policy and regulatory documents issued by the South African Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) for public consultation, proposing new institutional arrangements for governing water resources, economic regulation including the imposition of waste discharge limits and infrastructure investment. At present it is too early to gauge the likely impact on our operations, in particular in relation to access to water and supply, once these are implemented.

        Although systems and processes are in place, monitored and improved upon, to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, we cannot assure you that we will be in compliance with all laws and regulations at all times. For example, non-compliance with environmental, health or safety laws may occur from system or human errors in monitoring our emissions of hazardous or toxic substances into the environment, such as our use of incorrect methodologies or defective or inappropriate measuring equipment, errors in manually capturing results, or other mistaken or unauthorised acts of our employees.

        Public opinion and awareness is growing and challenges are increasingly being raised to community and consumer health and safety associated with the manufacturing and use of chemicals and industries reliant on fossil fuels. Our manufacturing processes may utilise and result in the emission of or exposure to substances with potential health risks. We also manufacture products which may pose health risks. Although we remain committed to apply a duty of care principle and implement measures

to eliminate or mitigate associated potential risks, including through our commitment to the Responsible Care® programme, we may be subject to liabilities as a result of the use or exposure to these materials or emissions. See Item 4.B "Business overview—Regulation" for more detail.

        Consequently, markets may apply pressure on us concerning certain of our products, feedstock, manufacturing processes, transportation and distribution arrangements. As a result of these additional pressures, the associated costs of compliance and other factors, we may be required to withdraw certain products from the market, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows, financial condition and reputation. In addition, as currently framed, the draft South African Chemicals Management Bill may impose significant requirements for the management of chemicals in our South African value chain. The scope of the impact on Sasol's business cannot be predicted at this time.

We may not be successful in attracting and retaining sufficiently skilled employees

        We are highly dependent on effectively operating and continuously improving existing as well as future assets and technologies.

        In order to achieve this, we need to maintain a focus on recruiting and retaining qualified scientists, engineers, project execution managers, artisans and operators. In addition, we are dependent on highly skilled employees in business and functional roles to establish new business ventures as well as to maintain existing operations.

        The quality and availability of skills in certain labour markets is impacted by the challenges within the education and training systems in certain countries in which we operate.

        Localisation, diversity and other similar legislation in countries in which we operate are also key considerations in the attraction and retention of sufficiently skilled employees. In an increasingly competitive market for limited skills, failure to attract and retain people with the right capabilities and experience could negatively

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affect our ability to operate existing facilities, to introduce and maintain the appropriate technological improvements to our business, as well as our ability to successfully construct and commission new plants or establish new business.

        The increasing use of digital technologies across our industry is placing increasing demand on data and digital technology skills. The availability and supply of these new skill sets are limited due to demand outweighing supply.

Intellectual property risks may adversely affect our freedom to operate our processes and sell our products and may dilute our competitive advantage

        In many instances we employ proprietary technology and processes and certain of our products, including some of our commodity chemical and energy products, have unique characteristics and chemical structures. These unique characteristics can also render some of these products suitable for applications outside of the typical commodity type applications for which they would normally be employed, for instance we or our customers may utilise certain products as feedstock to manufacture specialty chemicals or products with specialised applications.

        We believe that our proprietary technology, know-how, confidential information and trade secrets provide us with a competitive advantage. Arms-length licensing of technology, operating and licensing technology in countries in which intellectual property laws are not well established and enforced, and the possible loss of experienced personnel to competitors increases the risk of possible transfer of know-how and trade secrets, including attendant patenting by our competitors, which may negatively impact this advantage.

        Changes in our technology commercialization and business strategies may result in misalignment between the countries in which we have intellectual property protection and the countries in which we operate, license technology and sell products. The disclosure of our confidential information and/or the expiry of a patent may result in increased competition in the market in relation to our products and

proprietary processes, although the continuous supplementation of our patent portfolio reduces such risk to an extent.

        In addition, aggressive patenting by our competitors, particularly in places like the US, China, Japan and Europe may result in an increased patent infringement risk and may constrain our ability to operate, license and sell products in our preferred markets. Similarly there may be an increased risk of exposure to claims under the limited indemnities and warranties for patent infringement that we may provide to licensees and customers.

        The above risks may adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

Increasing competition in relation to products originating from countries with low production costs may adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition

        Certain of our chemical production facilities are located in developed countries, including the US and in Europe. Economic and political conditions in these countries result in relatively high labour costs and, in some regions, relatively inflexible labour markets. Increasing competition from regions with lower production costs and more flexible labour markets, for example the Middle East, India and China, exerts pressure on the competitiveness of our chemical products and, therefore, on our profit margins. This could result in the withdrawal of particular products or the closure of specific facilities, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

We may face potential costs in connection with industry-related accidents or deliberate acts of terror causing property damage, personal injuries or environmental contamination

        We operate coal mines, explore for and produce oil and gas and operate a number of plants and facilities for the manufacture, storage, processing and transportation of oil, chemicals and gas, related raw materials, products and wastes. These facilities and their respective

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operations are subject to various risks, such as fires, explosions, releases and loss of containment of hazardous substances, soil and water contamination, flooding and land subsidence, among others. As a result, we are subject to the risk of, and in the past have experienced, industry-related incidents. Such incidents can be subjected to inspections by relevant authorities, with the associated potential consequences of enforcement action, including directions to temporarily cease and desist operations and the imposition of fines and penalties. This may have a material adverse effect on our business.

        Our facilities are also subject to the risk of deliberate acts of terror.

        Our main Secunda Synfuels production facilities are concentrated in a relatively small area in Secunda, South Africa. The size of the facility is approximately 82,5 square kilometres (km2) with operating plants accounting for 8,35 km2. This facility utilises feedstock from our mining and gas businesses, while the chemical and energy businesses rely on the facility for the raw materials it produces. Accidents and acts of terror may result in damage to our facilities and may require shutdown of the affected facilities, thereby disrupting production and increasing production costs and may in turn disrupt the mining, gas, chemicals and oil businesses which make up a significant portion of our total income. Furthermore, accidents or acts of terror at our operations may have caused, or may in future cause, environmental contamination, personal injuries, health impairment or fatalities and may result in exposure to extensive environmental remediation costs, civil litigation, the imposition of fines and penalties and the need to obtain or implement costly pollution-control technology.

        Our products are ultimately sold to customers around the world and this exposes us to risks related to the transportation of such products by road, rail, pipelines or marine vessels. Such activities take place in the public domain exposing us to incident risks over which we have limited control.

        It is Sasol's policy to procure appropriate property damage and business interruption

insurance cover for its production facilities above acceptable deductible levels at acceptable commercial premiums. However, full cover for all loss scenarios may not be available at acceptable commercial rates, and we cannot give any assurance that the insurance procured for any particular year would cover all potential risks sufficiently or that the insurers will have the financial ability to pay all claims that may arise.

        The costs we may incur as a result of the above or related factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

We may face the risk of information security breaches or attempts to disrupt critical information technology services, which may adversely impact our operations

        The increasing use of information technology (IT) and digital infrastructure systems in operations is making all industries, including the energy and chemicals industries, much more susceptible to cyber threats and information security breaches. IT and digital systems with related services include our financial, commercial, transacting and production systems. Sasol has an information security program in place to mitigate the risks that come with cyber threats and information security breaches but recognises that if there is a breach of information security we can experience disruptions of critical services, or in the worst case scenario, could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition and our disclosure control processes.

        In addition, applicable privacy laws require us to store, manage and safeguard personal data. We have adopted a global privacy policy to set a group-wide standard regarding the protection and appropriate use of personal data. This includes establishing the supporting governance structure including a Group Data Privacy Officer, a privacy culture within Sasol and conducting training and awareness sessions for employees. Although it is our policy to comply with all applicable laws, and notwithstanding training, awareness and compliance programmes,

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we could inadvertently contravene applicable national or EU privacy laws and be subject to the imposition of fines and/or civil claims and damages. This could have a material adverse impact on our reputation and consequential financial impact.

We may not be able to exploit technological advances quickly and successfully or competitors may develop superior technologies

        Most of our operations, including the gasification of coal and the manufacture of synfuels and petrochemical products, are highly dependent on the use of advanced technologies. The development, commercialisation and integration of the appropriate advanced technologies can affect, among other things, the competitiveness of our products, the continuity of our operations, our feedstock requirements and the capacity and efficiency of our production.

        It is possible that new technologies or novel processes may emerge and that existing technologies may be further developed in the fields in which we operate. Unexpected advances in employed technologies or the development of novel processes can affect our operations and product ranges in that they could render the technologies we utilise or the products we produce obsolete or less competitive in the future. Difficulties in accessing new technologies may impede us from implementing them and competitive pressures may force us to implement these new technologies at a substantial cost.

        In addition to the technological challenges, a number of our expansion projects are integrated across our value chain. Delays with the development of an integrated project might, accordingly, have an impact on more than one business segment.

        Our ability to compete will depend on our timely and cost effective implementation of new technological advances. It will also depend on our success in commercialising these advances irrespective of competition we face. Any failure to do so could result in a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

        In the US, we recognised a loss on scrapping in 2018 of R1,1 billion (US$83 million), relating to our GTL project in Louisana, mainly driven by a strategic decision to no longer invest in new equity owned GTL ventures.

The exercise of voting rights by holders of American Depositary Receipts is limited in some circumstances

        Holders of American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) may exercise voting rights with respect to the ordinary shares underlying their American Depositary Shares (ADSs) only in accordance with the provisions of our deposit agreement (Deposit Agreement) with The Bank of New York Mellon, as the depositary (Depositary). For example, ADR holders will not receive notice of a meeting directly from us. Rather, we will provide notice of a shareholders meeting to The Bank of New York Mellon in accordance with the Deposit Agreement. The Bank of New York Mellon has undertaken in turn, as soon as practicable after receipt of our notice, to mail voting materials to holders of ADRs. These voting materials include information on the matters to be voted on as contained in our notice of the shareholders meeting and a statement that the holders of ADRs on a specified date will be entitled, subject to any applicable provision of the laws of South Africa and our Memorandum of Incorporation, to instruct The Bank of New York Mellon as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the shares underlying their respective ADSs.

        Upon the written instruction of an ADR holder, The Bank of New York Mellon will endeavour, in so far as practicable, to vote or cause to be voted the shares underlying the ADSs in accordance with the instructions received. If instructions from an ADR holder are not received by The Bank of New York Mellon by the date specified in the voting materials, The Bank of New York Mellon will not request a proxy on behalf of such holder. The Bank of New York Mellon will not vote or attempt to exercise the right to vote other than in accordance with the instructions received from ADR holders.

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        We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct The Bank of New York Mellon to vote the shares underlying your ADSs. In addition, The Bank of New York Mellon and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for the manner of carrying out voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and there may be no recourse if your voting rights are not exercised as you directed.

Sales of a large amount of Sasol's ordinary shares and ADSs could adversely affect the prevailing market price of the securities

        Historically, trading volumes and the liquidity of shares listed on the JSE Limited (JSE) have been low in comparison with other major markets. The ability of a holder to sell a substantial number of Sasol's ordinary shares on the JSE in a timely manner, especially in a large block trade, may be restricted by this limited liquidity. The sales of ordinary shares or ADSs, if substantial, or the perception that these sales may occur and be substantial, could exert downward pressure on the prevailing market prices for the Sasol ordinary shares or ADSs, causing their market prices to decline.

ITEM 4.    INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

4.A History and development of the company

        Sasol Limited, the ultimate holding company of our group, is a public company. It was incorporated under the laws of the Republic of South Africa in 1979 and has been listed on the JSE Limited (JSE) since October 1979. Our registered office and corporate headquarters are at Sasol Place, 50 Katherine Street, Sandton, 2196, South Africa, and our telephone number is +27 10 344 5000. Our agent for service of process in the US is Puglisi & Associates, 850 Library Avenue, Suite 204, P.O. Box 885, Newark, Delaware 19715.

        For a description of the company's principal capital expenditures and divestitures refer to "Item 5.B—Liquidity and capital resources".

4.B Business overview

        Sasol is an international integrated chemicals and energy company that, through its talented people, uses selected technologies to safely and sustainably source, produce and market chemical and energy products competitively to create superior value for our customers, shareholders and other stakeholders.

        For details regarding the following sections, refer as indicated.

    For information regarding our Business Overview, refer "Our Operating Model Structures" as contained in Exhibit 99.4;

    For information regarding our Strategy, refer "Integrated Report—Our value-based strategy" as contained in Exhibit 99.5; and "Integrated Report—Our integrated value chain" as contained in Exhibit 99.6;

    For a description of the company's operations and principal activities refer "Our Operating Model Structures" as contained in Exhibit 99.4; "Integrated Report—Operational Overviews" as contained in Exhibit 99.7; and Item 18—"Annual Financial Statements—Segment information"; and

    For a description of our principal markets, refer to Item 18—"Annual Financial Statements—Geographic segmentation", which provides information regarding the geographic location of the principal markets in which we generate our turnover, as well as of our asset base.

Seasonality

        Sales volumes of our products are generally not subject to seasonal fluctuations, but tend to follow broader global industry trends and are therefore impacted by macroeconomic factors. Sasol operates globally and in many diverse markets, and accordingly, no element of seasonality is likely to be material to the results of Sasol as a whole. For further information regarding cyclicality and prices and demand, refer to "Item 3.D—Risk Factors".

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Raw materials

        In the Southern Africa value chain, the main feedstock components for the production of fuels and chemical products are coal obtained from Sasol Mining, natural gas obtained from Sasol Exploration and Production International and crude oil purchased from external suppliers.

        In our Performance Chemicals business, the main feedstocks used are kerosene, benzene, ethane, ethylene, oleochemicals, slack wax and aluminium. Feedstocks are purchased externally, with the exception of a portion of ethylene which is produced at our Lake Charles facility and the Fischer-Tropsch-based feedstock used for our South African alcohol, wax, ammonia, phenolics, and co-monomer production. The pricing of most of these raw materials follow global market dynamics which relate to crude oil and energy prices.

Marketing channels and principal markets

        In our Operating Business Units, we make use of direct sales models, long-term marketing gas sales agreements and short-term crude oil sale and purchase agreements.

        Our Regional Operating Hubs channel their products through the Strategic Business Units to external markets.

        In our Strategic Business Units, marketing channels can be divided into the following main areas:

        Energy:

    Liquid fuel sales to licensed wholesalers;

    Liquid fuels direct marketing (retail and commercial markets in South Africa);

    Piped gas marketing in South Africa (wholesale and commercial markets);

    Liquid fuels overland exports into other parts of Southern Africa; and

    Electricity sales to Electricidade de Moçambique (EDM) in Mozambique.

        Base Chemicals:

    Polymer products produced in South Africa are sold mainly directly to

      customers in South Africa and internationally; polymer products produced in the United States are sold mainly to customers in the Unites States;

    Solvents products are sold through 14 regional sales offices and 15 storage hubs in South Africa, Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, the Middle East and the US; and

    Fertilisers and explosives are sold mainly within Southern Africa.

        Performance Chemicals:

    The majority of products are sold globally, directly to business customers (B2B), a significant percentage under annual and multi-year contracts.

Factors on which the business is dependent

Intellectual property

        Our proprietary or licensed technologies, our software licences, procedures and protocols support Sasol's competitive advantage. These consist of:

    Skilled, experienced and technically qualified employees, industry thought leaders and experts that enable Sasol to respond to the constantly changing environment;

    Our patented technologies; and

    Our business processes and management systems.
Intellectual Capital
summary
  2018   2017  

Number of new patents issued

    148     190  

Total worldwide patents held

    2 409     2 216  

Investment in research and development

    R1 027 million     R1 077 million  

        The Sasol Slurry Phase DistillateTM (Sasol SPDTM) process—Based on our Technology function's extensive experience in the commercial application of the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) technology, we have successfully commercialized the FT-based Sasol SPDTM process for converting natural gas into

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high-quality, environment-friendly GTL diesel, GTL kerosene and other liquid hydrocarbons.

        The Sasol SPDTM process intergrates the following three main technologies, each of which is commercially proven. These include:

    the Haldor Topsøe SynCORTM reforming technology, which converts natural gas and oxygen into syngas;

    our Sasol Low Temperature Fischer-TropschTM (Sasol LTFTTM) technology, which converts syngas into hydrocarbons; and

    the Chevron IsocrackingTM technology, which converts hydrocarbons into particular products, mainly diesel, naphtha and LPG.

        Currently we believe, based on our knowledge of the industry and publicly available information, that globally, we have the most extensive experience in the application of FT technology on a commercial scale. The Sasol SPDTM process converts natural gas into diesel and other liquid hydrocarbons, which are generally more environmentally friendly and of higher quality and performance compared to the equivalent crude oil-derived products. In view of product specifications gradually becoming more stringent, especially with respect to emissions, we believe that this option is environmentally friendly. The Sasol SPDTM process can further be adopted to produce differentiated value added products, such as GTL base oils. The superior quality of GTL base oils position these products firmly as premium components in the formulation of top-tier lubricants.

Key contracts

        ORYX GTL, our 49% joint venture in Qatar, purchases natural gas feedstock from Al Khaleej Gas, a joint venture between ExxonMobil Middle East Gas Marketing Limited and Qatar Petroleum, under a gas purchase agreement with a contracted minimum off-take volume. The agreement commenced in November 2005 and is valid for a term of 25 years. The term of the agreement may be extended by the parties on terms and conditions that are mutually agreed.

        Escravos GTL (EGTL), in which we hold a 10% indirect economic interest, purchases 100% of its gas requirements for the EGTL plant from Chevron Nigeria Limited (CNL) and Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), the upstream joint venture partners. The agreement commenced from the date of commission of each unit and is valid for 25 years after the start of beneficial operation which was during June 2014. The term of the agreement may be extended by the parties on terms and conditions that are mutually agreed.

        The contract term of the marketing agreement between Sasol Chevron Holdings Limited (a 50% owned joint venture) and EGTL in respect of diesel and naphtha was terminated and ceased in November 2017. Since then, EGTL has been responsible for the marketing of its own products.

        Central Térmica de Ressano Garcia (CTRG), our 49% joint operation in Mozambique, purchases natural gas feedstock produced from our natural gas asset Pande-Temane PPA, which is managed by an unincorporated joint operation comprising of Sasol's subsidiary Sasol Petroleum Temane Limitada (SPT), and partners Companhia Mozambique de Hidrocabonetos (CMH) and the International Financial Corporation (IFC). CTRG also has a gas transport agreement with the Republic of Mozambique Pipeline Investment Company (ROMPCO) and a power purchase agreement with Electricidade de Mozambique (EDM). The term of the agreements commenced on 27 February 2015 and is valid for 20 years.

        The Republic of Mozambique Pipeline Investments Company (Pty) Ltd (ROMPCO) is owned by Sasol Gas (50%, the shares now being held by Sasol South Africa Limited), the South African Gas Development Company SOC Limited (iGas), a subsidiary of the Government of South African-owned Central Energy Fund (CEF) (25%) and Companhia Moçambicana de Gasoduto SA (CMG), a subsidiary of Government of Mozambique (25%). It was formed to transport natural gas from the Pande and Temane gas fields in Mozambque to markets in both Mozambique and South Africa via the

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Mozambique Secunda gas transmission pipeline (MSP).

        Refer to "Item 4.D—Exploration and Production International" for detail regarding key contracts in Gabon and Mozambique.

Legal proceedings and other contingencies

        From time to time, Sasol companies are involved in litigation, tax and similar proceedings in the normal course of business. Although the outcome of these claims and disputes cannot be predicted with certainty, a detailed assessment is performed on each matter, and a provision is recognised, or contingent liability disclosed, where appropriate in terms of International Financial Reporting Standards.

        As previously reported, the South African Revenue Service ("SARS") issued revised assessments for Sasol Oil relating to a dispute around its international crude oil procurement activities for the 2005 to 2012 tax years. The activities in question relate to procurement of crude oil in the Isle of Man which is then sold to shipping companies in London and shipped to Sasol Oil for refinement. SARS issued assessments on this business on the ground that the sale of oil from the Isle of Man to London constitutes a true sale and therefore tax should be levied. Sasol Oil has co-operated fully with SARS during the course of the audit related to these assessments.

        The assessments were initially issued in relation to the international crude oil procurement activities for the 2005 to 2007 tax years. The litigation process in the Tax Court, relating to the 2005 to 2007 years of assessment, was concluded and judgement was delivered on 30 June 2017 in favour of SARS. Sasol Oil, in consultation with its tax and legal advisors, does not support the basis of the judgement and filed an appeal with the Supreme Court of Appeal (SCA). The SCA hearing took place on 21 August 2018 and it is anticipated that the judgement will likely be delivered within a few months thereafter.

        SARS' assessments for the 2007 to 2012 tax years are based on the same ground. The

litigation process in the Tax Court, relating to the 2007 to 2012 years of assessment, is currently suspended pending the outcome of the judgment from the SCA on the assessment in respect of the 2005 to 2007 tax years.

        As a result, a liability of R1,3 billion has been recognised in the annual financial statements in respect of the 2005 to 2012 assessments that remain the subject of ongoing litigations.

        SARS has notified Sasol Oil of its intention to place on hold the field audit relating to this issue for the 1999 to 2004 tax years pending the outcome of the litigation. As a result of the judgement handed down on 30 June 2017, a possible obligation may arise from the field audit, which is regarded as a contingent liability.

        In addition, Sasol Oil has also received SARS' assessment for the 2013 to 2014 tax years relating to the international crude oil procurement activities. As a result of a change in South African tax law in 2012, SARS' assessment for the 2013 to 2014 tax years is based on different tax principles than the assessment for the 2005 to 2012 tax years. The basis for the assessment for the 2013 to 2014 tax years is that procurement of oil is not deductible and thus the income generated from such activity is taxable. The potential tax exposure for these periods is R12,6 billion, which could result in a potential contingent liability for Sasol Oil.

        Supported by specialist tax and legal advisors, Sasol Oil disagrees with SARS' additional assessments for the 2013 and 2014 periods and has filed an appeal in the Tax Court, which has been suspended pending the decision of the SCA referred to above. A possible obligation may also arise for the tax years subsequent to 2014, which could give rise to a future contingent liability, also depending to a degree on the outcome of the SCA hearing. See "Risk Factors—There are country-specific risks relating to the countries in which we operate that could adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition—Legal and regulatory—Tax laws and regulations."

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        SARS' decision to suspend the payment of this disputed tax for the periods 2005 to 2014 currently remains in force.

        In 2010, SARS commenced with a request for information in respect of Sasol Financing International Plc (SFI). This matter progressed to an audit over the years and has now culminated in SARS issuing a final audit letter on 16 February 2018. Consequently, assessments were issued in respect of the 2002 to 2012 tax years. SARS argues that the place of effective management of SFI, an offshore treasury function, was South Africa. This approach could result in potential tax exposure of R3,1 billion (including interest and penalties as at 30 June 2018). SFI has co-operated fully with SARS during the course of the audit related to these assessments. SFI, in consultation with its tax and legal advisors, does not support the basis of these additional assessments. Accordingly, SFI lodged objections and will submit appeals (as the case may be) to the assessments as the legal process unfolds. SARS' decision to suspend the payment of this disputed tax for the periods 2002 to 2012 currently remains in force.

        Sasol is committed to compliance with tax laws and any disputes with tax authorities on the interpretation of tax laws and regulations will be addressed in a transparent and constructive manner.

        For a description of the legal review of the NERSA maximum pricing and transmission tariffs refer to "Item 3.D—Risk Factors—The Gas Act".

        Following a judgement by the South African Constitutional Court in 2011, which confirmed the right of employees in the mining industry who contracted certain occupational diseases to claim damages from their employers, a number of legal cases were instituted in South Africa. Similar cases have also been threatened against participants in the coal sector of the mining industry. As a result of the Constitutional Court judgement referred to above, Sasol Mining is currently the defendant in three separate litigation matters. The first matter was instituted by 22 claimants who allege that they have contracted coal dust related lung diseases,

including pneumoconiosis, while in Sasol Mining's employment. The plaintiffs allege that they were exposed to harmful quantities of coal dust while working underground for Sasol Mining and that the company failed to comply with various sections of the Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996; failed to comply with various regulations issued in terms thereof; and failed to take effective measures to reduce the exposure of mine workers to coal dust. The plaintiffs allege that all of the above increased the risk for workers to contract coal dust related lung diseases. This claim was followed by two separate but similar claims instituted by single individuals claiming R1,5 million and R2,9 million respectively.

        The first lawsuit is not a class action but rather 22 individual cases, each of which will be judged on its own merits. The plaintiffs seek compensation for damages relating to past and future medical costs and loss of income amounting to R82,5 million in total. Sasol Mining is defending the claims.

        Sasol Mining holds the view that the claims can be defended successfully. Therefore, no provision has been raised at 30 June 2018.

        Further, from time to time, communities and non-governmental organisations challenge our environmental licences and related applications because of concerns regarding potential health and environmental impacts associated with Sasol's activities.

        The South African National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act prescribes minimum emission standards, applicable to existing plants which had to be complied with starting on 1 April 2015. Some parts of our operating units in South Africa were not able to comply with the minimum emission standards, and accordingly, applied for postponements. On 24 February 2015, the Department of Environmental Affairs issued the postponement decisions. In those instances where Sasol was granted compliance extensions for less than the five years it initially requested, Sasol received further postponements. Sasol continues to operate under atmospheric emission licences that incorporate these postponement decisions.

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        More stringent minimum emission standards, applicable to existing plants are required to be complied with starting on 1 April 2020. Some parts of our operating units in South Africa will not be able to comply with these and Sasol will therefore apply for postponements on the timeframe to comply with the more stringent minimum emission standards. It is uncertain whether these further postponement applications will be granted or whether they will be challenged by third parties and if so, whether any decisions granted in respect thereof can always be successfully defended. In the case of a postponement decision being declared invalid, the consequences for Sasol may be material as operating units may be found in non-compliance with the aforementioned Air Quality Act and the associated atmospheric emission license. Sasol needs to make substantial investment to meet minimum emissions standards requirements.

Competition law compliance

        Sasol continuously evaluates its compliance programmes and controls in general, including its competition law compliance programme and controls. As a consequence of these compliance programmes and controls, including monitoring and review activities, Sasol has adopted appropriate remedial and/or mitigating steps, where necessary or advisable, lodged leniency applications, and made and will continue to make disclosures on material findings as and when appropriate. These ongoing compliance activities have already revealed, and may still reveal, competition law contraventions or potential contraventions in respect of which we have taken, or will take, appropriate remedial and/or mitigating steps including lodging leniency applications.

        Since 2012 the South African Competition Commission has conducted an investigation into the South African petroleum products industry, which is now concluded. In May 2018 the investigation by the South African Competition Commision into conduct in the petroleum products market was completed through a settlement agreement with the participants with no finding made against participants under investigation (including Sasol Oil) on a no admission of guilt and no penalty basis.

        To the extent appropriate, further announcements on competition law matters will be made in future.

Environmental Orders

        To ensure our ongoing compliance with air quality regulations in South Africa, Sasol applied for certain postponements to manage our short-term challenges relating to the compliance timeframes in adhering to the stricter emission standards. We have received decisions on our initial postponement applications from the National Air Quality Officer, which are reflected in our atmospheric emission licences ("AEL"). Where shorter postponements were granted initially, applications have subsequently been made by our Secunda Synfuels, Sasolburg and Natref operations and further extensions until 2020 have been received to enable the progression of our committed environmental roadmaps. These extensions and associated conditions, which include stretched targets, are included in the relevant varied AELs under which we now operate.

        Our Sasolburg operations experienced challenges in meeting some emission limits in its AEL, applicable during the initial extended compliance period, and elected to voluntarily shut down its incinerators to mitigate against the risk of continued non-compliance and enforcement action. Although the authorities indicated that they will not proceed with administrative enforcement, Sasol's commitment remains to re-commission these incinerators only if compliance with the applicable varied emission limits can be sustained. Our Synfuels operations are engaging with the local licensing authority on its varied AEL in the interest of enabling lawful transitioning and sustained compliance.

        Sasol's environmental obligation accrued at 30 June 2018 was R14 933 million compared to R15 716 million at 30 June 2017. Included in this balance is an amount accrued of R4 872 million in respect of the costs of remediation of soil and groundwater contamination and similar environmental costs. These costs relate to the following activities: site assessments, soil and groundwater clean-up and remediation, and on-going monitoring. Due to uncertainties

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regarding future costs, the potential loss in excess of the amount accrued cannot be reasonably determined.

        Although Sasol has provided for known environmental obligations that are probable and reasonably estimable, the amount of additional future costs relating to remediation and rehabilitation may be material to the results of the operations in the period in which they are recognised. It is not expected that these environmental obligations will have a material effect on the financial position of the group.

Regulation

        The South African government has, over the past 20 years, introduced a legislative and policy regime with the imperative of redressing historical social and economic inequalities, as stated in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, by way of the empowerment of historically disadvantaged South Africans (HDSAs) in the areas of ownership, management and control, employment equity, skills development, procurement, enterprise development and socio-economic development.

        The majority of our operations are based in South Africa, but we also operate in numerous other countries throughout the world. In South Africa, we operate coal mines and a number of production plants and facilities for the storage, processing and transportation of raw materials, products and wastes related to coal, oil, chemicals and gas. These facilities and the respective operations are subject to various laws and regulations that may become more stringent and may, in some cases, affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.

        Our business activities in South Africa relating to coal mining, petroleum production, distribution and marketing of fuel products, electricity and gas are subject to regulation by various government departments and independent regulators. Refer to "Item 3.D—Risk factors" for details on particular aspects of regulation affecting our business activities.

Empowerment of historically disadvantaged South Africans

Black Economic Empowerment policies and legislation

Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act, 53 of 2003

        Sasol is well aligned with the economic transformation and sustainable development objectives embodied in the South African legislative and regulatory framework governing B-BBEE. The key elements of this framework are the B-BBEE Act and the Codes of Good Practice (the new Codes were gazetted on 11 October 2013 and promulgated on 1 May 2015) for B-BBEE issued by the Minister of Trade and Industry in terms of the Act (Codes), as well as the Charters (i.e. the Mining Charter and Liquid Fuels Charter) adopted by the various sectors within which Sasol operates businesses and related scorecards.

        Transformation is an essential part of the group's strategy, and thus our B-BBEE framework and plans have been developed to ensure that measurable progress is made towards sustainable economic transformation. Our approach is intrinsically collaborative and the business works together with all of our stakeholders: customers, partners, suppliers and the public sector, including government. Our approach to transformation is thus much more than just meeting targets and we are committed to constant evaluation of our achievements, as well as tackling challenges and leveraging new opportunities.

        Sasol continues to support the goals of the National Development Plan (NDP) 2030, B-BBEE, Employment Equity and Skills Development Acts. Sasol supports the broader objectives of skills development and has been a significant contributor to skills development and in turn socio-economic development in South Africa over the years. Through various management training programmes, Sasol has notably built a pipeline of black managers who are moving from junior management to middle management positions and have made strides in this area. Furthermore Sasol provides support to small, medium and micro-sized enterprises

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(SMMEs) which includes loan funding to majority black-owned suppliers through the Sasol Siyakha Enterprise and Supplier Development Fund and, business development and incubation support through our Sasol Business Incubator located in Sasolburg. Being a credible corporate citizen and member of the communities in which we operate is at the core of our approach to our socio-economic development contribution. As a result, we have realigned our social investments towards programmes that enable access to quality education; stimulate local economic development and job creation, bolster the pool of technical, vocational and science, technology, engineering and mathematics-related skills; facilitate collaboration to advance the delivery of municipal services; and promote the protection of the environment.

        Our most recent certification issued in September 2017 puts us at a contributor status of level 6 and represents a key milestone in our transformation efforts, with year-on-year improvements once again being realised across most pillars of the scorecard as we aim to achieve at least a level 4 rating by 2020.

        Sasol continues to entrench transformation within the organisational culture, enhancing its commitment as a corporate citizen.

Sasol Inzalo share transaction

        In 2008, Sasol entered into the Sasol Inzalo black economic empowerment (BEE) share transaction, which resulted in the transfer of beneficial ownership of 10% (63,1 million shares) of Sasol Limited's issued share capital before the implementation of this transaction, to its employees and a broad-based group of black South Africans (BEE participants). This transaction was contracted for a 10 year period and was accordingly unwound in June 2018 with the last element unwinding in September 2018. Refer to "Item 18—Annual Financial Statements—Note 35—Share based payment reserve" for further information.

Sasol Khanyisa transaction

        In 2017, Sasol announced a new B-BBEE ownership transaction (the "Sasol Khanyisa Transaction", or "Sasol Khanyisa"), structured to

comply with the revised B-BBEE legislation in South Africa.

        Sasol Khanyisa was approved by the Sasol shareholders in November 2017 and implemented in phases since March 2018. Sasol Khanyisa does not remove or modify the rights of the participants under the terms of the Sasol Inzalo transaction. As equity ownership is a critical pillar of the B-BBEE legislation and as Sasol Inzalo comes to an end, Sasol Khanyisa was implemented to ensure continued compliance with the legislation. By implementing the Sasol Khanyisa transaction the company will seek to ensure on-going and sustainable B-BBEE ownership credentials.

        The participants of the original Sasol Inzalo transaction and qualifying black current employees (including those who participated in Sasol Inzalo) were invited to participate in Sasol Khanyisa.

        Sasol Khanyisa has certain elements structured at a subsidiary level, namely Sasol South Africa Limited ("SSA"—which was a wholly-owned subsidiary of Sasol before the effective date of Sasol Khanyisa), which houses the majority of the South African operations of Sasol. However, if the transaction conditions are fulfilled, ownership for participants at the end of the transaction will ultimately be converted into ordinary shares in Sasol Limited.

        The accounting recognition and measurement principles applied to the Sasol Khanyisa transaction are the same as those applied to the Sasol Inzalo transaction, as the substance of both transactions is the same. Based on the underlying assumptions made by Sasol, the total IFRS 2 charge associated with Sasol Khanyisa is R6,5 billion over the life of the transaction, of which R3,0 billion was recognised in 2018.

        Refer to "Item 18—Annual Financial Statements—Note 35—Share based payment reserve" for further information.

        With the implementation of Sasol Khanyisa, approximately 18,4% direct black ownership in SSA now exists, which, together with black ownership at Sasol Group level, translates into at least 25% black ownership credentials

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at SSA level (for purposes of measuring black ownership credentials under the current B-BBEE legislation).

The Mining Charter

        The Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Charter for the South African Mining and Minerals Industry (Mining Charter) requires mining companies to meet various criteria intended to promote meaningful participation in the industry of HDSAs. The various iterations of a proposed revised Mining Charter have been the subject of much legal disagreement between industry and the government, most particularly on the issue of equity ownership of mining companies.

        The Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) argues that holders of mining rights should ensure that their BEE ownership levels are at least 26%, and top them up perpetually should they fall below this level. The Industry groups have argued that once a company has secured mining rights based on its compliance with this requirement, it should not be required to conclude any further transactions to restore its BEE ownership back to 26%. On 4 April 2018, the High Court granted a declaratory order in favour of the industry, but the DMR applied for leave to appeal the decision, which is still to be heard.

        Since early 2018, the new Minister of Mineral Resources has tried to resolve the impasse between the industry and all other stakeholders. On 15 June 2018 a third iteration of the Mining Charter was published for public comment, and in early July 2018 a summit of stakeholders was held to discuss it, requesting written submissions to the DMR by 31 August 2018. The Minerals Council South Africa, on behalf of the industry and of which Sasol is a member, is a key stakeholder in discussions with the DMR.

        Sasol is considering the revised Mining Charter and will make representations to the DMR if necessary.

The Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Amendment Bill

        The Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Amendment Bill (the MPRDA Bill) was introduced in June 2013, before being sent back to Parliament by the President for reconsideration based on concerns regarding its constitutionality. Subsequently, the MPRDA Bill was reviewed and amended. The legislative process is still ongoing.

        The MPRDA Bill contains certain provisions that may have a material negative effect on the mining industry. These include elevating the Codes of Good Practice for the South African Minerals Industry, the Housing and Living Conditions Standards for the Mineral Industry and the Amended Broad-Based Socio Economic Empowerment Charter for the South African Mining and Minerals Industry to the status of legislation without such documents having followed the normal route to create legislation. Another potential negative material effect on the mining industry is linked to the obligation on mining companies to sell a certain percentage of their production to local beneficiaries at a so-called "mine gate price" which will most likely be lower than the price at which the producer can sell the minerals in the open market.

The Liquid Fuels Charter

        In 2000, following a process of consultation, the Department of Minerals and Energy (now the Department of Energy) and a number of companies in the liquid fuels industry, including Sasol Oil, signed the Liquid Fuels Charter (the Charter) which sets out the principles for the empowerment of HDSAs in the South African petroleum and liquid fuels industry. The Charter requires liquid fuels companies, including Sasol Oil, to ensure that HDSAs hold at least 25% equity ownership in the South African entity holding their operating assets by the end of a period of 10 years from the date of the signing of the Charter.

        In order to meet this equity ownership objective, Sasol Limited concluded a BEE transaction with an HDSA-owned company, Tshwarisano LFB Investment (Pty) Ltd

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(Tshwarisano), in terms of which Sasol Limited disposed of 25% of its shareholding in Sasol Oil to Tshwarisano. With effect from 1 July 2006, Sasol Oil met the 25% BEE ownership target, with Tshwarisano holding 25% of the shares in Sasol Oil in line with the Charter.

        Tshwarisano's shareholding is fully unencumbered after it settled the last of its debt relating to its equity shareholding in February 2016.

        The Charter further provides for the evaluation by the Department of Energy, from time to time, of the industry's progress in achieving the objectives of the Charter. The Department of Energy in concurrence with the Department of Trade and Industry initiated a process to establish a Sector Charter (Petroleum and Liquid Fuels Sector Charter) in terms of section 12 of the Broad-based Black Economic Empowerment Act, 53 of 2003. The outcome or potential effect of this process on Sasol cannot be assessed at this time.

The Restitution of Land Rights Act, 22 of 1994

        Our privately held land could be subject to land restitution claims under the Restitution of Land Rights Act, 22 of 1994. Under this act, any person who was dispossessed of rights to land in South Africa as a result of past racially discriminatory laws or practices is granted certain remedies, including, but not limited to the restoration of the land claimed with or without compensation to the holder.

Mining rights

        Sasol Mining is the holder of mining rights in terms of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, 2002, in respect of its operations in the Mpumalanga and Free State provinces in South Africa.

        In respect of the Secunda mining complex in Mpumalanga, Sasol Mining has four mining rights situated within the Bethal, Secunda, Highveld Ridge, Balfour and Standerton magisterial districts. These mining rights are valid for periods between 20 and 30 years.

        Coal mining activities in the Free State province near the town of Sasolburg are

conducted by virtue of Sasol Mining holding a mining right which is valid until 2040.

Safety, health and environment

Regions in which Sasol operates and their applicable legislation

South Africa

        The major part of our operations is located in South Africa. We operate a number of plants and facilities for the manufacture, storage, processing and transportation of chemical feedstock, products and wastes. These operations are subject to numerous laws and regulations relating to safety, health and the protection of the environment.

Environmental regulation

        The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (the Constitution) contains the underlying right which must be given effect to by environmental legislation in South Africa. The South African National Environmental Management Act is therefore the framework Act which primarily aims to give effect to the Constitutional environmental right. It also underpins specific environmental management acts, such as the National Environmental Management: Waste Act, the National Water Act and the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act which all, in turn, regulate specific environmental media and the associated regulation of potential impacts thereon. The National Environmental Management: Waste Act also specifically regulates the process for management of contaminated land. These Acts also provide for enforcement mechanisms as well as provisions for the imposition of criminal sanction. These also apply to mining activities.

        Apart from South Africa's international commitments, the country's climate change mitigation regulation is still being developed. Sasol continues to engage with the government on the development of pollution prevention plans, a draft Carbon Tax Bill as well as the imposition of mandatory carbon budgets. Sasol has received and agreed to the carbon budget allocated to it, which is in place until 2020. Mandatory greenhouse gas reporting will begin

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in 2018, and the regulations pertaining thereto were published in 2017. Sasol's engagement focuses on the need for alignment of mitigation instruments in an effort to create long-term policy certainty.

        For information regarding our challenges associated with these regulatory requirements refer to "Item 3.D—Risk factors".

Health and safety

        Occupational health and safety is governed by the Occupational Health and Safety Act and the Mine Health and Safety Act for compensation of employees who suffer occupationally related diseases or injuries. Specific requirements for chemicals and hazardous substances are regulated by the Hazardous Substances Act.

Germany and Italy

        In Germany and Italy, we operate a number of plants and facilities for the manufacture, storage, processing and transportation of chemical feedstock, products and waste. These operations are subject to numerous laws and ordinances relating to safety, health and the protection of the environment. The objectives and requirements of these legal frameworks are largely consistent with that of the South African Framework, although more established and pervasive in some respects.

Hazardous substances

        Provisions for the protection of humans and the environment against the harmful effects of hazardous substances and preparations are provided in the Chemicals Act, and related ordinances on the Prohibition of Certain Chemicals and Hazardous Incidents. All hazardous substances are subject to the requirements of the European Union (EU) Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Regulation, including requirements for registration and notification obligation before these substances can be brought onto the market. Hazardous substances and mixtures must be classified, labelled and packed in accordance with the

EU classification, labelling and packaging regulation. Further regulations prohibiting and limiting manufacture, marketing and use also apply.

United States

        In the US, we operate a number of plants and facilities for the storage and processing of chemical feedstock, products and wastes. Sasol's US operations and growth projects are subject to numerous laws, regulations and ordinances relating to safety, health and the protection of the environment. The objectives and requirements of these legal frameworks are largely consistent with that of the South African Framework, although more established and entrenched in some respects.

        Hazardous substances are, in particular, regulated by a standard that incorporates the requirements of the Globally Harmonised System for classification and labelling of chemicals into occupational health and safety legislations. Chemical manufacturers and importers are required to evaluate the hazards of the chemicals they produce or import, and prepare labels and safety data sheets to convey the hazard information to their downstream customers.

        Regulation relating to climate change in the US at federal level is currently uncertain given the announced policies of the Trump administration. However, in most states, climate change regulation continues to be developed.

Canada

        The British Columbia (BC) Petroleum and Natural Gas Act and Environmental Management Act are the primary sources of regulatory controls over our natural oil and gas-producing areas in Canada. The acts and supporting legislation are administered by the BC Oil & Gas Commission to regulate the oil and gas industry and ensure public safety, environmental protection, conservation of petroleum resources and equitable participation in production. Regulations aimed at achieving methane reductions have recently been published.

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        In late 2016, the Canadian federal government announced a national carbon price programme requiring all provinces and territories to have carbon pricing initiatives in effect by 2018 at a minimum of CAD10/tonne of CO2 equivalent emissions, to increase by CAD10/tonne annually until they reach CAD50/tonne in 2022. The introduction of the national carbon price programme should have a relatively minor financial impact on Sasol's Canadian operations.

Mozambique

        A National Environmental Policy (Resolution 5/95, of 3 August) is the government document outlining the priorities for environmental management and sustainable development in Mozambique, including the required legal framework. The Environmental Law (Law 20/1997, of 1 October as amended by Law 16/2014, of 20 June) provides a legal framework for the use and correct management of the environment and its components and to assure sustainable development in Mozambique. The Regulations on Environmental Impact Assessment (Decree 54/2015, of 31 December) set forth the procedures applicable for the granting of environmental licences.

        The Environmental Regulations for Petroleum Operations (Decree 56/2010, of 31 December) apply to petroleum operations including exploration, development, production, transport, storage and marketing of petroleum products.

        Regulations on Environmental Quality and Emission Standards (Decree 18/2004, of 2 June as amended by Decree 67/2010, of 31 December) aim to establish the standards for environmental quality and for effluents release in order to assure the effective control and maintenance of the admissible standards of concentration of polluting substances on the environmental components. This is supplemented by specific regulations on solid waste and water quality management.

        The Petroleum Act (Law 21/2014, of 18 August) and the Petroleum Operations Regulations (Decree 34/2015, of 31 December) require holders of exploration and production

rights to conduct petroleum operations in compliance with environmental and other applicable legislation. The law makes provision for compensation to be paid under general legislation by the holder of a right to conduct petroleum operations to persons whose assets are damaged. The law establishes strict liability for the holder of the right who causes environmental damage or pollution.

Gabon

        The primary legislation in Gabon governing oil and gas activities is the Hydrocarbon Law (Law No. 011/2014) which established a new regime governing hydrocarbons exploration, exploitation and transportation activities, in compliance with environmental and other applicable legislation. Existing production sharing contracts remain in force until their expiry and will remain governed by the previous law (Law No. 14/1982), with the exception of a limited number of additional obligations under the new regime such as a natural gas flaring prohibition.

Other countries

        In a number of other countries, we are engaged in various activities that are impacted by local and international laws, regulations and treaties. In China and other countries, we operate plants and facilities for the storage, processing and transportation of chemical substances, including feedstock, products and waste. In the United Arab Emirates, Nigeria and other countries, we are involved, or are in the process of becoming involved, in exploration, extraction, processing or storage and transportation activities in connection with feedstock, products and waste relating to natural oil and gas, petroleum and chemical substances.

        In Qatar, we participate in a joint venture owning and operating a GTL facility involving the production, storage and transportation of GTL diesel, GTL naphtha and LPG. These operations are subject to numerous laws and ordinances relating to safety, health and the protection of the environment.

        Our operations in the respective jurisdictions are subject to numerous laws and

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regulations relating to exploration and mining rights and the protection of safety, health and the environment.

4.C Organisational Structure

        Sasol Limited (Sasol) is the ultimate parent of the Sasol group of companies.

        Sasol South Africa Limited, a subsidiary in the Sasol group and a company incorporated in the Republic of South Africa, primarily holds our operations located in South Africa. A number of other subsidiaries incorporated in the Republic of South Africa, including Sasol Oil (Pty) Ltd, Sasol Mining Holdings (Pty) Ltd, Sasol Middle East and India (Pty) Ltd and Sasol Africa (Pty) Ltd, hold our interests in operations in South Africa, other parts of Africa and the Middle East. Sasol Financing Limited, responsible for the management of cash

resources and investments, is wholly owned and incorporated in the Republic of South Africa.

        Our wholly owned subsidiary, Sasol Investment Company (Pty) Ltd, a company incorporated in the Republic of South Africa, primarily holds our interests in companies incorporated outside South Africa, including Sasol European Holdings Limited (United Kingdom), Sasol Wax International GmbH (Germany), Sasol (USA) Corporation (US), Sasol Holdings (Asia Pacific) (Pty) Ltd (South Africa), Sasol Chemical Holdings International (Pty) Ltd (South Africa), Sasol Canada Holdings Limited (Canada) and their respective subsidiaries.

        See Exhibit 8.1 for a list of our significant subsidiaries and significant jointly controlled entities.

4.D Property, plants and equipment

        Refer to "Item 18—Annual Financial Statements—Note 17—Property, plant and equipment" for further information regarding our property, plant and equipment.

Mining

Coal mining facilities

        Our main coal mining facilities are located at the Secunda Mining Complex, which consists of underground collieries (Bosjesspruit, Brandspruit, Impumelelo, Middelbult, Shondoni shaft, Syferfontein, and Twistdraai, Thubelisha shaft) and the Sigma complex consisting of the Mooikraal colliery near Sasolburg.

        For detail regarding the cost of the assets in our coal mining facilities, refer to the segmental information contained in "Item 18—Annual Financial Statements—Note 17—Property, plant and equipment".

        A map showing the location of our coal properties and major manufacturing plants in South Africa is shown on page M-1.

        Mining operates seven mines for the supply of coal to the Secunda Synfuels Operations, Sasolburg Operations (utility coal only) and the external market. The annual production of each mine, the

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primary market to which it supplies coal and the location of each mine are indicated in the table below:

 
   
   
   
  Production
(Mt)(3)
 
 
   
   
  Nominated
capacity
per year (Mt)(2)
 
Colliery
  Location   Market   2018   2017   2016  

Bosjesspruit

  Secunda   Secunda Synfuels Operations     7,0     5,7     6,1     6,6  

Brandspruit

  Secunda   Secunda Synfuels Operations     2,0     2,3     2,8     5,3  

Impumelelo

  Secunda   Secunda Synfuels Operations     4,6     3,2     2,2     1,7  

Middelbult, Shondoni shaft

  Secunda   Secunda Synfuels Operations     7,8     6,9     6,5     7,6  

Syferfontein

  Secunda   Secunda Synfuels Operations     11,4     10,5     10,9     11,1  

Twistdraai, Thubelisha shaft

  Secunda   Export/Secunda Synfuels Operations(1)     9,7     8,8     7,9     8,2  

Sigma : Mooikraal

  Sasolburg   Sasolburg Operations     1,9     1,4     1,2     1,8  

                  38,8     37,6     42,3  

Production tons per continuous miner (mining production machine) per shift including off-shift production(4) (t/cm/shift)

                  1 161     1 147     1 322  

(1)
The secondary product from the export beneficiation plant is supplied to Secunda Synfuels Operations.

(2)
The nominated capacity of the mines is the expected maximum production of that mine during normal operating hours, and does not represent the total maximum capacity of the mine.

(3)
Production excludes externally purchased coal.

(4)
Off-shift production is a voluntary shift system allowing mine workers to produce coal on their non-working shifts. This shift system provides the mine with a flexibility option to catch-up on production shortfall. The mine workers are remunerated for this production on a cost per ton basis.

 

Processing operations

        Coal export business—Secunda operations.    We started the coal export business in August 1996. Run of mine coal is sourced from the existing East shaft of Twistdraai Colliery (formerly East, West and Central shafts) and the Thubelisha shaft (nominated capacity 9,7 Million tons (Mt)). The export beneficiation plant has a design throughput total capacity of 10,5 Mt per annum. In 2018, we produced 8,8 Mt from Twistdraai, Thubelisha shaft; of which we beneficiated 8,2 Mt, and 0,6 Mt was bypassed to Sasol Coal Supply.

        The run of mine (ROM) coal is transported via overland conveyor belts to the export beneficiation plant from the Twistdraai shafts. The export product is loaded onto trains by means of a rapid load-out system, and then transported to the Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) in KwaZulu-Natal.

        Mining has a 4,2% shareholding in RBCT, which corresponds to the existing entitlement of 3,6 Mt per year. Actual export volumes for 2018 were 3,19 Mt. For the foreseeable future, we

anticipate exports of approximately 3,3 Mt per year.

        Sasol Coal Supply—Secunda Operations.    Sasol Coal Supply operates the coal handling facility between Mining and Secunda Synfuels Operations by stacking and blending coal on six live stockpiles. The overland conveyors from the mining operations to the coal handling facility are, in total, 100 kilometres (km) long and also form part of the Sasol Coal Supply operation.

        The operation has a live stockpile capacity of 720 000 tons, which is turned over around 1,2 times per week. In addition, there is a targeted strategic stockpile capacity of more than 2,0 Mt. The objectives of this facility are:

    to homogenise the coal quality supplied to Secunda Synfuels Operations;

    to keep mine bunkers empty;

    to keep the Secunda Synfuels Operations bunkers full with a product that conforms to customer requirements;

    to maintain a buffer stockpile to ensure even supply; and

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    to perform a reconciliation of business with regard to quantity and quality.

        The daily coal supply to Secunda Synfuels Operations is approximately 112 000 tons.

Coal exploration techniques

        Mining's geology department employs several exploration techniques in assessing the geological risks associated with the exploitation of the coal deposits. These techniques are applied in a mutually supportive way to achieve an optimal geological model of the relevant coal seams, targeted for production purposes. The Highveld Basin is considered to be structurally complex when compared to the other coalfields in South Africa where mining activities take place. As a result, Mining bases its geological modelling on sufficient and varied geological information. This approach is utilised in order to achieve a high level of confidence and support to the production environment.

        Core recovery exploration drilling.    This is the primary exploration technique that is applied in all exploration areas, especially during reconnaissance phases. In and around operational mines, the average vertical borehole density varies from 1:10 to 1:15 (boreholes per hectare), while in medium-term mining areas, the average borehole density is in the order of 1:25. Depths of the boreholes drilled vary, depending on the depth to the Pre-Karoo basement, from 160 metres (m) to 380 m. The major application of this technique is to locate the coal horizons, to determine coal quality and to gather structural information about dolerite dykes and sills, and the associated de-volatilisation and displacement of coal reserves. This information is used to compile geological models and forms the basis of geological interpretation.

        Directional drilling.    Directional drilling from surface to in-seam has been successfully applied for several years. A circular area with a radius of approximately 1,4 km of coal deposit can be covered by this method from one drill site. The main objective of this approach is to locate dolerite dykes and transgressive dolerite sills, as well as faults with displacements larger than the coal seam thickness.

        Horizontal drilling.    This technique is applied to all operational underground mines and supplies short-term (minimum three months) exploration coverage per mining section. No core is usually recovered, although core recovery is possible, if required. The main objective is to locate dolerite dykes and transgressive sills intersecting the coal mining horizon, by drilling horizontal holes in the coal seam from a mined out area. A drilling reach of up to 1 km is possible, although the average length is usually 800 m in undisturbed coal.

        Aeromagnetic surveys.    Many explorations are usually aero-magnetically surveyed before the focused exploration is initiated. The main objective is to locate magnetic dolerite sills and dykes, as well as large-scale fault zones.

        Geophysical wireline surveys of directional boreholes.    Geophysical surveys are routinely conducted in the completed directional drilled boreholes. This results in the availability of detailed information leading to increased confidence of the surface directional drilling results.

Secunda operations

        The coal supplied to Secunda Synfuels Operations is the raw coal mined from the five mines supplying Secunda Synfuels Operations exclusively and the secondary product from the export beneficiation plant.

        We have carried out extensive geological exploration in the coal resource areas, and undertake additional exploration to update and refine the geological models. This allows for accurate forecasting of geological conditions and coal qualities, and also effective planning and utilisation of coal reserves.

Computation and storage of geological information

        We store geological information in the acQuire database. We conduct regular data validation and quality checking through several in-house methods. Data modelling is conducted by manual interpretation and computer-derived geological models, using the Minex 6 edition of the GEOVIA/ MINEX software. Reserves and composite qualities are computed using established and recognised geo-statistical techniques.

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General stratigraphy

        The principal coal horizon, the Number 4 Lower Coal Seam, provides some 91,72% (2017—89,26%) of the total proved and probable reserves. The Number 4 Lower Coal Seam is one of six coal horizons occurring in the Vryheid Formation of the Karoo Supergroup, a permo-carboniferous aged, primarily sedimentary sequence. The coal seams are numbered from the oldest to the youngest.

        The Number 4 Lower Coal Seam is a bituminous hard coal, characterised by the following borehole statistics:

    The depth to the base of the seam ranges from 40 m to 241 m with an average depth of 135 m below the surface topography. All the current mining done on this seam is underground;

    The floor of the seam dips gently from north to south at approximately 0,5 degrees;

    The thickness of the seam varies in a range up to 10 m with a weighted average thickness of 3,3 m. In general, thinner coal is found to the south and thicker coal to the west adjacent to the Pre-Karoo basement highs;

    The inherent ash content (air dried basis) is an average 26,8%, which is in line with the coal qualities supplied during the past 30 years to Secunda Synfuels Operations;

    The volatile matter content is tightly clustered around a mean of 22,7% (air dried); and
    The total sulphur content (air dried), which primarily consists of mineral sulphur in the form of pyrite and minor amounts of organic sulphur, averages 1,00% of the total mass of the coal.

        The other potential coal seam is:

    The Number 2 Coal Seam at Middelbult colliery and Impumelelo colliery, which has been included in our reserve base.

Reserve estimation (remaining reserves at 31 March 2018)

        We have approximately 4,2 billion tons (Bt) (2017—3,7 Bt) of gross in situ proved and probable coal reserves in the Secunda Deposit and approximately 1,4 Bt (2017—1,2 Bt) of recoverable reserves. The coal reserve estimations are set out in table 1 that follows. Reported reserves will be converted into synthetic oil reserves, except for reserves which will be used for utilities in Secunda Synfuels Operations and the majority of the Twistdraai, Thubelisha shaft reserves which will be exported. The reserve disclosure in this section includes Mining's total coal resources and reserves available for mining operations in Secunda. These reserves have not been adjusted for the synthetic oil reserves reported in the supplemental oil and gas information. The different reserve areas are depicted on the map on page M-1, as well as whether a specific reserve area has been assigned to a specific mine.

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Table 1.

Coal reserve estimations(1) as at 31 March 2018, in the Secunda area where we have converted mining rights (signed on 29 March 2010) in terms of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, Act 28 of 2002

Reserve area
  Gross in
situ coal
resource(2)
(Mt)(5)
  Geological
discount
(Mt)(5)
  Mine
layout
losses
(Mt)(5)
  Extraction
rate
(%)
  Recoverable
reserves(3)
(Mt)(5)
  Beneficiated
yield(4)
(%)
  Proved/
probable

Middelbult mine, number 4 seam

    661     89     184     48     203     100   Proved

Middelbult mine, number 2 seam

    61     13     8     39     19     100   Probable

Bosjesspruit mine

    183     7     64     49     70     100   Proved

Bosjesspruit mine

    71     3     25     49     33     100   Probable

Syferfontein mine

    896     170     166     52     276     100   Proved

Syferfontein mine

                    16     100   Probable

Brandspruit mine

    2     1     1     44     0,3     100   Proved

Twistdraai Thubelisha shaft

    664     123     103     55     270     P34,S37   Proved

Impumelelo, Block 2, number 4 seam

    628     81     129     51     216     100   Proved

Impumelelo, Block 2, number 2 seam

    356     53     153     43     49     100   Probable

Block 2 South, number 4 seam

    363     98     48     54     123     100   Probable

Block 2 South, number 2 seam

    133     36     18     54     45     100   Probable

Block 3 South

    141     38     19     58     52     100   Probable

Total Secunda area

    4 159                       1 372          

(1)
The coal reserve estimations in this table were compiled under supervision of Mr Viren Deonarain who is considered a competent person. The "South African Code for Reporting of Minerals Resources and Minerals Reserves (The SAMREC Code 2007 edition)" dealing with competence and responsibility, paragraph 7, state Documentation detailing Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Mineral reserves from which a Public Report is prepared, must be prepared by, or under the direction of, and signed by a Competent Person. Paragraph 9 states: A 'Competent Person' is a person who is registered with SACNASP, ECSA or PLATO, or is a Member or Fellow of the SAIMM, the GSS or a Recognised Overseas Professional organisation (ROPO). The Competent Person must comply with the provisions of the relevant promulgated Acts. Mr J Erasmus (Pr.Nat.Sc), on behalf of Sumsare Consulting performed a comprehensive and independent audit of the coal resource/reserve estimations in July 2015 and the estimates were certified as correct. The estimation of the reserves is compliant with the definition and guidelines as stated in the SAMREC and Joint Ore Reserve Committee (JORC) codes, as well as SEC Industry Guideline 7.

(2)
The gross in situ coal resource is an estimate of the coal tonnage, contained in the full coal seam above the minimum thickness cut off and relevant coal quality cut off parameters. No loss factors are applied and seam height does not include external dilution or contamination material.

(3)
The recoverable coal reserve is an estimate of the expected recovery of the mines in these areas and is determined by the subtraction of losses due to geological and mining factors and the addition of dilatants such as moisture and contamination.

(4)
The P% of P34 refers to the export product yield from the recoverable coal reserve and the S% of S37 refers to secondary product yield, which will be supplied to the Sasol Synfuels Operations. The balance of this is discard material.

(5)
Mt refers to 1 million tons. Reference is made of tons, each of which equals 1 000 kilograms, approximately 2 205 pounds or 1 102 short tons.

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Table 2.

Coal qualities, on an air dry basis, in respective coal reserve areas, where Mining has converted mining rights in respect of the Secunda mining complex in terms of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, Act 28 of 2002.

Reserve area
  Wet/dry
tons
  Average
Inherent
Moisture
Content
(%)
  Average
Superficial
Moisture
Content
(%)
  Assigned/
unassigned
  Steam/
metallurgical
coal
  Heat
Value
(air dry)
basis
MJ/kg
  Sulphur
(air dry
basis)
 

Middelbult mine

  Wet     4,3   n/a   Assigned   Steam     21,1     0,9  

Bosjesspruit mine

  Wet     3,9   n/a   Assigned   Steam     20,0     0,9  

Syferfontein mine

  Wet     5,3   n/a   Assigned   Steam     21,8     0,8  

Brandspruit mine

  Wet     3,8   n/a   Assigned   Steam     17,6     1,3  

Twistdraai, Thubelisha shaft

  Wet     4,5   n/a   Assigned   Steam     21,2     1,1  

Impumelelo, Block 2, number 4 seam. 

  Wet     3,8   n/a   Assigned   Steam     19,9     1,3  

Impumelelo, Block 2, number 2 seam

  Wet     3,8   n/a   Assigned   Steam     20,5     0,7  

Block 2 South, number 4 seam

  Wet     4,1   n/a   Unassigned   Steam     18,2     1,2  

Block 2 South, number 2 seam

  Wet     3,6   n/a   Unassigned   Steam     17,4     0,7  

Block 3 South

  Wet     3,6   n/a   Unassigned   Steam     21,9     0,7  

Table 3.

Coal qualities, on an as received basis, in respective coal reserve areas, where Mining has converted mining rights in the Secunda mining complex in terms of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, Act 28 of 2002.

Reserve area
  Wet/dry
tons
  Average
Inherent
Moisture
Content
(%)
  Average
Superficial
Moisture
Content
(%)
  Assigned/
unassigned
  Steam/
metallurgical
coal
  Heat
Value
(as received)
basis
MJ/kg
  Sulphur
(as received
basis)
 

Middelbult mine

  Wet     4,2     4,5   Assigned   Steam     19,6     0,9  

Bosjesspruit mine

  Wet     3,8     4,0   Assigned   Steam     18,1     0,8  

Syferfontein mine

  Wet     5,3     4,7   Assigned   Steam     20,6     0,8  

Brandspruit mine

  Wet     3,7     3,7   Assigned   Steam     16,9     1,2  

Twistdraai, Thubelisha shaft

  Wet     4,3     4,3   Assigned   Steam     19,5     1,0  

Impumelelo, Block 2, number 4 seam

  Wet     3,8     3,7   Assigned   Steam     18,7     1,2  

Impumelelo, Block 2, number 2 seam

  Wet     3,7     3,7   Assigned   Steam     19,2     0,7  

Block 2 South, number 4 seam

  Wet     4,1     3,1   Unassigned   Steam     18,0     1,1  

Block 2 South, number 2 seam

  Wet     3,6     2,7   Unassigned   Steam     17,2     0,7  

Block 3 South

  Wet     3,4     3,6   Unassigned   Steam     21,8     0,7  

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Criteria for proved and probable

        Over and above the definitions for coal reserves, probable coal reserves and proved coal reserves, set forth in Industry Guide 7, promulgated by the US Securities and Exchange Commission, we consider the following criteria to be pertinent to the classification of the reserves:

        Probable reserves are those reserve areas where the drill hole spacing is sufficiently close in the context of the deposit under consideration, where conceptual mine design can be applied, and for which all the legal and environmental aspects have been considered. Probable reserves can be estimated with a lower level of confidence than proved coal reserves. Currently this classification results in variable drill spacing depending on the complexity of the area being considered and is generally less than 500 m, although in some areas it may extend to 800 m. The influence of increased drilling in these areas should not materially change the underlying geostatistics of the area on the critical parameters such as seam floor, seam thickness, ash and volatile content.

        Proved reserves are those reserves for which the drill hole spacing is generally less than 350 m, for which a complete mine design has been applied which includes layouts and schedules resulting in a full financial estimation of the reserve. This classification has been applied to areas in the production stage or for which a detailed feasibility study has been completed.

Legal rights on coalfields

        Sasol Mining (Pty) Ltd is the holder of various prospecting and mining rights for coal in Mpumalanga and the Free State. These prospecting and mining rights are granted by the State acting as custodian of South Africa's mineral and petroleum resources in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, 28 of 2002.

        In respect of the Secunda mining complex in Mpumalanga, Sasol Mining has four mining rights situated within the Bethal, Secunda,

Highveld Ridge, Balfour and Standerton magisterial districts. These mining rights are valid for periods of between 20 and 30 years, which allows Sasol Mining to provide a continuous and steady coal supply to Sasol South Africa Limited, which beneficiates the coal into higher value and in most cases, end-line products. Please refer to page M1 for a map of the Secunda mining complex layout.

        Coal mining activities in the Free State province near the town of Sasolburg are conducted by virtue of Sasol Mining holding a mining right which is valid for 30 years. The coal is mainly used for electricity and steam generation at Sasol's Infrachem Industries. Steam is a major component which is required in the production of Sasol's chemical products as well as the refining of oil.

        The validity period of Sasol's mining rights may, on application to the Department of Mineral Resources, be renewed for further periods not exceeding 30 years each.

Exploration and Production International (E&PI)

Natural Oil and Gas Operations

        Our natural oil and gas operations are managed by our Exploration and Production International (E&PI) business unit. E&PI's principal activities are the exploration, appraisal, development and production of hydrocarbon resources. Currently we hold equity in three producing assets with proved reserves in Mozambique, Gabon and Canada and one non-producing asset in Mozambique. We also have equity in exploration licences in Mozambique and South Africa.

        In the narrative sections below, unless stated otherwise, all quantitative statements refer to gross figures. The tabular information which follows the narrative provides:

    Total gross and net developed and undeveloped acreage of our natural oil and gas assets and exploration licences by geographic area, at 30 June 2018;

    The number of net natural oil and gas wells completed in each of the last three years and the number of wells being drilled at 30 June 2018;

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    Capitalised natural oil and gas exploratory well costs at the end of the last three years and information about the continued capitalisation of natural oil and gas exploratory well costs at 30 June 2018;

    Details about the production capacity of our natural oil and gas production facilities and the number of productive natural oil and gas wells, at 30 June 2018; and

    Average sales prices and production costs, of natural oil and gas, for the last three years.

        The financial information in these sections has been prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards in order to ensure consistency between this document and the Annual Financial Statements.

        Refer to the "Supplemental Oil and Gas Information" on pages G-1 to G-8 for:

    Costs incurred in natural oil and gas property acquisition, exploration and development activities, for the last three years;

    Capitalised costs relating to natural oil and gas activities, for the last three years;

    The results of operations for natural oil and gas producing activities, for the last three years;

    Natural oil and gas proved reserves and production quantity information, for the last three years;

    Standardised measures of discounted future net cashflows relating to natural oil and gas proved reserves, for the last three years; and

    Changes in the standardised measures of discounted future net cashflows relating to natural oil and gas proved reserves, for the last three years.

        The maps on page M-2 show E&PI's global footprint and the location of our assets and exploration licences.

Mozambique

Licence Terms

    Development and Production

        In Mozambique, we have interests in two onshore assets, one of which is producing with proved reserves. The other asset consists of two areas under development and other reservoirs that are being assessed for commerciality.

        The producing asset is the Pande-Temane PPA licence (302,2 thousand developed net acres). Our subsidiary Sasol Petroleum Temane Limitada (SPT), the operator, holds a 70% working interest in the PPA. The PPA expires in 2034, and carries two possible five-year extensions. There is no requirement to relinquish any acreage until the expiry of the PPA.

        The other asset is the Pande-Temane Production Sharing Agreement (PSA) licence (442,8 thousand undeveloped net acres). Our subsidiary Sasol Petroleum Mozambique Limitada (SPM), the operator, holds a 100% working interest. Discussions regarding the farm-down by 30% have been deferred and the term sheet signed with Empresa National de Hidrocarbonetos de Mocambique (ENH), the national oil company of Mozambique, expired on 30 June 2018. Under the terms of the PSA licence, ENH is also entitled to a calculated share of production.

        The two PSA development areas covered by development and production periods until 2041 for the oil development (125,9 thousand undeveloped net acres) and 2046 for the gas development (157,3 thousand undeveloped net acres), are being developed in accordance with the Phase 1 field development plan approved by the Mozambican authorities in January 2016. The remaining PSA area (159,6 thousand undeveloped net acres) is covered by a commercial assessment period (CAP) having an initial period of five years with an option for up to two renewals of three years each. The initial period expired in February 2018 and an application for a renewal of three years was submitted to the regulator in November 2017; the renewal is pending authority approval as at 23 August 2018. Development of the reservoirs

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in the CAP area is contingent on a declaration of commerciality and field development plan approval by the Mozambican government.

    Exploration

        We also have interests in one offshore exploration licence, and two licences which are in the process of being negotiated. During 2018 we withdrew from an onshore licence.

        The offshore exploration licence comprises the shallow water parts of the Exploration and Production Concession Blocks 16 & 19. Our subsidiary Sasol Petroleum Mozambique Exploration Limitada (SPMEL), the operator, holds an 85% working interest (622,7 thousand undeveloped net acres) and ENH has a 15% interest that is carried until field development. Petroleum operations in the licence have been suspended since 2008, pending the outcome of the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), commissioned by the Mozambique government. In January 2018, the Mozambique Ministry of Land, Environment and Rural Development (MITADER) granted Sasol the approval to conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment specific to the licence, in addition to the ongoing SEA. Sasol is also in discussions with the Institute of National Petroleum (INP), the petroleum regulator, on future exploration work programme and on the resumption of exploration activities in the shallow water part of the licence.

        In October 2015, the authorities announced the results of the Fifth Mozambique Licensing Round in which our subsidiary SPMEL and our partners were successful. On completion of negotiations for the Exploration and Production Concession contracts, SPMEL will hold a 70% working interest, as operator, in the onshore Pande-Temane Area PT5-C (521,0 thousand undeveloped net acres); it will also hold a 25,5% working interest (324,2 thousand undeveloped net acres) in the offshore Angoche Area A5-A, which will be operated by Eni Mozambico S.p.A.

        The onshore exploration licence from which we withdrew was the Exploration and Production Concession (EPC) Area A. Our subsidiary SPMEL, the operator, held a 50% working interest, with Petrogas BV E&P and ENH

having respective working interests of 40% and 10%. In April 2018, subsequent to the drilling of the commitment well, Sasol and its JV partners submitted a notice of withdrawal to the Mozambican Government ahead of the licence expiry date of end May 2019. All our obligations having been honoured, the government approval for the withdrawal was received in June 2018.

Activities

        Present activities in the Pande-Temane PPA asset include projects for infill drilling and additional compression that will lower the inlet pressure at the Central Processing Facility (CPF). The first infill well in the Pande field was drilled in April 2018 and tested in June 2018; the well is currently suspended until the flow-line is completed to connect it to the CPF. The second phase of additional compression at the CPF has recently entered operation. Plug and abandonment operations of a water disposal well were successfully completed during June 2018.

        Follow-up development projects include additional infill wells and phase three compression at the CPF, are necessary to maintain production as the reservoirs deplete and are in accordance with the approved field development plan.

        In the Pande-Temane PSA development areas, nine wells were drilled and completed between 2017 and 2018, in agreement with the revised drilling programme for the approved field development plan. The field development plan also envisages the capacity of the PPA CPF to be increased to 633 million standard cubic feet per day gas. Production rates of light oil are now forecast to be between the low and mid-point of the range presented in the field development plan which has triggered a review of the development programme, including the design basis of the Liquids Processing Facility. The cost of the development plan is US$1,4 billion net to Sasol covering expansion of the CPF, construction of the LPF and flowlines and the initial drilling programme. US$282,4 million net to Sasol has been spent to end 2018, comprising drilling costs, civil engineering works, detailed engineering and subsurface modelling.

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        During PSA development drilling, additional hydrocarbons were encountered in horizons that were not the primary targets. A discovery notice and appraisal programme were submitted to the Mozambique government in order to mature these resources. In the PSA CAP areas, evaluation and well planning activities have progressed, with two wells drilled in 2018. One well confirmed gas while the other one did not encounter a hydrocarbon-bearing interval. The plans for the area are currently being assessed based on the outcome of these two wells.

        In the Area A exploration licence, drilling activities for the commitment well commenced in May 2017. The target reservoir sands were penetrated as expected but no hydrocarbon-bearing zone was encountered. Demobilisation from the well was completed in July 2017.

Capitalised Exploratory Well Costs

        At 30 June 2018, there were no exploratory wells costs capitalised in the Pande-Temane PPA asset or in the two development areas in the Pande-Temane PSA asset.

        In the Pande-Temane PSA CAP area, exploratory well costs continue to be capitalised for a period greater than one year after the completion of drilling, amounting to US$23,9 million net to Sasol; these costs relate to the exploration drilling activities conducted and completed in 2008, and the follow up activities which continued in 2017 and 2018.

        At 30 June 2018, US$0,7 million exploratory well costs net to Sasol remained capitalised for Blocks 16 & 19.

Facilities and Productive Wells

        Natural gas and condensate is produced from the Pande-Temane PPA asset facilities, at the CPF on a site of approximately 400 000 square metres, located some 700 kilometres north of Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. Production from the Temane and Pande fields, which are managed as a single operational field, is routed from production wells via in-field flowlines and pipelines to the CPF. The design capacity of the CPF is 491 million standard cubic

feet per day sales gas together with small amounts of associated condensate.

        At 30 June 2018, there were 21 productive wells.

Delivery Commitments

        Gas produced from the Pande-Temane PPA asset, other than royalty gas provided to the Mozambican government, is supplied in accordance with long-term Gas Sales Agreements (GSAs). The gas produced in accordance with GSA1, signed on 27 December 2002 (25 years contract term), and GSA2, signed on 10 December 2008 (20 years contract term), is sold internally for use as part of the feedstock for our chemical and synthetic fuel operations and to the external market in South Africa, with a maximum daily quantity equivalent to 132 PJ/a (119,75 bscf/a) and 27 PJ/a (24,49 bscf/a) for GSA1 and GSA2 respectively. There are four GSA3 20-year contracts that supply gas to the Mozambique market. These satisfy a licence condition that a portion of gas produced is utilised in-country. The contracts are with Matola Gas Company S.A from 1 July 2014 for 8 PJ/a (7,26 bscf/a), ENH-Kogas from 1 March 2013 for 6 PJ/a (5,44 bscf/a), Central Termica de Ressano Garcia S.A. from end-February 2015 for 11 PJ/a (9,98 bscf/a) and ENH effective from 1 June 2015 for 2PJ/a (1,81 bscf/a).

        Infill drilling and compression projects which will convert proved undeveloped reserves into proved developed reserves in order to meet near term delivery commitments are under way. During 2018 it was determined that production will nevertheless begin to decline during 2023 and we will no longer be able to supply at currently contracted rates. Technical and commercial options are under consideration to address the matter.

        PPA condensate is currently sold to Petróleos de Moçambique, S.A. (Petromoc), which transports the condensate by truck from the CPF to Matola for export (the port of Beira is not accessible any longer due to a revision of load restrictions for a bridge leading to the port). The contract expired in July 2018 after which the condensate will be sold to a buyer selected by competitive tender.

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Proved Reserves (all quantities are net to Sasol)

        Our Mozambique proved reserves are contained in the Pande-Temane PPA asset. These represent the net economic interest volumes that are attributable to Sasol after the deduction of petroleum production tax. The primary sales product for the PPA is natural gas, with minor amounts of associated liquid hydrocarbons.

Changes to proved reserves

        There was a reduction in proved gas reserves of 130,0 billion cubic feet primarily due to production.

Changes to proved developed reserves

        Proved developed gas reserves increased by 110,4 billion cubic feet to 821,1 billion cubic feet. The increase was due to the conversion of undeveloped reserves to developed partially offset by production of 115,9 billion cubic feet.

Proved undeveloped reserves converted to proved developed reserves

        The second phase of a project to lower the inlet pressure at the CPF was completed in June 2018. This has resulted in the conversion of 223,2 billion cubic feet undeveloped gas reserves to developed reserves. The cost of this project was US$20,7 million net to Sasol as at 30 June 2018.

Changes to proved undeveloped reserves

        Proved undeveloped gas reserves decreased by 240,4 billion cubic feet as the result of conversion of undeveloped reserves to developed together with a minor revision caused by an update to the integrated production system model used to forecast future production.

Proved undeveloped reserves remaining undeveloped

        Proved undeveloped gas reserves, presently estimated to be 188,6 billion cubic feet, have remained undeveloped in the Pande-Temane PPA asset for the last twelve years. The total proved volume (developed plus undeveloped) represents gas that will be recovered as part of the approved field development plan and which is

required to satisfy existing gas sales agreements. In order to optimise the timing of the capital expenditure, required to convert undeveloped reserves to developed reserves, E&PI regularly studies production performance and reviews its plan for installation of additional compression and wells. The phase two compression was brought into operation during 2018 and the first infill well is scheduled to be operational during the course of 2019. These projects will be followed by additional infill wells and phase three compression.

Rest of Africa (outside Mozambique)

Licence Terms

Gabon

    Development and Production

        In Gabon, our subsidiary Sasol Gabon S.A. holds a 27,75% working interest in the Etame Marin Permit (EMP) asset, which is a producing asset with proved reserves. VAALCO Gabon S.A. is operator of the asset, under the terms of the EMP Exploration and Production Sharing Contract.

        The EMP contract area comprises three 10 year Exclusive Exploitation Authorisations (EEAs), each with two five-year renewal periods available on request and subject to government decree. The Etame EEA first five-year renewal period expired in July 2016 and an application for the second five-year renewal period, which was submitted in April 2016, is awaiting approval from the government. The Avouma EEA is currently in the first five-year renewal period to March 2020. The initial ten-year period of the Ebouri EEA expired in June 2016 and an application for the first five-year renewal period, which was submitted in March 2016, is also awaiting approval. The current production plan assumes the EEA renewals will be granted with no change in contract terms.

    Etame EEA: 3,4 thousand developed net acres, 2001-2021;

    Avouma EEA: 3,6 thousand developed net acres, 2005-2020 + one five-year extension (to March 2025); and

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    Ebouri EEA: 1,0 thousand developed net acres, 2006-2021 + one five-year extension (to June 2026).

    Exploration

        Our subsidiary Sasol Gabon S.A. has entered into a farm-in agreement with Perenco Oil & Gas Gabon S.A. for a 40% working interest in the DE-8 permit offshore Gabon (245,7 thousand undeveloped net acres). While the farm-in was approved in principle by the government in July 2017, the corresponding PSC amendment submitted to the authorities is awaiting formal approval as at 30 June 2018. In July 2018, the Government approved entry into the third exploration period of the licence, which expires in June 2021 and includes one commitment well.

South Africa

        In South Africa, we have interests in one exploration licence.

        Our subsidiary Sasol Africa (Pty) Ltd holds a 60% working interest in the ER236 licence, offshore in the Durban Basin, which is operated by Eni South Africa BV. At the end of the first exploration period in November 2016 20% of the licence was relinquished (9 740,3 thousand undeveloped net acres remaining) and in July 2017 the Petroleum Agency South Africa (PASA) granted entry into the second exploration period which expires in July 2019. The work programme commitments for the first two exploration periods have been met.

        The right to negotiate the Exploration Right (ER) for the Block 3A/4A, located offshore in the Orange Basin, was granted in 2015 to our subsidiary Sasol Africa (Pty) Ltd and the Petroleum Oil and Gas Corporation of South Africa (SOC) Limited (PetroSA); the right expired in July 2018. Final terms have, however, not been agreed and the ER has not been executed.

Nigeria

        Our subsidiary, Sasol Exploration and Production Nigeria Limited (SEPNL), gave notice of our intention to withdraw from the

OML 145 licence in Nigeria in May 2015. The Nigerian Ministry of Petroleum Resources gave its consent in December 2017.

Activities

Gabon

    Development and Production

        In late 2018 two workovers were successfully performed to replace defective electric submersible pumps on the EMP Avouma wells. Present activities in the EMP asset include preparing for a 2019 drilling campaign and negotiating an extension of the Etame EEA beyond 2021.

    Exploration

        A stratigraphic test well of exploratory type was drilled in the offshore DE-8 block in March 2018, in partnership with Perenco Oil & Gas Gabon S.A. The well failed to encounter mobile hydrocarbons and was plugged and abandoned. The well fulfilled the work programme requirement for the second exploration period that expired in June 2018 after a period extension.

South Africa

        A second 3D seismic acquisition programme over the ER236 licence was performed in 2018 and data processing was in progress as at 30 June 2018. An environmental impact study for future potential drilling activities is also in progress.

Capitalised Exploratory Well Costs

        At 30 June 2018, the costs of the second exploration period commitment well in Block DE-8, which were initially capitalised, were written off to the income statement.

        There were no other exploratory well costs capitalised in Africa outside Mozambique.

Facilities and Productive Wells

        In Gabon, oil is produced from the EMP asset facilities which consist of four wellhead platforms, subsea flowlines and a floating production, storage and off-loading vessel (FPSO)located some 35 kilometres offshore

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southern Gabon. Oil from the Etame, Avouma and Ebouri EEAs, managed as a single operational field, is produced by means of a combination of subsea and platform wells, which are connected by pipelines to the FPSO. The FPSO is contracted from and operated by Tinworth Pte. Limited. The processed oil is stored in tanks on the FPSO prior to export by shipping tanker.

        At 30 June 2018, there were 12 productive wells across the three EEAs.

Delivery Commitments

        The oil produced from the Gabon EMP asset is marketed internationally on the open market and sold under a short-term Crude Oil Sale and Purchase Agreement (COSPA) that is renewed periodically. The COSPA was re-tendered in 2018 and Glencore Energy UK Limited was the successful buyer. The current COSPA expires on 31 January 2019 and is expected to be further extended or re-contracted as required on terms not dissimilar to the current contract.

        The EMP crude oil lifting and entitlement scheduling agreement in place between the co-venturers was amended in 2018 to include the Société Nationale des Hydrocarbures du Gabon (SNH), mandated to lift the State's interest share of profit oil on the Government's behalf, as a new party to the agreement.

Proved Reserves (all quantities are net to Sasol)

        Our Rest of Africa proved reserves are contained in the EMP asset, Gabon. These represent the net economic interest volumes attributable to Sasol after application of the licence terms, including the deduction of royalty. The primary sales product is oil, all gas produced is consumed in operations or flared.

Changes to proved reserves

        There was an increase of 0,1 million barrels in proved oil reserves.

Changes to proved developed reserves

        Proved developed reserves increased by 0,1 million barrels to 1,8 million barrels. The

increase was the result of revisions due to better well performance than previously anticipated and changes in sales prices, totalling 1,1 million barrels, and improved recovery from a successful well workover amounting to 0,1 million barrels (at a cost of US$ 2,8 million net to Sasol). These increases were partially offset by production of 1,1 million barrels.

Proved undeveloped reserves converted to proved developed reserves

        No reserves were converted from undeveloped to developed during 2018. Contingent resources, associated with a well workover, were directly matured to developed reserves in 2018.

Changes to proved undeveloped reserves

        There were no undeveloped reserves at the beginning of 2018, and no change affected this class of reserves during the year.

Proved undeveloped reserves remaining undeveloped

        There were no undeveloped reserves at 30 June 2018.

North America

Licence Terms

Canada

        In Canada, our subsidiary Sasol Canada Exploration and Production Limited (SCEPL), holds a 50% working interest in the Farrell Creek and Cypress A asset located in British Columbia, which is a producing asset with proved reserves. The asset is operated by Progress Energy Canada Ltd (PECL).

        As at 30 June 2018 Farrell Creek comprised 29 licences and leases and Cypress A comprised 25 licences and leases. The Farrell Creek and Cypress A asset covers an area of 17,9 thousand developed net acres and 38,5 thousand undeveloped net acres. Acreage retention and the conversion of licences to leases is enabled by drilling commitments, the provincial government's prescribed lease selection and

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validation process and licence extension applications.

        The decision to retain acreage and convert licences to leases is dependent on the drilling results and ongoing study work. Production, drilling and other retention activities are included in the applicable work programmes so that licences due to expire before 31 December 2018 are retained (four licences affected for a total of 2,1 thousand undeveloped net acres). Five other licences, also due to expire in the course of 2019 and affecting a total of 1,8 thousand undeveloped net acres, will not be renewed.

Activities

Canada

        In June 2016, to responsibly steward the Farrell Creek and Cypress A asset through the low gas price environment, the Progress Sasol Montney Partnership (PSMP) agreed to slow the pace of appraisal and development and significantly reduce activities.

        The drilling and completion work programme planned for the calendar year 2018, approved in December 2017 by the PSMP, included the completion and tie-in of one well (drilled in 2016); this well was brought on stream in January 2018. The work programme also includes the drilling of two wells in Cypress A in early 2019.

Capitalised Exploratory Well Costs

Canada

        At 30 June 2018, there were no exploratory well costs capitalised in Canada.

Facilities and Productive Wells

        Natural gas and liquids are produced from the Farrell Creek and Cypress A asset by means of production wells, flowlines, gathering lines and processing facilities. Gas from Farrell Creek wells and Cypress A southern wells is processed through facilities owned by SCEPL and PECL, covering a site of approximately 160 000 square metres. Gas from Cypress A northern wells is

currently processed and sold through third party production facilities.

        At 30 June 2018, there were 156 productive wells.

Delivery Commitments

        We currently do not have any delivery commitments with customers in Canada. Marketing and sale of natural gas, and the small amount of petroleum liquids, from the Farrell Creek and Cypress A asset are managed on a short-term basis as part of operations.

        Natural gas from the Farrell Creek and Cypress A asset is sold into the Western Canada market at two sales hubs. Pricing at each hub is based on the daily realised spot market prices less transportation and marketing fees. Natural gas is delivered to the sales hubs through long-term transportation contracts expiring between 2019 and 2033.

Proved Reserves (all quantities are net to Sasol)

        Our North America proved reserves are contained in the Canada Farrell Creek and Cypress A asset. These represent the net economic interest volumes that are attributable to Sasol before the deduction of royalties. The primary sales product is natural gas, with minor amounts of associated liquid hydrocarbons.

        Full development of the asset will require around 2 900 wells, of which only some 7% have been drilled and completed to date. Reserves are limited to those volumes of gas and associated liquid hydrocarbons attributable to Sasol that are forecast to be produced from productive wells together with wells to be drilled and/or completed in the approved work programme.

Changes to proved reserves

        There was an overall reduction in proved gas reserves of 59,2 billion cubic feet.

Changes to proved developed reserves

        Proved developed gas reserves decreased by 59,2 billion cubic feet to 63,2 billion cubic feet.

        The reduction was due to the combined effects of the production of 19,2 billion cubic

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feet and a downward revision of 41,7 billion cubic feet due to a decrease in the number of productive wells, a reassessment of future operating expenditures as well as a decrease in the gas price. These downward revisions were partially offset by the maturation of 1,7 billion cubic feet to proved developed reserves resulting from the completion and tie-in of one well in Cypress A at a cost of US$3,9 million net to Sasol.

Proved undeveloped reserves converted to proved developed reserves

        No reserves were converted from undeveloped to developed during 2018.

        Contingent resources, associated with the completion and tie-in of one well were directly matured to developed reserves in 2018.

Changes to proved undeveloped reserves

        There were no undeveloped gas reserves at 30 June 2018, and no change affected this class of reserves during the year.

Proved undeveloped reserves remaining undeveloped

        There were no reserves remaining undeveloped at 30 June 2018.

Australasia

Licence Terms

        As of 30 June 2018 we no longer have interests in the Australasian region.

Australia

        Our subsidiary Sasol Petroleum Australia Limited (SPAL) held a 30% working interest in the AC/P 52 exploration permit, offshore in the North West Shelf of Australia, operated by Shell Development Australia (Pty) Ltd.

        Owing to an international boundary dispute, the AC/P 52 licence holders submitted an

application to surrender the exploration permit in 2018. The application was approved by the Australian authorities, effective in May 2018. As a result a total of 160,9 thousand undeveloped net acres was relinquished.

        We also completed the process of withdrawal from the onshore EP76, EP98 and EP117 licences in the Beetaloo Basin (35% working interest, Northern Territory, Australia) in October 2017. A total of 1 583,6 thousand undeveloped net acres were affected and transferred to the operator Origin Energy Resources Limited.

Activities

Australia

        In 2018 there were no activities in Australia.

Capitalised Exploratory Wells Costs

Australia

        At 30 June 2018, there were no exploratory well costs capitalised in Australia.

Tabular Natural Oil and Gas Information

Developed and Undeveloped Acreage

        The table below provides total gross and net developed and undeveloped acreage for our natural oil and gas assets by geographic area at 30 June 2018.

Natural oil and
gas acreage
concentrations at
30 June 2018(3)
  Mozambique(1)   Rest of
Africa(2)
  North
America(1)(2)
  Australasia(2)   Total  
 
  thousand acres
 

Developed acreage

                               

Gross

    431,7     28,7     35,7         496,1  

Net

    302,2     8,0     17,9         328,1  

Undeveloped acreage

                               

Gross

    1 175,4     16 233,8     76,9         17 486,1  

Net

    1 065,5     9 740,3     38,5         10 844,3  

(1)
Certain licences in Mozambique and North America overlap as they relate to specific stratigraphic horizons.

(2)
Rest of Africa comprises Gabon and South Africa, North America comprises Canada, Australasia comprises Australia.

(3)
The table does not include acreage information (neither net nor gross) pertaining to: licences from which Sasol is in a formal process of withdrawing; licence areas proposed for relinquishment owing to local regulations; or new blocks Sasol is in a process of acquiring. See the map on page M-1 for a representation of the affected areas.

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Drilling Activities

        The table below provides the number of net wells completed in each of the last three years and the number of wells being drilled or temporarily suspended at 30 June 2018.

Number of wells(2) drilled for the
year ended 30 June
  Mozambique   Rest of
Africa(1)
  North
America(1)
  Australasia(1)   Total  

2016

                               

Net development wells—productive(2)

        0,8     9,0         9,8  

Net extension wells—productive(2)

            0,5 (7)       0,5  

Net stratigraphic test wells—exploratory type(3)

                1,0     1,0  

2017

                               

Net development wells—productive(2)

    (6)       5,0         5,0  

Net extension wells(5)—productive(2)

    6,0 (6)               6,0  

Net stratigraphic test wells—exploratory type(3)

    0,5             0,4     0,9  

2018

                     

Net exploratory wells—dry(2)

                     

Net exploratory wells—productive(2)

                     

Net extension wells(5)—productive(2)

    3,0                 3,0  

Net extension wells(5)—dry

                     

Net development wells—productive(2)

    0,7         0,5         1,2  

Net development wells—dry(2)

                     

Net stratigraphic test wells—exploratory type(3)

        0,4             0,4  

Net stratigraphic test wells—development type(3)

    2,0                 2,0  

As at 30 June 2018

                               

Wells being drilled—gross(4)

                     

Wells being drilled—net(4)

                     

(1)
Rest of Africa comprises Gabon and South Africa, North America comprises Canada, Australasia comprises Australia.

(2)
A productive well is an exploratory, extension or development well that is not a dry well. A dry well is an exploratory, extension or development well that proves to be incapable of producing either oil or natural gas in sufficient quantities to justify completion.

(3)
A stratigraphic test well is drilled to obtain information pertaining to a specific geological condition and is customarily drilled without the intent of being completed. Stratigraphic test wells are 'exploratory type' if not drilled in a known area or 'development type' if drilled in a known area.

(4)
The number of wells being drilled includes wells that have been drilled, but have not yet been mechanically completed to enable production. Wells which are awaiting only surface connection to a production facility are considered to be completed.

(5)
An extension well is a well drilled to extend the limits of a known reservoir.

(6)
The 6 wells drilled in the PSA Development and Production Areas (DPA) were classified as development wells in 2017 and are restated as extension wells in 2018.

(7)
Three gross appraisal wells in our Canada asset, 1,5 net to Sasol, were classified as "Being Drilled" in 2017. Two of these wells were completed in 2015. The third well was completed in 2016 and is restated in this table as a productive extension well achieving this status in 2016.

Capitalised Exploratory Well Costs

        The table below provides details about natural oil and gas capitalised exploratory well costs at the end of the last three years, showing

additions, costs charged to expense and costs reclassified.

 
  2018   2017   2016  
 
  (Rand in millions)
 

Capitalised Exploratory Well Costs

                   

Balance at beginning of year

    290,3     279,8     1 670,2  

Additions for the year

    483,0     197,7     1 588,7  

Costs incurred

    613,7     209,6     897,8  

Asset retirement obligation adjustments

    (130,7 )   (11,9 )   690,9  

Charged to expense for the year

    (360,6 )   (189,0 )   (320,0 )

Farm down proceeds

            (112,0 )

Exiting of licences

    (48,5 )        

Costs reclassified to Capital Work in Progress

            (2 620,3 )

Translation of foreign entities

    39,3     1,8     73,2  

Balance at end of year

    403,5     290,3     279,8  

 

Capitalised Exploratory Well costs
Ageing at 30 June 2018
  Mozambique
(Rand in millions)
 

1 to 5 years

    192,0  

over 5 years

    58,2  

Number of projects

    1 (1)

(1)
Project activities for the Pande-Temane PSA CAP area are described above, under Mozambique—Activities.

Oil and Gas Production Facilities and Productive Wells

        We operate production facilities in Mozambique and have non-operated interests in producing assets in Canada and Gabon.

        The table below provides the production capacity at 30 June 2018.

Plant Description
  Location   Design Capacity

Central Processing Facility

  Pande-Temane PPA, Mozambique   491 MMscf/day gas

Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading facility

 

Etame Marin Permit, Gabon

 

25 000 bpd oil

Processing Facilities

 

Farrell Creek, Canada

 

320 MMscf/day gas

        The table below provides the number of productive oil and gas wells at 30 June 2018. A productive well is a producing well or a well that is mechanically capable of production.

Number of productive
wells 30 June 2018
  Mozambique   Rest of
Africa(1)
  North
America(1)
  Total  

Productive oil wells

                         

Gross

        12,0         12,0  

Net

        3,3         3,3  

Productive gas wells

                         

Gross

    21,0         156,0     177,0  

Net

    14,7         78,0     92,7  

(1)
Rest of Africa comprises Gabon, North America comprises Canada.

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Sales Prices and Production Costs

        The table below summarises the average sales prices for natural gas and petroleum liquids produced and the average production cost, not including ad valorem and severance taxes, per unit of production for each of the last three years.

Average sale prices and
production costs (Rand per
unit) for the year ended
30 June
  Mozambique   Rest of
Africa(2)
  North
America(2)
 

2016

                   

Average sales prices

                   

Natural gas, per thousand standard cubic feet

    25,1         20,0  

Natural liquids, per barrel

    106,4     574,3     361,6  

Average production cost(1)

                   

Natural gas, per thousand standard cubic feet

    3,9         9,1  

Natural liquids, per barrel

        489,4      

2017

   
 
   
 
   
 
 

Average sales prices

                   

Natural gas, per thousand standard cubic feet

    23,0         24,3  

Natural liquids, per barrel

    166,1     653,2     338,7  

Average production cost(1)

                   

Natural gas, per thousand standard cubic feet

    3,2         2,4  

Natural liquids, per barrel

        389,0      

2018

   
 
   
 
   
 
 

Average sales prices

                   

Natural gas, per thousand standard cubic feet

    24,8         12,8  

Natural liquids, per barrel

    337,9     822,8     492,6  

Average production cost(1)

                   

Natural gas, per thousand standard cubic feet

    5,0         9,8  

Natural liquids, per barrel

        486,4      

(1)
Average production costs per unit of production are calculated according to the primary sales product.

(2)
Rest of Africa comprises Gabon, North America comprises Canada.

Energy—Plants and Facilities

Our facilities in South Africa

        Our main manufacturing facilities are located at Secunda Synfuels Operations. Additionally the Natref refinery, based in Sasolburg, is approximately 2,0 km2.

Our interests in facilities in Qatar

        ORYX GTL is a gas-to-liquids plant, located at Ras Laffan Industrial City, situated along the northeast coast of Qatar.

Our interests in facilities in Mozambique

        CTRG is a power generation facility, located at Ressano Garcia.

Transportation capacity

        The table below provides details of the transportation capacity and location available to the Energy business.

Plant description
  Location   Design
capacity(1)

Gauteng transmission network

  Gauteng   128 bscf/a

Rompco Pipeline

  From Central Processing Facility (Mozambique) to Pressure Protection Station (Secunda) (865km)—From Mozambique to Secunda and Sasolburg   191 bscf/a

Secunda, Witbank and Middelburg pipeline

  South Africa   11 bscf/a

Transnet Pipeline transmission pipeline

  South Africa   23 bscf/a

(1)
Nameplate capacity represents the total saleable production capacity. Due to the integrated nature of these facilities, the requirement for regular statutory maintenance shutdowns and market conditions, actual saleable volumes will be less than the nameplate

        The following table provides details of the production capacity and location of the main jointly held plants where the Energy business has an interest.

Plant description
  Location   Design capacity(1)

ORYX GTL

  Ras Laffan Industrial City in Qatar   32 400 bpd (nominal)

EGTL

  Escravos, Nigeria   33 200 bpd (nominal)

Natref

  Sasolburg, South Africa   108 000 bpd (nominal)

CTRG

  Ressano Garcia, Mozambique   175MW

(1)
Nameplate capacity represents the total saleable production capacity. Due to the integrated nature of these facilities, the requirement for regular statutory maintenance shutdowns and market conditions, actual saleable volumes will be less than the nameplate.

Secunda Synfuels operations

Synthetic oil

        Refer to "Item 4.D Property, plant and equipment—Mining" for details on our mining properties and coal exploration techniques used during the estimation of synthetic oil reserves.

        The size of this total property is approximately 82,5 square kilometres (km2) with operating plants accounting for 8,35 km2. This forms the base for the main manufacturing facilities for Energy, Base and Performance Chemicals.

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        The following table sets forth a summary of the synthetic oil equivalent average sales price and related production costs for the year shown:

 
  2018   2017   2016  

Average sales price per barrel (Rand per unit)

    800,07     683,46     635,85  

Average production cost per barrel (Rand per unit)

    484,53     448,67     359,75  

Production (millions of barrels)

    42,7     41,3     51,6  

Supplemental oil and gas information

        Supplemental oil and gas information: See "Item 18—Financial Statements—Supplemental Oil and Gas Information" for supplemental information relating to synthetic oil producing activities.

Base Chemicals

Our facilities in South Africa

        Our main manufacturing facilities are located at Secunda Synfuels Operations and Secunda Chemicals Operations. The size of this total property is approximately 82,5 square kilometres (km2) with operating plants accounting for 8,35 km2.

Our Sasolburg facilities

        The Base and Performance Chemical facilities at Sasolburg are the base for a number of our chemical industries operations. The size of these properties is approximately 51,4 km2.

Our facilities in the United States

        Production at our HDPE joint venture with Ineos in North America achieved beneficial operation in November 2017 (our share of capacity: 235 ktpa). The plant is ramping up to our expectation.

        Base Chemicals' share of the LCCP, currently being constructed, is located at Lake Charles, Louisiana (size of full site approximately 6 million m2; plant size 650 000 m2).

        Refer to "Item 3.D—Risk factors" and "Item 5.B—Liquidity and capital resources" for further detail on the construction of the LCCP.

        In 2018, as part of our strategic asset reviews we disposed of our share (185 ktpa) of the Petronas Malaysian investments.

        The following table summarises the main production capacities of the Regional Operating Hubs in Secunda, Sasolburg and North America, as well as our international joint venture partnership in North America, that produce polymer and monomer products marketed by Base Chemicals.

Production capacity at 30 June 2018

Product
  South
Africa(2)
  North
America(1)(2)
  Total  
 
  (ktpa)
 

Ethylene(3)

    615     455     1 070  

Propylene(3)

    950         950  

LDPE

    220         220  

LLDPE

    150         150  

HDPE

        235     235  

Polypropylene

    625         625  

Ethylene dichloride

    160         160  

Vinyl chloride

    205         205  

PVC

    190         190  

Chlorine

    145         145  

Caustic soda

    167         167  

Cyanide

    40         40  

Hydrochloric acid

    90         90  

Calcium chloride

    10         10  

(1)
Includes our 50% share of the production capacity of our Sasol Ineos joint venture.

(2)
Nameplate capacity represents the total saleable production capacity. Due to the integrated nature of these facilities, the requirement for regular statutory maintenance shutdowns and market conditions, actual saleable volumes will be less than the nameplate capacity.

(3)
Due to the integrated nature of these facilities, a portion of these products are used in further downstream facilities.

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        The phenolics operations will become part of our Base Chemicals portfolio from 2019 onwards.

        The following table summarises the main production capacities of the Regional Operating Hubs in Secunda and Sasolburg that produce solvent products marketed by Base Chemicals:

Production capacity as at 30 June 2018

Product
  South
Africa
  Germany   Total(1)  
 
  (ktpa)
 

Ketones            

    328         328  

Acetone

    200         200  

MEK

    70         70  

MiBK

    58         58  

Glycol ethers

        80     80  

Butyl glycol ether

        80     80  

Acetates

    60         60  

Ethyl acetate

    60         60  

Mixed alcohols

    215         215  

Pure alcohols

    499         499  

Methanol (C1)

    140         140  

Ethanol (C2)

    114         114  

n-Propanol (C3)

    80         80  

n-Butanol (C4)

    150         150  

iso-Butanol (C4)

    15         15  

Acrylates

    125         125  

Ethyl acrylate

    35         35  

Butyl acrylate

    80         80  

Glacial acrylic acid

    10         10  

Maleic anhydride(2)

        53     53  

Other

    19         19  

(1)
Consolidated nameplate capacities excluding internal consumption and including our attributable share of the production capacity of our Sasol Huntsman joint venture.

Nameplate capacity represents the total saleable production capacity. Due to the integrated nature of these facilities, the requirement for regular statutory maintenance shutdowns and market conditions, actual saleable volumes will be less than the nameplate capacity.

(2)
Our 50% share of the production capacity of our Sasol Huntsman joint venture.

        Approximately 90% of our production capacity is located at sites in South Africa and 10% in Germany.

Performance Chemicals

    Our facilities in South Africa

        Our facilities at Secunda and Sasolburg are the base for a number of our chemical industries operations.

    Our facilities in Germany

        Performance Chemicals operations are based at three locations in Germany, namely Brunsbüttel (site size approximately 2 million m2; plant size 500 000 m2), Marl (site size approximately 160 000 m2; plant size 75 000 m2) and the wax facility based in Hamburg (site size approximately 160 000 m2; plant size 100 000 m2).

    Our facilities in Italy

        The operations of Performance Chemicals are based at three locations in Italy. The primary facilities are at Augusta (site size approximately 1,36 million m2; plant size 510 000 m2) and Terranova (site size approximately 330 000 m2; plant size 160 000 m2).

    Our facilities in the United States

        Various Performance Chemicals operations are based at a number of locations in the US. The most significant of these facilities is located at Lake Charles, Louisiana (size of full site approximately 6 million m2; plant size 650 000 m2). Performance Chemicals' share of the LCCP, currently being constructed, is also located at Lake Charles. A small specialty alumina facility is located in Tucson, Arizona.

        Performance Chemicals also has phenolics operations based at Oil City, Pennsylvania; Houston and Winnie, Texas.

    Our facility in China

        The operations of Performance Chemicals are based at Nanjing (site size approximately 90 000 m2; plant size 4 000 m2).

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Production capacity at 30 June 2018

Product
Facilities location Total(1)
 
 
(ktpa)

Surfactants

United States, Europe, Far East 1 000

C6+ alcohol

United States, Europe, South Africa, Far East 630

Inorganics

United States, Europe, South Africa 71

Paraffins and olefins

United States, Europe 750

LAB

United States, Europe 435

C5-C8 alpha olefins

United States, South Africa 456

Paraffin wax and wax emulsions

Europe 460

FT-based wax and related products

South Africa 280

Paraffin wax

South Africa 30

(1)
Nameplate capacity represents the total saleable production capacity. Due to the integrated nature of these facilities, the requirement for regular statutory maintenance shutdowns and market conditions, actual saleable volumes will be less than the nameplate capacity.

        These phenolics operations will become part of our Base Chemicals portfolio from 2019 onwards.

        Refer to "Item 3.D—Risk factors" and "Item 5.B—Liquidity and capital resources" for further detail on the construction of the LCCP.

ITEM 4A.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

        There are no unresolved written comments from the SEC staff regarding our periodic reports under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 received not less than 180 days before 30 June 2018, that are considered material.

ITEM 5.    OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

        This section should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements included in "Item 18—Annual Financial Statements" as at 30 June 2018 and 2017, and for the years ended 30 June 2018, 2017 and 2016, including the accompanying notes, that are included in this annual report on Form 20-F. The following discussion of operating results and the financial review and prospects as well as our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with IFRS as issued by the IASB.

        For information regarding our financial overview and external factors impacting on our business, refer to the "Chief Financial Officer's Performance Overview—Market overview" and "Key risks impacting our financial performance" as contained in Exhibit 99.3. This includes

an analysis of the impact of macroeconomic factors on Sasol's performance and an overview of the current economic environment, crude oil prices, exchange rates, gas prices and chemical prices. Movements in our cost base are also analysed, including the impact of cost-reduction measures and inflation.

        Certain information contained in the discussion and analysis set forth below and elsewhere in this annual report includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See "Forward-Looking Statements". See "Item 3.D—Risk factors" for a discussion of significant factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in this annual report.

5.A Operating results

Results of operations

 
2018 2017 Change
2018/2017
2016 Change
2017/2016
 
(Rand
in millions)

(%)
  

(Rand
in millions)

(%)
  

Turnover

181 461 172 407 5 172 942

Operating costs and expenses

(152 390 ) (140 157 ) 9 (136 320 ) 3

Remeasurement items

(9 901 ) (1 616 ) 513 (12 892 ) (87 )

Equity accounted profits, net of tax

1 443 1 071 35 509 110

Sasol Khanyisa share-based payment

(2 866 )    

Earnings before interest and tax

17 747 31 705 (44 ) 24 239 31

Net finance costs

(2 043 ) (1 697 ) 20 (521 ) 226

Earnings before tax

15 704 30 008 (48 ) 23 718 27

Taxation

(5 558 ) (8 495 ) (35 ) (8 691 ) (2 )

Earnings

10 146 21 513 (53 ) 15 027 43

Financial review 2018

    For information regarding our financial condition, and an overview of our results refer "Chief Financial Officer's Performance Overview—Financial performance" as contained in Exhibit 99.3.

    For information on changes in our financial condition, and overall financial performance refer "Chief Financial Officer's Performance Overview—Market overview" and "Financial performance" as contained in Exhibit 99.3.

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Turnover

        Turnover consists of the following categories:

 
2018 2017 Change
2018/2017
2016 Change
2017/2016
 
(Rand
in millions)

(%)
  

(Rand
in millions)

(%)
  

Sale of products

178 463 169 115 6 170 830 (1 )

Services rendered

1 612 1 549 4 1 695 (9 )

Other trading income

1 386 1 743 (20 ) 417 318

Turnover

181 461 172 407 5 172 942

        The primary factors contributing to the increases in turnover were:

 
Change
2018/2017
Change
2017/2016
 
(Rand in
millions)

(%)
  

(Rand in
millions)

(%)
  

Turnover, 2017 and 2016

172 407   172 942  

Exchange rate effects

(5 890 ) (3 ) (11 330 ) (7 )

Product prices

16 112 9 14 343 8

—crude oil

16 401 9 9 041 5

—other products

(289 ) 5 302 3

Net volume changes

(1 394 ) (1 ) 705 0

Other effects

226 (4 253 )(1) (2 )

Turnover

181 461 5 172 407

(1)
Other effects in 2017 arose mainly from the offset of feedstock credits against turnover, relating to kerosene return-stream swap agreements entered into.

Operating costs and expenses

        Operating costs and expense consists of the following categories:

 
2018 2017 Change
2018/2017
2016 Change
2017/2016
 
(Rand
in millions)

(%)
  

(Rand
in millions)

(%)
  

Materials, energy and consumable used

(76 606 ) (71 436 ) 7 (71 320 )

Selling and distribution costs

(7 060 ) (6 405 ) 10 (6 914 ) (7 )

Maintenance expenditure

(9 163 ) (8 654 ) 6 (8 453 ) 2

Employee-related expenditure

(27 468 ) (24 417 ) 12 (23 911 ) 2

Exploration expenditure and feasibility costs

(352 ) (491 ) (28 ) (282 ) 74

Depreciation and amortisation

(16 425 ) (16 204 ) 1 (16 367 ) (1 )

Translation (losses)/gains

(11 ) (1 201 ) (99 ) 150 (901 )

Other operating expenses

(16 715 ) (13 037 ) 28 (13 011 )

Other operating income

1 410 1 688 (16 ) 3 788 (55 )

Operating costs and expenses

(152 390 ) (140 157 ) 9 (136 320 ) 3

        Materials, energy and consumables used.    Materials, energy and consumables used in 2018 amounted to R76 606 million, an increase of R5 170 million, or 7%, compared with R71 436 million in 2017, which increased by 0,2% from R71 320 million in 2016. The increase

in these costs between 2018 and 2017 was due to the higher Brent crude oil prices, negated by a stronger rand exchange rate against the US dollar.

        Selling and distribution costs.    These costs comprise of marketing and distribution of products, freight and customs and excise duty after the point of sale. Selling and distribution costs in 2018 amounted to R7 060 million, which represents a increase of R655 million, or 10%, compared with R6 405 million in 2017, which decreased by R509 million, or 7%, compared with R6 914 million in 2016. The variation in these costs was mainly attributable to increased freight, rail car and terminal expenditure due to higher quantities of products sold during 2018, in conjunction with higher freight rates. Selling and distribution costs represented 4% of sales in 2018, 4% of sales in 2017, and 4% of sales in 2016.

        Maintenance expenditure.    Maintenance expenditure in 2018 amounted to R9 163 million, which represents an increase of R509 million, or 6%, compared with R8 654 million in 2017, which increased by R201 million, or 2%, compared with R8 453 million in 2016. Maintenance expenditure increased in 2018 compared to 2017 mainly due to an increase in certain plant maintenance work due to breakdowns, changes and corrective work. Our financial results were negatively impacted by several unplanned Eskom electricity supply interruptions and internal outages at our Secunda Synfuels Operation (SSO) and Natref operations that resulted in lower production volumes as well as a 6% stronger average Rand to the US Dollar exchange rate compared to the prior period.

        Maintenance expenditure remained relatively flat in 2017 compared to 2016, mainly due to our cash conservation initiatives implemented as part of the low oil price Response Plan and the stronger rand/US dollar exchange rate. Maintenance costs in 2017 included additional stonework sections, overhauls and required maintenance due to unforeseen technical difficulties in equipment at Sasol Mining.

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        Employee related expenditure.    Employee related expenditure amounted to R27 468 million, which represents an increase of R3 051 million, or 12%, compared with R24 417 million in 2017, which increased by R506 million, or 2%, from 2016.

        This amount includes labour costs of R25 903 million (2017—R24 191 million and 2016—R23 417 million) and a share-based payment charge to the income statement of R1 565 million (debit), (2017—R226 million (debit) and 2016—R494 million (debit)).

        Excluding the effect of the share-based payment expenses, our employee costs increased by R1 712 million, or 7%, in 2018. This was primarily due to normal annual salary increases and an increase in headcount relating to business growth. Overall headcount increased from 30 900 in 2017 to 31 270 employees in 2018, an increase of 1,2%.

        Exploration expenditure and feasibility costs.    Exploration expenditure and feasibility costs in 2018 amounted to R352 million, which represents a decrease of R139 million, or 28%, compared with R491 million in 2017, which increased by R209 million compared with R282 million in 2016. The decrease in 2018, as compared to 2017 was largely attributable to additional costs incurred in 2017 for the acquisition of seismic data for possible exploration activities.

        Depreciation and amortisation.    Depreciation and amortisation in 2018 amounted to R16 425 million, which represents an increase of R221 million, compared with R16 204 million in 2017, which marginally decreased by R163 million compared with R16 367 million in 2016. The increase in depreciation of R221 million mainly relates to the increase in depreciation of South African projects which were capitalised during the year, partially set-off by the decrease in depreciation in Canada, Mozambique and Gabon due to lower production volumes.

        The decrease in depreciation and amortisation in 2017 compared to 2016 is largely attributable to the strengthening of the rand/US dollar exchange rate and a stable asset base in 2017.

        Translation (losses)/gains.    Translation losses arising primarily from the translation of monetary assets and liabilities, as well as foreign exchange contracts, amounted to R11 million in 2018, as compared to a R1 201 million loss in 2017 and a R150 million gain in 2016. The rand strengthened against the US dollar throughout 2018, although the closing exchange rate weakened by 5% to R13,73 at 30 June 2018 compared to R13,06 at 30 June 2017. This had a negative impact on our gearing and the valuation of our derivatives and South African export debtors and loans. The strengthening of the rand has a positive impact on the translation of our monetary liabilities, on the converse a strengthening of the rand has a negative impact on the translation of our monetary assets.

        Other operating expenses.    Other operating expenses in 2018 amounted to R16 715 million, an increase of R3 678 million, compared to R13 037 million in 2017, which increased by R26 million from R13 011 million in 2016.

        This amount includes:

    Rental expenses of R1 497 million (2017—R1 367 million and 2016—R1 243 million);

    Insurance costs of R432 million (2017—R511 million and 2016—R457 million);

    Computer costs of R2 042 million (2017—R1 991 million and 2016—R 1 832 million);

    Hired labour of R838 million (2017—R878 million and 2016—R893 million);

    Audit remuneration of R88 million (2017—R89 million and 2016—R85 million);

    Professional fees of R1 971 million (2017—R1 383 million and 2016—R1 202 million);

    Losses on derivative instruments (including crude oil futures, zero cost collars and foreign exchange contracts) of R3 927 million due to a higher crude oil price and the weakening in the closing Rand/US$ exchange rate, 2017—R635 million gain and 2016—R1 250 million gain;

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    Decrease in rehabilitation provisions of R804 million (2017—increase of R472 million and 2016—increase of R1 946 million; and

    Other expenses of R6 724 million (2017—R6 981 million and 2016—R6 603 million).

        Other operating income.    Other operating income in 2018 amounted to R1 410 million, which represents a decrease of R278 million, or 16%, compared with R1 688 million in 2017. In 2016, other operating income amounted to R3 788 million. Other operating income include profit made by pooling the foreign exchange requirements of the group and rental income.Other operating income in 2016 includes the reversal of the EGTL provision of R2 296 million, after a favorable decision at the Tax Appeal Tribunal.

Share of profits from equity accounted investments

 
2018 2017 Change
2018/2017
2016 Change
2017/2016
 
 
(%)
  

 
(Rand
in millions)

(%)
  

Profit before tax

2 223 1 338 66 378 254

Tax

(780 ) (267 ) 192 131 (304 )

Share of profits of equity accounted investments, net of tax

1 443 1 071 35 509 110

Remeasurement items, net of tax

11 14 (21 ) 13

        The share of profits of equity accounted investments (net of tax) amounted to R1 443 million in 2018 as compared to R1 071 million in 2017 and R509 million in 2016. The increase in share of profit of equity accounted investments in 2018 compared to 2017 is mainly due to the impact of higher Brent crude oil prices resulting in an 39% increase in ORYX GTL's equity accounted earnings from R839 million in 2017 to R1 168 million in 2018. The ORYX GTL plant achieved an average utilisation rate of 95% during the 2018 year.

        The Escravos gas-to-liquids (EGTL) plant in Nigeria continued to ramp up after completion of the scheduled maintenance programme in 2017 and both trains are operating as expected. Losses incurred relating to EGTL reduced to

R207 million in 2018 compared to losses of R472 million in 2017 due to optimisation efforts to reduce costs and to improve plant efficiency.

Remeasurement items

        For information regarding the remeasurement items recognised, refer to "Item 18—Annual Financial Statements—Note 9".

Finance costs and finance income

        For information regarding finance costs incurred and finance income earned, refer to "Item 18—Annual Financial Statements—Note 7".

        The increase in finance costs is due to an increase in debt of the group.

Tax

        The effective tax rate increased to 35,4% in 2018 compared to 28,3% in 2017. The increase is mainly due to the partial impairment of the shale gas assets in Canada, the partial impairment of the PSA assets in Mozambique and the implementation of the Khanyisa transaction. For further information regarding the tax charge, refer to "Item 18—Annual Financial Statements—Note 12".

Non-controlling interests

        For information regarding our non-controlling interests, and their share of profit, refer "Item 18—Annual Financial Statements—Note 22".

        Earnings attributable to non-controlling interests in subsidiaries of R1 417 million increased by R278 million, or 24%, from R1 139 million in 2017; which was a decrease of R663 million or 37% from R1 802 million in 2016.

        The increase in earnings attributable to non-controlling interests in 2018, as compared to the decrease in 2017 is largely attributable to an increase in the profits attributable to the non-controlling interests in Sasol Oil and Sasol Mining due to an increase in selling prices and cost containment in the respective entities.

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        The decrease in earnings attributable to non-controlling interests in 2017 as compared to 2016 is mainly attributable to a decrease in the earnings attributable to non-controlling interests in Sasol Oil of R546 million due to a liability of R1,2 billion in respect of the ongoing tax litigation with the South African Revenue Service.

Financial review 2017

Group results

        Earnings before interest and tax of R31,7 billion increased by 31% compared to the prior year on the back of average Brent crude oil prices that moved higher by 15% compared to the prior year (average dated Brent was US$50/bbl for the year ended 30 June 2017 compared with US$43/bbl in the prior year). Global markets remained challenging and highly volatile. Despite softness in commodity chemical prices experienced at the start of the year, there was a steady increase in demand and robust margins in certain markets. The average margin of our specialty chemicals business remained resilient. The effect of higher oil prices was partially offset by a 6% stronger average rand/US dollar exchange rate (R13,61/US dollar for the year ended 30 June 2017 compared with R14,52/US dollar in the prior year). On average, the rand/bbl oil price of R677 was 7% higher compared to 2016. These factors had a significant impact on our earnings. To mitigate the impact of financial risks on our business, we entered into various hedging contracts to protect the group against volatility in commodity prices, currencies and interest rates.

Items which materially impacted earnings before interest and tax

        During 2017, earnings was impacted by the following significant items:

    a net remeasurement items expense of R1,6 billion compared to a R12,9 billion expense in the prior year. Included in remeasurement items is a partial impairment of our US gas-to-liquids (GTL) project amounting to R1,7 billion (US$130 million) due to the uncertainty

      around the probability and timing of project execution and the reversal of a partial impairment of the Lake Charles Chemicals Project (LCCP) amounting to R0,8 billion (US$65 million), which resulted from lower spot discount rates and the extension of the useful life of the project to 50 years;

    our employee costs increased by 3% compared to 2016, excluding the impact of the share-based payment. During the year, 800 new employees were employed by the organisation mainly in the US and the in-sourcing and the conversion of hired employees to permanent employees.

    an increase in finance costs which is due to an increase number of projects having reached beneficial operation during 2017 for which interest is no longer capitalized as well as finance costs charged by SARS on South African income tax assessments.

Financial review 2016

Group results

        Earnings before interest and tax of R24,2 billion decreased by 48% compared to the prior year on the back of challenging and highly volatile global markets. Average Brent crude oil prices moved dramatically lower by 41% compared to the prior year (average dated Brent was US$43/bbl for the year ended 30 June 2016 compared with US$73/bbl in 2015). Although commodity chemical prices were lower due to depressed oil prices, there was still strong demand and robust margins in certain key markets. The average basket of commodity chemical prices decreased by 22% compared to a 41% decrease in oil. In particular, the average margin for our specialty chemicals business remained resilient compared to the prior year. The effect of lower oil and commodity chemical prices was partly offset by a 27% weaker average rand/US dollar exchange rate (R14,52/US$ for the year ended 30 June 2016 compared with R11,45/US$ in the prior year). On average, the rand/bbl oil price of R630 was 25% lower compared to the prior year.

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Items which materially impacted earnings before interest and tax

        During 2016, earnings was impacted by the following significant items:

    a net remeasurement items expense of R12,9 billion compared to a R0,8 billion expense in the prior year. These items relate mainly to partial impairments of our low density polyethylene cash generating unit in the US of R956 million (US$65 million) and our share in the Montney shale gas asset of R9,9 billion (CAD880 million) due to a further deterioration of conditions in the North American gas market resulting in a decline in forecast natural gas prices;

    a cash-settled share-based payment charge to the income statement of R371 million compared to a credit of R1,4 billion in the prior year. The credit in the prior year was largely due to a 29% decrease in the share price in financial year 2015; and

    the reversal of a provision of R2,3 billion (US$166 million) based on a favourable ruling received from the Tax Appeal Tribunal in Nigeria relating to the EGTL project.

Segment review—results of operations

        Reporting segments are identified in the way in which the Joint Presidents and Chief Executive Officers organise segments within our group for making operating decisions and assessing performance. The segment overview included below is based on our segment results. Inter-segment turnover was entered into under terms and conditions substantially similar to terms and conditions which would have been negotiated with an independent third party. Refer to Business segment information of "Item 18—Annual Financial statements" for further detail regarding turnover and Operating profit per segment.

        Refer also to "Our Operating Model Structure" as contained in Exhibit 99.4.

Operating Business Units

Mining

 
2018 2017 Change
2018/2017
2016 Change
2017/2016
 
(Rand
in millions)

(%)
  

(Rand
in millions)

(%)
  

External turnover

3 446 2 946 17 2 360 25

Inter-segment turnover

16 351 16 016 2 14 615 10

Total turnover

19 797 18 962 4 16 975 12

Operating costs and expenses(1)

(14 553 ) (15 237 ) (4 ) (12 236 ) 25

Earnings before interest and tax

5 244 3 725 41 4 739 (21 )

EBIT margin %

26 20   28  

(1)
Operating costs and expenses net of other income.

Results of operations 2018 compared to 2017

        Total turnover increased by 4% from R18 962 million to R19 797 million. Earnings before interest and tax of R5 244 million represents an increase of 41% when compared to the prior year primarily due to the impact of strike action at our Secunda mining operations in the prior year not being repeated. Production volumes increased to 38,8 Mt for 2018 compared with 37,6 Mt as a result of the prior year's strike. Our mining operations are still ramping up to pre-strike levels of 40 Mt. Our production ramp-up was significantly impacted by three work-related fatalities during the period December 2017 to February 2018. This resulted in lower than planned production for the year. Normalised for our Business Improvement Programme (BIP), fatalities and other safety, and the prior year's strike action, unit costs of production were 1% above inflation in 2018.

        Our export coal business benefited from increases in global coal prices during the year; however a portion of the volumes were sent to SSO to manage stock pile levels. Nonetheless our export volumes, increased by 7% to 3,2 Mt (2017—3,0 Mt). Export sales represented approximately 17% of the total turnover generated by Mining during 2018 (2017—16%).

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Results of operations 2017 compared to 2016

        Total turnover increased by 12% from R16 975 million to R18 962 million. Earnings before interest and tax of R3 725 million represents a decrease of 21% when compared to the prior year primarily due to the impact of labour actions at our Secunda mining operations in the first half of the financial year. The labour action resulted in additional once-off costs of R1 billion (relating mainly to additional security and hired labour costs) and external coal purchases of R0,4 billion to ensure continuous supply to Secunda Synfuels Operations (SSO). The total cost amounts to R1,4 billion. Production volumes decreased to 37,6 Mt for 2017 compared with 42,3 Mt due to the prolonged labour action and slower-than-expected ramp up of productivity after the strike. Normalised unit costs of production were 13% above inflation in 2017.

        Our export coal business benefited from higher global coal prices during the year; however a portion of the volumes were sent to SSO during the strike period. Our export volumes, decreased by 7% to 3,0 Mt (2016—3,2 Mt). Export sales represented approximately 16% of the total turnover generated by Mining during 2017 (2016—14%).

        For further analysis of our results refer "Integrated Report—Operational Overviews" as contained in Exhibit 99.7.

Exploration and Production International

 
  2018   2017   Change
2018/
2017
  2016   Change
2017/
2016
 
 
  (Rand in
millions)

  (%)
  

  (Rand in
millions)

  (%)
  

 

External turnover

    1 610     1 750     (8 )   1 706     3  

Inter-segment turnover

    2 588     2 334     11     2 505     (7 )

Total turnover

    4 198     4 084     3     4 211     (3 )

Operating costs and expenses(1)

    (7 881 )   (3 499 )   125     (15 925 )   (78 )

(Loss)/earnings before interest and tax

    (3 683 )   585     (730 )   (11 714 )   (105 )

EBIT margin %

    (88 )   14           (278 )      

(1)
Operating costs and expenses net of other income including exploration costs and depreciation.

Results of operations 2018 compared to 2017

        Total turnover increased by 3% from R4 084 million in 2017 to R4 198 million in 2018 due to higher oil (Gabon) and gas (Mozambique) prices, offset by lower volumes (natural decline in production from fields in Canada and Gabon and lower local demand in Mozambique), lower gas prices in Canada and a stronger rand/US dollar exchange rate. E&PI recorded earnings before interest and tax of R558 million (excluding remeasurement items of R4 241 million) compared to earnings before interest and tax of R585 million in 2017.

        Earnings before interest and tax decreased from a profit of R585 million in 2017 to a loss of R3 683 million in 2018 due to remeasurement items of R4,2 billion recognised in 2018.

        Earnings before interest and tax from our Mozambican producing operations was R1 970 million compared to R1 990 million in the prior year. The roughly flat earnings before interest and tax reflects higher sales prices which was partly negated by lower demand in the Mozambican gas market and scheduled maintenance costs.

        Our PSA development and appraisal project recorded a partial impairment of R1 143 million due to the weaker long-term macro-economic assumptions, as well as lower than expected oil volumes. A dry well write-off of R150 million was also recorded on a PSA appraisal well.

        Our Gabon operating asset recorded earnings before interest and tax of R537 million compared to R295 million in the prior year, mainly due to higher sales prices, higher translation gains and lower depreciation charges. This was offset by a 12% decrease in production volumes resulting from natural decline of the field, higher well workover costs and an impairment reversal in the prior year.

        Sasol concluded a farm-in into the DE-8 Gabon exploration block during December 2017 and drilled one exploration well that was unsuccessful and was written off for R130 million (excluded from the Gabon operating results above).

        Our Canadian shale gas asset in Montney generated a loss before interest and tax of

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R818 million (excluding the impact of a partial impairment at 31 December 2017 of R2 764 million) compared to a loss before interest and tax of R745 million in the prior year. Our Canadian gas production volumes decreased by 11% compared to the prior year resulting from the natural decline of the field and no drilling rigs in operation during the year in line with our cash conservation initiatives.

        We commenced with the divestment process relating to the Canadian shale gas assets, in line with the strategic decision not to pursue green fields gas-to-liquids growth.

        Remeasurement items for 30 June 2018 of R 4 241 million includes the PSA impairment of R1 143 million due to the weaker long-term macro-economic assumptions, as well as a result of lower than expected oil volumes, Canada shale gas assets impairment of R 2 764 million due to the further decline in the estimated North American natural gas prices, dry well write offs of R312 million (PSA phase 2 appraisal: R150 million, Gabon DE-8 exploration: R130 million and Mozambique Area A exploration: R32 million) and other impairments of R32 million (mainly Australia).

Results of operations 2017 compared to 2016

        Total turnover decreased by 3% from R4 211 million in 2016 to R4 084 million in 2017 due to the stronger rand/US dollar exchange rate. E&PI recorded earnings before interest and tax of R585 million compared to a loss before interest and tax of R1 832 million (excluding the impact of the partial impairment of our Canadian shale gas operations of R9 882 million) in the prior year. This result was achieved through focused management of the asset portfolio and strict cost control. Earnings before interest and tax includes a translation gain of R337 million versus a translation loss of R695 million in the prior year.

        Earnings before interest and tax from our Mozambican producing operations increased to R1 990 million from R1 128 million in the prior year, mainly due to a 2% increase in gas production volumes and the net positive impact of foreign currency translations.

        Our Gabon asset recorded earnings before interest and tax of R295 million compared to a loss before interest and tax of R994 million in the prior year, mainly due to higher sales prices, the partial reversal of an impairment of R197 million and lower depreciation charges. This was offset by an 18% decrease in production volumes resulting from the deferral of drilling activities in line with our Response Plan cash conservation initiatives.

        Our Canadian shale gas asset in Montney generated a lower loss before interest and tax of R746 million, compared to an loss before interest and tax of R1 075 million (excluding the impact of a partial impairment of R9 882 million) in the prior year.

        Our Canadian gas production volumes increased by 6% compared to the prior year, mainly due to completion activities on existing wells. There were no drilling rigs in operation during the year in line with our capital and cash-conservation initiatives which was part of our Response Plan.

        For further analysis of our results refer "Integrated Report—Operational Overviews" as contained in Exhibit 99.7.

Strategic Business Units

Energy

 
  2018   2017   Change
2018/
2017
  2016   Change
2017/
2016
 
 
  (Rand in
millions)

  (%)
  

  (Rand in
millions)

  (%)
  

 

External turnover

    69 110     64 254     8     63 818     1  

Inter-segment turnover

    663     518     28     523     (1 )

Total turnover

    69 773     64 772     8     64 341     1  

Operating costs and expenses(1)

    (55 692 )   (53 554 )   4     (50 272 )   7  

Earnings before interest and tax

    14 081     11 218     26     14 069     (20 )