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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report

 

For the transition period from                           to                          .

Commission file number: 001-38423

Sunlands Technology Group

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

 

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

Building 4-6, Chaolai Science Park,
 No. 36 Chuangyuan Road, Chaoyang District

Beijing, 100012, the People’s Republic of China

(Address of principal executive offices)

Lu Lv, Chief Financial Officer
Building 4-6, Chaolai Science Park,
 No. 36 Chuangyuan Road, Chaoyang District,

Beijing, 100012, the People’s Republic of China

+86-10-52413738

E-mail: lvlu@sunlands.com
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbols

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

 

 

 

American depositary shares, each two ADSs represent one Class A ordinary share*

 

STG

 

 

The New York Stock Exchange

Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00005 per share **

 

 

 

*

Effective from August 31, 2021, the ratio of ADSs representing the Class A ordinary shares changed from each 25 ADSs representing one Class A ordinary share to each two ADSs representing one Class A ordinary share.

**

Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing of the American depositary shares on the New York Stock Exchange.

 

 


 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

 

[None]

(Title of Class)

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

 

[None]

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

6,668,872 ordinary shares, comprised of (i) 1,839,553 Class A ordinary shares, par value $0.00005 per share; (ii) 826,389 Class B ordinary shares, par value $0.00005 per share and (iii) 4,002,930 Class C ordinary shares, par value $0.00005 per share, as of December 31, 2021.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes      No  

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes      No  

Note – Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or an emerging growth company. See definition of “accelerated filer,” “large accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large Accelerated Filer      

Accelerated Filer      

Non-accelerated Filer        

 

 

Emerging growth company        

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards † provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 U.S. GAAP  International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

  Item 17      Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes      No  

APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Section 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes  ☐    No  

 

 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Page

Introduction

 

i

Forward-Looking Information

 

ii

 

 

 

 

 

Part I

 

1

Item 1.

 

Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

 

1

Item 2.

 

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

 

1

Item 3.

 

Key Information

 

1

Item 4.

 

Information on the Company

 

43

Item 4A.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

84

Item 5.

 

Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

 

84

Item 6.

 

Directors, Senior Management and Employees

 

98

Item 7.

 

Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

 

106

Item 8.

 

Financial Information

 

107

Item 9.

 

The Offer and Listing

 

108

Item 10.

 

Additional Information

 

108

Item 11.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

116

Item 12.

 

Description of Securities other than Equity Securities

 

117

 

 

 

Part II

 

119

Item 13.

 

Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

 

119

Item 14.

 

Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

 

119

Item 15.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

119

Item 16.

 

[Reserved]

 

120

Item 16.A.

 

Audit Committee Financial Expert

 

120

Item 16.B.

 

Code of Ethics

 

120

Item 16.C.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

120

Item 16.D.

 

Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

 

121

Item 16.E.

 

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

 

121

Item 16.F.

 

Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

 

122

Item 16.G.

 

Corporate Governance

 

122

Item 16.H.

 

Mine Safety Disclosure

 

122

Item 16.I.

 

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections.

 

122

 

 

 

Part III

 

123

Item 17.

 

Financial Statements

 

123

Item 18.

 

Financial Statements

 

123

Item 19.

 

Exhibits

 

123

 

 

 

 


 

INTRODUCTION

Except where the context otherwise indicates and for the purpose of this annual report only:

 

“ADSs” refers to the American depositary shares, each two ADSs representing one of our Class A ordinary shares;

 

“China” or “PRC” refer to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purpose of this annual report only, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau;

 

“Class A ordinary shares” refers to Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.00005 per share;

 

“Class B ordinary shares” refers to Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.00005 per share;

 

“Class C ordinary shares” refers to Class C ordinary shares, par value US$0.00005 per share;

 

“gross billings” for a given period refers to the total amount of cash received for the sale of course packages net of the total amount of refunds in such period;

 

“number of students” for a given period refers to the total number of orders placed by students which remain in their respective service periods;

 

“new student enrollments” for a given period refers to the total number of orders placed by students that newly enroll in at least one course during that period (including those students that enroll and then terminate their enrollment with us and excluding those students that enroll in low-priced short courses designed to improve customer experience);

 

“ordinary shares” refers to our Class A ordinary shares, Class B ordinary shares and Class C ordinary shares, par value of US$0.00005 per share;

 

“RMB” or “Renminbi” refers to the legal currency of the People’s Republic of China;

 

“service period” for a given student refers to the period covered by the contract between us and such student pursuant to which such student can attend our courses;

 

“student loan coverage ratio” is calculated by dividing the amount of tuitions financed by student loans by gross billings. For the purposes of calculating student loan coverage ratios for a particular period, (i) the amount of tuitions financed by student loans is the total value of orders financed by student loans less (a) the amount of loan refunds made during that period; and (b) the interest payments that we made to the credit providers on the loans during that period; and (ii) the value of an order financed by student loans included the amount of down payments made by a student; in 2021, the down payments made by students accounted for approximately 11% of the total value of orders financed by student loans;

 

“US$,” “dollars” or “U.S. dollars” refers to the legal currency of the United States;

 

“we,” “us,” “our company,” “our Company,” “our Group” and “our,” refer to Sunlands Technology Group, previously known as Sunlands Online Education Group, a Cayman Islands company and its subsidiaries and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, its consolidated variable interest entities, or VIEs, and VIEs’ subsidiaries; and

 

“variable interest entities” or “VIEs” refers to Beijing Shangde Online Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Sunlands, Wuhan Xiaoyan Technology Co., Ltd., or Wuhan Xiaoyan, Wuhan Jiayan Online Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Wuhan Jiayan, Beijing Odysseus Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Odysseus, Wuhan Hadeliang Online Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Wuhan Hadeliang, Tianjin Shangde Online Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Tianjin Shangde, Wuhan Fangtang Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Wuhan Fangtang, Beijing Zhiziyuanshui Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Zhiziyuanshui, Beijing Feibian Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Feibian, and Beijing Lingding Management Consulting Co., Ltd., or Beijing Lingding. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—4.A. History and Development of the Company.”

This annual report contains information and statistics relating to China’s economy and its education industry derived from various publications issued by market research companies and PRC governmental entities, which have not been independently verified by us. The information in such sources may not be consistent with other information compiled in or outside China.

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This annual report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. These statements are made under the “safe harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigations Reform Act of 1995.

You can identify these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “likely to” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

our goals and growth strategies;

 

our expectations regarding demand for and market acceptance of our brand and services;

 

our ability to retain and increase our student enrollments;

 

our ability to offer new courses and educational content;

 

our ability to engage, train and retain new faculty members;

 

our future business development, results of operations and financial condition;

 

our ability to maintain and improve technology infrastructure necessary to operate our business;

 

competition in the online education industry in China;

 

relevant government policies and regulations relating to our corporate structure, business and industry;

 

general economic and business condition in China; and

 

assumptions underlying or related to any of the foregoing.

You should read this annual report and the documents that we refer to in this annual report and have filed as exhibits to this annual report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and worse than what we expect. Other sections of this annual report discuss factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

 

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PART I

ITEM 1.

IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2.

OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3.

KEY INFORMATION

Our Holding Company Structure

Sunlands Technology Group is a Cayman Islands holding company. It conducts its operations in China through its PRC subsidiaries and consolidated variable interest entities, or the VIEs. However, we and our direct and indirect subsidiaries do not, and it is virtually impossible for them to, have any equity interests in the VIEs in practice as current PRC laws and regulations restrict foreign investment in companies that engage in value-added telecommunication services. As a result, we depend on certain contractual arrangements with the VIEs to operate a significant portion of our business. This structure allows us to exercise effective control over the VIEs, and is designed to replicate substantially the same economic benefits as would be provided by direct ownership. The VIEs are owned by certain nominee shareholders, not us. Most of the nominee shareholders of the VIEs are also beneficial owners of our company. Investors in our ADSs are purchasing equity securities of a Cayman Islands holding company rather than equity securities issued by our subsidiaries and the VIEs. Investors who are non-PRC residents may never directly hold equity interests in the VIEs under current PRC laws and regulations. As used in this annual report, “we,” “us,” “our company,” “our,” or “Sunlands” refers to Sunlands Technology Group and its subsidiaries, and, in the context of describing our consolidated financial information, business operations and operating data, our consolidated VIEs, “variable interest entities” or “VIEs” refers to Beijing Shangde Online Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Sunlands, Wuhan Xiaoyan Technology Co., Ltd., or Wuhan Xiaoyan, Wuhan Jiayan Online Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Wuhan Jiayan, Beijing Odysseus Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Odysseus, Wuhan Hadeliang Online Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Wuhan Hadeliang, Tianjin Shangde Online Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Tianjin Shangde, Wuhan Fangtang Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Wuhan Fangtang, Beijing Zhiziyuanshui Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Zhiziyuanshui, Beijing Feibian Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Feibian, and Beijing Lingding Management Consulting Co., Ltd., or Beijing Lingding. The VIEs primarily conduct operations in China. The VIEs are consolidated for accounting purposes but are not entities in which we own equity. Our Company does not conduct operations by ourselves.

Our corporate structure involves unique risks to investors in the ADSs. In 2019, 2020 and 2021, the amount of revenues generated by the VIEs accounted for 93.4%, 47.3% and 21.4%, respectively, of our total net revenues. As of December 31, 2020 and 2021, total assets of the VIEs, excluding amounts due from other consolidated entities in the our company, equaled to 32.7% and 33.6% of our consolidated total assets as of the same dates, respectively. Our contractual arrangements with the VIEs have not been tested in court. If the PRC government deems that our contractual arrangements with the VIEs do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to material penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations or otherwise significantly change our corporate structure. We and our investors face significant uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the legality and enforceability of the contractual arrangements with the VIEs and, consequently, significantly affect our ability to consolidate the financial results of the VIEs and the financial performance of our company as a whole. Our ADSs may decline in value or become worthless if we are unable to effectively enforce our contractual control rights over the assets and operations of the VIEs that conduct a significant portion of our business in China. See “Item 3. Key Information—3.D. Risk Factor—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure” for detailed discussion.

Impact of Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act

As part of a continued regulatory focus in the United States on access to audit and other information currently protected by national law, in particular China’s, the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA has been signed into law on December 18, 2020. The HFCAA states if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection for the PCAOB for three consecutive years beginning in 2021, the SEC shall prohibit our ADS from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the U.S. Further, the potential enactment of the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies

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Accountable Act would decrease the number of non-inspection years from three years to two. Accordingly, this could happen in 2024 under the current law, or in 2023 if the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act were enacted. If our ADSs were delisted from the exchange and prohibited from over-the-counter trading in the U.S.,there is no certainty that we will be able to list our ADSs on a non-U.S. exchange or that a market for our shares will develop outside of the U.S. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.

According to the HFCAA Determination Report issued by PCAOB on December 16, 2021, our auditor is subject to the determinations that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely. In March 2022, the SEC issued its first “conclusive list of issuers identified under the HFCAA” indicating that those companies are now formally subject to the delisting provisions if they remain on the list for three consecutive years. We anticipate being added to the list shortly after the filing of this annual report on Form 20-F. See “Item 3. Key Information—3.D. Risk Factor—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Our ADSs will be delisted and our ADSs and shares will be prohibited from trading in the over-the-counter market under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA, if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or fully investigate auditors located in China” for detailed discussion.

3.A.

[Reserved]

 

3.B.

Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

3.C.

Reason for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

3.D.

Risk Factors

We face various legal and operational risks and uncertainties as a company based in and primarily operating in China. The PRC government has significant authority to exert influence on the ability of a China-based company, like us, to conduct its business, accept foreign investments or be listed on a U.S. stock exchange. For example, we face risks associated with regulatory approvals of offshore offerings, anti-monopoly regulatory actions, cybersecurity and data privacy, as well as the lack of inspection from the U.S. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or PCAOB, on our auditors. The PRC government may also intervene with or influence our operations as the government deems appropriate to further regulatory, political and societal goals. The PRC government has recently published new policies that significantly affected educational industry and we cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future further release regulations or policies regarding educational industry that could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any such action, once taken by the PRC government, could cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or in extreme cases, become worthless.

You should carefully consider all of the information in this annual report before making an investment in the ADSs. Below please find a summary of the principal risks and uncertainties we face, organized under relevant headings. In particular, as we are a China-based company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, you should pay special attention to subsections headed “Item 3. Key Information—3.D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China” and “Item 3. Key Information—3.D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure.”

Summary of Risk Factors

Investing in the ADSs involves significant risks. You should carefully consider all of the information in this annual report before making an investment in the ADSs. Below please find a summary of the principal risks we face, organized under relevant headings.

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Risks Related to Our Business

 

If we fail to increase student enrollments, our net revenues may decline, and we may not be able to maintain growth.

 

If we fail to manage our business growth effectively, the success of our business model will be compromised.

 

We have a history of net losses and we may not continue to achieve profitability in the future.

 

If we are unable to conduct sales and marketing activities cost-effectively, our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

 

We may be adversely affected by any negative publicity concerning us and our business, shareholders, affiliates, directors, officers and employees and the industry in which we operate, regardless of its accuracy, that could harm our reputation and business.

 

Significant uncertainties exist in relation to the interpretation and implementation of, or proposed changes to, the PRC laws, regulations and policies regarding the private education industry.

 

We face risks associated with our lack of a private school operating permit for our online education services as well as uncertainties surrounding PRC laws and regulations governing the education industry in general, including the Law for Promoting Private Education and its Implementation Rules.

 

We face regulatory risks and uncertainties associated with our teachers’ lack of teaching licenses.

 

We face regulatory risks and uncertainties with respect to the licensing requirement for the online transmission of internet audio-visual programs.

 

Our failure to obtain and maintain other approvals, licenses, permits or filings applicable to our business could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial conditions and results of operations.

 

We may not be able to continue to recruit, train and retain a sufficient number of qualified faculty members.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

 

There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations, and rules relating to the agreements that establish the VIE structure for our operations in China, including potential future actions by the PRC government, which could affect the enforceability of our contractual arrangements with the VIEs and, consequently, significantly affect our financial condition and results of operations. If the PRC government finds such agreements non-compliant with relevant PRC laws, regulations and rules, or if these laws, regulations and rules or the interpretation thereof change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in the VIEs.

 

We rely on contractual arrangements with the VIEs and their respective shareholders for a significant portion of our business operations which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control.

 

Any failure by the VIEs or their respective shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business.

 

Our contractual arrangements are governed by PRC laws. Accordingly, these contracts would be interpreted in accordance with PRC laws, and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures.

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The shareholders of the VIEs may have actual or potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

 

The approval, filing or other requirements of the China Securities Regulatory Commission, the Cyberspace Administration of China, or other PRC government authorities may be required under PRC law in connection with our issuance of securities overseas.

 

Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.

 

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system, including uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws, and sudden or unexpected changes in policies, laws and regulations in China, could adversely affect us.

 

You may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing actions in China against us or our management named in the annual report based on foreign laws.

 

We may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.

 

The PCAOB is currently unable to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements and the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections over our auditor deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections.

 

Our ADSs will be delisted and our ADSs and shares will be prohibited from trading in the over-the-counter market under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA, if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or fully investigate auditors located in China.  

 

The potential enactment of the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act would decrease the number of non-inspection years from three years to two, thus reducing the time period before our ADSs may be prohibited from over-the-counter trading or delisted. If this bill were enacted, our ADSs could be delisted from the exchange and prohibited from over-the-counter trading in the U.S. in 2023.

Risks Related to the ADSs

 

If the market price for our ADSs falls below US$1.00 for an extended period of time, or falls to US$0.16 at any time, our ADSs may be delisted from the NYSE.

 

The trading price of the ADSs is likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

 

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding the ADSs, the market price for the ADSs and trading volume could decline.

 

The sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of ADSs could adversely affect their market price.

 

Techniques employed by short sellers may drive down the market price of the ADSs.

 

Our triple-class share structure with different voting rights will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

4

 


Risks Related to Our Business

If we fail to increase student enrollments, our net revenues may decline, and we may not be able to maintain growth.

We generate revenue primarily from the tuition we collect from our students. It is critical for us to enroll prospective students in a cost-effective manner. Some of the factors, many of which are largely beyond our control, could prevent us from successfully increasing enrollments of new students in a cost-effective manner, or at all. These factors include, among other things, (i) reduced interest in the degrees, diplomas, professions or certifications for which our course offerings are designed; (ii) negative publicity or perceptions regarding us, or online education services in general; (iii) the emergence of alternative course delivery models; (iv) the inability of students to pay the tuition; (v) increasing market competition, particularly price reductions by competitors that we are unable or unwilling to match; and (vi) adverse changes in relevant government policies or general economic conditions. If one or more of these factors reduce market demand for our services, our student enrollments could be negatively affected or our costs associated with student acquisition and retention could increase, or both, any of which could materially affect our ability to grow our gross billings and net revenues. These developments could also harm our brand and reputation, which would negatively impact our ability to expand our business.

If we fail to manage our business growth effectively, the success of our business model will be compromised.

Our growth strategy has placed, and will continue to place, a significant strain on our sales and marketing capacities, administrative and operating infrastructure, facilities and other resources. To maintain our growth, we need to continue to acquire more students, scale up our course offerings, increase our academic and administrative faculty, as well as strengthen our platforms and systems. We will also be required to refine our operational, financial and management controls and reporting systems and procedures. If we fail to efficiently manage our business expansion, our costs and expenses may increase more than we plan and we may not successfully attract a sufficient number of students and qualified academic and administrative faculty in a cost-effective manner, respond to competitive challenges, or otherwise execute our business plans. In addition, we may, as part of carrying out our growth strategies, adopt new initiatives to offer additional course packages and educational content and to implement new pricing models and strategies. We cannot assure you that these initiatives may achieve the anticipated results. These proposed changes may not be well received by our existing and prospective students, in which case their experience with our education services may suffer, which could damage our reputation and business prospect.

Our ability to effectively implement our strategies and manage our business growth will depend on a number of factors, including our ability to: (i) identify and effectively market our products and services in new markets with sufficient growth potential; (ii) develop and improve course offerings and educational contents to make them appealing to existing and prospective students, including working adult students; (iii) maintain and increase our student enrollments; (iv) effectively recruit, train and motivate a large number of new employees, including our faculty members and sales and marketing personnel; (v) successfully implement enhancements and improvements to the systems and platforms; (vi) continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls and efficiencies; (vii) protect and further develop our intellectual property rights; and (viii) make sound business decisions in light of the scrutiny associated with operating as a public company. These activities require significant capital expenditures and investment of valuable management and financial resources, and our growth will continue to place significant demands on our management. There are no guarantees that we will be able to effectively manage any future growth in an efficient, cost-effective and timely manner, or at all. Our growth in a relatively short period of time is not necessarily indicative of results that we may achieve in the future. If we do not effectively manage the growth of our business and operations, our reputation, results of operations and overall business and prospects could be negatively impacted.

Our net revenues were RMB2,193.9 million, RMB2,203.8 million and RMB2,507.8 million (US$393.5 million), respectively, in 2019, 2020 and 2021. During the same periods, our gross billings were RMB2,358.5 million, RMB2,350.4 million and RMB1,970.0 million (US$309.1 million), respectively, and our new student enrollments were 363,013, 434,240 and 434,228, respectively. We are seeking to offer a broader range of courses, foster a more social and entertaining learning experience, and use cutting-edge technologies, particularly artificial intelligence, to improve students’ learning experience and outcomes. All of these endeavors involve risks and will require significant management, financial and human resources. We cannot assure you that they will achieve the anticipated results or that our gross billings and new student enrollments will not decline in the future due to the risks and uncertainties discussed in this “Item 3.D. Risk Factors.” If we are not able to achieve growth in our gross billings and new student enrollments effectively, or at all, our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

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We have a history of net losses and we may not continue to achieve profitability in the future.

We had net losses of RMB395.2 million and RMB431.0 million in 2019 and 2020, respectively, and net profit of RMB212.4 million (US$33.3 million) in 2021. We cannot assure you, however, that we will be able to continue to generate net profits in the future.

We intend to continue to invest heavily for the foreseeable future in increasing our market share, improving the capacity of our technology infrastructure to better support an even larger student base and to offer additional courses and educational content.

These efforts may be more costly than we expect and our net revenues may not increase sufficiently to offset these expenses. We may continue to take actions and make investments that do not generate optimal short-term financial results and may even result in increased operating losses in the short term with no assurance that we will eventually achieve our intended long-term benefits or profitability. These factors, among others set out in this “Item 3.D. Risk Factors,” may negatively affect our ability to achieve profitability in the near term, if at all.

If we are unable to conduct sales and marketing activities cost-effectively, our results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

We rely on our sales and marketing efforts to increase student enrollments. Our sales and marketing expenses primarily include expenses incurred in relation to sales and marketing personnel and marketing spending. We incurred approximately RMB1,792.3 million, RMB2,123.6 million and RMB1,748.4 million (US$274.4 million), respectively, in sales and marketing expenses in 2019, 2020 and 2021.

Our sales and marketing activities may not be well received by the market and may not result in the levels of sales that we anticipate. We also may not be able to retain or engage a sufficient number of experienced sales and marketing personnel, or to train newly onboard sales and marketing personnel, which we believe is critical to implementing our sales and marketing strategies cost-effectively. Further, sales and marketing approaches and tools in China’s online education market are evolving rapidly. This requires us to continually enhance our sales and marketing approaches and experiment with new methods to keep pace with industry developments and student preferences. Moreover, our sales and marketing activities may be deemed to violate PRC laws and regulations, and we may be exposed to administrative penalties, such as paying fines or publishing explanatory notes to limit the adverse effects of our marketing efforts. If we are deemed guilty of significant infringements, we may be ordered to cease sales and marketing activities temporarily and our business license may be revoked. Failure to engage in sales and marketing activities in a compliant and cost-effective manner may reduce our market share, cause our revenues and gross billings to decline, negatively impact our profitability, and materially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be adversely affected by any negative publicity concerning us and our business, shareholders, affiliates, directors, officers and employees and the industry in which we operate, regardless of its accuracy, that could harm our reputation and business.

Negative publicity about us and our business, shareholders, affiliates, directors, officers, and teachers and other employees, as well as the industry in which we operate, can harm our operations. We have been exposed to negative publicity concerning refund dispute, administrative penalty, alleged improper or misleading statement made in our sales and marketing activities, and student recruitment for unqualified institutions in the past. For example, we were reported to have recruited students from January 2021 to January 2022 for Morrison University in the state of Nevada. The recruitments were made pursuant to our cooperation with a company in China (the “Partnering Company”) claiming to have obtained authorization from Morrison University. It was revealed that the authorization was inauthentic and Morrison University had no legal right to operate within the state of Nevada. As of the date of this annual report, we are seeking to hold the Partnering Company liable through legal actions. The negative publicity surrounding this incident has and may in the future harm our reputation. We may be involved in disputes with the affected students, especially if we are not able to fulfil our obligations under the agreements between us and the students. While we endeavor to ensure that the overseas institutions with whom we partner are qualified, we cannot assure you that our partnering institutions will timely renew their necessary licenses or qualifications when they become due or that we will be able to identify any unqualified institutions accurately in a timely manner or at all.

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Negative publicity concerning these parties could be related to a wide variety of matters, including, but are not limited to:

 

alleged misconduct or other improper activities committed by our students or our directors, officers, and teachers and other employees, including misrepresentation made by our employees to potential students during sales and marketing activities;

 

false or malicious allegations or rumors about us or our directors, shareholders, affiliates, officers, and teachers and other employees;

 

complaints by our students about our education services and sales and marketing activities;

 

tuition refund disputes between us and our students or administrative penalties;

 

security breaches of confidential student or employee information;

 

employment-related claims relating to alleged employment discrimination, wage and hour violations; and

 

governmental and regulatory investigations or penalties resulting from our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations.

In addition to traditional media, there has been an increasing use of social media platforms and similar devices in China, including instant messaging applications, such as Weixin/WeChat, social media websites and other forms of internet-based communications that provide individuals with access to a broad audience of consumers and other interested persons. The availability of information on instant messaging applications and social media platforms is virtually immediate as is its impact without affording us an opportunity for redress or correction. The opportunity for dissemination of information, including inaccurate information, is seemingly limitless and readily available. Information concerning our company, shareholders, directors, officers and employees may be posted on such platforms at any time. The risks associated with any such negative publicity or incorrect information cannot be completely eliminated or mitigated and may materially harm our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

We face risks associated with our lack of a private school operating permit for our online education services as well as uncertainties surrounding PRC laws and regulations governing the education industry in general, including the Law for Promoting Private Education and its Implementation Rules.

Wuhan Shangde Online Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Wuhan Shangde, our wholly owned subsidiary, and Beijing Sunlands and a number of other VIEs, through which we operate our online education business, currently do not hold a private school operating permit, and we may be subject to risks of administrative sanctions due to our lack of such permit.

On November 7, 2016, China’s National People’s Congress passed an amendment to the Promotion of Private Education Law, or the Amendment, which became effective on September 1, 2017. The Amendment applies different regulatory requirements to non-profit and for-profit private schools.

In December 2016, several PRC government agencies, including the MOE, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce which has now merged into the newly-established State Administration for Market Regulation, or the SAMR), and the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Welfare, jointly promulgated the Implementation Rules on the Supervision and Administration of For-profit Private Schools, or the Implementation Rules. Under the Implementation Rules, the establishment, division, merger or any other material change in a for-profit private school shall be approved by the competent education authorities or the authorities in charge of labor and social welfare and be registered with the competent local branch of SAMR, and a duly approved private school will be granted a private school operating permit. The Implementation Rules also provide that the provisions contained therein should be applicable to “for-profit private training institutions” in an analogous manner. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—4.B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulation Relating to Private Education—The Law for Promoting Private Education and its Implementing Rules.”

As of the date of this annual report, we have not received any notice of warning or been subject to any penalties or disciplinary action from government authorities due to our lack of a private school operating permit for our online education services. In April 2021, the State Council promulgated the Amended Regulations on the Implementation of Law for Promotion Private Education Law of PRC, or Amended Implementing Rules, which became effective on September 1, 2021. The Amended Implementing Rules provide, among others, that a private school engaging in online education activities using

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internet technology shall obtain an appropriate private school operating permit. The Amended Implementing Rules, however, do not specify whether an online tutoring service provider like us shall obtain such private school operating permit and what requirements that an online tutoring service provider like us need to satisfy in order to obtain a private school operating permit, nor does it specify which level of government authority has the authority to accept and examine our application for the private school operating permit. According to the Q&A published on the official website of Beijing Municipal Education Commission in April 2020, the education department is only responsible for the registration and approval of institutions providing academic subjects tutoring services for primary and secondary school, and is not responsible for the registration and approval of institutions providing other tutoring services. We cannot assure you that the PRC government will not in the future require us to obtain a private school operating permit. If the PRC government requires us to obtain a private school operating permit or introduces additional amendments and guidelines to expand the coverage of the Amendment or Amended Implementing Rules to explicitly cover online education service providers, and if we fail to do so, we may be subject to fines up to five times the illegitimate gains generated from the provision of training services without a proper license, other administrative sanctions, such as being ordered to refund tuition payments to the students, or criminal liabilities, for our lack of a private school operating permit. We may also be subject to regulatory requirements that are more stringent than the ones currently applicable to us, including those relating to sales and marketing, courses and educational content offerings, teachers’ qualification, as well as tuition fee rates and tuition refund policies, or laws and regulations that require us to obtain and maintain additional licenses and permits, and we may incur substantial expenses or alter or change our business to comply with these requirements. For example, pursuant to the Interim Measures of Wuhan for the Administration of Private Training Institutions promulgated by Wuhan Municipal Government effective on March 15, 2018, private training institutions shall abide by the following provisions with respect of refund fees: (i) if a student requires a refund before the beginning of the course, the institution shall refund all the fees paid to it with deduction of the educational service fees and other fees actually incurred; (ii) if a student requires a refund after the beginning of the course, the institution shall refund the remaining part of the fees after deducting the corresponding proportion of the tuition fees, the fees for collection and management and the relevant taxes and fees in accordance with the proportion of the class hours completed; (iii) where an institution fails to fulfill the commitments with the student, and the student requires a refund, the institution shall refund all the fees paid by the student; and (iv) the institution shall complete the examination and verification within three working days upon the receipt of the refund requirement and shall refund to the student within 30 days. It is uncertain as to whether and how such measures and rules would be applicable to us, and whether any future laws and regulations with respect to the tuition refund requirements for online education service providers like us will be introduced. We have been exposed to refund dispute between us and our students in the past. We cannot assure you that if we are subject to more stringent refund regulatory requirements, we can adjust our refund policy to comply with these requirements on a timely manner, which may cause us more refund disputes with our students and may have a material and adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.

Under the Amendment and the Implementation Rules, a material change in a for-profit private school shall be approved by the competent education authorities or the authorities in charge of labor and social welfare before it can be registered with the competent local branch of SAMR. If we were required to expand the authorized scope of our business license to cover our business of online education services, which shall be registered with the SAMR, to comply with applicable licensing requirements, we may not able to do so before we have obtained a private school operating permit. If any of the foregoing were to happen, our business operations may be disrupted, and our financial condition, results of operations and reputation may be materially and adversely affected.

Moreover, the MOE, jointly with certain other PRC government authorities, promulgated the Opinions on Guiding and Regulating the Orderly and Healthy Development of Educational Mobile Apps on August 10, 2019, or the Opinions on Educational Apps, which requires, among others, mobile apps that offer services for school teaching and management, student learning and student life, or home-school interactions, with school faculty, students or parents as the main users, and with education or learning as the main application scenarios, be filed with the competent provincial regulatory authorities for education before the end of 2019. In addition, on November 11, 2019, MOE issued the Administrative Measures on Filing of Educational Mobile Apps, which requires, among others, that educational mobile app providers shall file their educational mobile apps and that filings of existing educational mobile apps shall be completed before January 31, 2020. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—4.B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations on Online and Distance Education.” Our educational mobile apps Shangde Jigou and Shangde Zikao had been filed with competent regulatory authority as required under the Opinions on Educational Apps. However, in order to implement the requirements under the Opinions on Further Alleviating the Burden of Homework and After-School Tutoring for Students in Compulsory Education, the education authorities require the re-filing of educational mobile Apps. As of the date of this annual report, we have completed the re-filing procedure of Shangde Zikao and Shangde Jigou. As the Opinions on Educational Apps are relatively new and evolving, we cannot assure you that we are in full compliance with all relevant rules and will be able to complete or maintain such filing in relation with any of our new apps and comply with other regulatory requirements under the Opinions on Educational Apps in a timely manner, or at all. For example, the filings of certain of our educational mobile apps, such as Feibian Jiaoyu,

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Jixiang Jiaoyu, Fangtang Youke and Sanjing Shuhua, have not been completed. If we fail to promptly complete such filing and comply with other applicable regulatory requirements, we may be blacklisted by the MOE or its local counterparts and prohibited from submiting any filings for six months, or may be subject to fines, regulatory orders to suspend our operations or other regulatory and disciplinary sanctions.

In addition to the existing regulatory regime, it is uncertain whether and how the PRC government would promulgate additional laws and regulations regarding the online education industry, and there is no assurance that we can comply with any such newly promulgated laws and regulations in a timely manner, or at all. Our failure to fully comply with these existing and future laws and regulations may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Significant uncertainties exist in relation to the interpretation and implementation of, or proposed changes to, the PRC laws, regulations and policies regarding the education industry.

The PRC private education industry, especially the after-school tutoring sector, has experienced intense scrutiny and has been subject to significant regulatory changes recently. In particular, the Opinions on Further Alleviating the Burden of Homework and After-School Tutoring for Students in Compulsory Education jointly promulgated by the General Office of State Council and the General Office of Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on July 24, 2021, or the Alleviating Burden Opinion, sets out a series of operating requirements on after-school tutoring institutions. Furthermore, on August 18, 2021, the Beijing Municipality Government and the Beijing Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China jointly published the full text of the Beijing Municipality’s Measures to Further Reduce the Burden of Homework and After-School Tutoring on Students in Compulsory Education in Beijing, or the Beijing Measures, to implement the Alleviating Burden Opinion.

As of the date of this annual report, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospect have not been materially and adversely affected by the scrutiny on the PRC private education industry. It is uncertain whether and how the PRC government would promulgate additional laws, regulations and guidance regarding the education industry and apply more stringent social and ethical standards to those promulgated laws, regulations and guidance in the education sector in general. We are closely monitoring the evolving regulatory environment and will make efforts to seek guidance from and cooperate with the government authorities to comply with laws, regulations and policies, if applicable to our business. Due to the complexity and substantial uncertainty of the regulatory environment, we cannot assure you that we could be in full compliance with newly promulgated laws and regulations or other applicable laws, regulations and policies in a timely manner, or at all. Failure to regain compliance may subject us to fines or other penalties or be required to terminate certain operations, in which case our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected further. For more details of the relevant laws and regulations, please refer to “Item 4. Information on the Company—4.B. Business Overview—Regulation.”

We face regulatory risks and uncertainties associated with our teachers’ lack of teaching licenses.

Pursuant to the Amended Implementing Rules and the Implementation Rules, the teachers employed by a for-profit private school shall obtain the teaching licenses or relevant professional skill qualifications required by PRC laws and regulations, although the definition or the scope of the “relevant professional skill qualifications” is not explicitly stated in the Implementation Rules. A substantial majority of our teachers currently do not hold teaching licenses.

As of the date of this annual report, we have not received any notice of warning or been subject to any penalties or disciplinary action from government authorities due to the lack of teaching licenses. The current PRC laws and regulations, including the Amendment, the Amended Implementing Rules and the Implementation Rules, remain unclear as to whether the teachers of an online education service provider who provides non-diploma post-secondary and professional education like us are required to obtain and hold teaching licenses. We cannot assure you that the PRC government authorities will not take a contrary view. In the event that in the future our teachers are required by laws to obtain teaching licenses, we cannot assure you that they can meet the requirements for applying for teaching licenses. If our teachers are not able to apply for and obtain the teaching licenses on a timely basis, or at all, we may be ordered to rectify such noncompliance or subject to penalties under the then-effective PRC laws and regulations, in which case our business may be disrupted, and our financial condition, reputation and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

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We face regulatory risks and uncertainties with respect to the licensing requirement for the online transmission of internet audio-visual programs.

On December 20, 2007, the State Administration of Press Publication Radio Film and Television, or SAPPRFT, and the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or MIIT, jointly promulgated the Administrative Provisions on Internet Audio Visual Program Services, or the Audio Visual Program Provisions, which became effective on January 31, 2008 and were amended on August 28, 2015. Among other things, the Audio Visual Program Provisions stipulate that no entities or individuals may provide Internet audio-visual program services without a License for Online Transmission of Audio-Visual Programs issued by SAPPRFT or completing the relevant filing with SAPPRFT or its local bureaus, and only state-owned or state-controlled entities are eligible to apply for a License for Online Transmission of Audio Visual Programs. On April 1, 2010, SAPPRFT promulgated the Provisional Implementations of Tentative Categories of Internet Audio Visual Program Services, or the Categories, which clarified the scope of Internet audio-visual programs services, which was amended on March 10, 2017. According to the Categories, there are four categories of Internet audio-visual program services which are further divided into seventeen sub-categories. Sub-category No. 3 to the second category covers the making and editing of certain specialized audio-visual programs concerning, among other things, educational content, and broadcasting such content to the general public online. Sub-category No. 5 of the first category and sub-category No. 7 of the second category cover the live broadcasting of important political, martial, economic, social, cultural, sports activities or events or general social or community cultural activities, sports games and other organized activities. However, there are still significant uncertainties relating to the interpretation and implementation of the Audio Visual Program Provisions, in particular, the scope of “internet audio-visual programs.” See “Item 4. Information on the Company—4.B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations Relating to Online Transmission of Audio-Visual Programs.”

We deliver our courses in live streaming format. Our teachers and students communicate and interact live with each other via our virtual learning community. The audio and video data are transmitted through the platforms between specific recipients instantly without any further redaction. We believe the nature of the raw data we transmit distinguishes us from general providers of internet audio-visual program services, such as the operator of online video websites, and the provision of the Audio-Visual Program Provisions are not applicable with regard to our offering of the courses. However, we cannot assure you that the competent PRC government authorities will not ultimately take a view contrary to our opinion. In addition, we also offer video recordings of live streaming courses and certain other audio-video contents on our online platforms to our students as supplementary course materials. If the government authorities determine that our offering of the courses fall within the relevant category of Internet audio-visual program services under the Categories, we may be required to obtain the License for Online Transmission of Audio Visual Programs.

The Categories describe “Internet audio-visual program services” in a very broad, vague manner and are unclear as to whether online courses, whether delivered in a live streaming format or through video recordings, fall into the definition of audio-visual programs. We have made inquiries to the relevant bureaus of SAPPRFT and were informed that online educational content provided through live streaming or recorded courses does not fall within the scope of internet audio-visual programs, the transmission of which does not require a License for Online Transmission of Audio-Visual Programs. We cannot assure you that the PRC government will not ultimately take a view that live streaming or recorded courses or any other content offered on our platforms are subject to the Audio Visual Program Provisions. We currently do not hold a License for Online Transmission of Audio Visual Programs, and since we are not a state-owned or state-controlled entity, we are not eligible to apply for such license. If the PRC government determines that our content should be considered as “internet audio-visual programs” for the purpose of the Audio-Visual Program Provisions, we may be required to obtain a License for Online Transmission of Audio Visual Programs. We are, however, not eligible apply for such license since we are not a state-owned or state-controlled entity. If this were to occur, we may be subject to penalties, fines, legal sanctions or an order to suspend the provision of our live streaming courses. As of the date of this annual report, we have not received any notice of warning or been subject to penalties or other disciplinary action from the relevant governmental authorities regarding the lack of a License for Online Transmission of Audio Visual Programs in conducting of our business.

Our failure to obtain and maintain other approvals, licenses, permits or filings applicable to our business could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial conditions and results of operations.

A number of PRC regulatory authorities, such as the SAMR, the Cyberspace Administration of China, the MITT, the SAPPRFT, and the State Council Information Office, the Ministry of Civil Affairs, and the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Welfare, oversee different aspects of our business operations, and we are required to obtain a wide range of government approvals, licenses, permits and filings in connection with our operations.

We currently do not hold several approvals, licenses and permits that are required for certain aspects of our business operations. Under the current PRC laws and regulations, the provision of our educational content through our online platform

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may be considered “online publishing” and may require us to obtain an Internet Publishing License, which we currently do not have. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—4.B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations Relating to Online Publishing.” As of the date of this annual report, we have submitted an application to the competent government authorities for the approval of an Internet Publishing License. However, we may not be able to receive the approval for such licenses in a timely manner, or at all.

One of our subsidiaries, Wuhan Shangde, has registered “online educational training” in its authorized scope of business. However, the VIEs, and certain of their operating subsidiaries currently do not include “occupational training” and “educational facilitation services” in their authorized scope of business. Based on our consultation with the competent government authorities in Beijing, such government authorities currently may not accept applications for inclusion of “occupational training,” “educational facilitation services” or similar items in the scope of business of companies that do not hold a private school operating permit. For additional information about the private school operating permit, see “—We face risks associated with our lack of a private school operating permit for our online education services as well as uncertainties surrounding PRC laws and regulations governing the education industry in general, including the Law for Promoting Private Education and its Implementation Rules.” Even if our application were to be accepted, there is no assurance that it will be approved by the government authorities in a timely fashion, or at all. If it comes to the attention of the government authorities that the VIEs and their operating subsidiaries are operating beyond their respective authorized scope of business, we may be subject to fines, confiscation of the gains derived from the noncompliant operations, or may be required to cease the VIEs’ noncompliant operations. In addition, we deliver courses in live streaming format on our proprietary live streaming platform which the relevant authorities may regard as a live-streaming platform and may thus require us to make necessary filings as a live-streaming platform. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—4.B. Business Overview—Regulations—Regulations Relating to Internet Live Streaming Services.”

As of the date of this annual report, we have not been subject to any fines or other form of regulatory or administrative penalties or sanctions due to the lack of any the above-mentioned approvals, licenses or, permits or filings. However, we cannot guarantee that the government authorities will not impose any penalties or sanctions on us in the future, which may include warnings, fines, mandates to remedy any violations, confiscation of the gains derived from the services for which approvals, licenses, permits or filings are required, and/or an order to cease to provide such services. In addition, we cannot guarantee that the government will not promulgate new laws and regulations that require additional licenses, permits, approvals and/or filings for the operation of any of our existing or future business. If we are unable to obtain such licenses, permits, approvals or filings in a timely fashion, we could be subject to penalties and operational disruption and our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

We may not be able to continue to recruit, train and retain a sufficient number of qualified faculty members.

Our faculty members are key to the quality of our educational services, as well as our brand and reputation. Our ability to continue to attract faculty members, including teachers and mentors, with necessary experience and qualifications is a key driver in the success of our business. We seek to recruit qualified faculty members who are dedicated to teaching and are able to communicate with our students in an interactive online setting.

Additionally, given the interactive nature of our live streaming lessons, we tend to hire teachers and mentors with strong education background and good communication skills enabling them to engage and interact with students. The market for recruitment of faculty members in China is competitive. In order to recruit qualified full-time teachers and mentors, we must provide candidates with competitive compensation packages and offer attractive career development opportunities. Although we have not experienced major difficulties in recruiting or training qualified teachers and mentors in the past, we cannot guarantee we will be able to continue to recruit, train and retain a sufficient number of qualified faculty members in the future as we continue to expand our course offerings and business scale, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We may not be able to timely improve or expand our course and educational content offerings in a cost-effective manner to make them appealing to existing and prospective students, or at all.

We regularly and constantly update our existing courses and educational content and develop new courses and educational content to meet student’s demand and the latest market trends. The revisions, improvements and expansions of our existing course and content offerings and the development of new course and content offerings may not be accepted by existing or prospective students. Even if we are able to develop acceptable new course and educational content offerings, we may not be able to introduce them as quickly as students require or as quickly as our competitors introduce competing offerings. The process of performing detailed market research and recruiting qualified faculty for new course and educational content offerings could be costly and time-consuming. Furthermore, offering new courses or content or upgrading existing ones may require us to make significant investments in educational content development, increase sales and marketing efforts and reallocate resources from other uses, all of which may not be successful. If we are unsuccessful in pursuing course and educational content development and upgrading opportunities due to the financial constraints, failure to attract qualified faculty, or other factors, our ability to attract and retain students could be impaired and our financial results could suffer.

We face risks associated with our online live streaming course delivery model.

We believe that, even with the proliferation of internet and mobile devices in China, some of our target students may still be inclined to choose traditional face-to-face lessons offered by offline learning providers over online courses as they find the former more intimate and reliable. We cannot assure you that our live streaming course delivery format will continue to be attractive to our students in the future. If our live streaming course delivery model becomes less appealing to our students, our business and prospects may be affected. In addition, there is no assurance that our live streaming capacity will be able to support a growing number of students accessing our courses online without any service interruptions. Furthermore, we cannot assure that we will be able to address PRC regulatory and legislative developments relating to online streaming business. See “—We face regulatory risks and uncertainties with respect to the licensing requirement for the online transmission of internet audio-visual programs” and “—Our failure to obtain and maintain other approvals, licenses, permits or filings applicable to our business could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial conditions and results of operations.”

We are subject to the risks associated with third-party live streaming service providers.

Currently, while we rely on our proprietary live streaming platform to deliver online courses, we also use certain third-party vendors to provide live streaming services to support our online course delivery. Because the live streaming technologies and infrastructure are owned and managed by third parties, any problems with the reliability and performance of such technologies and infrastructure could result in unanticipated delays and unscheduled service interruption could further cause us to be unable to deliver our courses in a live streaming format, forcing us to resort to using prerecorded lectures. Our inability to deliver live streaming courses during service interruptions may damage the quality of our education service and student engagement and experience and negatively impact our reputation, financial condition and results of operations.

We do not maintain long-term arrangements with our live streaming service providers. The term of the service agreements we enter into with third-party live streaming service providers are generally one year. If we cannot renew such agreements upon their expirations or terminations on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, or if the live streaming service providers become unwilling or unable to provide us with live streaming services at any time for any reasons, our ability to deliver live streaming online courses will be severely impacted, and our students’ learning experience and our reputation will be harmed.

Failure to adequately and promptly respond to changes in the exams our students must take to pursue their desired degrees, diplomas or certifications could cause our education services to be less attractive to our students.

There have been continuous changes in the curriculum requirements associated with, and the format of, the exams our existing and prospective students must take to pursue their desired degrees, diplomas or certifications, the manner in which the exams are administered, as well as topics frequently tested in the exams. These changes require us to continually update and enhance our course offerings, our educational content and our teaching methods. Any inability to track and respond to these changes in a timely and cost-effective manner would make our education services less attractive to students, which may materially and adversely affect our reputation and ability to continue to attract students without a significant decrease in our tuition. In addition, as we further expand our course offerings, we cannot assure that we will be able to adapt our existing educational content and methods to new courses that we have limited experience in teaching.

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We may face risks associated with the installment tuition payment plan we offer to our students.

In 2015, we launched an installment payment option enabling eligible students to obtain loans from accredited third-party credit providers in China to finance all or part of their tuition. The third-party credit providers are responsible for performing credit assessment, approving loan applications, providing the funds, and collecting delinquent loan payments. Under the loan agreement between the borrowing student and the lending credit provider, the borrowing student is obligated to repay the loan principal in installments over a period ranging from three to 18 months. Under the cooperation agreement between us and each credit provider, we are obligated to pay the full amount of interest payable under a loan, as financial service fees, to the credit provider. We do not provide any guarantees for the repayment of student loans in favor of the credit providers. In 2019, 2020 and 2021, our student loan coverage ratio was 70.4%, 54.9% and 24.8%, respectively. For the same periods, we made interest payments of RMB118.0 million, RMB83.3 million and RMB36.9 million (US$5.8 million), respectively, to the credit providers.

As part of our long-term sales and marketing strategy, we plan to continue to make the interest payments for our students under their loans and pay service fees to the credit providers, which may place significant strains on our financial resources. We may be subject to risks associated with an increase in interest rates to the extent that we continue to make interest payments for the loans taken by our students. If we cease to do so due to increases in interest rates or for other reasons, our course packages may become more costly for our students to purchase, which could in turn negatively impact our business, financial condition and reputation.

The availability of funding from our existing and potential credit providers depends on many factors, such as their liquidity and capital sufficiency, the legal and regulatory environment, the general economic conditions, default rates of our students on the loans, and, where applicable, the availability of lenders on the credit providers’ platforms. In addition, our credit providers may seek to acquire borrowers independently instead of through cooperation with us. We currently work with a limited number of credit providers and we cannot assure you that our credit providers will continue to cooperate with us on commercially favorable terms, or at all, or that existing or potential credit providers will be able to provide loans in a sufficient amount to meet our students’ borrowing needs. If any of these were to occur, our course packages may become less compelling to prospective students who wish to obtain student loans, and as a result our business and financial condition may be negatively affected.

Disruption to or failures of our IT infrastructure could reduce student satisfaction and could harm our operations.

The performance and reliability of our IT infrastructure is critical to our operations and reputation. We provide our course offerings and educational content to our students and faculty primarily through our applications and platforms built upon Genesis, our proprietary IT infrastructure. In addition, our employees, including our faculty and sales and marketing personnel, rely on our integrated IT infrastructure to carry out their marketing, sales, operation and teaching functions. As part of their educational experience, our students interact with their peers and our faculty via our platforms on a frequent basis. Accordingly, any errors, defects, disruptions or other performance problems with our IT infrastructure could damage our reputation, decrease student satisfaction and retention, adversely impact our ability to attract new students and expand our course offerings, and materially disrupt our operations. If any of these occur, our business operations, reputation and prospects could be harmed.

Our business depends on the continued success of our brand “Sunlands,” and if we fail to maintain and enhance recognition of our brand, we may face difficulty enrolling new students, and our reputation and operating results may be harmed.

We believe that market awareness of our brand “Sunlands” has contributed significantly to the success of our business. Maintaining and enhancing our brand are critical to our efforts to grow our student enrollments and gross billings. Failure to maintain and enhance our brand recognition could have a material and adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. We have devoted significant resources to our brand promotion efforts in recent years, but we cannot assure you that these efforts will be successful. If we are unable to further enhance our brand recognition, or if we incur excessive marketing and promotion expenses, or if our brand image is negatively impacted by any negative publicity, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

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Students may decide not to continue taking our courses for a number of reasons, including a perceived lack of improvement in their academic performance or general dissatisfaction with our course and educational content offerings, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation.

The success of our business depends on our ability to deliver high-quality learning experiences and help students achieve their learning objectives. We may not always be able to meet our students’ expectations in terms of academic performance due to a variety of reasons, many of which are outside of our control. We may face increased dropout rates and student dissatisfaction due to our students’ perceptions of our failure to help them achieve their anticipated academic goals, our students’ overall dissatisfaction with the quality of our course and educational content offerings and our faculty, as well as changing views of the value of the diplomas, degrees and qualifications they are pursuing through taking our courses. These factors may contribute to reduced student engagement and increased challenges in attracting and enrolling prospective students, all of which may adversely affect our prospects, business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation.

To the extent we rely on certain types of course offerings to generate revenues, we will subject to concentration risks, including risks resulting from changes in government policies.

Our reliance on certain types of course offerings may expose us to concentration risks. For example, we have historically relied on our Self-taught Higher Education Examination, or the STE course offerings, namely post-secondary courses designed for students pursuing associate diplomas or bachelor’s degrees by taking the STE exams, to generate revenues. In 2019, 2020 and 2021, our STE courses accounted for approximately 80.5%, 66.8% and 41.3% of our net revenues, respectively, and approximately 75.1%, 53.1% and 18.4% of our gross billings, respectively. During the same periods, our STE course offerings accounted for approximately 75.4%, 46.2% and 19.8%, respectively, of our new student enrollments.

If there are significant reductions in the perceived value of degrees or diplomas our students are pursuing through any of the courses we are offering, or if the PRC government releases substantial updates to the requirements or formats of the exams that our course offerings are designed for and we are unable to upgrade our course or educational content offerings to address such developments in a timely manner, the demand for and attractiveness of our course offerings may be adversely affected, which could have an adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to effectively identify, pursue and consummate strategic alliances or acquisitions, our ability to grow and to achieve profitability could be impacted.

We may from time to time engage in evaluations of, and discussions with, possible domestic and international acquisition or alliance candidates. We may not be able to identify suitable strategic alliances or acquisition opportunities, complete such transactions on commercially favorable terms, or successfully integrate business operations, infrastructure and management philosophies of acquired businesses and companies. There may be particular complexities, regulatory or otherwise, associated with our expansion into new markets, and our strategies may not succeed beyond our current markets. If we are unable to effectively address these challenges, our ability to execute acquisitions as a component of our long-term strategy will be impaired, which could have an adverse effect on our growth.

We face intense competition in our industry, which could divert student to our competitors, lead to pricing pressure and loss of market share, and significantly reduce our gross billings and net revenues.

China’s post-secondary and professional education market is intensely competitive. We compete with other online education service providers or traditional offline players, for student enrollments and engagement, high-quality academic and administrative faculty, and sales and marketing personnel, among other things. Some of our current and future competitors may have substantially greater name recognition and financial and other resources than we do, which may enable them to compete more effectively for potential students and decrease our market share. We also expect to face competition as a result of new entrants to the post-secondary and professional education market.

We may not be able to compete successfully against current or future competitors and may face competitive pressures that could adversely affect our business or results of operations. For example, increased competition may result in pricing pressure for us in terms of the tuition we are able to negotiate to receive from a student. In addition, online education is characterized by rapid changes in students’ technological requirements and expectations and evolving market standards, and our competitors may develop platforms or other technologies that are superior to the platform and technology we use. These differences may affect our ability to recruit and retain students, which may render our online course offerings less competitive. The increasingly competitive landscape may also result in longer and more complex sales cycles with a prospective student or a decrease in our market share, any of which could negatively affect our gross billings and net revenues and our ability to grow our business.

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If our security measures are breached or fail and result in unauthorized disclosure of data by our employees or our third-party agents, we could lose existing students, fail to attract new students and be exposed to protracted and costly litigation.

Maintaining platform security is of critical importance to our students because the platform stores and transmits proprietary and confidential information, which may include sensitive personally identifiable information that may be subject to stringent legal and regulatory obligations. As an online education service provider, we face an increasing number of threats to our IT infrastructure, including unauthorized activity and access by our employees or third-party agents, system viruses, worms, malicious code and organized cyberattacks, which could breach our security and disrupt our business. For example, we have introduced data security and confidentiality protocols into the cooperation agreements we enter into with third-party sales agents with whom we share prospective students’ contact information, and we have made technical improvements in our IT infrastructure to prevent unauthorized access of confidential or sensitive personal information by our employees and third-party sales agents in the process of engaging prospective students. These measures, however, may not be as effective as we anticipate. In addition, there is no assurance that our third-party sales agents will comply with contractual and legal requirements with respect to data privacy when they collect data from our prospective students. If our security measures are breached or fail as a result of third-party action, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise, we could be subject to liability or our business could be interrupted, potentially over an extended period of time. Any or all of these issues could harm our reputation, adversely affect our ability to attract and enroll prospective students, cause prospective students not to enroll or stay enrolled, or subject us to third-party lawsuits, regulatory fines or other action or liability. Further, any reputational damage resulting from breach of our security measures could create distrust of our company by prospective students or investors. We may be required to expend significant additional resources to protect against the threat of these disruptions and security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by such disruptions or breaches.

Privacy concerns could limit our ability to collect and leverage our user data and disclosure of user data could adversely impact our business and reputation.

In the ordinary course of our business and in particular in connection with conducting sales and marketing activities with our existing and prospective students as well as the utilization of our AI-powered personalized study programs, we collect and utilize data supplied by our users. We currently face certain legal obligations regarding the manner in which we treat such information. Increased regulation of data utilization practices, including self-regulation or findings under existing laws that limit our ability to collect, transfer and use data, could have an adverse effect on our business. In addition, if we were to disclose data about our users in a manner that was objectionable to them, our business reputation could be adversely affected, and we could face potential legal claims and administrative penalties that could impact our operating results.

Internationally, we may become subject to additional and/or more stringent legal obligations concerning our treatment of customer and other personal information, such as laws regarding data localization and/or restrictions on data export. Failure to comply with these obligations could subject us to liability, and to the extent that we need to alter our business model or practices to adapt to these obligations, we could incur additional expenses.

We are subject to a variety of laws and other obligations regarding data protection, any failure to comply with applicable laws and obligations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to various regulatory requirements relating to the security and privacy of data, including restrictions on the collection, storage and use of personal information and requirements to take steps to prevent personal data from being divulged, stolen, or tampered with. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—4.B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations Relating to Internet Information Security and Privacy Protection.” Regulatory requirements regarding the protection of data are constantly evolving and can be subject to differing interpretations or significant change, making the extent of our responsibilities in that regard uncertain. For example, the Cybersecurity Law of the PRC became effective in June 2017, but there are great uncertainties as to the interpretation and application of the law. It is possible that those regulatory requirements may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices. In addition, the Office of the Central Cyberspace Affairs Commission, the MIIT, the Ministry of Public Security, and the SAMR jointly issued an announcement on January 23, 2019 regarding carrying out special campaigns against mobile internet application programs collecting and using personal information in violation of applicable laws and regulations, which prohibits business operators from collecting personal information irrelevant to their services, or forcing users to give authorization in disguised manner. In addition, the PRC regulatory authorities have recently taken steps to strengthen the regulation on data protection and conducted several rounds of relevant inspections recently. We have been taking and will continue to take reasonable measures to comply with such announcement, provisions and inspection requirements.

On June 10, 2021, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the PRC Data Security Law, effective on September 1, 2021. On August 17, 2021, the State Council promulgated the Regulations on Critical

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Information Infrastructure Security Protection, which became effective on September 1, 2021. On August 20, 2021, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the PRC Personal Information Protection Law, which came into effect on November 1, 2021. On November 11, 2021, the CAC published for public comment the Regulations on Cyber Data Security Management (Draft for Comments), or the Draft Cyber Data Security Regulations. The Draft Cyber Data Security Regulations stipulates that the data processing operators listed overseas shall conduct an annual data security assessment by themselves or a data security service institution, and submit the annual data security assessment report of the previous year to the competent cybersecurity authority before January 31 of each year. As of the date of this annual report, the Draft Cyber Data Security Regulations was not formally adopted and the final version and effective date of such regulations are subject to change with substantial uncertainty. In addition, on January 4, 2022, the CAC announced the adoption of the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which became effective on February 15, 2022. On the same date, the CAC published the Administrative Provisions on Internet Information Service Algorithm Recommendation on its website, which became effective on March 1, 2022.

These newly promulgated laws and regulations reflect PRC government further attempts to strengthen the legal protection for the national network security, data security, the security of critical information infrastructure and the security of personal information protection. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—4.B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations Relating to Internet Information Security and Privacy Protection”. However, as these announcements and provisions are relatively new, and the related implementation rules have yet been promulgated, it remains uncertain how these announcements and provisions will be implemented. We cannot assure you we can adapt our operations to it in a timely manner.

Any failure, or perceived failure by us to maintain the security of our students’ data and other confidential information or to comply with applicable privacy, data security and personal information protection laws, regulations, policies, contractual provisions, industry standards, and other requirements, may result in civil or regulatory liability, including governmental or data protection authority enforcement actions and investigations, fines, penalties, enforcement orders requiring us to cease operating in a certain way, or adverse publicity, and may require us to expend significant resources in responding to and defending allegations and claims. Furthermore, the PRC regulatory and enforcement regime with regard to privacy, data security and personal information protection is still evolving. PRC regulators have been increasingly focused on regulation in the areas of data security and data protection. We cannot assure you that relevant regulators will not interpret or implement these laws or regulations in ways that negatively affect us. It is possible that we may become subject to additional or new laws and regulations, which may result in additional expenses to us and subject us to potential liability and negative publicity. We expect that these areas will receive greater attention and focus from regulators, and attract continued or greater public scrutiny and attention going forward, which could increase our compliance costs and subject us to heightened risks and challenges associated with data security and protection. If we are unable to manage these risks, we could become subject to penalties, fines, suspension of business and revocation of required licenses, and our reputation and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Tuition refunds or potential refund disputes may negatively affect our cash flow, financial condition, and reputation.

We offer different tuition refund options to our students depending on the time of enrollment and subject to certain conditions and restrictions in the service contract between us and each of our students. Generally, a student is offered a full, unconditional refund within 24 hours upon enrollment. If the student makes a refund request after taking at least one live streaming course lasting 30 minutes by reason of any material academic issue of our courses within certain refund period, we offer a refund excluding the registration fees and the fees of delivered courses upon our confirmation. In addition, we offer students a refund for the undelivered courses excluding the registration fees. Prior to June 2019, such refund was provided only within seven days upon enrollment while starting from June 2019, we offer such refund during the entire service period. When calculating gross billings for a specific period, we deduct the total amount of refunds from the total amount of cash received for the sale of course packages for such period. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—4.B. Business Overview—Our Tuition and Fees.”

In 2019, 2020 and 2021, we had made RMB 345.9 million, RMB335.5 million and RMB282.5 million (US$44.4 million) of refund payments, respectively, most of which were made pursuant to our tuition refund policy, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—4.B. Business Overview—Business—Our Tuition and Fees.” The number of refund requests and the amount of refunds could be affected by a number of factors. These factors include, without limitation to, student dissatisfaction with our teaching quality and our course and educational content offerings, privacy concerns relating to our online platforms, negative publicity regarding us or online education in general, the terms and scope of our refund policy, and any change or development in PRC laws and regulations with respect to fees and tuitions charged by online education providers like us. See “—We face risks associated with our lack of a private school operating permit for our online education services as well as uncertainties surrounding PRC laws and regulations governing the education industry, including the Law

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for Promoting Private Education and its Implementing Rules.” As part of our efforts to enhance user experience, from June 2019, we amended certain terms of our refund policy to facilitate a more flexible and smoother refund process. Any refund payments that we may be required to make to our students, as well as the expenses we could incur for processing refunds and resolving refund disputes, could be substantial and could adversely affect our gross billings, net revenues, liquidity and financial condition. A high volume of refunds and refund disputes may also generate negative publicity that could harm our reputation. We have experienced in the past, and may experience in the future, negative publicity in relation to refund disputes between us and our students, which may significantly harm our brand name and divert our attention from operating our business.

We cannot assure you that we will not be subject to liability claims or legal or regulatory liability for any inappropriate or illegal content, which could subject us to liabilities and cause damages to our reputation.

Although we implement various monitoring procedures to identify and remove inappropriate or illegal content, we cannot assure you that there will be no inappropriate or illegal content included in our content offerings including content generated and uploaded to our online platforms by our users. For example, we have been historically penalized for inaccurate advertising. We may face civil, administrative or criminal liability or legal or regulatory sanctions, such as requiring us to restrict or discontinue our content, products or services, if an individual or corporate, governmental or other entity believes that any of the content offerings violates any laws, regulations or governmental policies or infringes upon its legal rights. Even if such a claim were not successful, defending such a claim may cause us to incur substantial costs. Moreover, any accusation of inappropriate or illegal content in our content offerings could lead to significant negative publicity, which could harm our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our success depends on the continuing efforts of our senior management team and other key employees.

We depend on the continued contributions of our senior management and other key employees, including, in particular, Mr. Jianhong Yin, also known as Peng Ou, our founder and the chairman of our Board of Directors, and Mr. Tongbo Liu, our director and Chief Executive Officer. The loss of the services of any of our senior management or other key employees could harm our business. Competition for qualified talents in China is intense. If one or more of our senior management or other key employees are unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may not be able to find replacements in a timely manner, or at all, and our business may be disrupted. Moreover, if any member of our senior management team or any of our other key personnel joins a competitor or forms or invests in a competing business, we may lose student enrollments, qualified teaching faculty members and other key sales and marketing personnel to our competitors. Our future success is also dependent on our ability to attract a significant number of qualified employees and retain existing key employees. If we are unable to do so, our business and growth may be materially and adversely affected. Our need to significantly increase the number of our qualified employees and retain key employees may cause us to materially increase compensation-related costs, including share-based compensation.

If we cannot maintain our corporate culture as we grow, we could lose the innovation, collaboration and focus that contribute to our business.

We believe that a critical component of our success is our corporate culture, which fosters innovations and has roots in a deep understanding of our students and the evolving education industry in China. As we continue to expand and grow our business, we may find it difficult to maintain these valuable aspects of our corporate culture. Any failure to preserve our culture could undermine our reputation in the marketplace and negatively impact our ability to attract and retain employees and students, which would in turn jeopardize our future success.

We may from time to time be subject to infringement claims relating to intellectual properties of third parties.

We cannot assure you that our course offerings and educational contents and our IT technologies and platforms do not or will not infringe upon copyrights or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. We may encounter disputes from time to time over rights and obligations concerning intellectual properties, and we may not prevail in those disputes.

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We have adopted policies and procedures to prohibit our students and employees from infringing upon third-party copyright or intellectual property rights. However, we cannot ensure that they will not, against our policies, use third-party copyrighted materials or intellectual property without proper authorization in our classes or via any medium through which we provide our services. We may incur liability for unauthorized duplication or distribution of materials posted on our websites or used in our classes. We have been involved in claims against us alleging our infringement of third-party intellectual property rights and we may be subject to such claims in the future. We have not entered into any licensing arrangements with, or otherwise obtained any consent from, the government agencies administering the STE exams for using certain exam questions in our quiz banks. Although we have never been subject to any legal or administrative penalties or proceedings relating to our use of these sample questions, we cannot assure you that we will not be subject to infringement claims associated with our use of real STE questions in the future. Any such intellectual property infringement claim could result in costly litigation and divert our management attention and resources, which in turn could negatively affect our business, financial condition and prospect.

If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights, our brand and business may suffer.

We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws and restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. Although we seek to obtain copyright or patent protection for our intellectual property when applicable, it is possible that we may not be able to do so successfully or that the copyright or patent we have obtained may not be sufficient to protect all of our intellectual property rights. In particular, we rely, to the great extent, upon our educational content developed in-house, including course syllabi and outlines, quiz banks, teaching notes, and learning outcomes trees, to provide high-quality online education services. Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary education contents and other intellectual property rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or duplicate our intellectual property or otherwise use our intellectual properties without obtaining our consent. Monitoring unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly, and we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will effectively prevent misappropriation of our intellectual properties. If we are not successful in protecting our intellectual property rights, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Our students, employees and third-party vendors may engage in intentional or negligent misconduct or other improper activities or misuse our platform, which could harm our brand and reputation.

We are exposed to the risk of fraud or other misconducts committed by our students, employees and vendors, including certain third-party sales and marketing agencies. For example, in some instances, our students and our faculty members may post to our platform articles or other third-party content for use in class discussions. The PRC laws governing the fair use of these third-party materials are imprecise and adjudicated on a case-by-case basis, which makes it challenging for us to adopt and implement policies governing these practices. We could, as a result, incur liability to third parties for the unauthorized duplication, distribution or other use of these materials. Any such claims could subject us to costly litigation and impose a significant strain on our financial resources and attention of management personnel regardless of whether the claims have merit. We may be required to alter or cease our uses of such materials, which may include changing or removing content from courses or altering the functionality of our platform, or to pay monetary damages. Fraud or other misconducts by our students, employees or third parties may also involve engaging in unauthorized misrepresentation to our potential students and misappropriating third-party intellectual property and other propitiatory rights during marketing activities, misusing sensitive personal information of our students, and engaging in bribery or other unlawful payments, any of which could result in customer complaints, regulatory and legal liabilities, as well as serious harm to our brand and reputation.

Our courses undergo multiple rounds of internal review before being broadly released. While we proactively monitor our live courses and other content and communications to ensure that we are able to identify content that may be deemed inappropriate or in violation of laws, regulations and government policies, since we have limited control over the real-time and offline behavior of our users and employees, to the extent any improper behavior is associated with our content and services, our ability to protect our reputation may be limited. If any of our users and employees suffer or allege to have suffered harm following contact initiated through our services, we may face civil lawsuits or other liabilities. In response to allegations of illegal or inappropriate activities, PRC government authorities may intervene and hold us liable for non-compliance with PRC laws and regulations concerning the dissemination of information on the internet and subject us to administrative penalties or other sanctions, such as requiring us to restrict or discontinue our content or services. As a result, our business may suffer and our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

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We may be the subject of detrimental conduct by third parties such as our competitors, including complaints to regulatory agencies and the public dissemination of malicious assessments of our business, which could have a negative impact on our reputation and cause us to lose market share, students and revenues, and adversely affect the price of the ADSs.

We have been, and in the future may be, the target of anti-competitive, harassing or other detrimental conduct by third parties including our competitors. Such conduct may include complaints, anonymous or otherwise, to regulatory agencies regarding our operations, accounting, business relationships, business prospects and business ethics. Additionally, allegations, directly or indirectly against us, may be posted online by anyone, whether or not related to us, on an anonymous basis. We may be subject to government or regulatory investigation as a result of such third-party conduct and may be required to expend significant time and incur substantial costs to address such third-party conduct, and there is no assurance that we will be able to conclusively refute each of the allegations within a reasonable period of time, or at all. Our reputation may also be materially negatively affected as a result of the public dissemination of anonymous allegations or malicious statements about our business, which in turn may cause us to lose students and revenues, and adversely affect the price of the ADSs.

Our user metrics and other estimates are subject to inaccuracy in measuring our operating performance, which may harm our reputation.

We continually review number of students, new student enrollments, gross billings per new student enrollment, and other operating metrics to evaluate growth trends, measure our performance and make strategic decisions. These metrics are calculated using internal data, have not been validated by an independent third party and may not be indicative of our future operating performance. While these numbers are based on what we believe to be reasonable estimates for the applicable period of measurement, there are inherent challenges in measuring how our website and mobile application are used across a large student base. For example, we may not be able to identify individual students who have multiple accounts from multiple students who share one account on our website or mobile application. In addition, we collect student reviews to measure student satisfaction rate and other student engagement metrics, but these reviews may not be representative of our entire student population. Errors or inaccuracies in our metrics or data could result in incorrect business decisions and inefficiencies. For instance, if a significant understatement or overstatement of student satisfaction or marketing spending were to occur, we might expend resources to implement unnecessary business measures or fail to take required actions to remedy an unfavorable trend. If investors do not perceive our operating metrics to accurately represent our operating performance, or if we discover material inaccuracies in our operating metrics, our reputation may be harmed.

If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may be unable to accurately or timely report our results of operations or prevent fraud, and investor confidence and the market price of the ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

We are a public company in the United States subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, requires that we include a report from management on our internal control over financial reporting in our annual report on Form 20-F beginning with our annual report for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019. In addition, once we cease to be an “emerging growth company” as such term is defined in the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective. Moreover, even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, as we are a public company, our reporting obligations may place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future and we may be unable to timely complete our evaluation testing and any required remediation.

During the course of documenting and testing our internal control procedures, in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404, we may identify weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, if we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404. Generally speaking, if we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations and lead to a decline in the trading price of the ADSs. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse

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of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which we list, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions.

We have incurred increased costs as a result of being a public company, particularly after we cease to qualify as an “emerging growth company.”

We are a public company and expect to continue to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, and the New York Stock Exchange, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. As a company with less than US$1.07 billion in revenues for our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” pursuant to the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include exemption from the auditor attestation requirement under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or Section 404, in the assessment of the emerging growth company’s internal control over financial reporting. The JOBS Act also permits an emerging growth company to delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. However, we have elected to “opt out” of this provision and, as a result, we will comply with new or revised accounting standards as required when they are adopted for public companies. This decision to opt out of the extended transition period under the JOBS Act is irrevocable.

We expect these rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. After we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC. In addition, we will incur additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our Board of Directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

We have granted, and may continue to grant, share incentives, which may result in increased share based compensation expenses.

We adopted an equity incentive plan in October 2017, or the 2017 Plan, for the purpose of granting share based compensation awards to employees, officers, directors and consultants to incentivize their performance and promote the success of our business.

We account for compensation costs for all share-based awards using a fair-value based method and recognize expenses in our consolidated statements of operations in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Under the 2017 Plan, we are authorized to grant options, restricted stock units and other types of awards the administrator of the 2017 Plan decides. Under the 2017 Plan, the maximum aggregate number of shares which may be issued pursuant to all awards is 829,349 shares. As of the date of this annual report, options to purchase a total of 31,546 ordinary shares were outstanding under the 2017 Plan. All of the ordinary shares reserved and issuable upon the exercise of options granted pursuant to the 2017 Plan shall, upon issuance of such ordinary shares, be designated as Class C ordinary shares. We believe the granting of share-based awards is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain key personnel and employees, and we will continue to grant share-based awards in the future. As a result, our expenses associated with share-based compensation may increase, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

If we fail to make adequate contributions to various employee benefits plans as required by PRC regulations, we may be subject to penalties.

Companies operating in China are required to participate in various government-sponsored employee benefit plans, including certain social insurance, housing funds and other welfare-oriented payment obligations, and contribute to the plans in amounts equal to certain percentages of salaries, including bonuses and allowances, of employees up to a maximum amount specified by the local government from time to time at locations where our employees are based. The requirement of employee benefit plans has not been implemented consistently by the local governments in China given the different levels of economic development in different locations. If we fail to make adequate contributions to various employee benefit plans and comply with applicable PRC labor-related laws, we may be subject to late payment penalties, and we could be required to make up the contributions for these plans as well as to pay late fees and fines. If we are subject to late fees or fines in relation to the underpaid employee benefits, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. In addition, to the extent that we can make a reasonable estimate of the liability arising from our failure in making full contributions to various employee benefit plans, we will record a related contingent liability. However, the amount of our estimates may be

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inaccurate, in which case our financial condition and cash flow may be adversely affected if we were to pay late fees or fines in relation to the underpaid employee benefits.

Increases in labor costs in the PRC may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

The currently effective PRC Labor Contract Law was first adopted on June 29, 2007 and later amended on December 28, 2012. The PRC Labor Contract Law has reinforced the protection of employees who, under the PRC Labor Contract Law, have the right, among others, to have written employment contracts, to enter into employment contracts with no fixed term under certain circumstances, to receive overtime wages and to terminate or alter terms in labor contracts. Furthermore, the PRC Labor Contract Law sets forth additional restrictions and increases the costs involved with dismissing employees. To the extent that we need to significantly reduce our workforce, the PRC Labor Contract Law could adversely affect our ability to do so in a timely and cost-effective manner, and our results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, for employees whose employment contracts include noncompetition terms, the PRC Labor Contract Law requires us to pay monthly compensation after such employment is terminated, which will increase our operating expenses.

In addition, we are required by PRC laws and regulations to make social insurance registration and open housing fund account with relevant governmental authorities and pay various statutory employee benefits, including pensions, housing fund, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance to designated government agencies for the benefit of our employees. The relevant government agencies may examine whether an employer has made adequate payments of the requisite statutory employee benefits, and those employers who fail to make adequate payments may be subject to late payment fees, fines and/or other penalties. If we fail to make adequate social insurance and housing fund contributions, we may be subject to fines and legal sanctions, and our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. We expect that our labor costs, including wages and employee benefits, will continue to increase. Unless we are able to pass on these increased labor costs to our customers by increasing the prices of our products and services, our financial conditions and results of operations would be materially and adversely affected.

We face certain risks relating to the real properties that we lease.

We lease real properties from third parties primarily for our office use in China, and the lease agreements for most of these leased properties have not been registered with the PRC governmental authorities as required by PRC law. Although the failure to do so does not in itself invalidate the leases, we may be ordered by the PRC government authorities to rectify such noncompliance and, if such noncompliance were not rectified within a given period of time, we may be subject to fines imposed by PRC government authorities ranging from RMB1,000 and RMB10,000 for our lease agreements that have not been registered with the relevant PRC governmental authorities.

As of the date of this annual report, we are not aware of any regulatory or governmental actions, claims or investigations being contemplated or any challenges by third parties to our use of our leased properties the lease agreements of which have not been registered with the government authorities. However, we cannot assure you that the government authorities will not impose fines on us due to our failure to register any of our lease agreements, which may negatively impact our financial condition.

We lease real properties from third parties in China for marketing and providing offline consultation related to our online services for potential students or existing students. Some of the ownership certificates or other similar proof of certain leased properties have not been provided to us by the relevant lessors. Therefore, we cannot assure you that such lessors are entitled to lease the relevant real properties to us. If the lessors are not entitled to lease the real properties to us and the owners of such real properties decline to ratify the lease agreements between us and the respective lessors, we may not be able to enforce our rights to lease such properties under the respective lease agreements against the owners. As of the date of this annual report, we are not aware of any claim or challenge brought by any third parties concerning the use of our leased properties without obtaining proper ownership proof. If our lease agreements are claimed as null and void by third parties who are the real owners of such leased real properties, we could be required to vacate the properties, in the event of which we could only initiate the claim against the lessors under relevant lease agreements for indemnities for their breach of the relevant leasing agreements. We cannot assure you that suitable alternative locations are readily available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all, and if we are unable to relocate our operations in a timely manner, our operations may be interrupted.

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Our operations depend on the performance of the internet infrastructure and telecommunications networks in China.

The successful operation of our business depends on the performance of the internet infrastructure and telecommunications networks in China. Almost all access to the internet is maintained through state-owned telecommunications operators under the administrative control and regulatory supervision of the MIIT. Moreover, we have entered into contracts with various subsidiaries of a limited number of telecommunications service providers at provincial level and rely on them to provide us with data communications capacity through local telecommunications lines. We have limited access to alternative networks or services in the event of disruptions, failures or other problems with China’s internet infrastructure or the telecommunications networks provided by telecommunications service providers. Our platform regularly serves a large number of users and advertisers. With the expansion of our business, we may be required to upgrade our technology and infrastructure to keep up with the increasing traffic on our platform. However, we have no control over the costs of the services provided by telecommunications service providers. If the prices we pay for telecommunications and internet services rise significantly, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. If internet access fees or other charges to internet users increase, our user traffic may decline and our business may be harmed.

We and certain of our directors and officers have been named as defendants in a shareholder class action lawsuit, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows and reputation.

We will have to defend against the class action lawsuit described in “Item 8. Financial Information—A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Legal Proceedings,” including any appeals should our initial defense be unsuccessful. We are currently unable to estimate the potential loss, if any, associated with the resolution of such lawsuit. We cannot guarantee that we will not be a target for lawsuits in the future, including putative class action lawsuits brought by shareholders. There can be no assurance that we will be able to prevail in our defense or reverse any unfavorable judgment on appeal, and we may decide to settle lawsuits on unfavorable terms. Any adverse outcome of these cases, including any plaintiffs’ appeal of the judgment in these cases, could result in payments of substantial monetary damages or fines, or changes to our business practices, and thus have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows and reputation. In addition, there can be no assurance that our insurance carriers will cover all or part of the defense costs, or any liabilities that may arise from these matters. The litigation process may utilize a significant portion of our cash resources and divert management’s attention from the day-to-day operations of our company, all of which could harm our business. We also may be subject to claims for indemnification related to these matters, and we cannot predict the impact that indemnification claims may have on our business or financial results.

We currently do not have any business insurance coverage.

Insurance companies in China currently do not offer as extensive an array of insurance products as insurance companies in more developed economies. Currently, we do not have any business liability or disruption insurance to cover our operations. We have determined that the costs of insuring for these risks and the difficulties associated with acquiring such insurance on commercially reasonable terms make it impractical for us to have such insurance. Any uninsured business disruptions may result in our incurring substantial costs and the diversion of resources, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

We face risks related to natural disasters, extreme weather conditions, health epidemics and other catastrophic incidents, which could significantly disrupt our operations.

China has in the past experienced significant natural disasters, including earthquakes, extreme weather conditions, as well as health scares related to epidemic diseases, and any similar event could materially impact our business in the future. If a disaster or other disruption were to occur in the future that affects the regions where we operate our business, our operations could be materially and adversely affected due to loss of personnel and damages to property. Even if we are not directly affected, such a disaster or disruption could affect the operations or financial condition of our ecosystem participants, which could harm our results of operations.

In addition, accidents, disasters and public health challenges in China and globally could impact our business and results of operations. These types of events could negatively impact user activity and our local operations, if any, in the affected regions, or, depending upon the severity, across China or globally, which could adversely impact our business and results of operations.

In early January of 2020, the outbreak of the novel coronavirus, commonly referred to as “COVID-19”, first found in mainland China, then in Asia and eventually throughout the world, has significantly affected business and other activities within China. China has experienced widespread economic disruption owing to the outbreak of the COVID-19 coronavirus

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and stringent government measures to contain it, including nationwide restricting access to provinces and cities, reducing agglomeration activities, and postponing non-essential business activates. In the second half of 2021, the COVID-19 coronavirus resurged in China due to Omicron and Delta variants. The outbreak of COVID-19, had caused temporary interruptions to the learning activities of our students and operations of our business partners and negatively affected certain aspects of our business operations in 2020. For example, the Self-taught Higher Education Examination, or the STE, a state-administered exam in China for learners pursuing associate diplomas or bachelor’s degrees, was postponed by the Ministry of Education of the PRC as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in fluctuations in enrollments for our STE courses which have historically represented a significant portion of our net revenues, gross billings and new student enrollments of our online course offerings. Our business activities were not significantly affected or interrupted in 2021. We have taken precautionary measures intended to minimize the risks of COVID-19 to our students, employees, teachers, mentors and business partners, including temporarily requiring our employees to work remotely or canceling or postponing sponsored offline events and activities, which could compromise our efficiency and productivity during such periods, require us to incur additional costs, slow down our branding and marketing efforts, and result in fluctuations in our results of operations. While the foregoing restrictions and measures have been eased and our business operations have been recovered, our results of operations may be adversely affected to the extent that COVID-19 continues to affect the Chinese economy in general. Additionally, as COVID-19 continues to evolve into a worldwide health crisis that could adversely affect the economies and financial markets of countries other than China, it may potentially result in an economic downturn that could affect demand for our users, business partners and services and therefore materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, to the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business and financial results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this section entitled “Item 3. Key Information—3.D. Risk Factors,” such as those relating to our ability to improve or expand our product and service offerings, and to retain existing or attract new advertising customers, among other things.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

There are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations, and rules relating to the agreements that establish the VIE structure for our operations in China, including potential future actions by the PRC government, which could affect the enforceability of our contractual arrangements with the VIEs and, consequently, significantly affect our financial condition and results of operations. If the PRC government finds such agreements non-compliant with relevant PRC laws, regulations, and rules, or if these laws, regulations, and rules or the interpretation thereof change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in the VIEs.

Foreign investment in the value-added telecommunication services industry in China is extensively regulated and subject to numerous restrictions. Pursuant to the list of special management measures for the market entry of foreign investment, or the Negative List, published by the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of Commerce on December 27, 2021 and effective on January 1, 2022, with a few exceptions, foreign investors are not allowed to own more than 50% of the equity interests in a value-added telecommunication service provider.

We are a Cayman Islands company and our wholly-owned PRC subsidiaries are currently considered foreign-invested enterprise. Accordingly, our PRC subsidiaries are not eligible to provide value-added telecommunication services in China. To ensure strict compliance with the PRC laws and regulations, we conduct such business activities through our consolidated variable interest entities, or the VIEs, and their respective subsidiaries. Our wholly owned subsidiaries in China have entered into a series of contractual arrangements with the VIEs, their respective shareholders and their respective subsidiaries, which enable us to (i) exercise effective control over the VIEs, (ii) receive substantially all of the economic benefits of the VIEs, and (iii) have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests and assets in the VIEs when and to the extent permitted by PRC law. As a result of these contractual arrangements, we have control over and are the primary beneficiary of the VIEs and hence consolidate its financial results as the VIEs under U.S. GAAP. See “Item 4. Information of the Company—4.C. Organizational Structure” for further details.

It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws, rules or regulations relating to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. For example, the Amended Implementing Rules provide that, among other things, any entities or individuals shall not control any schools providing compulsory education or any non-profit schools providing pre-school education through merger, acquisition or contractual arrangements. As of the date of this annual report, two of our schools are privately run non-enterprise institution and have not made the election to be registered as a for-profit or non-profit school. Since neither of such two schools provide compulsory education or pre-school education, the validity and enforceability of our contractual arrangements are not challenged yet. However, since the laws and regulations are still evolving and new PRC laws, regulations, rules and interpretations may be introduced to impose additional requirements, posing additional challenges to our corporate structure and contractual arrangements, there are substantial uncertainties

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regarding whether we could comply with new laws, regulations, rules and interpretations in a timely manner, or at all. Any failure to comply with such regulatory requirements may challenge the validity and enforceability of our contractual arrangements.

If the PRC government finds that our contractual arrangements do not comply with its restrictions on foreign investment in the value-added telecommunication services, or if the PRC government otherwise finds that we, the VIEs, or any of its subsidiaries are in violation of PRC laws or regulations or lack the necessary permits or licenses to operate our business, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities, including the MIIT and SAMR, would have broad discretion in dealing with such violations or failures, including, without limitation:

 

revoking the business licenses and/or operating licenses of such entities;

 

discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operation through any transactions between our PRC subsidiaries and the VIEs;

 

imposing fines, confiscating the income from our PRC subsidiaries or the VIEs, or imposing other requirements with which we or the VIEs may not be able to comply;

 

requiring us to restructure our ownership structure or operations, including terminating the contractual arrangements with the VIEs and deregistering the equity pledges of the VIEs, which in turn would affect our ability to consolidate, derive economic interests from, or exert effective control over the VIEs; or

 

restricting or prohibiting our use of the proceeds of our initial public offering to finance our business and operations in China.

Any of these actions could cause significant disruptions to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, new PRC laws, regulations, and rules may be introduced to impose additional requirements, posing additional challenges to our corporate structure and contractual arrangements. If any of these occurrences results in our inability to direct the activities of the VIEs or our failure to receive the economic benefits from the VIEs and/or our inability to claim our contractual control rights over the assets of the VIEs that conduct our operations in China, we may not be able to consolidate the entity in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations and cause our ADSs to significantly decline in value or become worthless.

Any failure by the VIEs or their shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material adverse effect on our business.

Since PRC laws prohibit or restrict foreign equity ownership in certain kinds of business in China, we have relied and expect to continue to rely on the contractual arrangements with the VIEs and their shareholders to operate our business in China.

However, these contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over our affiliated entities, including the VIEs and their subsidiaries. Any of our affiliated entities and their shareholders could breach their contractual arrangements with us by, among other things, failing to conduct their operations in an acceptable manner or taking other actions that are detrimental to our interests. In the event that the shareholders of the VIEs breach the terms of these contractual arrangements and voluntarily liquidate the VIEs, or the VIEs declare bankruptcy and all or part of their assets become subject to liens or rights of third-party creditors, or are otherwise disposed of without our consent, we may be unable to conduct some or all of our business operations or otherwise benefit from the assets held by our affiliated entities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Most of the nominee shareholders of the VIEs are also beneficial owners of our company. The enforceability of the contractual agreements between us, the VIEs and their shareholders depends to a large extent upon whether the VIEs and their shareholders will fulfill these contractual agreements. Their interests in enforcing these contractual agreements may not align with our interests or the interests of our shareholders. If their interest diverges from that of our company and other shareholders, it may potentially increase the risk that they could seek to act contrary to these contractual arrangements. If the VIEs or their shareholders fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and expend additional resources to enforce such arrangements. We may also have to rely on legal remedies under PRC law, including seeking specific performance or injunctive relief, and contractual remedies, which we

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cannot assure you will be sufficient or effective under PRC law. Our contractual arrangements are governed by PRC law and provide for the resolution of disputes through litigation in China. Accordingly, these agreements would be interpreted in accordance with PRC law and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures. The legal system in the PRC is not as developed as in some other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Meanwhile, there are very few precedents and little formal guidance as to how contractual arrangements in the context of a consolidated variable interest entity should be interpreted or enforced under PRC law.

There remain significant uncertainties regarding the ultimate outcome of such adjudication should legal action become necessary. In the event that we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our affiliated entities, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected.

We rely on contractual arrangements with the VIEs and their respective shareholders for a significant portion of our business operations which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control.

We have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with the VIEs, their respective shareholders and their respective subsidiaries to operate our online education services business in China. These contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over the VIEs. For example, the VIEs and their respective shareholders could breach their contractual arrangements with us by, among other things, failing to conduct their operations in an acceptable manner or taking other actions that are detrimental to our interests. The revenues contributed by the VIEs and their respective subsidiaries constituted 93.4%, 47.3% and 21.4% of our total net revenues in 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively.

If we had direct ownership of the VIEs, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of the VIEs, which in turn could implement changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management and operational level. However, under the current contractual arrangements, we rely on the performance by the VIEs and their respective shareholders of their obligations under the contracts to exercise control over the VIEs. The shareholders of our consolidated VIEs may not act in the best interests of our company or may not perform their obligations under these contracts. Such risks exist throughout the period in which we intend to operate certain portions of our business through the contractual arrangements with the VIEs. If any disputes relating to these contracts remain unresolved, we will have to enforce our rights under these contracts through the operations of PRC law and arbitration, litigation and other legal proceedings and therefore will be subject to uncertainties in the PRC legal system. Therefore, our contractual arrangements with the VIEs may not be as effective in ensuring our control over the relevant portion of our business operations as direct ownership would be.

Any failure by the VIEs or their respective shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business.

If the VIEs or their respective shareholders fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and expend additional resources to enforce such arrangements. We may also have to rely on legal remedies under PRC law, including seeking specific performance or injunctive relief, and claiming damages, which we cannot assure will be effective under PRC law. For example, if the shareholders of the VIEs refuse to transfer their equity interest in the VIEs to us or our designee if we exercise the purchase option pursuant to these contractual arrangements, or if they otherwise act in bad faith toward us, then we may have to take legal actions to compel them to perform their contractual obligations. In addition, if any third parties claim any interest in such shareholders’ equity interests in the VIEs, our ability to exercise shareholders’ rights or foreclose the share pledge according to the contractual arrangements may be impaired. If these or other disputes between the shareholders of the VIEs and third parties were to impair our control over the VIEs, our ability to consolidate the financial results of the VIEs would be affected, which would in turn result in a material adverse effect on our business, operations and financial condition.

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Our contractual arrangements are governed by PRC laws. Accordingly, these contracts would be interpreted in accordance with PRC laws, and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures.

The legal system in the PRC is not as developed as in some other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Meanwhile, there are very few precedents and little formal guidance as to how contractual arrangements in the context of a VIE should be interpreted or enforced under PRC laws. There remain significant uncertainties regarding the ultimate outcome of such arbitration should legal action become necessary. In addition, under PRC law, rulings by arbitrators are final, parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and if the losing parties fail to carry out the arbitration awards within a prescribed time limit, the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in PRC courts, which would require additional expenses and delay. In the event we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delays or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over the VIEs, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected.

The shareholders of the VIEs may have actual or potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

The shareholders of the VIEs may have actual or potential conflicts of interest with us. These shareholders may refuse to sign or breach, or cause the VIEs to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements we have with them and the VIEs, which would have a material and adverse effect on our ability to effectively control the VIEs and receive economic benefits from it. For example, the shareholders may be able to cause our agreements with the VIEs to be performed in a manner adverse to us by, among other things, failing to remit payments due under the contractual arrangements to us on a timely basis. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise any or all of these shareholders will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor. Currently, we do not have any arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest between these shareholders and our company. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and these shareholders, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

Contractual arrangements in relation to the VIEs may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or the VIEs owe additional taxes, which could negatively affect our financial condition and the value of your investment.

Under applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year when the transactions are conducted. We could face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the VIE contractual arrangements were not entered into on an arm’s-length basis in such a way as to result in an impermissible reduction in taxes under applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, and adjust the income of the VIEs in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction of expense deductions recorded by the VIEs for PRC tax purposes, which could in turn increase its tax liabilities without reducing our PRC subsidiary’s tax expenses. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties on the VIEs for the adjusted but unpaid taxes according to the applicable regulations. Our financial position could be materially and adversely affected if the VIEs’ tax liabilities increase or if it is required to pay late payment fees and other penalties.

We may lose the ability to use, or otherwise benefit from, the licenses, approvals and assets held by the VIEs, which could severely disrupt our business, render us unable to conduct some or all of our business operations and constrain our growth.

As part of our contractual arrangements with the VIEs, the VIEs hold certain assets, licenses and permits that are material to our business operations, such as the ICP License and the License for the Production and Operation of Radio and Television Program. The contractual arrangements contain terms that specifically obligate VIEs’ shareholders to ensure the valid existence of the VIEs and restrict the disposal of material assets of the VIEs. However, in the event the VIEs’ shareholders breach the terms of these contractual arrangements and voluntarily liquidate the VIEs, or the VIEs declare bankruptcy and all or part of its assets become subject to liens or rights of third-party creditors, or are otherwise disposed of without our consent, we may be unable to conduct some or all of our business operations or otherwise benefit from the assets held by the VIEs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, if the VIEs undergo a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, its shareholders or unrelated third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of the assets of the VIEs, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business as well as constrain our growth.

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Certain of our existing shareholders have substantial influence over our company, and their interests may not be aligned with the interests of our other stockholders.

Mr. Peng Ou, our founder and the chairman of our Board of Directors, owns approximately 57.1% of our voting power and Mr. Tongbo Liu, our director and our Chief Executive Officer, owns approximately 21.6% of our voting power as of the date of this annual report. In addition, Mr. Peng Ou, Mr. Tongbo Liu and certain of our senior management and employees collectively beneficially own all of our issued and outstanding Class C ordinary shares which constitute approximately 83.4% of the aggregate voting power of our total issued and outstanding share capital as of the date of this annual report. In addition, up to 433,053 ordinary shares reserved and issuable upon the exercise of options granted pursuant to our equity incentive plan adopted in October 2017 shall be, upon issuance of such ordinary shares, designated as Class C ordinary shares, the voting power of which will be held by certain of our senior employees. See “—Risks Related to the ADSs—Our triple-class share structure with different voting rights will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.” As a result, Mr. Peng Ou, Mr. Tongbo Liu and certain of our senior management and employees have significant influence over our business, including decisions regarding mergers, consolidations, liquidations and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. This concentration of ownership may also have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing a future change of control, which could deprive our stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and might reduce the price of the ADSs.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

The approval, filing or other requirements of the China Securities Regulatory Commission or other PRC government authorities may be required under PRC law in connection with our issuance of securities overseas.

The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, purport to require offshore special purpose vehicles that are controlled by PRC companies or individuals and that have been formed for the purpose of seeking a public listing on an overseas stock exchange through acquisitions of PRC domestic companies or assets to obtain CSRC approval prior to publicly listing their securities on an overseas stock exchange. The interpretation and application of the regulations remain unclear. If CSRC approval under the M&A Rules is required, it is uncertain whether it would be possible for us to obtain the approval, and any failure to obtain or delay in obtaining CSRC approval for our future issuance of securities overseas would subject us to sanctions imposed by the CSRC and other PRC regulatory agencies.

Furthermore, the Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over “illegal securities activities” and the supervision on overseas listings by China-based companies, and proposed to take effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems to deal with the risks and incidents faced by China-based overseas-listed companies, although such opinions did not specify the definition of “illegal securities activities.” Such opinions further provided that the special provisions of the State Council on overseas offerings and listings by those companies limited by shares will be revised and therefore the duties of domestic industry competent authorities and regulatory agencies will be clarified.

As these opinions were newly issued and there are no further explanations or detailed rules and regulations with respect to such opinions, there are still uncertainties regarding the interpretation and implementation of such opinions.

In addition, we cannot guarantee that new rules or regulations promulgated in the future will not impose any additional requirement on us or otherwise tightening the regulations on companies with a VIE structure. On December 24, 2021, the CSRC issued the Provisions of the State Council on the Administration of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments) and the Administrative Measures for the Filing of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments), collectively the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations, for public comments, which require, among others, that PRC domestic companies that seek to offer and list securities in overseas markets, either in direct or indirect means, are required to file the required documents with the CSRC within three working days after its application for overseas listing is submitted. As of the date of this annual report, the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations were released for public comments only and the final version and effective date of such regulations are subject to change with substantial uncertainty. If the CSRC, or other relevant PRC regulatory agencies subsequently determine that prior approval is required for any of our future offerings of securities overseas or to maintain the listing status of our ADSs, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to obtain such approval in a timely manner, or at all. The CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies also may take actions requiring us, or making it advisable for us, not to proceed with such offering or maintain the listing status of our ADSs. If we proceed with any of such offering or maintain the listing status of our ADSs

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without obtaining the CSRC’s approval to the extent it is required, or if we are unable to comply with any new approval requirements which might be adopted for offerings that we have completed prior to the publication of the above- referenced opinions, we may face regulatory actions or other sanctions from the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies. These regulatory agencies may impose fines and penalties on our operations in China, limit our ability to pay dividends outside of China, limit our operating privileges in China, delay or restrict the repatriation of the proceeds from offering of securities overseas into China or take other actions that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, as well as the trading price of the ADSs.

Furthermore, if there are any other approvals, filings and/or other administration procedures to be obtained from or completed with the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies as required by any new laws and regulations for any of our future proposed offering of securities overseas or the listing of the ADSs, we cannot assure you that we can obtain the required approval or complete the required filings or other regulatory procedures in a timely manner, or at all. Any failure to obtain the relevant approvals or complete the filings and other relevant regulatory procedures may subject us to regulatory actions or other sanctions from the CSRC or other PRC regulatory agencies, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.

Substantially all of our assets and operations are located in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be influenced to a significant degree by political, economic and social conditions in China generally. The Chinese economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the level of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets, and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies. Meanwhile, economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. There have been concerns over the relationship among China and other Asian countries, which may result in or intensify potential conflicts in relation to territorial disputes, and the trade disputes between the United States and China. It is unclear whether these challenges and uncertainties will be contained or resolved, and what effects they may have on the global political and economic conditions in the long term.

While the Chinese economy has experienced significant growth over past decades, growth has been uneven, both geographically and among various sectors of the economy. Any adverse changes in economic conditions in China, in the policies of the Chinese government or in the laws and regulations in China could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China. Such developments could adversely affect our business and operating results, lead to a reduction in demand for our services and adversely affect our competitive position. The Chinese government has implemented various measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall Chinese economy, but may have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations. In addition, in the past the Chinese government has implemented certain measures, including interest rate adjustment, to control the pace of economic growth. These measures may cause decreased economic activity in China, which may adversely affect our business and operating results.

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system, including uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws, and sudden or unexpected changes in policies, laws and regulations in China, could adversely affect us.

The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions under the civil law system may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value.

In 1979, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation over the past three decades has significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in China. However, China has not developed a fully integrated legal system, and recently enacted laws and regulations may not sufficiently cover all aspects of economic activities in China. In particular, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations involve uncertainties. Since PRC

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administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory provisions and contractual terms, it may be difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy. These uncertainties may affect our judgment on the relevance of legal requirements and our ability to enforce our contractual rights or tort claims. In addition, the regulatory uncertainties may be exploited through unmerited or frivolous legal actions or threats in attempts to extract payments or benefits from us.

The PRC government has significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of our business and may intervene with or influence our operations as the government deems appropriate to further regulatory, political and societal goals. The PRC government has recently published new policies that adversely affected educational industry, espscially the educational services related to K-12 students, and we cannot rule out the possibility that it will in the future further release regulations or policies regarding educational industry that could further adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, the PRC government has also recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight and control over securities offerings and other capital markets activities that are conducted overseas and foreign investment in China-based companies like us. Any such action, once taken by the PRC government, could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or in extreme cases, become worthless.

However, as there are still regulatory uncertainties in this regard, we cannot assure you that we will be able to comply with new laws and regulations in all respects in a timely manner, and we may be ordered to rectify, suspend or terminate any actions or services that are deemed illegal by the regulatory authorities and become subject to material penalties, which may materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules, some of which are not published on a timely basis or at all and may have a retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of any of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. In addition, any administrative and court proceedings in China may be protracted, resulting in substantial costs and diversion of resources and management attention.

You may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing actions in China against us or our management named in the annual report based on foreign laws.

We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands, we conduct substantially all of our operations in China, and substantially all of our assets are located in China. In addition, all our senior executive officers reside within China for a significant portion of the time and most are PRC nationals. As a result, it may be difficult for our shareholders to effect service of process upon us or those persons inside China. In addition, China does not have treaties providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments of courts with the Cayman Islands and many other countries and regions. Therefore, recognition and enforcement in China of judgments of a court in any of these non-PRC jurisdictions in relation to any matter not subject to a binding arbitration provision may be difficult or impossible.

We may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.

We are a Cayman Islands holding company and we rely principally on dividends and other distributions on equity from our PRC subsidiaries for our cash requirements, including for services of any debt we may incur. Our PRC subsidiary’s ability to distribute dividends is based upon its distributable earnings. Current PRC regulations permit our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to its respective shareholders only out of their accumulated profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, each of our PRC subsidiary, the VIEs and their respective subsidiaries are required to set aside at least 10% of its after-tax profits each year, if any, to fund a statutory reserve until such reserve reaches 50% of its registered capital. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. If our PRC subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other payments to us. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to distribute dividends or other payments to their respective shareholders could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our businesses, pay dividends or otherwise fund and conduct our business.

To address the persistent capital outflow and the RMB’s depreciation against the U.S. dollar in the fourth quarter of 2016, the People’s Bank of China and the State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE, implemented a series of capital control measures in the subsequent months, including stricter vetting procedures for China-based companies to remit foreign currency for overseas acquisitions, dividend payments and shareholder loan repayments. For instance, the Circular on Promoting the Reform of Foreign Exchange Management and Improving Authenticity and Compliance Review, or the SAFE

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Circular 3, issued on January 26, 2017, provides that the banks shall, when dealing with dividend remittance transactions from domestic enterprise to its offshore shareholders of more than US$50,000, review the relevant board resolutions, original tax filing form and audited financial statements of such domestic enterprise based on the principal of genuine transaction. The PRC government may continue to strengthen its capital controls and our PRC subsidiaries’ dividends and other distributions may be subject to tightened scrutiny in the future. Any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends or make other distributions to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to grow, make investments or acquisitions that could be beneficial to our business, pay dividends, or otherwise fund and conduct our business.

In addition, the Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules provide that a withholding tax rate of up to 10% will be applicable to dividends payable by Chinese companies to non-PRC-resident enterprises unless otherwise exempted or reduced according to treaties or arrangements between the PRC central government and governments of other countries or regions where the non-PRC resident enterprises are incorporated.

The custodians or authorized users of our controlling non-tangible assets, including chops and seals, may fail to fulfill their responsibilities, or misappropriate or misuse these assets.

Under the PRC law, legal documents for corporate transactions, including agreements and contracts are executed using the chop or seal of the signing entity or with the signature of a legal representative whose designation is registered and filed with relevant PRC industry and commerce authorities.

In order to secure the use of our chops and seals, we have established internal control procedures and rules for using these chops and seals. In any event that the chops and seals are intended to be used, the responsible personnel will submit the application through our office automation system and the application will be verified and approved by authorized employees in accordance with our internal control procedures and rules. In addition, in order to maintain the physical security of our chops, we generally have them stored in secured locations accessible only to authorized employees. Although we monitor such authorized employees, the procedures may not be sufficient to prevent all instances of abuse or negligence. There is a risk that our employees could abuse their authority, for example, by entering into a contract not approved by us or seeking to gain control of one of our subsidiaries or consolidated VIEs. If any employee obtains, misuses or misappropriates our chops and seals or other controlling non-tangible assets for whatever reason, we could experience disruption to our normal business operations. We may have to take corporate or legal action, which could involve significant time and resources to resolve and divert management from our operations.

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may fluctuate and is affected by, among other things, changes in political and economic conditions and the foreign exchange policy adopted by the PRC government. On July 21, 2005, the PRC government changed its policy of pegging the value of the Renminbi to the U.S. dollar. Following the removal of the U.S. dollar peg, the Renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the U.S. dollar over the following three years. Since June 2010, the Renminbi has started to appreciate slowly against the U.S. dollar, though there have been periods when the U.S. dollar has appreciated against the RMB. On August 11, 2015, the PBOC allowed the Renminbi to depreciate by approximately 2% against the U.S. dollar. Since then and until the end of 2016, the Renminbi has depreciated against the U.S. dollar by approximately 10%. It is difficult to predict how long such depreciation of RMB against the U.S. dollar may last and when and how the relationship between the RMB and the U.S. dollar may change again.

All of our revenue and substantially all of our costs are denominated in Renminbi. We are a holding company and we rely on dividends paid by our operating subsidiaries in China for our cash needs. Any significant revaluation of Renminbi may materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial position reported in Renminbi when translated into U.S. dollars, and the value of, and any dividends payable on, the ADSs in U.S. dollars. To the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars we receive from the initial public offering into Renminbi for our operations, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the Renminbi amount we would receive. Conversely, if we decide to convert our Renminbi into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our ordinary shares or ADSs or for other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount.

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Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our net revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment.

The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive substantially all of our revenues in Renminbi. Under our current corporate structure, our Cayman Islands holding company primarily relies on dividend payments from our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval of SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. Specifically, under the existing exchange restrictions, without prior approval of SAFE, cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiaries in China may be used to pay dividends to our company. However, approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. As a result, we need to obtain SAFE approval to use cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiaries and VIEs to pay off their respective debt in a currency other than Renminbi owed to entities outside China, or to make other capital expenditure payments outside China in a currency other than Renminbi. The PRC government may at its discretion restrict access to foreign currencies for current account transactions in the future. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of the ADSs.

Certain PRC regulations may make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions.

Among other things, the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC regulatory agencies in 2006 and amended in 2009, established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex. Such regulation requires, among other things, that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor acquires control of a PRC domestic enterprise or a foreign company with substantial PRC operations, if certain thresholds under the Provisions on Thresholds for Prior Notification of Concentrations of Undertakings, issued by the State Council in 2008 and amended in 2018, are triggered. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress which became effective in 2008 requires that transactions which are deemed concentrations and involve parties with specified turnover thresholds must be cleared by the relevant governmental authorities before they can be completed. On February 7, 2021, the Anti-monopoly Commission of the State Council, published the Anti-Monopoly Guidelines for the Internet Platform Economy Sector that aims at specifying some of the circumstances under which an activity of internet platforms may be identified as monopolistic act as well as setting out merger controlling filing procedures involving variable interest entities. In addition, PRC national security review rules which became effective in September 2011 require acquisitions by foreign investors of PRC companies engaged in military related or certain other industries that are crucial to national security be subject to security review before consummation of any such acquisition. The Measures for the Security Review of Foreign Investments promulgated by the National Development and Reform Commission and MOFCOM which became effective from January 2021 further requires that security review by relevant governmental authorities shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of the Measures for foreign investments that affect or may affect national security. We may pursue potential strategic acquisitions that are complementary to our business and operations. Complying with the requirements of these regulations to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval or clearance from the MOFCOM, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

PRC regulations relating to the establishment of offshore special purpose companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC resident beneficial owners or our PRC subsidiary to liability or penalties, limit our ability to inject capital into our PRC subsidiary, limit our PRC subsidiary’s ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us, or may otherwise adversely affect us.

In July 2014, SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment Through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, to replace the Notice on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Residents’ Financing and Roundtrip Investment Through Offshore Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 75, which ceased to be effective upon the promulgation of SAFE Circular 37. SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents (including PRC individuals and PRC corporate entities) to register with SAFE or its local branches in connection with their direct or indirect offshore investment activities. SAFE Circular 37 is applicable to our shareholders who are PRC residents and may be applicable to any offshore acquisitions that we make in the future.

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Under SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents who make, or have prior to the implementation of SAFE Circular 37 made, direct or indirect investments in offshore special purpose vehicles, or SPVs, will be required to register such investments with SAFE or its local branches. In addition, any PRC resident who is a direct or indirect shareholder of an SPV is required to update its filed registration with the local branch of SAFE with respect to that SPV, to reflect any material change. Moreover, any subsidiary of such SPV in China is required to urge the PRC resident shareholders to update their registration with the local branch of SAFE. If any PRC shareholder of such SPV fails to make the required registration or to update the previously filed registration, the subsidiary of such SPV in China may be prohibited from distributing its profits or the proceeds from any capital reduction, share transfer or liquidation to the SPV, and the SPV may also be prohibited from making additional capital contributions into its subsidiary in China. On February 13, 2015, the SAFE promulgated a Notice on Further Simplifying and Improving Foreign Exchange Administration Policy on Direct Investment, or SAFE Notice 13, which became effective on June 1, 2015. Under SAFE Notice 13, applications for foreign exchange registration of inbound foreign direct investments and outbound overseas direct investments, including those required under SAFE Circular 37, will be filed with qualified banks instead of SAFE. The qualified banks will directly examine the applications and accept registrations under the supervision of SAFE. SAFE Notice 13 further provides that annual inspection of inbound foreign direct investments and outbound overseas direct investments is canceled. Instead, relevant entities or individuals, as the case may be, shall register data and information with respect to their inbound foreign direct investments and outbound overseas direct investment interests with SAFE.

We have requested our shareholders that we are aware of being subject to SAFE regulations to make all necessary registrations, filings and amendments with the local SAFE branch or qualified banks as required by SAFE Circular 37. We cannot assure you, however, that all of these individuals may continue to make required registrations, filings or updates on a timely manner, or at all. We can provide no assurance that we are or will in the future continue to be informed of identities of all PRC residents holding direct or indirect interest in our company. Any failure or inability by such individuals to comply with SAFE regulations may subject us to fines or legal sanctions, such as restrictions on our cross-border investment activities or our PRC subsidiary’s ability to distribute dividends to, or obtain foreign exchange-denominated loans from, our company or prevent us from making distributions or paying dividends. As a result, our business operations and our ability to make distributions to you could be materially and adversely affected.

Furthermore, as these foreign exchange regulations are still relatively new and their interpretation and implementation has been constantly evolving, it is unclear how these regulations, and any future regulation concerning offshore or cross-border transactions, will be interpreted, amended and implemented by the relevant government authorities. For example, we may be subject to a more stringent review and approval process with respect to our foreign exchange activities, such as remittance of dividends and foreign-currency-denominated borrowings, which may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if we decide to acquire a PRC domestic company, we cannot assure you that we or the owners of such company, as the case may be, will be able to obtain the necessary approvals or complete the necessary filings and registrations required by the foreign exchange regulations. This may restrict our ability to implement our acquisition strategy and could adversely affect our business and prospects.

Any failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock incentive plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

In February 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly Listed Company, replacing earlier rules promulgated in 2007. Pursuant to these rules, PRC citizens and non-PRC citizens who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year who participate in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be the PRC subsidiaries of such overseas-listed company, and complete certain other procedures. In addition, an overseas-entrusted institution must be retained to handle matters in connection with the exercise or sale of stock options and the purchase or sale of shares and interests. We and our executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who reside in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year and who have been granted options will be subject to these regulations because we are an overseas-listed company. Failure to complete the SAFE registrations may subject them to fines and legal sanctions, there may be additional restrictions on the ability of them to exercise their stock options or remit proceeds gained from sale of their stock into the PRC. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional incentive plans for our directors, executive officers and employees under PRC law. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—4.B. Business Overview—Regulation—Regulations on Foreign Exchange—Regulations on Stock Incentive Plans.”

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If we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders and ADS holders.

Under the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law and its implementation rules, an enterprise established outside of the PRC with its “de facto management body” within the PRC is considered a “resident enterprise” and will be subject to the enterprise income tax on its global income at the rate of 25%. The implementation rules define the term “de facto management body” as the body that exercises full and substantial control and overall management over the business, productions, personnel, accounts and properties of an enterprise. In 2009, the State Administration of Taxation, or SAT, issued a circular, known as SAT Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Although this circular only applies to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise groups, not those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners, the criteria set forth in the circular may reflect the SAT’s general position on how the “de facto management body” text should be applied in determining the tax resident status of all offshore enterprises. According to SAT Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be regarded as a PRC tax resident by virtue of having its “de facto management body” in China, and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its global income only if all of the following conditions are met: (i) the primary location of the day-to-day operational management is in the PRC; (ii) decisions relating to the enterprise’s financial and human resource matters are made or are subject to approval by organizations or personnel in the PRC; (iii) the enterprise’s primary assets, accounting books and records, company seals, and board and shareholder resolutions are located or maintained in the PRC; and (iv) at least 50% of voting board members or senior executives habitually reside in the PRC.

We believe our company is not a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes. However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body.” If the PRC tax authorities determine that our company is a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, we will be subject to PRC enterprise income on our worldwide income at the rate of 25%. Furthermore, we be required to withhold a 10% withholding tax from dividends we pay to our shareholders that are non-resident enterprises, including the holders of the ADSs. In addition, non-resident enterprise shareholders (including the ADS holders) may be subject to PRC tax on gains realized on the sale or other disposition of ADSs or ordinary shares, if such income is treated as sourced from within the PRC. Furthermore, if we are deemed a PRC resident enterprise, dividends paid to our non-PRC individual shareholders (including the ADS holders) and any gain realized on the transfer of ADSs or ordinary shares by such shareholders may be subject to PRC tax at a rate of 20% (which, in the case of dividends, may be withheld at source by us). These rates may be reduced by an applicable tax treaty, but it is unclear whether non-PRC shareholders of our company would be able to claim the benefits of any tax treaties between their country of tax residence and the PRC in the event that we are treated as a PRC resident enterprise. Any such tax may reduce the returns on your investment in the ADSs or ordinary shares.

We face uncertainty with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.

On February 3, 2015, the SAT issued the Public Notice Regarding Certain Corporate Income Tax Matters on Indirect Transfer of Properties by Non-Tax Resident Enterprises, or SAT Bulletin 7. SAT Bulletin 7 extends its tax jurisdiction to transactions involving the transfer of taxable assets through offshore transfer of a foreign intermediate holding company. In addition, SAT Bulletin 7 has introduced safe harbors for internal group restructurings and the purchase and sale of equity through a public securities market. SAT Bulletin 7 also brings challenges to both foreign transferor and transferee (or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer) of taxable assets.

On October 17, 2017, the SAT issued the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Issues Concerning the Withholding of Non-resident Enterprise Income Tax at Source, or SAT Bulletin 37, which came into effect on December 1, 2017. The SAT Bulletin 37 further clarifies the practice and procedure of the withholding of non-resident enterprise income tax.

Where a non-resident enterprise transfers taxable assets indirectly by disposing of the equity interests of an overseas holding company, which is an Indirect Transfer, the non-resident enterprise as either transferor or transferee, or the PRC entity that directly owns the taxable assets, may report such Indirect Transfer to the relevant tax authority. Using a “substance over form” principle, the PRC tax authority may disregard the existence of the overseas holding company if it lacks a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of reducing, avoiding or deferring PRC tax. As a result, gains derived from such Indirect Transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax, and the transferee or other person who is obligated to pay for the transfer is obligated to withhold the applicable taxes, currently at a rate of 10% for the transfer

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of equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise. Both the transferor and the transferee may be subject to penalties under PRC tax laws if the transferee fails to withhold the taxes and the transferor fails to pay the taxes.

We face uncertainties as to the reporting and other implications of certain past and future transactions where PRC taxable assets are involved, such as offshore restructuring, sale of the shares in our offshore subsidiaries and investments. Our company may be subject to filing obligations or taxed if our company is transferor in such transactions, and may be subject to withholding obligations if our company is transferee in such transactions, under SAT Bulletin 7 and/or SAT Bulletin 37. For transfer of shares in our company by investors who are non-PRC resident enterprises, our PRC subsidiaries may be requested to assist in the filing under SAT Bulletin 7 and/or SAT Bulletin 37. As a result, we may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with SAT Bulletin 7 and/or SAT Bulletin 37 or to request the relevant transferors from whom we purchase taxable assets to comply with these circulars, or to establish that our company should not be taxed under these circulars, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the newly enacted Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

On March 15, 2019, the National People’s Congress promulgated the Foreign Investment Law, which came into effect on January 1, 2020 and replaced the trio of existing laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. The Foreign Investment Law embodies an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments. The enacted Foreign Investment Law does not touch upon the relevant concepts and regulatory regimes of “actual control” in determining whether a company is considered a foreign invested enterprise, and thus this regulatory topic remains unclear under the Foreign Investment Law. On December 26, 2019, the State Council published the Implementation Rules of Foreign Investment Law, which came into effect on January 1, 2020. The Implementation Rules of Foreign Investment Law restates certain principles of the Foreign Investment Law. However, since the Foreign Investment Law and the Implementation Rules of Foreign Investment Law are relatively new, uncertainties still exist in relation to its interpretation and implementation. For instance, though the Foreign Investment Law does not explicitly classify contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment, it contains a catch-all provision under the definition of “foreign investment,” which includes investments made by foreign investors in China through means stipulated in laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Therefore, it still leaves leeway for future laws, administrative regulations or provisions promulgated by the State Council to provide for contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment. Furthermore, if future laws, administrative regulations or provisions prescribed by the State Council mandate further actions to be taken by companies with respect to existing contractual arrangements, such as unwinding our existing contractual arrangements and/or disposal of our related business operations, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all. Failure to take timely and appropriate measures to cope with any of these or similar regulatory compliance challenges could materially and adversely affect our current corporate structure, financial condition and business operations.

The PCAOB is currently unable to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements and the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections over our auditor deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections.

Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this annual report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), or the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Since our auditor is located in China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB has been unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditor is not currently inspected by the PCAOB.

This lack of the PCAOB inspections in China prevents the PCAOB from fully evaluating audits and quality control procedures of our independent registered public accounting firm. As a result, we and investors in our ADSs are deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections.

The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections, which could cause investors and potential

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investors in our ADSs to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.

Our ADSs will be delisted and our ADSs and shares will be prohibited from trading in the over-the-counter market under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA, if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or fully investigate auditors located in China.  

As part of a continued regulatory focus in the United States on access to audit and other information currently protected by national law, in particular China’s, the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA has been signed into law on December 18, 2020. The HFCAA states if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection for the PCAOB for three consecutive years beginning in 2021, the SEC shall prohibit our ADS from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over-the-counter trading market in the U.S. Accordingly, under the current law this could happen in 2024. If this happens, there is no certainty that we will be able to list our ADSs on a non-U.S. exchange or that a market for our shares will develop outside of the U.S. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.

On December 2, 2021, the SEC adopted final amendments to its rules implementing the HFCAA (the “Final Amendments”). The Final Amendments include requirements to disclose information, including the auditor name and location, the percentage of shares of the issuer owned by governmental entities, whether governmental entities in the applicable foreign jurisdiction with respect to the auditor has a controlling financial interest with respect to the issuer, the name of each official of the Chinese Communist Party who is a member of the board of the issuer, and whether the articles of incorporation of the issuer contains any charter of the Chinese Communist Party. The Final Amendments also establish procedures the SEC will follow in identifying issuers and prohibiting trading by certain issuers under the HFCAA.

On December 16, 2021, PCAOB issued the HFCAA Determination Report, according to which our auditor is subject to the determinations that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely. In March 2022, the SEC issued its first “conclusive list of issuers identified under the HFCAA” indicating that those companies are now formally subject to the delisting provisions if they remain on the list for three consecutive years. We anticipate being added to the list shortly after the filing of this annual report on Form 20-F.

The HFCAA or other efforts to increase U.S. regulatory access to audit information could cause investor uncertainty for affected issuers, including us, and the market price of the ADSs could be adversely affected. Additionally, whether the PCAOB will be able to conduct inspections of our auditor before the issuance of our financial statements on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2023, which is due by April 30, 2024, or at all, is subject to substantial uncertainty and depends on factors out of our and our auditor’s control. If our auditor is unable to be inspected in time, we could be delisted from the New York Stock Exchange and our ADSs will not be permitted for trading “over-the-counter” either. Such a delisting would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase our ADSs when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with delisting would have a negative impact on the price of our ADSs. Also, such a delisting would significantly affect our ability to raise capital on terms acceptable to us, or at all, which would have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.

The potential enactment of the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act would decrease the number of non-inspection years from three years to two, thus reducing the time period before our ADSs may be prohibited from over-the-counter trading or delisted. If this bill were enacted, our ADSs could be delisted from the exchange and prohibited from over-the-counter trading in the U.S. in 2023.

On June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed a bill known as the Accelerating Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, to amend Section 104(i) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (15 U.S.C. 7214(i)) to prohibit securities of any registrant from being listed on any of the U.S. securities exchanges or traded over-the-counter if the auditor of the registrant’s financial statements is not subject to PCAOB inspection for two consecutive years, instead of three consecutive years as currently enacted in the HFCAA.

On February 4, 2022, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the America Competes Act of 2022 which includes the exact same amendments as the bill passed by the Senate. The America Competes Act however includes a broader range of legislation not related to the HFCAA in response to the U.S. Innovation and Competition Act passed by the Senate in 2021. The U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate will need to agree on amendments to these respective bills to align the legislation and pass their amended bills before the President can sign into law. It is unclear when the U.S. Senate and U.S.

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House of Representatives will resolve the differences in the U.S. Innovation and Competition Act and the America Competes Act of 2022 bills currently passed, or when the U.S. President will sign on the bill to make the amendment into law, or at all.

In the case that the bill becomes the law, it will reduce the time period before our ADSs could be delisted from the exchange and prohibited from over-the-counter trading in the U.S. from 2024 to 2023.

Proceedings instituted by the SEC against Chinese affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

Starting in 2011 the Chinese affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, were affected by a conflict between U.S. and Chinese law. Specifically, for certain U.S.-listed companies operating and audited in mainland China, the SEC and the PCAOB sought to obtain from the Chinese firms access to their audit work papers and related documents. The firms were, however, advised and directed that under Chinese law, they could not respond directly to the U.S. regulators on those requests, and that requests by foreign regulators for access to such papers in China had to be channeled through the CSRC.

In late 2012, this impasse led the SEC to commence administrative proceedings under Rule 102E of its Rules of Practice and also under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 against the Chinese accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm. A first instance trial of the proceedings in July 2013 in the SEC’s internal administrative court resulted in an adverse judgment against the firms. The administrative law judge proposed penalties on the firms including a temporary suspension of their right to practice before the SEC, although that proposed penalty did not take effect pending review by the Commissioners of the SEC. On February 6, 2015, before a review by the Commissioner had taken place, the firms reached a settlement with the SEC. Under the settlement, the SEC accepted that future requests by the SEC for the production of documents would normally be made to the CSRC. The firms would receive matching Section 106 requests, and would be required to abide by a detailed set of procedures with respect to such requests, which in substance would require them to facilitate production via the CSRC. If they fail to meet specified criteria, the SEC retains authority to impose a variety of additional remedial measures on the firms depending on the nature of the failure. Remedies for any future noncompliance could include, as appropriate, an automatic six-month bar on a single firm’s performance of certain audit work, commencement of a new proceeding against a firm, or, in extreme cases, the resumption of the current proceeding against all four firms. If additional remedial measures are imposed on the Chinese affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, in administrative proceedings brought by the SEC alleging the firms’ failure to meet specific criteria set by the SEC with respect to requests for the production of documents, we could be unable to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

Under the terms of the settlement, the underlying proceeding against the four PRC-based accounting firms was deemed dismissed with prejudice at the end of four years starting from the settlement date, which was on February 6, 2019. Despite the final ending of the proceedings, the presumption is that all parties will continue to apply the same procedures, i.e. the SEC will continue to make its requests for the production of documents to the CSRC, and the CSRC will normally process those requests applying the sanitization procedure. We cannot predict whether, in cases where the CSRC does not authorize production of requested documents to the SEC, the SEC will further challenge the four PRC-based accounting firms’ compliance with U.S. law. If additional challenges are imposed on the Chinese affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, we could be unable to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Moreover, any negative news about any such future proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding China-based, U.S.-listed companies, and the market price of our ordinary shares may be adversely affected.

If our independent registered public accounting firm was denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to the delisting of the ADSs from the New York Stock Exchange or deregistration from the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of the ADSs in the United States.

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Regulation and censorship of information disseminated over the internet in China may adversely affect our business and reputation and subject us to liability for information displayed on our website.

The PRC government has adopted regulations governing internet access and the distribution of news and other information over the internet. Under these regulations, internet content providers and internet publishers are prohibited from posting or displaying over the internet content that, among other things, violates PRC laws and regulations, impairs the national dignity of China, or is reactionary, obscene, superstitious, fraudulent or defamatory. Failure to comply with these requirements may result in the revocation of licenses to provide internet content and other licenses, and the closure of the concerned websites. The website operator may also be held liable for such censored information displayed on or linked to the websites. If our website is found to be in violation of any such requirements, we may be penalized by relevant authorities, and our operations or reputation could be adversely affected.

It may be difficult for overseas regulators to conduct investigation or collect evidence within China.

Shareholder claims or regulatory investigation that are common in the United States generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to providing information needed for regulatory investigations or litigation initiated outside China. Although the authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the Unities States may not be efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. Furthermore, Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law, or Article 177, which became effective in March 2020, prohibits, without the approval of the securities regulatory authority in China, (i) foreign securities regulators from engaging in any inspection activities within China and (ii) anyone from providing any documents or materials relating to capital markets activities to foreign parties. While detailed interpretation of or implementation rules under Article 177 have yet to be promulgated, the inability for an overseas securities regulator to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within China may further increase difficulties faced by you in protecting your interests. See also “You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law” for risks associated with investing in us as a Cayman Islands company.

Risks Related to the ADSs

If the market price for our ADSs falls below US$1.00 for an extended period of time, or falls to US$0.16 at any time, our ADSs may be delisted from the NYSE.

Pursuant to NYSE Rule 802.01C, a company will be considered to be below complaince standards if the average closing price of a security as reported on the consolidated tape is less than US$1.00 over a consecutive 30 trading-day period. Once notified, the company must bring its share price and average share price back above US$1.00 within the applicable cure period following receipt of the notification. The company can regain compliance at any time during the cure period if on the last trading day of any calendar month during the cure period the company has a closing share price of at least US$1.00 and an average closing share price of at least US$1.00 over the 30 trading-day period ending on the last trading day of that month. In the event that at the expiration of the cure period, both a US$1.00 closing share price on the last trading day of the cure period and a US$1.00 average closing share price over the 30 trading-day period ending on the last trading day of the cure period are not attained, the NYSE will commence suspension and delisting procedures. In addition, we understand that the NYSE has a policy to suspend trading immediately and commence delisting procedures if the market price of securities falls to US$0.16 or less. We received a letter from the NYSE dated July 23, 2021 notifying us that the stock prices of our ADSs are below compliance standards due to the fact that the average closing price of our ADSs was less than $1.00 for a consecutive 30 trading-day period. In response to the letter from the NYSE, we changed the ratio of the ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares from 25 ADSs representing one Class A ordinary share to two ADSs representing one Class A ordinary share, effective August 31, 2021. However, we cannot assure you that our ADSs will remain in compliance with the NYSE listing rules going forward. If our ADSs are delisted from the NYSE, the liquidity and value of an investment in our ADSs will be materially and adversely affected.

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The trading price of the ADSs is likely to be volatile, which could result in substantial losses to investors.

The trading price of the ADSs is likely to be volatile and could fluctuate widely due to factors beyond our control. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, including the performance and fluctuation of the market prices of other companies with business operations located mainly in China that have listed their securities in the United States. In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume for the ADSs may be highly volatile for factors specific to our own operations, including the following:

 

variations in our revenues, earnings and cash flows;

 

announcements of new investments, acquisitions, strategic partnerships or joint ventures by us or our competitors;

 

announcements of new offerings, solutions and expansions by us or our competitors;

 

changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;

 

detrimental adverse publicity about us, our services or our industry;

 

announcements of new regulations, rules or policies relevant for our business;

 

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

release of lockup or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding equity securities or sales of additional equity securities;

 

potential litigation or regulatory investigations;

 

allegations of a lack of effective internal control over financial reporting resulting in financial; inadequate corporate governance policies, or allegations of fraud, among other things, involving China-based issuers; and

 

any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the volume and price at which the ADSs will trade.

In the past, shareholders of public companies have often brought securities class action suits against those companies following periods of instability in the market price of their securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit, which could harm our results of operations. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding the ADSs, the market price for the ADSs and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for the ADSs will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade the ADSs, the market price for the ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the market price or trading volume for the ADSs to decline.

The sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of ADSs could adversely affect their market price.

Sales of substantial amounts of the ADSs in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of the ADSs and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. We cannot predict what effect, if any, market sales of securities held by our significant shareholders or any other shareholder or the availability of these securities for future sale will have on the market price of the ADSs.

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Techniques employed by short sellers may drive down the market price of the ADSs.

Short selling is the practice of selling securities that the seller does not own but rather has borrowed from a third party with the intention of buying identical securities back at a later date to return to the lender. The short seller hopes to profit from a decline in the value of the securities between the sale of the borrowed securities and the purchase of the replacement shares, as the short seller expects to pay less in that purchase than it received in the sale. As it is in the short seller’s interest for the price of the security to decline, many short sellers publish, or arrange for the publication of, negative opinions regarding the relevant issuer and its business prospects in order to create negative market momentum and generate profits for themselves after selling a security short. These short attacks have, in the past, led to selling of shares in the market.

Public companies that have substantially all of their operations in China have been the subject of short selling. Much of the scrutiny and negative publicity has centered on allegations of a lack of effective internal control over financial reporting resulting in financial and accounting irregularities and mistakes, inadequate corporate governance policies or a lack of adherence thereto and, in many cases, allegations of fraud. As a result, many of these companies are now conducting internal and external investigations into the allegations and, in the interim, are subject to shareholder lawsuits and/or enforcement actions by the SEC or other U.S. authorities.

It is not clear what effect such negative publicity could have on us. If we were to become the subject of any unfavorable allegations, whether such allegations are proven to be true or untrue, we could have to expend a significant amount of resources to investigate such allegations and/or defend ourselves. While we would strongly defend against any such short seller attacks, we may be constrained in the manner in which we can proceed against the relevant short seller by principles of freedom of speech, applicable state law or issues of commercial confidentiality. Such a situation could be costly and time-consuming, and could distract our management from growing our business. Even if such allegations are ultimately proven to be groundless, allegations against us could severely impact our business operations, and any investment in the ADSs could be greatly reduced or even rendered worthless.

Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future, you must rely on a price appreciation of the ADSs for a return on your investment.

We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in the ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.

Our Board of Directors has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends, subject to certain requirements of Cayman Islands law. Under Cayman Islands law, a Cayman Islands company may pay a dividend out of either profit or share premium account, provided that in no circumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in the company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. Even if our Board of Directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in the ADSs will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of the ADSs. There is no guarantee that the ADSs will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which you purchased the ADSs. You may not realize a return on your investment in the ADSs and you may even lose your entire investment in the ADSs.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

We are an exempted company incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Cayman Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against our directors, actions by our minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands have a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.

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Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records (other than copies of the memorandum and articles of association, the register of mortgages and charges, and any special resolutions passed by the shareholders) or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder motion or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

As a result of all of the above, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by our management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States.

Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and substantially all of our assets are located outside of the United States. Substantially all of our current operations are conducted in China. In addition, most of our current directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States. Substantially all of the assets of these persons are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of China may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.

The voting rights of holders of ADSs are limited by the terms of the deposit agreement, and you may not be able to exercise your right to direct the voting of your Class A ordinary shares underlying the ADSs.

Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights as our registered shareholders. As a holder of the ADSs, you will not have any direct right to attend general meetings of our shareholders or to cast any votes at such meetings. You will only be able to exercise the voting rights which attach to the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs indirectly by giving voting instructions to the depositary in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under the deposit agreement, you may vote only by giving voting instructions to the depositary, as holder of the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs. Upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary may try to vote the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs in accordance with your instructions. If we ask for your instructions, then upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will try to vote the underlying Class A ordinary shares in accordance with those instructions. If we do not instruct the depositary to ask for your instructions, the depositary may still vote in accordance with instructions you give, but it is not required to do so. You will not be able to directly exercise any right to vote with respect to the underlying Class A ordinary shares unless you withdraw the shares and become the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date for the general meeting. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient advance notice of the meeting to enable you to withdraw the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs and become the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date for the general meeting to allow you to attend the general meeting and to vote directly with respect to any specific matter or resolution to be considered and voted upon at the general meeting. In addition, under our fourth amended and restated articles of association, for the purposes of determining those shareholders who are entitled to attend and vote at any general meeting, our directors may close our register of members and/or fix in advance a record date for such meeting, and such closure of our register of members or the setting of such a record date may prevent you from withdrawing the Class A ordinary shares underlying your ADSs and becoming the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date, so that you would not be able to attend the general meeting or to vote directly. Where any matter is to be put to a vote at a general meeting, the depositary will notify you of the upcoming vote and to deliver our voting materials to you. We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting material in time to ensure you can direct the depositary to vote your shares. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out your voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to direct how the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs are voted and you may have no legal remedy if the underlying Class A ordinary shares represented by your ADSs are not voted as you requested.

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Our triple-class share structure with different voting rights will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change of control transactions that holders of our Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

We have adopted a triple-class share structure such that our ordinary shares consist of Class A ordinary shares, Class B ordinary shares and Class C ordinary shares. In respect of matters requiring the votes of shareholders, each Class A ordinary share is entitled to one vote, each Class B ordinary share is entitled to seven votes, and each Class C ordinary share is entitled to ten votes. Each Class B ordinary share or Class C ordinary share is convertible into one Class A ordinary share at any time by the holder thereof. Class A ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares or Class C ordinary shares, Class B ordinary shares are not convertible into Class C ordinary shares, and Class C ordinary shares are not convertible into Class B ordinary shares under any circumstances.

Mr. Peng Ou, our founder and chairman of our Board of Directors, Mr. Tongbo Liu, our chief executive officer and director, and certain of our senior management and employees collectively beneficially own all of our issued and outstanding Class C ordinary shares. These Class C ordinary shares constitute approximately 60.2% of our total issued and outstanding share capital and 84.0% of the aggregate voting power of our total issued and outstanding share capital as of the date of this annual report. In addition, up to 433,053 ordinary shares reserved and issuable upon the exercise of options granted pursuant to our equity incentive plan adopted in October 2017 shall be, upon issuance of such ordinary shares, designated as Class C ordinary shares, the voting power of which will be held by certain of our senior employees. PV PLUTO LIMITED, an entity wholly owned and controlled by Primavera Capital Fund, beneficially owns all of our issued and outstanding Class B ordinary shares, which constitutes approximately 12.4% of our total issued and outstanding share capital and 12.1% of the aggregate voting power of our total issued and outstanding share capital as of the date of this annual report.

As a result of this triple-class share structure and the concentration of ownership, Mr. Peng Ou, Mr. Tongbo Liu and certain of our senior management and employees will have significant influence over our business, including decisions regarding mergers, consolidations, liquidations and the sale of all or substantially all of our assets, election of directors and other significant corporate actions. They may take actions that are not in the best interest of us or our other shareholders. This concentration of ownership may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could have the effect of depriving our other shareholders of the opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and may reduce the price of the ADSs. This concentrated control will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change of control transactions that holders of Class A ordinary shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

Our triple-class voting structure may render the ADSs representing our class A ordinary shares ineligible for inclusion in certain stock market indices, and thus adversely affect the trading price and liquidity of the ADSs.

We cannot predict whether our triple-class share structure with different voting rights will result in a lower or more volatile market price of the ADSs, in adverse publicity, or other adverse consequences. Certain index providers have announced restrictions on including companies with multi-class share structures in certain of their indices. For example, S&P Dow Jones and FTSE Russell have changed their eligibility criteria for inclusion of shares of public companies on certain indices, including the S&P 500, to exclude companies with multiple classes of shares and companies whose public shareholders hold no more than 5% of total voting power from being added to such indices. As a result, our triple-class voting structure may prevent the inclusion of the ADSs representing our class A ordinary shares in such indices, which could adversely affect the trading price and liquidity of the ADSs representing our class A ordinary shares. In addition, several shareholder advisory firms have announced their opposition to the use of multiple class structure and our triple-class structure may cause shareholder advisory firms to publish negative commentary about our corporate governance, in which case the market price and liquidity of the ADSs could be adversely affected.

You may experience dilution of your holdings due to the inability to participate in rights offerings.

We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire securities. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not distribute rights to holders of ADSs unless the distribution and sale of rights and the securities to which these rights relate are either exempt from registration under the Securities Act with respect to all holders of ADSs, or are registered under the provisions of the Securities Act. The depositary may, but is not required to, attempt to sell these undistributed rights to third parties, and may allow the rights to lapse. We may be unable to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, and we are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to these rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to have a registration statement declared effective. Accordingly, holders of ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution of their holdings as a result.

You may be subject to limitations on the transfer of your ADSs.

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems it expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may close

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its books in emergencies, and on weekends and public holidays. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of the ADSs generally when our share register or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary thinks it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

We are an emerging growth company within the meaning of the Securities Act and may take advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we have taken and intend to continue to take advantage of certain exemptions from requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including, most significantly, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 for so long as we remain an emerging growth company. As a result, if we elect to continue to not comply with such auditor attestation requirements, our investors may not have access to certain information they may deem important.

We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.

Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

 

the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K;

 

the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

 

the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

 

the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

We are required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to publish our results on a quarterly basis as press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of the NYSE. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC are less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

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As an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from the New York Stock Exchange corporate governance listing standards. These practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with the New York Stock Exchange corporate governance listing standards.

As a Cayman Islands exempted company listed on the New York Stock Exchange, we are subject to New York Stock Exchange corporate governance listing standards. However, New York Stock Exchange rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from the New York Stock Exchange corporate governance listing standards. We have followed and intend to continue to follow Cayman Islands corporate governance practices in lieu of the corporate governance requirements of the New York Stock Exchange that listed companies must have: (i) a majority of independent directors; (ii) a nominating/corporate governance committee composed entirely of independent directors; and (iii) a compensation committee composed entirely of independent directors. To the extent we choose to follow home country practice in the future, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would enjoy under New York Stock Exchange corporate governance listing standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

There can be no assurance that we will not be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for any taxable year, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. investors in the ADSs or our ordinary shares.

In general, a non-U.S. corporation is a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for any taxable year in which (i) 75% or more of its gross income consists of passive income or (ii) 50% or more of the average quarterly value of its assets consists of assets that produce, or are held for the production of, passive income. For purposes of the above calculations, a non-U.S. corporation that owns at least 25% by value of the shares of another corporation is treated as if it held its proportionate share of the assets of the other corporation and received directly its proportionate share of the income of the other corporation. Cash is a passive asset for these purposes. Based on the composition of our income and assets and the value of our assets, including goodwill, which is based on the price of our ADSs, we do not believe we were a PFIC for the 2021 taxable year. However, it is not entirely clear how the contractual arrangements between our wholly-owned PRC subsidiaries, our consolidated affiliated entities and the shareholders of our consolidated affiliated entities will be treated for purposes of the PFIC rules. Because the treatment of the contractual arrangements is not entirely clear, because we hold a substantial amount of cash and because our PFIC status for any taxable year will depend on the composition of our income and assets and the value of our assets from time to time (which may be determined, in part, by reference to the market price of the ADSs or ordinary shares, which could be volatile), there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC for our current or any future taxable year. If we were a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. investor holds ADSs or ordinary shares, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to such U.S. investor. See “Item 10. Additional Information—10.E. Taxation—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules.”

Item 4.

Information on the Company

4.A.

History and Development of the Company

We commenced our education service business in August 2003. We remained an offline, classroom-based education service provider until we transitioned to an exclusively online education model in 2014.

In September 2015, Studyvip Online Education International Limited, our current ultimate holding company, was incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. In October 2017, Studyvip Online Education International Limited was renamed as Sunlands Online Education Group. In August 2018, Sunlands Online Education Group was renamed as Sunlands Technology Group.

In October 2017, Sunlands Technology Group effectuated a one-for-two share split, pursuant to which each of its issued and outstanding ordinary shares and preferred shares was split into two ordinary shares or preferred shares, as the case may be.

In March 2018, we completed an initial public offering of 13,000,000 ADSs, representing 520,000 Class A ordinary shares and the ADSs were listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “STG.” In connection with our initial public offering, (i) DIAMOND TOWER INVESTMENTS LIMITED, our shareholder and an affiliate of Orchid Asia Group, purchased from us 104,348 Class A ordinary shares, and (ii) ELITE CONCEPT HOLDINGS LIMITED, our shareholder and an affiliate of New Oriental Education & Technology Group Inc., or New Oriental, purchased from us 34,783 Class A ordinary shares. These private placements are being made pursuant to Regulation S of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

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In August 2021, we effected a reverse split of our ADSs. The ratio of our ADSs representing our Class A ordinary shares changed from each 25 ADSs representing one Class A ordinary share to each two ADSs representing one Class A ordinary share.

In December 2013, we entered into a series of contractual arrangements, which we refer to original VIE arrangements in this annual report, with Beijing Shangde Jiaxun Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Sunlands Jiaxun, and its shareholders. The original VIE arrangements enabled us to exercise effective control over Sunlands Jiaxun and its operating subsidiaries in the PRC, including the predecessor of Beijing Shangde Online Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Sunlands, a limited liability company through which we currently conduct our business in the PRC. During 2015 and 2016, as part of our plan to obtain equity financing in the PRC, we terminated the original VIE arrangements through a series of transactions.

In October 2015, our wholly owned subsidiary, Sunlands Online Education HK Limited, or Sunlands HK, was incorporated in Hong Kong.

In July 2017, Tianjin Studyvip Education Co., Limited, our wholly owned subsidiary, was incorporated in the PRC. It was renamed as Tianjin Alaman Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Tianjin Alaman, in February 2021. In August 2017, Sunlands HK established Wuhan Studyvip Online Education Co. Limited, or Wuhan Zhibo, our wholly owned subsidiary, in the PRC.

In August 2017, Wuhan Zhibo entered into a series of contractual agreements, including the Exclusive Technical Consultation and Service Agreement, the Business Operation Agreement, the Equity Interest Pledge Agreement, the Option Agreement, and the Powers of Attorney, with Beijing Sunlands and its shareholders. These contractual arrangements enable us to have effective control over, and receive the economic benefits of, Beijing Sunlands. Accordingly, we are considered the primary beneficiary of Beijing Sunlands and are able to consolidate Beijing Sunlands and its operating subsidiaries in the PRC.

In May 2018, Tianjin Alaman, our wholly-owned subsidiary, entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Tianjin Shangde Online Education Technology Co., Ltd, or Tianjin Shangde, as well as the shareholders of Tianjin Shangde and, where applicable, operating subsidiaries of Tianjin Shangde, through which we obtained effective control over, and became the primary beneficiary of, Tianjin Shangde.

From September 2019 to September 2020, Wuhan Zhibo, our wholly-owned subsidiary, entered into a series of contractual arrangements, including the Exclusive Technical Consultation and Service Agreements, the Business Operation Agreements, the Equity Interest Pledge Agreements, the Option Agreements, and the Powers of Attorney with, (i) Wuhan Xiaoyan Technology Co., Ltd., or Wuhan Xiaoyan, (ii) Wuhan Jiayan Online Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Wuhan Jiayan, (iii) Beijing Odysseus Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Odysseus, (iv) Guangzhou Wudawei Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Guangzhou Wudawei, (v) Guangzhou Tianyong Online Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Guangzhou Tianyong, and (vi) Wuhan Hadeliang Online Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Wuhan Hadeliang, as well as their shareholders and, where applicable, operating subsidiaries of them, through which we obtained effective control over, and became the primary beneficiary of, these companies.

In December 2020, as part of our efforts to streamline our corporate structure, (i) each of Tianjin Alaman, Tianjin Shangde and Tianjin Shangde’s shareholders executed termination agreements to terminate each of the contractual arrangements among them, as a result of which Tianjin Alaman no longer has effective control over, and receives the economic benefits of, Tianjin Shangde; and (ii) Wuhan Zhibo entered into a series of contractual arrangements, including the Exclusive Technical Consultation and Service Agreement, the Business Operation Agreement, the Equity Interest Pledge Agreement, the Option Agreement, and the Power of Attorney with Tianjin Shangde, as well as its shareholders and, where applicable, its operating subsidiaries, through which we obtained effective control over, and became the primary beneficiary of, Tianjin Shangde.

From December 2020 to February 2021, Tianjin Alaman, our wholly-owned subsidiary, entered into a series of contractual arrangements, including the Exclusive Technical Consultation and Service Agreements, the Business Operation Agreements, the Equity Interest Pledge Agreements, the Option Agreements, and Powers of Attorney with (i) Wuhan Fangtang Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Wuhan Fangtang, (ii) Beijing Zhiziyuanshui Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Zhiziyuanshui, and (iii) Beijing Feibian Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Beijing Feibian, as well as their shareholders and, where applicable, operating subsidiaries of them, through which we obtained effective control over, and became the primary beneficiary of, these companies.

In December 2020, Cheerwins Technology Group, or Cheerwins Cayman, our wholly owned subsidiary, was incorporated in Cayman. Its wholly owned subsidiary, Cheerwins Online Education HK limited, or Cheerwins HK, was incorporated in Hong Kong in January 2021. Cheerwins HK currently holds 100% of the equity interests of Tianjin Alaman.

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In April 2021, FireSky Investment HK Limited, or FireSky Investment, our wholly owned subsidiary, was incorporated in Hong Kong. In June 2021, its wholly owned subsidiary, Wuhan Zhongtudao Technology Co., Ltd, or Wuhan Zhongtudao, was incorporated in the PRC.

In April 2021, due to the change of shareholders of Wuhan Jiayan, (i) each of the Wuhan Zhibo, Wuhan Jiayan and Wuhan Jiayan’s original shareholders executed termination agreements to terminate each of the contractual arrangements among them; (ii) Wuhan Zhibo entered into a series of contractual arrangements, including the Exclusive Technical Consultation and Service Agreement, the Business Operation Agreement, the Equity Interest Pledge Agreement, the Option Agreement, and the Power of Attorney with Wuhan Jiayan, as well as its new shareholder, through which we obtained effective control over, and became the primary beneficiary of, Wuhan Jiayan.

From April 2021 to June 2021, as part of our efforts to streamline our corporate structure, (i) each of Wuhan Zhibo, Wuhan Xiaoyan and Wuhan Xiaoyan’s shareholders executed a termination agreement to terminate each of the contractual arrangements among them, as a result of which Wuhan Zhibo no longer has effective control over, and receives the economic benefits of, Wuhan Xiaoyan; (ii) Wuhan Zhongtudao entered into a series of contractual arrangements, including the Exclusive Technical Consultation and Service Agreement, the Business Operation Agreement, the Equity Interest Pledge Agreement, the Option Agreement, and Powers of Attorney with Wuhan Xiaoyan, as well as its shareholders, through which we obtained effective control over, and became the primary beneficiary of, Wuhan Xiaoyan.

In May 2021, with the prior consent of the Wuhan Zhibo and the confirmation of the shareholders of Guangzhou Tianyong, Guangzhou Tianyong was deregistered, and the relevant contractual arrangements among each of Wuhan Zhibo, Guangzhou Tianyong and Guangzhou Tianyong’s shareholders were terminated. As a result, Wuhan Zhibo no longer has effective control over, and receives the economic benefits of, Guangzhou Tianyong.

In October 2021, Wuhan Zhibo, Guangzhou Wudawei and Guangzhou Wudawei’s shareholders executed a termination agreement to terminate the contractual arrangements among them, as a result of which Wuhan Zhibo no longer has effective control over, and receives the economic benefits of, Guangzhou Wudawei.

In November 2021, Beijing Lingding Management Consulting Co., Ltd., or Beijing Lingding, was incorporated in the PRC. In the same month, Wuhan Zhibo entered into a series of contractual arrangements, including the Exclusive Technical Consultation and Service Agreement, the Business Operation Agreement, the Equity Interest Pledge Agreement, the Option Agreement, and Powers of Attorney with Beijing Lingding, as well as its shareholders, through which we obtained effective control over, and became the primary beneficiary of, Beijing Lingding.

On December 6, 2021, we approved a share repurchase program under which our Company is authorized to repurchase up to US$15 million of Class A ordinary shares in the form of ADSs over the next 24 months.

Our corporate headquarters is located at Building 4-6, Chaolai Science Park, No. 36 Chuangyuan Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, the People’s Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is +86-10-52413738. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at the offices of Maples Corporate Services Limited at PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman KY1-1104, Cayman Islands. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Cogency Global Inc. located at 10 East 40th Street, 10th Floor, New York, N.Y. 10016. Our corporate website is www.sunlands.com. The information contained in our website is not a part of this annual report.

Recent Regulatory Development Draft Cybersecurity Measures

On January 4, 2022, the CAC published the Revised Cybersecurity Review Measures, which became effective on February 15, 2022 and repeal the Cybersecurity Review Measures promulgated on April 13, 2020. The Revised Cybersecurity Review Measures provide that a critical information infrastructure operator purchasing network products and services, and platform operators carrying out data processing activities, which affect or may affect national security, shall apply for cybersecurity review and that a platform operator with more than one million users’ personal information aiming to list abroad must apply for cybersecurity review. As the Revised Cybersecurity Review Measures is newly promulgated, it is uncertain how the measures will be interpreted or implemented and how they will affect us. We cannot predict the impact of the Revised Cybersecurity Review Measures, if any, at this stage, and we will closely monitor and assess any development in the rule-making process.

In anticipation of the strengthened implementation of cybersecurity laws and regulations and the continued expansion of our business, we face potential risks if we are deemed as a “critical information infrastructure operator” or “platform operator” under the PRC cybersecurity laws and regulations, and would be required to follow cybersecurity review procedures. During

45

 


such review, we may be required to suspend providing any existing or new services to our customers and/or experience other disruptions of our operations, and such review could also result in negative publicity with respect to our Company and diversion of our managerial and financial resources.

As of the date of this annual report, we have not been involved in any investigations or become subject to a cybersecurity review initiated by the CAC based on the Revised Cybersecurity Review Measures, and we have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, sanctions in such respect or any regulatory objections to our listing status from the CAC.

Potential CSRC Approval Required for the Listing of our ADSs

On July 6, 2021, certain PRC regulatory authorities issued Opinions on Strictly Cracking Down on Illegal Securities Activities. These opinions call for strengthened regulation over illegal securities activities and supervision on overseas listings by China-based companies and propose to take effective measures, such as promoting the development of relevant regulatory systems to deal with the risks and incidents faced by China-based overseas-listed companies. As of the date of this annual report, no official guidance and related implementation rules have been issued in relation to these recently issued opinions and the interpretation and implementation of these opinions remain unclear at this stage. We cannot assure you that we will not be required to obtain the approval of the CSRC or of potentially other regulatory authorities to maintain the listing status of our ADSs on the NYSE or to conduct offerings of securities in the future. We have been closely monitoring regulatory developments in China regarding any necessary approvals from the CSRC, the CAC, or other PRC regulatory authorities required for overseas listings. As of the date of this annual report, we have not received any inquiry, notice, warning, sanctions or regulatory objection from the CSRC.

Moreover, on December 24, 2021, the CSRC issued the Provisions of the State Council on the Administration of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments) and the Administrative Measures for the Filing of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments), collectively the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations, for public comments, which require, among others, that PRC domestic companies that seek to offer and list securities in overseas markets, either in direct or indirect means, are required to file the required documents with the CSRC within three working days after its application for overseas listing is submitted. As of the date of this annual report, the Draft Overseas Listing Regulations were released for public comments only and the final version and effective date of such regulations are subject to change with substantial uncertainty.

Contractual Arrangements and Corporate Structure

We are a Cayman Islands company and currently conduct substantially all of our business operations in the PRC through our subsidiaries incorporated in the PRC, and the VIEs. Our subsidiaries control the VIEs in the PRC, through a series of contractual arrangements. We conduct a significant portion of our businesses in China through the VIEs. It is the VIEs that hold our key operating licenses, provide services to our customers, and enter into contracts with our suppliers. We operate our businesses this way because PRC laws and regulations restrict foreign investment in companies that engage in value-added telecommunication services. These contractual arrangements entered into with the VIEs allow us to (i) exercise effective control over the VIEs, (ii) receive substantially all of the economic benefits of the VIEs, and (iii) have an exclusive option to purchase all or part of the equity interests in the VIEs when and to the extent permitted by PRC law. These contractual arrangements include the operating agreements, equity pledge agreements, exclusive purchase option agreements, shareholder voting right trust agreements, loan agreements, and cooperation agreements, as the case may be. As a result of these contractual arrangements, we exert effective control over, and are considered the primary beneficiary of, the VIEs and consolidate their operating results in our financial statements under U.S. GAAP.

We do not have any equity interests in the VIEs who are owned by certain nominee shareholders. As a result, control through these contractual arrangements may be less effective than direct ownership, and we could face heightened risks and costs in enforcing these contractual arrangements, because there are substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations, and rules relating to the legality and enforceability of these contractual arrangements. If the PRC government finds such agreements to be illegal, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in the VIEs.

Transfer of Funds and Other Assets

Under relevant PRC laws and regulations, we are permitted to remit funds to the VIEs through loans rather than capital contributions. The VIEs funded their operations primarily using cash generated from operating and financing activities. In addition, Sunlands Technology Group and the VIEs may, from time to time, lend cash to each other to settle the payment obligations on each other’s behalf to provide temporary working capital support. In 2019, 2020 and 2021, the net amounts of

46

 


working capital support provided by our PRC subsidiaries to the VIEs were RMB1,110.4 million, RMB1,475.3 million and RMB12.5 million (US$2.0 million), respectively.

As of December 31, 2021, our PRC subsidiaries had made cumulative capital contributions of US$200.0 million to our PRC subsidiaries through an intermediate holding company. These funds have been used by our PRC subsidiaries for their operations. Our PRC subsidiaries maintained certain personnel for sales and marketing, research and development, and general and administrative functions to support the operations of the VIEs.

In 2019, 2020 and 2021, the VIEs transferred RMB1,230.2 million, RMB17.1 million and RMB62.6 million (US$9.8 million) of service fees to our PRC subsidiaries pursuant to the contractual arrangements, respectively. The outstanding balance of service fees owed by the VIEs to our PRC subsidiaries was nil as of each of December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021. There were no other assets transferred between VIEs and non-VIEs in 2019, 2020 and 2021.

As advised by our PRC legal advisor, for any amounts owed by the VIEs to our PRC subsidiaries under the VIE agreements, unless otherwise required by PRC tax authorities, we are able to settle such amounts without limitations under the current effective PRC laws and regulations, provided that the VIEs have sufficient funds to do so and that the VIEs, in case in the form of non-enterprise institution, follow the principles of openness, fairness and impartiality, fix the price reasonably and regulate the decision-making, and do not damage the state interests, the interests of the non-enterprise institution or the rights and interests of the teachers and students when conducting such related party transaction. Sunlands Technology Group has not previously declared or paid any cash dividend or dividend in kind, and has no plan to declare or pay any dividends in the near future on our shares or the ADSs representing our ordinary shares. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to operate and expand our business. See “Item 8.—Financial Information—8.A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Dividend Policy.”

For the purpose of illustration, the below table reflects the hypothetical taxes that might be required to be paid within China, assuming that: (i) we have taxable earnings, and (ii) we determine to pay a dividend in the future:

 

 

 

Taxation

Scenario(1)

Statutory Tax

and

Standard Rates

 

Hypothetical pre-tax earnings(2)

 

 

100

%

Tax on earnings at statutory rate of 25%(3)

 

 

(25

)%

Net earnings available for distribution

 

 

75

%

Withholding tax at standard rate of 10%(4)

 

 

(7.5

)%

Net distribution to Parent/Shareholders

 

 

67.5

%

 

Notes:

(1)

The tax calculation has been simplified for the purpose of this example. The hypothetical book pre-tax earnings amount, which does not consider timing differences, is assumed to equal the taxable income in the PRC.

(2)

Under the terms of the VIE agreements, sales service fees are charged by our PRC subsidiaries to the VIEs. For all the periods presented, these fees are recognized as cost of revenues of the VIEs, with a corresponding amount as service income by our PRC subsidiaries and eliminated in consolidation. For income tax purposes, our PRC subsidiaries and VIEs file income taxes on a separate company basis. The fees paid are recognized as a tax deduction by the VIEs and as income by our PRC subsidiaries and are tax neutral.

(3)    Certain of our subsidiaries and VIEs qualifies for a 15% preferential income tax rate in China. However, such rate is subject to qualification, is temporary in nature, and may not be available in a future period. For purposes of this hypothetical example, the table above reflects a maximum tax scenario under which the full statutory rate would be effective.

(4)

Upon the instance that the VIEs reach a cumulative level of profitability, because our PRC subsidiaries occupy certain trademarks and copyrights, the agreements will be updated to reflect charges for such trademarks and copyrights usage on the basis that they will qualify for tax neutral treatment.

China’s Enterprise Income Tax Law imposes a withholding income tax of 10% on dividends distributed by a Foreign Invested Enterprises, or the FIE, to its immediate holding company outside of China. A lower withholding income tax rate of 5% is applied if the FIE’s immediate holding company is registered in Hong Kong or other jurisdictions that have a tax treaty arrangement with China, subject to a qualification review at the time of the distribution. For the purpose of this hypothetical example, this table has been prepared based on a taxation scenario under which the full withholding tax would be applied.

The table above has been prepared under the assumption that all profits of the VIEs will be distributed as fees to our PRC subsidiaries under tax neutral contractual arrangements. If in the future, the accumulated earnings of the VIEs exceed the fees paid to our PRC subsidiaries, or if the current and contemplated fee structure between the intercompany entities is determined

47

 


to be non-substantive and disallowed by Chinese tax authorities, we have other tax-planning strategies that can be deployed on a tax neutral basis.

Should all tax planning strategies fail, the VIEs could, as a matter of last resort, make a non-deductible transfer to our PRC subsidiaries for the amounts of the stranded cash in the VIEs. This would result in the double taxation of earnings: one at the VIE level (for non-deductible expenses) and one at the PRC subsidiary level (for presumptive earnings on the transfer). Such a transfer and the related tax burdens would reduce our after-tax income to approximately 3.1% of the pre-tax income. Our management is of the view that the likelihood that this scenario would happen is remote.

Condensed Consolidating Schedule

The following tables present the summary statements of operations for our Company’s VIEs and other entities for the periods presented.

 

 

 

For the Year Ended December 31, 2021

 

 

 

The

Company

 

 

Other

Subsidiaries

 

 

Primary

Beneficiary

of VIEs

 

 

VIEs and

VIEs’

Subsidiaries

 

 

Eliminations

 

 

Consolidated

Total

 

 

 

(RMB in thousands)

 

Third-party net revenues

 

 

 

 

320

 

 

 

1,970,224

 

 

 

537,273

 

 

 

 

 

2,507,817

 

Inter-company revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

62,600

 

 

 

392,410

 

 

 

(455,010

)

 

 

Total costs and operating expenses

 

 

(58,564

)

 

 

(66,884

)

 

 

(1,846,298

)

 

 

(882,418

)

 

 

460,612

 

 

 

(2,393,552

)

Income/(loss) from subsidiaries

   and VIEs

 

 

272,263

 

 

 

338,827

 

 

 

151,955

 

 

 

 

 

(763,045

)

 

 

Income/(loss) from non-operations

 

 

5,357

 

 

 

 

 

7,799

 

 

 

75,815

 

 

 

(5,602

)

 

 

83,369

 

Income (loss) before income

   tax expenses

 

 

219,056

 

 

 

272,263

 

 

 

346,280

 

 

 

123,080

 

 

 

(763,045

)

 

 

197,634

 

Less: income tax (expenses)/benefit

 

 

 

 

 

 

(7,453

)

 

 

27,071

 

 

 

 

 

19,618

 

Loss from equity method investments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(4,886

)

 

 

 

 

(4,886

)

Net income/(loss)

 

 

219,056

 

 

 

272,263

 

 

 

338,827

 

 

 

145,265

 

 

 

(763,045

)

 

 

212,366

 

Less: net loss attribute to

   noncontrolling interests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(6,690

)

 

 

 

 

(6,690

)

Net income/(loss) attributable to

   Sunlands Technology Group

 

 

219,056

 

 

 

272,263

 

 

 

338,827

 

 

 

151,955

 

 

 

(763,045

)

 

 

219,056

 

 

 

 

For the Year Ended December 31, 2020

 

 

 

The

Company

 

 

Other

Subsidiaries

 

 

Primary

Beneficiary

of VIEs

 

 

VIEs and

VIEs’

Subsidiaries

 

 

Eliminations

 

 

Consolidated

Total

 

 

 

(RMB in thousands)

 

Third-party net revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,161,098

 

 

 

1,042,693

 

 

 

 

 

2,203,791

 

Inter-company revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

17,118

 

 

 

409,376

 

 

 

(426,494

)

 

 

Total costs and operating expenses

 

 

(75,941

)

 

 

(54,486

)

 

 

(1,684,566

)

 

 

(1,480,604

)

 

 

442,788

 

 

 

(2,852,809

)

Income/(loss) from subsidiaries

   and VIEs

 

 

(369,481

)

 

 

(315,024

)

 

 

(57,013

)

 

 

 

 

741,518

 

 

 

Income/(loss) from non-operations

 

 

14,880

 

 

 

29

 

 

 

176,817

 

 

 

41,013

 

 

 

(16,294

)

 

 

216,445

 

Income (loss) before income

   tax expenses

 

 

(430,542

)

 

 

(369,481

)

 

 

(386,546

)

 

 

12,478

 

 

 

741,518

 

 

 

(432,573

)

Less: income tax (expenses)/benefit

 

 

 

 

 

 

71,522

 

 

 

(71,286

)

 

 

 

 

236

 

Loss from equity method investments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,349

 

 

 

 

 

1,349

 

Net income/(loss)

 

 

(430,542

)

 

 

(369,481

)

 

 

(315,024

)

 

 

(57,459

)

 

 

741,518

 

 

 

(430,988

)

Less: net loss attribute to

   noncontrolling interests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(446

)

 

 

 

 

(446

)

Net income/(loss) attributable to

   Sunlands Technology Group

 

 

(430,542

)

 

 

(369,481

)

 

 

(315,024

)

 

 

(57,013

)

 

 

741,518

 

 

 

(430,542

)

48

 


 

 

 

 

For the Year Ended December 31, 2019

 

 

 

The

Company

 

 

Other

Subsidiaries

 

 

Primary

Beneficiary

of VIEs

 

 

VIEs and

VIEs’

Subsidiaries

 

 

Eliminations

 

 

Consolidated

Total

 

 

 

(RMB in thousands)

 

Third-party net revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

144,441

 

 

 

2,049,461

 

 

 

 

 

2,193,902

 

Inter-company revenues

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,230,211

 

 

 

66,932

 

 

 

(1,297,143

)

 

 

Total costs and operating expenses

 

 

(23,841

)

 

 

(28,359

)

 

 

(1,105,863

)

 

 

(2,792,705

)

 

 

1,297,143