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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ___ to ___ 
Commission File Number 1-31993
Sterling Infra Inc Logo_4C.jpg
STERLING INFRASTRUCTURE, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware25-1655321
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
  
1800 Hughes Landing Blvd., The Woodlands, Texas
77380
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
  
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:  (281) 214-0777
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common Stock, $0.01 par value per shareSTRLNASDAQ
(Title of each class)(Trading Symbol)(Name of each exchange on which registered)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☑ Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
Aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates, based on a NASDAQ closing price of $55.80 on June 30, 2023, was approximately $1.66 billion.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock as of February 23, 2024 – 30,925,747
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the Company’s definitive Proxy Statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and delivered to stockholders in connection with the 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.


Sterling Infrastructure, Inc.
Annual Report on Form 10-K
Table of Contents
Page
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 1C.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
Item 16.
2



PART I
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This annual report on Form 10-K, including the documents incorporated herein by reference, contains statements that are, or may be considered to be, “forward-looking statements” regarding the Company which represent our expectations and beliefs concerning future events. These forward-looking statements are intended to be covered by the safe harbor for certain forward-looking statements provided by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements included or incorporated by reference herein relate to matters that are not based on historical facts and reflect our current expectations as of the date of this annual report on Form 10-K, regarding items such as: our industry and business outlook, including relating to federal, state and municipal funding for projects, the residential home building market and demand from our customers; business strategy, including the integration of recent acquisitions and the potential for additional future acquisitions; expectations and estimates relating to our backlog; expectations concerning our market position; future operations; margins; profitability; capital expenditures; liquidity and capital resources; and other financial and operating information. Forward-looking statements may use or contain words such as “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “future,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “strategy,” “will,” “would” and similar terms and phrases.
Actual events, results and outcomes may differ materially from those anticipated, projected or assumed in the forward-looking statements due to a variety of factors. Although it is not possible to identify all of these factors, they include, among others, the following:
factors that affect demand for our services or demand in end markets, including economic recessions or volatile economic cycles;
cost escalations associated with our contracts, due to changes in availability, proximity and cost of materials such as steel, cement, concrete, aggregates, oil, fuel and other construction materials, in U.S. trade policies and retaliatory responses from other countries, and cost escalations associated with subcontractors and labor;
any action or inaction of suppliers, subcontractors, design engineers, joint venture partners, customers, competitors, banks, surety companies and others, which is beyond our control, including the failure of suppliers, subcontractors and joint venture partners to perform their obligations;
factors that affect the accuracy of estimates inherent in the bidding for contracts, estimates of backlog, and “over time” revenue recognition accounting policies, including onsite conditions that differ materially from those assumed in the original bid, contract modifications, mechanical problems with machinery or equipment and effects of other risks referenced below;
changes in costs to lease, acquire or maintain our equipment;
changes in general economic conditions, including reductions in federal, state and local government funding for projects, changes in those governments’ budgets, practices, laws and regulations and interest rate fluctuations and other adverse economic factors beyond our control in our geographic markets;
the presence of competitors with greater financial resources or lower margin requirements than ours, and the impact of competitive bidders on our ability to obtain new backlog at reasonable margins acceptable to us;
design/build contracts which subject us to the risk of design errors and omissions;
our ability to obtain bonding or post letters of credit;
adverse weather conditions;
potential disruptions, failures or security breaches of the information technology systems on which we rely to conduct our business;
potential risks and uncertainties relating to major public health crises, including the COVID-19 pandemic;
our dependence on a limited number of significant customers;
our ability to attract and retain key personnel;
increased unionization of our workforce or labor costs and any work stoppages or slowdowns;
federal, state and local environmental laws and regulations where non-compliance can result in penalties and/or termination of contracts as well as civil and criminal liability;
citations issued by any governmental authority, including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration;
our ability to qualify as an eligible bidder under government contract criteria;
delays or difficulties related to the completion of our projects, including additional costs, reductions in revenues or the payment of liquidated damages, or delays or difficulties related to obtaining required governmental permits and approvals;
any prolonged shutdown of the government;
our ability to successfully identify, finance, complete and integrate recent and potential acquisitions;
our ability to raise additional capital in the future on favorable terms or at all;
our ability to generate cash flows sufficient to fund our financial commitments and objectives;
our ability to meet the terms and conditions of our debt obligations and covenants; and
the other risks discussed in more detail in Item 1A “Risk Factors”, other portions of this report, or our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).
In reading this annual report on Form 10-K, you should consider these factors carefully in evaluating any forward-looking statements, and you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements reflect our current expectations as of the date of this annual report on Form 10-K regarding future events, results or outcomes. These expectations may or may not be realized. Some of these expectations may be based upon assumptions or judgments that prove to be incorrect. Additional factors or risks that we currently deem immaterial, that are not presently known to us or that arise in the future could also cause our actual results to differ materially from our expected results. Given these uncertainties, investors are cautioned that many of the assumptions upon which our forward-looking statements are based are likely to change after the date the forward-looking statements are made. Further, we may make changes to our business plans that could affect our results. Although we believe that our plans, intentions and expectations reflected in, or suggested by, the forward-looking statements that we make in this annual report on Form 10-K are reasonable, we can provide no assurance that they will be achieved.
The forward-looking statements speak only as of the date made, and we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements for any reason, whether as a result of new information, future events or developments, changed circumstances, or otherwise, and notwithstanding any changes in our assumptions, changes in business plans, actual experience or other changes.
3



Item 1. Business
Overview of the Company’s Business
Sterling Infrastructure, Inc. (“Sterling” or “the Company”) operates through a variety of subsidiaries within three segments specializing in E-Infrastructure, Transportation and Building Solutions in the United States, primarily across the Southern, Northeastern, Mid-Atlantic and Rocky Mountain regions and the Pacific Islands. E-Infrastructure Solutions provides advanced, large-scale site development services for manufacturing, data centers, e-commerce distribution centers, warehousing, power generation and more. Transportation Solutions includes infrastructure and rehabilitation projects for highways, roads, bridges, airports, ports, rail and storm drainage systems. Building Solutions includes residential and commercial concrete foundations for single-family and multi-family homes, parking structures, elevated slabs, other concrete work, and plumbing services for new single-family residential builds. From strategy to operations, we are committed to sustainability by operating responsibly to safeguard and improve society’s quality of life. Caring for our people and our communities, our customers and our investors – that is The Sterling Way.
In this report, unless the context otherwise indicates, “Sterling,” “the Company,” “we,” “our” or “us” means Sterling and its consolidated subsidiaries. In addition, references to “Note” or “Notes” refer to the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Item 8 of Part II of this annual report on Form 10-K, unless indicated otherwise.
Business Strategy
Since 2016, our strategic vision has been based on the following elements and objectives:
Strategic ElementsStrategic Objectives
Solidifying the baseRisk Reduction
Growing high margin products and servicesBottom-Line Growth
Expansion into adjacent marketsExceed Peer Performance
Build a Platform for Future Accretive Growth
Solidifying the base—The Company’s historic base business is our low-bid heavy highway projects within our Transportation Solutions segment. Heavy highway projects typically have gross margins of 7-8%; however, prior to 2016 our gross margin was approximately 4%. In 2016 we implemented a strategy to solidify this base business by improving bid discipline to significantly reduce the probability of project losses. Since the implementation of the strategy and application of the key objective, we have improved the heavy highway backlog gross margin to 11.3% at December 31, 2023, and we expect gross margins to increase further as we continue to execute our strategy.
Growing high margin products and services—While solidifying the base is important to the profitability of the Company, the improvement of gross margins is limited due to the highly competitive bidding environment for heavy highway projects. In 2016, we implemented a strategy to shift our project mix from low-bid heavy highway projects to alternative delivery heavy highway projects and other higher margin work (e.g., airports, commercial, piling and shoring). In 2016, our low-bid heavy highway revenue was approximately 79% of our total revenue, but we have progressively lowered this to 15% as of December 31, 2023. The key objective in this strategic area is our focus on bottom-line growth, and the higher margin projects we target have gross margins in the range of 12%-15%.
Expansion into adjacent markets—In 2016, we implemented a strategy to pursue growth through the acquisition of companies and assets that will enable us to expand into adjacent markets and broaden the types of projects we execute. We operate a decentralized, adaptive business model, which provides us with flexibility to pursue acquisitions and other strategic transactions. Our acquisition strategy has focused on businesses that can strengthen our current portfolio, enable us to expand into complementary categories or geographic regions or provide diversification of cash flows. The companies we target for acquisition typically have gross margins of 15% or more. This strategic focus allows us to broaden our portfolio of products and services, and broaden our end customer base to remain competitive in the markets where we operate. Since 2016, we have completed six acquisitions and plan to consider other strategic acquisitions in the future.
Recent Strategic Transactions
Myers Disposition—On November 30, 2022, we entered into an agreement (the “Agreement”) and sold the Company’s 50% ownership interest in its partnership with Myers & Sons Construction L.P. (“Myers”) for $18 million in cash. In accordance with the Agreement’s payment terms, the Company received two payments totaling $14 million in the first quarter of 2023 and two additional payments of $2 million each are due by the end of 2025 and 2027, respectively. The disposition is consistent with the Company’s strategic shift to reduce its portfolio of low-bid heavy highway and water containment and
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treatment projects in order to reduce risk and improve the Company’s margins and to focus on its strategic geographies outside of California. This strategic shift had a major effect on our operations and consolidated financial results, and accordingly, the historical results of Myers have been presented as discontinued operations in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. Prior to being disclosed as a discontinued operation, the results of Myers were included within our Transportation Solutions segment. See Note 4 - Dispositions for further discussion.
CCS Acquisition—On December 20, 2022, we completed the acquisition of Concrete Construction Services of Arizona LLC and its affiliate, CCS Contracting Services LLC (collectively “CCS”), for a purchase price of approximately $21 million. CCS’s business provides concrete foundation services for residential single-family homes; this includes the preparation, pouring and finishing of post-tension concrete foundations for new housing subdivisions in the greater Phoenix, Arizona area. The results of CCS are included within our Building Solutions segment.
PPG Acquisition—On November 16, 2023, we completed the acquisition of Professional Plumbers Group, Incorporated (“PPG”), a corporation headquartered in Wylie, Texas, near Dallas-Fort Worth, for a purchase price of approximately $57 million. PPG’s business provides services for all the major plumbing phases required for new single-family residential builds, which expands our suite of residential services in the Dallas-Fort Worth market to include the next critical phase of the build once the slab is complete. The results of PPG are included within our Building Solutions segment. See Note 3 - Acquisitions for further discussion.
Segments, Markets and Customers
The Company’s internal and public segment reporting are aligned based upon the services offered by its operating groups, which represent the reportable segments. The Company’s operations consist of three reportable segments: E-Infrastructure Solutions, Transportation Solutions and Building Solutions. See Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Note 21 - Segment Information for further discussion of our business segments.
E-Infrastructure Solutions—Our E-Infrastructure Solutions segment serves large, blue-chip end users in the e-commerce distribution center, data center, manufacturing, warehousing, and power generation sectors and more. We are a leading provider of large-scale site development services in the Southeastern, Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic U.S. Four customers accounted for 40% of the segment’s revenue in 2023, 35% in 2022 and 58% in 2021.
    Transportation Solutions—Our Transportation Solutions segment is comprised of heavy highway, aviation and rail projects, and it relies heavily on federal and state infrastructure spending. The principal geographic markets of this segment are Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, Texas, Utah and the Pacific Islands. Within these principal markets, our core customers are state Departments of Transportation (“DOT(s)”) and regional transit, airport, port, water and railroad authorities. Four state DOTs accounted for 50% of the segment’s revenue in 2023, 44% in 2022 and 42% in 2021.
Building Solutions—Our Building Solutions segment is comprised of our residential and commercial businesses. The principal geographic market for our residential business is Texas, specifically Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston and the surrounding communities. In 2021, we expanded our residential business into the greater Phoenix area and continued this expansion in 2022 with the acquisition of the CCS business. In 2023, we further expanded our services in the Dallas-Fort Worth market to include plumbing services for all the major plumbing phases required for new single-family residential builds with our acquisition of PPG. Our core residential customer base is comprised of leading national, regional and custom home builders. Our commercial business focuses on concrete construction of multi-family foundations, parking structures, elevated slabs and other concrete work for leading developers and general contractors in commercial markets. Four customers, including their respective affiliates, accounted for 42% of the segment’s revenue in 2023, 60% in 2022 and 57% in 2021.
In 2023, no individual customer accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated revenues; however we routinely construct projects for our largest customers mentioned above. The loss of any of these customers could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial results. Refer to Item 1A “Risk Factors” and Note 19 - Concentration of Risk and Enterprise Wide Disclosures for information on the Company’s major customers that represent a concentration of risk due to their significant revenue contributions.
Competition
Competition for our segments varies widely, from small local contractors to large international construction companies. We aim to position ourselves in the mid-level market, traditionally bidding on work too large for the small local contractors yet too small for the large national and international construction companies. However, should market conditions become less favorable, we would expect to see a convergence from both the small local contractors and large international construction companies into our targeted mid-level market. This convergence could increase competitive bidding pressure and reduce both
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revenue growth and margins. See Item 1A “Risk Factors” for further discussion of risks associated with our competitive environment.
Seasonality
Operations for our segments are often affected by weather conditions, especially during the first and fourth quarters of our fiscal year. These conditions may disrupt construction schedules and lead to variability in our revenues, profitability and the number of employees we require. For additional discussion regarding the potential impacts of seasonality on our business, see Item 1A “Risk Factors.
Resources
We procure raw materials essential for the operation of our segments, such as, cement, aggregate, concrete, liquid asphalt, lumber, steel, and fuels, including diesel, gasoline, natural gas and propane, from a broad network of sources. Fluctuations in the price and availability of these raw materials may vary over time due to changes in market conditions and production capacities.
Backlog
    Our remaining performance obligations on our projects, as defined in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, do not differ from what we refer to as “Backlog.” Our Backlog represents the amount of revenues we expect to recognize in the future from our contract commitments on projects. The contracts in Backlog are typically completed in 6 to 36 months. The value of our Backlog was $2.07 billion at December 31, 2023, as compared to $1.41 billion at December 31, 2022. We exclude from our Backlog any contract where we are the apparent low bidder for projects (“Unsigned Awards”) until such contract is formally executed by the customer (approximately $303.2 million at December 31, 2023). Certain Building Solutions revenue is recognized upon completion at a point in time and therefore is never reflected in our Backlog. See Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Backlog” for a discussion and quantification of our Backlog. Also see Item 1A “Risk Factors” for further discussion of risks related to Backlog.
Contracts
Our contracts are awarded on a competitively bid basis or negotiated bid basis using a range of contracting options, including fixed-unit price, lump sum and cost-reimbursable. Each of these contract types presents advantages and disadvantages. Typically, the Company assumes more risk with lump-sum contracts; however, these types of contracts can yield additional profits if the work is completed for less than originally estimated. Under fixed-unit price contracts, the Company’s profit may vary if actual labor-hour costs vary significantly from the negotiated rates. Each contract is designed to optimize the balance between risk and reward. At December 31, 2023, substantially all of our Backlog was contracted on a fixed-unit price or lump sum basis. We occasionally present claims or change orders to our clients for additional costs exceeding or not included in the initial contract price. Also, because some contracts can provide little or no fee for managing material costs, the components of contract cost can impact profitability.
Substantially all of the contracts in our Backlog contain termination for convenience clauses which allow the customer to cancel the contract at their election but would require that the Company be compensated for work performed through the date of termination and for additional contractual costs for cancellation. As part of our business, we are a party to joint venture arrangements, pursuant to which we typically jointly bid on and execute particular projects with other companies in the construction industry. See Item 1A “Risk Factors” and Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for a discussion of our types of risk and how we mitigate cancellation and credit risk.
Insurance and Bonding
Our buildings and equipment are covered by insurance, at levels our management believes to be adequate. In addition, we maintain general liability, excess liability, workers’ compensation and auto insurance all in amounts deemed consistent with our risk of loss and standard industry practice.
As a normal part of the Transportation Solutions business and occasionally with the E-Infrastructure Solutions business, we are required to provide various types of surety and payment bonds that provide an additional measure of security for our performance under the contract. Typically, a bidder for a contract must post a bid bond, generally for 5% to 10% of the bid amount, and upon being awarded the bid, must post a performance and payment bond for up to 100% of the costs to construct. Usually, upon posting of the performance bond, a contractor must also post a maintenance bond for generally 1% of the contract amount for one to two years. Our ability to obtain bonds depends upon our capitalization, working capital, aggregate contract size, past performance, management expertise and external factors, including the capacity of the overall surety market.
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Bonding companies consider such factors in light of the amount of our Backlog that we have currently bonded and their current underwriting standards, which may change from time to time. As is customary, we have agreed to indemnify our bonding company for all losses incurred by it in connection with bonds that are issued, and we have granted our bonding company a security interest in certain assets, including accounts receivable, as collateral for such obligation.
Government and Environmental Regulations
Our operations must comply with various regulatory requirements imposed by federal, state and local agencies and authorities, including safety, wage and hour regulations and other labor issues, immigration controls, vehicle and equipment operations and other aspects of our business. For example, our operations are subject to the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (“OSHA”) and comparable state laws directed toward the protection of employees. In addition, most of our Transportation Solutions construction contracts are entered into with public authorities, and these contracts frequently impose additional governmental requirements, including requirements regarding labor relations and subcontracting with designated classes of disadvantaged businesses.
All of our operations are also subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the environment, including those relating to discharges into air, water and land, climate change, the handling and disposal of solid and hazardous waste, the handling of underground storage tanks and the cleanup of properties affected by hazardous substances. For example, we must apply water or chemicals to reduce dust on road construction projects and to contain contaminants in storm run-off water at construction sites. In certain circumstances, we may also be required to hire subcontractors to dispose of hazardous wastes encountered on a project in accordance with a plan approved in advance by the customer. Certain environmental laws impose substantial penalties for non-compliance and others, such as the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”) impose strict and retroactive joint and several liability upon persons responsible for releases of hazardous substances.
CERCLA and comparable state laws impose liability, without regard to fault or the legality of the original conduct, on certain classes of persons that contributed to the release of a “hazardous substance” into the environment. These persons include the owner or operator of the site where the release occurred and companies that disposed or arranged for the disposal of the hazardous substances found at the site. Under CERCLA, these persons may be subject to joint and several liability for the costs of cleaning up the hazardous substances that have been released into the environment, for damages to natural resources and for the costs of certain health studies. CERCLA also authorizes the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) and, in some instances, third parties, to act in response to threats to the public health or the environment and to seek to recover from the responsible classes of persons the costs they incur.
Solid wastes, which may include hazardous wastes, are subject to the requirements of the Federal Solid Waste Disposal Act, the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (“RCRA”) and comparable state statutes. Although we do not generate solid waste, we occasionally dispose of solid waste on behalf of our customers. From time to time, the EPA considers the adoption of stricter disposal standards for non-hazardous wastes. Moreover, it is possible that additional wastes will in the future be designated as “hazardous wastes.” Hazardous wastes are subject to more rigorous and costly disposal requirements than are non-hazardous wastes, and any future “hazardous wastes” designations of the solid waste we dispose on behalf of our customers could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We continually evaluate whether we must take additional steps at our locations to ensure compliance with environmental laws. While compliance with applicable regulatory requirements has not materially adversely affected our operations in the past, there can be no assurance these requirements will not change and compliance will not adversely affect our operations in the future. In addition, tighter regulation for the protection of the environment and other factors may make it more difficult to obtain new permits and renewal of existing permits may be subject to more restrictive conditions than currently exist.
Human Capital
At December 31, 2023, the Company had approximately 3,000 employees, comprised of approximately 700 salaried employees and approximately 2,300 hourly employees. The percentage of our employees represented by unions at December 31, 2023 was approximately 20%. We maintain agreements with various unions representing groups of our employees at project sites, and we typically renew these agreements periodically. We consider our relationships with our employees and the applicable labor unions to be satisfactory.
Our business is dependent upon a readily available supply of management, supervisory and field personnel. Substantially all of our employees are hired on a full-time basis; however, as is typical in the construction industry, we experience a high degree of turnover as construction projects are completed. In the past, we have been able to attract a sufficient number of personnel to support the growth of our operations; however, we continue to face competition for experienced workers in all of our markets, and we cannot guarantee we will continue to attract a sufficient number of personnel.
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Our employees are important to the success of our business. Hiring, developing and retaining our employees is not only important, but is a necessity for continued growth and delivery at all levels within our organization. Every employee is critical to our organization’s success, and we are dedicated to ensuring that we manage our workforce’s needs and requirements. We often work in tight labor markets that make hiring and retaining employees challenging. Therefore, it is critical to have a strategic plan for hiring and managing our workforce. We develop hiring practices by geographic area to ensure a customizable recruiting strategy that allows all of our businesses to thrive. Retaining our employees through various means of succession planning and other retention tools is also a critical component of our strategy, particularly for our key positions. Planning for today as well as the future is the cornerstone of our people strategy.
Our focus on diversity is at the forefront of how we operate in each of our locations. We strive to instill an inclusive culture that provides all our employees the opportunity to thrive.
As of December 31, 2023, our workforce was comprised of the following race and ethnicity demographics:
Employees as of December 31, 2023
Hispanic47.4%
White47.2%
Black2.9%
Pacific Islander1.4%
Other1.1%
We focus on our safety processes, which have allowed us to maintain a high level of safety at our work sites. All project employees receive hazard specific training and our newly-hired employees undergo an initial safety orientation and receive follow-up trainings during their first 90 days of employment. Our project managers and superintendents work closely with our safety department to ensure safety is planned into all of our operations before they begin. Additionally, our project foremen are required to conduct daily safety briefings with our employees. Regular safety walkthroughs are conducted by our managers, supervisors and safety staff to evaluate project conditions and observe employee safety behavior. To address the safety and health of our workforce due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented additional employee health and safety protocols.
Access to Company’s Filings
The Company maintains a website at www.strlco.com on which our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and, any amendments to those reports may be accessed free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC; some directly on the website and others through a link to the SEC’s website (www.sec.gov) where those reports are filed. Our website also has recent press releases, the Company’s code of business conduct, the charters of the audit committee, the compensation and talent development committee, and the corporate governance and nominating committee of the Company’s board of directors (the “Board of Directors”) and information on the Company’s “whistleblower” procedures. Our website content is made available for information purposes only. It should not be relied upon for investment purposes, and none of the information on the website is intended to be incorporated by reference into this annual report on Form 10-K.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
The following discussion of risk factors contains forward-looking statements. These risk factors may be important to understanding other statements in this annual report on Form 10-K. The following information should be read in conjunction with Part II, Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes in Part II, Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this annual report on Form 10-K.
Our business, financial condition and operating results can be affected by a number of factors, whether currently known or unknown, including but not limited to those described below; any one or more of which could, directly or indirectly, cause our actual financial condition and operating results to vary materially from our past, or from our anticipated future, financial condition and operating results. Any of these factors, including additional factors that apply to all companies generally which are not specifically mentioned below, in whole or in part, could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, results of operations, stock price and cash flows.
Because of the following factors, as well as other factors affecting our financial condition and operating results, our past financial performance should not be considered to be a reliable indicator of our future performance, and investors should not use historical trends to anticipate results or trends in future periods.
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Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Demand for our services may decrease during economic recessions or volatile economic cycles, and a reduction in demand in end markets may adversely affect our business.
Across our three operating segments, the revenue and profit generated are from infrastructure projects and services, but we do not directly control the process by which such infrastructure projects and services are awarded. The construction industry historically has experienced cyclical fluctuations in financial results due to economic recessions, downturns in business cycles of our customers, supply chain disruptions, inflationary pressures, interest rate fluctuations and other economic factors beyond our control. Many factors, including the financial condition of the infrastructure industry, could adversely affect our customers and their willingness to fund capital expenditures in the future. Additionally, consolidation, competition or capital constraints in the industries we serve may result in reduced spending by our customers.
Economic, regulatory and market conditions affecting our specific end markets may adversely impact the demand for our services, resulting in the delay, reduction or cancellation of certain projects and these conditions may continue to adversely affect us in the future.
Our dependence on suppliers of materials and subcontractors could increase our costs and impair our ability to complete contracts on a timely basis or at all.
The price and availability of the materials required to execute our projects are subject to volatility and disruptions caused by global economic factors that are beyond our control, including, but not limited to, supply chain disruptions, labor shortages, wage pressures, rising inflation and potential economic slowdown or recession, as well as fuel and energy costs, the impact of natural disasters, public health crises (such as COVID-19), geopolitical conflicts (such as the conflicts in Eastern Europe and the Middle East), and other matters that have impacted or could impact the global economy. If shortages and cost increases in materials and tightness in the labor market persist for a prolonged period of time, and we are unable to offset such cost increases, our profit margins could be adversely impacted.
We rely on third party suppliers to provide substantially all of the materials (including aggregates, cement, asphalt, concrete, steel, oil and fuel) for our contracts and third party subcontractors to perform some of the work on many of our projects. Increasing prices of materials and equipment and substantial delays in delivering supplies have and could continue to adversely impact our operations and construction projects. For the past several years, our operating margins have been adversely impacted, and may continue to be impacted, by price increases for certain materials, including fuel, concrete, steel and lumber. To the extent that we are unable to obtain commitments from our suppliers for materials or engage subcontractors, our ability to bid for contracts may be impaired.
If we do not accurately estimate the overall risks, requirements or costs related to a project when we bid for a contract that is ultimately awarded to us, we may achieve a lower than anticipated profit or incur a loss on the contract.
The majority of our revenues and backlog are derived from fixed-unit price contracts and lump sum contracts. Fixed-unit price contracts require us to provide materials and services at a fixed-unit price based on agreed quantities irrespective of our actual per unit costs. Lump sum contracts require the contract work to be completed for a single price irrespective of our actual costs incurred. Our ability to achieve profitability under such contracts is dependent upon our ability to avoid cost overruns by accurately estimating our costs and then successfully controlling our actual costs. If our cost estimates for a contract are inaccurate, or if we do not perform the contract within our cost estimates, we may incur losses due to cost overruns or the contract may be less profitable than expected. As a result, these types of contracts could negatively affect our cash flow, earnings and financial position.
The costs incurred and gross profit realized on our contracts can vary, sometimes substantially, from our original estimates due to a variety of factors, that may include, but are not limited to the following:
onsite conditions that differ from those assumed in the original bid or contract;
failure to include required materials or work in a bid, or the failure to estimate properly the quantities or costs needed to complete a lump sum contract;
delays caused by weather conditions;
contract or project modifications creating unanticipated costs not covered by change orders or contract price adjustments;
changes in availability, proximity and costs of materials, including steel, concrete, aggregates and other construction materials (such as stone, gravel, sand and oil for asphalt paving), as well as fuel and lubricants for our equipment; and
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claims or demands from third parties for alleged damages arising from the design, construction or use and operation of a project of which our work is a part.
Many of our contracts with public sector customers contain provisions that purport to shift some or all of the above risks from the customer to us, even in cases where the customer is partly at fault. Public sector customers may seek to impose contractual risk-shifting provisions more aggressively, which could increase risks and adversely affect our cash flow, earnings and financial position.
Further, in most cases, our contracts require completion by a scheduled acceptance date. Failure to timely complete a project could result in additional costs, penalties or liquidated damages being assessed against us, and these could exceed projected profit margins on the contract.
We may incur higher costs to lease, acquire and maintain equipment necessary for our operations, and the market value of our owned equipment may decline.
We service a significant portion of our contracts with our own construction equipment rather than leased or rented equipment. To the extent that we are unable to buy construction equipment necessary for our needs, either due to a lack of available funding or equipment shortages in the marketplace, we may be forced to rent equipment on a short-term basis, which could increase the costs of performing our contracts, thereby reducing contract profitability. Further, new equipment may not be available, or it may not be purchased or rented in a cost effective manner, which could adversely affect our operating results.
The equipment that we own or lease requires continuous maintenance, for which we maintain our own repair facilities. If we are unable to maintain or repair equipment ourselves, we may be forced to obtain third party repair services, which could increase our costs. Additionally, we rely on the availability of component parts from suppliers for the maintenance and repair of our equipment. The failure of suppliers to deliver component parts necessary to maintain our equipment could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet our commitments to customers.
We may not accurately assess and/or estimate the quality, quantity, availability and cost of aggregates we need to complete a project, particularly for projects in rural areas.
Particularly for projects in rural areas, we may estimate the quality, quantity, availability and cost for aggregates (such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag and recycled concrete) from sources that we have not previously used as suppliers, which increases the risk that our estimates may be inaccurate. Inaccuracies in our estimates regarding aggregates could result in significantly higher costs to supply aggregates needed for our projects, as well as potential delays and other inefficiencies. If we fail to accurately assess the quality, quantity, availability and cost of aggregates, it could cause us to incur losses, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations.
Timing of the award and performance of new contracts may fluctuate.
It is generally very difficult to predict whether and when new contracts will be offered for tender, as our contracts frequently involve a lengthy and complex design and bidding process, which is affected by a number of factors, such as market conditions, funding arrangements and governmental approvals. Because of these factors, our results of operations and cash flows may fluctuate from quarter to quarter and year to year, and the fluctuation may be substantial.
The uncertainty of the timing of contract awards may also present difficulties in matching the size of our equipment fleet and work crews with contract needs. In some cases, we may maintain and bear the cost of more equipment and ready work crews than are necessary for then-existing needs, in anticipation of future needs for existing contracts or expected future contracts. If a contract is delayed or an expected contract award is not received, we would incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on our anticipated profit.
Adverse weather conditions may cause delays, which could slow completion of our construction activity.
Because all of our construction projects are performed outdoors, work on our contracts is subject to seasonal weather conditions that may delay our work and contribute to project inefficiency. Lengthy periods of wet or cold winter weather will generally interrupt construction, and this can lead to under-utilization of crews and equipment, resulting in less efficient rates of overhead recovery. Extreme heat or cold can prevent us from performing certain types of operations. For example, during the late fall to the early spring months of each year, our work on construction projects in the Rocky Mountain States has been curtailed at times due to snow and other work-limiting weather. In addition, our work is subject to extreme and unpredictable weather conditions, which could become more frequent or severe if general climatic changes occur. For example, in 2021 there was a Texas-wide freezing weather event that caused delays for some of our Transportation Solutions and Building Solutions operations. Future extreme weather events may limit the availability of resources, increase our costs, delay our performance of work for extended periods of time, or cause our projects to be canceled. While revenues can be recovered following a period of
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bad weather, it is generally impossible to recover the cost of inefficiencies, and significant periods of bad weather typically reduce profitability of affected contracts both in the current period and during the future life of affected contracts. Such reductions in contract profitability negatively affect our results of operations in current and future periods until the affected contracts are completed. To the extent climate change results in an increase in such extreme adverse weather conditions, the likelihood of a negative impact on our operations may increase.
We rely on information technology systems to conduct our business, which are subject to disruption, failure or security breaches.
We rely on information technology (“IT”) systems in order to achieve our business objectives. We also rely upon industry accepted security measures and technology to securely maintain confidential information on our IT systems. However, our portfolio of hardware and software products, solutions and services and our enterprise IT systems may be vulnerable to damage or disruption caused by circumstances such as catastrophic events, power outages, natural disasters, computer system or network failures, computer viruses, cyber-attacks or other malicious software programs. The failure or disruption of our IT systems to perform as anticipated for any reason could disrupt our business and result in decreased performance, significant remediation costs, transaction errors, loss of data, processing inefficiencies, downtime, litigation and the loss of suppliers or customers. A significant disruption or failure could have a material adverse effect on our business operations, financial performance and financial condition.
Major public health crises, including the COVID-19 pandemic, could disrupt the Company’s operations and adversely affect its business, results of operations and financial condition.
Pandemics, epidemics, widespread illness or other health crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic (including any new variants), that interfere with the ability of our employees, suppliers, customers, financing sources or others to conduct business have and could adversely affect the global economy and our results of operations and financial condition. For example, our business and results of operations could be materially adversely affected if significant portions of our workforce are unable to work effectively, including because of illness, quarantines, or government actions or other restrictions in connection with any future major public health crisis.
Risks Related to Our Segments
E-Infrastructure Solutions
Our E-Infrastructure Solutions business, as well as the industries of many of our customers upon whom we are dependent, are susceptible to economic downturns, including periods of slower than anticipated economic growth. 
Demand for our E-Infrastructure Solutions business is cyclical and may be vulnerable to economic downturns, market interest rate fluctuations or other adverse developments in the credit markets, and reductions in private industry spending; the effects of which may cause our customers to delay, curtail or cancel proposed and existing projects. A number of factors can adversely affect the industries we serve, including, among other things, financing or credit availability, potential bankruptcies, global and U.S. trade relationships or other geopolitical events. A reduction in cash flow or the lack of availability of debt or equity financing for our customers could cause our customers to reduce their spending for our services or affect the ability of our customers to pay amounts owed to us.
Building Solutions
The homebuilding industry is cyclical and susceptible to downward changes in general economic or other business conditions which could adversely affect our Building Solutions projects, including foundations for single-family and multi-family homes.
The Building Solutions industry is sensitive to changes in economic conditions and other factors, such as the level of employment, consumer confidence, consumer income, availability of financing and interest rate levels. Beginning in 2022, rising inflation and increased interest rates made home ownership less affordable, which resulted in decreased demand for single-family homes. The continuation or worsening of these conditions generally, or in the markets where we operate, could decrease demand and pricing for new homes in these areas or result in customer cancellations of pending contracts, which could adversely affect the number of Building Solutions concrete projects we have or reduce the prices we can charge for these projects, either of which could result in a decrease in our revenues and earnings that could materially adversely affect our results of operations.
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We cannot predict with certainty whether the decline in the U.S. housing market beginning in 2022 will continue or worsen due to changes in conditions that are beyond our control, which may include the following:
continued increases in interest rates;
continued or worsening inflationary pressures;
economic downturn or recession;
shortage of lots available for development;
changes in demographics and population migration that impair the demand for new housing;
labor shortages, especially craft labor, and rising costs of labor; and
changes in the tax laws that reduce the benefits of home ownership.
Transportation Solutions
The heavy highway construction industry is highly competitive, with a variety of companies competing against us, and our failure to compete effectively could reduce the number of new contracts awarded to us or adversely affect our margins on contracts awarded.
In the past, many of the heavy highway contracts on which we bid were awarded through a competitive bid process, with awards generally being made to the lowest bidder, but sometimes recognizing other considerations, such as shorter contract schedules or prior experience with the customer and reputation. Within our geographic markets, we compete with many international, national, regional and local construction firms. Several of these competitors have achieved greater geographic market penetration than we have in the geographic markets in which we compete, and/or have greater resources, including financial resources, than we do. In addition, a number of international and national companies in the heavy highway industry that are larger than we are and that currently do not have a significant presence in our geographic markets, if they so desire, could establish a presence in our geographic markets and compete with us for contracts.
In addition, if the use of design-build, construction manager/general contractor (CM/GC) and other alternative project delivery methods continues to increase and we are not able to further develop our capabilities and reputation in connection with these alternative delivery methods, we will be at a competitive disadvantage, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, cash flows and prospects. If we are unable to compete successfully in our markets, our relative market share and profits could also be reduced.
Our Transportation Solutions business relies on highly competitive and highly regulated state or local government contracts.
State and local government funding for public works projects is limited, thus creating a highly competitive environment for the limited number of public projects available. In addition, state and local government contracts are subject to specific procurement regulations, contract provisions and a variety of regulatory requirements relating to their formation, administration, performance and accounting. Many of these contracts include express or implied certifications of compliance with applicable laws and contract provisions. As a result, any violations of these regulations could bring about litigation and could cause termination of other existing state or local government contracts and result in the loss of future state or local government contracts. Due to the significant competition in the marketplace and the level of regulations on state or local government contracts, we could suffer reductions in new projects and see lower revenues and profit margins on those projects, which could have a material adverse effect on the business, operating results and financial condition.
Our Transportation Solutions business depends on our ability to qualify as an eligible bidder under state or local government contract criteria and to compete successfully against other qualified bidders in order to obtain state or local government contracts.
State and local government agencies conduct rigorous competitive processes for awarding many contracts. Some contracts include multiple award task order contracts in which several contractors are selected as eligible bidders for future work. We will potentially face strong competition and pricing pressures for any additional Transportation Solutions contract awards from other government agencies, and we may be required to qualify or continue to qualify under various multiple award task order contract criteria. Our inability to qualify as an eligible bidder under state or local government contract criteria could preclude us from competing for certain other government contract awards. In addition, our inability to qualify as an eligible bidder, or to compete successfully when bidding for certain state or local government contracts and to win those Transportation Solutions contracts, could materially adversely affect our business, operations, revenues and profits.
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The design-build project delivery method subjects our Transportation Solutions business to the risk of design errors and omissions.
We could be liable for a design error or omission that causes or contributes to damages with respect to one of our Transportation Solutions design-build projects. Although by contract we pass design responsibility on to the engineering firms that we engage to perform design services on our behalf for these projects, in the event of a design error or omission causing damages, there is risk that the engineering firm, its professional liability insurance, and the errors and omissions insurance that we individually purchase will not fully protect us from costs or liabilities. Any liabilities resulting from an asserted design defect with respect to our Transportation Solutions projects may have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows. Performance problems on existing and future Transportation Solutions contracts could cause actual results of operations to differ materially from those anticipated by us and could cause us to suffer damage to our reputation within the infrastructure industry and among our customers.
An inability to obtain bonding could limit the aggregate dollar amount of contracts that we are able to pursue for our Transportation Solutions business.
As is customary in the construction business, we are required to provide bonding to our Transportation Solutions customers to secure our performance under our contracts. Our ability to obtain bonding primarily depends upon our capitalization, working capital, borrowing capacity under our credit facilities, past performance, management expertise and reputation and certain external factors, including the overall capacity of the credit market. Bonding companies and banks consider such factors in relationship to the amount of our backlog and their underwriting standards, which may change from time to time. Events that adversely affect the financial markets generally may result in bonding becoming more difficult to obtain in the future, or being available only at a significantly greater cost. Our inability to obtain adequate bonding would limit the amount that we can bid on new contracts for our Transportation Solutions business and could have a material adverse effect on our future revenues and business prospects.
Our Transportation Solutions business is susceptible to economic downturns and reductions in state or local government funding of infrastructure projects.
Our business is highly dependent on the amount and timing of infrastructure work funded by various governmental entities, which, in turn, depend on the overall condition of the economy, the need for new or replacement infrastructure, the priorities placed on various projects funded by governmental entities and federal, state or local government spending levels. Spending on infrastructure could decline for numerous reasons, including decreased revenues received by state and local governments for spending on such projects. For example, state spending on highway and other projects can be adversely affected by decreases or delays in, or uncertainties regarding, federal highway funding, which could adversely affect us since we are reliant upon contracts with state transportation departments for a significant portion of our revenues.
Refer to our “Business—Segments, Markets and Customers” section within Item 1 for a more detailed discussion of our geographic markets, and refer to Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Market Outlook and Trends” for a discussion of our current expectations regarding federal spending.
A prolonged government shutdown may adversely affect our Transportation Solutions business.
We derive a significant portion of our Transportation Solutions revenue from governmental agencies and programs. A prolonged government shutdown could impact inspections, regulatory review and certifications, grants, approvals, or cause other situations that could result in our incurring substantial labor or other costs without reimbursement under government contracts, or the delay or cancellation of key government programs in which we are involved, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Construction Joint Venture Partners and Customers
Our participation in construction joint ventures exposes us to liability and/or harm to our reputation for failures of our partners.
As part of our business, we are a party to construction joint venture arrangements, pursuant to which we typically jointly bid on and execute particular projects with other companies in the construction industry. Success on these construction joint projects depends in part on whether our joint venture partners satisfy their contractual obligations.
We and our construction joint venture partners are generally jointly and severally liable for all liabilities and obligations of our construction joint ventures. If a construction joint venture partner fails to perform or is financially unable to bear its portion of required capital contributions or other obligations, including liabilities stemming from lawsuits, we could be required to make additional investments, provide additional services or pay more than our proportionate share of a liability to make up for
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our partner’s shortfall. Furthermore, if we are unable to adequately address our partner’s performance issues, the customer may terminate the project, which could result in legal liability to us, harm to our reputation and reduce our profit on a project.
Certain counterparties to construction joint venture arrangements, which may include our historical direct competitors, may not desire to continue such arrangements with us and may terminate the joint venture arrangements or not enter into new arrangements following a merger or acquisition. Any termination of a construction joint venture arrangement could cause us to reduce our backlog and could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
 At December 31, 2023, there was approximately $230.0 million of construction work to be completed on unconsolidated construction joint venture contracts, of which $112.4 million represented our proportionate share. We are not aware of any situation that would require us to fulfill responsibilities of our construction joint venture partners pursuant to the joint and several liability under our contracts.
We may not be able to recover on claims or change orders against clients for payment or on claims against subcontractors for performance.
We occasionally present claims or change orders to our clients for additional costs exceeding a contract price or for costs not included in the original contract price. Change orders are modifications of an original contract that effectively change the provisions of the contract without adding new provisions. They generally include changes in specifications or design, facilities, equipment, materials, sites and periods for completion of work. Claims are amounts in excess of the agreed contract price (or amounts not included in the original contract price) that we seek to collect for customer-caused delays, errors in specifications and designs, contract terminations or other causes of unanticipated additional costs. These costs may or may not be recovered until the claim is resolved. In addition, we may have claims against subcontractors for performance or non-performance related issues that resulted in additional costs on a project. In some instances, these claims can be the subject of lengthy legal proceedings, and it is difficult to accurately predict when they will be fully resolved. A failure to promptly document and negotiate a recovery for change orders and claims could have a negative impact on our cash flows and overall ability to recover change orders and claims, which would have a negative impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We are dependent on a limited number of significant customers.
Due to the size and nature of our contracts, one or a few customers have in the past and may in the future represent a substantial portion of our consolidated revenues and gross profits in any one year or over a period of several consecutive years. Similarly, our backlog frequently reflects multiple contracts for certain customers; therefore, one customer may comprise a significant percentage of backlog at a certain point in time. We are unable to predict whether a customer will have a significant downturn in their business or financial condition. The loss of business or a default or delay in payment from any one of these customers could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
Most of our contracts can be canceled on short notice.
Our contracts generally have clauses that permit the cancellation of the contract unilaterally and at any time as long as the customer compensates us for the work already completed and for additional contractual costs for cancellation. A cancellation of an unfinished contract could cause our equipment and work crews to be idle for a period of time until other comparable work becomes available, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Workforce
Our business depends on our ability to attract and retain talented employees.
Our ability to attract and retain reliable, qualified personnel is a significant factor that enables us to successfully bid for and profitably complete our work. This includes management, project managers, estimators, supervisors, foremen, equipment operators and laborers for each of our subsidiaries. The loss of the services of any of our subsidiaries’ management-level personnel could have a material adverse effect on us. Our future success will also depend on our ability to hire and retain, or to attract when needed, highly-skilled personnel. Our business operations may be further impacted by general labor shortages in our industry or markets. If competition for additional employees is intense, we could experience difficulty hiring and retaining the personnel necessary to support our business. If we do not succeed in retaining our current employees and attracting, developing and retaining new highly-skilled employees, our reputation may be harmed and our operations and future earnings may be negatively impacted. Effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. Failure to ensure effective transfer of knowledge and smooth transitions involving key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution.
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We may be subject to unionization, work stoppages, slowdowns or increased labor costs.
In Arizona, California, Hawaii, Maryland, Nevada, New Jersey and New York, we have project personnel that are unionized. Additional groups of our employees may also unionize in the future. If at any time a significant amount of our employees unionized, it could limit the flexibility of the workforce and could result in demands that might increase our operating expenses and adversely affect our profitability. Our inability to negotiate acceptable contracts with unions could result in work stoppages, and any new or extended contracts could result in increased operating costs. Each of our different employee groups could unionize at any time and would require separate collective bargaining agreements. If any group of our employees were to unionize and we were unable to agree on the terms of their collective bargaining agreement or we were to experience widespread employee dissatisfaction, we could be subject to work slowdowns or stoppages. In addition, we may be subject to disruptions by organized labor groups protesting our non-union status. The future or continued occurrence of any of these events would be disruptive to our operations and could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
If we are unable to comply with applicable immigration laws, our ability to successfully complete contracts may be negatively impacted.
We rely heavily on immigrant labor. We have taken steps that we believe are sufficient and appropriate to ensure compliance with immigration laws. However, we cannot provide assurance that we have identified, or will identify in the future, all undocumented immigrants who work for us. Our failure to identify undocumented immigrants who work for us may result in fines or other penalties being imposed upon us, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our operations are subject to hazards that may cause personal injury or property damage, thereby subjecting us to liabilities and possible losses, which may not be covered by insurance as well as negative reputational impacts relating to health and safety matters.
Our workers are subject to hazards associated with providing construction and related services on construction sites, plants and quarries. These operating hazards can cause personal injury, loss of life, damage to or destruction of property, plant and equipment, or environmental damage. On most sites, we are responsible for safety and are contractually obligated to implement safety procedures. Our safety record is an important consideration for us and for our customers. If we experience a material increase in the frequency or severity of accidents, our safety record could substantially deteriorate, which may preclude us from bidding on certain work, expose us to potential lawsuits or cause customers to cancel existing contracts.
We maintain general liability and excess liability insurance, workers’ compensation insurance, auto insurance and other types of insurance all in amounts consistent with our risk of loss and infrastructure industry practice, but this insurance may not be adequate to cover all losses or liabilities that we may incur in our operations. Insurance liabilities are difficult to assess and quantify due to unknown factors, including the severity of an injury, the determination of our liability in proportion to other parties, the number of incidents not reported and the effectiveness of our safety program. If we were to experience insurance claims or costs above our estimates, we might be required to use working capital to satisfy these claims rather than to maintain or expand our operations. To the extent that we experience a material increase in the frequency or severity of accidents or workers’ compensation and health claims, or unfavorable developments on existing claims, our results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.
We contribute to multiemployer plans that could result in liabilities to us if those plans are terminated or if we withdraw from those plans.
We contribute to several multiemployer pension plans for employees covered by collective bargaining agreements. These plans are not administered by us and contributions are determined in accordance with provisions of negotiated labor contracts. The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended by the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980, imposes certain liabilities upon employers who are contributors to a multiemployer plan in the event of the employer’s withdrawal from, or upon termination of, such plan. If we terminate, withdraw, or partially withdraw from other multiemployer pension plans, we could be required to make significant cash contributions to fund that plans unfunded vested benefit, which could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations; however, we are not currently able to determine the net assets and actuarial present value of the multiemployer pension plans’ unfunded vested benefits allocable to us, if any, and we are not presently aware of the amounts, if any, for which we may be contingently liable if we were to withdraw from any of these plans. In addition, if the funding level of any of these multiemployer plans becomes classified as “critical status” under the Pension Protection Act of 2006, we could be required to make significant additional contributions to those plans.
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Risks Related to Regulatory Matters
Environmental and other regulatory matters, including those relating to climate change, could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business and could require expenditures that could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Our operations are subject to various environmental laws and regulations relating to the management, disposal and remediation of hazardous substances and the emission and discharge of pollutants into the air and water. We could be held liable for such contamination created not only from our own activities but also from the historical activities of others on our project sites or on properties that we acquire or lease. Our operations are also subject to laws and regulations relating to workplace safety and worker health, which, among other things, regulate employee exposure to hazardous substances. Violations of such laws and regulations could subject us to substantial fines and penalties, cleanup costs, third party property damage or personal injury claims. In addition, growing concerns about climate change and other environmental issues could result in the imposition of additional environmental regulations. Such legislation or restrictions could increase the costs of projects for us and our clients or, in some cases, prevent a project from going forward, thereby potentially reducing the need for our services which could in turn have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial condition. Generally, environmental laws and regulations have become, and enforcement practices and compliance standards are becoming increasingly stringent. Moreover, we cannot predict the nature, scope or effect of legislation or regulatory requirements that could be imposed, or how existing or future laws or regulations will be administered or interpreted, with respect to products or activities to which they have not been previously applied. Compliance with more stringent laws or regulations, as well as more vigorous enforcement policies of the regulatory agencies, could increase our compliance costs. Compliance with new regulations could require us to make substantial expenditures for, among other things, pollution control systems and other equipment that we do not currently possess, or the acquisition or modification of permits applicable to our activities.
Our aggregate quarry leases in Utah and Nevada could subject us to costs and liabilities. As lessee and operator of the quarries, we could be held responsible for any contamination or regulatory violations resulting from activities or operations at the quarries. Any such costs and liabilities could be significant and could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
Recent and potential changes in U.S. trade policies and retaliatory responses from other countries may significantly increase the costs or limit supplies of materials and products used in our construction projects involving concrete.
In the recent past, the federal government imposed new or increased tariffs or duties on an array of imported materials and goods used in connection with our construction business, including steel and lumber, which raised our costs for these items (or products made with them). Foreign governments, including China and Canada, and trading blocs, such as the European Union, have responded by imposing or increasing tariffs, duties and/or trade restrictions on U.S. goods, and are reportedly considering other measures. Any trading conflicts and related escalating governmental actions that result in additional tariffs, duties and/or trade restrictions could increase our costs further, cause disruptions or shortages in our supply chains and/or negatively impact the U.S., regional or local economies, and, individually or in the aggregate, materially and adversely affect our business and result of operations.
Tax matters, including changes in corporate tax laws and disagreements with taxing authorities, could impact our results of operations and financial condition.
We conduct business across the United States and file income taxes in the federal and various state jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in our accounting for income taxes. In the ordinary course of our business, there are transactions and calculations in which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Changes in tax laws and regulations, in addition to changes and conflicts in related interpretations and other tax guidance, could materially impact our provision for income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities, and liabilities for uncertain tax positions. Issues relating to tax audits or examinations and any related interest or penalties and uncertainty in obtaining deductions or credits claimed in various jurisdictions could also impact the accounting for income taxes. Our results of operations are reported based on our determination of the amount of taxes we owe in various tax jurisdictions, and our provision for income taxes and tax liabilities are subject to review or examination by taxing authorities in applicable tax jurisdictions. An adverse outcome of such a review or examination could adversely affect our operating results and financial condition. Further, the results of tax examinations and audits could have a negative impact on our financial results and cash flows where the results differ from the liabilities recorded in our financial statements.
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Risks Related to Strategy and Acquisitions
Our strategy, which includes expanding into adjacent markets, may not be successful.
We may continue to pursue growth through the acquisition of companies or assets that will enable us to broaden the types of projects we execute and also expand into new markets. We have completed several acquisitions and plan to consider strategic acquisitions in the future. We may be unable to implement this growth strategy if we cannot identify suitable companies or assets or reach agreement on potential strategic acquisitions on acceptable terms. Moreover, an acquisition involves certain risks, including:
difficulties in the integration of operations, systems, policies and procedures;
enhancements in controls and procedures including those necessary for a public company may make it more difficult to integrate operations and systems;
failure to implement proper overall business controls, including those required to support our growth, resulting in inconsistent operating and financial practices at companies we acquire or have acquired;
termination of relationships with the key personnel and customers of an acquired company;
additional financial and accounting challenges and complexities in areas such as tax planning, treasury management, financial reporting and internal controls;
the incurrence of environmental and other liabilities, including liabilities arising from the operation of an acquired business or asset prior to our acquisition for which we are not indemnified or for which the indemnity is inadequate;
insufficient management attention to our ongoing business; and
inability to realize the cost savings or other financial benefits that we anticipate.
Risks Related to Our Financial Results, Financing and Liquidity
Our use of over time revenue recognition (formerly known as percentage-of-completion method) accounting related to our projects could result in a reduction or elimination of previously reported revenue and profits.
As is more fully discussed in Item 7 “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations–Critical Accounting Estimates,” we recognize contract revenue over time. This method is used because management considers the cost-to-cost measure of progress to be the best measure of progress on these contracts.
Under this method, estimated contract revenue is recognized by applying the cost-to-cost measure of progress for the period (based on the ratio of costs incurred to total estimated costs of a contract) to the total estimated revenue for the contract. Contract estimates are based on various assumptions to project the outcome of future events that often span several years. These assumptions include labor productivity and availability, the complexity of the work to be performed, the cost and availability of materials and the performance of subcontractors. Changes in job performance, job conditions and estimated profitability, including those changes arising from contract penalty provisions and final contract settlements, may result in revisions to costs and income and are recognized in the period in which the revisions are determined. These adjustments could result in both increases and decreases in profit margins or losses. Actual results could differ from estimated amounts and could result in a reduction or elimination of previously recognized earnings. In certain circumstances, it is possible that such adjustments could be significant and could have an adverse effect on our business. To the extent that these adjustments result in an increase, a reduction or an elimination of previously reported contract profit, we recognize a credit or a charge against current earnings, which could be material.
We may not be able to fully realize the revenue value reported in our Backlog.
Backlog as of December 31, 2023 totaled $2.07 billion. Backlog develops as a result of new awards, which represent the potential revenue value realizable pursuant to new project commitments received by us during a given period. Backlog is measured and defined differently by companies within our industry. We refer to “Backlog” as the unearned revenue we expect to earn in future periods on our executed contracts. As the construction on our projects progresses, we increase or decrease Backlog to take into account newly signed contracts, revenue earned during the period and our estimates of the effects of changes in estimated quantities, changed conditions, change orders and other variations from previously anticipated contract revenues, including completion penalties and incentives. We cannot guarantee that the revenue projected in our Backlog will be realized, or if realized, will result in earnings.
Given these factors, our Backlog at any point in time may not accurately represent the revenue that we expect to realize during any period, and our Backlog as of the end of a fiscal year may not be indicative of the revenue we expect to earn in the following fiscal year. Inability to realize revenue from our Backlog could have an adverse effect on our business.
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We may need to raise additional capital in the future for working capital, capital expenditures and/or acquisitions, and we may not be able to do so on favorable terms or at all, which would impair our ability to operate our business or achieve our growth objectives.
Our ability to obtain additional financing in the future will depend in part upon prevailing credit and equity market conditions, as well as the condition of our business and our operating results; such factors may adversely affect our efforts to arrange additional financing on terms satisfactory to us and makes us more vulnerable to adverse economic and competitive conditions.
We have pledged substantially all of our assets as collateral in connection with that certain credit agreement, dated as of October 2, 2019, by and among the Company, as borrower, certain of our subsidiaries, as guarantors, the financial institutions party thereto as lenders and BMO Bank N.A., as administrative agent for the lenders (as amended, the “Credit Agreement”), and we have additionally pledged the proceeds of and other rights under our E-Infrastructure Solutions and Transportation Solutions contracts to our bonding agent. As a result, we may have difficulty in obtaining additional financing in the future if such financing requires us to pledge assets as collateral. In addition, under our Credit Agreement, we must obtain the consent of our lenders to incur additional debt from other sources (subject to certain limited exceptions).
If adequate funds are not available, or are not available on acceptable terms, we may not be able to make future investments, take advantage of acquisitions or other opportunities, or respond to competitive challenges.
We incurred indebtedness in connection with recent acquisitions, and the agreement governing such indebtedness contains various covenants and other provisions that impose restrictions on our ability to operate and manage our business.
As of December 31, 2023, our aggregate principal amount outstanding under our credit facility (“Credit Facility”) was $343.4 million. The Credit Facility will mature on April 2, 2026. While we currently believe we will have the financial resources to meet or refinance our obligations when they come due, we cannot fully anticipate our future performance or financial condition, the future condition of the credit markets or the economy generally.
The Credit Agreement governing the indebtedness incurred by us under our Credit Facility contains certain subsidiary guarantees, which are secured by a first priority security interest in substantially all assets directly owned by such subsidiaries and us, subject to certain exceptions and limitations. The Credit Agreement contains various affirmative and negative covenants that may, subject to certain exceptions, restrict the ability of us and our subsidiaries to, among other things, grant liens, incur additional indebtedness, make loans, advances or other investments, make non-ordinary course asset sales, declare or pay dividends or make other distributions with respect to equity interests, purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire or retire capital stock or other equity interests, or merge or consolidate with any other person, among various other things.
In addition, the Credit Agreement contains financial covenants that require us and certain of our subsidiaries to maintain certain financial ratios and to prepay outstanding loans under the Credit Agreement in certain cases with proceeds from the issuance of additional debt, asset dispositions, events of loss and excess cash flows. These requirements could limit our cash flow or impair our ability to conduct business and pursue business strategies, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows or financial condition. The ability of us and our subsidiaries to comply with these provisions may be affected by events beyond our and their control. Failure to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default, which, if not cured or waived, could accelerate our debt repayment obligations, which in turn may trigger cross-acceleration or cross-default provisions in other debt or bonding agreements. The Credit Agreement also contains a cross-default provision. This provision could have a wider impact on liquidity than might otherwise arise from a default of a single debt instrument. Our available cash and liquidity would not be sufficient to fully repay borrowings under all of our debt instruments that could be accelerated upon such an event of default.
Further, our level of indebtedness could have important other consequences to our business, including the following:
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in the industry in which we operate;
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and infrastructure industry conditions;
limiting our ability to fund future working capital and capital expenditures because of the need to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to payments on our debt service;
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt;
limiting our ability to borrow additional funds or refinance existing debt; or
requiring that we pledge substantial collateral, which may limit flexibility in operating our business and restrict our ability to sell assets.
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We may elect to borrow, continue or convert certain term or revolving loans under our Credit Agreement to bear interest at either a base rate plus a margin, or at a one-, three-, or six-month Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“Term SOFR”) plus a margin, at the Company’s election. Accordingly, increases in interest rates could have a material adverse effect on our business operations, financial performance and financial condition.
To service our indebtedness and to fund working capital, we will require a significant amount of cash. Our ability to generate cash depends on many factors that are beyond our control, including the fact that adverse capital and credit market conditions may affect our ability to meet liquidity needs, access to capital and cost of capital.
Our ability to generate cash, outside of funds available through our revolving credit facility (“Revolving Credit Facility”), is subject to our operational performance, as well as general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. We may be unable to expand our credit capacity, which could adversely affect our operations and business. Earnings from our operations and our working capital requirements can vary from period to period, based primarily on the mix of our projects underway and the percentage of project work completed during the period. Capital expenditures may also vary significantly from period to period. We cannot provide assurance that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or asset sales or that we can obtain future borrowing capacity in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay our indebtedness, to fund working capital requirements or to fund our other liquidity needs. Without sufficient liquidity, we will be forced to curtail our operations, and our business will suffer.
In the event we cannot generate enough cash to satisfy our liquidity needs, we may have to seek additional financing. The Credit Agreement, subject to certain exceptions, restricts our ability to incur additional financing indebtedness. The availability of additional financing will depend on a variety of factors such as market conditions, the general availability of credit, the volume of trading activities, our credit ratings and credit capacity, as well as the possibility that customers or lenders could develop a negative perception of our long- or short-term financial prospects if the level of our business activity decreased due to a market downturn. The domestic and worldwide capital and credit markets may experience significant volatility, disruptions and dislocations with respect to price and credit availability. Should we need additional funds or to refinance our existing indebtedness, we may not be able to obtain such additional funds. If internal sources of liquidity prove to be insufficient, we may not be able to successfully obtain additional financing on favorable terms, or at all.
We may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness on or before maturity. We cannot provide assurance that we will be able to refinance any of our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Our inability to refinance our debt on commercially reasonable terms also could have a material adverse effect on our business. If we experience operational difficulties, we may need to increase our available borrowing capacity or seek amendments to the terms of our Credit Agreement. There can be no assurance that we will be able to secure any additional capacity or amendment to our Credit Agreement or to do so on terms that are acceptable to us, in which case, our costs of borrowing could rise and our business and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
We must manage our liquidity carefully to fund our working capital.
The need for working capital for our business varies due to fluctuations in the following amounts, among other factors:
receivables;
contract retentions;
contract assets;
contract liabilities;
the size and status of contract mobilization payments and progress billings; and
the amounts owed to suppliers and subcontractors.
We may have limited cash on hand and the timing of payments on our contract receivables is difficult to predict. If the timing of payments on our receivables is delayed or the amount of such payments is less than expected, our liquidity and ability to fund working capital could be materially and adversely affected.
We may be required to write down all or part of our goodwill and intangibles.
We had approximately $281 million of goodwill and $328 million of intangibles recorded on our Consolidated Balance Sheet at December 31, 2023. Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the fair value of net assets acquired in business combinations reduced by any impairments recorded subsequent to the date of acquisition. Intangible assets are recognized as an asset apart from goodwill if it arises from contractual or other legal rights or if it is separable; that is, it is capable of being separated or divided from the acquired business and sold, transferred, licensed, rented or exchanged (whether there is intent to do so). A shortfall in our revenues or net income or changes in various other factors from that expected by securities analysts and investors could significantly reduce the market price of our common stock. If our market capitalization drops significantly
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below the amount of net equity recorded on our balance sheet, it might indicate a decline in our fair value and would require us to further evaluate whether our goodwill or intangible assets have been impaired. We perform an annual test of our goodwill and periodic assessments of intangible assets to determine if they have become impaired. On an interim basis, we also review the factors that have or may affect our operations or market capitalization for events that may trigger impairment testing. Write downs of goodwill and intangible assets may be substantial. If we were required to write down all or a significant part of our goodwill and/or intangible assets in future periods, our net earnings and equity could be materially adversely affected.
Failure to maintain adequate financial and management processes and internal controls could lead to errors in reporting our financial results.
The accuracy of our financial reporting is dependent on the effectiveness of our internal controls. We are required to provide a report from management to our shareholders on our internal control over financial reporting that includes an assessment of the effectiveness of these controls. Internal control over financial reporting has inherent limitations, including human error, the possibility that controls could be circumvented or become inadequate because of changed conditions, resource challenges and fraud. Because of these inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting might not prevent or detect all misstatements or fraud. If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, including any failure to implement required new or improved controls, otherwise fail to prevent financial reporting misstatements, or if we experience difficulties in implementing internal controls, our business and operating results could be harmed, and we could fail to meet our financial reporting obligations. Please refer to Item 9A of this annual report on Form 10-K for further information.
Risks Related to Our Common Stock
We cannot guarantee that our Stock Repurchase Program will be fully implemented or that it will enhance long-term stockholder value.
On December 5, 2023, the Board of Directors approved a program authorizing the Company to repurchase up to $200 million of the Company’s outstanding common stock over a 24-month period (the “Stock Repurchase Program”). The timing and amount of any share repurchases is at the discretion of the Company’s management, subject to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and related rules. As a result, there can be no guarantee around the timing or volume of our share repurchases. We intend to finance any stock repurchases with cash on hand and through operating cash flow. There is no guarantee as to the number of shares that will be repurchased, and the Stock Repurchase Program may be extended, suspended or discontinued at any time without notice at our discretion, which may result in a decrease in the trading price of our common stock. The Stock Repurchase Program could increase volatility in and affect the price of our common stock. The existence of our Stock Repurchase Program could also cause the price of our common stock to be higher than it would be in the absence of such a program and could potentially reduce the market liquidity for our common stock. Additionally, repurchases under our Stock Repurchase Program will diminish our cash reserves. There can be no assurance that any share repurchases will enhance stockholder value because the market price of our common stock may decline below the levels at which we repurchased such shares. Any failure to repurchase shares after we have announced our intention to do so may negatively impact our reputation and investor confidence in us and may negatively impact our stock price. Although our Stock Repurchase Program is intended to enhance long-term stockholder value, short-term stock price fluctuations could reduce the program’s effectiveness.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and in Delaware law may discourage a takeover attempt.
Our certificate of incorporation authorizes our Board of Directors to issue, without stockholder approval, one or more series of preferred stock having such preferences, powers and relative, participating, optional and other rights (including preferences over the common stock respecting dividends and distributions and voting rights) as the Board of Directors may determine. The issuance of this “blank-check” preferred stock could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control by means of a tender offer, merger, proxy contest or otherwise. Additionally, certain provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law or even certain provisions of our credit agreement may also discourage takeover attempts that have not been approved by the Board of Directors.
The price of our common stock has experienced volatility.
The price of our common stock has experienced volatility. Our stock price may continue to be volatile and subject to significant price and volume fluctuations in response to market and other factors, including the other factors discussed in “Risks Factors,” variations in our quarterly operating results from our expectations or those of securities analysts or investors, downward revisions in securities analysts’ estimates, and announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
20



Item 1C. Cybersecurity
In today’s digital age, the security and integrity of our information systems are of paramount importance. As a company, we understand the need to protect the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our data. This disclosure aims to provide an overview of our approach to cybersecurity and the potential risks and threats we face.
We have implemented a cybersecurity program to safeguard our information systems, which includes policies, procedures and controls designed to protect against cybersecurity threats. Throughout the reporting period, we have made significant changes and enhancements to our cybersecurity program and the adoption of industry best practices.
We are aware of the various risks and threats that the Company faces in relation to cybersecurity. These risks include external threats such as hacking, malware and phishing attacks, which can compromise the security of our systems and data. Additionally, we recognize the potential for internal risks, such as employee negligence or malicious activities, which can also pose significant cybersecurity threats. We continuously monitor and assess these risks to ensure the effectiveness of our cybersecurity measures. We regularly monitor our IT services to safeguard data and to help improve and stabilize our network and systems. We periodically audit our existing network and systems and make upgrades as needed. In addition to protective systems and measures, we believe that ongoing employee awareness and training play a critical role in data security. Training includes Security Awareness Proficiency Assessment (“SAPA”) in pertinent knowledge areas such as internet use, email security, social media and mobile devices. Our SAPA scores are higher than the construction industry average, and we believe this demonstrates our commitment to cybersecurity awareness.
In the event of a cybersecurity incident, the Company has a well-defined incident response plan. This plan outlines the steps we take to detect, respond to and recover from such incidents. Throughout the reporting period, we have successfully implemented our incident response plan.
Within our organization, we have established a dedicated cybersecurity governance structure. This structure includes key individuals on the Company’s disclosure committee responsible for detecting and reporting cybersecurity incidents and events, and our Board of Directors which is responsible for risk oversight, with review of IT governance and data security being the responsibility of the audit committee. Throughout the year, the Board of Directors receives briefings and assessments of the Company’s risks related to IT, data governance, cybersecurity and overall data security. In furtherance of its risk oversight responsibility, the audit committee provides complaint reporting procedures for the confidential, anonymous submissions by employees and others of concerns regarding questionable accounting, auditing and any other matters. These submissions are collected by an independent organization specializing in those services, and are conveyed to the chair of the audit committee and our general counsel and chief compliance officer. Additionally, in 2022, we developed an enhanced Employee Self Service portal, designed to serve as a knowledge base where employees can log in to explore the latest IT solutions, tips and resources in addition to reviewing the status of their service request.
In its risk oversight role, our Board of Directors focuses on understanding the nature of our enterprise risks, including our operations and strategic direction, as well as the adequacy of our risk management process and overall risk management system. The Board of Directors evaluates risks over the short-term and over the long-term. Risk evaluation over the short-term includes the assessment of multiple inputs, including (i) receiving management updates on our business operations, financial results and strategy and discussing risks related to the business at each regular board meeting, (ii) receiving regular reports on all significant committee activities at each regular board meeting and (iii) evaluating the risks inherent in significant transactions, as applicable. In connection with risk evaluation over the long-term, the Board of Directors also seeks out the input of subject matter experts and consultants. Accordingly, a formal, enterprise risk assessment, which includes numerous members of Company management, is performed annually as part our strategic plan process.
We are subject to various legal and regulatory requirements related to cybersecurity. Compliance with these requirements is of utmost importance to management, is a top priority for the Company and is a shared responsibility among all stakeholders. Throughout the reporting period, we have diligently worked to ensure our compliance efforts align with these obligations, and we are committed to ongoing efforts to enhance our cybersecurity measures and stay vigilant against evolving threats.
Looking ahead, we remain committed to continuously improving our cybersecurity strategy and initiatives. We recognize the ever-evolving nature of cybersecurity threats and the need to adapt our measures accordingly. In the future, we plan to focus on enhancing employee training and awareness programs to foster a culture of cybersecurity awareness within the Company.
We have not identified any risks from known cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any prior cybersecurity incidents, that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect us, including our operations, business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition.
21



Item 2. Properties
We own or lease properties in locations throughout the U.S. to conduct our business. We believe these facilities are adequate to meet our current and near-term requirements. The following list summarizes our principal properties by segment for which they are primarily utilized and our “Corporate” headquarters:
LocationType of FacilityInterestSegment(s)
The Woodlands, TXAdministrativeLeasedCorporate
Austell, GAAdministrative, operations and equipment yardOwned/Leased
E-Infrastructure Solutions
Flanders, NJ (1)
Administrative, operations and equipment yardLeased
E-Infrastructure Solutions
Denton, TXAdministrative and operationsOwned
Building Solutions
Draper, UT (1)
Administrative and operationsLeased
Building Solutions and Transportation Solutions
Phoenix, AZAdministrative and operationsLeased
Transportation Solutions
Houston, TXAdministrative, operations and equipment yardOwned
Transportation Solutions
Sparks, NV (1)
Administrative and operationsOwned/Leased
Transportation Solutions
Wylie, TX (1)
Administrative and operationsLeased
Building Solutions
(1) The leased space is owned by and leased from related parties. Refer to Note 20 - Related Party Transactions for additional information.
All of our wholly-owned real property is encumbered, see Note 10 - Debt for further discussion on debt and our Credit Agreement.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
The Company, including its construction joint ventures and its consolidated 50% owned subsidiary, is now and may in the future be involved in legal proceedings that are incidental to the ordinary course of business. The Company reviews current information about these proceedings and, as necessary, provides accruals for probable liabilities on the eventual disposition of these matters.
In the opinion of management, after consultation with legal counsel, there are currently no threatened or pending legal matters that would reasonably be expected to have a material adverse impact on the Company’s Consolidated Results of Operations, Financial Position or Cash Flows. See Note 12 - Commitments and Contingencies for additional information.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

PART II
 
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The Company’s common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the trading symbol “STRL”. On February 23, 2024, there were 636 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividend Policy
We have never paid any cash dividends on our common stock. For the foreseeable future, we intend to retain any earnings, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends. Additionally, our Credit Agreement restricts the payout of dividends. Whether or not we declare any dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors considering then-existing conditions, including our financial condition and results of operations, capital requirements, bonding prospects, contractual restrictions (including those under our Credit Agreement), business prospects and other factors that our Board of Directors considers relevant.
Equity Compensation Plan Information
Certain information about the Company’s equity compensation plans will be contained in our definitive proxy statement to be filed with the SEC pursuant to Regulation 14A relating to our 2024 annual meeting of shareholders and is incorporated herein by reference.
22



Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The following table sets forth certain information with respect to repurchases of our common stock during the quarter ended December 31, 2023:
Period
Total number of shares (or units) purchased (1)
Average price paid per share (or unit)
Total number of shares (or units) purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs (1)
Maximum number (or approximate dollar value) of shares (or units) that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs (1)
October 1 – October 31, 2023$0.00 $200,000,000 
November 1 – November 30, 20230.00 $200,000,000 
December 1 – December 31, 20230.00 $200,000,000 
Total$0.00 
(1) On December 5, 2023, the Board of Directors approved a program that authorized repurchases of up to $200 million of the Company’s common stock. Under the program, the Company may repurchase its common stock in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions at such times and at such prices as determined to be in the Company’s best interest. The program expires on December 5, 2025 and may be modified, extended or terminated by the Board of Directors at any time.
Performance Graph
The following Performance Graph and related information shall not be deemed to be filed with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.
The following graph compares the percentage change in the Company’s cumulative total stockholder return on its common stock for the last five years with the Dow Jones US Total Return Index, a broad market index, and a peer group index selected by our management that includes public companies within our industry (the “Peer Group”). The companies in the Peer Group were selected because they comprise a broad group of publicly held corporations, each of which has some operations similar to ours. When taken as a whole, management believes the Peer Group more closely resembles our total business than any individual company in the group.
The returns are calculated assuming that an investment with a value of $100 was made in the Company’s common stock and in each index on December 31, 2018 and that all dividends were reinvested in additional shares of common stock; however, the Company has paid no dividends during the periods shown. The graph lines merely connect the measuring dates and do not reflect fluctuations between those dates. Additionally, the stock performance shown on the graph is not intended to be indicative of future stock performance.
23



2924
The table below depicts the five-year performance of $100 invested on December 31, 2018 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.
 December 2018December 2019December 2020December 2021December 2022December 2023
Sterling Infrastructure, Inc.$100.00 $129.29 $170.89 $241.51 $301.19 $807.44 
Dow Jones US Total Return Index$100.00 $131.15 $157.90 $199.74 $160.99 $203.70 
Peer Group$100.00 $124.38 $156.81 $228.59 $189.22 $277.86 
The Peer Group in the graph above is comprised of the following member companies:
CompanyTicker
Chart Industries, Inc.GTLS
Columbus McKinnon CorporationCMCO
Comfort Systems USA, Inc.FIX
Construction Partners, Inc.ROAD
Dycom Industries, Inc.DY
Eagle Materials Inc.EXP
Granite Construction IncorporatedGVA
Great Lakes Dredge & Dock CorporationGLDD
IES Holdings, Inc.IESC
INNOVATE Corp.VATE
MYR Group Inc.MYRG
Primoris Services CorporationPRIM
Summit Materials, Inc.SUM
Infrastructure and Energy Alternatives, Inc. (1)
IEA
(1) Excluded from the computation as it is no longer publicly traded.
Item 6. [Reserved]
24



Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” is provided to assist readers in understanding our financial performance during the periods presented and significant trends that may impact our future performance. This discussion should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and the related notes thereto.
OVERVIEW
General—Sterling operates through a variety of subsidiaries within three segments specializing in E-Infrastructure, Transportation and Building Solutions in the United States, primarily across the Southern, Northeastern, Mid-Atlantic and Rocky Mountain regions and the Pacific Islands. E-Infrastructure Solutions provides advanced, large-scale site development services for manufacturing, data centers, e-commerce distribution centers, warehousing, power generation and more. Transportation Solutions includes infrastructure and rehabilitation projects for highways, roads, bridges, airports, ports, rail and storm drainage systems. Building Solutions includes residential and commercial concrete foundations for single-family and multi-family homes, parking structures, elevated slabs, other concrete work, and plumbing services for new single-family residential builds. From strategy to operations, we are committed to sustainability by operating responsibly to safeguard and improve society’s quality of life. Caring for our people and our communities, our customers and our investors – that is The Sterling Way.
SIGNIFICANT TRANSACTIONS
Myers Disposition—On November 30, 2022, we sold the Company’s 50% ownership interest in its partnership with Myers for $18 million in cash. In accordance with the Agreement’s payment terms, the Company received two payments totaling $14 million in the first quarter of 2023, and two additional payments of $2 million each are due by the end of 2025 and 2027, respectively. The disposition is consistent with the Company’s strategic shift to reduce its portfolio of low-bid heavy highway and water containment & treatment projects in order to reduce risk and improve the Company’s margins and to focus on its strategic geographies outside of California. The disposition represented a strategic shift that had a major effect on our operations and consolidated financial results, and accordingly, the historical results of Myers have been presented as discontinued operations in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. Prior to being disclosed as a discontinued operation, the results of Myers were included within our Transportation Solutions segment. The following discussion reflects continuing operations only, unless otherwise indicated. See Note 4 - Dispositions for further discussion.
Professional Plumbers Group - On November 16, 2023, we completed the acquisition of Professional Plumbers Group, Incorporated (“PPG”), a corporation headquartered in Wylie, Texas for a purchase price of approximately $57 million. PPG’s business provides services for all the major plumbing phases required for new single-family residential builds, which expands our suite of residential services in the Dallas-Fort Worth market to include the next critical phase of the build once the slab is complete. The results of PPG are included within our Building Solutions segment. See Note 3 - Acquisitions for further discussion.
MARKET OUTLOOK AND TRENDS
We see favorable opportunities for long-term growth across each of our business segments. We remain focused on our strategic objectives, as described in Item 1 “Business — Business Strategy.” These objectives include: 1) growth in our E-Infrastructure Solutions segment, with particular focus on large, high-value projects; 2) risk reduction through a continued shift in our Transportation Solutions business away from low-bid heavy highway work, toward alternative delivery and design-build projects; 3) continuing to grow market share and geographic presence in Building Solutions; and 4) improving our margins in each of our segments.
E-Infrastructure Solutions—Our E-Infrastructure Solutions business is driven by our customers’ investments in the development of advanced manufacturing centers, data centers, e-commerce distribution centers and warehouses. We foresee significant growth opportunities tied to the implementation of multi-year capital deployment plans by customers in the electric vehicle (EV), battery, solar, food, and semiconductor manufacturing markets. We have been awarded several large projects related to investments in EV and solar products. We anticipate continued strong demand from these and other technology sectors, supported by Federal government investment initiatives and incentives. Additionally, we continue to benefit from activity related to multiphase hyperscale data center development. While the majority of our end customers are demonstrating strong performance, in 2023 we experienced a decline in large e-commerce distribution center and small warehouse activity. We expect these markets will remain subdued through 2024.
25



Transportation Solutions—Our Transportation Solutions business is primarily driven by federal, state and municipal funding. Federal funds, on average, provide 50% of annual State Department of Transportation capital outlays for highway and bridge projects. We benefit from a number of federal, state and local infrastructure investment programs. At the state and local level, the November 2020 elections saw strong support for transportation initiatives with the passage of many ballot measures that secured, and in some cases increased, funding. At the Federal level, the November 2021 Infrastructure Investments and Jobs Act (“IIJA”) includes approximately $643 billion in funding for transportation programs ($432 billion for highways, $109 billion for transportation and $102 billion for rail), of which $284 billion is an increase over historic investment levels that will fund new transportation infrastructure. The IIJA also includes $25 billion of funding for airport modernization. As a result of the IIJA, we had an increase in bid activity and project awards which started in the third quarter of 2022 and continued through 2023. We expect this positive trend to continue for the foreseeable future.
Building Solutions—Our Building Solutions segment is comprised of our residential and commercial businesses. The segment is driven by new home starts in Dallas-Fort Worth, the segments largest market, and continued expansion in the Houston and Phoenix markets. Building Solutions' core customer base includes top national, regional and custom home builders in our areas. In 2022, the residential market experienced significant price volatility and availability for key materials, including concrete, steel and lumber, as well as increases in subcontractor labor costs and decreased labor availability. The Company negotiated with customers to successfully recoup the increases in material and labor costs through price increases. We saw strong, consistent recovery in residential activity through 2023 and experienced volume growth across each geography. We believe the dynamics in our markets, including population growth and structural hosing shortages, support continued growth in residential in 2024. For our commercial business, demand in the multi-family home market increased in the first three quarters of 2023 but slowed late in the year. We expect continued declines in this market in 2024.
BACKLOG
Our remaining performance obligations on our projects, as defined in ASC 606, do not differ from what we refer to as “Backlog.” Our Backlog represents the amount of revenues we expect to recognize in the future from our contract commitments on projects. The contracts in Backlog are typically completed in 6 to 36 months. Our unsigned awards (“Unsigned Awards”) are excluded from Backlog until the contract is executed by our customer. We refer to the combination of our Backlog and Unsigned Awards as “Combined Backlog.” Our book-to-burn ratio is determined by taking our additions to Backlog and dividing it by revenue for the applicable period. This metric allows management to monitor the Company’s business development efforts to ensure we grow our Backlog and our business over time, and management believes that this measure is useful to investors for the same reason.
At December 31, 2023, our Backlog was $2.07 billion, as compared to $1.41 billion at December 31, 2022, with a book-to-burn ratio of 1.38 for the year ended December 31, 2023. Backlog includes $112.4 million and $18.5 million attributable to our share of estimated revenues related to joint ventures where we are a noncontrolling joint venture partner at December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We anticipate that approximately 65% of our Backlog will be recognized as revenues during 2024, with substantially all remaining recognized in the twelve months following.
Unsigned Awards were $303.2 million at December 31, 2023 and $275.0 million at December 31, 2022. Combined Backlog totaled $2.37 billion at December 31, 2023 and $1.69 billion at December 31, 2022, with a book-to-burn ratio of 1.40 for the year ended December 31, 2023.
The Company’s margin in Backlog has increased to 15.2% at December 31, 2023 from 14.3% at December 31, 2022 and the Combined Backlog margin increased to 15.4% at December 31, 2023 from 14.2% at December 31, 2022, driven by a greater mix of E-Infrastructure Solutions backlog and an improved backlog margin mix within Transportation Solutions.
Backlog and gross margin:
(In thousands)BacklogGross Margin in Backlog
Fourth quarter of 2023$2,067,01615.2%
Third quarter of 2023$2,010,40715.2%
Second quarter of 2023$1,735,66915.5%
First quarter of 2023$1,624,23314.8%
Fourth quarter of 2022$1,414,34214.3%
A detailed discussion of our financial and operating results for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 is presented in the following sections. Discussions of year-over-year comparisons for 2022 and 2021 can be found in “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022.
26



RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Consolidated Results
The financial highlights for 2023 as compared to 2022 are as follows:
Years Ended December 31,
(In thousands)20232022
Revenues$1,972,229 $1,769,436 
Gross profit337,638 274,567 
General and administrative expenses(98,703)(86,480)
Intangible asset amortization(15,226)(14,100)
Acquisition related costs(873)(827)
Other operating expense, net(17,041)(13,290)
Operating income205,795 159,870 
Interest, net(15,180)(19,706)
Income before income taxes and noncontrolling interests190,615 140,164 
Income tax expense(47,770)(41,707)
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests(4,190)(1,740)
Net income from Continuing Operations$138,655 $96,717 
Gross margin17.1 %15.5 %
Revenues—Revenues were $1.97 billion for 2023, an increase of $202.8 million, or 11.5%, compared to the prior year, with 9.1% generated from organic growth. The increase was driven by an $88.4 million increase in Transportation Solutions, an $82.3 million increase in Building Solutions and a $32.1 million increase in E-Infrastructure Solutions.
Gross profit—Gross profit was $337.6 million for 2023, an increase of $63.1 million, or 23.0%, compared to the prior year. The increase was driven by higher volume, an improved project margin mix in Transportation Solutions and an improving supply chain.
Gross margin—The Company’s gross margin as a percent of revenue increased to 17.1% in 2023, as compared to 15.5% in the prior year. The increase in gross margin as a percent of revenue was due to an easing of supply chain challenges starting in the second quarter of 2023.
Contracts in progress that were not substantially complete totaled approximately 230 at both December 31, 2023 and 2022. These contracts are of various sizes, of different expected profitability and in various stages of completion. The nearer a contract progresses toward completion, the more visibility the Company has in refining its estimate of total revenues (including incentives, delay penalties and change orders), costs and gross profit. Thus, gross profit as a percent of revenues can increase or decrease from comparable and subsequent quarters due to variations among contracts and depending upon the stage of completion of contracts.
General and administrative expenses—General and administrative expenses were $98.7 million, or 5.0% of revenue, for 2023, compared to $86.5 million, or 4.9% of revenue, in the prior year.
Other operating expense, net—Other operating expense, net, includes 50% of earnings and losses related to members’ interest of our consolidated 50% owned subsidiary, earn-out and other miscellaneous operating income or expense. Members’ interest earnings are treated as an expense and increase the liability account. The change in other operating expense, net, was an increase of $3.8 million during 2023 compared to the prior year. Members’ interest earnings increased by $4.4 million during 2023 to $17.7 million from $13.3 million in the prior year, as a result of higher revenue and improved margin mix from our 50% owned subsidiary.
Interest, net—Interest, net was $15.2 million in 2023 compared to $19.7 million in the prior year. The decrease is driven by higher interest income due to increased interest rates in 2023 on our growing cash balance, partly offset by continued interest rate increases in 2023 on our Credit Facility and the expiration of our interest rate swap in the fourth quarter of 2022.
Income taxes—The effective income tax rate was 25.1% in 2023 and 29.8% in the prior year. The rate varied from the statutory rate primarily as a result of state income taxes, non-deductible compensation and other permanent differences. In 2023, the Company’s non-deductible compensation was offset by increased tax deductions related to stock compensation. See Note 13 - Income Taxes for more information.
27



Segment Results
The Company’s operations consist of three reportable segments: E-Infrastructure Solutions, Transportation Solutions, and Building Solutions. We incur certain expenses at the corporate level that relate to our business as a whole. A portion of these expenses are allocated to our business segments by various methods, but primarily on the basis of usage. The unallocated remainder is reported in the “Corporate G&A Expense” line, which is primarily comprised of corporate headquarters facility expense, the cost of the executive management team, and other expenses pertaining to certain centralized functions that benefit the entire Company but are not directly attributable to any specific business segment, such as corporate human resources, legal, governance, compliance and finance functions. The segment information for the prior period has been recast to conform to the current presentation.
Years Ended December 31,
(In thousands)2023% of
Revenues
2022% of
Revenues
Revenues    
E-Infrastructure Solutions$937,408 48%$905,277 51%
Transportation Solutions630,908 32%542,550 31%
Building Solutions403,913 20%321,609 18%
Total Revenues$1,972,229 $1,769,436  
Operating Income    
E-Infrastructure Solutions$140,997 15.0%$121,453 13.4%
Transportation Solutions41,911 6.6%26,623 4.9%
Building Solutions46,193 11.4%36,693 11.4%
Segment Operating Income229,101 11.6%184,769 10.4%
Corporate G&A Expense(22,433)(24,072)
Acquisition Related Costs(873)(827)
Total Operating Income$205,795 10.4%$159,870 9.0%
E-Infrastructure Solutions
Revenues—Revenues were $937.4 million for 2023, an increase of $32.1 million, or 3.5%, compared to the prior year. The increase was primarily driven by higher volume from advanced manufacturing and data centers, partly offset by lower volume from large e-commerce distribution centers and small warehouses.
Operating income—Operating income was $141.0 million, or 15.0% of revenue, for 2023, an increase of $19.5 million compared to $121.5 million, or 13.4% of revenue, in the prior year. The increases in operating income and margin were driven by higher volume from advanced manufacturing projects, partly offset by lower volume from large e-commerce distribution centers and small warehouses.
Transportation Solutions
Revenues—Revenues were $630.9 million for 2023, an increase of $88.4 million, or 16.3%, compared to the prior year. The increase was driven by higher heavy highway and other non-highway services revenue, partly offset by lower aviation revenues due to the timing of new awards.
Operating income—Operating income was $41.9 million, or 6.6% of revenue, for 2023, an increase of $15.3 million compared to $26.6 million, or 4.9% of revenue, in the prior year. The increases in operating income and margin were driven by an improved project margin mix and the aforementioned higher revenue.
Building Solutions
Revenues—Revenues were $403.9 million for 2023, an increase of $82.3 million, or 25.6%, compared to the prior year, with 12.8% generated from organic growth. The increase was primarily driven by a $66.0 million increase in residential revenues due to a record number of slabs poured in 2023, and an increase in commercial volume compared to 2022. The increase in residential revenues includes $34.4 million from the Arizona concrete foundation business acquired in late 2022.
Operating income—Operating income was $46.2 million, or 11.4% of revenue, for 2023, an increase of $9.5 million compared to $36.7 million, or 11.4% of revenue, in the prior year. The increase in operating income was driven by the aforementioned higher volume.
28



LIQUIDITY AND SOURCES OF CAPITAL
Cash and Cash Equivalents—Total cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2023 and 2022 were $471.6 million and $181.5 million, respectively, and included the following components:
As of December 31,
 (In thousands)20232022
Generally available$362,884 $100,825 
Consolidated 50% owned subsidiary72,007 55,700 
Construction joint ventures36,672 25,019 
Cash and cash equivalents$471,563 $181,544 
The following table presents consolidated information about our cash flows:
 Years Ended December 31,
 (In thousands)20232022
Net cash provided by (used in):  
Operating activities$478,584 $219,116 
Investing activities(87,752)(89,755)
Financing activities(104,534)(32,789)
Net change in cash and cash equivalents$286,298 $96,572 
Operating Activities—During 2023, net cash provided by operating activities was $478.6 million compared to net cash provided by operating activities of $219.1 million in the prior year. The significant improvement in cash flows provided by operating activities was primarily driven by higher net income and improvements in our accounts receivable, net contracts in progress and accounts payable balances (collectively, “Contract Capital”), as discussed below.
Changes in Contract Capital—The change in operating assets and liabilities varies due to fluctuations in operating activities and investments in Contract Capital. The changes in components of Contract Capital during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 were as follows:
 Years Ended December 31,
 (In thousands)20232022
Contracts in progress, net$226,066 $77,692 
Accounts receivable12,805 (63,285)
Receivables from and equity in construction joint ventures(3,384)(5,034)
Accounts payable10,307 11,888 
Change in Contract Capital, net$245,794 $21,261 
During 2023, the change in Contract Capital was $245.8 million. The Company’s Contract Capital fluctuations are impacted by the mix of projects in Backlog, seasonality, the timing of new awards and related payments for work performed and the contract billings to the customer as projects are completed. Contract Capital is also impacted at period-end by the timing of accounts receivable collections and accounts payable payments for projects.
Investing Activities—During 2023, net cash used in investing activities was $87.8 million, compared to net cash used of $89.8 million in the prior year. In 2023, the cash used in investing activities was driven by $51.2 million for the acquisition of the PPG business and $50.6 million for the net purchases of capital equipment, partly offset by the $14 million received for the disposition of Myers. Capital equipment is acquired as needed to support changing levels of production activities and to replace retiring equipment.
Financing Activities—During 2023, net cash used in financing activities was $104.5 million compared to net cash used of $32.8 million in the prior year. In 2023, the cash used in financing activities was primarily driven by $93.5 million in repayments of debt, including scheduled payments of $29.8 million and voluntary early payments of $53 million on the Term Loan Facility (as defined below) and $10 million for the repayment of the Plateau Excavation, Inc. (“Plateau”) seller note, and $9.6 million for withholding taxes paid on the net share settlement of vested equity awards.
29



Discontinued Operations—Cash flows from discontinued operations are disclosed below and in Note 4 - Dispositions, rather than separately presented in the statement of cash flows. The year ended December 31, 2022 represents the period ending November 30, 2022, the date of disposition.
 Years Ended December 31,
(In thousands)20222021
Net cash provided by (used in): 
Operating activities of Discontinued Operations$(7,334)$11,384 
Investing activities of Discontinued Operations(723)(5,964)
Financing activities of Discontinued Operations(81)(1,908)
Net change in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash of Discontinued Operations$(8,138)$3,512 
Credit Facilities, Debt and Other Capital
General—In addition to our available cash, cash equivalents and cash provided by operations, from time to time we use borrowings to finance acquisitions, our capital expenditures and working capital needs.
Credit Facility—Our amended Credit Agreement provides the Company with senior secured debt financing consisting of the following (collectively, the “Credit Facility”): (i) a senior secured first lien term loan facility (the “Term Loan Facility”) in the aggregate principal amount of $350 million and (ii) a senior secured first lien revolving credit facility (the “Revolving Credit Facility”) in an aggregate principal amount of up to $75 million (with a $75 million limit for the issuance of letters of credit and a $15 million sublimit for swing line loans). At December 31, 2023, we had $343.4 million of outstanding borrowings under the Term Loan Facility and no outstanding borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility. The obligations under the Credit Facility are secured by substantially all assets of the Company and the subsidiary guarantors, subject to certain permitted liens and interests of other parties. The Credit Facility will mature on April 2, 2026.
On December 27, 2023, the Credit Agreement was amended to, among other things: (i) provide for the extension of the Term Loan Facility by the lenders to the Company in the aggregate principal amount of $350 million, (ii) extend the maturity date to April 2, 2026 for the Credit Facility, and (iii) adjust the quarterly payment schedule of the Term Loan Facility to account for the extension of the maturity date. The other material terms of the Credit Agreement remained unchanged, including the availability under the Credit Facility, interest rate, and affirmative and negative covenants.
On June 5, 2023, the Credit Agreement was amended pursuant to an opt-in election to address the cessation of LIBOR and provide an alternative, replacement method of calculating the interest rates payable under the Credit Agreement with adjusted forward-looking term rates based on the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“Term SOFR”).
Compliance and Other—The Credit Agreement contains various affirmative and negative covenants that may, subject to certain exceptions, restrict the ability of us and our subsidiaries to, among other things, grant liens, incur additional indebtedness, make loans, advances or other investments, make non-ordinary course asset sales, declare or pay dividends or make other distributions with respect to equity interests, purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire or retire capital stock or other equity interests, or merge or consolidate with any other person, among various other things. In addition, the Company is required to maintain certain financial covenants. See Note 10 - Debt for further discussion of these financial covenants. As of December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with all of our restrictive and financial covenants. The Company’s debt is recorded at its carrying amount in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Based upon the current market rates for debt with similar credit risk and maturities, at December 31, 2023 the fair value of our debt outstanding approximated the carrying value, as interest is based on Term SOFR plus an applicable margin.
Borrowings—Based on our average borrowings for 2023 and our 2024 forecasted cash needs, we continue to believe that the Company has sufficient liquid financial resources to fund our requirements for the next year of operations. Furthermore, the Company is continually assessing ways to increase revenues and reduce costs to improve liquidity. However, in the event of a substantial cash constraint, and if we were unable to secure adequate debt financing, our liquidity could be materially and adversely affected.
Issuance of Common Stock—In addition to our available cash, cash equivalents and cash provided by operations and borrowings, from time to time we issue common stock to finance acquisitions.
BondingAs is customary in the construction business, we are required to provide surety bonds to secure our performance under construction contracts. Our ability to obtain surety bonds primarily depends upon our capitalization, working capital, past performance, management expertise and reputation and certain external factors, including the overall capacity of the surety market. Surety companies consider such factors in relationship to the amount of our backlog and their underwriting standards,
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which may change from time to time. We have pledged all proceeds and other rights under our construction contracts to our bond surety company. Events that affect the insurance and bonding markets may result in bonding becoming more difficult to obtain in the future, or being available only at a significantly greater cost. To date, we have not encountered difficulties or material cost increases in obtaining new surety bonds.
Capital StrategyThe Company will continue to explore additional revenue growth and capital alternatives to improve leverage and strengthen its financial position in order to take advantage of trends in the civil infrastructure and E-infrastructure markets. The Company expects to pursue strategic uses of its cash, such as, investing in projects or businesses that meet its gross margin targets and overall profitability, managing its debt balances and repurchasing shares of its common stock.
Material Cash Requirements
The following table sets forth our material cash requirements from contractual obligations at December 31, 2023:
 Payments due by period
(In thousands)Total<1
Year
1 - 3
Years
4 – 5
Years
>5
Years
Credit Facility$343,438 $26,250 $317,188 $— $— 
Credit Facility interest57,923 26,089 31,834 — — 
Other notes payable (inclusive of outstanding interest)843 275 333 235 — 
Members’ interest subject to mandatory redemption and undistributed earnings (1)
29,108 29,108 — — — 
Total$431,312 $81,722 $349,355 $235 $— 
(1) Mandatory redemption is based on the death or disability of the interest holder. Undistributed earnings can be distributed upon unanimous consent from the members and for tax distribution. At this time we cannot predict when such a distribution will be made. The Company has purchased a $20 million death and permanent total disability insurance policy to mitigate the Company’s cash draw if such an event were to occur.
Capital ExpendituresCapital equipment is acquired as needed by increased levels of production and to replace retiring equipment. Capital expenditures, net of disposals, incurred in 2023 were $51 million. Management expects net capital expenditures in 2024 to be in the range of $55 to $60 million; however, the award of a project requiring significant purchases of equipment or other factors could result in increased expenditures.
NEW ACCOUNTING STANDARDS
See the applicable section of Note 2 - Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies for a discussion of new accounting standards.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
The discussion and analysis of the financial condition and results of operations are based on the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting policies generally accepted in the U.S. (“GAAP”). The preparation of these Consolidated Financial Statements requires the Company to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and related disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. The Company continually evaluates its estimates based on historical experience and various other assumptions that the Company believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. The Company believes the following critical accounting estimates involve more significant judgment used in the preparation of the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Revenue Recognition
Performance Obligations Satisfied Over Time—Revenue for contracts that satisfy the criteria for over time recognition is recognized as the work progresses. The Company measures transfer of control of the performance obligation utilizing the cost-to-cost measure of progress, with cost of revenue including direct costs, such as materials and labor, and indirect costs that are attributable to contract activity. Under the cost-to-cost approach, the use of estimated costs to complete each performance obligation is a significant variable in the process of determining recognized revenue and is a significant factor in the accounting for such performance obligations. Significant estimates that impact the cost to complete each performance obligation are materials, components, equipment, labor and subcontracts; labor productivity; schedule durations, including subcontractor or supplier progress; contract disputes, including claims; achievement of contractual performance requirements; and contingencies, among others. The cumulative impact of revisions in total cost estimates during the progress of work is reflected
31



in the period in which these changes become known, including, to the extent required, the reversal of profit recognized in prior periods and the recognition of losses expected to be incurred on performance obligations in progress. Due to the various estimates inherent in contract accounting, actual results could differ from those estimates, which could result in material changes to the Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements and related disclosures. See “Contract Estimates” within Note 5 - Revenue from Customers for further discussion.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company may use fair value measurements that involve the input of estimates that require significant judgment. The Company’s use of these fair value measurements include:
determining the purchase price allocation for an acquired business;
goodwill impairment testing when a quantitative analysis is deemed necessary; and
long-lived asset (such as property, equipment and intangible assets) impairment testing when impairment indicators are present.
When performing quantitative fair value or impairment evaluations, the Company estimates the fair value of assets by considering the results of income-based and/or a market-based valuation method. Under the income-based method, a discounted cash flow valuation model uses recent forecasts to compare the estimated fair value of each asset to its carrying value. Cash flow forecasts are discounted using the weighted-average cost of capital for the applicable reporting unit at the date of evaluation. The weighted-average cost of capital is comprised of the cost of equity and the cost of debt with a weighting for each that reflects the Company’s current capital structure. Preparation of long-term forecasts involve significant judgments involving consideration of backlog, expected future awards, customer attribution, working capital assumptions and general market trends and conditions. Significant changes in these forecasts or any valuation assumptions, such as the discount rate selected, could affect the estimated fair value of our assets and could result in impairment. Under the market-based method, market information such as multiples of comparable publicly traded companies and/or completed sales transactions are used to develop or validate our fair value conclusions, when appropriate and available.
Purchase Price Allocations—The aggregate purchase price for the PPG and CCS acquisitions were allocated to the major categories of assets and liabilities acquired based upon their estimated fair values as of the closing date, which were based, in part, upon internal and external valuations of certain assets, including specifically identified intangible assets and property and equipment. The valuations were based on the income-based and market-based valuation methods noted above. The excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair value of the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired was recorded as goodwill. See Note 3 - Acquisitions for further discussion.
Goodwill—Goodwill is not amortized to earnings, but instead is reviewed for impairment at least annually, absent any indicators of impairment or when other actions require an impairment assessment. The Company performs the annual impairment assessment for its reporting units during the fourth quarter of each year based on balances as of October 1. During the fourth quarter of 2023, 2022 and 2021, the Company performed a qualitative assessment of goodwill, and based on this assessment, no indicators of impairment were present. Factors considered include macroeconomic, industry and competitive conditions, financial performance and reporting unit specific events. These are discussed in a number of places including Item 1A “Risk Factors.” Our annual assessments indicated there was no impairment of goodwill during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021.
Long-lived Assets—Long-lived assets, which include property, equipment and acquired intangible assets, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. If a recoverability assessment is required, the estimated future cash flow associated with the asset or asset group will be compared to their respective carrying amounts to determine if an impairment exists. Actual useful lives and cash flows could be different from those estimated by management, and this could have a material effect on operating results and financial position. For the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021, there were no events or changes in circumstances that would indicate a material impairment of our long-lived assets.
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Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
Interest Rate Risk
Our interest rate risk relates primarily to fluctuations in variable interest rates on our revolving credit facility and term loan facility (collectively, the “Credit Facility”) and our cash and cash equivalents balance. Our indebtedness as of December 31, 2023 included $343.4 million of variable rate debt under our Credit Facility. At December 31, 2023 a 100-basis point (or 1%) increase or decrease in the interest rate would increase or decrease interest expense by approximately $3.4 million per year. As of December 31, 2023, we held cash and cash equivalents of $471.6 million. At December 31, 2023 a 100-basis point (or 1%) increase or decrease in the interest rate would increase or decrease interest income by approximately $4.7 million per year.
Other
Fair ValueThe carrying values of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable approximate their fair values because of the short-term nature of these instruments. Based upon the current market rates for debt with similar credit risk and maturities, at December 31, 2023, the fair value of our debt outstanding approximated the carrying value, as interest is based on Term SOFR plus an applicable margin.
InflationWhile inflation did not have a material impact on our financial results for many years, since 2021, supply chain volatility and inflation has resulted in price increases in oil, fuel, lumber, concrete, steel and labor which have increased our cost of operations, and inflation has increased our general and administrative expense. Anticipated cost increases are considered in our bids to customers; however, inflation has had, and may continue to have, a negative impact on the Company’s financial results.
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Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 

Table of Contents


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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
 

 
Board of Directors and Shareholders
Sterling Infrastructure, Inc.

Opinion on the financial statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Sterling Infrastructure, Inc. (a Delaware corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”), and our report dated February 27, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion.
Basis for opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical audit matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Revenue recognition over time
As described further in Note 2 to the financial statements, revenues derived from certain contracts in the Transportation Solutions, E-infrastructure Solutions, and Building Solutions segments are recognized as the performance obligations are satisfied over time. The Company uses a ratio of project costs incurred to estimated total costs for each contract to recognize revenue. Under the cost-to-cost measure, the determination of progress towards completion requires management to prepare estimates of the costs to complete. In addition, the Company’s contracts may include variable consideration related to contract modifications, and management must also estimate the variable consideration the Company expects to receive in order to estimate the total contract revenue. We identified revenue recognized over time to be a critical audit matter.
The principal consideration for our determination that revenue recognized over time is a critical audit matter is that auditing management’s estimate of the progress toward completion of its projects was complex and subjective. Considerable auditor judgment was required to evaluate management’s determination of the forecasted costs to complete its contracts as future results may vary significantly from past estimates due to changes in facts and circumstances. In addition, auditing the Company’s measurement of variable consideration is complex and highly judgmental and can have a material effect on the amount of revenue recognized.
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Our audit procedures related to revenue recognized over time included the following, among others.
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design, and tested the operating effectiveness of the Company’s internal controls related to the initial and ongoing monitoring of changes in the contract cost-to-cost estimates.
For a selection of contracts, we tested the Company’s cost-to-cost estimates by evaluating the appropriate application of the cost-to-cost method, testing the significant assumptions used to develop the estimated cost to complete and testing the completeness and accuracy of the underlying data.
For a selection of contracts, we tested the estimated variable consideration by evaluating the appropriate application of the most likely amount method, and tracing amounts to supporting documentation.

/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2001.
Houston, Texas
February 27, 2024
36



REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

 
 
Board of Directors and Shareholders
Sterling Infrastructure, Inc.

Opinion on internal control over financial reporting
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of Sterling Infrastructure, Inc. (a Delaware corporation) and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in the 2013 Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by COSO.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the consolidated financial statements of the Company as of and for the year ended December 31, 2023, and our report dated February 27, 2024 expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.
Basis for opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting (“Management’s Report”). Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Our audit of, and opinion on, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting does not include the internal control over financial reporting of Professional Plumbers Group, Incorporated (“PPG”) whose financial statements reflect total assets and revenues constituting 4% and 0% percent, respectively, of the related consolidated financial statement amounts as of and for the year ended December 31, 2023. As indicated in Management’s Report, PPG was acquired during 2023. Management’s assertion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting excluded internal control over financial reporting of PPG.
Definition and limitations of internal control over financial reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/ GRANT THORNTON LLP
 
Houston, Texas
February 27, 2024
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STERLING INFRASTRUCTURE, INC. & SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except per share data)
Years Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Continuing Operations:
Revenues$1,972,229 $1,769,436 $1,414,374 
Cost of revenues(1,634,591)(1,494,869)(1,210,842)
Gross profit337,638 274,567 203,532 
General and administrative expense(98,703)(86,480)(69,153)
Intangible asset amortization(15,226)(14,100)(11,464)
Acquisition related costs(873)(827)(3,877)
Other operating expense, net(17,041)(13,290)(12,027)
Operating income205,795 159,870 107,011 
Interest income14,140 885 45 
Interest expense(29,320)(20,591)(19,311)
Gain on extinguishment of debt, net  1,064 
Income before income taxes190,615 140,164 88,809 
Income tax expense(47,770)(41,707)(24,874)
Net income, including noncontrolling interests142,845 98,457 63,935 
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests(4,190)(1,740)(2,478)
Net income from Continuing Operations$138,655 $96,717 $61,457 
Discontinued Operations (Note 4):
Pretax (loss) income$ $(4,848)$1,214 
Pretax gain on disposition 16,687  
Income tax expense (2,095)(26)
Net income from Discontinued Operations$ $9,744 $1,188 
Net income attributable to Sterling common stockholders$138,655 $106,461 $62,645 
Net income per share from Continuing Operations:
Basic$4.51 $3.20 $2.15 
Diluted$4.44 $3.16 $2.11 
Net income per share from Discontinued Operations:
Basic$ $0.32 $0.04 
Diluted$ $0.32 $0.04 
Net income per share attributable to Sterling common stockholders:
Basic$4.51 $3.53 $2.19 
Diluted$4.44 $3.48 $2.15 
Weighted average common shares outstanding:
Basic30,755 30,199 28,600 
Diluted31,208 30,564 29,101 
The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
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STERLING INFRASTRUCTURE, INC. & SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
 202320222021
Net income from Continuing Operations, including noncontrolling interests$142,845 $98,457 $63,935 
Net income from Discontinued Operations 9,744 1,188 
Net income, including noncontrolling interests142,845 108,201 65,123 
Other comprehensive income, net of tax
Change in interest rate swap, net of tax (Note 14)
 1,723 3,541 
Total comprehensive income142,845 109,924 68,664 
Less: Comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interests(4,190)(1,740)(2,478)
Comprehensive income attributable to Sterling common stockholders$138,655 $108,184 $66,186 
 
The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
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STERLING INFRASTRUCTURE, INC. & SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except per share data)
December 31, 2023December 31,
2022
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents ($24,325 and $25,014 related to variable interest entities (“VIEs”))
$471,563 $181,544 
Accounts receivable ($1,771 and $0 related to VIEs)
252,435 262,646 
Contract assets88,600 109,803 
Receivables from and equity in construction joint ventures 17,506 14,122 
Other current assets17,875 29,139 
Total current assets847,979 597,254 
Property and equipment, net243,648 215,482 
Operating lease right-of-use assets, net57,235 59,415 
Goodwill281,117 262,692 
Other intangibles, net328,397 299,123 
Other non-current assets, net18,808 7,654 
Total assets$1,777,184 $1,441,620 
Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable ($2,973 and $2,540 related to VIEs)
$145,968 $121,887 
Contract liabilities ($15,741 and $15,551 related to VIEs)
444,160 239,297 
Current maturities of long-term debt26,520 32,610 
Current portion of long-term lease obligations19,641 19,715 
Accrued compensation27,758 24,136 
Other current liabilities14,121 8,966 
Total current liabilities678,168 446,611 
Long-term debt314,996 398,735 
Long-term lease obligations37,722 40,103 
Members’ interest subject to mandatory redemption and undistributed earnings29,108 21,597 
Deferred tax liability, net76,764 51,659 
Other long-term liabilities16,573 5,116 
Total liabilities1,153,331 963,821 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 12)
Stockholders’ equity:
Common stock, par value $0.01 per share; 58,000 and 38,000 shares authorized,
30,926 and 30,585 shares issued and outstanding
309 306 
Additional paid in capital293,570 287,914 
Retained earnings325,034 186,379 
Total Sterling stockholders’ equity618,913 474,599 
Noncontrolling interests4,940 3,200 
Total stockholders’ equity623,853 477,799 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$1,777,184 $1,441,620 
The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
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STERLING INFRASTRUCTURE, INC. & SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
202320222021
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income$142,845 $108,201 $65,123 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization57,403 52,066 34,201 
Amortization of debt issuance costs and non-cash interest1,727 2,136 2,242 
Gain on disposal of property and equipment(5,286)(2,637)(1,396)
Gain on debt extinguishment, net (2,428)(2,032)
Gain on disposition of Myers (16,687) 
Deferred taxes14,746 36,492 21,428 
Stock-based compensation14,622 12,726 11,771 
Change in fair value of interest rate swap (203)(32)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities (Note 18)
252,527 29,450 27,627 
Net cash provided by operating activities478,584 219,116 158,932 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Acquisitions, net of cash acquired(51,177)(18,004)(180,911)
Disposition, net of cash disposed14,000 (15,789) 
Capital expenditures(64,379)(60,909)(46,651)
Proceeds from sale of property and equipment13,804 4,947 4,113 
Net cash used in investing activities(87,752)(89,755)(223,449)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Cash received from credit facility2,562  140,000 
Repayments of debt(93,491)(23,373)(48,273)
Distributions to noncontrolling interest owners(2,450) (2,477)
Withholding taxes paid on net share settlement of equity awards(9,567)(9,416)(7,338)
Debt issuance costs(1,572) (1,340)
Other(16) (4)
Net cash used in financing activities(104,534)(32,789)80,568 
Net change in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash286,298 96,572 16,051 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of period185,265 88,693 72,642 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period471,563 185,265 88,693 
Less: restricted cash - Continuing Operations (3,721)(3,821)
Less: cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash - Discontinued Operations  (23,927)
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period - Continuing Operations$471,563 $181,544 $60,945 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
Cash paid during the period for interest$27,011 $19,322 $17,236 
Cash paid during the period for income taxes$36,906 $5,602 $3,061 
Non-cash items:
Share consideration given for acquisitions$ $4,851 $20,406 
Deferred payments from buyer of Myers$ $18,000 $ 
Tax basis election and other payments due to sellers$ $ $10,833 
Capital expenditures$12,506 $1,925 $264 
The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
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STERLING INFRASTRUCTURE, INC. & SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In thousands)
STERLING INFRASTRUCTURE, INC. STOCKHOLDERS
Common StockAdditional Paid in CapitalTreasury StockRetained Earnings (Deficit)Accumulated Other Comprehensive LossTotal Sterling Stockholders’ EquityNon-controlling InterestsTotal Stockholders’ Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202028,184 $283 $256,423 95 $(1,445)$17,273 $(5,264)$267,270 $1,459 $268,729 
Net income— — — — — 62,645 — 62,645 2,478 65,123 
Change in interest rate swap— — — — — — 3,541 3,541 — 3,541 
Stock-based compensation— — 11,771 — — — — 11,771 — 11,771 
Distributions to owners— — — — — — — — (2,477)(2,477)
Stock issued for Petillo acquisition759 8 20,398 — — — — 20,406 — 20,406 
Issuance of stock1,207 10 (1,276)(111)1,741 — — 475 — 475 
Shares withheld for taxes(312)(3)(7,039)16 (296)— — (7,338)— (7,338)
Other— — (3)— — — — (3)— (3)
Balance at December 31, 202129,838 $298 $280,274  $ $79,918 $(1,723)$358,767 $1,460 $360,227 
Net income— — — — — 106,461 — 106,461 1,740 108,201 
Change in interest rate swap— — — — — — 1,723 1,723 — 1,723 
Stock-based compensation— — 11,526 — — — — 11,526 — 11,526 
Stock issued for CCS acquisition157 2 4,849 — — — — 4,851 — 4,851 
Issuance of stock920 9 678   — — 687 — 687 
Shares withheld for taxes(330)(3)(9,413)  — — (9,416)— (9,416)
Balance at December 31, 202230,585 $306 $287,914  $ $186,379 $ $474,599 $3,200 $477,799 
Net income— — — — — 138,655 — 138,655 4,190 142,845 
Stock-based compensation— — 14,332 — — — — 14,332 — 14,332 
Distributions to owners— — — — — — — — (2,450)(2,450)
Issuance of stock515 3 907 — — — — 910 — 910 
Shares withheld for taxes(174) (9,567)— — — — (9,567)— (9,567)
Other — (16)