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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 20-F

 

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

OR

 

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

Date of event requiring this shell company report          

 

For the transition period from                  to                  

 

Commission file number:  1-13546

 

STMicroelectronics N.V.

 

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Not Applicable

 

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

 

The Netherlands

 

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

WTC Schiphol Airport

Schiphol Boulevard 265

1118 BH Schiphol

The Netherlands

 

(Address of principal executive offices)

Jean-Marc Chery

39, Chemin du Champ des Filles

1228 Plan-Les-Ouates

Geneva

Switzerland

Tel:  +41 22 929 29 29

Fax:  +41 22 929 29 88

 

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

 

Title of Each Class

 

Trading Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common shares, nominal value €1.04 per share

 

STM

 

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.

None

(Title of Class)

 

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

None

(Title of Class)

 

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

906,518,057 common shares outstanding as at December 31, 2021

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes    No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.  Yes    No

Note – Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company.  See definition of “large accelerated filer, "accelerated filer,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

 

 

 

 

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012. 


Table of Contents

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.   

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued

 

Other

 

 

 

by the International Accounting Standards Board   

 

 

 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17   Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes    No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.   Yes    No

 

 


Table of Contents

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Page

 

 

 

 

PART I

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

4

 

Item 2.

 

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

4

 

Item 3.

 

Key Information

4

 

Item 4.

 

Information on the Company

20

 

Item 5.

 

Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

34

 

Item 6.

 

Directors, Senior Management and Employees

65

 

Item 7.

 

Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

98

 

Item 8.

 

Financial Information

99

 

Item 9.

 

Listing

100

 

Item 10.

 

Additional Information

100

 

Item 11.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

114

 

Item 12.

 

Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities

116

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

118

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 13.

 

Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

118

 

Item 14.

 

Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

118

 

Item 15.

 

Controls and Procedures

118

 

Item 16.

 

 

 

 

Item 16A.

 

Audit Committee Financial Expert

120

 

Item 16B.

 

Code of Ethics

120

 

Item 16C.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

121

 

Item 16D.

 

Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

122

 

Item 16E.

 

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

122

 

Item 16F.

 

Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant.

122

 

Item 16G.

 

Corporate Governance

122

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

125

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 17.

 

Financial Statements

125

 

Item 18.

 

Financial Statements

125

 

Item 19.

 

Exhibits

125

 

 

 

1


Table of Contents

 

 

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION

In this annual report on Form 20-F (the “Form 20-F”), references to “we”, “us” and “Company” are to STMicroelectronics N.V. together with its consolidated subsidiaries, references to “EU” are to the European Union, references to “€” and the “Euro” are to the Euro currency of the EU, references to the “United States” and the “U.S.” are to the United States of America and references to “$” and to “U.S. dollars” are to United States dollars.  References to “mm” are to millimeters and references to “nm” are to nanometers.

We have compiled market size and our market share data in this Form 20-F using statistics and other information obtained from several third-party sources.  Except as otherwise disclosed herein, all references to trade association data are references to World Semiconductor Trade Statistics (“WSTS”).  Certain terms used in this Form 20-F are defined in “Certain Terms”.

We report our financial statements in U.S. dollars and prepare our Consolidated Financial Statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”).  We also report certain non-U.S. GAAP financial measures (free cash flow and net financial position), which are derived from the amounts presented in the financial statements prepared under U.S. GAAP.  Furthermore, we are required by Dutch law to report our Statutory and Consolidated Financial Statements, in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”) and adopted by the European Union.  The IFRS financial statements are reported separately and can differ materially from the statements reported in U.S. GAAP.

Various amounts and percentages used in this Form 20-F have been rounded and, accordingly, they may not total 100%.

We and our affiliates own or otherwise have rights to the trademarks and trade names, including those mentioned in this Form 20-F, used in conjunction with the marketing and sale of our products.

 

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Some of the statements contained in this Form 20-F that are not historical facts, particularly in “Item 3. Key Information — Risk Factors”, “Item 4. Information on the Company” and “Item 5.  Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and “— Business Outlook” are statements of future expectations and other forward-looking statements (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 or Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended) that are based on management’s current views and assumptions, and are conditioned upon and also involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, performance or events to differ materially from those anticipated by such statements due to, among other factors:

 

changes in global trade policies, including the adoption and expansion of tariffs and trade barriers, that could affect the macro-economic environment and adversely impact the demand for our products;

 

uncertain macro-economic and industry trends (such as inflation and fluctuations in supply chains), which may impact end-market demand for our products;

 

customer demand that differs from projections;

 

the ability to design, manufacture and sell innovative products in a rapidly changing technological environment;

 

changes in economic, social, public health, labor, political, or infrastructure conditions in the locations where we, our customers, or our suppliers operate, including as a result of macro-economic or regional events, military conflicts, social unrest, labor actions, or terrorist activities;

 

unanticipated events or circumstances, which may impact our ability to execute our plans and/or meet the objectives of our R&D and manufacturing programs, which benefit from public funding;

 

legal, political and economic uncertainty surrounding Brexit may be a continued source of instability in international markets and currency exchange rate volatility and may adversely affect business activity, political stability and economic conditions, and while we do not have material operations in the U.K. and have not experienced any material impact from Brexit on our underlying business to date, we cannot predict its future implications;

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financial difficulties with any of our major distributors or significant curtailment of purchases by key customers;

 

the loading, product mix, and manufacturing performance of our production facilities and/or our required volume to fulfill capacity reserved with suppliers or third party manufacturing providers;

 

availability and costs of equipment, raw materials, utilities, third-party manufacturing services and technology, or other supplies required by our operations (including increasing costs resulting from inflation);

 

the functionalities and performance of our IT systems, which are subject to cybersecurity threats and which support our critical operational activities including manufacturing, finance and sales, and any breaches of our IT systems or those of our customers or suppliers;

 

theft, loss, or misuse of personal data about our employees, customers, or other third parties, and breaches of global and local privacy legislation, including the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”);

 

the impact of intellectual property (“IP”) claims by our competitors or other third parties, and our ability to obtain required licenses on reasonable terms and conditions;

 

changes in our overall tax position as a result of changes in tax rules, new or revised legislation, the outcome of tax audits or changes in international tax treaties which may impact our results of operations as well as our ability to accurately estimate tax credits, benefits, deductions and provisions and to realize deferred tax assets;

 

variations in the foreign exchange markets and, more particularly, the U.S. dollar exchange rate as compared to the Euro and the other major currencies we use for our operations;

 

the outcome of ongoing litigation as well as the impact of any new litigation to which we may become a defendant;

 

product liability or warranty claims, claims based on epidemic or delivery failure, or other claims relating to our products, or recalls by our customers for products containing our parts;

 

natural events such as severe weather, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcano eruptions or other acts of nature, the effects of climate change, health risks and epidemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic in locations where we, our customers or our suppliers operate;

 

the duration and the severity of the global outbreak of COVID-19 may continue to negatively impact the global economy in a significant manner for an extended period of time, and also could materially adversely affect our business and operating results;

 

industry changes resulting from vertical and horizontal consolidation among our suppliers, competitors, and customers; and

 

the ability to successfully ramp up new programs that could be impacted by factors beyond our control, including the availability of critical third party components and performance of subcontractors in line with our expectations.

Such forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties, which may cause actual results and performance of our business to differ materially and adversely from the forward-looking statements.  Certain forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology, such as “believes”, “expects”, “may”, “are expected to”, “should”, “would be”, “seeks” or “anticipates” or similar expressions or the negative thereof or other variations thereof or comparable terminology, or by discussions of strategy, plans or intentions.  Some of these risk factors are set forth and are discussed in more detail in “Item 3. Key Information — Risk Factors”.  Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those described in this Form 20-F as anticipated, believed or expected.  We do not intend, and do not assume any obligation, to update any industry information or forward-looking statements set forth in this Form 20-F to reflect subsequent events or circumstances.

Unfavorable changes in the above or other factors listed under “Item 3. Key Information — Risk Factors” from time to time in our Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) filings, could have a material adverse effect on our business and/or financial condition.

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Part I

Item 1.

Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not applicable.

Item 2.

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not applicable.

Item 3.

Key Information

Selected Financial Data

The table below sets forth our selected consolidated financial data for each of the years in the five-year period ended December 31, 2021.  Such data have been derived from our audited Consolidated Financial Statements.  Audited Consolidated Financial Statements for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021, including the Notes thereto (collectively, the “Consolidated Financial Statements”), are included elsewhere in this Form 20-F, while data for prior periods have been derived from our audited Consolidated Financial Statements used in such periods.

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The following information should be read in conjunction with Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects and the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and the related Notes thereto included in Item 18. Financial Statements in this Form 20-F.

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(In millions except per share and ratio data)

 

Consolidated Statements of Income Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net sales

 

$

12,729

 

 

$

10,181

 

 

$

9,529

 

 

$

9,612

 

 

$

8,308

 

Other revenues

 

 

32

 

 

 

38

 

 

 

27

 

 

 

52

 

 

 

39

 

Net revenues

 

 

12,761

 

 

 

10,219

 

 

 

9,556

 

 

 

9,664

 

 

 

8,347

 

Cost of sales(1)

 

 

(7,435

)

 

 

(6,430

)

 

 

(5,860

)

 

 

(5,803

)

 

 

(5,075

)

Gross profit(1)

 

 

5,326

 

 

 

3,789

 

 

 

3,696

 

 

 

3,861

 

 

 

3,272

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Selling, general and administrative(1)

 

 

(1,323

)

 

 

(1,109

)

 

 

(1,093

)

 

 

(1,095

)

 

 

(981

)

Research and development(1)

 

 

(1,723

)

 

 

(1,548

)

 

 

(1,498

)

 

 

(1,398

)

 

 

(1,296

)

Other income and expenses, net

 

 

141

 

 

 

202

 

 

 

103

 

 

 

53

 

 

 

55

 

Impairment, restructuring charges and other related

   closure costs

 

 

(2

)

 

 

(11

)

 

 

(5

)

 

 

(21

)

 

 

(45

)

Operating income (1)

 

 

2,419

 

 

 

1,323

 

 

 

1,203

 

 

 

1,400

 

 

 

1,005

 

Interest income (expense), net

 

 

(29

)

 

 

(20

)

 

 

1

 

 

 

(7

)

 

 

(22

)

Other components of pension benefit costs(1)

 

 

(10

)

 

 

(12

)

 

 

(16

)

 

 

(11

)

 

 

(12

)

Income (loss) on equity-method investments

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

(2

)

Loss on financial instruments, net

 

 

(43

)

 

 

(26

)

 

 

 

 

 

(1

)

 

 

(16

)

Income before income taxes and noncontrolling interest

 

 

2,337

 

 

 

1,267

 

 

 

1,189

 

 

 

1,389

 

 

 

953

 

Income tax expense

 

 

(331

)

 

 

(159

)

 

 

(156

)

 

 

(96

)

 

 

(143

)

Net income

 

 

2,006

 

 

 

1,108

 

 

 

1,033

 

 

 

1,293

 

 

 

810

 

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest

 

 

(6

)

 

 

(2

)

 

 

(1

)

 

 

(6

)

 

 

(8

)

Net income attributable to parent company

 

 

2,000

 

 

 

1,106

 

 

 

1,032

 

 

 

1,287

 

 

 

802

 

Earnings per share (basic) attributable to parent company

   stockholders

 

 

2.21

 

 

 

1.24

 

 

 

1.15

 

 

 

1.43

 

 

 

0.91

 

Earnings per share (diluted) attributable to parent company

   stockholders

 

 

2.16

 

 

 

1.20

 

 

 

1.14

 

 

 

1.41

 

 

 

0.89

 

Number of shares used in calculating earnings per share

   (basic)

 

 

904.3

 

 

 

894.6

 

 

 

894.3

 

 

 

899.4

 

 

 

884.7

 

Number of shares used in calculating earnings per share

   (diluted)

 

 

924.8

 

 

 

919.7

 

 

 

903.6

 

 

 

911.0

 

 

 

906.1

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets Data (end of period):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

 

3,225

 

 

 

3,006

 

 

 

2,597

 

 

 

2,266

 

 

 

1,759

 

Restricted cash

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Short-term deposits

 

 

291

 

 

 

581

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marketable securities

 

 

 

 

 

133

 

 

 

133

 

 

 

330

 

 

 

431

 

Total assets

 

 

15,540

 

 

 

14,454

 

 

 

11,868

 

 

 

10,867

 

 

 

9,681

 

Net assets

 

 

9,273

 

 

 

8,506

 

 

 

7,111

 

 

 

6,424

 

 

 

5,467

 

Short-term debt

 

 

143

 

 

 

795

 

 

 

173

 

 

 

146

 

 

 

118

 

Long-term debt

 

 

2,396

 

 

 

1,826

 

 

 

1,899

 

 

 

1,764

 

 

 

1,583

 

Total parent company stockholders’ equity

 

 

9,209

 

 

 

8,448

 

 

 

7,043

 

 

 

6,359

 

 

 

5,404

 

Common stock and Additional Paid-in Capital

 

 

3,690

 

 

 

4,219

 

 

 

4,149

 

 

 

4,000

 

 

 

3,875

 

Other Data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dividend per share

 

 

0.240

 

 

 

0.168

 

 

 

0.240

 

 

 

0.240

 

 

 

0.240

 

Capital expenditures, net of proceeds from sales

 

 

(1,828

)

 

 

(1,279

)

 

 

(1,174

)

 

 

(1,262

)

 

 

(1,298

)

Net cash from operating activities

 

 

3,060

 

 

 

2,093

 

 

 

1,869

 

 

 

1,845

 

 

 

1,677

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

1,045

 

 

 

923

 

 

 

854

 

 

 

791

 

 

 

650

 

Debt-to-equity ratio(2)

 

 

0.28

 

 

 

0.31

 

 

 

0.29

 

 

 

0.30

 

 

 

0.31

 

 

(1)

The comparative amounts as at December 31, 2017 were restated to reflect the new guidance adopted on January 1, 2018 on the presentation of net periodic benefit cost in the consolidated statements of income.

(2)

Debt-to-equity ratio is the ratio between our total financial debt (short-term debt and long-term debt) and our total parent company stockholder’s equity.

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RISK FACTORS

Risks Related to the Semiconductor Industry which Impact Us

We, and the semiconductor industry as a whole, may be impacted by changes in, or uncertainty about, global, regional and local economic, political, legal, regulatory and social environments as well as climate change

Changes in, and uncertainty about, economic, political, legal, regulatory and social conditions pose a risk as consumers and businesses may postpone spending in response to factors such as curtailment of trade and other business restrictions, financial market volatility, interest rate fluctuations, shifts in inflationary and deflationary expectations, lower capital and productivity growth, unemployment, negative news, declines in income or asset values and/or other factors.  Such global, regional and local conditions could have a material adverse effect on customer and end-market demand for our products, thus materially adversely affecting our business and financial condition.  

The institution of trade tariffs globally, as well as the threat thereof, could negatively impact economic conditions, which could have negative repercussions for our business.  In particular, trade protection and national security policies of the U.S. and Chinese governments, including tariffs, trade restrictions, export restrictions and the placing of companies on restricted entity lists, have and may continue to limit or prevent us from transacting business with certain of our Chinese customers or suppliers; limit, prevent or discourage certain of our Chinese customers or suppliers from transacting business with us; or make it more expensive to do so. If disputes were to arise under any of our agreements with other parties conducting business in China, the resolution of such dispute may be subject to the exercise of discretion by the Chinese government, or agencies of the Chinese government, which may have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, we could face increased competition as a result of China's programs to promote a domestic semiconductor industry and supply chains (including the Made in China 2025 campaign).

Trade policy changes could trigger retaliatory actions by affected countries, which could have a negative impact on our ability to do business in affected countries or lead to reduced purchases of our products by foreign customers, leading to increased costs of components contained in our products, increased manufacturing costs of our products, currency exchange rate volatility, and higher prices for our products in foreign markets.  Further, protectionist measures, laws or governmental policies may encourage our customers to relocate their manufacturing capacity or supply chain to their own respective countries or require their respective contractors, subcontractors and relevant agents to do so, which could impair our ability to sustain our current level of productivity and manufacturing efficiency.    

We, and the semiconductor industry as a whole, face greater risks due to the international nature of the semiconductor business, including in the countries where we, our customers or our suppliers operate, such as:

 

instability of foreign governments, including the threat of war, military conflict, civil unrest, regime changes, mass migration and terrorist attacks;

 

natural events such as severe weather, earthquakes and tsunamis, or the effects of climate change;

 

epidemics and pandemics such as disease outbreaks or more recently COVID-19 and other health related issues;

 

changes in, or uncertainty about, laws, regulations (including executive orders) and policies affecting trade and investment, including following Brexit and including through the imposition of trade and travel restrictions, government sanctions, local practices which favor local companies and constraints on investment;

 

complex and varying government regulations and legal standards, particularly with respect to export control regulations and restrictions, customs and tax requirements, data privacy, intellectual property and anti-corruption; and

 

differing practices of regulatory, tax, judicial and administrative bodies, including with regards to the interpretation of laws, governmental approvals, permits and licenses.

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The semiconductor industry is cyclical and downturns in the semiconductor industry can negatively affect our results of operations and financial condition.

The semiconductor industry is cyclical and has been subject to significant downturns from time to time, as a result of global economic conditions, as well as industry-specific factors, such as built-in excess capacity, fluctuations in product supply, product obsolescence and changes in end-customer preferences. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a significant contraction in the global economy, and there is considerable uncertainty as to its severity and duration. See Item 3. “Key Information — Risk Factors —Risks Related to the Semiconductor Industry which Impact Us — We, and the semiconductor industry as a whole, may be impacted by changes in, or uncertainty about, global, regional and local economic, political, legal, regulatory and social environments as well as climate change.”

Downturns are typically characterized by reduction in overall demand, accelerated erosion of selling prices, reduced revenues and high inventory levels, any of which could result in a significant deterioration of our results of operations.  Such macroeconomic trends typically relate to the semiconductor industry as a whole rather than to the individual semiconductor markets to which we sell our products.  To the extent that industry downturns are concurrent with the timing of new increases in production capacity or introduction of new advanced technologies in our industry, the negative effects on our business from such industry downturns may also be more severe.  We have experienced revenue volatility and market downturns in the past and expect to experience them in the future, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.

The duration and the severity of the global outbreak of COVID-19 has impacted and may continue to impact the global economy and also could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in authorities imposing, and businesses and individuals implementing, numerous measures to try to contain the virus, including travel bans and restrictions, shelter-in-place and stay-at-home orders, quarantines and social distancing guidelines. While to date we have not seen a significant impact on our manufacturing facilities or our supply chain – the ability of our suppliers to deliver on their commitments to us, our ability to ship our products to our customers and general consumer demand for our products may be negatively impacted by the pandemic and/or government responses thereto.

Many of our products and services are considered to be essential under national and local guidelines. As such, we have generally continued to operate in each of the jurisdictions where we are present. However, certain of our facilities have not been able to operate at optimal capacity and any future restrictive measures may have negative impact on our operations, supply chain and transportation networks. In addition, our customers and suppliers have experienced, and may in the future experience, disruptions in their operations and supply chains, which can result in delayed, reduced, or cancelled orders, or collection risks, and which may adversely affect our results of operations.

The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected and may continue to adversely affect the economies and financial markets of many countries, and may result in a further prolonged period of regional, national, and global economic slowdown. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, governments across the world have and are expected to spend significant amounts to fund disease control measures, support healthcare infrastructure, support businesses and revive their economies. Governments could look to re-direct resources and implement austerity measures in the future to balance public finances, which could result in reduced economic activity. Any further economic downturn could reduce overall demand for our products, accelerate the erosion of selling prices, lead to reduced revenues and higher inventory levels, any of which could result in a significant deterioration of our results of operations.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused us to modify our business practices, including with respect to work-from home policies, employee travel, the cancellation of physical participation in meetings, events, and conferences, and social distancing measures. Although these changes have not led to a significant impact on our business or results of operations, we could be negatively affected in the future if government policies further restrict the ability of our employees to perform their functions or if our employees contract or are exposed to COVID-19. In addition, work-from-home and other measures introduce additional operational risks, including cybersecurity risks. There is no certainty that such measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks posed by the virus, and illness and workforce disruptions could lead to unavailability of key personnel and harm our ability to perform critical functions.

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The pandemic has led to increased disruption and volatility in capital markets and credit markets. Unanticipated consequences of the pandemic and resulting economic uncertainty could adversely affect our liquidity and capital resources in the future.

The degree to which COVID-19 impacts our results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including, but not limited to, the duration and severity of the pandemic, the actions taken to contain the virus or treat its impact, other actions taken by governments, businesses, and individuals in response to the virus and resulting economic disruption, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume. We are unable to predict the extent of the impact of the pandemic on our customers, suppliers, vendors, and other partners, and their financial conditions, but a material effect on these parties could also materially adversely affect us.

Given the continued and substantial economic uncertainty and volatility created by the pandemic, it is difficult to predict the nature and extent of impacts on demand for our products. For example, the increased demand for certain of our products that benefited as a result of work- and learn-from-home dynamics may not continue as the pandemic progresses or subsides. Similarly, even as the pandemic progresses or subsides, products for which sales have declined or where costs have increased could continue to experience lower sales or higher costs.

The impact of COVID-19 can also exacerbate other risks discussed herein, which could in turn have a material adverse effect on us. Developments related to COVID-19 have been unpredictable, and additional impacts and risks may arise that we are not aware of or able to respond to appropriately.

We may not be able to match our production capacity to demand.

As a result of the cyclicality and volatility of the semiconductor industry, it is difficult to predict future developments in the markets we serve, and, in turn, to estimate requirements for production capacity.  If our markets, major customers or certain product designs or technologies do not perform as well as we have anticipated, or if demand is impacted by factors outside of our or our customers’ control, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, we risk unused capacity charges, write-offs of inventories and losses on products, and we could be required to undertake restructuring and transformation measures that may involve significant charges to our earnings.  Furthermore, during certain periods, we have also experienced increased demand in certain market segments and product technologies, which has led to a shortage of capacity, an increase in the lead times of our delivery to customers and, in certain instances, being required to enter into agreements with our suppliers with onerous terms, such as take-or-pay arrangements.  See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Results of Operations — Impairment, restructuring charges and other related closure costs”.

The global supply of semiconductor industry fabrication capacity is currently not sufficient to meet the demand for semiconductor products. Any shortage of our capacity and the capacity of our sub-contractors may lead to us being unable to service some of our customers, which may result in adverse affects on our customer relationships and in liability claims. Further, as a result of this supply imbalance, the industry in general has experienced a high level of profitability and gross margins, which may not be sustainable over the long-term.

Competition in the semiconductor industry is intense, and we may not be able to compete successfully if our product design technologies, process technologies and products do not meet market requirements.  Furthermore, the competitive environment of the industry has resulted, and is expected to continue to result, in vertical and horizontal consolidation among our suppliers, competitors and customers, which may lead to erosion of our market share, impact our ability to compete and require us to restructure our operations.

We compete in different product lines to various degrees on certain characteristics, for example, price, technical performance, product features, product design, product availability, process technology, manufacturing capabilities and sales and technical support.  Given the intense competition in the semiconductor industry, if our products do not meet market requirements based on any of these characteristics, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.  Our competitors may have a stronger presence in key markets and geographic regions, greater name recognition, larger customer bases, greater government support and greater financial, research and development, sales and marketing, manufacturing, distribution, technical and other resources than we do.  These competitors may be able to adapt more quickly to changes in the business environment, to new or emerging technologies and to changes in customer requirements.

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The semiconductor industry is intensely competitive and characterized by the high costs associated with developing marketable products and manufacturing technologies as well as high levels of investment in production capabilities.  As a result, the semiconductor industry has experienced, and is expected to continue to experience, significant vertical and horizontal consolidation among our suppliers, competitors and customers.  Consolidation in the semiconductor industry could erode our market share, negatively impact our ability to compete and require us to increase our R&D effort, engage in mergers and acquisitions and/or restructure our operations.

Risks Related to Our Operations

Our high fixed costs could adversely impact our results.

Our operations are characterized by high fixed or other costs which are difficult to reduce, including costs related to manufacturing, particularly as we operate our own manufacturing facilities, and the employment of our highly skilled workforce.  When demand for our products decreases, competition increases or we fail to forecast demand accurately, we are driven to reduce prices and we are not always able to decrease our total costs in line with resulting revenue declines.  As a result, the costs associated with our operations may not be fully absorbed, leading to unused capacity charges, higher average unit costs and lower gross margins, adversely impacting our results.

Our capital needs are high compared to those competitors who do not manufacture their own products and we may need additional funding in the coming years to finance our investments, to purchase other companies or technologies developed by third parties or to refinance our maturing indebtedness.

As a result of our choice to maintain control of a large portion of our manufacturing technologies and capabilities, we may require significant capital expenditure to maintain or upgrade our facilities in the event that our facilities become inadequate in terms of capacity, flexibility and location.  We monitor our capital expenditures taking into consideration factors such as trends in the semiconductor market, customer requirements and capacity utilization.  These capital expenditures may increase in the future if we decide to upgrade or expand the capacity of our manufacturing facilities, purchase or build new facilities or increase investments supporting key strategic initiatives.  For instance, we may be unable to successfully maintain and operate large infrastructure projects.  Such increased capital expenditures associated with large infrastructure projects and strategic initiatives might not achieve profitability or we may be unable to utilize infrastructure projects to full capacity.  There can also be no assurance that future market demand and products required by our customers will meet our expectations.  We also may need to invest in other companies, in IP and/or in technology developed either by us or by third parties to maintain or improve our position in the market or to reinforce our existing business.  Failure to invest appropriately and in a timely manner or to successfully integrate any recent or future business acquisitions may prevent us from achieving the anticipated benefits and could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

The foregoing may require us to secure additional financing, including through the issuance of debt, equity or both.  The timing and the size of any new share or bond offering would depend upon market conditions as well as a variety of other factors.  In addition, the capital markets may from time to time offer terms of financing that are particularly favorable.  We cannot exclude that we may access the capital markets opportunistically to take advantage of market conditions.  Any such transaction or any announcement concerning such a transaction could materially impact the market price of our common shares.  If we are unable to access capital on acceptable terms, this may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Our operating results depend on our ability to obtain quality supplies on commercially reasonable terms.  As we depend on a limited number of suppliers for materials, equipment and technology, we may experience supply disruptions if suppliers interrupt supply, increase prices or experience material adverse changes in their financial condition.

Our ability to meet our customers’ demand to manufacture our products depends upon obtaining adequate supplies of quality materials on a timely basis and on commercially reasonable terms.  Certain materials are available from a limited number of suppliers or only from a limited number of suppliers in a particular region.  We purchase certain materials whose prices on the world markets have fluctuated significantly in the past and may fluctuate significantly in the future.  Although supplies for most of the materials we currently use are adequate, shortages could occur in various essential materials due to interruption of supply or increased demand in the industry.  For instance, the COVID-19 outbreak could cause disruptions from the temporary closure of

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suppliers’ facilities or delays and reduced export or shipment of various materials.  In addition, the costs of certain materials may increase due to market pressures and we may not be able to pass on such cost increases to our customers.

We also purchase semiconductor manufacturing equipment and third party licensed technology from a limited number of suppliers and providers and, because such equipment and technology are complex, it is difficult to replace one supplier or provider with another or to substitute one piece of equipment or type of technology for another.  In addition, suppliers and providers may extend lead times, limit our supply, increase prices or change contractual terms related to certain manufacturing equipment and third party licensed technology, any of which could adversely affect our results.  Furthermore, suppliers and technology providers tend to focus their investments on providing the most technologically advanced equipment, materials and technology and may not be in a position to address our requirements for equipment, materials or technology of older generations.  Although we work closely with our suppliers and providers to avoid such shortages, there can be no assurance that we will not encounter these problems in the future.

Consolidation among our suppliers or vertical integration among our competitors may limit our ability to obtain sufficient quantities of materials, equipment and/or technology on commercially reasonable terms and engage in mergers and acquisitions.  In certain instances, we may be required to enter into agreements with our suppliers with onerous terms, such as take-or-pay arrangements.  If we are unable to obtain supplies of materials, equipment or technology in a timely manner or at all, or if such materials, equipment or technology prove inadequate or too costly, our results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our financial results can be affected by fluctuations in exchange rates, principally in the value of the U.S. dollar.

Currency exchange rate fluctuations affect our results of operations because our reporting currency is the U.S. dollar, in which we receive the major portion of our revenues, while, more importantly, we incur a limited portion of our revenue and a significantly higher portion of our costs in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.  A significant variation of the value of the U.S. dollar against the principal currencies that have a material impact on us (primarily the Euro, but also certain other currencies of countries where we have operations, such as the Singapore dollar) could result in a favorable impact, net of hedging, on our net income in the case of an appreciation of the U.S. dollar, or a negative impact, net of hedging, on our net income if the U.S. dollar depreciates relative to these currencies, in particular with respect to the Euro.

In order to reduce the exposure of our financial results to the fluctuations in exchange rates, our principal strategy has been to balance as much as possible the proportion of sales to our customers denominated in U.S. dollars with the amount of purchases from our suppliers denominated in U.S. dollars and to reduce the weight of the other costs, including depreciation, denominated in Euros and in other currencies.  In order to further reduce our exposure to U.S. dollar exchange rate fluctuations, we have hedged certain line items on our Consolidated Statements of Income, in particular with respect to a portion of the cost of sales, the majority of the R&D expenses and certain SG&A expenses located in the Euro zone.  We also hedge certain manufacturing costs, included within the cost of sales, denominated in Singapore dollars.  There can be no assurance that our hedging transactions will prevent us from incurring higher Euro-denominated manufacturing costs and/or operating expenses when translated into our U.S. dollar-based accounts.  See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Impact of Changes in Exchange Rates” and “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk”.

Our operating results may vary significantly from quarter to quarter and annually and may also differ significantly from our expectations or guidance.

Our operating results are affected by a wide variety of factors that could materially and adversely affect revenues and profitability or lead to significant variability of our operating results from one period to the next.  These factors include changes in demand from our key customers, capital requirements, inventory management, availability of funding, competition, new product developments, start of adoption of our new products by customers, technological changes, manufacturing or supplier issues and effective tax rates.  In addition, in periods of industry overcapacity or when our key customers encounter difficulties in their end-markets or product ramps, orders are more exposed to cancellations, reductions, price renegotiation or postponements, which in turn reduce our ability to forecast the next quarter or full year production levels, revenues and margins. As a result, we may not meet our financial targets, which could in turn have an impact on our reputation or brand.  For these reasons and others that we may not yet have identified, our revenues and operating results may differ materially from our expectations or guidance as visibility is reduced.  See “Item 4. Information on the Company — Backlog”.

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If our external silicon foundries or back-end subcontractors fail to perform, this could adversely affect our business prospects.

We currently use external silicon foundries and back-end subcontractors for a portion of our manufacturing activities.  Our external silicon foundries or back-end subcontractors are currently unable to satisfy our demand as a result of an increase in demand across our industry and disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and we expect such limitation in capacity to continue through 2022. This limitation on our ability to satisfy our demand may extend beyond 2022 and our external silicon foundries and back-end subcontractors may experience further inability to satisfy our demand as a result of competing orders, disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic or otherwise or may experience manufacturing difficulties, delays or reduced yields. Any limitation on the ability of our external silicon foundries and back-end subcontractors to satisfy our demand may cause our results of operations and ability to satisfy the demand of our customers to suffer. Likewise, if we are unable to meet our commitments to silicon foundries and back-end subcontractors, our results of operations could suffer.  Prices for these services also vary depending on capacity utilization rates at our external silicon foundries and back-end subcontractors, quantities demanded and product and process technology.  Such outsourcing costs can vary materially and, in cases of industry shortages, they can increase significantly, negatively impacting our business prospects.

Our manufacturing processes are highly complex, costly and potentially vulnerable to impurities, disruptions or inefficient implementation of production changes or interruptions that can significantly increase our costs and delay product shipments to our customers.

Our manufacturing processes are highly complex, require advanced and increasingly costly equipment and are continuously modified or maintained in an effort to improve yields and product performance and lower the cost of production.  

Furthermore, impurities or other difficulties in the manufacturing process can lower yields, interrupt production or result in scrap.  As system complexity and production changes have increased and sub-micron technology has become more advanced, manufacturing tolerances have been reduced and requirements for precision have become even more demanding.  We have from time to time experienced bottlenecks and production difficulties that have caused delivery delays and quality control problems.  There can be no assurance that we will not experience bottlenecks or production, transition or other difficulties in the future.

In addition, we are exposed to risks related to interruptions of our manufacturing processes.  If any of our property or equipment is damaged or otherwise rendered unusable or inoperable due to accident, cyberattack or otherwise this could result in interruptions which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may experience quality problems from time to time that can result in decreased sales and operating margin and product liability or warranty claims.

We sell complex products that may not in each case comply with specifications or customer requirements, or may contain design or manufacturing defects, that could cause personal injury, property damage or security risks that could be exploited by unauthorized third parties hacking, corrupting or otherwise obtaining access to our products, including the software loaded thereon by us, our suppliers or our customers.  Although our general practice is to contractually limit our liability to the repair, replacement or refund of defective products, we occasionally agree to contractual terms with key customers in which we provide extended warranties and accordingly we may face product liability, warranty, delivery failure, and/or other claims relating to our products that could result in significant expenses relating to compensation payments, product recalls or other actions related to such extended warranties and/or to maintain good customer relationships, which could result in decreased sales and operating margin and other material adverse effects on our business.  Costs or payments we may make in connection with warranty and other claims or product recalls may adversely affect our results of operations.  There can be no assurance that we will be successful in maintaining our relationships with customers with whom we incur quality problems.  Furthermore, if litigation occurs we could incur significant costs and liabilities to defend ourselves against such claims. The industry has experienced a rise in premiums and deductibles with regards to insurance policies. These may continue to increase and insurance coverage may also correspondingly decrease. If litigation occurs and damages are awarded against us, there can be no assurance that our insurance policies will be available or adequate to protect us against such claims.

 

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Disruptions in our relationships with any one of our key customers or distributors, and/or material changes in their strategy or financial condition or business prospects, could adversely affect our results of operations.

A substantial portion of our sales is derived from a limited number of customers and distributors.  There can be no assurance that our customers or distributors will continue to book the same level of sales with us that they have in the past, will continue to succeed in the markets they serve and will not purchase competing products over our products.  Many of our key customers and distributors operate in cyclical businesses that are also highly competitive, and their own market positions may vary considerably.  In recent years, some of our customers have vertically integrated their businesses. Such vertical integrations may impact our business.  Our relationships with the newly formed entities could be either reinforced or jeopardized by the integration.  If we are unable to maintain or increase our market share with our key customers or distributors, or if they were to increase product returns or fail to meet payment obligations, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected.  Certain of our products are customized to our customers’ specifications.  If customers do not purchase products made specifically for them, we may not be able to recover a cancellation fee from our customers or resell such products to other customers.  In addition, the occurrence of epidemic or pandemic outbreaks such as COVID-19 could affect our customers.  While the geographic spread of COVID-19 cannot be predicted and its future developments are uncertain, if its severity increases, the adverse public health impact on our customers could negatively affect our results.

We may experience delays in delivering our product and technology roadmaps as well as transformation initiatives.

Our industry adapts to technological advancements and it is likely that new products, equipment, processes and service methods, including transformation initiatives related to digitalization, are in the process of being implemented.  Any failure by us to manage our data governance processes could undermine our initiatives related to digitalization and any failure by us to react to changes or advances in existing technologies and processes as we develop and invest in our product, technology and transformation roadmaps could materially delay the introduction of new solutions.  If we are not able to execute on these roadmaps on a timely basis or at an acceptable cost this could result in loss of competitiveness of our solutions, decreased revenue and a loss of market share.

Our computer systems, including hardware, software, information and cloud-based initiatives, are subject to attempted security breaches and other cybersecurity threats, which, if successful, could adversely impact our business.

We have, from time to time, detected and experienced attempts by others to gain unauthorized access to our computer systems and networks.  The reliability and security of our information technology infrastructure and software, and our ability to expand and continually update technologies, including to transition to cloud-based technologies, in response to our changing needs is critical to our business.  In the current environment, there are numerous and evolving risks to cybersecurity, including criminal hackers, state-sponsored intrusions, terrorism, industrial espionage, employee malfeasance, vandalism and human or technological error.  Computer hackers and others routinely attempt to breach the security of technology products, services, and systems, and those of our customers, suppliers and providers of third party licensed technology, and some of those attempts may be successful.  Such breaches could result in, for example, unauthorized access to, disclosure, modification, misuse, loss, or destruction of our, our customer, or other third party data or systems, theft of our trade secrets and other sensitive or confidential data, including personal information and intellectual property, system disruptions, and denial of service.  

The attempts to breach our systems, including cloud-based systems, and gain unauthorized access to our information technology systems are becoming increasingly more sophisticated.  These attempts may include covertly introducing malware to our computers, including those in our manufacturing operations, and impersonating unauthorized users, among others.  For instance, employees and former employees, in particular former employees who become employees of our competitors or customers, may misappropriate, use, publish or provide to our competitors or customers our intellectual property and/or proprietary or confidential business information.  Also, third parties may attempt to register domain names similar to our brands or website, which could cause confusion and divert online customers away from our products.  In the event of such breaches, we, our customers or other third parties could be exposed to potential liability, litigation, and regulatory action, as well as the loss of existing or potential customers, damage to our reputation, and other financial loss and such breaches could also result in losing existing or potential customers in connection with any actual or perceived security vulnerabilities in our systems.  In addition, the cost and operational consequences of responding to breaches and implementing remediation measures could be significant.  As these threats continue to develop and grow, we have been adapting and strengthening our security measures.  

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As a result of the social distancing measures and regulations enforced by governments in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, and the resulting work-from-home policies that we have undertaken, there has been additional reliance placed on our IT systems and resources. The resulting reliance on these resources, and the added need to communicate by electronic means, could increase our risk of cybersecurity incidents.

We continue to increase the resources we allocate to implementing, maintaining and/or updating security systems to protect data and infrastructure and to raising security awareness among those having access to our systems.  However, these security measures cannot provide absolute security and there can be no assurance that our employee training, operational, and other technical security measures or other controls will detect, prevent or remediate security or data breaches in a timely manner or otherwise prevent unauthorized access to, damage to, or interruption of our systems and operations.  

We regularly evaluate our IT systems and business continuity plan to make enhancements and periodically implement new or upgraded systems, as for instance the transition and migration of our data systems to cloud-based platforms and critical system migration.  Any delay in the implementation of, or disruption in the transition to different systems could adversely affect our ability to record and report financial and management information on a timely and accurate basis and could impact our operations and financial position.  In addition, a miscalculation of the level of investment needed to ensure our technology solutions are current and up-to-date as technology advances and evolves could result in disruptions in our business should the software, hardware or maintenance of such items become out-of-date or obsolete and the costs of upgrading our cybersecurity systems and remediating damages could be substantial.  

We may also be adversely affected by security breaches related to our equipment providers and providers of IT services or third party licensed technology.  As a global enterprise, we could also be impacted by existing and proposed laws and regulations, as well as government policies and practices related to cybersecurity, privacy and data protection.  Additionally, cyberattacks or other catastrophic events resulting in disruptions to or failures in power, information technology, communication systems or other critical infrastructure could result in interruptions or delays to us, our customers, or other third party operations or services, financial loss, potential liability, and damage our reputation and affect our relationships with our customers and suppliers.

We may be subject to theft, loss, or misuse of personal data about our employees, customers, or other third parties, which could increase our expenses, damage our reputation, or result in legal or regulatory proceedings.

The theft, loss, or misuse of personal data collected, used, stored, or transferred by us to run our business could result in significantly increased security costs or costs related to defending legal claims.  Global privacy legislation, including various EU regulations and directives regulating data privacy and security, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) and the transmission of content using the Internet involving residents of the EU, enforcement, and policy activity in this area are rapidly expanding and creating a complex compliance regulatory environment.  

In particular, the requirements of the GDPR impose a higher compliance burden on us and materially increase the maximum level of fines for compliance failures from their current levels relating to, among other things, consent to process personal data of individuals, the information provided to individuals regarding the processing of their personal data, the security and confidentiality of personal data, and notifications in the event of data breaches and use of third party processors.  Costs to comply with and implement these privacy-related and data protection measures may increase and may necessitate changes to our business.  In addition, our failure to comply with local and international privacy or data protection laws and regulations could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others.  Failure to comply with the GDPR or other data privacy regimes could subject us to significant fines and reputational harm.  

Further, privacy-related legislation is rapidly evolving which may have a negative impact on our business if interpreted or implemented in a manner that is inconsistent from country to country and inconsistent with the current policies and practices of our customers or business partners.  We may also have to change the manner in which we contract with our business partners, store and transfer information and otherwise conduct our business, which could increase our costs and reduce our revenues.  In particular, the requirements of the GDPR will impose a higher compliance burden on us and materially increase the maximum level of fines for compliance failures from their current levels.  Costs to comply with and implement these privacy-related and data protection measures could be significant.  In addition, our failure to comply with local and international privacy or data protection laws and regulations could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others.

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Our business is dependent in large part on continued growth in the industries and segments into which our products are sold and on our ability to retain existing customers and attract new ones.  A market decline in any of these industries, our inability to retain and attract customers, or customer demand for our products which differs from our projections, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

The demand for our products depends significantly on the demand for our customers’ end products.  Growth of demand in the industries and segments into which our products are sold fluctuates significantly and is driven by a variety of factors, including consumer spending, consumer preferences, the development and acceptance of new technologies and prevailing economic conditions.  Changes in our customers’ markets and in our customers’ respective shares in such markets could result in slower growth and a decline in demand for our products.  In addition, if projected industry growth rates do not materialize as forecasted, our spending on process and product development ahead of market acceptance could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is dependent upon our ability to retain existing customers.  In 2021 our largest customer, Apple, accounted for 20.5% of our revenues.  While we do not believe to be dependent on any one customer or group of customers, the loss of key customers or important sockets at key customers could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.  

Our existing customers’ product strategy may change from time to time and/or product specifications may change on short-time product life cycles and we have no certainty that our business, financial position and results of operations will not be affected.  Our business is also dependent upon our ability to attract new customers.  There can be no assurance that we will be successful in attracting and retaining new customers, or in adequately projecting customer demand for our products.  Our failure to do so could materially adversely affect our business, financial position and results of operations.

Market dynamics have driven, and continue to drive us, to a strategic repositioning.

In recent years, we have undertaken several initiatives to reposition our business.  Our strategies to improve our results of operations and financial condition have led us, and may in the future lead us, to acquire businesses that we believe to be complementary to our own, or to divest ourselves of or wind down activities that we believe do not serve our longer term business plans.  Our potential acquisition strategies depend in part on our ability to identify suitable acquisition targets, finance their acquisition, obtain approval by our shareholders and obtain required regulatory and other approvals.  Our potential divestiture strategies depend in part on our ability to compete and to identify the activities in which we should no longer engage, obtain the relevant approvals pursuant to our governance process and then determine and execute appropriate methods to divest of them.

We are constantly monitoring our product portfolio and cannot exclude that additional steps in this repositioning process may be required.  Furthermore, we cannot assure that any strategic repositioning of our business, including executed and possible future acquisitions or dispositions, will be successful and will not result in impairment, restructuring charges and other related closure costs.

Acquisitions and divestitures involve a number of risks that could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition, including:  we may be unable to successfully integrate businesses or teams we acquire with our culture and strategies on a timely basis or at all; and we may be required to record charges related to the goodwill or other long-term assets associated with the acquired businesses.  There can be no assurance that we will be able to achieve the full scope of the benefits we expect from a particular acquisition, divestiture or investment.  Our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer if we fail to coordinate our resources effectively to manage both our existing businesses and any acquired businesses.  In addition, the financing of future acquisitions or divestitures may negatively impact our financial position, including our ability to pay a dividend and/or repurchase our shares, and credit rating and we could be required to raise additional funding.

Other risks associated with acquisitions include:  assumption of potential liabilities, disclosed or undisclosed, associated with the business acquired, which liabilities may exceed the amount of indemnification available from the seller; potential inaccuracies in the financials of the business acquired; and our ability to retain customers of an acquired entity, its business or industrialize an acquired process or technology.  Identified risks associated with divestitures include:  loss of activities and technologies that may have complemented our remaining businesses or operations; and loss of important services provided by key employees that are assigned to divested activities.

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We depend on collaboration with other semiconductor industry companies, research organizations, universities, customers and suppliers to further our R&D efforts, and our business and prospects could be materially adversely affected by the failure or termination of such alliances.

Our success depends on our ability to introduce innovative new products and technologies to the marketplace on a timely basis.  In light of the high levels of investment required for R&D activities, we depend in certain instances on collaborations with other semiconductor industry companies, research organizations, universities, customers and suppliers to develop or access new technologies.

Such collaboration provides us with a number of important benefits, including the sharing of costs, reductions in our own capital requirements, acquisitions of technical know-how and access to additional production capacities.  However, there can be no assurance that our collaboration efforts will be successful and allow us to develop and access new technologies in due time, in a cost-effective manner and/or to meet customer demands.  If a particular collaboration terminates before our intended goals are accomplished we may incur additional unforeseen costs, and our business and prospects could be adversely affected.  Furthermore, if we are unable to develop or otherwise access new technologies, whether independently or in collaboration with another industry participant, we may fail to keep pace with the rapid technology advances in the semiconductor industry, our participation in the overall semiconductor industry may decrease and we may also lose market share.

We depend on patents to protect our rights to our technology and may face claims of infringing the IP rights of others.

We depend on patents and other IP rights to protect our products and our manufacturing processes against misappropriation by others.  The process of seeking patent protection can be long and expensive, and there can be no assurance that that we will receive patents from currently pending or future applications.  Even if patents are issued, they may not be of sufficient scope or strength to provide meaningful protection or any commercial advantage.  In addition, effective IP protection may be unavailable or limited in some countries.  Our ability to enforce one or more of our patents could be adversely affected by changes in patent laws, laws in certain foreign jurisdictions that may not effectively protect our intellectual property rights or by ineffective enforcement of laws in such jurisdictions.  Competitors may also develop technologies that are protected by patents and other IP and therefore either be unavailable to us or be made available to us subject to adverse terms and conditions.  We have in the past used our patent portfolio to negotiate broad patent cross-licenses with many of our competitors enabling us to design, manufacture and sell semiconductor products, without concern of infringing patents held by such competitors.  We may not in the future be able to obtain such licenses or other rights to protect necessary IP on favorable terms for the conduct of our business, and such failure may adversely impact our results of operations.  Such cross-license agreements expire from time to time and there is no assurance that we can or we will extend them.

We have from time to time received, and may in the future receive, communications alleging possible infringement of third party patents and other IP rights.  Some of those claims are made by so-called non-practicing entities against which we are unable to assert our own patent portfolio to lever licensing terms and conditions.  Competitors with whom we do not have patent cross-license agreements may also develop technologies that are protected by patents and other IP rights and which may be unavailable to us or only made available on unfavorable terms and conditions.  We may therefore become involved in costly litigation brought against us regarding patents and other IP rights.  See Note 27 to our Consolidated Financial Statements.  IP litigation may also involve our customers who in turn may seek indemnification from us should we not prevail and/or who may decide to curtail their orders for those of our products over which claims have been asserted.  Such lawsuits may therefore have a material adverse effect on our business.  We may be forced to stop producing substantially all or some of our products or to license the underlying technology upon economically unfavorable terms and conditions or we may be required to pay damages for the prior use of third party IP and/or face an injunction.

The outcome of IP litigation is inherently uncertain and may divert the efforts and attention of our management and other specialized technical personnel.  Such litigation can result in significant costs and, if not resolved in our favor, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We operate in many jurisdictions with highly comp