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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 001-34652
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SENSATA TECHNOLOGIES HOLDING PLC
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
England and Wales
98-1386780
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
529 Pleasant Street, Attleboro, Massachusetts, 02703, United States
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)
+1 (508) 236 3800
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of exchange on which registered
Ordinary Shares - nominal value €0.01 per shareSTNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filero
Non-accelerated filero Smaller reporting company
 Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s ordinary shares held by non-affiliates at June 30, 2023 was approximately $6.8 billion based on the New York Stock Exchange closing price for such shares on that date.
As of February 7, 2024, 150,469,879 ordinary shares were outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Part III of this Report incorporates information from certain portions of the registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the end of the registrant's fiscal year ended December 31, 2023.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 


Cautionary Statements Concerning Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Report") includes "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements may be identified by terminology such as "may," "will," "could," "should," "expect," "anticipate," "believe," "estimate," "predict," "project," "forecast," "continue," "intend," "plan," "potential," "opportunity," "guidance," and similar terms or phrases. Forward-looking statements involve, among other things, expectations, projections, and assumptions about future financial and operating results, objectives, business and market outlook, trends, priorities, growth, shareholder value, capital expenditures, cash flows, demand for products and services, share repurchases, and Sensata’s strategic initiatives, including those relating to acquisitions and dispositions and the impact of such transactions on our strategic and operational plans and financial results. These statements are subject to risks, uncertainties, and other important factors relating to our operations and business environment, and we can give no assurances that these forward-looking statements will prove to be correct.
A wide variety of potential risks, uncertainties, and other factors could materially affect our ability to achieve the results either expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, risks related to public health crises, instability and changes in the global markets, supplier interruption or non-performance, the acquisition or disposition of businesses, adverse conditions or competition in the industries upon which we are dependent, intellectual property, product liability, warranty, and recall claims, market acceptance of new product introductions and product innovations, labor disruptions or increased labor costs, and changes in existing environmental or safety laws, regulations, and programs.
Investors and others should carefully consider the foregoing factors and other uncertainties, risks, and potential events including, but not limited to, those described in Item 1A: Risk Factors included elsewhere in this Report and as may be updated from time to time in Item 1A: Risk Factors included in our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or other subsequent filings with the United States ("U.S.") Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). All such forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update these statements other than as required by law.
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PART I
ITEM 1.     BUSINESS
The Company
The reporting company is Sensata Technologies Holding plc, a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, and its consolidated subsidiaries, collectively referred to as the "Company," "Sensata," "we," "our," and "us." We are a global industrial technology company that strives to help our customers and partners safely deliver a cleaner, more efficient, electrified, and connected world. For more than 100 years, we have been developing and innovating a wide range of customized solutions that address increasingly complex engineering and operating performance requirements for our customers' mission-critical applications. We present financial information for two reportable segments, Performance Sensing and Sensing Solutions.
We develop, manufacture, and sell sensors and sensor-rich solutions, electrical protection components and systems, and other products. Our sensors are used by our customers to translate a physical parameter, such as pressure, temperature, position, or location of an object, into electronic signals that our customers’ products and solutions can act upon. Our electrical protection portfolio (which includes both components and systems) is comprised of various switches, fuses, battery management systems, inverters, energy storage systems, high-voltage distribution units, controllers, and software, and includes high-voltage contactors and other products embedded within systems to maximize their efficiency and performance and ensure safety. Other products and services we provide include vehicle area networks and data collection devices and software, battery storage systems, and power conversion systems, the latter of which include inverters, converters, and rectifiers for renewable energy generation, green hydrogen production, electric vehicle charging stations, and microgrid applications, as well as industrial and defense applications.
Customers
Our customers in the Performance Sensing reportable segment include leading global automotive, on-road truck, construction, and agriculture original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs"), the companies that supply parts directly to these OEMs, known as Tier 1 suppliers, various aftermarket distributors, fleet transportation, and logistics customers. Within the Sensing Solutions reportable segment, our customers include a wide range of industrial and commercial manufacturers and suppliers across multiple end markets, primarily OEMs in the climate control, appliance, medical, energy and charging infrastructure, data/telecom, aerospace and defense industries, as well as systems integrators and aerospace and motor and compressor distributors.
We have a history of helping our customers with their mission-critical, hard-to-do engineering challenges. We identify future regulatory impacts and trends in our markets early and then work with our customers to help them adapt to these changes while creating innovative solutions. This has allowed us to build trust through various market cycles and through periods of significant change and disruption.
We believe large OEMs and other multinational companies are increasingly demanding a global presence to supply sensors and electrical protection components for their key platforms worldwide. We provide all our customers with worldwide technical and manufacturing presence and service support, which helps ensure supply continuity and avoid risks associated with potential supply chain disruptions. Moreover, we have a strong knowledge of their quality and delivery requirements. We also see the growing importance of new ‘startup’ OEMs as market disruptors, and Sensata’s flexibility, speed, expertise, and global footprint provide these new entrants with a supplier/partner capable of meeting their demanding requirements.
We have had relationships with our top ten customers for an average of 32 years. Our largest customer accounted for approximately 6% of our net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023.
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End Markets
The table below sets forth the amount of net revenue generated by our end markets, reconciled to total net revenue, for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021:
For the year ended December 31,
(In thousands)202320222021
Net revenue:
Automotive$2,177,189 $2,107,651 $2,062,407 
HVOR (1)
863,422 848,514 783,170 
Industrial, HVAC (2), and other
825,293 920,217 840,494 
Aerospace188,179 152,880 134,735 
Total net revenue (3)
$4,054,083 $4,029,262 $3,820,806 
__________________________
(1)    Heavy vehicle and off-road
(2)    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
(3)    Total revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 includes approximately $673 million, $460 million, and $261 million, respectively, of revenue related to the Electrification growth trend (refer to discussion under the heading Growth Drivers below), portions of which are derived in each of the end markets presented above.
Effective February 1, 2024, we combined our Automotive and HVOR businesses to better leverage core capabilities and prioritize product focus into one business, Vehicles, under the Performance Sensing reportable segment. The Sensing Solutions reportable segment will benefit from organizing our predominantly shorter-cycle businesses together, by allowing us to scale core capabilities and better serve our customers. We are still evaluating what impact this reorganization will have on our reportable segments, operating segments, and reporting units in the first quarter of 2024.
Business Strategy
Anticipating and Leveraging Change in our End Markets
There will be more change in the end markets we serve in the next 10 years than there have been in the last 50 years. In order to take advantage of the unprecedented opportunity for growth that these changes represent, we are leveraging certain material growth drivers. These material drivers include Electrification and Safe & Efficient, each of which are described in more detail under the heading Growth Drivers.
Invest in the Business
While we may continue to consider strategic partnerships and acquisitions to accelerate the growth and transformation of our product portfolio and to obtain access to new technologies, expertise, processes, and solutions, we are focusing on leveraging the core business, which continues to have meaningful growth and cash flows. Our future success builds upon our deep expertise in customizing the base technologies developed over the years, improving them meaningfully over time, and leveraging new technologies and capabilities that have been recently acquired.
We have increased research and development ("R&D") costs over the last five years in order to invest in differentiated capabilities and product innovation. Because we are a long-cycle business, these investments have pressured near-term margins. However, as a result of these investments, our addressable market is large and expanding. We believe these are the right strategic decisions for our long-term health and prosperity.
This focus and investment are driving a dramatic increase in our new business wins ("NBOs") over the past several years. In fiscal year 2023, we achieved NBOs of $657 million. Over the past three years, we have achieved over $2.3 billion in NBOs. While we continue to win significant opportunities in our core business related to the Safe & Efficient growth trend, the majority of our NBOs, $1.3 billion over the past three years, have been in the area of electrification. We will continue to narrow our focus and investment in this area. We define NBOs as incremental revenue to our current base of business that is expected to be recognized on average in the fifth year after entry into the agreement, when programs typically reach their normal volume. Accordingly, NBOs are an indicator of future revenue potential.
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Manufacturing
From a manufacturing perspective, we have achieved our current cost position through development of manufacturing scale and efficiencies, a continual process of migration and transformation to best-cost manufacturing locations, global best-cost sourcing, product design improvements, and ongoing productivity-enhancing initiatives. We also use our decades of manufacturing expertise to drive efficient, high-quality processes. We leverage next-generation automation to lower labor costs and to drive towards zero defects.
We are building resilient supply chains with a balanced approach in ensuring the continuity of supply while aggressively focusing on innovative ways to drive material cost down. Through collaboration and partnership across our project teams, sourcing, and our supply base partners, we have identified and are executing on project-based material savings programs to help mitigate inflation.
In addition, we continue to drive operational efficiencies with network analysis and optimization, lean initiatives, and accelerating automation deployments to mitigate both labor shortages and wage inflation pressures in our factories.
Capital Allocation
We expect to drive our net leverage down to less than 2.0x by the end of 2026. We repaid our $400.0 million aggregate principal amount of 5.625% senior notes due 2024 (the "5.625% Senior Notes") in December 2023 with cash on hand. On September 26, 2023, our Board of Directors authorized a new $500.0 million ordinary share repurchase program (the “September 2023 Program”), which replaced the $500.0 million ordinary share repurchase program authorized in January 2022 (the "January 2022 Program"), effective on October 1, 2023. Going forward, our capital allocation strategy is focused on supporting the growth of the business through capital expenditures, maintaining our dividend, reducing our debt levels, and repurchasing shares opportunistically.
Growth drivers
Safe & Efficient
Due to global regulation and societal forces, our customers are facing increasing mandates to make their products safer, cleaner, and more efficient. Many of our customers are shifting their designs for vehicles, industrial equipment, aircraft, and other systems to meet these evolving requirements, a trend which we refer to as “Safe & Efficient." This trend impacts most of our business today and is resulting in an addressable market ($13.3 billion in 2023) that is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate ("CAGR") of 4% over the next five years. This is despite the expected transition within the automotive end market from internal combustion engines ("ICEs") to electrified platforms during that period of time.
We design and manufacture products and solutions for mission-critical, hard-to-do applications that enable our customers to protect the environment and improve quality of life. Our products and solutions are being used by our customers in applications to address the Safe & Efficient demands, including those that help transportation customers to meet the standards of emissions and pollution-control legislation and industrial customers to introduce new energy-efficient and environmentally friendly motors, compressors, and HVAC systems.
For example, responding to tightening legislation requirements and proliferating content, we enable vehicle OEMs to improve combustion, reduce tailpipe emissions, and increase fuel economy in both traditional and hybrid vehicles with a combination of sensors, such as pressure, high-temperature, and speed, in next-generation powertrains. In addition, tightening HVOR emissions regulations in the U.S., Europe, and China have resulted in increased sensor content in engines and exhaust after-treatment. Our differentiated operator controls and systems improve operator productivity and enable simplified, improved, and safer operation, even in harsh conditions. Our tire pressure sensors are used by automotive and HVOR OEMs and fleets to reduce downtime and operating costs, improve fuel efficiency, and create safer driving conditions. Also, HVAC variable systems are the preferred method to meet stringent energy efficiency and environmental regulations. Our pressure and temperature sensors are critical to optimize these systems and enable them to achieve higher levels of efficiency.
We consider these capabilities to be core to our historical success and will continue to be significant drivers of market outgrowth in the future. We use the term "market outgrowth" to describe the impact of an increasing quantity and value of our products used in customer systems and applications above external market growth. It is only loosely correlated to normal unit demand fluctuations in the markets we serve.
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Electrification
Our objective with the Electrification initiative is to become a leading and foundational player in electrification components and sub-systems across broad industrial, transportation, aerospace, recharging infrastructure, and renewable energy generation and storage end markets. These components and solutions will support a future that is more environmentally sustainable and efficient and include (1) components for electric vehicles ("EVs"), charging stations, and chargers and (2) mission-critical high-voltage components and subsystems combined into high-value energy management or energy storage solutions. Throughout this Report, we use the term “electric vehicles” or "EVs" holistically to reference plug-in hybrid and battery-electric vehicles of all kinds, unless otherwise specified.
Because of the prevalence of ICE vehicles today, applications in these vehicles make up most of our current transportation addressable markets (automotive and HVOR). These addressable markets are large today and growing, with expectations that they will continue to grow over the next ten years. However, the automotive market is rapidly changing with the transformation into electrification. Most of our customers have made significant commitments regarding the transition from ICEs to electrified platforms.
In addition, the need for electrification is evident in all aspects of daily life, not just in transportation applications. Manufacturers of material handling equipment, aircraft, and industrial systems are also addressing ever-tightening greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions regulations and taking advantage of falling battery costs and increasing energy capacities of lithium-ion battery cells to provide electrified solutions to their customers. In order to make this happen, the sources of energy, infrastructure to distribute it, and the vehicles and industrial applications that use energy all need to transition to clean electricity in order to reduce GHG emissions. These demands have been met with more choices, better performance, and improved safety, all combining to advance electrification at a rapid pace. The electrification market represented a $6.3 billion serviceable addressable market for Sensata in 2023, which is expected to grow at a 24% CAGR over the next five years.
Many of the components and subsystems we have historically developed and produced, such as those used in braking, tires, and environmental control in traditional ICE vehicles, will play a significant role in this expansion, as we can convert much of this technology for use in electric vehicle applications. Specific to EVs, we also provide and are developing several components that enable the safe and efficient operation of electrified platforms, such as high-voltage electrical protection, advanced temperature and thermal management sensing, highly sensitive electric motor position, and next-generation current sensing.
Thanks to products and services we have added via acquisition, we have expanded our capabilities and reach to provide our customers with not only components but also either the subsystem of assembled components to manage battery charging in the form of a power distribution unit for renewable energy systems and applications or, in certain specialty transportation markets, the full energy storage system, including battery management and a customized battery pack.
On the front end of the cycle, energy sources are shifting to renewables, with the cost of solar, wind, and hydrogen all becoming more cost-efficient. Clean Energy Solutions, a business unit within our Sensing Solutions reportable segment, was organized to better pursue clean energy components and system opportunities. Clean Energy Solutions includes products and solutions such as high-voltage contactors, inverters, rectifiers, energy storage systems, electrical sensing products, and battery management systems, that serve the industrial, stationary, and commercial energy conversion and storage end markets. Our fiscal year 2022 acquisition of Dynapower was a foundational addition to our Clean Energy Solutions strategy. Dynapower is a leader in power conversion systems, including inverters, converters, and rectifiers for renewable energy generation, green hydrogen production, electric vehicle charging stations, and microgrid applications, as well as industrial and defense applications. Dynapower also provides aftermarket sales and service to maintain its equipment in the field.
We are a leading provider of high-voltage electrical protection on EVs and charging infrastructure and we also seek to be the partner of choice for HVOR, industrial, and aerospace OEMs transitioning to electrified solutions. We are directly enabling direct current ("DC") fast charging through high-voltage components. We enable innovation by providing higher levels of safety through our high-voltage solutions and isolation monitoring devices. Safety is critical given the level of power being transmitted and handled by the end consumer who is actually charging their vehicle. We are also delivering higher power through a broad array and range of DC switching and current braking products and the opportunity to move faster by collaborating with our OEMs on integrated products. Today, our high-voltage contactors are a critical component of our electrification portfolio, and we have continued to build upon that organically and through acquisitions including current sensing and battery management.
We meaningfully started our journey in high-voltage electrification with the 2018 acquisition of GIGAVAC, an industrial contactor-infused business serving the North American market. Since then, we have continued to innovate our contactor portfolio. Our GIGAVAC-branded high-voltage electrical protection products augment our electrical protection portfolio to address many of the needs in EVs as the voltage of these systems continue to increase. As system voltages increase, the burden
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on the systems and subsystems to properly control and protect the vehicle from electrical failure becomes mission-critical and is where our solutions play a critical role. Our electrical protection solutions safeguard the expensive electronics used to power the vehicle and allow for an increase in power levels to improve charging times. In addition, we are driving the speed of innovation and value with lower-voltage electrified platforms, both on and off-road. The joint venture created with Churod Electronics in early fiscal year 2021 expanded our contactor offering by making available new technology applicable to lower voltage ranges than GIGAVAC's solutions.
Our average U.S. dollar content in an electric vehicle is expected to expand over the next several years to approximately two times the content that we currently realize on average for ICE vehicles, resulting from the broad array of sensors and other components designed into EVs.
We continue to drive investments in innovative technologies, competencies, and solutions to enable our customers' success as they pivot toward an electrified world.
Performance Sensing
The Performance Sensing reportable segment, which accounted for approximately 74% of our net revenue in fiscal year 2023, represents an aggregation of two operating segments, Automotive and HVOR. It primarily serves the Automotive and HVOR industries through the development and manufacture of sensors, high-voltage solutions (i.e., electrical protection components), and other solutions that are used in mission-critical systems and applications. Examples include those used in subsystems of automobiles, on-road trucks, and off-road equipment, such as tire pressure monitoring, thermal management, electrical protection, regenerative braking, powertrain (engine/transmission), and exhaust management. Our products are used in subsystems that, among other things, improve operating performance and efficiency and contribute to environmentally sustainable and safe solutions.
Our solutions are present in a wide variety of transportation systems and subsystems, playing a critical role in ensuring the functionality and safety of a vehicle’s operation. Within the combustion and electrified propulsion architecture, we provide various sensor solutions (e.g., electric motor position, gasoline direct injection, oil pressure monitoring, fuel delivery, and various others) that enable superior functionality, efficiency, and optimized performance while reducing environmental impact. As electrification proliferates, the ability to protect the vehicle systems/sub-systems from high-voltage power sources becomes critical, a need that our electrical protection portfolio (e.g., high-voltage contactors, fuses, high-voltage junction boxes) addresses. Our chassis (e.g., tire management solutions), thermal management (e.g., pressure plus temperature sensing), and safety (e.g., braking and electronic stability control) sensor/product solutions all play critical roles in enabling the safety, improved performance, and increased efficiency and range of both electrified vehicles and ICE powertrains.
Applications we serve require close engineering collaboration between us and the OEM or their Tier 1 suppliers. Solutions are designed to meet application-specific requirements with customer-specific fit, form, and function. As a result, OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers make significant investments in selecting, integrating, and testing sensors as part of their product development. Once our solutions are designed into an application, we are well positioned as the incumbent supplier due to the high degree of sensor customization and application/vehicle platform certification. This results in high switching costs for automotive and HVOR manufacturers once a sensor is designed into a particular system or platform. We believe this is one of the reasons that sensors are rarely changed during a platform life cycle, which in the case of the automotive industry typically lasts four to six years. OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers seek to partner with suppliers with a proven record of quality, on-time delivery, and performance, as well as the engineering and manufacturing scale/resources to meet their needs over the multi-year lifecycle of these highly engineered vehicles and systems.
Markets
The markets we serve are seeking to provide cleaner, safer, more electrified, and connected solutions. Transportation industries provide some of the largest markets for sensors, giving participants with a presence in these markets significant scale advantages over those participating only in smaller, more niche industrial and medical markets. As electrified transportation platforms continue to evolve and grow, we expect OEM and Tier 1 suppliers to continue to require sensing partners that can continue to meet their increasing needs for mission-critical sensors and solutions, enabling their global vehicle strategies.
We believe that net revenue growth from the automotive and HVOR sensor markets served by Performance Sensing has historically been driven by three principal trends, including (1) growth in the number of vehicles produced globally, (2) expansion in the number and type of sensors per vehicle, and (3) efforts toward commercializing higher value sensors. In addition, we believe that the automotive and HVOR sensor markets are, and will continue to be, substantially impacted in the near term by Electrification.
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Light vehicle production: Global production of light vehicles has consistently demonstrated steady annual growth for most of the past decade, with the exception of fiscal years 2020 and 2021, which were depressed production years due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global markets. In fiscal year 2022, growth in global production of light vehicles returned, and in fiscal year 2023, according to third party data, global production increased approximately 9% from the prior year.
On-Road Truck Production: Global production of heavy-duty trucks had also demonstrated consistent growth until fiscal year 2020, which declined as a result of the economic impacts of COVID-19. Global production of heavy- and medium-duty trucks in the markets we serve has been volatile in the subsequent years and increased approximately 1% to 2% in fiscal year 2023 from the prior year.
Number of sensors per vehicle: We believe that the number of sensors used in vehicles of all classes will continue to be driven by increasing requirements in vehicle emissions, efficiency, safety, electrification, and comfort-related control systems that depend on sensors for proper functioning, such as electronic stability control, tire pressure monitoring, advanced driver assistance, advanced combustion and exhaust after-treatment applications, and operator controls in heavy off-road equipment. For example, government regulation of emissions, including fuel economy standards such as the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Corporate Average Fuel Economy requirements in the U.S. and emissions requirements such as "Euro 6d" in Europe, "China National 6" in China, and "Bharat Stage VI" in India, require advanced sensors to achieve these performance metrics. Sensors are crucial enablers for a vehicle’s systems and sub-systems to meet the ever-increasing requirements in a vehicle’s operation.
Higher value sensors: We believe that our revenue growth has been augmented by a continuing shift away from legacy sensors to next-generation, value-rich sensors and related solutions that include controllers, receivers, and software and will continue to grow as our sensors get "smarter" with more embedded algorithms. As we strive to increase the value we bring to the market and our customers, we are continually looking to bring solutions to our customers that drive the next-generation vehicle enhancement in electrification, safety, and reliability through our engineering solutions combined with increased data insights that are derived from these sensing solutions. Our ability to provide our customers with not only solutions in sensing and electrical protection components and systems but also insights into the systems/sub-systems we serve increases the value of our offering and enables improved performance, safety, efficiency, and environmental impacts. Our focus on delivering enhanced value through our mission-critical solutions to the market positions us to drive profitable revenue growth as the market demands continue to evolve.
New Technology: Automobiles and heavy vehicles continue to evolve, with new alternative technologies being developed to make these vehicles more efficient, reliable, financially viable, and safe. We believe this trend will drive growth in our business for the foreseeable future, particularly in the area of Electrification. Moreover, we believe our broad customer base, global diversification, and evolving portfolio provide the foundation that will allow us to grow with these trends across a diverse set of markets.
Product Categories
The following table presents the significant product categories offered by Performance Sensing and the corresponding key products, solutions, applications, systems, and end markets:
Key Products/SolutionsKey Applications/SystemsKey End Markets
Product category: Sensors
Pressure sensors
Speed and position sensors
High-temperature sensors
Thermal management and air conditioning systems
Powertrain
Exhaust after-treatment
Suspension
Braking
Tire management solutions
Radar solutions
Battery packs
Automotive
HVOR
Product category: Electrical protection
High-voltage contactors/fuses
Battery management system
Charging inlet modules
High-voltage distribution units
Electrical protection
Electrical powertrain
Battery management
Charging systems
Automotive
HVOR
Product category: Other
Vehicle area networks
Data collection devices and software
Data insights (asset tracking and vehicle telematics)
Usage-based insurance
HVOR
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The table below sets forth the amount of net revenue generated by our product categories in Performance Sensing, reconciled to total segment net revenue, for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021:
For the year ended December 31,
(In thousands)202320222021
Net revenue:
Sensors (1)
$2,683,192 $2,571,425 $2,675,439 
Electrical protection120,636 85,167 41,882 
Other198,900 263,801 83,905 
Performance Sensing net revenue (1)
$3,002,728 $2,920,393 $2,801,226 
_________________________
(1)    In the year ended December 31, 2023, we moved our material handling products from the HVOR operating segment (in the Performance Sensing reportable segment) to the Sensing Solutions operating segment to align with new management reporting. These products were previously categorized in the "sensors" product category. Accordingly, Performance Sensing net revenue for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, both overall and in the sensors product category, have been recast to reflect this realignment.
Competitors
Within each of the principal product categories in Performance Sensing, we compete with a variety of independent suppliers. We believe that the key competitive factors in the markets served by this segment are product performance in mission-critical operating environments, quality, service, reliability, manufacturing footprint, and commercial competitiveness. We believe that our ability to design and produce customized solutions globally, breadth and scale of product offerings, technical expertise and development capability, product service and responsiveness, and a commercially competitive offering position us well to succeed in these markets. We are experts in the applications we serve, enabling us to provide industry-leading solutions to our customers.
Sensing Solutions
Sensing Solutions, which accounted for approximately 26% of our net revenue in fiscal year 2023, primarily serves the industrial and aerospace industries through the development and manufacture of a broad portfolio of application-specific sensor and electrical protection products used in a diverse range of industrial markets, including the appliance, HVAC, water management, operator controls, charging infrastructure, renewable energy generation, green hydrogen production, and microgrid applications and markets, as well as the aerospace market, including commercial aircraft, defense, and aftermarket markets.
Some of the products and solutions the segment sells include pressure, temperature, and position sensors, motor and compressor protectors, high-voltage contactors, solid state relays, bimetal electromechanical controls, power inverters, charge controllers, battery management systems, operator controls, and power conversion systems. Our products perform many functions, including prevention of damage from excess heat or electrical current, optimization of system performance, low-power circuit control, renewable energy generation, and power conversion from DC power to alternating current power.
Our electrical protection devices are critical for the safe operation of, for example, small appliances that are used in every day life. We believe that we are the industry leader in the residential and commercial heating and cooling equipment markets, such as switches and sensors that manage the refrigerant loop of an air conditioner. We leverage the expertise from the automotive business, and we customize the products to our market requirements.
Our Clean Energy Solutions business includes products and solutions such as high-voltage contactors, inverters, rectifiers, energy storage systems, electrical sensing products, and battery management systems that serve the industrial, transportation, stationary, and commercial energy conversion and storage end markets. Applications include those in battery-energy storage, microgrids, and renewable energy generation and storage. Our fiscal year 2022 acquisition of Dynapower was a foundational addition to our Clean Energy Solutions strategy. Dynapower is a leader in power conversion systems, including inverters, converters, and rectifiers for renewable energy generation, green hydrogen production, electric vehicle charging stations, and microgrid applications, as well as industrial and defense applications. Dynapower also provides aftermarket sales and service to maintain its equipment in the field.
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Markets
Demand for our sensor products is driven by many of the same factors as in the transportation sensor markets: regulation of emissions, greater energy efficiency and safety, and consumer demand for new features. Gross Domestic Product growth is a broad indicator of demand for our consolidated industrial markets over the long term. We use Purchasing Managers' Index to gauge short-term trends in the industrial, appliance, and HVAC markets we serve. For instance, the growing consumer demand for cleaner heat sources, like heat pumps, which utilize our content, is being driven by government initiatives to reduce carbon emissions to net zero by 2050.
We continue to focus our efforts on expanding our presence in all global geographies and serving our global customers in a highly efficient and cost-effective manner. Our customers include established multinationals as well as local producers in markets such as China, India, Eastern Europe, and Turkey. China remains a priority for us because of its export focus and the increasing domestic consumption of products that use our devices.
Product Categories
The following table presents the significant product categories offered by Sensing Solutions and the corresponding key products, solutions, applications, systems, and end markets:
Key Products/SolutionsKey Applications/SystemsKey End Markets
Product category: Electrical protection
Bimetal electromechanical controls
Circuit breakers
High-voltage contactors/fuses
Battery management systems
Energy storage systems
Switches and relays
Motors, compressors, pumps
Home appliances
Lighting
Commercial and military aircraft
Industrial
Data and telecom equipment
Medical equipment
Recreational vehicles
Aerospace and defense
Industrial
Appliance and HVAC
Medical
Energy/solar
Product category: Sensors
Position sensors
Pressure sensors
Temperature sensors
Gas leak detection sensors
Motors, compressors, pumps
Hydraulic machinery
Motion control systems
Commercial and military aircraft
Motor/platform controllers
Operator controls
Aerospace and defense
Industrial automation
Appliance and HVAC
Energy
Product category: Other
Inverters
Brushless DC motors
Current sensors
Rectifiers and frequency converters
Power conversion systems
Recreational vehicles
Grid harmonics and power delivery
Mobile power
Renewable power generation
Energy storage
Aerospace and defense
The table below sets forth the amount of net revenue generated by our sensors and electrical protection product categories in Sensing Solutions, reconciled to total segment net revenue, for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021:
For the year ended December 31,
(In thousands)202320222021
Net revenue:
Electrical protection$557,313 $625,316 $593,259 
Sensors (1)
308,333 315,638 277,046 
Other 185,709 167,915 149,275 
Sensing Solutions net revenue (1)
$1,051,355 $1,108,869 $1,019,580 
_________________________
(1)    In the year ended December 31, 2023, we moved our material handling products from the HVOR operating segment (in the Performance Sensing reportable segment) to the Sensing Solutions operating segment to align with new management reporting. These products are categorized in the "sensors" product category. Accordingly, Sensing Solutions net revenue for
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the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, both overall and in the sensors product category, have been recast to reflect this realignment.
Competitors
Within each of the principal product categories in Sensing Solutions, we compete with divisions of large multinational industrial corporations and companies with smaller market share that compete primarily in specific markets, applications, systems, or products. We believe that the key competitive factors in these markets are product performance, quality, and reliability. We believe our competitive advantage lies in our ability to leverage innovation from the automotive side of the business, ensuring scalability and reliability. We also differentiate ourselves with our global support and footprint. We provide local support, local service and local technical engineering development for our customers globally.
Technology and Intellectual Property
We pride ourselves as a world leader and early innovator in mission-critical, hard-to-do sensor solutions. We develop products that address increasingly complex engineering and operating performance requirements to help our customers solve their most difficult engineering challenges in the automotive, HVOR, fleet management, industrial, clean energy, and aerospace industries.
We believe that continued focused investment in R&D is critical to our future growth and maintaining our leadership positions in the markets we serve. Our R&D efforts are directly related to the timely development of new and enhanced products that are central to our business strategy. We continually develop our technologies to meet an evolving set of customer requirements and new product introductions. We conduct such activities in areas we believe will increase our long-term revenue growth. Our development expense is typically associated with engineering core technology platforms to specific applications and engineering major upgrades that improve functionality or reduce the cost of existing products.
A large portion of our R&D activities is directed towards technologies and market trends that we believe have the potential for significant future growth but relate to products that are not currently within our core business or include new features and capabilities for existing products. Expenses related to these activities are less likely than our more mainstream development activities to result in increased near-term revenue.
We benefit from many development opportunities at an early stage for several reasons: (1) we are the incumbent in many systems for our key customers; (2) we have robust design and service capability; and (3) our global engineering teams are located close to key customers in regional business centers. We work closely with our customers to deliver solutions that meet their needs today and in the future. As a result of development lead times and the embedded nature of our products, we collaborate closely with our customers throughout the design and development phase of their products. Systems development by our customers typically requires significant multi-year investment for certification and qualification, which are often government or customer mandated. We believe the capital commitment and time required for this process significantly increase the switching costs once a customer has designed and installed a particular sensor into a system.
We rely primarily on patents, trade secrets, manufacturing know-how, confidentiality procedures, and licensing arrangements to maintain and protect our intellectual property rights. While we consider our patents to be valuable assets, we do not believe that our overall competitive position is dependent on patent protection or that our overall business is dependent upon any single patent or group of related patents. Many of our patents protect specific functionality in our products, and others consist of processes or techniques that result in reduced manufacturing costs.
The following table presents information on our patents and patent applications as of December 31, 2023:
U.S.
Non-U.S.
Patents333 603 
Pending patent applications filed within the last five years106 297 
Our patents have expiration dates ranging from 2024 to 2045. We also own a portfolio of trademarks and license various patents and trademarks. "Sensata" and our logo are trademarks.
We use licensing arrangements with respect to certain technology provided in our sensor and electrical protection products. In 2006, we entered into a perpetual, royalty-free cross-license agreement with our former owner, Texas Instruments Incorporated, which permits each party to use specified technology owned by the other party in its business. No license may be terminated under the agreement, even in the event of a material breach.
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Raw Materials
We use a broad range of manufactured components, subassemblies, and raw materials in the manufacture of our products in both our Performance Sensing and Sensing Solutions segments, including those containing certain commodities (e.g., semiconductors, resins, and metals), which may experience significant volatility in their price and availability due to, among other things: new laws or regulations, including labor laws and the impact of tariffs; trade barriers and disputes; global economic or political events, including government actions and labor strikes; suppliers' allocations to other purchasers; interruptions in production by suppliers; increased logistics costs; changes in foreign currency exchange rates; and prevailing price levels.
It has historically been difficult to pass increased prices for manufactured components and raw materials to our customers through price increases. Therefore, a significant increase in the price or decrease in the availability of these items, such as those experienced in the global supply chain shortages of the past few years, could materially increase our operating costs and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. The impact of these global supply chain shortages of the past few years, including production delays on a vast and varied number of products across industries and geographies and increased procurement and logistics costs, has been unprecedented. Accordingly, we continue to actively work with our customers to share the inflationary burden of these factors. In addition, where possible, we have been working to adjust our long-term supply agreements, strengthen our relationships with our suppliers, increase inventories on hand, increase visibility into long-term supply and demand, and accelerate the use of alternate materials to improve supply chain visibility.
Seasonality
Because of the diverse global nature of the markets in which we operate, our net revenue is only moderately impacted by seasonality. Sensing Solutions experiences some seasonality, specifically in its air conditioning and refrigeration products, which tend to peak in the first two quarters of the year as inventories are built up for spring and summer sales. In addition, Performance Sensing's net revenue tends to be weaker in the third quarter of the year as automotive OEMs retool production lines for the coming model year.
Human Capital Resources
Our employees, whom we refer to as Team Sensata, are responsible for upholding our purpose – to help our customers and partners deliver a safer, cleaner, more efficient, more electrified, and increasingly more connected world – and they embody our values in all aspects of daily work. Our corporate values are the essence of our identity, provide a level-set foundation, and are an important way for us to improve our culture. Our values include passion, excellence, integrity, flexibility, and teamwork—working together towards common goals, the latter of which we refer to as "One Sensata." In various countries, local law requires our participation in works councils. We believe that our relations with our employees are good.
The following table presents a summary of our employee population as of December 31, 2023:
(in thousands)TotalU.S. BasedFemaleCovered by
Collective Bargaining
Employees19.4 1.5 10.8 0.2 
Contractors (1)
2.5 0.1 1.3 — 
__________________________
(1)    We engage contract workers in multiple locations, primarily to cost-effectively manage variations in manufacturing volume, but also to perform engineering and other general services. Includes approximately 2,200 direct labor contract workers worldwide.
One of our key areas of prioritization is to empower our workforce through promotion of a culture that values inclusion and diversity and prioritizes employee well-being and safety. A summary of additional content in the Sustainability Report can be found under the heading Environmental, Social, and Governance included elsewhere in this Item 1: Business.
Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion ("DEI")
We believe in treating all people with respect and dignity. Each person brings unique value through their varying backgrounds and life experiences, no matter their age, race, color, disability, ethnicity, family or marital status, gender identity or expression, language, national origin, physical or mental ability, political affiliation, religion, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, veteran status, and other characteristics that make our employees unique. It is our policy and practice to hire and employ qualified individuals without regard to these characteristics. Our DEI policy can be found at www.sensata.com/diversity-equity-and-inclusion. This policy applies to all terms and conditions of employment, including recruitment and selection;
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compensation and benefits; professional development and training; promotions; transfers; social and recreational programs; reductions in force; terminations; and the ongoing development of a work environment built on the premise of diversity, equity, and inclusion.
We provide regular training to all employees regarding our diversity policies and practices through which we communicate our expectations that each employee is responsible for maintaining a respectful and inclusive workplace. We strive to create and foster a supportive and understanding environment in which ideas are shared freely, helping all individuals realize their maximum potential within Sensata, regardless of their differences. An inclusive culture is fundamental to innovation and problem-solving, improving our ability to innovate, and is vital to our business.
We sponsor various employee resource groups (“ERGs”), groups of employees that come together to work strategically, both internally and externally, to benefit and advance their group members by fostering awareness, respect, and inclusion within the workplace. Our ERGs support our commitment to creating and sustaining a diverse workforce and a culture of inclusion where everyone can thrive, encouraging different perspectives, thoughts, and ideas — creating a sense of community. Our ERGs provide our employees meaningful community and global engagement, networking and mentoring opportunities, and an inclusive workplace culture. Through interaction with these groups, senior leadership can identify emerging and high-potential talent, acquire cultural knowledge, hear directly from employees who face challenges inherent in underrepresented groups, and strengthen diversity management skills. Our ERGs contribute to our market success by actively contributing to our broader DEI strategy. As of December 31, 2023, we had ERGs globally focused on the following areas — gender equity, generational diversity, cross-cultural appreciation, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latinx, Asian/ Asian-American & Pacific Islander heritage, and LGBTQIA+ Pride, disability awareness, and armed forces. Our ERGs are set up globally with local chapters worldwide.
Our diversity goals are discussed under the heading Environmental, Social, and Governance included elsewhere in this Item 1: Business.
Social and Human Rights Matters
We have policies related to our position on various social and human rights matters, including child labor, forced labor, human trafficking, health and safety, non-discrimination, and environmental matters. Each of these policies can be found on our website at www.sensata.com. Our human rights expectations apply to all our personnel, business partners, and other parties involved directly in our operations, products, or services.
We are committed to responsible corporate practices in the area of human rights and working conditions and we respect the United Nations Guiding Principles for Business and Human Rights (2011) and its principles within our operations and supply chains. We also align with practices recommended by industry standards such as the Global Automotive Sustainability Practical Guidance and the RBA Code of Conduct, which incorporate the International Bill of Human Rights, namely the Universal Convention of Human Rights (1948), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its two Optional Protocols (1966).
We also adhere to the principles set forth in the fundamental International Labor Organization ("ILO") Conventions, namely the Forced Labor Convention (1930), the Minimum Age Convention (1973), the Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention (1999), and the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (1998). The working conditions of our employees are, at minimum, in compliance with internationally recognized labor standards and the laws of the countries we operate in. When national law directly conflicts with international human rights standards or does not fully comply with them, we seek ways to respect internationally recognized human rights.
Employee Engagement
Our long-term success depends on hiring, retaining, training, rewarding, and engaging employees. We strive to retain and engage employees by providing competitive pay and benefits packages, a challenging and rewarding work experience, and by consistently connecting how integral their work is to Sensata's larger purpose and to the work we do as a company. We survey our employees bi-annually to understand where we can initiate improvements in these areas.
We focus our employee communications on continual engagement, providing updates on our business, technology, and workforce, including learning opportunities. We work to provide our employees with information to help them feel connected to the business and company strategy and purpose, what we are doing to be a responsible corporate citizen and community neighbor, and how we add value to our customers and investors.
We recognize the importance of supporting our employees’ health and well-being. Accordingly, we regularly review our benefit offerings with external advisers with deep industry expertise in risk insurance, health insurance, and other employee benefits for
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advice and market expertise. We are committed to providing comprehensive and competitive benefits packages that attract, retain, and enhance the well-being of our employees by supporting their physical, financial, and emotional wellness. Our benefits include an array of quality health and income protection benefits. Some benefits are provided automatically at no cost to employees, while the cost of other benefits is shared between the employee and Sensata.
Our employees' health, safety, and well-being are a high priority and integral to our values. We consider safety a core value embedded in the decisions we make across the company to protect our employees, business partners, and local communities.
Learning and Development
We believe that continued success in executing our business strategy requires us to provide a broad range of learning and development programs and opportunities to our employees. We offer our employees an online global learning management system ("Sensata Learning") that enables them to access live virtual and on-demand training. In fiscal year 2023, we delivered approximately 97,000 hours of training spanning various required learning and professional development topics, including a range of courses on diversity, inclusion, and ethics.
We have an integrated performance management process containing annual goal setting and periodic formal and informal reviews and check-ins, ensuring that our employees are provided continual feedback on their performance regarding goals and competencies. We also have templates for giving feedback anytime to employees, typically tied to performance as part of their role, projects, and deliverables which helps foster transparency and delivery of real-time feedback.
In addition, we have a robust talent and succession planning process and have established programs to support the development of our talent pipeline for critical roles in management, engineering, and operations. On an annual basis, we conduct a leadership review process with our chief executive officer, chief administrative officer, and business and functional leaders to identify key talent for additional development opportunities. This helps ensure optimal use of the talent for the benefit of both the employee and Sensata.
Ethics
We have adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics governing the conduct of our personnel, including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer, and controller, and persons performing similar functions. Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics is modified from time to time and is available on the investor relations page of our website at www.sensata.com under Corporate Governance. We have a three-part annual training covering the topics discussed in the Code of Business Conduct and Ethics on Sensata Learning, our online global learning management system.
We hold an annual "Integrity Week," which focuses on integrity as a core value of the organization and underscores our commitment to operating responsibly, one of the four key priority areas outlined in our Sustainability Report. Integrity is at the core of what we do—from how we govern ourselves to how we conduct our business and manage relationships with our stakeholders. The most recent Integrity Week, in fiscal year 2023, focused on “Integrity in Action.” By sharing best practices and stories from their professional journeys, various executives and site leaders at Sensata illustrated how integrity is not just about doing the right thing but how it is intrinsic to delivering value and sustainability for our company, environment, and communities.
We believe our management team has the experience necessary to effectively execute our strategy and advance our product and technology leadership. Our chief executive officer and business leaders average approximately 25 years of industry experience. They are supported by an experienced and talented management team dedicated to maintaining and expanding our position as a global leader in the industry. For a discussion of the risks relating to the attraction and retention of management and executive management employees, see Item 1A: Risk Factors included elsewhere in this Report.
Environmental, Social, and Governance
Environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) objectives are central to Sensata’s business strategy, values, and culture. We believe this strong, foundational focus on sustainability makes Sensata a partner of choice for our customers, a desirable place to work for our employees, and a valued contributor to the communities in which we operate. Today, our solutions serve as critical building blocks for making safer, cleaner, and more efficient products, while our systems enable millions to make smarter, more sustainable choices. By harnessing the passion and expertise of our people and working closely with our partners and customers, we are designing a future where the smartest choice is also the most sustainable. At Sensata, inclusive cultures and diverse perspectives drive success, and transparency and accountability are reflected in everything that we do. While a key part of our business is to design solutions that support our customers’ transition to cleaner energy, we recognize the role we must play to combat climate change by managing energy consumption and emissions resulting from our operations. We also
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recognize that a changing climate may impact significant aspects of our business and the operation of our facilities.
Our ESG efforts focus on four key areas of prioritization against which we measure progress:
Empowering our workforce: We nurture a culture that promotes diversity and inclusion and prioritizes employee health, safety, and well-being while supporting our communities and suppliers;
Innovating for Sustainability: We develop products and technology solutions that help create a safer, cleaner, more efficient, electrified, and connected world;
Protecting Our Environment: We focus on building products that reduce environmental impact and improve technological efficiencies while optimizing and reducing our operational footprint through energy, water, and waste reduction;
Operating Responsibly: We consider transparency and accountability fundamental in everything we do, guiding our approach to governance, risk management, and ESG management.
Following the materiality assessment we conducted in fiscal year 2021, we identified the ESG issues that were most important to our business and stakeholders. We identified the following key issues and set corresponding goals as follows:
DEI: Our goals in this area are by 2026 to reach (1) 30% female representation in manager and above roles worldwide and (2) 25% racial/ethnic diversity representation in manager and above roles in the U.S.;
Energy and Emissions: Our goals in this area are (1) to achieve carbon neutrality in our operations by 2050, (2) to reduce GHG emissions intensity by 10% by 2026, from a 2021 baseline, which was achieved in 2022, (3) a new goal added of a 5% reduction in our market-based emissions intensity in 2023 from 2022, which was achieved in 2023, and (4) a new goal added to reduce absolute market-based emissions by 45% by 2030, from a 2021 baseline;
Responsible Sourcing: Our goals in this area are by 2026 to (1) achieve a 75% response rate on our responsible sourcing campaigns and (2) achieve 100% sourcing of conflict minerals from smelters that are conformant with the Responsible Minerals Assurance Process ("RMAP") or equivalent standard.
While we have made progress in most of our goals, we strive to build on our strong foundation and create a diverse and inclusive workforce, support our customers’ transition to a cleaner energy, reduce our environmental impact, and operate responsibly with respect for people and planet.
Additional information regarding our sustainability initiatives, as well as information on our progress towards our commitments, is available in our annual Sustainability Report located on our website at www.sensata.com/sustainability. Nothing on our website, including the aforementioned Sustainability Report, shall be deemed incorporated by reference into this Report.
Environmental and Governmental Regulations
Our operations and facilities are subject to numerous environmental, health, and safety laws and regulations, both domestic and foreign, including those governing air emissions, chemical usage, water discharges, the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, and the cleanup of contaminated sites. We are not aware of any threatened or pending material environmental investigations, lawsuits, or claims involving us or our operations.
Many of our products are governed by material content restrictions and reporting requirements, examples of which include: European Union ("EU") regulations, such as Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals ("REACH"), Restriction of Hazardous Substances ("RoHS"), and End of Life Vehicle ("ELV"); U.S. regulations, such as the conflict minerals requirements of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act; and similar regulations in other countries, such as the German Explosives Act. Further, numerous customers across all end markets require us to provide declarations of compliance or, in some cases, extra material content documentation as a requirement of doing business with them.
We are subject to compliance with laws and regulations controlling the import and export of goods, services, software, and technical data. Certain of our products are subject to export regulations of the various jurisdictions in which we operate (“Controlled Items”). The export of many such Controlled Items requires a license from the applicable government agency. Licensing decisions are made based on the type of product, its destination, end use, end user, the parties involved in the transaction, national security, and foreign policy. As a result, export license approvals are not guaranteed. We have a trade compliance team and other systems in place to apply for licenses and otherwise comply with import and export regulations.
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Any failure to maintain compliance with such regulations could limit our ability to import or export raw materials and finished goods. These laws and regulations are subject to change, and any such change may limit or exclude existing or future business opportunities, require us to change technology, or incur expenditures to comply with such laws and regulations.
Compliance with environmental and governmental regulations and meeting customer requirements have increased our cost of doing business in various ways and may continue to do so in the future. We do not currently anticipate material capital expenditures during fiscal year 2024 for environmental control facilities. We also do not believe that existing or pending legislation, regulation, or international treaties or accords, whether related to environmental or other government regulations, are reasonably likely to have a material adverse effect in the foreseeable future on our business or the markets we serve, nor on our results of operations, capital expenditures, earnings, competitive position, or financial standing.
Available Information
We make available free of charge on our Internet website (www.sensata.com) our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. Our website and the information contained or incorporated therein are not intended to be incorporated into this Report.
The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy, and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov. The contents on, or accessible through, this website or our website are not incorporated into this filing. Further, our references to the URLs for the SEC's website and our website are intended to be inactive textual references only.
ITEM 1A.     RISK FACTORS
The following are important factors that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf. Investors should carefully consider these risks and all other information in this Report before investing in our securities. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Our business is also subject to general risks that affect many other companies.
If actions taken by management to limit, monitor, or control enterprise risk exposures are not successful, our business and consolidated financial statements could be materially adversely affected. In such case, the trading price of our common stock and debt securities could decline and investors may lose all or part of their investment.
Business and Operational Risks
We are subject to risks associated with climate change, including increased regulation of GHG emissions, changing consumer preferences and other risks related to our transition to Electrification, and the potential increased impacts of severe weather events on our operations and infrastructure.
Climate change is receiving increasing attention worldwide, which has led to increased stakeholder and societal expectations on companies to address change and significant legislative and regulatory efforts to limit GHG emissions. For example, adoption of GHG or climate change rules in jurisdictions in which we operate facilities could require installation of emission controls, acquisition of emission credits, emission reductions, or other measures that could be costly, and could also impact utility rates and increase the amount we spend annually for energy. Additionally, jurisdictions throughout the world are enacting more stringent disclosure requirements related to climate change impacts of an entity’s business. Such increased disclosure requirements could increase our costs and could result in risks to our reputation or consumer demand for our products if we do not meet increasingly demanding stakeholder expectations and standards.
Changes in consumer preferences due to transitioning to a greener economy may result in increased costs, reduced demand for our ICE products, and reduced profits. Part of our strategy to address these risks includes our transition to EVs, which presents additional risks, including reduced demand for, and therefore profits from, our ICE vehicles, which we are using to fund our growth strategy; higher costs or reduced availability of materials related to EV technologies impacting profitability; and risks related to the success of our EV strategy.
Finally, given the worldwide scope of our supply chain and operations, we and our suppliers face a risk of disruption or operating inefficiencies that may increase costs due to the adverse physical effects of climate change, which are predicted to increase the frequency and severity of weather and other natural events, e.g., tropical cyclones, extended droughts, and extreme temperatures. Climate change could also disrupt our operations by impacting the availability and cost of materials within our supply chain, and could also increase insurance and other operating costs. These factors may impact our decisions to construct
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new facilities. If a business interruption occurs and we are unsuccessful in our continuing efforts to minimize the impact of these events, our business, results of operations, financial position, and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
Our business is subject to numerous global risks, including regulatory, political, economic, governmental, and military concerns and instability.
Our business, including our employees, customers, and suppliers, is located throughout the world. We employ approximately 92% of our workforce outside of the U.S. We have many manufacturing, administrative, and sales facilities outside of the U.S. Our subsidiaries located outside of the U.S. generated approximately 59% of our net revenue in fiscal year 2023 (including approximately 18% in China) and we expect sales from non-U.S. markets to continue to represent a significant portion of our total net revenue. International sales and operations are subject to changes in local government regulations and policies, including those related to tariffs and trade barriers, economic sanctions, investments, taxation, exchange controls, and repatriation of earnings.
As a result, we are exposed to numerous global, regional, and local risks that could decrease revenue and/or increase expenses, and therefore decrease our profitability. Such risks may result from instability in economic or political conditions, inflation, recession, and/or actual or anticipated military or political conflicts, and include, without limitation: trade regulations, including customs, import, export, and sourcing restrictions, tariffs, trade barriers, trade disputes, and economic sanctions; changes in local employment costs, laws, regulations, and conditions; difficulties with, and costs for, protecting our intellectual property; challenges in collecting accounts receivable; tax laws and regulatory changes, including examinations by taxing authorities, variations in tax laws from country to country, changes to the terms of income tax treaties, and difficulties in the tax-efficient repatriation of earnings generated or held in a number of jurisdictions; natural disasters; and the impact of each of the foregoing on our business operations, manufacturing, and supply chain.
Other risks are inherent in our non-U.S. operations, including: the potential for changes in socio-economic conditions and/or monetary and fiscal policies; intellectual property protection difficulties and disputes; the settlement of legal disputes through certain foreign legal systems; the collection of receivables; exposure to possible expropriation or other government actions; unsettled political conditions; and possible terrorist attacks. These and other factors may have a material adverse effect on our non-U.S. operations and, therefore, on our business and results of operations. In addition, a scarcity of resources or other hardships caused by a global pandemic may result in increased nationalism, protectionism, and political tensions which may cause governments and/or other entities to take actions that may have a significant negative impact on our ability – and the ability of our suppliers and customers – to conduct business.
Adverse conditions in the industries upon which we are dependent, including the automotive industry, have had, and may in the future have, adverse effects on our business.
We are dependent on market dynamics to sell our products, and our operating results could be adversely affected by cyclical and reduced demand in these markets. Periodic downturns in our customers’ industries could significantly reduce demand for certain of our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
Much of our business depends on, and is directly affected by, the global automobile industry. Sales in our automotive end markets accounted for approximately 54% of our total net revenue in fiscal year 2023. Declines in demand such as experienced as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and other adverse developments like those we have seen in past years in the automotive industry, including but not limited to customer bankruptcies and increased demands on us for lower prices, could have adverse effects on our results of operations and could impact our liquidity and our ability to meet restrictive debt covenants. In addition, these same conditions could adversely impact certain of our vendors’ financial solvency, resulting in potential liabilities or additional costs to us to ensure uninterrupted supply to our customers.
Because of the prevalence of ICE vehicles today, applications in these vehicles make up most of our current transportation addressable markets (automotive and HVOR). These addressable markets are large today and growing, with expectations that they will continue to grow over the next ten years. However, the automotive market is rapidly changing with the transformation into electrification. Many of the components and subsystems we have historically developed and produced, such as those used in braking, tires, and environmental control from traditional ICE vehicles, will play a significant role in this expansion, as we can convert much of this technology for use in electric vehicle applications. If the pace of customer adoption of EVs slows, and this demand is not replaced by demand of more traditional vehicles served by our core ICE business, our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
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We may incur material losses and costs as a result of product liability, warranty, and recall claims that may be brought against us.
We have been, and will continue to be, exposed to product liability and warranty claims in the event that our products actually or allegedly fail to perform as expected, or the use of our products results, or is alleged to result, in death, bodily injury, and/or property damage. Accordingly, we could experience material warranty or product liability losses in the future and incur significant costs to defend these claims. In addition, if any of our products are, or are alleged to be, defective, we may be required to participate in a recall of the underlying end product, particularly if the defect or the alleged defect relates to product safety and/or regulatory non-compliance. Depending on the terms under which we supply products, an OEM may hold us responsible for some or all of the repair or replacement costs of these products under warranty when the product supplied did not perform as represented.
As we continue to develop products containing complex software systems designed to support today’s increasingly connected vehicles, these systems result in potential increases to our risks in product safety, regulatory compliance, product liability, warranty, and recall claims. In addition, the warranty period for certain electric vehicle components is generally eight to ten years, which increases our risk for warranty claims over the life of a product.
In addition, a product recall could generate substantial negative publicity about our business and interfere with our manufacturing plans and product delivery obligations as we seek to repair affected products. Our costs associated with product liability, warranty, and recall claims could be material.
We are dependent on market acceptance of our new product introductions and product innovations for future revenue, and we may not realize all of the revenue or achieve anticipated gross margins from products subject to existing awards or for which we are currently engaged in development.
Substantially all markets in which we operate are impacted by technological change or change in consumer tastes and preferences, which are rapid in certain markets. Our operating results depend substantially upon our ability to continually design, develop, introduce, and sell new and innovative products; to modify existing products; and to customize products to meet customer requirements driven by such change. There are numerous risks inherent in these processes, including the risk that we will be unable to anticipate the direction of technological change; that we will be unable to develop and market profitable new products and applications before our competitors or in time to satisfy customer demands; the possibility that investment of significant time and resources will not be successful; the possibility that the marketplace does not accept our products or services; that we are unable to retain customers that adopt our new products or services; and the risk of additional liabilities associated with these efforts.
Our ability to generate revenue from products pending customer awards is subject to a number of important risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, including the number of products our customers will actually produce, as well as the timing of such production. Many of our customer agreements provide for the supply of a certain share of the customer’s requirements for a particular application or platform, rather than for a specific quantity of products. In some cases, we have no remedy if a customer chooses to purchase less than we expect. In cases where customers do make minimum volume commitments to us, our remedy for their failure to meet those minimum volumes may be limited to increased pricing on those products that the customer does purchase from us or renegotiating other contract terms. There is no assurance that such price increases or new terms will offset a shortfall in expected revenue. In addition, some of our customers may have the right to discontinue a program or replace us with another supplier under certain circumstances. As a result, products for which we are currently incurring development expenses may not be manufactured by our customers at all, or they may be manufactured in smaller amounts than currently anticipated. Therefore, our anticipated future revenue from products relating to existing customer awards or product development relationships may not result in firm orders from customers for the originally contracted amount.
We also incur capital expenditures and other costs and price our products based on estimated production volumes. If actual production volumes were significantly lower than estimated, our anticipated revenue and gross margin from those new products would be adversely affected. We cannot predict the ultimate demand for our customers’ products, nor can we predict the extent to which we would be able to pass through unanticipated per-unit cost increases to our customers.
Increasing costs for, or limitations on the supply of or access to, manufactured components and raw materials may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We use a broad range of manufactured components, subassemblies, and raw materials in the manufacture of our products in both our Performance Sensing and Sensing Solutions segments, including those containing certain commodities (e.g., semiconductors, resins, and metals), which may experience significant volatility in their price and availability due to, among
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other things, new laws or regulations, including the impact of tariffs, trade barriers, trade disputes, export or sourcing restrictions, economic sanctions, and global economic or political events including government actions, labor strikes, suppliers' allocations to other purchasers, interruptions in production by suppliers, changes in foreign currency exchange rates, and prevailing price levels.
It has historically been difficult to pass increased prices for manufactured components and raw materials to our customers through price increases. Therefore, a significant increase in the price or a decrease in the availability of these items, such as those experienced in the global supply chain shortages of the past few years, could materially increase our operating costs and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations. The impact of these global supply chain shortages of the past few years, including production delays on a vast and varied number of products across industries and geographies and increased procurement and logistics costs, has been unprecedented. Accordingly, we continue to actively work with our customers to share the inflationary burden of these factors. In addition, where possible, we have been working to adjust our long-term supply agreements, strengthen our relationships with our suppliers, increase inventory on hand, increase visibility into long-term supply and demand, and accelerate the use of alternate materials to increase supply chain visibility. If the future impacts of these shortages are more severe than we currently expect, or if our efforts to share the inflationary burden of these factors do not sufficiently offset our costs, it could result in deterioration of our results.
We have entered into hedge arrangements for certain metals used in our products in an attempt to minimize commodity pricing volatility and may continue to do so from time to time in the future. Such hedges might not be economically successful. In addition, these hedges do not qualify as accounting hedges in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Accordingly, the change in fair value of these hedges is recognized in earnings immediately, which could cause volatility in our results of operations from quarter to quarter.
In connection with the implementation of our corporate strategies, we face risks associated with the acquisition of businesses, the integration of acquired businesses, and the growth and development of these businesses.
In pursuing our corporate strategy, we have in the past, and may in the future, acquire other businesses. The success of this strategy is dependent upon our ability to identify appropriate acquisition targets, negotiate transactions on favorable terms, complete transactions, and successfully integrate them into our existing businesses. There can be no assurance that we will realize the anticipated synergies or cost savings related to acquisitions, including, but not limited to, revenue growth and operational efficiencies, or that they will be achieved in our estimated timeframe. We may not be able to successfully integrate and streamline overlapping functions from future acquisitions, and integration may be more costly to accomplish than we expect. There is also no guarantee that the acquired businesses will perform according to the business case used in justifying the acquisition. In addition, we could encounter difficulties in managing our combined company due to its increased size and scope.
Subject to the terms of our indebtedness, we may finance future acquisitions with cash from operations, additional indebtedness, and/or by issuing additional equity securities. In addition, we could face financial risks associated with incurring additional indebtedness such as reducing our liquidity, limiting our access to financing markets, and increasing the amount of service on our debt. The availability of debt to finance future acquisitions may be restricted, and our ability to make future acquisitions may be limited. Refer to separate risk factor for additional information related to risks regarding our level of indebtedness.
In addition, many of the businesses that we acquire and develop will likely have significantly smaller scales of operations prior to the implementation of our growth strategy. If we are not able to manage the growing complexity of these businesses, including improving, refining, or revising our systems and operational practices, and enlarging the scale and scope of the businesses, our business may be adversely affected. Other risks include developing knowledge of and experience in the new business, integrating the acquired business into our systems and culture, recruiting professionals, and developing and capitalizing on new relationships with experienced market participants. External factors, such as compliance with new or revised regulations, competitive alternatives, and shifting market preferences may also impact the successful implementation of a new line of business. Failure to manage these risks in the acquisition or development of new businesses could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
Restructuring our business or divesting some of our businesses or product lines in the future may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.
In pursuing our corporate strategy, we continue to evaluate the strategic fit of specific businesses and products and occasionally dispose of or exit businesses and products. The success of this strategy is dependent upon our ability to identify appropriate disposition targets, negotiate transactions on favorable terms, and complete transactions. Any divestitures may result in significant write-offs, including those related to goodwill and other intangible assets, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. Divestitures could involve additional risks, including difficulties in the
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separation of operations, services, products, and personnel; the diversion of management's attention from other business concerns; the disruption of our business; and the potential loss of key employees. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in addressing these or any other significant risks encountered. In the year ended December 31, 2022, we sold various assets and liabilities comprising our semiconductor test and thermal business (collectively, the "Qinex Business"). Refer to Note 21: Acquisitions and Divestitures of our audited consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes thereto (the "Financial Statements") included elsewhere in this Report for additional information.
We also may seek to restructure our business in the future by relocating operations, disposing of certain assets, or consolidating operations. There can be no assurance that any restructuring of our business will not adversely affect our financial condition, leverage, or results of operations. In addition, any significant restructuring of our business will require significant managerial attention, which may be diverted from our other operations. In the year ended December 31, 2023, we exited the marine energy storage business (the "Marine Business") of Spear Power Systems (“Spear”). In addition, we committed to a plan to reorganize our business (the “Q3 2023 Plan”), which consisted of voluntary and involuntary reductions-in-force, site closures, and other cost-savings initiatives. Refer to Note 5: Restructuring and Other Charges, Net of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information on these activities.
Labor disruptions or increased labor costs have had, and may in the future have, adverse impacts on our business.
A material labor disruption or work stoppage at one or more of our manufacturing or business facilities could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, work stoppages occur relatively frequently in the industries in which many of our customers operate, such as the transportation industry. If one or more of our larger customers were to experience a material work stoppage for any reason, that customer may halt or limit the purchase of our products. This could cause us to reduce production levels or shut down production facilities relating to those products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and/or financial condition.
We operate in markets that are highly competitive and competitive pressures could require us to lower our prices or result in reduced demand for our products.
We operate in markets that are highly competitive, and we compete on the basis of product performance in mission-critical operating environments, quality, service, reliability, manufacturing footprint, and commercial competitiveness across the industries and end markets we serve. A significant element of our competitive strategy is to design and manufacture high-quality products that meet the needs of our customers at a commercially competitive price, particularly in markets where low-cost, country-based suppliers, primarily in China with respect to the Sensing Solutions segment, have entered the markets or increased their per-unit sales in these markets by delivering products at low cost to local OEMs. In addition, certain of our competitors in the transportation sensor market are influenced or controlled by major OEMs or suppliers, thereby limiting our access to these customers. Many of our customers also rely on us as their sole source of supply for many of the products that we have historically sold to them. These customers may choose to develop relationships with additional suppliers or elect to produce some or all of these products internally, primarily to reduce risk of delivery interruptions or as a means of extracting more value from us. Certain of our customers currently have, or may develop in the future, the capability to internally produce the products that we sell to them and may compete with us with respect to those and other products and with respect to other customers.
Many of our customers, including transportation manufacturers and other industrial and commercial OEMs, demand annual price reductions. If we are not able to offset continued price reductions through improved operating efficiencies and reduced expenditures, these price reductions may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows. In addition, our customers occasionally require engineering, design, or production changes. In some circumstances, we may be unable to cover the costs of these changes with price increases. Further, as our customers grow larger, they may increasingly require us to provide them with our products on an exclusive basis, which could limit sales, cause an increase in the number of products we must carry and, consequently, increase our inventory levels and working capital requirements. Certain of our customers, particularly in the automotive industry, are increasingly requiring their suppliers to agree to their standard purchasing terms without deviation as a condition to engage in future business transactions, many of which are increasing warranty requirements. As a result, we may find it difficult to enter into agreements with such customers on terms that are commercially reasonable to us.
Security incidents and other disruptions to our information technology ("IT") infrastructure could interfere with our operations, compromise confidential information, and expose us to liability, which could have a material adverse impact our business and reputation.
In the ordinary course of business, we rely on IT networks and systems, some of which are managed by third parties, to process, transmit, and store electronic information, and to manage or support a variety of business processes and activities.
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We are at risk of attack by a growing list of adversaries through increasingly sophisticated methods. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or sabotage systems change frequently, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures. In addition, we may not be able to detect incidents in our IT systems or assess the severity or impact of an incident in a timely manner. We have experienced attacks to our systems and networks and have from time-to-time experienced cybersecurity incidents, such as computer viruses and malware, unauthorized parties gaining access to our IT systems, and similar incidents, which to date have not had a material impact on our business. If we are unable to efficiently and effectively maintain and upgrade our system safeguards, we may incur unexpected costs and certain of our systems may become more vulnerable to unauthorized access. Additionally, we have been an acquisitive organization and the process of integrating the information systems of the businesses we acquire is complex and exposes us to additional risk as we might not adequately identify weaknesses in the targets’ information systems, which could expose us to unexpected liabilities or make our own systems more vulnerable to attack.
Despite our cybersecurity measures (including employee and third-party training, monitoring of networks and systems, maintenance of backup and protective systems, and maintenance of cybersecurity insurance), our IT networks and infrastructure may still be vulnerable to damage, disruptions, or shutdowns due to attacks by hackers, breaches, employee error or malfeasance, power outages, computer viruses, malware and ransomware, telecommunication or utility failures, systems failures, natural disasters, or other catastrophic events. We also face the challenge of supporting our older systems and implementing necessary upgrades.
Moreover, as we continue to develop products containing complex software systems designed to support today’s increasingly connected world, these systems also could be susceptible to similar interruptions, including the possibility of unauthorized access. Further, as we transition to offering more cloud-based solutions that are dependent on the internet or other networks to operate with increased users, we may become a greater target for cyber threats, such as malware, denial of service, external adversaries, or insider threats.
These types of incidents affecting us or our third-party vendors could result in intellectual property or other confidential information being lost or stolen, including client, employee, or company data. Any such events could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability or penalties under privacy laws and/or export control laws, disruption in operations, and damage to our reputation, which could materially adversely affect our business. Further, to the extent that any disruption or security incident results in a loss of, or damage to, our data, or an inappropriate disclosure of confidential information, it could cause significant damage to our reputation, affect our relationships with our customers, lead to claims against us, and ultimately harm our business, financial condition, and/or results of operations.
Improper disclosure of confidential, personal, or proprietary data could result in regulatory scrutiny, legal liability, or harm to our reputation. Changes to data protection laws, new customer requirements, and changes to international data transfer rules could impose new burdens.
One of our significant responsibilities is to maintain the security and privacy of our employees’ and customers’ confidential and proprietary information. We maintain policies, procedures, and technological safeguards designed to protect the security and privacy of this information and regularly review compliance changes in the jurisdictions where Sensata operates. Nevertheless, we cannot eliminate the risk of human error, employee or vendor malfeasance, or cyber-attacks that could result in improper access to or disclosure or transfer of confidential, personal, or proprietary information by Sensata or our supply chain. Such access transfers could harm our reputation and subject us to liability under our contracts and the laws and regulations that protect personal and export-controlled data, resulting in increased costs, loss of revenue, and loss of customers. The release of confidential information could also lead to litigation or other proceedings against us by affected individuals, business partners, or by regulators, and the outcome of such proceedings, which could include penalties or fines, could have a significant negative impact on our business.
In many jurisdictions we are subject to laws and regulations relating to the use of this information. These laws and regulations are changing rapidly, are becoming increasingly complex, and can conflict across the jurisdictions in which we operate. Our failure to adhere to processes in response to changing regulatory requirements could result in legal liability, significant regulator penalties and fines, or impair our reputation in the marketplace.
In addition, laws and regulations for smart vehicles are expected to continue to evolve in numerous jurisdictions globally, which could affect our product portfolio and operations. Further, managing and securing personal and customer data that our products, as well as our partners’ products, gather is a new and evolving risk for us.
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Our future success depends in part on our ability to attract and retain key senior management and qualified technical, sales, and other personnel.
Our future success depends in part on our continued ability to retain key executives and our ability to attract and retain qualified technical, sales, and other personnel. Significant competition exists for such personnel, and we cannot assure the retention of our key executives, technical, and sales personnel or our ability to attract, integrate, and retain other such personnel that may be required in the future. We cannot assure that employees will not leave and subsequently compete against us. If we are unable to attract and retain key personnel, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We are subject to various risks related to public health crises, including the COVID-19 pandemic, which have had, and may in the future have, material and adverse impacts on our business, financial condition, liquidity, and results of operations.
Any outbreaks of contagious diseases and other adverse public health developments in countries where we operate could have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition, liquidity, and results of operations. As has occurred with the COVID-19 pandemic, a global pandemic could cause significant disruption to the global economy, including in all of the regions in which we, our suppliers, distributors, business partners, and customers do business and in which our workforce is located. A global pandemic and efforts to manage it, including those by governmental authorities, could have significant impacts on global markets, and could have a significant, negative impact on our sales and operating results. Disruptions could include: partial shutdowns of our facilities as mandated by government decree; government actions limiting our ability to adjust certain costs; significant travel restrictions; “work-from-home” orders; limited availability of our workforce; supplier constraints; supply chain interruptions; logistics challenges and limitations; and reduced demand from certain customers. The COVID-19 pandemic has had, and could continue to have, these effects on the economy and our business.
Additionally, the impacts described above and other impacts of a global pandemic, including responses to it, could substantially increase the risk to us from the other risks described in this Item 1A: Risk Factors.
Financial Risks
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. These material weaknesses could in the future adversely affect our ability to report our results of operations and financial condition accurately and in a timely manner.
We have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and those weaknesses have led to a conclusion that our internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of December 31, 2023. We did not specify objectives with sufficient clarity to enable an appropriate level of risk assessment and monitoring. Additionally, our control activities did not adequately establish policies, procedures, information protocols and communications to design and operate effective control, due in part, to a lack of appropriate accounting personnel, impacting areas such as inventory and account reconciliation processes in our Americas Accounting and Shared Services teams located in Mexico. Our management is taking action to remediate the deficiencies in its internal controls over financial reporting by developing a remediation plan, which could include the engagement of third-party consultants to evaluate and help formalize internal controls design and framework; the completion of a risk assessment to determine areas within the internal control structure to strengthen, document and execute; and the augmentation, reorganization or replacement of personnel where necessary to ensure appropriate levels of knowledge and execution to support internal control structure assessment, design, and execution.
If actions to remediate these material weaknesses are not completed on a timely basis, or if other remediation efforts are not successful, we may, in the future, identify additional internal control deficiencies that could rise to the level of a material weakness or uncover other errors in financial reporting.
Failure to have effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures could impair our ability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis, or provide reliable financial statements needed for business decision processes, and our business and results of operations could be harmed. Additionally, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information and our ability to obtain additional financing, or additional financing on favorable terms, could be adversely affected. Also, failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could result in sanctions by regulatory authorities, and our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to attest that such internal controls are effective when they are required to do so.
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We are exposed to fluctuations in currency exchange rates that could negatively impact our financial results and cash flows.
Our reporting currency is the U.S. dollar ("USD"). We derive a significant portion of our net revenue from markets outside the U.S. For financial reporting purposes, the functional currency of all of our subsidiaries has historically been the USD because of the significant influence of the USD on our operations. Effective October 1, 2023, as a result of significant changes in economic facts and circumstances in the operations of our China foreign entities, the functional currency of our wholly-owned subsidiaries in China changed to the Chinese Renminbi ("CNY"). The changes in economic facts and circumstances caused a permanent change to our strategy in China toward a more self-contained model making China the primary economic environment in which these subsidiaries operate.
A portion of our net revenue, expenses, receivables, and payables are denominated in currencies other than our functional currency. At the date that a transaction denominated in a currency other than our functional currency is recognized, each asset, liability, revenue, expense, gain, or loss arising from the transaction is measured and recorded in the functional currency using the exchange rate in effect at that date. At each balance sheet date, recorded monetary balances denominated in currency other than the functional currency are adjusted to the functional currency using the exchange rate at the balance sheet date, with gains or losses recognized in other, net in the consolidated statements of operations.
We, therefore, face exposure to adverse movements in exchange rates of these currencies, which may change over time and could affect our financial results and cash flows.
Our level of indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition and our ability to operate our business, including our ability to service our debt and/or comply with the related covenants.
The credit agreement governing our secured credit facility (as amended, supplemented, waived, or otherwise modified, the "Credit Agreement") provides for senior secured credit facilities (the "Senior Secured Credit Facilities") consisting of a term loan facility (the "Term Loan"), a $750.0 million revolving credit facility (the "Revolving Credit Facility"), and incremental availability (the "Accordion") under which additional secured credit facilities could be issued under certain circumstances. In fiscal year 2023, we repaid the remaining balance on the Term Loan. As of December 31, 2023, we had $3,425.2 million of gross outstanding indebtedness, including various tranches of senior unsecured notes (the “Senior Notes”). Refer to Note 14: Debt of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information related to our outstanding indebtedness.
Our substantial indebtedness could have important consequences. For example, it could make it more difficult for us to satisfy our debt obligations; restrict us from making strategic acquisitions; limit our ability to repurchase shares; limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and future business opportunities, thereby placing us at a competitive disadvantage if our competitors are not as highly-leveraged; increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and market conditions; or require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to payments on our indebtedness if we do not maintain specified financial ratios or are not able to refinance our indebtedness as it comes due, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flows for other purposes. In addition, the Accordion permits us to incur additional secured credit facilities in certain circumstances in the future, subject to certain limitations as defined in the indentures under which the Senior Notes were issued. This could allow us to issue additional secured debt or increase the capacity of the Revolving Credit Facility. If we increase our indebtedness by borrowing under the Revolving Credit Facility or incur other new indebtedness under the Accordion, the risks described above would increase.
We cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain enough capital to service our debt and fund our planned capital expenditures and business plan. If we complete additional acquisitions, our debt service requirements could also increase. If we cannot service our indebtedness, we may have to take actions such as selling assets, seeking additional equity investments, or reducing or delaying capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions, investments, and alliances, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our operations. Additionally, we may not be able to complete such actions, if necessary, on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.
If we experience an event of default under any of our debt instruments that is not cured or waived, the holders of the defaulted debt could cause all amounts outstanding with respect to the debt to become due and payable immediately, which, in turn, would result in cross-defaults under our other debt instruments. Our assets and cash flows may not be sufficient to fully repay borrowings if accelerated upon an event of default. If, when required, we are unable to repay, refinance, or restructure our indebtedness under, or amend the covenants contained in, the Credit Agreement, or if a default otherwise occurs, the lenders under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities could: elect to terminate their commitments thereunder; cease making further loans; declare all borrowings outstanding, together with accrued interest and other fees, to be immediately due and payable; institute foreclosure proceedings against those assets that secure the borrowings under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities; and prevent
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us from making payments on the Senior Notes. Any such actions could force us into bankruptcy or liquidation, and we might not be able to repay our obligations in such an event.
Changes in government trade policies, including the imposition of tariffs, may have a material impact on our results of operations.
We evaluate all trade policies that impact us, and we adjust our operational strategies to mitigate the impact of these policies. However, trade policies, including quotas, duties, tariffs, taxes, or other restrictions on the import or export of our products, are subject to change, and we cannot ensure that any mitigation strategies employed will remain available in the future or that we will be able to offset tariff-related costs or maintain competitive pricing of our products. The adoption and expansion of trade restrictions, the occurrence of a trade war, or other governmental action related to tariffs or trade agreements or policies has the potential to adversely impact demand for our products, our costs, our customers, our suppliers, and the global economy, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
Existing duty reduction and deferral programs, such as free-trade agreements, duty drawback, and inward processing relief, provide beneficial impacts to our duties and tariffs for qualifying imports and exports, subject to compliance with each program’s unique requirements. Changes in laws or policies governing the terms of these duty reduction and deferral programs could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results. In addition, most of our facilities in Mexico operate under the Mexican Maquiladora program. This program provides for reduced tariffs and eased import regulations; we could be adversely affected by changes in such program, or by our failure to comply with its requirements.
Further tariffs may be imposed on other imports of our products, or our business may be further impacted by retaliatory trade measures taken by China or other countries in response to existing or future U.S. tariffs or other measures (e.g., subsidies). We may raise our prices on products subject to such tariffs to share the cost with our customers, which could harm our operating performance or cause our customers to seek alternative suppliers. In addition, we may seek to shift some of our China manufacturing to other countries, which could result in additional costs and disruption to our operations. We also sell our products globally and, therefore, our export sales could be impacted by the tariffs. Any material reduction in sales may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We have recorded a significant amount of goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets, and we may be required to recognize goodwill or intangible asset impairments, which would reduce our earnings.
We have recorded a significant amount of goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets. Goodwill and other intangible assets, net totaled approximately $4.4 billion as of December 31, 2023, or 58% of our total assets. Goodwill, which represents the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in a business combination that are not individually identified and separately recognized, was approximately $3.5 billion as of December 31, 2023, or 46% of our total assets. Goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets were recognized at fair value as of the corresponding acquisition date.
We evaluated our goodwill for impairment as of October 1, 2023. Based on this analysis, we determined that as of October 1, 2023, goodwill related to our Insights reporting unit was impaired, and in the fourth quarter of 2023, we recorded a $321.7 million non-cash impairment charge, representing the entire goodwill balance allocated to Insights. This impairment was primarily driven by a lower long-range financial forecast resulting from the impact of restructuring actions taken in the third and fourth quarters of 2023 and consequent business decisions regarding our level of investment in Insights in future years, considering our focus on electrification. Other valuation assumptions for the Insights reporting unit valuation that are impacted by macroeconomic factors also contributed to the impairment.
Additional impairment of goodwill or other identifiable intangible assets may result from, among other things, deterioration in our performance, adverse market conditions, adverse changes in laws or regulations, significant unexpected or planned changes in the use of assets or future changes to go-to-market or product offerings strategy, and a variety of other factors. We consider a combination of quantitative and qualitative factors to determine whether a reporting unit is at risk of failing the goodwill impairment test, including: the timing of our most recent quantitative impairment tests and the relative amount by which a reporting unit’s fair value exceeded its then carrying value, the inputs and assumptions underlying our valuation models and the sensitivity of our fair value measurements to those inputs and assumptions, the impact that adverse economic or market conditions may have on the degree of uncertainty inherent in our long-term operating forecasts, and changes in the carrying value of a reporting unit’s net assets from the time of our most recent goodwill impairment test. We also consider the impact of recent acquisitions in our expectations of the reporting units, such as the Insights and Dynapower reporting units, and how these acquisitions perform against their original expected performance, as these might put pressure on the reporting units' fair value over carrying value in the short term. Based on the results of this analysis, we do not consider any of our reporting units outside of Insights, which was already fully impaired, to be at risk of failing the goodwill impairment test.
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The amount of any quantified impairment must be expensed immediately as a charge that is included in operating income, which may impact our ability to raise capital. Should certain assumptions used in the development of the fair value of our other reporting units change, we may be required to recognize additional impairments of goodwill or other intangible assets.
Refer to Note 11: Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, Net of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information related to our goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets and the Insights impairment charge. Refer to Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates, in Item 7: Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included elsewhere in this Report for additional information related to the assumptions used in the development of the fair value of our reporting units.
Our global effective tax rate is subject to a variety of different factors that could create volatility in that tax rate, expose us to greater than anticipated tax liabilities, or cause us to adjust previously recognized tax assets and liabilities.
We are subject to income taxes in the United Kingdom (the "U.K."), China, Mexico, the U.S., and many other jurisdictions. As a result, our global effective tax rate from period to period can be affected by many factors, including changes in tax legislation, changes in tax rates and tax laws, our jurisdictional mix of earnings, the use of global funding structures, the tax characteristics of our income, the effects on our revenues and costs of complying with transfer pricing requirements under differing laws of various countries, consequences of acquisitions and dispositions of businesses and business segments, the generation of sufficient future taxable income to realize our deferred tax assets, and the taxation of subsidiary income in the jurisdiction of its parent company regardless of whether or not distributed. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for (or benefit from) income taxes, and our determination of the amount of our tax liability is always subject to review by applicable tax authorities. Refer to Note 7: Income Taxes of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information related to our accounting for income taxes.
We cannot provide any assurances as to what our tax rate will be in any period because of, among other things, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of our business activities in any particular jurisdiction in the future and the tax laws of such jurisdictions, as well as changes in U.S. and other tax laws, treaties, and regulations, in particular related to proposed tax laws by the U.S. or other governments, which could increase our tax liabilities. Our actual global tax rate may vary from our expectation and that variance may be material. We continually monitor all global regulatory developments and consider alternatives to limit their detrimental impacts. However, not all unfavorable developments can be moderated, and we may consequently experience adverse effects on our effective tax rate and cash flows.
For example, the European Commission (the "EC") has been conducting investigations of state aid and have focused on whether EU sovereign country laws or rulings provide favorable treatment to taxpayers conflicting with its interpretation of EU law. EC findings may have retroactive effect and can cause increases in tax liabilities where we considered ourselves in full compliance with local legislation.
Furthermore, on December 15, 2022, the EU Member States formally adopted the EU's Pillar Two Directive, which generally provides for a minimum jurisdictional effective tax rate of 15%. The legislation is effective for our fiscal year beginning January 1, 2024. We continue to evaluate the potential impact on future periods due to the Pillar Two framework, as such changes could result in complexity and uncertainty in countries where we do business and could increase our effective tax rate.
We could be subject to future audits conducted by both foreign and domestic tax authorities, and the resolution of such audits could impact our tax rate in future periods, as would any reclassification or other changes (such as those in applicable accounting rules) that increases the amounts we have provided for income taxes in our consolidated financial statements. There can be no assurance that we would be successful in attempting to mitigate the adverse impacts resulting from any changes in law, audits, and other matters. Our inability to mitigate the negative consequences of any changes in the law, audits, and other matters could cause our global tax rate to increase, our use of cash to increase, and our financial condition and results of operations to suffer.
We are a holding company and, therefore, may not be able to receive dividends or other payments in needed amounts from our subsidiaries.
We are organized as a holding company, a legal entity that is separate and distinct from our operating entities. As a holding company without significant operations of its own, our principal assets are the shares of capital stock of our subsidiaries. We rely on dividends, interest, and other payments from these subsidiaries to meet our obligations for paying principal and interest on outstanding debt, repurchasing ordinary shares, and corporate expenses. Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to regulatory requirements of the jurisdictions in which they operate or other restrictions that may limit the amounts that subsidiaries can pay in dividends or other payments to us. No assurance can be given that there will not be further changes in law, regulatory actions, or other circumstances that could restrict the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or otherwise make payments to
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us. Furthermore, no assurance can be given that our subsidiaries may be able to make timely payments to us in order for us to meet our obligations.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
We could be adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the "U.S. FCPA"), the U.K.'s Bribery Act, and similar worldwide anti-bribery laws.
The U.S. FCPA, the U.K.'s Bribery Act, and similar worldwide anti-bribery laws generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Our policies mandate compliance with these anti-bribery laws. We operate in many parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption to some degree, and in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-bribery laws may conflict with local customs and practices. Despite our training and compliance program, we cannot provide assurance that our internal control policies and procedures will protect us from reckless or criminal acts committed by our employees or agents. Violations of these laws, or allegations of such violations, could disrupt our business and result in a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and/or cash flows.
Export of our products is subject to various export control regulations and may require a license for export. Any failure to comply with such regulations could result in governmental enforcement actions, fines, penalties, loss of export privileges, or other remedies, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.
We are subject to compliance with laws and regulations controlling the import and export of goods, services, software, and technical data. Certain of our products are subject to export regulations of the various jurisdictions in which we operate (“Controlled Items”). The export of many such Controlled Items requires a license from the applicable government agency. Licensing decisions are made based on type of product, its destination, end use, end user, the parties involved in the transaction, national security, and foreign policy. As a result, export license approvals are not guaranteed. We have a trade compliance team and other systems in place to apply for licenses and otherwise comply with import and export regulations. Any failure to maintain compliance with such regulations could limit our ability to import or export raw material and finished goods. These laws and regulations are subject to change, and any such change may limit or exclude existing or future business opportunities, require us to change technology, or incur expenditures to comply with such laws and regulations.
We have discovered in the past, and may discover in the future, deficiencies in our trade compliance program. Although we continue to enhance our trade compliance program, we cannot guarantee that any such enhancements will ensure full compliance with applicable laws and regulations at all times, or that applicable authorities will not raise compliance concerns or perform audits to confirm our compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Any failure by us to comply with applicable laws and regulations could result in governmental enforcement actions, fines, penalties, criminal and/or civil proceedings, or other remedies, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and/or financial condition.
Changes in existing environmental or safety laws, regulations, and programs could reduce demand for our products, which could cause our revenue to decline.
A significant amount of our business is generated either directly or indirectly as a result of existing laws, regulations, and programs related to environmental protection, fuel economy, energy efficiency, and safety regulation. Accordingly, a relaxation or repeal of these laws and regulations, or changes in governmental policies regarding the funding, implementation, or enforcement of these programs, could result in a decline in demand for environmental and/or safety products, which may have a material adverse effect on our revenue.
Our operations expose us to the risk of material environmental liabilities, litigation, government enforcement actions, and reputational risk.
We are subject to numerous federal, state, and local environmental protection and health and safety laws and regulations in the various countries where we operate and where our products are sold. These laws and regulations govern, among other things, the generation, storage, use, and transportation of hazardous materials; emissions or discharges of substances into the environment; investigation and remediation of hazardous substances or materials at various sites; GHG emissions; product hazardous material content; and the health and safety of our employees.
We may not have been, or we may not always be, in compliance with all environmental and health and safety laws and regulations. If we violate these laws, we could be fined, criminally charged, or otherwise sanctioned by regulators. In addition, environmental and health and safety laws are becoming more stringent, resulting in increased costs and compliance burdens.
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Certain environmental laws assess liability on current or previous owners or operators of real property for the costs of investigation, removal, and remediation of hazardous substances or materials at their properties or properties at which they have disposed of hazardous substances. Liability for investigation, removal, and remediation costs under certain federal and state laws is retroactive, strict, and joint and several. In addition to cleanup actions brought by governmental authorities, private parties could bring personal injury or other claims due to the presence of, or exposure to, hazardous substances.
We cannot provide assurance that our costs of complying with current or future environmental protection and health and safety laws, or our liabilities arising from past or future releases of, or exposures to, hazardous substances will not exceed our estimates or adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows, or that we will not be subject to additional environmental claims for personal injury, property damage, and/or cleanup in the future based on our past, present, or future business activities.
In addition, our products are subject to various requirements related to chemical usage, hazardous material content, and recycling. The EU, China, and other jurisdictions in which our products are sold have enacted, or are proposing to enact, laws addressing environmental and other impacts from product disposal, use of hazardous materials in products, use of chemicals in manufacturing, recycling of products at the end of their useful life, and other related matters. These laws include but are not limited to the EU RoHS, ELV, and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directives; the EU REACH regulation; the German Explosives Act; and the China law on Management Methods for Controlling Pollution by Electronic Information Products. These laws prohibit the use of certain substances in the manufacture of our products and directly and indirectly impose a variety of requirements for modification of manufacturing processes, registration, chemical testing, labeling, and other matters. These laws continue to proliferate and expand in these and other jurisdictions to address other materials and aspects of our product manufacturing and sale. These laws could make the manufacture or sale of our products more expensive or impossible, could limit our ability to sell our products in certain jurisdictions, and could result in liability for product recalls, penalties, or other claims.
Our ability to compete effectively depends, in part, on our ability to maintain the proprietary nature of our products and technology.
The electronics industry is characterized by litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. Within this industry, companies have become more aggressive in asserting and defending patent claims against competitors. There can be no assurance that we will not be subject to future litigation alleging infringement or invalidity of certain of our intellectual property rights, or that we will not have to pursue litigation to protect our property rights. Depending on the importance of the technology, product, patent, trademark, or trade secret in question, an unfavorable outcome regarding one of these matters may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and/or cash flows.
We may be subject to claims that our products or processes infringe on the intellectual property rights of others, which may cause us to pay unexpected litigation costs or damages, modify our products or processes, or prevent us from selling our products.
Third parties may claim that our processes and products infringe their intellectual property rights. Whether or not these claims have merit, we may be subject to costly and time-consuming legal proceedings, and this could divert management’s attention from operating our business. If these claims are successfully asserted against us, we could be required to pay substantial damages, make future royalty payments, and/or could be prevented from selling some or all of our products. We also may be obligated to indemnify our business partners or customers in any such litigation. Furthermore, we may need to obtain licenses from these third parties or substantially re-engineer or rename our products in order to avoid infringement. In addition, we might not be able to obtain the necessary licenses on acceptable terms, or at all, or be able to re-engineer or rename our products successfully. If we are prevented from selling some or all of our products, our sales could be materially adversely affected.
We are a defendant to a variety of litigation in the course of our business that could cause a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and/or cash flows.
In the normal course of business, we are, from time to time, a defendant in litigation, including litigation alleging the infringement of intellectual property rights, anti-competitive behavior, product liability, breach of contract, and employment-related claims. In certain circumstances, patent infringement and antitrust laws permit successful plaintiffs to recover treble damages. The defense of these lawsuits may divert our management's attention, and we may incur significant expenses in defending these lawsuits. In addition, we may be required to pay damage awards or settlements, or become subject to injunctions or other equitable remedies, that could cause a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and/or cash flows.
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U.K. Domicile Risks
As a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, we may have less flexibility with respect to certain aspects of capital management.
English law imposes additional restrictions on certain corporate actions. For example, English law provides that a board of directors may only allot, or issue, securities with the prior authorization of shareholders, such authorization being up to the aggregate nominal amount of shares and for a maximum period of five years, each as specified in the articles of association or relevant shareholder resolution. English law also generally provides shareholders with preemptive rights when new shares are issued for cash; however, it is possible for the articles of association, or shareholders at a general meeting, to exclude preemptive rights. Such an exclusion of preemptive rights may be for a maximum period of up to five years as specified in the articles of association or relevant shareholder resolution. We currently only have authorization to issue shares under our equity plan excluding preemptive rights until our next annual general meeting. This authorization and exclusion needs to be renewed by our shareholders periodically and we intend to renew the authorization and exclusion at each annual general meeting.
English law also requires us to have available "distributable reserves" to make share repurchases or pay dividends to shareholders. Distributable reserves may be created through the earnings of the U.K. parent company or other actions. While we intend to maintain a sufficient level of distributable reserves, there is no assurance that we will continue to generate sufficient earnings in order to maintain the necessary level of distributable reserves to make share repurchases or pay dividends.
English law also generally prohibits a company from repurchasing its own shares by way of "off-market purchases" without the prior approval of our shareholders. Such approval lasts for a maximum period of up to five years. Our shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange, which is not a recognized investment exchange in the U.K. Consequently, any repurchase of our shares is currently considered an "off-market purchase." Our current authorization expires on May 28, 2025, and we intend to renew this authorization periodically.
As a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, the enforcement of civil liabilities against us may be more difficult.
Because we are a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, investors could experience more difficulty enforcing judgments obtained against us in U.S. courts than would have been the case for a U.S. company. In addition, it may be more difficult (or impossible) to bring some types of claims against us in courts in England than it would be to bring similar claims against a U.S. company in a U.S. court.
As a public limited company incorporated under the laws of England and Wales, it may not be possible to effect service of process upon us within the U.S. to enforce judgments of U.S. courts against us based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws.
There is doubt as to the enforceability in England and Wales, in original actions or in actions for enforcement of judgments of U.S. courts, of civil liabilities solely based on the U.S. federal securities laws. The English courts will, however, treat any amount payable by us under U.S. judgment as a debt and new proceedings can be commenced in the English courts to enforce this debt against us. The following criteria must be satisfied for the English court to enforce the debt created by the U.S. judgment: (1) the U.S. court having had jurisdiction over the original proceedings according to English conflicts of laws principles and rules of English private international law at the time when proceedings were initiated; (2) the U.S. proceedings not having been brought in breach of a jurisdiction or arbitration clause except with the agreement of the defendant or the defendant’s subsequent submission to the jurisdiction of the court; (3) the U.S. judgment being final and conclusive on the merits in the sense of being final and unalterable in the court which pronounced it and being for a definite sum of money; (4) the recognition or enforcement, as the case may be, of the U.S. judgment not contravening English public policy in a sufficiently significant way or contravening the Human Rights Act 1998 (or any subordinate legislation made thereunder, to the extent applicable); (5) the U.S. judgment not being for a sum payable in respect of taxes, or other charges of a like nature, or in respect of a penalty or fine, or otherwise based on a U.S. law that an English court considers to be a penal or revenue law; (6) the U.S. judgment not having been arrived at by doubling, trebling or otherwise multiplying a sum assessed as compensation for the loss or damages sustained, and not otherwise being a judgment contrary to section 5 of the Protection of Trading Interests Act 1980 or is a judgment based on measures designated by the Secretary of State under Section 1 of that Act; (7) the U.S. judgment not having been obtained by fraud or in breach of English principles of natural justice; (8) the U.S. judgment not being a judgment on a matter previously determined by an English court, or another court whose judgment is entitled to recognition (or enforcement as the case may be) in England, in proceedings involving the same parties that conflicts with an earlier judgment of such court; (9) the party seeking enforcement (being a party who is not ordinarily resident in some part of the U.K. or resident in an EU Member State) providing security for costs, if ordered to do so by the English courts; and (10) the English enforcement proceedings being commenced within the relevant limitation period.
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If an English court gives judgment for the sum payable under a U.S. judgment, the English judgment will be enforceable by methods generally available for this purpose. These methods generally permit the English court discretion to prescribe the manner of enforcement. In addition, in any enforcement proceedings, the judgment debtor may raise any counterclaim that could have been brought if the action had been originally brought in England unless the subject of the counterclaim was in issue and denied in the U.S. proceedings.
ITEM 1B.     UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 1C.     CYBERSECURITY
Cyber criminals are becoming more sophisticated and effective every day. All companies utilizing technology are subject to threats or attempts of cybersecurity attacks. Maintaining data privacy and cybersecurity to protect our employees, customers, and business is an integral aspect of our operations. Our approach to data privacy and cybersecurity is defined by our commitment to preserving the trust our employees and customers place in us and focuses on driving continuous improvement as the threat landscape evolves.
Our Audit Committee and our management are actively involved in the oversight of our risk management program, of which cybersecurity represents an important component. As described in more detail below, we have established policies, standards, processes, and practices for assessing, identifying, and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats. We have devoted significant financial and personnel resources to implement and maintain security programs to meet regulatory requirements and customer expectations, and we intend to continue to make significant investments to maintain the security of our data and infrastructure.
However, there can be no guarantee that our policies and procedures will be properly followed in every instance or that those policies and procedures will be effective. Although our risk factors identified in Item 1A: Risk Factors included elsewhere in this Report provide further detail about the material cybersecurity risks we face, we believe that risks from prior cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any previous cybersecurity incidents, have not materially affected our business to date. We can provide no assurance that there will not be incidents in the future or that they will not materially affect us, including our business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition.
Risk Management Strategy
We are guided by our Cybersecurity Charter, which includes our philosophy of information security, identifies the motivation for security, describes information security principles and terms, and defines the scope of information security policies and responsibilities for various functions. We continue to improve the maturity of our cybersecurity program, aligning with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) Cybersecurity Framework.
Our Director of Cybersecurity leads our information security operations, with a focus on identifying, evaluating, mitigating, and reporting on IT and cybersecurity risks that have the potential to threaten Sensata’s enterprise information assets and systems. Our cybersecurity and global IT strategy is regularly aligned with business leaders across Sensata through our IT Excellence Committee meetings, conducted 10 times a year, to ensure cyber, IT, and business priorities are communicated and understood throughout the organization.
Our policies, standards, processes, and practices for assessing, identifying, and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats are integrated into our overall risk management program and are based on frameworks established by the NIST, the International Organization for Standardization, and other applicable industry standards. Our cybersecurity program in particular focuses on the following key areas:
Incident Response: We have an Incident Response Plan ("IRP") to address cybersecurity incidents as defined by Item 106 of Regulation S-K. The IRP includes as a core component an Incident Response Team ("IRT") that utilizes guidelines identified in the IRP to identify, assess, and disclose cybersecurity incidents as applicable. The IRT consists of a core team, which includes representation from IT, Legal, and Human Resources, and an extended team, which includes representation from Enterprise Risk Management, Communications, Investor Relations, Internal Audit, Legal, Accounting, and External Reporting. The core team is involved in all incidents that are classified as significant, requiring a response from the IRT, and it involves components of the extended team as applicable. The IRT allows for broad representation of various areas of expertise for use in executing the IRP. The IRT meets monthly to evaluate the effectiveness of our cybersecurity risk management processes and procedures, including the IRP. The IRP is designed to ensure prompt escalation of certain cybersecurity incidents so that decisions regarding public disclosure and reporting of such incidents can be made by management and the Board in a timely manner.
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Defense and Monitoring: We work to protect our computing environments and products from cybersecurity threats through multi-layered defenses and apply lessons learned from our defense and monitoring efforts to help prevent future attacks. We utilize data analytics to detect anomalies and search for cyber threats. Our Cybersecurity Operations Center provides comprehensive cyber threat detection and response capabilities and maintains a 24x7 monitoring system which complements the technology, process, and threat detection techniques we use to monitor, manage, and mitigate cybersecurity threats. From time to time, we engage third party consultants or other advisors to assist in assessing, identifying, and/or managing cybersecurity threats. We also periodically use our Internal Audit function to conduct additional reviews and assessments.
Insider Threats: We maintain an insider threat program designed to identify, assess, and address potential risks from within our Company. Our program evaluates potential risks consistent with industry practices, customer requirements, and applicable law, including privacy and other considerations.
Third Party Risk Assessments: We conduct information security assessments before sharing or allowing the hosting of sensitive data in computing environments managed by third parties, and our standard terms and conditions contain contractual provisions requiring certain security protections.
Training and Awareness: We have robust cybersecurity training programs with frequent touch points for all employees to empower them to act responsibly and keep cybersecurity top of mind. We use monthly activities to keep employees engaged with cybersecurity, including newsletters, articles on the Sensata intranet, and mock phishing campaigns. We regularly update our comprehensive training program, which covers a wide variety of topics, from protecting work machines and personal information to social innovation and how employees can protect their digital lives at home.
Supplier Engagement: We require our suppliers to comply with our standard information security terms and conditions, in addition to any requirements from our customers, as a condition of doing business with us, and require them to complete information security questionnaires to review and assess any potential cyber-related risks depending on the nature of the services being provided.
Risk Assessment: At least annually, we conduct a cybersecurity risk assessment that takes into account information from internal stakeholders, our risk register, and information from external sources (e.g., reported security incidents that have impacted other companies, industry trends, and evaluations by third parties and consultants). The results of the assessment are used to drive alignment on, and prioritization of, initiatives to enhance our security controls, make recommendations to improve processes, and inform a broader enterprise-level risk assessment that is presented to our Board, Audit Committee, and members of management.
Technical Safeguards: We regularly assess and deploy technical safeguards designed to protect our information systems from cybersecurity threats. Such safeguards are regularly evaluated and improved based on vulnerability assessments, cybersecurity threat intelligence, and incident response experience.
Governance
Our Board of Directors, in coordination with each of our Board Committees, is responsible for oversight of our enterprise risk management activities. The Nominating and Governance committee receives an update on the Company’s risk management process at least annually, including interaction of cybersecurity with our overall risks. The Board of Directors oversees risks from cybersecurity threats through report out from the Audit Committee, which monitors cybersecurity incidents and management's response to such incidents.
Our Audit Committee directly oversees our cybersecurity program. Quarterly reports are delivered to the Audit Committee by the Chief Information & Digital Officer ("CIDO") and/or the Director of Cybersecurity at least four times per year. These reports include information about the prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cybersecurity incidents, including material security risks and information security vulnerabilities. These reports also include updates on cybersecurity risk resulting from risk assessments, progress of risk reduction initiatives, external auditor feedback, control maturity assessments, and relevant internal and industry cybersecurity incidents.
Our CIDO has served in various roles in IT and information security for over 20. She holds an undergraduate degree in information management and technology. Our Director of Cybersecurity has served in various roles in IT and information security for over 18 years, including in the military and the healthcare and retail industries.
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Cybersecurity Incidents
In the event of a cybersecurity incident, our response and mitigation efforts are guided by the IRP, which provides guidance on how to respond to, and recover from, a significant cyber incident requiring an organized response. We continue to conduct tabletop exercises testing the principles and procedures set forth in our IRP based on lessons learned.
While we have experienced cybersecurity incidents in the past, to date none have materially affected the Company or our financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows. We continue to invest in the cybersecurity and resiliency of our networks and to enhance our internal controls and processes, which are designed to help protect our systems and infrastructure, and the information they contain. For more information about cybersecurity risks relating to our business, refer to Item 1A: Risk Factors included elsewhere in this Report.
ITEM 2.     PROPERTIES
As of December 31, 2023, we occupied principal manufacturing facilities and business centers in the following locations:
Reportable SegmentApproximate Square Footage (in thousands)
Performance SensingSensing Solutions
CountryLocationOwnedLeased
BulgariaBotevgradX184
BulgariaPlovdivX125
BulgariaSofiaX121
China
Baoying (1)
XX301385
ChinaChangzhouXX618
IndiaPuneXX32
MalaysiaSubang JayaX138
MexicoAguascalientesXX566
MexicoMexicaliXX41116
Mexico
Tijuana
XX258
The NetherlandsHengeloXX94
United KingdomAntrimX112
United Kingdom
Swindon (2)
X34
United States
Attleboro, MA (3)
XX435
United StatesCarpinteria, CAXX51
United StatesGrandview, MOX47
United StatesThousand Oaks, CAXX115
United States
Burlington, VT
X133
1,9731,933
__________________________
(1)    The owned portion of the properties in this location serves the Sensing Solutions segment only.
(2)    Our U.K. headquarters is located in this facility.
(3)    Our U.S. headquarters is located in this facility.
These facilities are primarily devoted to research, development, engineering, manufacturing, and assembly. In addition to these principal facilities, we occupy other manufacturing, engineering, warehousing, administrative, and sales facilities worldwide, which are primarily leased.
We consider our manufacturing facilities sufficient to meet our current operational requirements. An increase in demand for our products may require us to expand our production capacity, which could require us to identify and acquire or lease additional manufacturing facilities. We believe that suitable additional or substitute facilities will be available as required; however, if we are unable to acquire, integrate, and move into production the facilities, equipment, and personnel necessary to meet such an increase in demand, our customer relationships, results of operations, and/or financial condition may suffer materially. Leases covering our currently occupied principal leased facilities expire at varying dates within the next 13 years. We do not anticipate difficulty in retaining occupancy through lease renewals, month-to-month occupancy, or by replacing the leased facilities with equivalent facilities.
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A significant portion of our owned properties and equipment is subject to a lien under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities. Refer to Note 14: Debt of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information related to the Senior Secured Credit Facilities.
ITEM 3.     LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are regularly involved in a number of claims and litigation matters that arise in the ordinary course of business. Although it is not feasible to predict the outcome of these matters, based upon our experience and current information known to us, we do not expect the outcome of these matters, either individually or in the aggregate, to have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, or cash flows.
ITEM 4.     MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
PART II
ITEM 5.     MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Our ordinary shares trade on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "ST."
Performance Graph
The following graph compares the total shareholder return of our ordinary shares since December 31, 2018 to the total shareholder return since that date of the Standard & Poor’s ("S&P") 500 Stock Index and the S&P 500 Industrial Index. The graph assumes that the value of the investment in our ordinary shares and each index was $100.00 on December 31, 2018.
568
Total Shareholder Return of $100.00 Investment from December 31, 2018
As of December 31,
 201820192020202120222023
Sensata$100.00 $120.14 $117.62 $137.58 $90.75 $85.43 
S&P 500
$100.00 $131.49 $155.68 $200.37 $164.08 $207.21 
S&P 500 Industrial
$100.00 $126.83 $138.25 $165.07 $153.35 $177.94 
The information in the graph and table above is not "soliciting material," is not deemed "filed" with the United States (the "U.S.") Securities and Exchange Commission, and is not to be incorporated by reference in any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, whether made before or after the date
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of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Report"), except to the extent that we specifically incorporate such information by reference. The total shareholder return shown on the graph represents past performance and should not be considered an indication of future price performance.
Stockholders
As of February 7, 2024, there were three holders of record of our ordinary shares, primarily Cede & Co. (which acts as nominee shareholder for the Depository Trust Company).
Dividends
In fiscal year 2023, we made payments of quarterly dividends of $0.11 per share in February 2023 and $0.12 per share in May, August, and November 2023. We expect that comparable cash dividends will continue to be paid in the foreseeable future.
Because we are a holding company, our ability to continue to pay cash dividends on our ordinary shares may be limited by restrictions on our ability to obtain sufficient funds through dividends from our subsidiaries, including restrictions under the terms of the agreements governing our indebtedness. In that regard, our indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary, Sensata Technologies B.V. ("STBV"), may be limited in its ability to pay dividends or otherwise make distributions to its immediate parent company and, ultimately, to us. Refer to Note 14: Debt of our audited consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes thereto (the "Financial Statements") included elsewhere in this Report for additional information related to our dividend restrictions.
Additionally, certain of our subsidiaries may be limited in their ability to pay dividends or make other distributions to the extent that the shareholders' equity of such subsidiary exceeds the reserves required to be maintained by law or under its articles of association. Under the laws of England and Wales, we are able to declare dividends, make distributions, or repurchase shares only out of distributable reserves on our statutory balance sheet. Distributable reserves are a company’s accumulated, realized profits, so far as not previously utilized by distribution or capitalization, less its accumulated, realized losses, so far as not previously written off in a reduction or reorganization of capital duly made. Realized reserves are determined in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards at the time the relevant accounts are prepared. We are not permitted to make a distribution if, at the time, the amount of our net assets is less than the aggregate of our issued and paid-up share capital and undistributable reserves or to the extent that the distribution will reduce our net assets below such amount. Subject to these limitations, the payment of future cash dividends will depend upon such factors as earnings levels, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, our overall financial condition, and any other factors deemed relevant by our shareholders and Board of Directors.
Under current United Kingdom ("U.K.") tax legislation, any future dividends paid by us will not be subject to withholding or deduction on account of U.K. tax, irrespective of the tax residence or the individual circumstances of the recipient shareholder. Shareholders should consult their tax advisors regarding their particular tax situation and the income tax consequences on any potential dividend income received from us.
Share Repurchase Programs
From time to time, our Board of Directors has authorized various share repurchase programs, which may be modified or terminated by the Board at any time. Under these programs, we may repurchase ordinary shares at such times and in amounts to be determined by our management, based on market conditions, legal requirements, and other corporate considerations, on the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, provided that such transactions were completed pursuant to an agreement and with a third party approved by our shareholders at the annual general meeting.
On January 20, 2022, our Board of Directors authorized a $500.0 million ordinary share repurchase program (the “January 2022 Program”), which replaced the previous $500.0 million program approved in July 2019. On September 26, 2023, our Board of Directors authorized a new $500.0 million ordinary share repurchase program (the "September 2023 Program"), which replaced the January 2022 Program and became effective on October 1, 2023. The form of the September 2023 Program was approved by shareholders on May 25, 2023. The September 2023 Program does not have an established expiration date. The process or criteria used to determine the amount of repurchases is an ongoing and frequent review of our capacity of available cash and our overall capital allocation priorities.
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Issuer purchase of Equity Securities
Period
Total Number of Shares Purchased
(in shares) (1)
Weighted-Average 
Price
Paid per Share
Total Number of
Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly
Announced Plan or Programs
(in shares)(2)
Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plan or Programs
(in millions) (2)
October 1 through October 31, 2023215,560 $37.78 211,525 $492.0 
November 1 through November 30, 2023318,268 $31.61 318,052 $482.0 
December 1 through December 31, 2023302,639 $33.40 301,043 $471.9 
Quarter total836,467 $33.85 830,620 $471.9 
__________________________
(1)     The number of ordinary shares presented includes ordinary shares that were withheld to cover payment of employee withholding tax upon the vesting of restricted securities. These withholdings took place outside of a publicly announced repurchase plan. There were 4,035, 216, and 1,596 ordinary shares withheld in October 2023, November 2023, and December 2023, respectively, representing a total aggregate fair value of $0.2 million based on the closing price of our ordinary shares on the date of withholdings.
(2)     All purchases during the three months ended December 31, 2023 were conducted pursuant to the September 2023 Program. The September 2023 Program does not have an established expiration date.
ITEM 6.     RESERVED
ITEM 7.     MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis is intended to help the reader understand our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity and capital resources. You should read the following discussion in conjunction with Item 1: Business and our Financial Statements, each included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Report").
The statements in this discussion regarding industry outlook, our expectations regarding our future performance, liquidity and capital resources, and other non-historical statements are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties including, but not limited to, the risks and uncertainties described in Item 1A: Risk Factors included elsewhere in this Report. Our actual results may differ materially from those contained in or implied by any forward-looking statements.
Overview
We innovate on behalf of our broad array of customers, solving some of their most difficult engineering challenges by providing sensors and sensor-rich solutions, electrical protection components and systems, and other products. Solving these mission-critical challenges enables us to deliver differentiated value for both our customers and shareholders, while also investing in our growth opportunities and our people. Refer to Item 1: Business included elsewhere in this Report for additional discussion on our growth drivers.
We anticipate significant change in the markets that we serve over the next 10 years, as our customers transform their businesses and product portfolios to adjust to decarbonization trends. Many equipment categories are electrifying, and significant investment is being made in global infrastructure to support this trend. During fiscal year 2023, we recognized Electrification revenue of approximately $673 million. New business wins ("NBOs") were approximately $657 million in fiscal year 2023, of which more than half were in Electrification. We define NBOs as incremental revenue to our current base of business that is expected to be recognized on average in the fifth year after entry into the agreement, when programs typically reach their normal volume. Accordingly, NBOs are an indicator of future revenue potential.
We believe regulatory requirements for safer vehicles, higher fuel efficiency, and lower emissions, as well as customer demand for operator productivity and convenience, drive the need for advancements in powertrain management, efficiency, safety, and operator controls. These advancements lead to sensor growth rates that we expect to exceed underlying production growth in many of our key end markets, which we expect will continue to offer us significant growth opportunities. In fiscal year 2023, according to third party data, global production of light vehicles increased approximately 9% and global production in the heavy vehicle and off-road ("HVOR") markets we serve increased approximately 1% to 2%, each from the prior year.
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Fiscal year 2023 highlights
In the fourth quarter of 2023, we determined that, as of October 1, 2023, our Insights reporting unit was impaired. As a result, we recorded a $321.7 million non-cash impairment charge, representing the entire goodwill balance allocated to Insights. This impairment was primarily driven by reprioritization of our investments into electrification. This reprioritization evolved from an assessment of our business strategy, beginning in the second half of 2023. With electrification as the clear future of our company and the best area of focus for management, in the fourth quarter of 2023, we decided to narrow our investment in Insights. Our assessment of the potential of the business has not changed, but our focus has moved from growth of the business to profitability. These decisions resulted in significant cost restructuring and a lower long-range financial forecast for the reporting unit, impacting the valuation of the business with respect to the goodwill impairment analysis. Other valuation assumptions for the Insights reporting unit valuation that are impacted by macroeconomic factors also contributed to the impairment. We are considering strategic alternatives for this business as we continue to focus our investment priorities in line with our strategy.
In the year ended December 31, 2023, we committed to a plan to reorganize our business (the “Q3 2023 Plan”). The Q3 2023 Plan, consisting of voluntary and involuntary reductions-in-force, site closures, and other cost-savings initiatives, was commenced to adjust our cost structure and business activities to better align with weaker market demand we have been experiencing due to continued economic uncertainty in many of our end markets and to take active measures to accelerate margin recovery. Our business strategy remains the same with increasing focus and effort in penetrating the fast-growing electrification trend where we are having great success with significant NBOs.
The reductions-in-force, which are subject to the laws and regulations of the countries in which the actions are planned, are expected to impact 466 positions. Over the life of the Q3 2023 Plan, we expect to incur restructuring charges of between $20.5 million and $25.5 million, primarily related to reductions-in-force. The majority of the actions under the Q3 2023 Plan are expected to be completed on or before June 30, 2024. In the year ended December 31, 2023, we recognized approximately $23.5 million of charges related to the Q3 2023 Plan. As of December 31, 2023, our severance liability related to the Q3 2023 Plan was $6.0 million. Refer to Note 5: Restructuring and Other Charges, Net, of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information. We expect that the actions taken in the Q3 2023 Plan will result in annualized savings of approximately $40 million to $50 million.
On June 6, 2023, we announced that we had made the decision to exit the marine energy storage business (the "Marine Business") of Spear Power Systems (“Spear”). The exit of the Spear Marine Business was the result of a change in strategy with respect to the business and involved ceasing sales, marketing, and business operations. It resulted in the elimination of certain positions, primarily in the U.S. and the closure of operations in Belgium. The Spear Marine Business had been included in the Sensing Solutions reportable segment. Exiting the Spear Marine Business resulted in charges in the year ended December 31, 2023 of approximately $38.5 million, consisting of accelerated amortization, inventory and property, plant and equipment ("PP&E") write-downs, severance charges, and other charges, including contract termination costs.
Refer to Note 5: Restructuring and Other Charges, Net, of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information on the Q3 2023 Plan and our exit from the Spear Marine Business.
In fiscal year 2023, we used $848.9 million of cash to pay debt, including prepaying the entire remaining outstanding principal on our variable-rate term loan facility ("Term Loan") balance in the first half of 2023 and the early redemption of the full $400.0 million aggregate principal amount outstanding on our 5.625% senior notes due 2024 (the "5.625% Senior Notes") in accordance with the terms of the indenture under which the 5.625% Senior Notes were issued. These repayments brought our gross outstanding indebtedness at December 31, 2023 to $3.4 billion, representing a net leverage ratio of 3.2x, compared to gross indebtedness of $4.3 billion as of December 31, 2022 (representing a net leverage ratio of 3.4x). Net leverage ratio, discussed throughout this Item 7: Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (this "MD&A"), is a financial measure not presented in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"). Refer to Non-GAAP Financial Measures included elsewhere in this MD&A for additional information related to our use of net leverage ratio.
Fiscal year 2023 financial summary
Our consolidated revenue increased 0.6% in fiscal year 2023 from the prior year. Excluding a decrease of 1.4% attributed to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and an increase of 0.5% due to the net effect of acquisitions and divestitures, net revenue increased 1.5% on an organic basis. Organic revenue growth (or decline), discussed throughout this MD&A, is a financial measure not presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Refer to Non-GAAP Financial Measures included elsewhere in this MD&A for additional information related to our use of organic revenue growth (or decline). Organic revenue growth was primarily driven by an increase in demand in markets we serve in the Automotive, HVOR, and Aerospace businesses, content
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growth, and the impact of pricing recoveries, partially offset by revenue mix, market declines, and inventory destocking in our Industrial business.
Operating income for fiscal year 2023 decreased $488.5 million, or 72.9%, to $181.7 million (4.5% of net revenue) compared to $670.1 million (16.6% of net revenue) in the prior year. This decrease was primarily due to the $321.7 million impairment of the Insights reporting unit in the fourth quarter. In addition, operating income in the prior year included $135.1 million of gain on sale of various assets and liabilities comprising our semiconductor test and thermal business (collectively, the "Qinex Business"), for which there was no comparable amount in fiscal year 2023. Other charges during the year, such as those related to our exit from the Spear Marine Business and the entry into the Q3 2023 Plan, and the unfavorable effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, were partially offset by the net impacts of pricing recoveries from customers with inflation on material and logistics costs, volume leverage, and cost savings during the year resulting from repositioning actions taken in fiscal year 2022. Refer to Results of Operations included elsewhere in this MD&A for additional discussion of our earnings results for the year ended December 31, 2023.
We generated $456.7 million of operating cash flows in fiscal year 2023, ending the year with $508.1 million in cash. In fiscal year 2023, in addition to paying $848.9 million on debt as discussed elsewhere, we used cash of approximately $88.4 million for share repurchases and $71.5 million for payment of cash dividends. In fiscal year 2024, we will continue to execute our capital allocation strategy that is currently designed to reduce our leverage and return capital to shareholders through our dividend and opportunistic share repurchases. This strategy reduces risk in our capital structure, lowers interest expense, and improves net income and earnings per share. We expect improving free cash flow (cash from operations less capital expenditures) will naturally allow net leverage to decline and returns on invested capital to improve over time.
Selected Segment Information
We present financial information for two reportable segments, Performance Sensing and Sensing Solutions. Set forth below is selected information for each of these segments for the periods presented. Effective April 1, 2023, we moved our material handling products from the HVOR operating segment (in the Performance Sensing reportable segment) to the Sensing Solutions operating segment to align with new management reporting. The amounts previously reported in the tables below for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 have been retrospectively recast to reflect this change.
Amounts and percentages in the tables below have been calculated based on unrounded numbers, accordingly, certain amounts may not appear to recalculate due to the effect of rounding. The following table presents net revenue by segment for the identified periods:
 For the year ended December 31,
 202320222021
($ in millions)AmountPercent of TotalAmountPercent of TotalAmountPercent of Total
Net revenue:
Performance Sensing$3,002.7 74.1 %$2,920.4 72.5 %$2,801.2 73.3 %
Sensing Solutions1,051.4 25.9 1,108.9 27.5 1,019.6 26.7 
Total net revenue$4,054.1 100.0 %$4,029.3 100.0 %$3,820.8 100.0 %
The following table presents segment operating income in U.S. dollars ("USD") and as a percentage of segment net revenue for the identified periods:
 For the year ended December 31,
 202320222021
($ in millions)AmountPercent of
Segment
Net Revenue
AmountPercent of
Segment
Net Revenue
AmountPercent of
Segment
Net Revenue
Segment operating income:
Performance Sensing$744.2 24.8 %$728.3 24.9 %$758.1 27.1 %
Sensing Solutions299.0 28.4 %323.3 29.2 %312.3 30.6 %
Total segment operating income$1,043.3 $1,051.7 $1,070.4 
For a reconciliation of total segment operating income to consolidated operating income, refer to Note 20: Segment Reporting of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report.
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Effective February 1, 2024, we combined our Automotive and HVOR businesses to better leverage core capabilities and prioritize product focus into one business, Vehicles, under the Performance Sensing reportable segment. The Sensing Solutions reportable segment will benefit from organizing our predominantly shorter-cycle businesses together, by allowing us to scale core capabilities and better serve our customers. We are still evaluating what impact this reorganization will have on our reportable segments, operating segments, and reporting units in the first quarter of 2024.
Selected Geographic Information
We are a global business with significant operations around the world and a diverse revenue mix by geography, customer, and end market. The following table presents (as a percentage of total) PP&E and net revenue by geographic region for the identified periods:
PP&E, net as of December 31,
Net revenue for the year ended December 31,
20232022202320222021
Americas35.9 %33.7 %45.0 %42.3 %38.0 %
Europe17.9 %20.0 %26.3 %25.9 %26.2 %
Asia and rest of world46.2 %46.3 %28.7 %31.8 %35.8 %
Refer to Note 20: Segment Reporting of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information related to our PP&E, net balances by selected geographic area as of December 31, 2023 and 2022 and net revenue by selected geographic area for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021.
Net Revenue by End Market
Our net revenue for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 was derived from the following end markets:
For the year ended December 31,
(Percentage of total)202320222021
Automotive53.7 %52.3 %54.0 %
HVOR21.3 %21.1 %20.5 %
Industrial14.7 %14.4 %12.0 %
Appliance and HVAC (1)
4.6 %5.4 %6.4 %
Aerospace4.7 %3.8 %3.5 %
Other1.0 %3.0 %3.6 %
__________________________
(1)    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
We are a significant supplier to multiple OEMs within many of these end markets, thereby reducing customer concentration risk.
Factors Affecting Our Operating Results
The following discussion describes components of the consolidated statements of operations as well as factors that impact those components. Refer to Note 2: Significant Accounting Policies of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report, and Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates included elsewhere in this MD&A for additional information related to the accounting policies and estimates made related to these components. Refer to Results of Operations included elsewhere in this MD&A for discussion of the actual impact on our financial statements of these factors.
Net revenue
We derive a significant portion of our revenue from sales into the automotive end market, and conditions in the automotive industry can have a significant impact on the amount of revenue that we recognize. Outside of the automotive industry, we sell our products and solutions to end-users in a wide range of industries, end markets, and geographic regions, and the drivers of demand for these products and solutions vary considerably and are influenced by industry, market, or geographic conditions. Changes in demand for these products and solutions could impact our revenue materially. Our overall net revenue is impacted by various factors, which we characterize as "organic" or "inorganic." Inorganic factors include fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates and the net effect of acquisitions and divestitures.
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Organic factors include fluctuations in overall economic activity within the industries, end markets, and geographic regions in which we operate, which we term market growth. Other organic factors combine to reflect what we refer to as market outgrowth. Such factors include (but are not limited to): (a) the number of our products used within existing applications, or the development of new applications requiring these products, due to regulations or other factors; (b) the "mix" of products sold, including the proportion of new or upgraded products and their pricing relative to existing products; (c) changes in product sales prices (including quantity discounts, rebates, and cash discounts for prompt payment); (d) changes in the level of competition faced by our products, including the launch of new products by competitors; (e) our ability to successfully develop, launch, and sell new products and applications; and (f) the evolution of the markets we serve to safer, cleaner, and more efficient, electrified, and connected technologies.
While the factors described above may impact net revenue in each of our reportable segments, the magnitude of that impact can differ. For more information about revenue risks relating to our business, refer to Item 1A: Risk Factors included elsewhere in this Report.
Cost of revenue
We manufacture most of our products, subcontracting only a limited number to third parties. As such, our cost of revenue consists principally of the following:
Production Materials Costs. We source production materials globally to ensure a highly effective and efficient supply chain. However, we are still impacted by local market conditions, including fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. A portion of our production materials contains certain commodities, resins, and metals, the cost of which may vary with underlying pricing and foreign currency exchange rates. We use forward contracts to economically hedge a portion of our exposure to the potential change in prices associated with certain of these commodities, including the impact of exchange rate fluctuations. The terms of these forward contracts fix the price of these commodities at a future date for various notional amounts. Gains and losses recognized on these derivatives are recorded in other, net and are not included in cost of revenue. Refer to Note 6: Other, Net of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information.
Employee Costs. Wages and benefits, including variable incentive compensation, for employees involved in our manufacturing operations and certain customer service and engineering activities is reflected in cost of revenue. A substantial portion of these costs can fluctuate on an aggregate basis in direct correlation with changes in production volumes. These costs may decline as a percentage of net revenue due to economies of scale associated with higher production volumes, and conversely, may increase with lower production volumes. These costs also fluctuate based on local labor market conditions. We rely on contract workers for direct labor in certain geographies. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 2,200 direct labor contract workers worldwide.
Sustaining Engineering Activity Costs. Modifications of existing products for use by new and existing customers in familiar applications are included in cost of revenue, as are costs related to improvements in our manufacturing processes.
Other. Our remaining cost of revenue primarily consists of: gains and losses on certain foreign currency forward contracts that are designated as cash flow hedges; material yields; costs to import raw materials, such as tariffs; depreciation of fixed assets used in the manufacturing process; freight costs; warehousing expenses; maintenance and repair expenses; costs of quality assurance; operating supplies; and other general manufacturing expenses, such as expenses for energy consumption and operating lease expense.
Changes in cost of revenue as a percentage of net revenue have historically been impacted by several factors, including:
changes in the price of raw materials, including the impact of changes in costs to import such raw materials, such as tariffs;
changes in customer prices and surcharges;
implementation of cost improvement measures aimed at increasing productivity, including reduction of fixed production costs, refinements in inventory management, design and process driven changes, and the coordination of procurement within each subsidiary and at the business level;
product lifecycles, as we typically incur higher costs associated with new product development (related to excess manufacturing capacity and higher production costs during the initial stages of product launches) and during the phase-out of discontinued products;
changes in production volumes, as a portion of production costs are fixed;
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transfer of production to our lower-cost manufacturing facilities;
changes in depreciation expense, including those arising from the adjustment of PP&E to fair value associated with acquisitions;
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
changes in product mix;
changes in logistics costs;
acquisitions and divestitures – acquired and divested businesses may generate higher or lower cost of revenue as a percentage of net revenue than our core business; and
the increase in the carrying value of inventory adjusted to fair value upon the application of purchase accounting associated with acquisitions.
Research and development expense
We develop products that address increasingly complex engineering and operating performance requirements to help our customers solve their most difficult challenges in the automotive, HVOR, fleet management, industrial, clean energy, and aerospace industries. We believe that continued focused investment in research and development ("R&D") is critical to our future growth and maintaining our leadership positions in the markets we serve. Our R&D efforts are directly related to timely development of new and enhanced products that are central to our business strategy. We continually develop our technologies to meet an evolving set of customer requirements and new product introductions. We conduct such activities in areas that we believe will increase our long-term revenue growth. Our development expense is typically associated with engineering core technology platforms to specific applications and engineering major upgrades that improve the functionality or reduce the cost of existing products. In addition, we continually consider new technologies where we may have expertise for potential investment or acquisition.
A large portion of our R&D activities is directed towards technologies and market trends that we believe have the potential for significant future growth, but that relate to products that are not currently within our core business or include new features and capabilities for existing products. Expenses related to these activities are less likely to result in increased near-term revenue than our more mainstream development activities.
R&D expense consists of costs related to product design, development, and process engineering. Costs related to modifications of existing products for use by new and existing customers in familiar applications are presented in cost of revenue and are not included in R&D expense. The level of R&D expense in any period is related to the number of products in development, the stage of the development process, the complexity of the underlying technology, the potential scale of the product upon successful commercialization, and the level of our exploratory research.
Selling, general and administrative expense
Selling, general and administrative ("SG&A") expense consists of all expenditures incurred in connection with the sale and marketing of our products, as well as administrative overhead costs, including: salary and benefit costs for sales and marketing personnel and administrative staff; share-based incentive compensation expense; charges related to the use and maintenance of administrative offices, including depreciation expense; other administrative costs, including expenses relating to information systems, human resources, and legal, finance, and accounting services; other selling and marketing related costs, such as expenses incurred in connection with travel and communications; and transaction costs associated with acquisitions.
Changes in SG&A expense as a percentage of net revenue have historically been impacted by a number of factors, including:
changes in sales volume, as higher volumes enable us to spread the fixed portion of our selling, marketing, and administrative expense over higher revenue (e.g., expenses relating to our sales and marketing personnel can fluctuate due to prolonged trends in sales volume, while expenses relating to administrative personnel generally do not increase or decrease directly with changes in sales volume);
changes in customer prices and surcharges;
changes in the mix of products we sell, as some products may require more customer support and sales effort than others;
new product launches in existing and new markets, as these launches typically involve a more intense sales and marketing activity before they are integrated into customer applications and systems;
changes in our customer base, as new customers may require different levels of sales and marketing attention;
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fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; and
acquisitions and divestitures - acquired and divested businesses may require different levels of SG&A expense as a percentage of net revenue than our core business.
Depreciation expense
Depreciation expense includes depreciation of PP&E, which includes assets held under finance lease and amortization of leasehold improvements. Depreciation expense is included in either cost of revenue or SG&A expense depending on the use of the asset as a manufacturing or administrative asset. Depreciation expense will vary according to the age of existing PP&E and the level of capital expenditures.
Amortization expense
We have recognized a significant amount of definite-lived intangible assets. Acquisition-related definite-lived intangible assets are amortized on an economic-benefit basis according to the useful lives of the assets, or on a straight-line basis if a pattern of economic benefits cannot be reliably determined. The amount of amortization expense related to definite-lived intangible assets depends on the amount and timing of definite-lived intangible assets acquired and where previously acquired definite-lived intangible assets are in their estimated life cycle. In general, the economic benefit of a definite-lived intangible asset is concentrated towards the beginning of its useful life.
Restructuring and other charges, net
Restructuring charges consist of severance, outplacement, other separation benefits, and facility and other exit costs. These charges may be incurred as part of an announced restructuring plan or may be individual charges recognized related to acquired businesses or the termination of a limited number of employees that do not represent the initiation of a larger restructuring plan.
Restructuring and other charges, net also includes the gain, net of transaction costs, from the sale of businesses, expense incurred from acquisition-related compensation arrangements, and other operating income or expense that is not presented elsewhere in operating income.
Amounts recognized in restructuring and other charges, net will vary according to the extent of our restructuring programs and other income or expense items not presented elsewhere in operating income.
Interest expense
As of December 31, 2023 and 2022, we had gross outstanding indebtedness of $3,425.2 million and $4,273.4 million, respectively. This indebtedness consists of a secured credit facility and various tranches of senior unsecured notes (together, the "Senior Notes"). Refer to Note 14: Debt of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information on our indebtedness.
The credit agreement governing our secured credit facility (as amended, supplemented, waived, or otherwise modified, the "Credit Agreement") provides for senior secured credit facilities (the "Senior Secured Credit Facilities"), consisting of the Term Loan, the $750.0 million revolving credit facility (the "Revolving Credit Facility"), and incremental availability (the "Accordion") under which additional secured credit facilities could be issued under certain circumstances.
The Senior Notes accrue interest at fixed rates. However, the Term Loan and the Revolving Credit Facility accrue interest at variable interest rates, which could drive some of the variability in interest expense. As of December 31, 2023, we had no amounts outstanding on the Term Loan or Revolving Credit Facility. Refer to Item 7A: Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk included elsewhere in this Report for more information regarding our exposure to potential changes in variable interest rates.
Interest income
Interest income relates to interest earned on our cash and cash equivalent balances, and varies according to the balances in, and the interest rates provided by, these investments.
Other, net
Other, net primarily includes gains and losses associated with the remeasurement of non-USD denominated monetary assets and liabilities into USD, changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments not designated as cash flow hedges, mark-to-market gains and losses on investments, losses on debt financing transactions, and net periodic benefit cost, excluding
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service cost.
Amounts recognized in other, net vary according to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, changes in the forward prices for the foreign currencies and commodities that we hedge, the value of equity investments recorded on our consolidated balance sheets at fair value, the number and magnitude of debt financing transactions we undertake, and the change in funded status of our pension and other post-retirement benefit plans.
Refer to Note 6: Other, Net of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information related to the components of other, net. Refer to Item 7A: Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk included elsewhere in this Report for additional information related to our exposure to potential changes in foreign currency exchange rates and commodity prices. Refer to Note 14: Debt of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information related to our debt financing transactions.
Provision for (or benefit from) income taxes
We are subject to income tax in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. The provision for (or benefit from) income taxes consists of: current tax expense, which relates primarily to our profitable operations in jurisdictions outside the U.S. and U.K. and withholding taxes related to interest, royalties, and repatriation of foreign earnings; and deferred tax expense (or benefit), which represents adjustments in book-to-tax basis differences primarily related to the step-up in fair value of fixed and intangible assets, including goodwill, acquired in connection with business combination transactions, the utilization of net operating losses, changes in tax rates, and changes in our assessment of the realizability of our deferred tax assets.
Our current tax expense is favorably impacted by the amortization of definite-lived intangible assets and other tax benefits derived from our operating and capital structure, including tax incentives in both the U.K. and China as well as favorable tax status in Mexico. In addition, our tax structure takes advantage of participation exemption regimes that permit the receipt of intercompany dividends without incurring taxable income in those jurisdictions.
While the extent of our future tax liability is uncertain, the impact of purchase accounting for past and future acquisitions, changes to debt and equity capitalization of our subsidiaries, and the realignment of the functions performed and risks assumed by our various subsidiaries are among the factors that will determine the future book and taxable income of each of our subsidiaries and of Sensata as a whole.
Our effective tax rate will generally not equal either the U.K. or U.S. statutory tax rate due to various factors, the most significant of which are described below. As these factors fluctuate from year to year, our effective tax rate will change. The factors include, but are not limited to, the following:
establishing or releasing a portion of the valuation allowance related to our gross deferred tax assets;
foreign tax rate differential - we operate in multiple jurisdictions including but not limited to Bulgaria, China, Malaysia, Malta, the Netherlands, South Korea, the U.S., and the U.K. This can result in a foreign tax rate differential that may reflect a tax benefit or detriment. This foreign tax rate differential can change from year to year based upon the jurisdictional mix of earnings and changes in current and future enacted tax rates, tax holidays, and favorable tax regimes available to certain of our foreign subsidiaries;
changes in tax laws and rates, including the potential or actual impact of activities by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development ("OECD") related to the European Union's ("EU's") Pillar Two directive and the European Commission ("EC") challenges to sovereign EU member states;
losses incurred in certain jurisdictions, which cannot be currently benefited, if it is not more likely than not that the associated deferred tax asset will be realized in the foreseeable future;
foreign currency exchange gains and losses;
as a result of income tax audit settlements, final assessments, or lapse of applicable statutes of limitation, we may recognize an income tax expense or benefit including adjustment of previously accrued interest and penalties; and
in certain jurisdictions, we recognize withholding and other taxes on intercompany payments, including dividends, and such taxes are deducted if they cannot be credited against the recipient's tax liability in its country of residence.
Seasonality
Refer to Item 1: Business included elsewhere in this Report for discussion of our assessment of seasonality related to our business.
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Legal Proceedings
Refer to Item 3: Legal Proceedings included elsewhere in this Report for discussion of legal proceedings related to our business.
Results of Operations
Our discussion and analysis of results of operations are based upon our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report. The Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of the Financial Statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the amounts reported therein. We base our estimates on historical experience and assumptions believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, and we re-evaluate such estimates on an ongoing basis. Actual results could differ from our estimates under different assumptions or conditions. Our significant accounting policies and estimates are more fully described in Note 2: Significant Accounting Policies of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report and Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates included elsewhere in this MD&A.
The table below presents our historical results of operations in millions of dollars and as a percentage of net revenue. We have derived these results of operations from our Financial Statements. Effective April 1, 2023, we moved our material handling products from the HVOR operating segment (in the Performance Sensing reportable segment) to the Sensing Solutions operating segment to align with new management reporting. The amounts previously reported in the tables below for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 have been retrospectively recast to reflect this change. Amounts and percentages in the table below have been calculated based on unrounded numbers, accordingly, certain amounts may not appear to recalculate due to the effect of rounding.
 For the year ended December 31,
 202320222021
AmountPercent of
Net Revenue
AmountPercent of
Net Revenue
AmountPercent of
Net Revenue
Net revenue:
Performance Sensing$3,002.7 74.1 %$2,920.4 72.5 %$2,801.2 73.3 %
Sensing Solutions1,051.4 25.9 1,108.9 27.5 1,019.6 26.7 
Total net revenue4,054.1 100.0 %4,029.3 100.0 %3,820.8 100.0 %
Operating costs and expenses3,872.4 95.5 3,359.1 83.4 3,187.6 83.4 
Operating income181.7 4.5 670.1 16.6 633.2 16.6 
Interest expense
(182.2)(4.5)(195.6)(4.9)(182.6)(4.8)
Interest income
31.3 0.8 16.7 0.4 3.3 0.1 
Other, net(13.0)(0.3)(94.6)(2.3)(40.0)(1.0)
Income before taxes17.8 0.4 396.7 9.8 413.9 10.8 
Provision for income taxes
21.8 0.5 86.0 2.1 50.3 1.3 
Net (loss)/income
$(3.9)(0.1)%$310.7 7.7 %$363.6 9.5 %
The discussion that follows compares operating results for fiscal year 2023 to fiscal year 2022. For a discussion of our fiscal year 2022 operating results compared to fiscal year 2021, refer to Item 7: Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed on February 13, 2023.
Refer to Item 1: Business included elsewhere in this Report for more detailed discussion of our reportable segments, including discussion of major products and market drivers. Refer to discussion under the heading Factors Affecting Our Operating Results included elsewhere in this MD&A for a detailed discussion of the various factors that may drive changes in our operating results. The below discussion provides information on the material factors impacting fiscal year 2023 compared to fiscal year 2022.
Net revenue
Net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased 0.6% compared to the prior year. Net revenue increased 1.5% on an organic basis, which excludes a decrease of 1.4% attributed to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and an increase of 0.5% due to the net effect of acquisitions and divestitures.
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Performance Sensing
Performance Sensing net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased 2.8% compared to the prior year. Excluding a decrease of 1.6% attributed to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and an increase of 0.1% due to the effect of acquisitions, Performance Sensing net revenue increased 4.3% on an organic basis. Both the Automotive and HVOR operating segments contributed to these results as discussed below.
Automotive net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased 3.3% compared to the prior year. Excluding a decrease of 1.8% attributed to changes in foreign currency exchange rates, automotive net revenue increased 5.1% on an organic basis. This organic revenue growth was primarily due to market growth, partially offset by unfavorable revenue mix.
HVOR net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 increased 1.8% compared to the prior year. Excluding a decrease of 0.9% attributed to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and an increase of 0.3% due to the effect of acquisitions, HVOR net revenue increased 2.4% on an organic basis. This organic revenue growth was primarily due to market and content growth, partially offset by channel inventory de-stocking.
Sensing Solutions
Sensing Solutions net revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023 decreased 5.2% compared to the prior year. Excluding a decrease of 0.9% attributed to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and an increase of 1.7% due to the net effect of acquisitions and divestitures, Sensing Solutions net revenue decreased 6.0% on an organic basis, which primarily reflects weakness in our industrial markets and inventory destocking, partially offset by market and content growth in the aerospace business and pricing.
Operating costs and expenses
Operating costs and expenses for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 are presented, in millions of dollars and as a percentage of revenue, in the following table. Amounts and percentages in the table below have been calculated based on unrounded numbers, accordingly, certain amounts may not appear to recalculate due to the effect of rounding.
 For the year ended December 31,
 202320222021
AmountPercent of
Net Revenue
AmountPercent of
Net Revenue
AmountPercent of
Net Revenue
Operating costs and expenses:
Cost of revenue$2,792.8 68.9 %$2,712.0 67.3 %$2,542.4 66.5 %
Research and development178.9 4.4 189.3 4.7 159.1 4.2 
Selling, general and administrative350.7 8.6 370.6 9.2 337.0 8.8 
Amortization of intangible assets173.9 4.3 153.8 3.8 134.1 3.5 
Goodwill impairment charge
321.7 7.9 — — — — 
Restructuring and other charges, net54.5 1.3 (66.7)(1.7)14.9 0.4 
Total operating costs and expenses$3,872.4 95.5 %$3,359.1 83.4 %$3,187.6 83.4 %
Cost of revenue
Cost of revenue as a percentage of net revenue increased in the year ended December 31, 2023, primarily due to (1) unfavorable product mix, (2) the unfavorable effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, (3) the impact of certain actions taken in relation to the Q3 2023 Plan, (4) the net unfavorable impacts of acquisitions and divestitures on gross margin, and (5) the $10.5 million write-down of inventory as a result of our decision to exit the Spear Marine Business, partially offset by (1) the net impacts of pricing recoveries from customers, inflation on material and logistics costs, and volume leverage, and (2) cost savings as a result of repositioning actions taken in fiscal year 2022.
Refer to Note 5: Restructuring and Other Charges, Net, of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional details regarding our exit of the Spear Marine Business and actions taken as part of the Q3 2023 Plan.
Research and development expense
R&D expense decreased in the year ended December 31, 2023, primarily as a result of lower costs as a result of certain repositioning actions taken in fiscal year 2022 that were not part of a larger restructuring plan.
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Selling, general and administrative expense
SG&A expense decreased in the year ended December 31, 2023, primarily as a result of (1) cost savings as a result of repositioning actions taken in fiscal year 2022, (2) lower selling expenses, (3) lower compensation expense, and (4) lower transaction costs as a result of reduced mergers and acquisitions activity, partially offset by increased SG&A expense from our acquisitions (net of divestitures).
Refer to Note 21: Acquisitions and Divestitures of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information related to our acquisitions and divestitures.
Amortization of intangible assets
Amortization expense increased in the year ended December 31, 2023, primarily due to (1) increased amortization due to newly acquired intangible assets and (2) a charge of $13.5 million in the second quarter of 2023 for accelerated amortization of intangible assets due to our exit from the Spear Marine Business, partially offset by the effect of amortization of intangible assets in accordance with their expected economic benefit.
We expect amortization expense to be approximately $147.4 million in fiscal year 2024.
Refer to Note 5: Restructuring and Other Charges, Net and Note 11: Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, Net of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information regarding the charges related to the exit of the Spear Marine Business and amortization on our intangible assets, respectively.
Goodwill impairment charge
In the year ended December 31, 2023, we recorded a $321.7 million non-cash goodwill impairment charge in the fourth quarter of 2023, representing the entire goodwill balance allocated to Insights. This impairment was primarily driven by reprioritization of our investments into electrification in accordance with our business strategy. With electrification as the clear future of our company and the best area of focus for management, we narrowed our investment in Insights. These decisions resulted in significant cost restructuring and a lower long-range financial forecast for the reporting unit, impacting the valuation of the business with respect to the goodwill impairment analysis. Other valuation assumptions for the Insights reporting unit valuation that are impacted by macroeconomic factors also contributed to the impairment.
Restructuring and other charges, net
We recorded a net charge of $54.5 million in restructuring and other charges, net in the year ended December 31, 2023, an unfavorable change in earnings compared to a net gain of $66.7 million in the prior year. This change was primarily driven by (1) the non-recurrence of the $135.1 million gain on the sale of the Qinex Business in fiscal year 2022, (2) charges incurred as a result of the entry into the Q3 2023 Plan, and (3) charges incurred as a result of our exit from the Spear Marine Business, partially offset by (1) a reduction in expense for acquisition-related compensation arrangements, and (2) the non-recurrence of $15.6 million of transaction-related charges to sell the Qinex Business in fiscal year 2022.
Refer to Note 5: Restructuring and Other Charges, Net of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information on the components of restructuring and other charges, net.
Operating income
In the year ended December 31, 2023, operating income decreased $488.4 million or 72.9%, to $181.7 million (4.5% of net revenue) compared to $670.1 million (16.6% of net revenue) in the prior year, primarily due to (1) the $321.7 million goodwill impairment charge related to the Insights reporting unit, (2) the non-recurrence of the $119.5 million gain on the sale of the Qinex Business in fiscal year 2022, net of the related transaction costs, (3) $38.5 million of charges incurred as a result of our exit from the Spear Marine Business, (4) the unfavorable effect of changes in foreign currency exchange rates, (5) charges incurred related to the Q3 2023 Plan, (6) unfavorable product mix, and (7) increased amortization of intangible assets as a result of new acquisitions, partially offset by (1) cost savings as a result of repositioning actions taken in fiscal year 2022, (2) the net impacts of pricing recoveries from customers, inflation on material and logistics costs, and volume leverage, and (3) lower expense for acquisition-related compensation arrangements.
Interest expense
In the year ended December 31, 2023, interest expense decreased $13.4 million from the prior period, primarily due to the early payment on the Term Loan in the first half of 2023.
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Refer to Note 14: Debt of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information regarding the early payment on the Term Loan.
Interest income
In the year ended December 31, 2023, interest income increased $14.6 million compared to the prior period, primarily due to higher interest rates, partially offset by lower cash balances.
Other, net
Other, net for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 consisted of the following (amounts have been calculated based on unrounded numbers, accordingly, certain amounts may not appear to recalculate due to the effect of rounding):
 For the year ended December 31,
(In millions)202320222021
Currency remeasurement (loss)/gain on net monetary assets (1)
$(20.2)$(18.2)$3.4 
Gain/(loss) on foreign currency forward contracts (2)
4.2 4.3 (7.6)
Loss on commodity forward contracts (2)
(2.8)(3.4)(3.0)
Loss on debt financing (3)
(5.4)(5.5)(30.1)
Loss on equity investments, net (4)
(0.7)(75.6)— 
Net periodic benefit cost, excluding service cost(3.9)(5.1)(7.5)
Other15.8 8.7 4.6 
Other, net$(13.0)$(94.6)$(40.0)
__________________________
(1)    Relates to the remeasurement of non-USD denominated monetary assets and liabilities into USD.
(2)    Relates to changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that are not designated as hedges. Refer to Note 19: Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information related to gains and losses on our commodity and foreign currency forward contracts. Refer to Item 7A: Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk included elsewhere in this Report for an analysis of the sensitivity of other, net to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and commodity prices.
(3)    Refer to Note 14: Debt of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report for additional information related to our debt financing transactions.
(4)    The year ended December 31, 2022 primarily relates to mark-to-market losses on our investment in Quanergy Systems, Inc. ("Quanergy"), as disclosed in Note 18: Fair Value Measures of our Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Report.
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Provision for income taxes
The components of provision for income taxes for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 are described in more detail in the table below, reconciled to the U.S. statutory rate for each year (amounts have been calculated based on unrounded numbers, accordingly, certain amounts may not appear to recalculate due to the effect of rounding):
 For the year ended December 31,
(In millions)202320222021
Tax computed at U.S. statutory rate of 21% (1)
$3.7 $83.3 $86.9 
Dispositions and capital restructurings (6)
(286.4)4.5 — 
Valuation allowances (4)
278.5 15.7 20.5 
Goodwill impairment (3)
41.2 — — 
Foreign tax rate differential (2)
(17.3)(44.3)(30.5)
Withholding taxes not creditable14.1 12.3 13.3 
Research and development incentives (5)
(9.0)(10.8)(11.1)
Unrealized foreign currency exchange losses/(gains), net1.5 9.3 (6.1)
Reserve for tax exposure1.1 1.3 (16.3)
Changes in tax laws or rates(0.3)2.6 (7.1)
Other (7)
(5.2)12.1 0.7 
Provision for income taxes
$21.8 $86.0 $50.3 
__________________________
(1)    Represents the product of the applicable statutory tax rate and income before taxes, as reported in the consolidated statements of operations.
(2)    We operate in multiple jurisdictions, including but not limited to Bulgaria, China, Malaysia, Malta, Mexico, the Netherlands, South Korea, the U.S., and the U.K. This can result in a foreign tax rate differential that may reflect a tax benefit or detriment. This foreign tax rate differential can change from year to year based upon the jurisdictional mix of earnings and changes in current and future enacted tax rates. Certain of our subsidiaries are currently eligible, or have been eligible, for tax exemptions or reduced tax rates in their respective jurisdictions.